Sample records for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents esas

  1. Effect of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Policy Decisions (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are used as a treatment for anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients. In early 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug...

  2. ErythropoieSIS stimulating agent (ESA use is increased following missed dialysis sessions

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    T. Christopher Bond


    Missed session episodes result in significant increases in ESA utilization in the post-miss period, and also in total monthly ESA use. Such increases should be considered in any assessment of impact of missed sessions: both clinical and economic.

  3. Effectiveness of Switch to Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent (ESA) Biosimilars versus Maintenance of ESA Originators in the Real-Life Setting: Matched-Control Study in Hemodialysis Patients. (United States)

    Minutolo, Roberto; Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Chiodini, Paolo; Sposini, Stefano; Borzumati, Maurizio; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Mele, Alessandra A; Santoro, Domenico; Canale, Valeria; Santoboni, Alberto; Filiberti, Oliviero; Fiorini, Fulvio; Mura, Carlo; Imperiali, Patrizio; Borrelli, Silvio; Russo, Luigi; De Nicola, Luca; Russo, Domenico


    In hemodialysis (HD), switching from erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) originators to biosimilars is associated with the need for doses approximately 10% higher, according to industry-driven studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy on anemia control of switching from ESA originators to biosimilars in daily clinical practice. We retrospectively selected consecutive HD patients receiving stable intravenous ESA doses, and who had not been transfused in the previous 6 months, from 12 non-profit Italian centers. Patients switched from originators to biosimilars (n = 163) were matched with those maintained on ESA originators (n = 163) using a propensity score approach. The study duration was 24 weeks, and the primary endpoint was the mean dose difference (MDD), defined as the difference between the switch and control groups of ESA dose changes during the study (time-weighted average ESA dose minus baseline ESA dose). Age (70 ± 13 years), male sex (63%), diabetes (29%), history of cardiovascular disease (40%), body weight (68 ± 14 kg), vascular access (86% arteriovenous fistula), hemoglobin [Hb] (11.2 ± 0.9 g/dL) and ESA dose (8504 ± 6370 IU/week) were similar in the two groups. Hb remained unchanged during the study in both groups. Conversely, ESA dose remained unchanged in the control group and progressively increased in the switch group from week 8 to 24. The time-weighted average of the ESA dose was higher in the switch group than in the control group (10,503 ± 7389 vs. 7981 ± 5858 IU/week; p = 0.001), leading to a significant MDD of 2423 IU/week (95% confidence interval [CI] 1615-3321), corresponding to a 39.6% (95% CI 24.7-54.6) higher dose of biosimilars compared with originators. The time-weighted average of Hb was 0.2 g/dL lower in the switch group, with a more frequent ESA hyporesponsiveness (14.7 vs. 2.5%). Iron parameters and other resistance factors remained unchanged. In stable dialysis patients

  4. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and techniques: a challenge for doping analysts. (United States)

    Jelkmann, W


    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) engineered in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures (Epoetin alfa and Epoetin beta) and its hyperglycosylated analogue Darbepoetin alfa are known to be misused by athletes. The drugs can be detected by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and immunoblotting of urine samples, because "EPO" is in reality a mixture of isoforms and the N-glycans of the recombinant products differ from those of the endogenous hormone. However, there is a plethora of novel erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Since the originator Epoetins alfa and beta are no longer protected by patent in the European Union, rHuEPO biosimilars have entered the market. In addition, several companies in Asia, Africa and Latin America produce copied rHuEPOs for clinical purposes. While the amino acid sequence of all Epoetins is identical, the structure of their glycans differs depending on the mode of production. Some products contain more acidic and others more basic EPO isoforms. Epoetin delta is special, as it was engineered by homologous recombination in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080), thus lacking N-glycolylneuraminic acid like native human EPO. ESAs under development include EPO fusion proteins, synthetic erythropoiesis stimulating protein (SEP) and peptidic (Hematide(), CNTO 528) as well as non-peptidic EPO mimetics. Furthermore, preclinical respectively clinical trials have been performed with small orally active drugs that stimulate endogenous EPO production by activating the EPO promoter ("GATA-inhibitors": diazepane derivatives) or enhancer ("HIF-stabilizers": 2-oxoglutarate analogues). The prohibited direct EPO gene transfer may become a problem in sports only in the future.

  5. Treatment of renal anemia: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and beyond

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    Patrick Biggar


    Full Text Available Anemia, complicating the course of chronic kidney disease, is a significant parameter, whether interpreted as subjective impairment or an objective prognostic marker. Renal anemia is predominantly due to relative erythropoietin (EPO deficiency. EPO inhibits apoptosis of erythrocyte precursors. Studies using EPO substitution have shown that increasing hemoglobin (Hb levels up to 10-11 g/dL is associated with clinical improvement. However, it has not been unequivocally proven that further intensification of erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA therapy actually leads to a comprehensive benefit for the patient, especially as ESAs are potentially associated with increased cerebro-cardiovascular events. Recently, new developments offer interesting options not only via stimulating erythropoeisis but also by employing additional mechanisms. The inhibition of activin, a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, has the potential to correct anemia by stimulating liberation of mature erythrocyte forms and also to mitigate disturbed mineral and bone metabolism as well. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors also show pleiotropic effects, which are at the focus of present research and have the potential of reducing mortality. However, conventional ESAs offer an extensive body of safety evidence, against which the newer substances should be measured. Carbamylated EPO is devoid of Hb augmenting effects whilst exerting promising tissue protective properties. Additionally, the role of hepcidin antagonists is discussed. An innovative new hemodialysis blood tube system, reducing blood contact with air, conveys a totally different and innocuous option to improve renal anemia by reducing mechanical hemolysis.

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Biosimilar, Reference Product and Other Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs Still Covered by Patent in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer Patients: An Italian Population-Based Study.

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    Ylenia Ingrasciotta

    Full Text Available Since 2007 biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs are available on the Italian market. Very limited post-marketing data exist on the comparative effectiveness of biosimilar and originator ESAs.This population-based study was aimed to compare the effects of biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs still covered by patent on hemoglobinemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD and cancer patients in a Local Health Unit (LHU from Northern Italy.A retrospective cohort study was conducted during the years 2009-2014 using data from Treviso LHU administrative database. Incident ESA users (no ESA dispensing within 6 months prior to treatment start, i.e. index date (ID with at least one hemoglobin measurement within one month prior to ID (baseline Hb value and another measurement between 2nd and 3rd month after ID (follow-up Hb value were identified. The strength of the consumption (as total number of defined daily dose (DDD dispensed during the follow-up divided by days of follow-up and the difference between follow-up and baseline Hb values [delta Hb (ΔHb] were evaluated. Based on Hb changes, ESA users were classified as non-responders (ΔHb≤0 g/dl, responders (02 g/dl. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model to identify predictors for responsiveness to treatment was performed. All analyses were stratified by indication for use and type of dispensed ESA at ID.Overall, 1,003 incident ESA users (reference product: 252, 25.1%; other ESAs covered by patent: 303, 30.2%; biosimilars: 448, 44.7% with CKD or cancer were eligible for the study. No statistically significant difference in the amount of dose dispensed during the follow-up among biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs covered by patent was found in both CKD and cancer. After three months from treatment start, all ESAs increased Hb values on average by 2g/dl. No differences in ΔHb as well as in frequency of non-responders, responders and highly responders among

  7. Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in patients treated with online hemodiafiltration and ultrapure low-flux hemodialysis: Results from a randomized controlled trial (CONTRAST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C. van der Weerd (Neelke); C.H. den Hoedt (Claire); P.J. Blankestijn (Peter); M.L. Bots (Michiel); M.A. van den Dorpel (Marinus); R. Lévesque (Renée); A.H.A. Mazairac (Albert); M.J. Nubé (Menso); E. Lars Penne; P.M. ter Wee (Piet); M.P.C. Grooteman (Muriel)


    textabstractResistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF). In this

  8. Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in patients treated with online hemodiafiltration and ultrapure low-flux hemodialysis: results from a randomized controlled trial (CONTRAST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, N.C. van der; Hoedt, C.H. den; Blankestijn, P.J.; Bots, M.L.; Dorpel, M.A. van den; Levesque, R.; Mazairac, A.H.; Nube, M.J.; Penne, E.L.; Wee, P.M. ter; Grooteman, M.P.; Hamersvelt, H.W. van; et al.,


    Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD) treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF). In this analysis of the

  9. Drug Utilization Patterns and Costs of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in an Outpatient Setting in Greece. (United States)

    Papachristos, Apostolos; Kani, Chara; Litsa, Panagiota; Valsami, Georgia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Saridi, Maria; Markantonis, Sophia


    Anemia in the elderly is often related to a higher prevalence of chronic diseases such as chronic kidney failure, arthritis, and malignancy. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been used for years to effectively treat anemia and when used appropriately can substantially improve the health status and quality of life of older adults. Following the 2008 recession in Greece, the government introduced ESA price control restrictions, but no prescribing restrictions, in an effort to reduce drug expenditure. ESA prescribing patterns and treatment costs were analyzed to determine inappropriate or appropriate use of these agents and related health care resources in Greece. A retrospective register-based drug utilization study was carried out using data from prescriptions dispensed at the public pharmacy of the largest social insurance fund (IKA-ETAM), for patients receiving ESAs over a six-month period. For each patient, demographic data, ESA dosage regimen, treatment indication and cost, prescriber specialty, and prescription origin were recorded. A total of 14,387 prescriptions from 6,074 patients (median age 74 years) were reviewed. A substantial number of patients (13.5%) were treated for off-label indications, for which the average cost per patient per indication was higher. ESA dosage/frequency of administration varied but was in accordance with recommendations. The percentage of patients who received innovator and biosimilar erythropoietin (EPO) was 88% and 12%, respectively. For the optimization of ESA utilization and the reduction of treatment costs, strict ESA prescription monitoring, development of registries, and criteria for off-label indications and biosimilar use in naive patients under the umbrella of risk-sharing agreements should be proposed.

  10. Effects of Erythropoiesis-stimulating Agents on Intestinal Flora in Peritoneal Fibrosis. (United States)

    Bilici, Muammer; Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Uygun Ilikhan, Sevil; Borazan, Ali


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) on intestinal flora in peritoneal fibrosis. Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups as the control group, which received 0.9% saline (3 mL/d) intraperitoneally; the chlorhexidine gluconate (CH) group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally, and the ESA group, which received 3 mL/d injections of 0.1% CH intraperitoneally and epoetin beta (3 doses of 20 IU/kg/wk) subcutaneously. On the 21st day, the rats were sacrificed and the visceral peritoneum samples were obtained from left liver bowel. Blood samples were obtained from abdominal aorta and intestinal flora samples were obtained from transverse colon. Histopathologically, the CH, ESA, and control groups had peritoneal thickness of 135.4 ± 22.2 µm, 48.6 ± 12.8 µm, and 6.0 ± 2.3 µm, respectively. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacterium in the intestinal flora in the control group. Significant changes in microbial composition of intestinal flora towards Proteus species and Enterobacter species was seen among the groups (P flora among these groups were significantly different (P flora by a clinically significant amount in experimental peritoneal fibrosis. We consider that ESAs achieve this via regulating intestinal peristaltism.

  11. Treatment with high dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and mortality: analysis with a sequential Cox approach and a marginal structural model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, Marit M.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Mittelman, Moshe; Ott, Ilka; Krediet, Raymond T.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Putter, Hein


    Anemia-correction trials indicated higher mortality rates in chronic kidney disease patients assigned to higher hemoglobin targets. The safety of the high erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) doses that these patients received has therefore been questioned. However, no trial that directly compares

  12. The role of erythropoiesis stimulating agents and intravenous (IV) iron in the cardio renal anemia syndrome. (United States)

    Silverberg, Donald S


    Anemia is common in Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and is associated with an increased mortality, morbidity and progressive renal failure. The most common causes of the anemia in CHF are (1) the associated Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), which causes depression of erythropoietin (EPO) production in the kidney, and (2) excessive cytokine production in CHF, which can cause both depression of erythropoietin production in the kidney and depression of erythropoietin response in the bone marrow. The cytokines can also induce iron deficiency by increasing hepcidin production from the liver, which both reduces gastrointestinal iron absorption and reduces iron release from iron stores located in the macrophages and hepatocytes. It appears that iron deficiency is very common in CHF and is rarely recognized or treated. The iron deficiency can cause a thrombocytosis that might contribute to cardiovascular complications in both CHF and CKD and is reversible with iron treatment. Thus, attempts to control this anemia in CHF will have to take into consideration both the use of both Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA) such as EPO and oral and, probably more importantly, intravenous (IV) iron. Many studies of anemia in CHF with ESA and oral or IV iron and even with IV iron without ESA have shown a positive effect on hospitalization, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac and renal function, quality of life, exercise capacity and reduced Beta Natriuretic Peptide and have not demonstrated an increase in cardiovascular damage related to the therapy. However, adequately powered long-term placebo-controlled studies of ESA and of IV iron in CHF are still needed and are currently being carried out.

  13. Increasing the effectiveness of hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and transforming growth factor-β superfamily inhibitors. (United States)

    Mies, Anna; Platzbecker, Uwe


    Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are mainly affected by chronic anemia and fatigue. Treatment strategies aim to improve anemia and quality of life, as well as iron overload due to red blood cell transfusion support. To promote proliferation and differentiation of erythropoiesis, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin (EPO) and mimetics are applied as first-line therapy in a large fraction of lower-risk MDS patients. In general, ESAs yield favorable responses in about half of the patients, although responses are often short-lived. In fact, many ESA-refractory patients harbor defects in late-stage erythropoiesis downstream of EPO action. Novel transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily inhibitors sotatercept and luspatercept represent a promising approach to alleviate anemia by stimulating erythroid differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Basic analytical methods for identification of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in doping control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnikov, P V; Krotov, G I; Rodchenkov, G M; Efimova, Yu A


    The design of new erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for clinical use necessitates constant development of methods for detecting the abuse of these substances, which are prohibited under the World Anti-Doping Code and are included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list. This review integrates and describes systematically the published data on the key methods currently used by WADA-accredited anti-doping laboratories around the world to detect the abuse of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, including direct methods (various polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, membrane enzyme immunoassay and mass spectrometry) and indirect methods (athlete biological passport). Particular attention is given to promising approaches and investigations that can be used to control prohibited erythropoietins in the near future. The bibliography includes 122 references

  15. Ferritin Elevation and Improved Responsiveness to Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents in Patients on Ferric Citrate Hydrate

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    Keitaro Yokoyama


    Discussion: It is suggested that not only iron load but also the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose reduction may be involved in ferritin elevation during ferric citrate hydrate treatment, resulting in a decrease of erythropoietin resistance index.

  16. The approval process for biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. (United States)

    Wish, Jay B


    A biosimilar drug or follow-on biologic drug is defined by the Public Health Service Act as a product that is "highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically active components and there are no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of the safety, purity and potency of the product." The advantage of biosimilar drugs is that they are significantly less expensive than the reference products, allowing for increased accessibility and cost savings. Recognizing these advantages, the US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act in 2009 as part of health care reform. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act allows sponsors of biosimilar agents to seek approval by showing structural and functional similarity to the reference agent, with the extent of required clinical studies to be determined on the basis of the degree of biosimilarity with the reference product. The goal is to bring biosimilar agents to the market more efficiently while still protecting the safety of the public. The European Union has had such a process in place for a number of years. Two biosimilar epoetin agents have been approved in the European Union since 2007, and their companies are conducting trials to seek approval in the United States, because Amgen's patent protection for epoetin alfa expires in 2014. Trials completed for European Union approval of both agents showed similar efficacy and safety to the reference epoetin alfa. As with all biologics, immunogenicity concerns may persist because of the fragility of the manufacturing process and the worldwide experience with pure red cell aplasia as a result of epoetin therapy. The uptake of biosimilar epoetins after approval in the United States will depend on the balance of cost advantage against safety concerns. Competition in the marketplace will likely decrease the cost of the reference agent as well. Copyright

  17. Utilization Patterns of IV Iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents in Anemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Multihospital Study

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    Avani D. Joshi


    Full Text Available Intravenous (IV iron and Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs are recommended for anemia management in chronic kidney disease (CKD. This retrospective cohort study analyzed utilization patterns of IV iron and ESA in patients over 18 years of age admitted to University Health System Hospitals with a primary or secondary diagnosis of CKD between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. A clustered binomial logistic regression using the GEE methodology was used to identify predictors of IV iron utilization. Only 8% (n = 6678 of CKD patients on ESA therapy received IV iron supplementation in university hospitals. Those receiving iron used significantly less amounts of ESAs. Patient demographics (age, race, primary payer, patient clinical conditions (admission status, severity of illness, dialysis status, and physician specialty were identified as predictors of IV iron use in CKD patients. Use of IV iron with ESAs was low despite recommendations from consensus guidelines. The low treatment rate of IV iron represents a gap in treatment practices and signals an opportunity for healthcare improvement in CKD anemic patients.

  18. Budget impact analysis on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents use for the management of chemotherapy-induced anaemia in Greece. (United States)

    Nikolaidi, Eleftheria; Hatzikou, Magdalini; Geitona, Mary


    Chemotherapy-induced anaemia is a common and significant complication of chemotherapy treatment. Blood transfusion and administration of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) either alone or in combination with iron are the most widely used therapeutic options. In Greece, ESAs are among the top ten therapeutic groups with the highest pharmaceutical expenditure, since they are fully reimbursed by social security funds. The objective of the study is to determine potential cost savings related with the use of biosimilar over originator ESAs for the management of the newly diagnosed chemotherapy-induced anemic patients. A budget impact analysis has been carried through the elaboration of national epidemiological, clinical and economic data. Epidemiological data derived from WHO (GLOBOCAN) and the European Cancer Anaemia Survey. Clinical data reflect oncology patients' disease management. ESAs consumption was based on data from the biggest social security fund (IKA). The administration of ESAs under different dosing schemes and time periods has been estimated by separating them in originators and biosimilars as well as by classifying anaemic patients in responders and non-responders. Cost analysis is based on newly diagnosed patients' alternative treatment scenarios. Treatment costs and prices are used in 2012 values. The Social Security Funds's perspective was undertaken. Based on the annual incidence rates, 2.551 newly diagnosed chemotherapy-induced anemic patients are expected to be treated with ESAs. Average cost of treatment on originators ESAs for responders is €2.887 for the 15-week ESAs treatment and €5.019 for non-responders, while on biosimilars €2.623 and €4.009 respectively. Treatment cost on biosimilars is 10.1% lower than originators for responders and 25.2% for non-responders. Budget impact estimates show that treating anemic patients with originator ESAs was estimated at €10.084.800 compared to €8.460.119 when biosimilar ESAs were used

  19. Influence of Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents on HbA1c and Fructosamine in Patients with Haemodialysis. (United States)

    Rasche, Franz Maximilian; Ebert, Thomas; Beckmann, Julia; Busch, Volker; Barinka, Filip; Rasche, Wilma Gertrud; Lindner, Tom H; Schneider, Jochen G; Schiekofer, Stephan


    HbA1c is the most accepted laboratory parameter for the long term observation of glucose control. There is still much of a debate about the use of HbA1c as a metabolic indicator in diabetic patients (DM) on haemodialysis (HD) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy because of the altered erythrocyte turn over in patients with chronic kidney disease and haemodialysis (CKD5D). In 102 CKD5 patients with and without diabetes mellitus, we examined the dose dependent variability in HbA1c and fructosamine levels under haemodialysis and treated with epoetin α (n=48) and a new generation agent with continuous stimulation of methoxy polyethylene glycol epoetin beta (C.E.R.A.; n=54). HbA1c levels were affected by therapy with ESA treatments. ESA dose was inversely correlated with HbA1c and an escalation of 10.000 IU per week induced an estimated decrease of HbA1c of 0.6 percent. In addition, the increase of reticulocyte number as a marker for erythropoiesis was significantly inversely correlated with the increase of ΔHbA1c. ESA treatments had no such effect on the alternative metabolic parameter fructosamine. When compared, both therapeutic agents had comparable success in attaining haemoglobin (Hb) target values. C.E.R.A. showed better correlation and was more effective over a longer dose interval. Our results show that HbA1c levels in patients should be carefully interpreted based on interfering factors. Nevertheless, HbA1c is currently the most consistent parameter for use ascertaining metabolic status of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Implications of a Reduction in the Hemoglobin Target in Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent-Treated Hemodialysis Patients

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    Timothy V. Nguyen


    Full Text Available Background: Patients treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs to a hemoglobin (Hb level >12.0 g/dl have increased risk of multiple complications, including death. The optimal Hb target for ESA use has not been established. We hypothesized that reducing the target Hb would prevent levels >12 g/dl and lead to significant cost savings. Methods: Our target Hb range was reduced to 9–11 g/dl from 10–12 g/dl. Thirty-five chronic hemodialysis (HD patients received erythropoietin (EPO and intravenous iron from January to December 2009. Data analysis included: Hb level, EPO dose, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels. EPO was administered via subcutaneous injection weekly or twice weekly. Results: The mean monthly Hb level changed from 11.2 to 10.6 g/dl. The percentages of patients with mean Hb >10.0, 12.0 and 13.0 g/dl were 82 ± 6.5, 10 ± 5.6 and 1.8 ± 1.9%, respectively. Weekly EPO dose decreased from 9,500 to 5,600 units, a 40% reduction per dose per patient and costs. The savings exceeded USD 60,000 per year for 35 patients. More than 80% of patients had transferrin saturation >20% and ferritin >200 ng/ml throughout the entire period. Conclusions: Lowering the target Hb range to 9–11 g/dl in HD patients achieved quality anemia management, avoided values >12.0 g/dl and resulted in cost savings. A minimal reduction in quality of life and no change in cardiovascular morbidity or mortality would be expected. The study has important implications in the new American bundled reimbursement model.

  1. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study


    Castillo Nieves; García-García Patricia; Rivero Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa Alejandro; Macía Manuel; Getino María; Méndez María; García-Pérez Javier; Navarro-González Juan F


    Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialy...

  2. Chronic preclinical safety evaluation of EPO-018B, a pegylated peptidic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in monkeys and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Xue-Lian; Gu, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Yong-Chun; Zhu, Hai; Xia, Zhen-Na; Li, Jian-Zhong; Lu, Guo-Cai


    EPO-018B, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA), is mainly designed for treatment of anemia caused by chronic renal failure and chemotherapy against cancer. It overcomes the deficiencies of currently approved ESA, including the frequent administration of temperature-sensitive recombinant protein and anti-EPO antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). This study was designed to evaluate the potential chronic toxicity of EPO-018B. Subcutaneous administration doses were designed as 0, 0.2, 1 and 10 mg/kg for six months for 160 rats (20/gender/group) and 0, 0.3, 3 and 20 mg/kg for nine months for 32 monkeys (4/gender/group) once every three weeks. The vehicles received the same volume of physiological saline injection. All animals survived to the scheduled necropsies after six weeks (for rats) and fourteen weeks (for monkeys) recovery period, except for the two high-dose female rats and two high-dose male monkeys, which were considered related to the increased RBCs, chronic blood hyperviscosity and chronic cardiac injury. EPO-018B is supposed to be subcutaneously injected once every month and the intended human therapeutic dose is 0.025 mg/kg. The study findings at 0.2 mg/kg for rats and 0.3 mg/kg for monkeys were considered to be the study NOAEL (the no observed adverse effect level), which were more than ten times the intended human therapeutic dose. Higher doses caused adverse effects related to the liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, appearance of neutralizing antibodies of EPO-018B and the decrease of serum glucose and cholesterol. Most treatment-induced effects were reversible or revealed ongoing recovery upon the discontinuation of treatment. The sequelae occurred in rats and monkeys were considered secondary to exaggerated pharmacology and would less likely occur in the intended patient population. As to the differences between human beings and animals, the safety of EPO-018B need to be further confirmed in the future clinical

  3. Chronic preclinical safety evaluation of EPO-018B, a pegylated peptidic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent in monkeys and rats

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    Gong, Xue-Lian; Gu, Xiao-Lei [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Yong-Chun [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Pharmacy, No.422 Hospital, Zhanjiang 524005 (China); Zhu, Hai; Xia, Zhen-Na [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Jian-Zhong, E-mail: [Department of Biochemical Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lu, Guo-Cai, E-mail: [Department of Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    EPO-018B, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA), is mainly designed for treatment of anemia caused by chronic renal failure and chemotherapy against cancer. It overcomes the deficiencies of currently approved ESA, including the frequent administration of temperature-sensitive recombinant protein and anti-EPO antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). This study was designed to evaluate the potential chronic toxicity of EPO-018B. Subcutaneous administration doses were designed as 0, 0.2, 1 and 10 mg/kg for six months for 160 rats (20/gender/group) and 0, 0.3, 3 and 20 mg/kg for nine months for 32 monkeys (4/gender/group) once every three weeks. The vehicles received the same volume of physiological saline injection. All animals survived to the scheduled necropsies after six weeks (for rats) and fourteen weeks (for monkeys) recovery period, except for the two high-dose female rats and two high-dose male monkeys, which were considered related to the increased RBCs, chronic blood hyperviscosity and chronic cardiac injury. EPO-018B is supposed to be subcutaneously injected once every month and the intended human therapeutic dose is 0.025 mg/kg. The study findings at 0.2 mg/kg for rats and 0.3 mg/kg for monkeys were considered to be the study NOAEL (the no observed adverse effect level), which were more than ten times the intended human therapeutic dose. Higher doses caused adverse effects related to the liver toxicity, cardiotoxicity, appearance of neutralizing antibodies of EPO-018B and the decrease of serum glucose and cholesterol. Most treatment-induced effects were reversible or revealed ongoing recovery upon the discontinuation of treatment. The sequelae occurred in rats and monkeys were considered secondary to exaggerated pharmacology and would less likely occur in the intended patient population. As to the differences between human beings and animals, the safety of EPO-018B need to be further confirmed in the future clinical

  4. The long-term effect of erythropoiesis stimulating agents given to preterm infants. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study on neurometabolites in early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparovic, Charles; Caprihan, Arvind; Yeo, Ronald A.; Phillips, John; Lowe, Jean R.; Ohls, Robin K.; Campbell, Richard


    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age. Prematurely born children (500-1,250 g birth weight) received ESAs (erythropoietin or darbepoetin) or placebo during their neonatal hospitalization, and these groups were compared to healthy term controls. 1H-MRS spectra were obtained from the anterior cingulate (gray matter) and frontal lobe white matter, assessing combined N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (tNAA), myo-inositol, choline compounds (Cho), combined creatine and phosphocreatine, and combined glutamate and glutamine. No significant (P≤0.5) group differences were observed for any metabolite level. Significant age-related increases in white-matter tNAA and Cho were observed, as well as a trend for increased gray-matter tNAA. Neither prematurity nor neonatal ESA treatment was associated with differences in brain metabolite levels in the children of this study at a significance level of 0.05. These findings suggest that earlier differences that might have existed had normalized by 4-6 years of age or were too small to be statistically significant in the current sample. (orig.)

  5. Healthcare resource utilization for anemia management: current practice with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and the impact of converting to once-monthly C.E.R.A. (United States)

    Saueressig, Ulrich; Kwan, Jonathan T C; De Cock, Erwin; Sapède, Claudine


    Background andMethods: A prospective, observational study in 12 German and UK dialysis centers which quantified personnel time for anemia treatment using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Tasks directly observable were measured through the time-and-motion method; time for non-observable tasks was estimated by healthcare staff. Using activity-based costing methods, time was converted into monetary units. Modeling was used to estimate potential time and cost savings using once-monthly C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator. For current ESAs in Germany and the UK, respectively: mean observed time was 1.67 and 2.67 min/patient/administration, corresponding to 31 and 42 days/year/center/100 patients; mean total time/center/100 patients/year was estimated at 79 and 95 days, equivalent to EUR 17,031 and GBP 18,739. Assuming 100% once-monthly C.E.R.A. uptake, the observed time/patient/year may decrease by 79 and 84% in Germany and the UK, respectively, compared with traditional ESAs. Conversion to once-monthly C.E.R.A. may offer the potential to reduce time spent on ESA administration in hemodialysis centers. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Nieves


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA requeriments. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE. Methods Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18 months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. Results After dialysis, Hb cocentration rise by 6.1 ± 5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104 ± 120 vs 128 ± 124 U/kg/week (P P = 0.001. The prediction model is: Postdialysis Hb (g/dL = 1.636 + 0.871 x predialysis Hb* (g/dL + 0.099 x UF rate** (mL/kg/h - 0.39 for women***. [R2 = 0.74; *P P = 0.001; ***P = 0.03. Conclusions Postdialysis Hb can be a better reflect of the real Hb level in hemodialysis patients. Using postdialysis Hb would avoid the use of inappropriately high ESA doses. The prediction of postdialysis Hb with an adjusted model would help us to identify those patients at risk for ESA overdosification.

  7. Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents in patients treated with online hemodiafiltration and ultrapure low-flux hemodialysis: results from a randomized controlled trial (CONTRAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelke C van der Weerd

    Full Text Available Resistance to erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA is common in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD treatment. ESA responsiveness might be improved by enhanced clearance of uremic toxins of middle molecular weight, as can be obtained by hemodiafiltration (HDF. In this analysis of the randomized controlled CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST; NCT00205556, the effect of online HDF on ESA resistance and iron parameters was studied. This was a pre-specified secondary endpoint of the main trial. A 12 months' analysis of 714 patients randomized to either treatment with online post-dilution HDF or continuation of low-flux HD was performed. Both groups were treated with ultrapure dialysis fluids. ESA resistance, measured every three months, was expressed as the ESA index (weight adjusted weekly ESA dose in daily defined doses [DDD]/hematocrit. The mean ESA index during 12 months was not different between patients treated with HDF or HD (mean difference HDF versus HD over time 0.029 DDD/kg/Hct/week [-0.024 to 0.081]; P = 0.29. Mean transferrin saturation ratio and ferritin levels during the study tended to be lower in patients treated with HDF (-2.52% [-4.72 to -0.31]; P = 0.02 and -49 ng/mL [-103 to 4]; P = 0.06 respectively, although there was a trend for those patients to receive slightly more iron supplementation (7.1 mg/week [-0.4 to 14.5]; P = 0.06. In conclusion, compared to low-flux HD with ultrapure dialysis fluid, treatment with online HDF did not result in a decrease in ESA NCT00205556.

  8. Should we adjust erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage to postdialysis hemoglobin levels? A pilot study. (United States)

    Castillo, Nieves; García-García, Patricia; Rivero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro; Macía, Manuel; Getino, María Adela; Méndez, María Luisa; García-Pérez, Javier; Navarro-González, Juan F


    Predialysis hemoglobin (Hb) may overestimate the true erithropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) requirements. We tested whether predialysis Hb is a reliable predictor of the postdialysis level to better control ESA dosage, and evaluated the relation between ESA, Hb and cardiovascular events (CVE). Cohort study including 67 stable hemodialysis patients. Pre- and post-dialysis Hb concentrations were measured, and ESA doses were calculated. A model to predict post-dialysis Hb is proposed. During 18 months follow-up, CVE, hospitalizations and mortality were collected. After dialysis, Hb concentration rise by 6.1 ± 5.6%. Using postdialysis Hb, the weight-adjusted ESA dosage would be lower respect to the prescription using predialysis Hb: 104 ± 120 vs 128 ± 124 U/kg/week (P < 0.001). Using predialysis Hb, 40.2% of subjects had a Hb level above 12 g/dL, whereas this percent increased to 70.1% using postdialysis Hb. During the follow-up, 15 patients had a CVE, without differences in Hb levels respect to subjects without CVE. However, patients with CVE had received higher ESA doses: 186 ± 180 vs 111 ± 98 U/Kg/week (P = 0.001). The prediction model is: Postdialysis Hb (g/dL) = 1.636 + 0.871 x predialysis Hb* (g/dL) + 0.099 x UF rate** (mL/kg/h) - 0.39 for women***. [R2 = 0.74; *P < 0,001; **P = 0.001; ***P = 0.03). Postdialysis Hb can be a better reflect of the real Hb level in hemodialysis patients. Using postdialysis Hb would avoid the use of inappropriately high ESA doses. The prediction of postdialysis Hb with an adjusted model would help us to identify those patients at risk for ESA overdosification.

  9. Retrospective review of hemoglobin and/or hematocrit levels with occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents. (United States)

    Fullmer, Amber C; Miller, Rickey


    No data exists that directly compares hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between cancer patients with and without occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). To determine the association of hemoglobin and hematocrit levels with the occurrence of thrombosis in cancer patients treated with ESAs. A retrospective case-control study approved by the Institutional Review Board was conducted on cancer patients billed for epoetin or darbepoetin between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2007. Cases were defined as patients billed for thrombosis while controls were defined as patients not billed for thrombosis. Sixteen patients had an occurrence of thrombosis (cases) and were matched to 16 patients that did not have an occurrence of thrombosis (controls) based on age, sex, and cancer type. The mean peak hemoglobin levels for cases and controls were 12.6 +/- 1.2 g/dL versus 12.6 +/- 1.4 g/dL (p = 0.9). The mean peak hematocrit levels for cases and controls were 37.3 +/- 3.8% versus 37.9 +/- 4.3% (p = 0.8). For the 16/586 (2.7%) patients with thrombosis, the mean hemoglobin and hematocrit at time of thrombosis were 9.6 +/- 1.0 g/dL and 28.9 +/- 3.1%. A significant identifiable risk factor for thrombosis between the cases and controls was history of thrombosis 31.3% versus 0% (p = 0.04). There was no statistical difference in peak hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between patients with thrombosis and those without thrombosis. Further study is warranted to determine if these levels are true risk factors for thrombosis.

  10. Are erythropoiesis-stimulating agents beneficial for anemia in chronic heart failure patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Araneda


    Full Text Available Resumen La anemia es común en la insuficiencia cardiaca, y se asocia a una mayor morbimortalidad. Sin embargo, no está claro si corregirla con agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis se traduce en un beneficio clínico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos 11 revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 17 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que el uso de agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca y anemia no disminuye la mortalidad, y que no está claro si disminuye las hospitalizaciones o si mejora la capacidad funcional porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja. Probablemente aumenta el riesgo de eventos tromboembólicos totales.

  11. Phase III randomized trial comparing intravenous to oral iron in patients with cancer-related iron deficiency anemia not on erythropoiesis stimulating agents. (United States)

    Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Patil, Vijay Maruti; Banavali, Shripad D; Gupta, Sudeep; Parikh, Purvish M; Marfatia, Shalaka; Punatar, Sachin; More, Sucheta; Goud, Supriya; Nakti, Dipti; Prabhash, Kumar


    We aimed to find the optimal route of iron supplementation in patients with malignancy and iron deficiency (true or functional) anemia not receiving erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA). Adult patients with malignancy requiring chemotherapy, hemoglobin (Hb) 10% were randomized to intravenous (IV) iron sucrose or oral ferrous sulfate. The primary endpoint was change in Hb from baseline to 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints included blood transfusion, quality of life (QoL), toxicity, response and overall survival. A total of 192 patients were enrolled over 5 years: 98 on IV arm and 94 on oral arm. Median age was 51 years; over 95% patients had solid tumors. The mean absolute increase in Hb at 6 weeks was 0.11 g/dL (standard deviation [SD]: 1.48) in IV arm and -0.16 g/dL (SD: 1.36) in oral arm, P = 0.23. Twenty-three percent patients on IV iron and 18% patients on oral iron had a rise in Hb of ≥1 g/dL at 6 weeks, P = 0.45. Thirteen patients (13.3%) on the IV iron arm and 14 patients (14.9%) on the oral arm required blood transfusion, P = 1.0. Gastrointestinal toxicity (any grade) developed in 41% patients on IV iron and 44% patients on oral iron, P = 1.0. 5 patients on IV iron and none on oral iron had hypersensitivity, P = 0.06. QoL was not significantly different between the two arms. IV iron was not superior to oral iron in patients with malignancy on chemotherapy and iron deficiency anemia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Progressive transfusion and growth factor independence with adjuvant sertraline in low risk myelodysplastic syndrome treated with an erythropoiesis stimulating agent and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtan Nautiyal


    Full Text Available Refractoriness to growth factor therapy is commonly associated with inferior outcome in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (LR-MDS who require treatment for cytopenias. However, the mechanisms leading to refractoriness are unknown. Here we describe a clinically depressed 74-year-old male with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD and documented growth factor refractory anemia after erythropoeisis stimulating agent (ESA therapy, who attained transfusion and growth factor independence after the addition of sertraline to his medication regimen. Our case demonstrates hematological improvement-erythroid (HI-E in growth factor refractory, low risk MDS and highlights a potential mechanistic link between common inflammatory diseases and LR-MDS.

  13. Use of Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents (ESA) in Patients With End-Stage Renal Failure Decided to Forego Dialysis: Palliative Perspective. (United States)

    Cheng, Hon Wai Benjamin; Chan, Kwok Ying; Lau, Hoi To; Man, Ching Wah; Cheng, Suk Ching; Lam, Carman


    Normochromic normocytic anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with many adverse clinical consequences. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) act to replace endogenous erythropoietin for patients with end-stage renal disease having anemia. Today, ESAs remain the main tool for treating anemia associated with CKD. In current practice, the use of ESA is not limited to the patients on renal replacement therapy but has extended to nondialysis patients under palliative care (PC). Current evidence on ESA usage in patients with CKD decided to forego dialysis often have to take reference from studies conducted in other groups of patients with CKD, including pre-dialysis patients and those on renal replacement therapy. There is paucity of studies targeting use of ESAs in renal PC patients. Small-scale retrospective study in renal PC patients had suggested clinical advantage of ESAs in terms of hemoglobin improvement, reduction in fatigue, and hospitalization rate. With the expected growth in elderly patients with CKD decided to forego dialysis and manage conservatively, there remains an urgent need to call for large-scale prospective trial in exploring efficacy of ESAs in this population, targeting on quality of life and symptoms improvement outcome. This article also reviews the mechanism of action, pharmacology, adverse effects, and clinical trial evidence for ESA in patients with CKD under renal PC.

  14. Patogenetic correction of anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in lymphoproliferative disorders (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Romanenko


    Full Text Available Literature review of anemia pathogenesis in patients with lymphatic system malignancies is presented. Advantages and disadvanta ges of eritropoiesis-stimulating preparations (ESP used for anemia correction are shown. Efficacy of anemia treatment with ESP in various types of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD is presented. Prognostic factors that predict positive response on ESP in LPD pati ents and reduce treatment cost are identified.

  15. Patogenetic correction of anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in lymphoproliferative disorders (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Romanenko


    Full Text Available Literature review of anemia pathogenesis in patients with lymphatic system malignancies is presented. Advantages and disadvanta ges of eritropoiesis-stimulating preparations (ESP used for anemia correction are shown. Efficacy of anemia treatment with ESP in various types of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD is presented. Prognostic factors that predict positive response on ESP in LPD pati ents and reduce treatment cost are identified.

  16. ESA Hyporesponsiveness Is Associated with Adverse Events in Maintenance Hemodialysis (MHD Patients, But Not with Iron Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kuragano

    Full Text Available It has been reported that hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA is associated with adverse events in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. However, it has not been determined whether higher iron storage is associated with an improved response, including better survival, to ESA.We measured serum ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb, and transferrin saturation (TSAT levels every three months for two years in 1,095 MHD patients. The weekly dose of ESA to Hb ratio was also calculated as an index of ESA responsiveness (ERI.A significant correlation (p280; however, serum ferritin and TSAT levels did not predict a higher ERI. In the time-dependent Cox hazard model, the risk for a composite event in the patients with a high ERI (≥280 and a high ferritin level (≥100 ng/mL was significantly greater (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09, P = 0.033 than that for patients with a high ERI and a low ferritin (<100 ng/mL level.Hb was dependent upon ferritin levels in patients with ferritin levels <50 ng/mL but not in patients with ferritin levels ≥50 ng/mL. Patients with hyporesponsiveness to ESA had a greater risk of composite events, but ERI was unrelated to iron storage.

  17. High dose ESAs are associated with high iPTH levels in hemodialysis patients with end-stage kidney disease: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan eChen


    Full Text Available Objective: Anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are the two most common complications associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs are widely used in the management of anemia in hemodialysis patients. A reverse correlation has been established between hyperparathyroidism and hemoglobin levels. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the relationship of high dose ESAs and hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients with anemia. Methods: A total of 240 uremic patients maintained on regular hemodialysis were enrolled into this study. Among them, 142 patients were treated with Epiao® (epoetin-alfa and 98 patients were treated with Recormon® (epoetin-beta. The target hemoglobin concentration was 110-130 g/L. Laboratory measurements including hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, intact-parathyroid hormone (iPTH, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were collected. Results: Hemoglobin concentration increased as iPTH level decreased by stratification. However, no significant association between anemia and calcium or phosphorus level was found. Patients with iPTH levels within 150-300 pg/mL had the highest levels of hemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Patients treated with Recormon and Epiao had similar hemoglobin concentrations. However, the dose of Recormon for anemia treatment was significantly less than that the dose of Epiao (P<0.05. The level of iPTH in the Recormon group was significantly lower than in the Epiao group. In patients with hemoglobin levels between 110-130 g/L (P<0.05, iPTH level was found to be significantly lower in patients treated with lower doses of ESAs than in patients treated with higher doses of ESAs, no matter which ESA was used (Recormon or Epiao, P<0.05. Conclusions: The dose of ESAs might be positively associated with iPTH level, suggesting that a reasonable hemoglobin target can be achieved by using the lowest possible ESA dose.

  18. Simplifying anemia management in hemodialysis patients: ESAs administered at longer dosing intervals can enhance opportunities to provide patient-focused care. (United States)

    Schiller, Brigitte; Besarab, Anatole


    To review issues and challenges in caring for hemodialysis patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease, specifically focusing on the effects of longer erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dosing intervals on processes of care. PubMed searches were performed limited to the last 10 years to February 2011, focusing on articles in English that were 'clinical trials,' assessed processes of care, measured associations of hemoglobin (Hb) with outcomes, and explored/analyzed extended dosing intervals of ESAs in hemodialysis patients and recommendations for increasing the quality of care of these patients. Some limitations included the fact that a meta-analysis was not conducted; many studies were associative and therefore unable to prove causality; and none of the clinical trials directly compared the impact of more frequent or less frequent ESA dosing strategies on patient care and outcomes. Progress over the past several decades has been substantial; however, unmet needs remain and there is room for improvement in efficiencies of care. Many patients fail to meet Hb targets, and nephrology professionals' time is consumed with preparing, administering, and monitoring therapy. Direct interaction between patients and care providers has been lost as attention has shifted to 'cost-effective' (not necessarily patient-centered) ways to deliver care. Use of ESAs at longer dosage intervals represents one opportunity to improve efficiency of care. Newer ESAs have been developed for less frequent dosing. Once-monthly dosing decreases time spent administering/monitoring therapy and allows nephrology professionals to provide comprehensive renal care, wherein the patient rather than task-oriented processes becomes the primary focus. A fragmented, uncoordinated care-delivery model heightens the urgency to systematically address issues related to delivery of care and improve efficiencies in anemia management as part of the patient-centered approach. ESAs designed for administration

  19. Comparison of Dosage Requirement of Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESA in Maintenance of Hemoglobin Concentration in patients undergoing twice weekly versus thrice weekly Hemodialysis in Pakistani Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Kunwer Naveed


    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the major complications of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD undergoing hemodialysis (HD and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and also increases morbidity and mortality. Anemia in patients with CKD can be due to two major reasons; iron deficiency or erythropoietin insufficiency. Erythropoietin Stimulating Agent (ESAs administration is the mainstay in treating anemia if the patient is iron sufficient. However, higher doses of ESAs have been associated with increased cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. We conducted this study to see how much erythropoietin is required in our setting in iron sufficient patients to maintain hemoglobin(Hb  level and the effect of dialysis frequency on ESA doses.  Methods and Findings: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Nephrology at Ziauddin University Hospital. Patients’ charts were reviewed for Hb levels and doses of ESA to maintain Hb between 10-12 mg/dl. Patients were excluded if they had iron deficiency, malignancy, were on immunosuppressive agents, had renal transplant, and with Hb >12 mg/dl or <10 mg/dl and their ferritin levels, transferrin saturation, hemoglobin concentration, frequency of hemodialysis and ESA dosage were monitored. We also compared these variables between patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly with those undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. A total of 105 patients were analyzed. 24 were excluded as they did not match the inclusion criteria. 81 patients were included in the study. 36 (44.4% were males and 45 (55.6% were females. Mean age of the patient was 56.47 ± 11.72 years. The average dose of ESA was 106.91 ± 61.47 for patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly and 183.94 ± 116.71 for patients undergoing hemodialysis twice a week. Significant difference was found to exist between dosage of patients undergoing thrice weekly dialysis versus twice weekly dialysis(p=<0.001.  Our study has limitations

  20. The role of erythropoietin stimulating agents in anemic patients with heart failure: solved and unresolved questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazzuoli A


    Full Text Available Alberto Palazzuoli, Gaetano Ruocco, Marco Pellegrini, Carmelo De Gori, Gabriele Del Castillo, Nicola Giordano, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Cardiology Section, Le Scotte Hospital, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: Anemia is a common finding in congestive heart failure (CHF and is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. Several conditions can cause depression of erythroid progenitor cells: reduction of iron absorption and reuptake, decreased bone marrow activity, reduced endogenous erythropoietin production, and chronic inflammatory state. Anemia’s etiology in CHF is complex and partially understood; it involves several systems including impaired hemodynamic condition, reduced kidney and bone perfusion, increased inflammatory activity, and neurohormonal overdrive. The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs such as erythropoietin and its derivatives is recently debated; the last interventional trial seems to demonstrate a neutral or negative effect in the active arm with darbepoetin treatment. The current data is opposite to many single blind studies and previous meta-analysis showing an improvement in quality of life, New York Heart Association class, and exercise tolerance using ESA therapy. These contrasting data raise several concerns regarding the target of hemoglobin levels needing intervention, the exact anemia classification and categorization, and the standardization of hematocrit cutoffs. Some cardiac and systemic conditions (ie, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, prothrombotic status may predispose to adverse events, and ESA administration should be avoided. To prevent the negative effects, high-dosage and chronic administration should be avoided. Clarification of these items could probably identify patients that may benefit from additional iron or ESA treatment. In this review, we discuss the interventional trials made in anemic heart failure patients, the

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin C, such as oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to ...

  2. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may recommend erythropoiesis stimulating agents (esa) . These medicines stimulate the bone marrow to make more red blood ... NHLBI is funding on iron-deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision ...

  3. Comparative efficacy and safety in ESA biosimilars vs. originators in adults with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Amato, Laura; Addis, Antonio; Saulle, Rosella; Trotta, Francesco; Mitrova, Zuzana; Davoli, Marina


    Several Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are available to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Questions about the comparability of such therapeutic options are not purely a regulatory or economical matter. Appropriate use of originator or biosimilar in these patients need to be supported by clinical data. Regarding the prevention of blood transfusion, reduction of fatigue, breathlessness and mortality or cardiovascular events, a summary of the comparative efficacy and safety data of these drugs is lacking. We performed a systematic literature search of CENTRAL, PubMed, and Embase through November 11, 2015. Our inclusion criteria encompassed randomized, controlled clinical trials that evaluated the comparative effectiveness of different ESAs originators and/or biosimilar. The considered participants were adults aged 18 years or older with anemia due to CKD. The overall quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. We identified 30 eligible studies including 7843 patients with CKD, and 21/30 studies included patients using hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Compared with ESA biosimilars, epoetin α did not statistically differ for any of the ten measured outcomes. The quality of evidence varied from low to very low. In the comparison between epoetin α vs. darbepoetin α, no differences were observed for all outcomes, but blood transfusions showed favorable results for darbepoetin α: RR 2.18 (1.31-3.62). The quality of evidence varied from low to very low. No differences were observed between epoetin β and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin β, and between darbepoetin α and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin β, the quality of evidence varied from moderate to very low. Data from 31 included studies allowed to pool data in meta-analysis related to four different comparisons and eleven outcome measures. Nevertheless, only one result was statistically significant in favor of darbepoetin α in the comparison with epoetin

  4. SPICE for ESA Planetary Missions (United States)

    Costa, M.


    The ESA SPICE Service leads the SPICE operations for ESA missions and is responsible for the generation of the SPICE Kernel Dataset for ESA missions. This contribution will describe the status of these datasets and outline the future developments.

  5. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander


    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  6. ESA's satellite communications programme (United States)

    Bartholome, P.


    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  7. Individualized Anemia Management Reduces Hemoglobin Variability in Hemodialysis Patients


    Gaweda, Adam E.; Aronoff, George R.; Jacobs, Alfred A.; Rai, Shesh N.; Brier, Michael E.


    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA ...

  8. ESA's tools for internal charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, J.; Rodgers, D.J.; Ryden, K.A.; Latham, P.M.; Wrenn, G.L.; Levy, L.; Panabiere, G.


    Electrostatic discharges, caused by bulk charging of spacecraft insulating materials, are a major cause of satellite anomalies. This is a presentation of ESA's tools to assess whether a given structure is liable to experience electrostatic discharges. (authors)

  9. Balancing ESA and iron therapy in a prospective payment environment. (United States)

    Aronoff, George R; Gaweda, Adam E


    Ever since the introduction of EPO, ESAs and iron dosing have been driven by financial incentives. When ESAs were a profit center for providers, large doses were used. With ESAs becoming a cost center, a new trend has appeared, gradually replacing their use with iron to achieve the same therapeutic effect at lower cost. This financially driven approach, treating ESAs and iron as alternatives, is not consistent with human physiology where these agents act in a complementary manner. It is likely that we are still giving unnecessarily large doses of ESAs and iron, relative to what our patients' true needs are. Although we have highlighted the economic drivers of this outcome, many other factors play a role. These include our lack of understanding of the complex interplay of the anemia of chronic disease, inflammation, poor nutrition, blood loss through dialysis, ESAs and iron deficiency. We propose that physiology-driven modeling may provide some insight into the interactions between erythropoiesis and ferrokinetics. This insight can then be used to derive new, physiologically compatible dosing guidelines for ESAs and iron.

  10. Does Erythropoietin Cause Hemoglobin Variability- Is It ‘Normal’?


    Gupta, Ashwani K; David, Waseem


    Hemoglobin variability (Hb-var) in patients with chronic kidney disease has been stipulated to be a result of exogenous treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) and has been related to mortality in dialysis patients. We hypothesized the existence of Hb-var independent of ESA administration and compared it to that in healthy adults using data from the Scripps-Kaiser and NHANES III databases. We studied the Hb-var in 1571 peritoneal dialysis patients which included 116 patients no...

  11. Influence of erythropoiesis stimulation on 54Mn distribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.


    The experiments were carried out on animals in which erythropoiesis was stimulated. The rats were anaemized by blood letting or they received subcutaneous injections of erythropoietic filtrate of anaemized sheep plasma. The investigations demonstated that enhanced 54 Mn incorporation into the erytrocytes and bone marrow is induced by stimulation of the erythropoiesis process, whereas the raised 54 Mn level in the plasma of anaemized rats is associated with blood loss and not with erythropoiesis. (author)

  12. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory (United States)


    Astrophysicist Freeman J. Dyson from the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton characterizes IUE as "A little half-meter mirror sitting in the sky, unnoticed by the public, pouring out results". By use of the IUE satellite, astronomers obtain access to the ultraviolet radiation of celestial bodies in unique ways not available by any other means, neither from the ground nor by any other spacecraft currently in orbit. IUE serves a wide community of astronomers all over Europe, the United States and many other parts of the world. It allows the acquisition of critical data for fundamental studies of comets and their evaporation when they approach the Sun, of the mechanisms driving the stellar winds which make many stars lose a significant fraction of their mass (before they die slowly as White Dwarfs or in sudden Supernova explosions), as well as in the search to understand the ways in which black holes possibly power the violent nuclei of Active galaxies. One year ago the project was threatened with termination and serious concern was expressed by astronomers about the potential loss of IUE's capabilities, as a result of NASA not continuing to operate the spacecraft. Under the leadership of ESA, the three Agencies involved in the operations of IUE (ESA, NASA and the United Kingdom's Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, PPARC), reviewed the operations agreements of the Project. A minor investment allowing the implementation of modern management and engineering techniques as well as a complete revision of the communication infrastructure of the project and continuous improvements in efficiency in the ESA management, also taking advantage of today's technologies, both in computing and communications, have made it possible to continue IUE operations within the financial means available, with ESA taking up most of NASA's share in the operations. According to Dr. Willem Wamsteker, ESA's Dutch IUE Project Scientist, "it was a extremely interesting

  13. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission (United States)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.


    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at

  14. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot' (United States)


    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  15. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform (United States)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore


    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  16. CERN and ESA: fundamentally contrasting organisations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowell, Valerie


    The paper concerns the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the European Space Agency (ESA), and questions whether the United Kingdom (U.K.) will continue as a full member of these two organisations. A description is given of the establishment of these institutions, their collaboration and their activities. The effect of the U.K.'s financial difficulties on both CERN and ESA programmes is discussed. Figures are given on the actual cost to the U.K. of CERN and ESA, and also the CERN and ESA subscriptions as a percentage of total spending on particle physics and astronomy, for the period 1980-8. The U.K. committment to the ESA and CERN programmes are both described. (U.K.)

  17. Ulysses - An ESA/NASA cooperative programme (United States)

    Meeks, W.; Eaton, D.


    Cooperation between ESA and NASA is discussed, noting that the Memorandum of Understanding lays the framework for this relationship, defining the responsibilities of ESA and NASA and providing for appointment of leadership and managers for the project. Members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA's ESTEC staff have been appointed to leadership positions within the project and ultimate control of the project rests with the Joint Working Group consisting of two project managers and two project scientists, equally representing both organizations. Coordination of time scales and overall mission design is discussed, including launch cooperation, public relations, and funding of scientific investigations such as Ulysses. Practical difficulties of managing an international project are discussed such as differing documentation requirements and communication techniques, and assurance of equality on projects.

  18. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...

  19. Evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service (United States)

    Escobar, D.; Sancho, A. Tirado, J.; Agueda, A.; Martin, L.; Luque, F.; Fletcher, E.; Navarro, V.


    This paper presents the recent evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service (CPS) as a result of an on-going activity in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The CPS is one of a number of precursor services being developed as part of the SST segment. It has been implemented as a service to provide external users with web-based access to conjunction information and designed with a service-oriented architecture. The paper encompasses the following topics: service functionality enhancements, integration with a live objects catalogue, all vs. all analyses supporting an operational concept based on low and high fidelity screenings, and finally conjunction detection and probability algorithms.

  20. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  1. Software Dependability and Safety Evaluations ESA's Initiative (United States)

    Hernek, M.

    ESA has allocated funds for an initiative to evaluate Dependability and Safety methods of Software. The objectives of this initiative are; · More extensive validation of Safety and Dependability techniques for Software · Provide valuable results to improve the quality of the Software thus promoting the application of Dependability and Safety methods and techniques. ESA space systems are being developed according to defined PA requirement specifications. These requirements may be implemented through various design concepts, e.g. redundancy, diversity etc. varying from project to project. Analysis methods (FMECA. FTA, HA, etc) are frequently used during requirements analysis and design activities to assure the correct implementation of system PA requirements. The criticality level of failures, functions and systems is determined and by doing that the critical sub-systems are identified, on which dependability and safety techniques are to be applied during development. Proper performance of the software development requires the development of a technical specification for the products at the beginning of the life cycle. Such technical specification comprises both functional and non-functional requirements. These non-functional requirements address characteristics of the product such as quality, dependability, safety and maintainability. Software in space systems is more and more used in critical functions. Also the trend towards more frequent use of COTS and reusable components pose new difficulties in terms of assuring reliable and safe systems. Because of this, its dependability and safety must be carefully analysed. ESA identified and documented techniques, methods and procedures to ensure that software dependability and safety requirements are specified and taken into account during the design and development of a software system and to verify/validate that the implemented software systems comply with these requirements [R1].

  2. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo João Pereira


    Full Text Available The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth’s surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  3. The ESA Gaia Archive: Data Release 1 (United States)

    Salgado, J.; González-Núñez, J.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Segovia, J. C.; Durán, J.; Hernández, J. L.; Arviset, C.


    The ESA Gaia mission is producing the most accurate source catalogue in astronomy to date. This represents a challenge in archiving to make the information and data accessible to astronomers in an efficient way, due to the size and complexity of the data. Also, new astronomical missions, taking larger and larger volumes of data, are reinforcing this change in the development of archives. Archives, as simple applications to access data, are evolving into complex data centre structures where computing power services are available for users and data mining tools are integrated into the server side. In the case of astronomy missions that involve the use of large catalogues, such as Gaia (or Euclid to come), the common ways to work on the data need to be changed to the following paradigm: "move the code close to the data". This implies that data mining functionalities are becoming a must to allow for the maximum scientific exploitation of the data. To enable these capabilities, a TAP+ interface, crossmatch capabilities, full catalogue histograms, serialisation of intermediate results in cloud resources, such as VOSpace etc., have been implemented for the Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1), to enable the exploitation of these science resources by the community without any bottlenecks in the connection bandwidth. We present the architecture, infrastructure and tools already available in the Gaia Archive DR1 ( and we describe the capabilities and infrastructure.

  4. The ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project (United States)

    Glover, A.; Hilgers, A.; Daly, E.

    Following the completion in 2001 of two parallel studies to consider the feasibility of a European Space Weather Programme ESA embarked upon a space weather pilot study with the goal of prototyping European space weather services and assessing the overall market for such within Europe This pilot project centred on a number of targeted service development activities supported by a common infrastructure and making use of only existing space weather assets Each service activity included clear participation from at least one identified service user who was requested to provide initial requirements and regular feedback during the operational phase of the service These service activities are now reaching the end of their 2-year development and testing phase and are now accessible each with an element of the service in the public domain see http www esa-spaceweathet net swenet An additional crucial element of the study was the inclusion of a comprehensive and independent analysis of the benefits both economic and strategic of embarking on a programme which would include the deployment of an infrastructure with space-based elements The results of this study will be reported together with their implication for future coordinated European activities in this field

  5. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.


    Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA......) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  6. Aspects of ESA s public outreach programme (United States)

    Maree, H.

    The Science Programme Communication Service is currently implementing a new policy to increase the overall public interest in ESA Science Programme by adopting new ways of promoting its activities, accordingly to the simple principle that "different target audiences have different needs". It is clear that the general public (i.e. "the man in the street" / "the average tax- payer") rarely has the knowledge and the background to understand what exactly a space mission is, what it does and why it does it ("Mission oriented approach"). The experience has shown that a space mission becomes "popular" amongst this target audience when the relevant communication is done by passing generic/bas ic/simple messages ("Thematic oriented approach"). The careful selection of adequate supports together with efficient distribution and promotion networks are also key parameters for success of the latter approach. One should also note that the overall objective of this new policy, is to raise people's interest in space in general. By presenting the information under the ESA brand, the public will start more and more to associate this brand and Europe to space exploration. Within the next twelve months, four scientific missions will be launched. Interestingly, tree of them (SMART-1, ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS) offer a unique opportunity to implement the new communication policy under the single thematic : Europe is exploring the Solar System. Nevertheless, the study of the various mission profiles and their potential communication impact lead us to choose to reach out the general public primarily via the sub-thematic : Europe goes to Mars.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Yang


    The majority of hospitalizations (∼2/3 had considerable post-hosp Hb drops (mean >1g/dL, with >50% permanently reduced. ∼1.5 months were needed to recover Hb, with elevated ESA doses for >2 months. ESA dose was permanently elevated in 27% of hospitalizations that recovered Hb. Strategies to address post-hosp anemia may mitigate the protracted recovery time and increased ESA use. fx1

  8. ESA Earth Observation Ground Segment Evolution Strategy (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Albani, M.; Laur, H.


    One of the key elements driving the evolution of EO Ground Segments, in particular in Europe, has been to enable the creation of added value from EO data and products. This requires the ability to constantly adapt and improve the service to a user base expanding far beyond the `traditional' EO user community of remote sensing specialists. Citizen scientists, the general public, media and educational actors form another user group that is expected to grow. Technological advances, Open Data policies, including those implemented by ESA and the EU, as well as an increasing number of satellites in operations (e.g. Copernicus Sentinels) have led to an enormous increase in available data volumes. At the same time, even with modern network and data handling services, fewer users can afford to bulk-download and consider all potentially relevant data and associated knowledge. The "EO Innovation Europe" concept is being implemented in Europe in coordination between the European Commission, ESA and other European Space Agencies, and industry. This concept is encapsulated in the main ideas of "Bringing the User to the Data" and "Connecting the Users" to complement the traditional one-to-one "data delivery" approach of the past. Both ideas are aiming to better "empower the users" and to create a "sustainable system of interconnected EO Exploitation Platforms", with the objective to enable large scale exploitation of European EO data assets for stimulating innovation and to maximize their impact. These interoperable/interconnected platforms are virtual environments in which the users - individually or collaboratively - have access to the required data sources and processing tools, as opposed to downloading and handling the data `at home'. EO-Innovation Europe has been structured around three elements: an enabling element (acting as a back office), a stimulating element and an outreach element (acting as a front office). Within the enabling element, a "mutualisation" of efforts

  9. The sensitivity of the ESA DELTA model (United States)

    Martin, C.; Walker, R.; Klinkrad, H.

    Long-term debris environment models play a vital role in furthering our understanding of the future debris environment, and in aiding the determination of a strategy to preserve the Earth orbital environment for future use. By their very nature these models have to make certain assumptions to enable informative future projections to be made. Examples of these assumptions include the projection of future traffic, including launch and explosion rates, and the methodology used to simulate break-up events. To ensure a sound basis for future projections, and consequently for assessing the effectiveness of various mitigation measures, it is essential that the sensitivity of these models to variations in key assumptions is examined. The DELTA (Debris Environment Long Term Analysis) model, developed by QinetiQ for the European Space Agency, allows the future projection of the debris environment throughout Earth orbit. Extensive analyses with this model have been performed under the auspices of the ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook and following the recent upgrade of the model to DELTA 3.0. This paper draws on these analyses to present the sensitivity of the DELTA model to changes in key model parameters and assumptions. Specifically the paper will address the variation in future traffic rates, including the deployment of satellite constellations, and the variation in the break-up model and criteria used to simulate future explosion and collision events.

  10. ESA's Gaia Satellite and data processing status

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Gaia, ESA's astrometric surveyor, was launched on Dec 19th 2013 from Kourou. This exciting mission intends to probe the formation history of our galaxy among other things. We will briefly describe the mission and its goals. An overview of Gaia Data Processing Analysis Consortium and the status of the on ground processing will be provided as this is intimately linked to mission performance and goals. The commissioning phase ended in July 2015, this was longer than planned due to in-flight issues. Now we are well into nominal operations and learning to deal with the Gaia we have (it is a great piece of hardware). We will share the current status of Gaia at L2 and the current end of mission performance estimates. About the speaker Since April 2014 William O'Mullane is head of the Operations Development Division in the Science and Robotic Exploration (SRE) directorate of the the European Space Agency. Based in Madrid, he was Gaia Science Operations Development manager from 2005 to launc...

  11. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman


    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  12. ESA's Hipparcos finds rebels with a cause (United States)


    hi-res Size hi-res: 20Kb Credits: S. Kerroudj, B. Famaey & A. Jorissen (Université Libre de Bruxelles) Artist's impression of the Milky Way Artist's impression of our galaxy, the Milky Way, an aggregate of thousands of millions of stars. The spiral arms are clearly visible. They are regions of enhanced density of stars and gas. The Sun is located near the edge of one arm, about half-way from the galactic centre. Spiral arms can impart a kick on stars orbiting close to them. These stars are then forced unto streams running inwards or outwards, whereas the bulk of stars in the Milky Way move in circular orbits around the galactic centre. Using data from ESA’s Hipparcos satellite, astronomers have now identified three such streams, reaching into the solar neighbourhood. High-resolution version (TIFF) Low-resolution version (JPG) The Sun and most stars near it follow an orderly, almost circular orbit around the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using data from ESA's Hipparcos satellite, a team of European astronomers has now discovered several groups of 'rebel' stars that move in peculiar directions, mostly towards the galactic centre or away from it, running like the spokes of a wheel. These rebels account for about 20% of the stars within 1000 light-years of the Sun, itself located about 25 000 light-years away from the centre of the Milky Way. The data show that rebels in the same group have little to do with each other. They have different ages so, according to scientists, they cannot have formed at the same time nor in the same place. Instead, they must have been forced together. "They resemble casual travel companions more than family members," said Dr Benoit Famaey, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Famaey and his colleagues believe that the cause forcing the rebel stars together on their unusual trajectory is a 'kick' received from one of the Milky Way's spiral arms. The spiral arms are not solid structures but rather regions of higher density of

  13. ESA's Multi-mission Sentinel-1 Toolbox (United States)

    Veci, Luis; Lu, Jun; Foumelis, Michael; Engdahl, Marcus


    The Sentinel-1 Toolbox is a new open source software for scientific learning, research and exploitation of the large archives of Sentinel and heritage missions. The Toolbox is based on the proven BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current NEST functionality including multi-mission support for most civilian satellite SAR missions. The project is funded through ESA's Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM). The Sentinel-1 Toolbox will strive to serve the SEOM mandate by providing leading-edge software to the science and application users in support of ESA's operational SAR mission as well as by educating and growing a SAR user community. The Toolbox consists of a collection of processing tools, data product readers and writers and a display and analysis application. A common architecture for all Sentinel Toolboxes is being jointly developed by Brockmann Consult, Array Systems Computing and C-S called the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). The SNAP architecture is ideal for Earth Observation processing and analysis due the following technological innovations: Extensibility, Portability, Modular Rich Client Platform, Generic EO Data Abstraction, Tiled Memory Management, and a Graph Processing Framework. The project has developed new tools for working with Sentinel-1 data in particular for working with the new Interferometric TOPSAR mode. TOPSAR Complex Coregistration and a complete Interferometric processing chain has been implemented for Sentinel-1 TOPSAR data. To accomplish this, a coregistration following the Spectral Diversity[4] method has been developed as well as special azimuth handling in the coherence, interferogram and spectral filter operators. The Toolbox includes reading of L0, L1 and L2 products in SAFE format, calibration and de-noising, slice product assembling, TOPSAR deburst and sub-swath merging, terrain flattening radiometric normalization, and visualization for L2 OCN products. The Toolbox also provides several new tools for

  14. The ESA Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) (United States)

    Heynderickx, D.; Quaghebeur, B.; Evans, H. D. R.


    The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results. It has been developed in response to the increasing pressure for rapid-response tools for system engineering, especially in low-cost commercial and educational programmes. It is very useful in conjunction with radiation effects and electrostatic charging testing in the context of hardness assurance. SPENVIS is based on internationally recognized standard models and methods in many domains. It uses an ESA-developed orbit generator to produce orbital point files necessary for many different types of problem. It has various reporting and graphical utilities, and extensive help facilities. The SPENVIS radiation module features models of the proton and electron radiation belts, as well as solar energetic particle and cosmic ray models. The particle spectra serve as input to models of ionising dose (SHIELDOSE), Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL), and Single Event Upsets (CREME). Material shielding is taken into account for all these models, either as a set of user-defined shielding thicknesses, or in combination with a sectoring analysis that produces a shielding distribution from a geometric description of the satellite system. A sequence of models, from orbit generator to folding dose curves with a shielding distribution, can be run as one process, which minimizes user interaction and

  15. Solar system science with ESA Euclid (United States)

    Carry, B.


    Context. The ESA Euclid mission has been designed to map the geometry of the dark Universe. Scheduled for launch in 2020, it will conduct a six-year visible and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic survey over 15 000 deg2 down to VAB 24.5. Although the survey will avoid ecliptic latitudes below 15°, the survey pattern in repeated sequences of four broadband filters seems well-adapted to detect and characterize solar system objects (SSOs). Aims: We aim at evaluating the capability of Euclid of discovering SSOs and of measuring their position, apparent magnitude, and spectral energy distribution. We also investigate how the SSO orbits, morphology (activity and multiplicity), physical properties (rotation period, spin orientation, and 3D shape), and surface composition can be determined based on these measurements. Methods: We used the current census of SSOs to extrapolate the total amount of SSOs that will be detectable by Euclid, that is, objects within the survey area and brighter than the limiting magnitude. For each different population of SSO, from neighboring near-Earth asteroids to distant Kuiper-belt objects (KBOs) and including comets, we compared the expected Euclid astrometry, photometry, and spectroscopy with the SSO properties to estimate how Euclid will constrain the SSOs dynamical, physical, and compositional properties. Results: With the current survey design, about 150 000 SSOs, mainly from the asteroid main-belt, should be observable by Euclid. These objects will all have high inclination, which is a difference to many SSO surveys that focus on the ecliptic plane. Euclid may be able to discover several 104 SSOs, in particular, distant KBOs at high declination. The Euclid observations will consist of a suite of four sequences of four measurements and will refine the spectral classification of SSOs by extending the spectral coverage provided by Gaia and the LSST, for instance, to 2 microns. Combined with sparse photometry such as measured by Gaia

  16. Elements of ESA's policy on space and security (United States)

    Giannopapa, Christina; Adriaensen, Maarten; Antoni, Ntorina; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe


    In the past decade Europe has been facing rising security threats, ranging from climate change, migrations, nearby conflicts and crises, to terrorism. The demand to tackle these critical challenges is increasing in Member States. Space is already contributing, and could further contribute with already existing systems and future ones. The increasing need for security in Europe and for safety and security of Europe's space activities has led to a growing number of activities in ESA in various domains. It has also driven new and strengthened partnerships with security stakeholders in Europe. At the European level, ESA is collaborating closely with the main European institutions dealing with space security. In addition, as an organisation ESA has evolved to conduct security-related projects and programmes and to address the threats to its own activities, thereby securing the investments of the Member States. Over the past years the Agency has set up a comprehensive regulatory framework in order to be able to cope with security related requirements. Over the past years, ESA has increased its exchanges with its Member States. The paper presents main elements of the ESA's policy on space and security. It introduces the current European context for space and security, the European goals in this domain and the specific objectives to which the Agency intends to contribute. Space and security in the ESA context is set out under two components: a) security from space and b) security in space, including the security of ESA's own activities (corporate security and the security of ESA's space missions). Subsequently, ESA's activities are elaborated around these two pillars, composed of different activities conducted in the most appropriate frameworks and in coordination with the relevant stakeholders and shareholders.

  17. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings (United States)

    Greene, Brian


    Presentation on the NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings project. Project is in response to a Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and ESA Concerning Cooperation in the Field of Space Transportation - signed September 11, 2009. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have expressed mutual interest in pursuing cooperation in the areas of evaluating hexavalent chrome-free coatings, environmentally-preferable coatings for maintenance of launch facilities and ground support equipment, citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  18. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser. (United States)


    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  19. ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information derived...

  20. Sharing ESA's knowledge and experience - the Erasmus Experiment Archive (United States)

    Isakeit, Dieter; Sabbatini, Massimo; Carey, William


    The Erasmus Experiment Archive is an electronic database, that collects all experiments performed to date in the faciliteis that fall under the responsibility of the ESA (human spaceflight, microgravity, exploration).

  1. Photometry and Low Dispersion Spectroscopy with ESA Gaia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, R.; Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, L.


    Roč. 2010, - (2010), 781421/1-781421/7 ISSN 1687-7969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09027; ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : high-energy sources * cataclysmic variables * low-dispersion spectra Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. Space strategy and governance of ESA small member states (United States)

    Sagath, Daniel; Papadimitriou, Angeliki; Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty-two Member States with a variety of governance structures and strategic priorities regarding their space activities. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of the national space governance structures and strategic priorities of the eleven smaller Member States (based on annual ESA contributions). A link is made between the governance structure and the main strategic objectives. The specific needs and interests of small and new Member States in the frame of European Space Integration are addressed. The first part of the paper focuses on the national space governance structures in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The governance models of these Member States are identified including the responsible ministries and the entities entrusted with the implementation of space strategy/policy and programmes of the country. The second part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators for space investments. In a third and final part, attention is given to the specific needs and interests of the smaller Member States in the frame of European space integration. ESA instruments are tailored to facilitate the needs and interests of the eleven smaller and/or new Member States.

  3. Implementation of an ESA delta-DOR capability (United States)

    James, Nick; Abello, Ricard; Lanucara, Marco; Mercolino, Mattia; Maddè, Roberto


    This paper describes the implementation of delta-DOR (delta-differential one-way ranging) receivers within the ESA Deep Space ground station network. Delta-DOR provides very accurate plane-of-sky measurements of spacecraft position which complement existing line-of-sight ranging and Doppler measurements. We discuss how this technique has been adapted and implemented at the two ESA deep-space ground stations using existing equipment and infrastructure. These new capabilities were added by writing new software modules for the standard ESA digital receiver (the intermediate frequency modem system—IFMS). With these upgrades the receiver has the ability to record accurately timetagged signals from up to eight IF sub-channels. These sub-channels can have bandwidths of 50 kHz-2 MHz with a sample quantization of 1-16 bits per component. The IF samples are stored locally for subsequent retrieval over a WAN by the correlator facility at ESOC.

  4. Space transportation systems within ESA programmes: Current status and perspectives (United States)

    Delahais, Maurice


    An overview of the space transportation aspects of the ESA (European Space Agency) programs as they result from history, present status, and decisions taken at the ministerial level conference in Granada, Spain is presented. The new factors taken into consideration for the long term plan proposed in Munich, Germany, the three strategic options for the reorientation of the ESA long term plan, and the essential elements of space transportation in the Granada long term plan in three areas of space activities, scientific, and commercial launches with expendable launch vehicles, manned flight and in-orbit infrastructure, and future transportation systems are outlined. The new ESA long term plan, in the field of space transportation systems, constitutes a reorientation of the initial program contemplated in previous councils at ministerial level. It aims at balancing the new economic situation with the new avenues of cooperation, and the outcome will be a new implementation of the space transportation systems policy.

  5. ESA is now a major player in global space science (United States)


    * Results from the star-fixing satellite Hipparcos, released this summer to the world's astronomers, give the positions and motions of 118,000 stars a hundred times more accurately than ever before. * Every day the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, examines 45 cosmic objects on average at many different wavelengths never observable before, giving fresh insights into cosmic history and chemistry. * Invaluable new knowledge of the Sun comes from SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which is the first spacecraft able to observe the Sun's deep interior as well as its stormy surface and atmosphere. Besides these missions making present headlines, several other spacecraft are helping to fulfil ESA's scientific objectives. * 2 - * The launch in October 1997 of ESA's probe Huygens, aboard the Cassini spacecraft bound for Saturn, foreshadows a breakthrough in planetary science in 2004. That is when Huygens will carry its scientific instruments into the unique and puzzling atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. * Ulysses, also built in Europe, is exploring hitherto unknown regions of space, after making the first-ever visit to the Sun's polar regions in 1994-95. It will return to the Sun in 2000-2001, to observe the effects of the climax of solar activity due at that time. * The Cluster 2 mission, announced in April 1997 and to be launched in 2000, will explore the Earth's space environment far more throughly than ever before. ESA's decision to replace the four Cluster satellites lost in a launch accident in 1996 ensures that Europe will continue as the leader in solar-terrestrial research in space. * An example of the three unique 58-mirror X-ray telescopes for the XMM mission was unveiled for the press in May 1997. When it goes into orbit in 1999 XMM will make, in seconds, observations of cosmic objects that took hours with previous X-ray astronomy missions. * The Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a partner, continues to deliver the sharpest pictures of the

  6. HST's 10th anniversary, ESA and Hubble : changing our vision (United States)


    With the astronauts who took part in the most recent Servicing Mission (SM3A) in attendance, ESA is taking the opportunity to give a - first - complete overview of Europe's major contribution to the HST mission. It will also review the first ten years of operations and the outstanding results that have "changed our vision" of the cosmos. A new fully European outreach initiative - the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" - will be presented and officially launched; it has been set up by ESA to provide information on Hubble from a European perspective. A public conference will take place in the afternoon to celebrate Hubble's achievements midway through its life. Ten years of outstanding performance Launched on 24 April 1990, Hubble is now midway through its operating life and it is considered one of the most successful space science missions ever. So far more than 10,000 scientific papers based on Hubble results have been published and European scientists have contributed to more than 25% of these. Not only has Hubble produced a rich harvest of scientific results, it has impressed the man in the street with its beautiful images of the sky. Thousands of headlines all over the world have given direct proof of the public's great interest in the mission - 'The deepest images ever', 'The sharpest view of the Universe', 'Measurements of the earliest galaxies' and many others, all reflecting Hubble's performance as a top-class observatory. The Servicing Missions that keep the observatory and its instruments in prime condition are one of the innovative ideas behind Hubble. Astronauts have serviced Hubble three times, and ESA astronauts have taken part in two of these missions. Claude Nicollier (CH) worked with American colleagues on the First Servicing Mission, when Hubble's initial optical problems were repaired. On the latest, Servicing Mission 3A, both Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy (F) were members of the crew. Over the next 10 years European

  7. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael


    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission ( ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  8. SCOS2: ESA's new generation of mission control systems (United States)

    Kaufeler, J. F.; Head, N. C.


    The paper describes the next generation Spacecraft Control System infrastructure (SCOSII) which is being developed at the Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objectives of the new system and selected areas of the proposed hardware and software approach are described.

  9. ESA and CERN link on data and communication

    CERN Multimedia


    ESA and CERN have agreed to set up working groups to learn from each others experiences in areas such as handling and networking large amounts of data generated by large-scale experiments and in communicating the results of their experiments to the public (2 paragraphs).

  10. (United States)


    surface of the moon and, most importantly, the presence of layers of dark material at the top of crater walls. "The imaging team is in hot debate at the moment on the interpretations of our findings," said Dr Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, USA. "Based on our images, some of us are leaning towards the view that has been promoted recently, that Phoebe is probably ice-rich and may be an object originating in the outer solar system, more related to comets and Kuiper Belt objects than to asteroids." The high-resolution images of Phoebe show a world of dramatic landforms, with landslides and linear structures such as grooves, ridges and chains of pits. Craters are ubiquitous, with many smaller than one kilometre. "This means, besides the big ones, lots of projectiles smaller than 100 metres must have hit Phoebe," said Prof. Gerhard Neukum, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany, and a member of the imaging team. Whether these projectiles came from outside or within the Saturn system is debatable. There is a suspicion that Phoebe, the largest of Saturn's outer moons, might be parent to the other, much smaller retrograde outer moons that orbit Saturn. They could have resulted from the impact ejecta that formed the many craters on Phoebe. Besides these stunning images, the instruments on board Cassini collected a wealth of other data, which will allow scientists to study the surface structures, determine the mass and composition of Phoebe and create a global map of it. "If these additional data confirm that Phoebe is mostly ice, covered by layers of dust, this may well mean that we are looking at a 'leftover' from the formation of the Solar System about 4600 million years ago," said Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist. Phoebe might indeed be an icy wanderer from the distant outer reaches of the Solar System, which, like a comet, was dislodged from the Kuiper Belt and captured by Saturn when the planet was

  11. ESA's X-ray space observatory XMM takes first pictures (United States)


    Under the aegis of Prof. Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, the mission's Principal Investigators will be presenting these spectacular first images at a press conference to be held on 9 February at the ESA Vilspa facility at Villafranca/Madrid in Spain, where the XMM Science Operations Centre is located. The event will also be the occasion for several major announcements concerning the XMM mission. In particular Professor Bonnet will launch the third XMM competition "Stargazing" - previously announced in September 1999. This will address European youngsters, 16 to 18 years old, who will be offered the unique opportunity of winning observing time using the X-ray telescope. Commissioning phase starts After a successful launch from Kourou on Ariane 504 on 10 December 1999, XMM was brought to its final operational orbit in the following week. The telescope doors on the X-ray Mirror Modules and on the Optical Monitor telescope were opened on 17/18 December. The Radiation Monitor was activated on 19 December and the spacecraft was put into a quiet mode over the Christmas and New Year period. The mission's scientific data is being received, processed and dispatched to astronomers by the XMM Science Operations Centre in Villafranca. Operations with the spacecraft restarted there on 4 January when, as part of the commissioning phase, all the science payloads were switched on one after the other for initial verifications. By the week of 17 January functional tests had begun on the Optical Monitor, the EPIC pn, the two EPIC MOS and the two RGS instruments. The internal doors of the EPIC cameras were opened whilst keeping the camera filter wheels closed. Astounding first images After a series of engineering exposures, all three EPIC cameras were used in turn, between 19-24 January, to take several views of two different extragalactic regions of the Universe. These views, featuring a variety of extended and X-ray point sources, were chosen to demonstrate the full

  12. Strengthening the Security of ESA Ground Data Systems (United States)

    Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc


    A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.

  13. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio


    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme ( The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  14. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions (United States)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego


    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne Earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans, atmosphere and solid Earth. ESA has conducted over 110 airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 and this presentation will describe three campaigns in Antarctica and the Arctic. They were undertaken during the calibration/validation phase of Earth Explorer (EE) missions, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and CryoSat-2. In support of SMOS and GOCE, the DOMECair airborne campaign took place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region in the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives were a) to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area (SMOS) and b) to fill a gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica where airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Results from the campaign for the SMOS component, showed that the DOME C area is not as spatially homogenous as previously assumed, therefore comparisons of different missions (e.g. SMOS and NASA's Aquarius) with different footprints must be done with care, highlighting once again the importance of field work to test given assumptions. One extremely surprising outcome of this campaign was the pattern similarity between the gravity measurements and brightness temperature fields. To date, there has never been an indication that L-Band brightness temperatures could be correlated to gravity, but preliminary analysis showed coincident high brightness temperature with high gravity values, suggesting that topography may influence microwave emissions. Also in support of SMOS, the SMOSice airborne campaign has been planned in the Arctic. It was motived by a previous ESA SMOSice study that

  15. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon


    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme ( The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  16. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture (United States)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.


    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  17. ESA strategy for human exploration and the Lunar Lander Mission (United States)

    Gardini, B.

    As part of ESAs Aurora Exploration programme, the Agency has defined, since 2001, a road map for exploration in which, alongside robotic exploration missions, the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon play an essential role on the way to other destinations in the Solar System, ultimately to a human mission to Mars in a more distant future. In the frame of the Human Spaceflight programme the first European Lunar Lander Mission, with a launch date on 2018, has been defined, targeting the lunar South Pole region to capitalize on unique illumination conditions and provide the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations in a region of the Moon not explored so far. The Phase B1 industrial study, recently initiated, will consolidate the mission design and prepare the ground for the approval of the full mission development phase at the 2012 ESA Council at Ministerial. This paper describes the mission options which have been investigated in the past Phase A studies and presents the main activities foreseen in the Phase B1 to consolidate the mission design, including a robust bread-boards and technology development programme. In addition, the approach to overcoming the mission's major technical and environmental challenges and the activities to advance the definition of the payload elements will be described.

  18. Forging ties between young People from CERN and ESA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    The CERN Student Club (CSC) is the official club for the community of young people at CERN. In addition to organizing regular activities for its members, the club serves as a platform for young people to come together and meet people from other backgrounds. On 11 and 12 April, the network for young people from the European Space Agency (YoungESA) organized an excursion to CERN, in which more than 30 young researchers participated. The CERN Student Club was happy to host several activities for the members of the two communities.   Some of the participants in the first meeting of the ESA-CERN student clubs. “One of the most amazing things about being a young researcher is the boundless opportunities for meeting people from all around the world, whether for the exchange of research ideas or for social purposes”, says Yi Ling Hwong, a member of the CMS experiment and Vice-president of the CERN Student Club. “In a place like CERN such occasions are abundant but t...

  19. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.


    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  20. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto


    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  1. Status of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA (United States)

    Rando, N.; Martin, D.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Bavdaz, M.; Fransen, S.; Linder, M.; Peyrou-Lauga, R.; Voirin, T.; Braghin, M.; Mangunsong, S.; van Pelt, M.; Wille, E.


    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2022. ATHENA was conceived as an ESA-led project, open to the possibility of focused contributions from JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 10 keV, it would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The main scientific objectives of ATHENA include the study of large scale structures, the evolution of black holes, strong gravity effects, neutron star structure as well as investigations into dark matter. The ATHENA mission concept would be based on focal length of 12m achieved via a rigid metering tube and a twoaperture, x-ray telescope. Two identical x-ray mirrors would illuminate fixed focal plane instruments: a cryogenic imaging spectrometer (XMS) and a wide field imager (WFI). The S/C is designed to be fully compatible with Ariane 5 ECA. The observatory would operate at SE-L2, with a nominal lifetime of 5 yr. This paper provides a summary of the reformulation activities, completed in December 2011. An overview of the spacecraft design and of the payload is provided, including both telescope and instruments. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  2. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage" (United States)


    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  3. Diana H. Wall, ESA President 1999-2000 (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Parsons, A.


    A more polite term for workaholic is over-achiever, and Diana Harrison Wall could easily serve as the type specimen for both words. Her ability to multi-task is a great boon for the Ecological Society of America. That characteristic drive has also been essential to Wall’s own personal success, since it pushed her to persevere during the lean years when a woman’s place was NOT in the field or laboratory. Diana is a very strong role model for young ecologists through her enthusiasm for science, her remarkable scientific achievements, and her leadership skills. In addition to advising her many graduate students, Diana-as-role-model has been featured in many news media, including PBS TV shows such as “Horizons” and “Discovery,” National Geographic magazine, and the New York Times. She is highlighted on the ESA Web site: “What Do Ecologists Do? Focus on Ecologists.”

  4. CryoSat: ESA's Ice Explorer Mission: status and achievements (United States)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Mardle, Nicola; Hoyos Ortega, Berta; Bouzinac, Catherine; Badessi, Stefano; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Cullen, Robert


    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Experimental evidence have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. In April 2012, the first winter [2010 -2011] sea-ice variation map of the Arctic was released to the scientific community. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements in the last twelve months. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on accessing Cryosat products following the new ESA Earth Observation Data Policy.

  5. ESA remote-sensing programme - Present activities and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevin, J [ESA, Directorate of Planning and Future Programmes, Paris, France; Pryke, I [ESA, Directorate of Applications Programmes, Toulouse, France


    The present activities and future missions of the ESA program of spaceborne remote sensing of earth resources and environment are discussed. Program objectives have been determined to be the satisfaction of European regional needs by agricultural, land use, water resources, coastal and polar surveys, and meeting the requirements of developing nations in the areas of agricultural production, mineral exploration and disaster warning and assessment. The Earthnet system of data processing centers presently is used for the distribution of remote sensing data acquired by NASA satellites. Remote sensing experiments to be flown aboard Spacelab are the Metric Camera, to test high resolution mapping capabilities of a large format camera, and the Microwave Remote-Sensing Experiment, which operates as a two-frequency scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar and a passive microwave radiometer. Studies carried out on the definition of future remote sensing satellite systems are described, including studies of system concepts for land applications and coastal monitoring satellites.

  6. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission (United States)


    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  7. Sensitive and comprehensive analysis of O-glycosylation in biotherapeutics: a case study of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein. (United States)

    Kim, Unyong; Oh, Myung Jin; Seo, Youngsuk; Jeon, Yinae; Eom, Joon-Ho; An, Hyun Joo


    Glycosylation of recombinant human erythropoietins (rhEPOs) is significantly associated with drug's quality and potency. Thus, comprehensive characterization of glycosylation is vital to assess the biotherapeutic quality and establish the equivalency of biosimilar rhEPOs. However, current glycan analysis mainly focuses on the N-glycans due to the absence of analytical tools to liberate O-glycans with high sensitivity. We developed selective and sensitive method to profile native O-glycans on rhEPOs. O-glycosylation on rhEPO including O-acetylation on a sialic acid was comprehensively characterized. Details such as O-glycan structure and O-acetyl-modification site were obtained from tandem MS. This method may be applied to QC and batch analysis of not only rhEPOs but also other biotherapeutics bearing multiple O-glycosylations.

  8. Investigation of high-energy sources in optical light by ESA Gaia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, R.; Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, L.; Hudcová, Věra


    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2010), s. 476-481 ISSN 0037-8720. [Multifrequency behaviour of high energy cosmic sources. Vulcano, 25.05.2009-30.05. 2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98058; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09027; ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : high-energy sources * cataclysmic variables * low-dispersion spectra Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. Hubble gets new ESA-supplied solar arrays (United States)


    Derek Eaton, ESA project manager, was overjoyed with the success of the day's spacewalk. "To build two such massive arrays some years apart to such tight tolerances and have one replace the other with so few problems is a tribute to the design and manufacturing skills of ESA and British Aerospace, the prime contractor for the arrays", he said. "The skill of Kathy and Tom contributed greatly to this success". The astronauts began their spacewalk at 09h30 p.m. CST (04h30 a.m. CET, Monday). Their first task was to jettison the troublesome solar array that failed to retract yesterday. Perched on the end of the shuttle's robot arm, 7.5 metres above the cargo bay, Thornton carefully released the array. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier then pulled the arm away from the free-floating panel and mission commander Dick Covey fired the shuttle's thrusters to back away. Endeavour and the discarded array are moving apart at a rate of 18.5 kilometres each 90-minute orbit of the Earth. The array is expected to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere harmlessly within a year or so. The astronauts had no problems installing the new arrays and stowing the left-hand wing in the cargo bay for the return to Earth. The new arrays will remain rolled-up against the side of the telescope until the fifth spacewalk on Wednesday/Thursday. The telescope itself will be deployed on Saturday. The telescope's first set of arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the craft moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, or "jitter", affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at times. The Space Telescope Operations Control Centre largely compensated for the problem with special software but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The new arrays incorporate three major changes to eliminate the problem. The metal bi-stem booms, which support the solar blankets, is protected from extreme temperature changes by a concertina-style sleeve made up of one

  10. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst (United States)


    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  11. ESA's tools for internal charging; Outils developpes par l'ESA pour evaluer les repartitions de charges electrostatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J. [ESA/ESTEC (Netherlands); Rodgers, D.J.; Ryden, K.A.; Latham, P.M. [DERA, Farnborough (United Kingdom); Wrenn, G.L. [T.S. Space Systems (United Kingdom); Levy, L.; Panabiere, G. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA/DESP), 31 - Toulouse (France)


    Electrostatic discharges, caused by bulk charging of spacecraft insulating materials, are a major cause of satellite anomalies. This is a presentation of ESA's tools to assess whether a given structure is liable to experience electrostatic discharges. (authors)

  12. Numerical simulation support to the ESA/THOR mission (United States)

    Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Perri, S.; Perrone, D.; De Marco, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Daniele, B.; Bruno, R.; Camporeale, E.


    THOR is a spacecraft concept currently undergoing study phase as acandidate for the next ESA medium size mission M4. THOR has been designedto solve the longstanding physical problems of particle heating andenergization in turbulent plasmas. It will provide high resolutionmeasurements of electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functionswith unprecedented resolution, with the aim of exploring the so-calledkinetic scales. We present the numerical simulation framework which is supporting the THOR mission during the study phase. The THOR teamincludes many scientists developing and running different simulation codes(Eulerian-Vlasov, Particle-In-Cell, Gyrokinetics, Two-fluid, MHD, etc.),addressing the physics of plasma turbulence, shocks, magnetic reconnectionand so on.These numerical codes are being used during the study phase, mainly withthe aim of addressing the following points:(i) to simulate the response of real particle instruments on board THOR, byemploying an electrostatic analyser simulator which mimics the response ofthe CSW, IMS and TEA instruments to the particle velocity distributions ofprotons, alpha particle and electrons, as obtained from kinetic numericalsimulations of plasma turbulence.(ii) to compare multi-spacecraft with single-spacecraft configurations inmeasuring current density, by making use of both numerical models ofsynthetic turbulence and real data from MMS spacecraft.(iii) to investigate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis indifferent configurations of plasma turbulence

  13. LIDAR technology developments in support of ESA Earth observation missions (United States)

    Durand, Yannig; Caron, Jérôme; Hélière, Arnaud; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland


    Critical lidar technology developments have been ongoing at the European Space Agency (ESA) in support of EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer), the 6th Earth Explorer mission, and A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), one of the candidates for the 7th Earth Explorer mission. EarthCARE is embarking an Atmospheric backscatter Lidar (ATLID) while A-SCOPE is based on a Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. As EarthCARE phase B has just started, the pre-development activities, aiming at validating the technologies used in the flight design and at verifying the overall instrument performance, are almost completed. On the other hand, A-SCOPE pre-phase A has just finished. Therefore technology developments are in progress, addressing critical subsystems or components with the lowest TRL, selected in the proposed instrument concepts. The activities described in this paper span over a broad range, addressing all critical elements of a lidar from the transmitter to the receiver.

  14. Simulating Heavy Ion SEUs in the ESA Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Noordeh, Emil


    This study analyzed SEU measurements made of the ESA Monitor at GSI, RADEF, UCL, and TAMU. An IRPP model was implemented through the use of FLUKA that was calibrated to the measurements of ions above the LET threshold. The model proved successful in reproducing proton measurements that are entirely independent of the calibration. When applied to the sub-threshold region, experimental measurements were underestimated by a factor of $\\sim$3 for the high energy ions at GSI, a factor of $\\sim$10 for the ions at UCL/RADEF, and an anomalous factor of $\\sim$300 for the ion at TAMU. Several possible sources of systematic uncertainty were investigated including sensitive volume size, BEOL thickness, and substrate thickness. Additionally, the impact of including air between the beam and the DUT as well as side effects due to the simulated geometry were explored. It was found that none of these sources can provide a substantial enough impact on the SEU cross-section to reconcile the anomalous measurement made at TAMU.

  15. Reference payload of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA (United States)

    Martin, Didier; Rando, Nicola; Lumb, David; Verhoeve, Peter; Oosterbroek, Tim; Bavdaz, Marcos


    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is one of the three candidates that competed for the first large-class mission (L1) in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme, with a launch planned by 2022 and is the result of the IXO reformulation activities. ATHENA is an ESA-led project and is conceived as the next generation X-ray observatory. It is meant to address fundamental questions about accretion around black-holes, reveal the physics underpinning cosmic feedback, trace the large scale structure of baryons in galaxy clusters and the cosmic as well as a large number of astrophysics and fundamental physics phenomena. The observatory consists of two identical mirrors each illuminating a fixed focal plane instrument, providing collectively 1 m2 effective area at 1 keV. The reference payload consists of a medium resolution wide field imager (WFI) and a high resolution X-ray micro-calorimeter spectrometer (XMS). The WFI is based on a monolithic Si DepFET array providing imaging over a 24 × 24 arcmin2 field of view and a good PSF oversampling. The sensor will measure X-rays in the range 0.1-15 keV and provides near Fano limited energy resolution (150eV at 6keV). The XMS is based on a micro-calorimeter array operating at its transition temperature of ~100mK and provides Definition Phase.

  16. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission (United States)


    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  17. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.


    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  18. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by (United States)


    Rosetta’s unique instruments, such as its ultraviolet light instrument ALICE, should be able to make critical contributions to the American mission. About Rosetta Rosetta is the first mission designed to both orbit and land on a comet, and consists of an orbiter and a lander. The spacecraft carries 11 scientific experiments and will be the first mission to undertake long-term exploration of a comet at close quarters. After entering orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the spacecraft will release a small lander onto the icy nucleus. Rosetta will orbit the comet for about a year as it heads towards the Sun, remaining in orbit for another half-year past perihelion (closest approach to the Sun). Comets hold essential information about the origin of our Solar System because they are the most primitive objects in the Solar System and their chemical composition has changed little since their formation. By orbiting and landing on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta will help us reconstruct the history of our own neighbourhood in space. Note for broadcasters: The ESA TV Service will transmit a TV exchange with images of the fly-by, together with science results/images from observations as far as available on 11 March. For further details :

  19. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission (United States)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.


    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  20. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci (United States)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.


    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  1. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  2. CHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.


    Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.

  3. An afocal telescope configuration for the ESA ARIEL mission (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Focardi, Mauro; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pascale, Enzo; Grella, Samuele; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Amiaux, Jérôme; Colomé Ferrer, Josep; Hunt, Thomas; Rataj, Miroslaw; Sierra-Roig, Carles; Ficai Veltroni, Iacopo; Eccleston, Paul; Micela, Giuseppina; Tinetti, Giovanna


    Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey (ARIEL) is a candidate as an M4 ESA mission to launch in 2026. During its 3.5 years of scientific operations, ARIEL will observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighbourhood of the solar system. ARIEL aims to give a breakthrough in the observation of exoplanet atmospheres and understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far-away worlds. ARIEL is based on a 1 m class telescope feeding a collimated beam into two separate instrument modules: a spectrometer module covering the waveband between 1.95 and 7.8 μm and a combined fine guidance system/visible photometer/NIR spectrometer. The telescope configuration is a classic Cassegrain layout used with an eccentric pupil and coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror. To constrain the thermo-mechanically induced optical aberrations, the primary mirror (M1) temperature will be monitored and finely tuned using an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ± 1 K by the telescope control unit (TCU). The TCU is a payload electronics subsystem also responsible for the thermal control of the spectrometer module detectors as well as the secondary mirror mechanism and IR calibration source management. The TCU, being a slave subsystem of the instrument control unit, will collect the housekeeping data from the monitored subsystems and will forward them to the master unit. The latter will run the application software, devoted to the main spectrometer management and to the scientific data on-board processing.

  4. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors (United States)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.


    At the moment of this writing about 4 % of the known near-Earth objects are known to have at least one future close approach scenario with a non-negligible collision probability within the next century, as routinely computed by the NEODyS and Sentry systems. The most straightforward way to improve the knowledge of the future dynamics of an NEO in order to exclude (or possibly confirm) some of these possible future impact is to obtain additional astrometric observations of the object as soon as it becomes observable again. In particular, since a large fraction (>98 %) of the known objects currently recognized as possible future impactors have been observed during a single opposition, this usually corresponds to obtaining a new set of observations during a second opposition, a so called ''recovery''. However, in some cases the future observability windows for the target after the discovery apparition may be very limited, either because the object is intrinsically small (and therefore requires a very close and consequently rare approach to become observable) or because its orbital dynamic prevents the observability from the ground for a long timespan (as in the case of quasi-resonant objects with a long synodic period). When this happens, the only short-term way to clarify an impact scenario is to look toward the past, and investigate the possibility that unrecognized detections of the object are already present in the databases of old astronomical images, which are often archived by professional telescopes and made available to the community a few months to years after they are exposed. We will here present an effort lead by the newly formed ESA NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) in Frascati to pursue both these avenues with the intent of improving the orbital knowledge of the highest-rated possible impactors, as defined by the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale (PS in the following). As an example of our ongoing observational activities, we will first present our

  5. Biological Agents (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  6. Aerosol Climate Time Series in ESA Aerosol_cci (United States)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon


    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer, but also from ATSR instruments and the POLDER sensor), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. For the three ATSR algorithms the use of an ensemble method was tested. The paper will summarize and discuss the status of dataset reprocessing and validation. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension

  7. Toward an integrated storm surge application: ESA Storm Surge project (United States)

    Lee, Boram; Donlon, Craig; Arino, Olivier

    2010-05-01, organized by the WMO-IOC Joint technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, JCOMM) and following activities, that have been supported by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO through JCOMM. The paper also reviews the capabilities of storm surge models, and current status in using Earth Observation (EO) information for advancing storm surge application tools, and further, for improving operational forecasts and warning capability for coastal inundation. In this context, the plans and expected results of the ESA Storm Surge Project (2010-2011) will be introduced.

  8. An afocal telescope configuration for the ESA Ariel mission (United States)

    Da Deppo, V.; Middleton, K.; Focardi, M.; Morgante, G.; Pace, E.; Claudi, R.; Micela, G.


    ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) expected to be launched in 2026. This mission will be devoted to observing spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighborhood of the Solar System, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planets and enabling the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.8 microns. In addition there are four photometric channels: two wide band, also used as fine guidance sensors, and two narrow band. During its 3.5 years of operations from L2 orbit, ARIEL will continuously observe exoplanets transiting their host star. The ARIEL optical design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is composed of an off-axis portion of a two-mirror classic Cassegrain coupled to a tertiary off-axis paraboloidal mirror. The telescope and optical bench operating temperatures, as well as those of some subsystems, will be monitored and fine tuned/stabilised mainly by means of a thermal control subsystem (TCU-Telescope Control Unit) working in closed-loop feedback and hosted by the main Payload electronics unit, the Instrument Control Unit (ICU). Another important function of the TCU will be to monitor the telescope and optical bench thermistors when the Payload decontamination heaters will be switched on (when operating the instrument in Decontamination Mode) during the Commissioning Phase and cyclically, if required. Then the thermistors data will be sent by the ICU to the On Board Computer by means of a proper formatted telemetry. The latter (OBC) will be in charge of switching on and off the decontamination heaters on the basis of the thermistors readout

  9. ESA Science Archives, VO tools and remote Scientific Data reduction in Grid Architectures (United States)

    Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; de La Calle, I.; Fajersztejn, N.; Freschi, M.; Gabriel, C.; Gomez, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Ibarra, A.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Micol, A.; Parrilla, E.; Ortiz, I.; Osuna, P.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.


    This paper presents the latest functionalities of the ESA Science Archives located at ESAC, Spain, in particular, the following archives : the ISO Data Archive (IDA {}), the XMM-Newton Science Archive (XSA {}), the Integral SOC Science Data Archive (ISDA {}) and the Planetary Science Archive (PSA {}), both the classical and the map-based Mars Express interfaces. Furthermore, the ESA VOSpec {} spectra analysis tool is described, which allows to access and display spectral information from VO resources (both real observational and theoretical spectra), including access to Lines database and recent analysis functionalities. In addition, we detail the first implementation of RISA (Remote Interface for Science Analysis), a web service providing remote users the ability to create fully configurable XMM-Newton data analysis workflows, and to deploy and run them on the ESAC Grid. RISA makes fully use of the inter-operability provided by the SIAP (Simple Image Access Protocol) services as data input, and at the same time its VO-compatible output can directly be used by general VO-tools.

  10. Aerosol climate time series from ESA Aerosol_cci (Invited) (United States)

    Holzer-Popp, T.


    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) the Aerosol_cci project (mid 2010 - mid 2013, phase 2 proposed 2014-2016) has conducted intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors AATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. Global datasets for 2008 were produced and validated versus independent ground-based data and other satellite data sets (MODIS, MISR). An additional 17-year dataset is currently generated using ATSR-2/AATSR data. During the three years of the project, intensive collaborative efforts were made to improve the retrieval algorithms focusing on the most critical modules. The team agreed on the use of a common definition for the aerosol optical properties. Cloud masking was evaluated, but a rigorous analysis with a pre-scribed cloud mask did not lead to improvement for all algorithms. Better results were obtained using a post-processing step in which sudden transitions, indicative of possible occurrence of cloud contamination, were removed. Surface parameterization, which is most critical for the nadir only algorithms (MERIS and synergetic AATSR / SCIAMACHY) was studied to a limited extent. The retrieval results for AOD, Ångström exponent (AE) and uncertainties were evaluated by comparison with data from AERONET (and a limited amount of MAN) sun photometer and with satellite data available from MODIS and MISR. Both level2 and level3 (gridded daily) datasets were validated. Several validation metrics were used (standard statistical quantities such as bias, rmse, Pearson correlation, linear regression, as well as scoring approaches to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal correlations against AERONET), and in some cases

  11. ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos (United States)


    Sun, called parallaxes, give the first direct measurements of the distances of large numbers of stars. With the overall calculations completed, the harvest of scientific discoveries has begun. Among those delighted with the immediate irruption into cosmology, from this spacecraft made in Europe, is ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "When supporters of the Hipparcos project argued their case," Bonnet recalls, "they were competing with astrophysical missions with more obvious glamour. But they promised remarkable consequences for all branches of astronomy. And already we see that even the teams using the Hubble Space Telescope will benefit from a verdict from Hipparcos on the distance scale that underpins all their reckonings of the expansion of the Universe." The pulse-rates of the stars Cepheid stars alternately squeeze themselves and relax, like a beating heart. They wax and wane rhythmically in brightness, every few days or weeks, at a rate that depends on their luminosity. Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory discovered in the early years of this century that bigger and more brilliant Cepheids vary with a longer period, according to a strict rule. It allows astronomers to gauge relative distances simply by taking the pulse-rates of the Cepheids and measuring their apparent brightnesses. Nearby Cepheids are typically 1000-2000 light-years away. They are too far for even Hipparcos to obtain very exact distance measurements, but by taking twenty-six examples and comparing them, Michael Feast and his colleague Robin Catchpole of RGO Cambridge arrive at consistent statistics. These define the relationship between the period and the luminosity, needed to judge the distances of Cepheids. The zero point is for an imaginary Cepheid pulsating once a day. This would be a star 300 times more luminous than the Sun, according to the Hipparcos data. The slowest Cepheid in the sample, l Carinae, has a period of 36 days and is equivalent to 18,000 suns

  12. Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holzer-Popp


    Full Text Available Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI project Aerosol_cci (2010–2013, algorithms for the production of long-term total column aerosol optical depth (AOD datasets from European Earth Observation sensors are developed. Starting with eight existing pre-cursor algorithms three analysis steps are conducted to improve and qualify the algorithms: (1 a series of experiments applied to one month of global data to understand several major sensitivities to assumptions needed due to the ill-posed nature of the underlying inversion problem, (2 a round robin exercise of "best" versions of each of these algorithms (defined using the step 1 outcome applied to four months of global data to identify mature algorithms, and (3 a comprehensive validation exercise applied to one complete year of global data produced by the algorithms selected as mature based on the round robin exercise. The algorithms tested included four using AATSR, three using MERIS and one using PARASOL. This paper summarizes the first step. Three experiments were conducted to assess the potential impact of major assumptions in the various aerosol retrieval algorithms. In the first experiment a common set of four aerosol components was used to provide all algorithms with the same assumptions. The second experiment introduced an aerosol property climatology, derived from a combination of model and sun photometer observations, as a priori information in the retrievals on the occurrence of the common aerosol components. The third experiment assessed the impact of using a common nadir cloud mask for AATSR and MERIS algorithms in order to characterize the sensitivity to remaining cloud contamination in the retrievals against the baseline dataset versions. The impact of the algorithm changes was assessed for one month (September 2008 of data: qualitatively by inspection of monthly mean AOD maps and quantitatively by comparing daily gridded satellite data against daily averaged AERONET sun

  13. Has ESA's XMM-Newton cast doubt over dark energy? (United States)


    Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 hi-res Size hi-res: 100k Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 The fuzzy object at the centre of the frame is one of the galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton in its investigation of the distant Universe. The cluster, designated RXJ0847.2+3449, is about 7 000 million light years away, so we see it here as it was 7 000 million years ago, when the Universe was only about half of its present age. This cluster is made up of several dozen galaxies. Observations of eight distant clusters of galaxies, the furthest of which is around 10 thousand million light years away, were studied by an international group of astronomers led by David Lumb of ESA's Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. They compared these clusters to those found in the nearby Universe. This study was conducted as part of the larger XMM-Newton Omega Project, which investigates the density of matter in the Universe under the lead of Jim Bartlett of the College de France. Clusters of galaxies are prodigious emitters of X-rays because they contain a large quantity of high-temperature gas. This gas surrounds galaxies in the same way as steam surrounds people in a sauna. By measuring the quantity and energy of X-rays from a cluster, astronomers can work out both the temperature of the cluster gas and also the mass of the cluster. Theoretically, in a Universe where the density of matter is high, clusters of galaxies would continue to grow with time and so, on average, should contain more mass now than in the past. Most astronomers believe that we live in a low-density Universe in which a mysterious substance known as 'dark energy' accounts for 70% of the content of the cosmos and, therefore, pervades everything. In this scenario, clusters of galaxies should stop growing early in the history of the Universe and look virtually indistinguishable from those of today. In a paper soon to be published by the European journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, astronomers from the XMM


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yuniarti


    Full Text Available The action reserach aims at improving the students’ writing skill especially to write advertsements and posters. Both are the short functional texts to be learned at the first semester of the ninth grade. According to the data on pre cycle, the students of class IXA Junior High School Swadhipa Natar, South Lampung got difficulties in writing advertisements and posters. A treatment was necessary to help the students overcome their problem. To consider the related literature, the writer decided to implement ESA sequence in the class. The elements of teaching in ESA Sequence are Engage (to arouse the students’ interests, Study (learn the language focus, and Activate (use the language freely and communicatively.The data were taken from the test of the linguistic competence mastery, the students writing, and the questionnaire. The result shows ESA Sequence can improve the students’ ability in writing advertisements and posters.Key words : ESA (Engange Study Activate, advertisement, poster.

  15. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities. (United States)


    At 1.25 billion km from Earth, after a 7-year journey through the Solar system, ESA’s Huygens probe is about to separate from the Cassini orbiter to enter a ballistic trajectory toward Titan, the largest and most mysterious moon of Saturn, in order to dive into its atmosphere on 14 January. This will be the first man-made object to explore in-situ this unique environment, whose chemistry is assumed to be very similar to that of the early Earth just before life began, 3.8 billion years ago. The Cassini-Huygens pair, a joint mission conducted by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), was launched into space on 15 October 1997. With the help of several gravity assist manoeuvres during flybys of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it took almost 7 years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. The Cassini orbiter, carrying Huygens on its flank, entered an orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004, and began to investigate the ringed planet and its moons for a mission that will last at least four years. The first distant flyby of Titan took place on 2-3 July 2004. It provided data on Titan's atmosphere which were confirmed by the data obtained during the first close flyby on 26 October 2004 at an altitude of 1174 km. These data were used to validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. A second close flyby of Titan by Cassini-Huygens at an altitude of 1200 km is scheduled on 13 December and will provide additional data to further validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. On 17 December the orbiter will be placed on a controlled collision course with Titan in order to release Huygens on the proper trajectory, and on 21 December (some dates and times are subject to minor adjustment for operational reasons, except the entry time on 14 January which is know to within an accuracy of under 2 minutes) all systems will be set up for separation and the Huygens timers will be set to wake the probe a few hours before its arrival at Titan. The Huygens probe is due to separate on

  16. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Concept Development for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF) (United States)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Berthoud, L.; Guest, M.; Smith, C.; Bennett, A.; Gaubert, F.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.; Duvet, L.; van Winnendael, M.


    This presentation gives an overview of the several studies conducted for the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2007, which progressively developed layouts for a potential implementation of a Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF).


    In 1998, USEPA published a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of 50 chemicals and 10 microorganisms. "Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide herbicide degradation products" is listed on the the 1998 CCL. Acetanilide degradation products are generally more water soluble...

  18. 78 FR 18585 - FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... describing enhanced opportunities for stakeholder input during its review of pesticide registrations under... announcing the availability of a document titled, ``Enhancing Stakeholder Input in the Pesticide Registration...

  19. MUC-1-ESA+ progenitor cells in normal benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells


    Lu, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe


    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer ce...

  20. The DTU-ESA Millimeter-Wave Validation Standard Antenna – Manufacturing and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A new precision tool for antenna test range qualification and inter-comparisons at mm-waves – the mm-VAST antenna – is under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in collaboration with TICRA under a European Space Agency (ESA) contract. The DTU-ESA mm-VAST antenna will facilita...... mechanical design, fabrication and assembling procedures. The performance verification test plan as well as first measurement results are also discussed....

  1. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module (United States)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.


    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  2. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation: Parameter Optimization of Citric Acid Passivation for Stainless Steel Alloys (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.


    reduced operational cost. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for the passivation of stainless steel alloys. While citric acid use has become more prominent in industry, there is little evidence that citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent, especially for the unique and critical applications encountered by NASA and ESA.

  3. ESA-NASA collaboration in support of CryoSat-2 (United States)

    Casal, T. G.; Davidson, M.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Perrera, A.; Armitage, T.; Bianchi, R.; Parrinello, T.; Fornari, M.; Skourup, H.


    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out groundbased and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal []. CryoSat-2, ESA's third Earth Explorer, is Europe's first mission dedicated to monitoring Earth's ice fields. The satellite carries a sophisticated radar altimeter that can measure the thickness of sea ice down to centimetres and also monitor changes in ice sheets, particularly around the edges where icebergs are calved from the vast ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica. On order to gather data to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission, in yet another remarkable collaborative effort, ESA and NASA met up over the Arctic Ocean in April 2012 to perform some carefully coordinated flights directly under CryoSat orbiting above. The aim of this large-scale campaign was to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice exactly along the line traced by ESA's CryoSat satellite orbiting high above. A range of sensors installed on the different aircraft was used to gather

  4. Does erythropoietin cause hemoglobin variability--is it 'normal'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani K Gupta

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin variability (Hb-var in patients with chronic kidney disease has been stipulated to be a result of exogenous treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA and has been related to mortality in dialysis patients. We hypothesized the existence of Hb-var independent of ESA administration and compared it to that in healthy adults using data from the Scripps-Kaiser and NHANES III databases. We studied the Hb-var in 1571 peritoneal dialysis patients which included 116 patients not requiring treatment with erythropoietin. We systematically studied the differences between the groups that needed ESA therapy and those who did not. White race and male sex were significant predictors of need for erythropoietin therapy. We found peritoneal dialysis patients to exhibit significantly increased Hb-var independent of treatment with exogenous erythropoietin (0.99 gm/dL vs. 1.17 gm/dL, p-value60 years peritoneal dialysis patients was similar to that seen in healthy elders, suggesting similarity with anemia of aging. We conclude that exogenous ESA administration does not explain Hb-var entirely but may enhance it. Intrinsic factors affecting erythropoiesis including age may be the major determinants of Hb-var.

  5. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites (United States)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.


    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  6. [Alkylating agents]. (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe


    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  7. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.


    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  8. Preschool Assessment of Preterm Infants Treated With Darbepoetin and Erythropoietin. (United States)

    Ohls, Robin K; Cannon, Daniel C; Phillips, John; Caprihan, Arvind; Patel, Shrena; Winter, Sarah; Steffen, Michael; Yeo, Ronald A; Campbell, Richard; Wiedmeier, Susan; Baker, Shawna; Gonzales, Sean; Lowe, Jean


    We previously reported improved neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years among infants treated with the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) darbepoetin alfa (darbepoetin) or erythropoietin. Here we characterize 4-year outcomes. Former preterm infants randomly assigned to receive darbepoetin (10 μg/kg, once per week), erythropoietin (400 U/kg, 3 times/week), or placebo through 35 weeks' postconceptual age were evaluated at 3.5 to 4 years of age. For comparison, healthy children formerly delivered full term (term controls [TCs]) were also recruited. All participants were assessed by using measures of full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and general language from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, and an overall measure of executive function, on the basis of tests evaluating inhibitory control and spatial working memory. Rates of neurodevelopmental impairment were compared across groups. Multivariate analysis of variance compared children randomly assigned to ESAs (n = 39), placebo (n =14), and TCs (n = 24). FSIQ and performance IQ were significantly higher in the ESA group than in the placebo group (FSIQ: 91.1 ± 17.5 vs 79.2 ± 18.5, P = .036; performance IQ: 93.0 ± 17.0 vs 79.5 ± 19.5, P = .018). Follow-up analyses revealed that the children receiving ESAs performed better than those who received placebo on executive function tasks. The ESA group's performance was below that of TCs, but the results did not reach significance on executive function. The incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment was greater in the placebo group than in the ESA group. ESA-treated infants had better cognitive outcomes and less developmental impairment at 3.5 to 4 years of age compared with placebo-treated infants. ESAs show promise in improving long-term cognitive outcomes of infants born prematurely. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    author Fatma Yuniarti


    Full Text Available The action reserach aims at improving the students’ writing skill especially to write advertsements and posters. Both are the short functional texts to be learned at the second semester. According to the data on pre cycle, the students of second semester got difficulties to write advertisements and posters. A treatment was necessary to help the students overcome their problem. To consider the related literature, the writer decided to implement ESA sequence (Harmer 2001 in the class. The elements of teaching in ESA Sequence are Engage (to arouse the students’ interests, Study (learn the language focus, and Activate (use the language freely and communicatively. The data were taken from the test of the linguistic competence mastery, the students writing, and the questionnaire. The students’ linguistic competence got increased as shown by the score (58 in pre-cycle, 66 in cycle 1, and 70 in cycle 2. The students’ ability to write the short functional texts also get improved as indicated by the average score on writing tasks (53 in pre-cycle, 63 in cycle 1, 72 in cycle 2. The interest also gets better as shown by the score of the questionnaire (22,3 in pre-cycle, 33,5 in cycle 1, and 37 in cycle 2. It means ESA Sequence can improve the studets’ ability to write advertisements and posters.Key words : advertisement, ESA (Engange Study Activate, poster

  10. ESA parabolic flights, drop tower and centrifuge opportunities for university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, N; Ventura-Traveset, J.; de Lophem, T.L.; Lopez de Echazarreta, C.; Pletser, V.; van Loon, J.J.W.A


    "Fly Your Thesis!-An Astronaut Experience" is an educational programme launched by the ESA Education Office that aims to offer to European students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually fly, a scientific experiment as part of their Master or Ph.D. thesis. Selected teams accompany

  11. ESA parabolic flights, drop tower and centrifuge opportunities for university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callens, N.; Ventura-Traveset, J.; de Lophem, T.L.; Lopez de Echazarreta, C.; Pletser, V.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.


    "Fly Your Thesis!—An Astronaut Experience" is an educational programme launched by the ESA Education Office that aims to offer to European students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually fly, a scientific experiment as part of their Master or Ph.D. thesis. Selected teams accompany

  12. The ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator 3: Have your say on new features (United States)

    Nielsen, L. H.; Christensen, L. L.; Hurt, R. L.; Nielsen, K.; Johansen, T.


    The popular, free ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator image processing software (a plugin for Adobe Photoshop) is about to get simpler, faster and more user-friendly! Here we would like to solicit inputs from the community of users.

  13. Nuclear interaction contribution to SEUs in heavy ion energy deposition in the ESA monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bahamonde, Cristina


    The effects of nuclear interactions inducing Single Event Upsets in ESA SEU monitor are explored for heavy ion beams of different energies. The experimental and simulated results are compared, the possible causes of disagreement are suggested as well as the future steps to take.

  14. Improving accessibility and discovery of ESA planetary data through the new planetary science archive (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Besse, S.; Arviset, C.; Barthelemy, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Vallat, C.


    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific data sets through various interfaces at Mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards which all new ESA planetary missions shall follow and the need to update the interfaces to the archive, the PSA has undergone an important re-engineering. In order to maximise the scientific exploitation of ESA's planetary data holdings, significant improvements have been made by utilising the latest technologies and implementing widely recognised open standards. To facilitate users in handling and visualising the many products stored in the archive which have spatial data associated, the new PSA supports Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by implementing the standards approved by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The modernised PSA also attempts to increase interoperability with the international community by implementing recognised planetary science specific protocols such as the PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) and EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol). In this paper we describe some of the methods by which the archive may be accessed and present the challenges that are being faced in consolidating data sets of the older PDS3 version of the standards with the new PDS4 deliveries into a single data model mapping to ensure transparent access to the data for users and services whilst maintaining a high performance.

  15. Joint European x-ray monitor (JEM-X): x-ray monitor for ESA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt


    JEM-X will extend the energy range of the gamma ray instruments on ESA's INTEGRAL mission (SPI, IBIS) to include the x-ray band. JEM-X will provide images with arcminute angular resolution in the 2 - 60 keV band. The baseline photon detection system consists of two identical, high pressure, imagi...

  16. Assessing ESA on What It Is Designed For: A Reply to Cooper and Glaesser (United States)

    Schneider, Carsten Q.; Wagemann, Claudius


    We appreciate Barry Cooper and Judith Glaesser's (henceforth CG) energy and effort put into reflecting on parts of our proposals laid out in "Set-theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences" (2012). We use our response to explain what enhanced standard analysis (ESA) is meant to achieve and what not, an issue about which CG hold erroneous…

  17. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia


    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  18. Mida suudab muusikateraapia? / Melanie Voigt, Esa Ala-Ruona ; inetrvjueerinud Kristel Kossar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Melanie


    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias toimunud Euroopa Muusikateraapia Konföderatsiooni peaassambleel ja sümpoosionil ettekannetega esinenud muusikaterapeudid Malanie Voigt Saksamaalt ja Esa Ala-Ruona Soomest räägivad tööst puuetega lastega ja tööstressist ning heliilmast

  19. Blood doping: risks to athletes' health and strategies for detection. (United States)

    Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de; Bairros, André Valle de; Yonamine, Mauricio


    Blood doping has been defined as the misuse of substances or certain techniques to optimize oxygen delivery to muscles with the aim to increase performance in sports activities. It includes blood transfusion, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or blood substitutes, and gene manipulations. The main reasons for the widespread use of blood doping include: its availability for athletes (erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and blood transfusions), its efficiency in improving performance, and its difficult detection. This article reviews and discusses the blood doping substances and methods used for in sports, the adverse effects related to this practice, and current strategies for its detection.

  20. Artificial intelligence for optimal anemia management in end-stage renal disease. (United States)

    Brier, Michael E; Gaweda, Adam E


    Computational intelligence for the prediction of hemoglobin to guide the selection of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose results in improved anemia management. The models used for the prediction result from the use of individual patient data and help to increase the number of hemoglobin observations within the target range. The benefits of using these modeling techniques appear to be a decrease in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use and a decrease in the number of transfusions. This study confirms the results of previous smaller studies and suggests that additional beneficial results may be achieved. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives - Pretreatments with Primers Screening Final Test Report (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matthew J.; Kessel, Kurt R.


    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or Cr(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings. In the United States, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) studies have concluded that hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic and poses significant risk to human health. On May 5, 2011, amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) were issued in the Federal Register. Subpart 223.73 prohibits contracts from requiring hexavalent chromium in deliverables unless certain exceptions apply. Subpart 252.223-7008 provides the contract clause prohibiting contractors and subcontractors from using or delivering hexavalent chromium in a concentration greater than 0.1 percent by weight for all new contracts associated with supplies, maintenance and repair services, and construction materials. ESA faces its own increasingly stringent regulations within European directives such as Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical (REACH) substances and the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) which have set a mid-2017 sunset date for hexavalent chromium. NASA and ESA continue to search for an alternative to hexavalent chromium in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and

  2. Chemical Agents (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  3. The Arabidopsis defence response mutant esa1 as a tool to discover novel resistance traits against Fusarium diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijck, van W.; Wouters, P.F.J.; Brouwer, M.; Windelinckx, A.; Goderis, I.J.W.M.; Bolle, De M.F.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Delauré, S.L.


    The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant esa1 was previously shown to exhibit enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. In this work, we tried to elaborate on this susceptibility by investigating whether the esa1

  4. Fly me to the Sun! ESA inaugurates the European Project on the Sun (United States)


    In an initiative mounted by ECSITE (European Collaborative for Science, Industry and Technology Exhibitions) with funding from the European Commission and under the supervision, coordination and co-sponsorship of ESA, five teams of youngsters (16-18 years old) from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands were selected and coordinated by European science museums from each of their countries (Musée des Sciences et des Techniques - Parentville, B; Cité de l'Espace - Toulouse, F; Deutsches Museum - Munich, D; Fondazione IDIS - Naples, I; Foundation Noordwijk Space Expo - Noordwijk, NL). The teams each focused on a theme related to solar research: "How does the Sun work?" (I), "The Sun as a star" (F), "Solar activity" (NL), "Observing the Sun" (D), "Humans and the Sun" (B), and built exhibition "modules" that they will present at the inauguration, in the context of European Science and Technology Week 2000 (6-10 November), promoted by the European Commission. During the two-day event, a jury of representatives of other European science and technology museums, ESA scientists, a science journalist, and two ESA astronauts (Frank de Winne and Andre Kuipers) will judge the youngsters' exhibition modules on the basis of their scientific correctness, their museological value and the commitment shown by the young "communication experts". The winning team will be officially announced on 9 November. The prize is a weekend at the Space Camp in Redu, Belgium. The objective of the European Project on the Sun is educational. It aims, through the direct and "fresh" involvement of youngsters, to heighten European citizens' awareness of space research in general and the Sun's influence on our daily lives in particular. The role of the European Space Agency as reference point in Europe for solar research has been fundamental to the project. From ESA's perspective, EPOS is part of this autumn's wider communication initiative called the Solar Season, which is highlighting ESA

  5. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet (United States)


    There will be ten participants: four ESA astronauts (Pedro Duque, Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli and Thomas Reiter), four Japanese astronauts from NASDA (Takao Doi, Koichi Wakata, Satoshi Furukawa and Aikihido Hoshide) and two NASA astronauts (Nicole Passonno Stott and Stephanie D. Wilson). The main objective of this training session is to prepare the astronauts for the tasks they will have to perform when the Japanese experiment module (JEM) and ESA's Columbus laboratory are docked with the core of the International Space Station over the years ahead. After completing their training and certification, the astronauts will be assigned to long-duration missions to the ISS. The advanced training at the EAC will focus on the Columbus systems and the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). It will consist of 24 classroom lectures on the Columbus and ATV systems and 4 on payloads, and 2 sessions in the Columbus Trainer. Instructors are being provided by Astrium for the Columbus systems and Alenia Spazio for the ATV, with ESA/EAC staff as mentors for the Columbus payloads. The astronauts are scheduled to visit Astrium in Bremen on 30 August to get acquainted with the flight unit of the Columbus laboratory module currently undergoing integration. This group of astronauts started their advanced training in April 2001 at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, where they attended a first course on the US segment of the International Space Station. This was followed by training on the JEM system at NASDA's Tsukuba Space Center, Japan, in December 2001 - January 2002 and additional training at the JSC in May 2002. At the beginning of next year the group will be returning to Tsukuba for training on Japanese payloads. Hands-on sessions on Columbus Payload Training Models are scheduled for the second half of 2003, again at ESA's European Astronaut Centre. On Thursday 5 September, between 16:30 and 18:30 hrs, the astronauts and other ESA specialists will be available for interviews

  6. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C


    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) approach uses data generated by a set (ensemble) of perturbed numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations for a sample time period to statistically diagnose the sensitivity of a specified forecast variable (metric) for a target location to parameters at other locations and prior times referred to as the initial condition (IC) or state variables. The ESA approach was tested on the large-scale atmospheric prediction problem by Ancell and Hakim 2007 and Torn and Hakim 2008. ESA was adapted and applied at the mesoscale by Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) to the Tehachapi Pass, CA (warm and cools seasons) and Mid-Colombia Basin (warm season only) wind generation regions. In order to apply the ESA approach at the resolution needed at the mesoscale, Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) developed the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA). MOOA uses a multivariate regression on a few select IC parameters at one location to determine the incremental improvement of measuring multiple variables (representative of the IC parameters) at various locations. MOOA also determines how much information from each IC parameter contributes to the change in the metric variable at the target location. The Zack et al. studies (2010a, b, and c), demonstrated that forecast sensitivity can be characterized by well-defined, localized patterns for a number of IC variables such as 80-m

  7. The ESA climate change initiative: Satellite data records for essential climate variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollmann, R.; Merchant, C.J.; Saunders, R.


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) to provide satellite-based climate data records (CDRs) that meet the challenging requirements of the climate community. The aim is to realize the full potential of the long-term Earth observation (EO) archives...... that both ESA and third parties have established. This includes aspects of producing a CDR, which involve data acquisition, calibration, algorithm development, validation, maintenance, and provision of the data to the climate research community. The CCI is consistent with several international efforts...... targeting the generation of satellite derived climate data records. One focus of the CCI is to provide products for climate modelers who increasingly use satellite data to initialize, constrain, and validate models on a wide range of space and time scales....

  8. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.


    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  9. The ESA Hubble 15th Anniversary Campaign: A Trans-European collaboration project (United States)

    Zoulias, Manolis; Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Kornmesser, Martin


    On April 24th 2005, NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope had been in orbit for 15 years. The anniversary was celebrated by ESA with the production of an 83 min. scientific movie and a 120 pages book, both titled ``Hubble, 15 years of discovery''. In order to cross language and distribution barriers a network of 16 translators and 22 partners from more than 10 countries was established. The DVD was distributed in approximately 700,000 copies throughout Europe. The project was amongst the largest of its kind with respect to collaboration, distribution and audience impact. It clearly demonstrated how international collaboration can produce effective cross-cultural educational and outreach products for astronomy.

  10. Anaemia management in cardio renal disease. (United States)

    Silverberg, Donald S; Wexler, Dov; Iaina, Adrian; Schwartz, Doron


    Anaemia is common in congestive heart failure (CHF) and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and progressive renal failure. The common causes of the anaemia are the associated renal failure and excessive cytokine production, both of which can cause depression of the erythropoietin (EPO) production in the kidney and depression of EPO response in bone marrow. The cytokines can also induce iron deficiency by increasing hepcidin production from the liver, which both reduces gastrointestinal iron absorption and reduces iron release from iron stores located in the macrophages and hepatocytes. Attempts to control this anaemia will have to consider the use of both erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) as well as oral and, probably more importantly, intravenous (IV) iron. Studies of anaemia in CHF with ESA and oral or IV iron and even with IV iron alone have shown a positive effect on hospitalisation, fatigue and shortness of breath, cardiac and renal function, quality-of-life, exercise capacity and reduced beta natriuretic peptide and have not demonstrated an increase in cardiovascular damage related to therapy. Although some studies and meta-analyses have revealed improvement in these parameters others have not. Adequately powered long-term placebo-controlled studies of ESA and of IV iron in CHF are needed and are currently being carried out.

  11. Epoetin beta for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli L


    Full Text Available Luca Galli,1 Clara Ricci,2 Colin Gerard Egan2 1Oncology Unit 2, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Epoetin beta belongs to the class of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs that are currently available to treat anemic patients receiving chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced anemia affects a high percentage of cancer patients and, due to its negative effects on disease outcome and the patient’s quality of life, should be treated when first diagnosed. Initial trials with ESAs have shown efficacy in improving quality of life and reducing the need for blood transfusions in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. However, recent meta-analyses have provided conflicting data on the impact of ESAs on survival and tumor progression. Here we provide an overview of these recent data and review the role of epoetin beta in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia over the past 20 years. Keywords: epoetin beta, erythropoietin, chemotherapy, cancer, anemia, treatment

  12. Homogeneity testing of the global ESA CCI multi-satellite soil moisture climate data record (United States)

    Preimesberger, Wolfgang; Su, Chun-Hsu; Gruber, Alexander; Dorigo, Wouter


    ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) creates a global, long-term data record by merging multiple available earth observation products with the goal to provide a product for climate studies, trend analysis, and risk assessments. The blending of soil moisture (SM) time series derived from different active and passive remote sensing instruments with varying sensor characteristics, such as microwave frequency, signal polarization or radiometric accuracy, could potentially lead to inhomogeneities in the merged long-term data series, undercutting the usefulness of the product. To detect the spatio-temporal extent of contiguous periods without inhomogeneities as well as subsequently minimizing their negative impact on the data records, different relative homogeneity tests (namely Fligner-Killeen test of homogeneity of variances and Wilcoxon rank-sums test) are implemented and tested on the combined active-passive ESA CCI SM data set. Inhomogeneities are detected by comparing the data against reference data from in-situ data from ISMN, and model-based estimates from GLDAS-Noah and MERRA-Land. Inhomogeneity testing is performed over the ESA CCI SM data time frame of 38 years (from 1978 to 2015), on a global quarter-degree grid and with regard to six alterations in the combination of observation systems used in the data blending process. This study describes and explains observed variations in the spatial and temporal patterns of inhomogeneities in the combined products. Besides we proposes methodologies for measuring and reducing the impact of inhomogeneities on trends derived from the ESA CCI SM data set, and suggest the use of inhomogeneity-corrected data for future trend studies. This study is supported by the European Union's FP7 EartH2Observe "Global Earth Observation for Integrated Water Resource Assessment" project (grant agreement number 331 603608).



    author Fatma Yuniarti


    The action reserach aims at improving the students’ writing skill especially to write advertsements and posters. Both are the short functional texts to be learned at the second semester. According to the data on pre cycle, the students of second semester got difficulties to write advertisements and posters. A treatment was necessary to help the students overcome their problem. To consider the related literature, the writer decided to implement ESA sequence (Harmer 2001) in the class. The elem...

  14. Modernization of the electrostatic accelerator ESA-2 used for fundamental and applied investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, F.F.; Kamyshan, A.S.; Lagutin, A.E.


    The directions of indispensable modernization of the Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator ESA-2 are indicated. Design and results of reconstruction of the electrostatic accelerator are described and discussed. The ion source constructed is described too. Design of the new acceleration tube with flat electrodes was investigated. There are many characteristics for the electrostatic accelerator tube presented. The main attention was paid to the upgrading of the charging system. There are many characteristics for the electrostatic accelerator charging belt discussed as well. (authors)

  15. The Hera Saturn Entry Probe Mission: a Proposal in Response to the ESA M5 Call (United States)

    Mousis, Olivier; Atkinson, David; Amato, Michael; Aslam, Shahid; Atreya, Sushil; Blanc, Michel; Bolton, Scott; Brugger, Bastien; Calcutt, Simon; Cavalié, Thibault; Charnoz, Sébastien; Coustenis, Athena; Deleuil, Magali; Dobrijevic, Michel; Ferri, Francesca; Fletcher, Leigh; Gautier, Daniel; Guillot, Tristan; Hartogh, Paul; Holland, Andrew


    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an ESA M-class mission to be piggybacked on a NASA spacecraft sent to or past the Saturn system. Hera consists of an atmospheric probe built by ESA and released into the atmosphere of Saturn by its NASA companion Saturn Carrier-Relay spacecraft. Hera will perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition as well as the structure and dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera will probe well into and possibly beneath the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. The Hera probe will be designed from ESA elements with possible contributions from NASA, and the Saturn/Carrier-Relay Spacecraft will be supplied by NASA through its selection via the New Frontier 2016 call or in the form of a flagship mission selected by the NASA "Roadmaps to Ocean Worlds" (ROW) program. The Hera probe will be powered by batteries, and we therefore anticipate only one major subsystems to be possibly supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the thermal protection system of the probe. Following the highly successful example of the Cassini-Huygens mission, Hera will carry European and American instruments, with scientists and engineers from both agencies and many affiliates participating in all aspects of mission development and implementation. A Saturn probe is one of the six identified desired themes by the Planetary Science Decadal Survey committee on the NASA New Frontier's list, providing additional indication that a Saturn probe is of extremely high interest and a very high priority for the international community.

  16. ESA technology flies on Italian mini-satellite launched from Russia (United States)


    Owned by the Italian space agency (ASI) and developed by Carlo Gavazzi with contributions from many other Italian companies, MITA has two tasks to perform: in a circular orbit at 450 km altitude, the mini satellite will carry a cosmic particle detector, while its platform will be tested for the first time as a vehicle for future scientific missions. MITA also carries the MTS-AOMS payload (MicroTechSensor for Attitude and Orbit Measurement System), developed by Astrium in the framework of ESA's Technology Flight Opportunity trial programme. With the Technology Flight Opportunity scheme, funded by its General Studies Programme, ESA intends to provide access to space for European industry's technology products needing in-orbit demonstration to enhance their competitiveness on the space market. This new form of support to the European space industry ties in with ESA's strategy for fostering the competitiveness of European-made technology for eventual commercialisation. In-orbit demonstration is essential if new technologies are to compete on level terms on non-European markets. It thus consolidates strategic investments made by the space industry. The MTS-AOMS is a highly integrated sensor for autonomous attitude and orbit control systems. It combines three functions in one unit: Earth sensing, star sensing and magnetic field sensing. The equipment incorporates an active pixel array sensor and a 2-D fluxgate magnetometer. The aims of the flight are to verify in situ the payload's inherent functions and performance, which cannot be done on the ground, and to assess the behaviour of this type of technology when exposed to the space environment. The Technology Flight Opportunity rule is that ESA funds the launch and integration costs, industry the development and operating costs. According to present planning, two further in-orbit demonstrations funded by this scheme will be carried out between now and January 2001.

  17. Spaceborne measurement of Greenland ice sheet changes: the ESA Greenland CCI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Meister, Rakia

    The ESA “Greenland_ice_sheet_cci” project is currently making past and present space measurements of Greenland ice sheet changes available for use by scientists, stakeholders and the general public. The data are part of a large set of ECV’s (Essential Climate Variables) made available by the ESA...... Climate Initiative, as a contribution to the global Climate Observing System. The ECV data produced for the Greenlandice sheet include detailed grids of elevation changes and ice flow velocities, as well as line data of grounding lines and calving front locations for major outlet glaciers. The “ice_sheets......_cci” goal is to generate a consistent, validated, long-term and timely set of ECV’s, a.o. to improve the impact of satellite data on climate research and coupled ice sheet/climate models. Special focus is on use of data from ESA missions such as ERS, Envisat and the new Sentinel missions, but in the 2nd...

  18. Taking CERN and ESA technology to the World’s largest industry fair

    CERN Multimedia


    Signed just two weeks ago, the new CERN-ESA agreement is already bearing fruit. This week, our two organisations went to the World’s leading industrial fair, the Hannover Messe, with a joint stand showcasing technologies derived from particle physics and space research.   The notion that space brought us Teflon is something of a cliché, and of dubious veracity, while the World Wide Web is the technology most closely, and in this case correctly, identified with CERN. But technology transfer from ESA and CERN goes well beyond clichés: much of the technology we take for granted today can be traced back to basic research in the highly demanding research fields our organizations deal in. This is a message that both CERN and ESA strive to communicate, and the Hannover Messe gave us that opportunity. But going to Hannover was about more than showcasing past success: it was first and foremost about laying the groundwork for future success. Much of the technology deve...

  19. Interoperability at ESA Heliophysics Science Archives: IVOA, HAPI and other implementations (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, B.; Cook, J. P.; Perez, H.; Fernandez, M.; De Teodoro, P.; Osuna, P.; Arnaud, M.; Arviset, C.


    The data of ESA heliophysics science missions are preserved at the ESAC Science Data Centre (ESDC). The ESDC aims for the long term preservation of those data, which includes missions such as Ulysses, Soho, Proba-2, Cluster, Double Star, and in the future, Solar Orbiter. Scientists have access to these data through web services, command line and graphical user interfaces for each of the corresponding science mission archives. The International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) provides technical standards that allow interoperability among different systems that implement them. By adopting some IVOA standards, the ESA heliophysics archives are able to share their data with those tools and services that are VO-compatible. Implementation of those standards can be found in the existing archives: Ulysses Final Archive (UFA) and Soho Science Archive (SSA). They already make use of VOTable format definition and Simple Application Messaging Protocol (SAMP). For re-engineered or new archives, the implementation of services through Table Access Protocol (TAP) or Universal Worker Service (UWS) will leverage this interoperability. This will be the case for the Proba-2 Science Archive (P2SA) and the Solar Orbiter Archive (SOAR). We present here which IVOA standards were already used by the ESA Heliophysics archives in the past and the work on-going.

  20. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Preserve and present reliable scientific data sets (United States)

    Besse, S.; Vallat, C.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Macfarlane, A.; Rios, C.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.


    The European Space Agency (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is undergoing a significant refactoring of all its components to improve the services provided to the scientific community and the public. The PSA supports ESA's missions exploring the Solar System by archiving scientific peer-reviewed observations as well as engineering data sets. This includes the Giotto, SMART-1, Huygens, Venus Express, Mars Express, Rosetta, Exomars 2016, Exomars RSP, BepiColombo, and JUICE missions. The PSA is offering a newly designed graphical user interface which is simultaneously meant to maximize the interaction with scientific observations and also minimise the efforts needed to download these scientific observations. The PSA still offers the same services as before (i.e., FTP, documentation, helpdesk, etc.). In addition, it will support the two formats of the Planetary Data System (i.e., PDS3 and PDS4), as well as providing new ways for searching the data products with specific metadata and geometrical parameters. As well as enhanced services, the PSA will also provide new services to improve the visualisation of data products and scientific content (e.g., spectra, etc.). Together with improved access to the spacecraft engineering data sets, the PSA will provide easier access to scientific data products that will help to maximize the science return of ESA's space missions.

  1. Operational support to collision avoidance activities by ESA's space debris office (United States)

    Braun, V.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Merz, K.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Funke, Q.


    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Space Debris Office provides a service to support operational collision avoidance activities. This support currently covers ESA's missions Cryosat-2, Sentinel-1A and -2A, the constellation of Swarm-A/B/C in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as missions of third-party customers. In this work, we describe the current collision avoidance process for ESA and third-party missions in LEO. We give an overview on the upgrades developed and implemented since the advent of conjunction summary messages (CSM)/conjunction data messages (CDM), addressing conjunction event detection, collision risk assessment, orbit determination, orbit and covariance propagation, process control, and data handling. We pay special attention to the effect of warning thresholds on the risk reduction and manoeuvre rates, as they are established through risk mitigation and analysis tools, such as ESA's Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software suite. To handle the large number of CDMs and the associated risk analyses, a database-centric approach has been developed. All CDMs and risk analysis results are stored in a database. In this way, a temporary local "mini-catalogue" of objects close to our target spacecraft is obtained, which can be used, e.g., for manoeuvre screening and to update the risk analysis whenever a new ephemeris becomes available from the flight dynamics team. The database is also used as the backbone for a Web-based tool, which consists of the visualization component and a collaboration tool that facilitates the status monitoring and task allocation within the support team as well as communication with the control team. The visualization component further supports the information sharing by displaying target and chaser motion over time along with the involved uncertainties. The Web-based solution optimally meets the needs for a concise and easy-to-use way to obtain a situation picture in a very short time, and the support for

  2. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy (United States)


    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) - Fax. +33 (0) For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  3. [Biological agents]. (United States)

    Amano, Koichi


    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  4. Triumph and tragedy: anemia management in chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Novak, James E; Szczech, Lynda A


    Recent trial data have resulted in a reevaluation of the management of anemia in chronic kidney disease, including the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, intravenous iron, and novel pharmaceuticals. In this review, we evaluate the latest research on anemia management in chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents indicate that targeting the complete correction of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease results in a greater risk of morbidity and mortality despite improved hemoglobin and quality of life. Conversely, intravenous iron has been found effective and relatively well tolerated in treating anemia in chronic kidney disease, even in patients with elevated ferritin. New agents to manage anemia, including long-acting erythropoietin derivatives, are also in active development. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents should be used to target hemoglobin 11-12 g/dl in patients with chronic kidney disease. Intravenous iron may be beneficial for patients with hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl and transferrin saturation less than 25% despite elevated ferritin (500-1200 ng/ml). An upcoming placebo-controlled trial of darbepoetin should help to define the role of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease.

  5. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students (United States)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  6. The New Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and Discovery of Scientific Datasets from ESA's Planetary Missions (United States)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Vallat, Claire; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Coia, Daniela; Costa, Marc; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; MacFarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime


    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. As of the end of 2016, the PSA is hosting data from all of ESA's planetary missions. This includes ESA's first planetary mission Giotto that encountered comet 1P/Halley in 1986 with a flyby at 800km. Science data from Venus Express, Mars Express, Huygens and the SMART-1 mission are also all available at the PSA. The PSA also contains all science data from Rosetta, which explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and asteroids Steins and Lutetia. The year 2016 has seen the arrival of the ExoMars 2016 data in the archive. In the upcoming years, at least three new projects are foreseen to be fully archived at the PSA. The BepiColombo mission is scheduled for launch in 2018. Following that, the ExoMars Rover Surface Platform (RSP) in 2020, and then the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). All of these will archive their data in the PSA. In addition, a few ground-based support programmes are also available, especially for the Venus Express and Rosetta missions. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more customized views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will also be up

  7. Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content Helps Avoid Iron Overload in Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Observational Study. (United States)

    Capone, Domenico; Cataldi, Mauro; Vinciguerra, Mauro; Mosca, Teresa; Barretta, Salvatore; Ragosta, Annalisa; Sorrentino, Aniello; Vecchione, Alessandra; Barretta, Luca; Tarantino, Giovanni


    Anemia in patients suffering from end-stage renal failure is currently treated with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESA). This treatment needs sufficient iron supplementation to avoid an inadequate dosage of ESA. Nowadays modern analytical instruments allow to accurately calculate the content of Hemoglobin (Hb) in reticulocytes (CHr), that can be used as a guide for prescribing patients with the appropriate amount of iron. Patients, undergoing hemodialysis, were retrospectively selected from the database and were divided in two groups: group A received intravenous (IV) iron and subcutaneously ESA, and their dosages were adjusted on the basis of the following parameters: Hb, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), CHr with consequent MCH/CHr ratio and reticulocyte count determined by the ADVIA 120 Hematology System of Siemens; group B patients were administered IV iron and ESA monitoring iron storage, Hb and ferritin. The aforementioned parameters and the administered amount of iron and ESA were monitored at baseline, four and eight months from the begining of the study. For ESA supplementation, no difference was observed between the groups at the various observed times. Despite similar Hb levels, the patients of group A needed significant lower doses of IV iron (-57.8%) avoiding risks of organ toxicity and obtaining consequent cost saving of nearly 1 €/patient/month. The use of CHr and its related parameters allows the avoidance of overdosage of IV iron, which can potentially damage organs, and the reduction of health care direct and indirect costs. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. A case study of desertification hazard mapping using the MEDALUS (ESAs methodology in southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Taghipour-Javi


    Full Text Available Understanding environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs prone to desertification can lead to substantial gains in the efficiency of land use planning and partly avoid negative outcomes. The main objectives of this research were the monitoring and mapping of ESAs to desertification in the agro-ecosystem of the Khanmirza plain, Iran, during two time series (2000 and 2013. In the current study, an adjusted “Mediterranean desertification and land use (MEDALUS” approach was applied to identify the most ESAs to desertification in the study area and monitorchanges inthe environmental sensitivity area indicator (ESAIbetween 2000 and 2013 over the studied area.Fivemain thematic indicators have been evaluated including, Soil quality indicator (SQI, Management quality indicator (MQI, Climate quality indicator (CQI, Vegetation quality indicator (VQI, and Irrigation water quality indicator (IWQI. Results show that the areas affected by the critical desertification status covered approximately 7% of the farmlands and the meadowlands in this agro-ecosystem region in the year 2000. Likewise, in 2013, almost 24% of the study area was sensitive to and affected by desertification, giving a rate of increase of approximately 1.3% per year.More than half of the land used for agriculture has been moderately to severely degraded. The results also show that the central places intheregionwere affected by farmlands and meadowlands degradingto barrenlands due to mismanagement and a lack ofeffective planning withland and water resources. However, rehabilitation of irreversibly degraded land requires serious measures that aim torestore the capability of those areas and increase resistance to degradation through effective planning in water and land in the region.

  9. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.


    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  10. Una manera de nombrar el deseo en Toda esa gran verdad


    List Reyes, Mauricio


    Este artículo analiza la novela Toda esa gran verdad (2006) del mexicano Eduardo Montagner. El artículo centra su atención en el tema de la sexualidad, particularmente la del personaje principal. La idea es reflexionar acerca de formas disidentes de la sexualidad que rompen con las maneras normativas y que son sancionadas socialmente. En este caso en particular, unas botas de hule son el centro de la atención de un joven de una comunidad rural que dice estar enamorado del dueño de dicho calza...

  11. ESA's spaceborne lidar mission ADM-Aeolus; project status and preparations for launch (United States)

    Straume, Anne Grete; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Bismarck, Jonas von; Buscaglione, Fabio; Lecrenier, O.; McGoldrick, Phil


    ESA's Doppler Wind lidar mission, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus, hereafter abbreviated to Aeolus), was chosen as an Earth Explorer Core mission within the Living Planet Programme in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of space-based Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate research. Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. The mission prime is Airbus Defence & Space UK (ADS-UK), and the instrument prime is Airbus Defence & Space France (ADS-F).

  12. A new 25 years Arctic Sea level record from ESA satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Knudsen, Per

    The Arctic is an extremely challenging region for the use of remote sensing for ocean studies. One is the fact that despite 25 years of altimetry only very limited sea level observations exists in the interior of the Arctic Ocean. However, with Cryosat-2 SAR altimetry the situation is changing...... the ESA GOCE mission we are now able to derive a mean dynamic topography of the Arctic Ocean with unprecedented accuracy to constrain the ocean circulation. We present both a new estimation of the mean ocean circulation and new estimates of large scale sea level changes based on satellite data and perform...

  13. Strengthening the management of ESA - the Inter-Directorate Reform of Corporate and Risk Management (United States)

    Feustel-Büechl, Jörg; Arend, Harald; Derio, Eric; Infante, Giovanni; Kreiner, Gerhard; Phaler, Jesse; Tabbert, Michael


    ESA has undertaken the Inter-Directorate Reform of Corporate and Risk Management to strengthen the Agency's internal operations. The reform was completed at the end of 2006, encompassing five dedicated projects on Risk Management, Agency-Wide Controlling System, Project Plan and Integrated Project Review, General Budget Structure and Charging Policy, and Corporate Information Systems. It has contributed to improved management of the Agency's internal operations by engaging all internal stakeholders in a common objective, introducing improvements to planning and management methods, elaborating consolidated information structures and tools, contributing to enhanced transparency and accountability, and by providing qualified new policies, processes and tools.

  14. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Ablain, Michael; Zawadzki, Lionel


    , the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed...... to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter...

  15. Definition of accurate reference pattern for the DTU-ESA VAST12 antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav; Burgos, Sara


    In this paper, the DTU-ESA 12 GHz validation standard (VAST12) antenna and a dedicated measurement campaign carried out in 2007-2008 for the definition of its accurate reference pattern are first described. Next, a comparison between the results from the three involved measurement facilities...... is presented. Then, an accurate reference pattern of the VAST12 antenna is formed by averaging the three results taking into account the estimated uncertainties of each result. Finally, the potential use of the reference pattern for benchmarking of antenna measurement facilities is outlined....

  16. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael


    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  17. Cognitive outcomes of preterm infants randomized to darbepoetin, erythropoietin, or placebo. (United States)

    Ohls, Robin K; Kamath-Rayne, Beena D; Christensen, Robert D; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Rosenberg, Adam; Fuller, Janell; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Roohi, Mahshid; Lambert, Diane K; Burnett, Jill J; Pruckler, Barbara; Peceny, Hannah; Cannon, Daniel C; Lowe, Jean R


    We previously reported decreased transfusions and donor exposures in preterm infants randomized to Darbepoetin (Darbe) or erythropoietin (Epo) compared with placebo. As these erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have shown promise as neuroprotective agents, we hypothesized improved neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months among infants randomized to receive ESAs. We performed a randomized, masked, multicenter study comparing Darbe (10 μg/kg, 1×/week subcutaneously), Epo (400 U/kg, 3×/week subcutaneously), and placebo (sham dosing 3×/week) given through 35 weeks' postconceptual age, with transfusions administered according to a standardized protocol. Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. The primary outcome was composite cognitive score. Assessments of object permanence, anthropometrics, cerebral palsy, vision, and hearing were performed. Of the original 102 infants (946 ± 196 g, 27.7 ± 1.8 weeks' gestation), 80 (29 Epo, 27 Darbe, 24 placebo) returned for follow-up. The 3 groups were comparable for age at testing, birth weight, and gestational age. After adjustment for gender, analysis of covariance revealed significantly higher cognitive scores among Darbe (96.2 ± 7.3; mean ± SD) and Epo recipients (97.9 ± 14.3) compared with placebo recipients (88.7 ± 13.5; P = .01 vs ESA recipients) as was object permanence (P = .05). No ESA recipients had cerebral palsy, compared with 5 in the placebo group (P < .001). No differences among groups were found in visual or hearing impairment. Infants randomized to receive ESAs had better cognitive outcomes, compared with placebo recipients, at 18 to 22 months. Darbe and Epo may prove beneficial in improving long-term cognitive outcomes of preterm infants. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Is there life out there ? - A new series for the ESA's Web TV (United States)

    Clervoy, J. F.; Coliolo, F.


    The European Space Agency, ESA, is preparing a new outreach project: a series of short videos for the ESA's Web TV dedicated to the search for life in the Universe. The rationale behind this pilot project is to use stunning images to attract the attention together with a scientific content accessible to people of varying ages, education levels and cultural outlook. We intent to work with scientists across Europe in order to bring the public on a journey from the boundaries of the Cosmos to the core of the Earth looking for the ingredients necessary for life to form and evolve. Our main objectives are: to share discovery, curiosity and sense of adventure in order to make the public a player in the quest of knowledge about who we are, and where do we come from; to educate and engage different target audiences about European space science and exploration activities; encourage international partnerships. I will present you the first trailer that we have realised with two scientists: André Brack, Astrobiologist, Honorary Director of Research at the CNRS, Orleans, France and Gian Gabriele Ori, Research professor in Geology, and Director of the IRSPS, International Reaserch School of Planetary Science, Pescara, Italy. This first presentation gives an overview of the « exobiological » places beyond the Earth and highlights the importance of comparative planetology for better understand our planet. We would like to share with you ideas and advices in order to produce and diffuse this series in the most efficient way.

  19. NASA-ESA Joint Mission to Explore Two Worlds of Great Astrobiological Interest - Titan and Enceladus (United States)

    Reh, K.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Matson, D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.


    Rugged shorelines, laced with canyons, leading to ethane/methane seas glimpsed through an organic haze, vast fields of dunes shaped by alien sciroccos… An icy moon festooned with plumes of water-ice and organics, whose warm watery source might be glimpsed through surface cracks that glow in the infrared… The revelations by Cassini-Huygens about Saturn's crown jewels, Titan and Enceladus, have rocked the public with glimpses of new worlds unimagined a decade before. The time is at hand to capitalize on those discoveries with a broad mission of exploration that combines the widest range of planetary science disciplines—Geology, Geophysics, Atmospheres, Astrobiology,Chemistry, Magnetospheres—in a single NASA/ESA collaboration. The Titan Saturn System Mission will explore these exciting new environments, flying through Enceladus' plumes and plunging deep into Titan's atmosphere with instruments tuned to find what Cassini could only hint at. Exploring Titan with an international fleet of vehicles; from orbit, from the surface of a great polar sea, and from the air with the first hot air balloon to ride an extraterrestrial breeze, TSSM will turn our snapshot gaze of these worlds into an epic film. This paper will describe a collaborative NASA-ESA Titan Saturn System Mission that will open a new phase of planetary exploration by projecting robotic presence on the land, on the sea, and in the air of an active, organic-rich world.

  20. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle


    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  1. ESA CAMELOT study: Challenges in future operational missions for GMES atmospheric monitoring, sentinel 4 and 5 (United States)

    Levelt, P.; Veefkind, P.


    Dedicated atmospheric chemistry observations from space have been made for over 30 years now, starting with the SBUV and TOMS measurements of the ozone layer. Since then huge progress has been made, improving the accuracy of the measurements, extending the amount of constituents, and by sensing not only the stratosphere, but the last five to ten years also the troposphere. The potential to operational monitor the atmosphere, following the meteorological community, came within reach. At the same time, the importance for society of regular operational environmental measurements, related to the ozone layer, air quality and climate change, became apparent, amongst others resulting in the EU initiative Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) In order to prepare the operational missions in the context of the GMES, ESA took the initiative to further study the user requirements for the Sentinel 4 and 5 (precursor) missions. The Sentinel 4 and 5 (precursor) missions are dedicated operational missions to monitor the atmospheric composition in the 2013-2020 timeframe and onward. The user requirements for the sentinel missions focus on monitoring the atmosphere from an environmental point of view (ozone layer, air quality and climate). ESA's CAMELOT (Composition of the Atmospheric Mission concEpts and SentineL Observation Techniques) study is the follow-on study to ESA's CAPACITY study finished in 2005. The general objective of the CAMELOT study is to further contribute to the definition of the air quality and climate protocol monitoring parts of the GMES Sentinel 4 and 5 missions. Key issues in the CAMELOT study are: • trade-offs between different observation strategies (spectral ranges, polarisation, direction etc) for aerosols and several trace gases • a quantitative assessment of the requirements for spatio-temporal sampling taking into account the contamination of nadir-viewing observations by cloud • optimising several orbit scenario's (leo, inclined

  2. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.


    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  3. An improved and homogeneous altimeter sea level record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (United States)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ablain, Michaël; Zawadzki, Lionel; Zuo, Hao; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Scharffenberg, Martin G.; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Joana Fernandes, M.; Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Rudenko, Sergei; Cipollini, Paolo; Quartly, Graham D.; Passaro, Marcello; Cazenave, Anny; Benveniste, Jérôme


    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change since it integrates the impacts of ocean warming and ice mass loss from glaciers and the ice sheets. Sea level has been listed as an essential climate variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). During the past 25 years, the sea level ECV has been measured from space by different altimetry missions that have provided global and regional observations of sea level variations. As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program of the European Space Agency (ESA) (established in 2010), the Sea Level project (SL_cci) aimed to provide an accurate and homogeneous long-term satellite-based sea level record. At the end of the first phase of the project (2010-2013), an initial version (v1.1) of the sea level ECV was made available to users (Ablain et al., 2015). During the second phase of the project (2014-2017), improved altimeter standards were selected to produce new sea level products (called SL_cci v2.0) based on nine altimeter missions for the period 1993-2015 (; Legeais and the ESA SL_cci team, 2016c). Corresponding orbit solutions, geophysical corrections and altimeter standards used in this v2.0 dataset are described in detail in Quartly et al. (2017). The present paper focuses on the description of the SL_cci v2.0 ECV and associated uncertainty and discusses how it has been validated. Various approaches have been used for the quality assessment such as internal validation, comparisons with sea level records from other groups and with in situ measurements, sea level budget closure analyses and comparisons with model outputs. Compared with the previous version of the sea level ECV, we show that use of improved geophysical corrections, careful bias reduction between missions and inclusion of new altimeter missions lead to improved sea level products with reduced uncertainties on different spatial and temporal scales. However, there

  4. Hypoxia Induced Factor in Chronic Kidney Disease: Friend or Foe? (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Zhao, Yuliang; Fu, Ping


    Many studies have shown evidence that erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), as a classic treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD)-related anemia, have several disadvantages and may trigger various adverse events with long-term use. The hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) pathway has been intensively investigated in kidney disease, especially in CKD, as research has shown that HIF-mediated erythropoiesis might work as a potential therapeutic strategy for managing CKD-related anemia. Development of prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (PHIs), as an effective HIF activator, is a valuable step toward finding a replacement for ESAs, which showed an effective erythropoiesis through a comprehensive and physiological approach by promoting erythropoietin production, increasing iron bioavailability and improving chronic inflammatory status. Heretofore no adverse events or obvious off-target effects have been reported in clinical trials of PHIs. Nevertheless, a cautious inspection with extended follow-up period is warranted to validate the safety of prolonged HIF elevation, especially considering its ambiguous role in fibrogenesis and inflammation responses and possible risks in accelerating vascular calcification and tumorigenesis. A weighed dosing strategy might be the key to circumvent the unexpected side-effect brought by pleotropic effects of HIF elevation and achieve a selective augmentation of HIF-mediated signaling pathway. New studies with longer follow-up period and adequate analysis about the risks for proinflammation, vascular calcification and tumorigenesis are needed to ensure the drugs are safe for long-term use before being widely accepted in daily clinical practice.

  5. Comparison of methodologies to define hemodialysis patients hyporesponsive to epoetin and impact on counts and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbertson David T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some hemodialysis patients require large doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs to manage anemia. These patients, termed “ESA hyporesponsive,” have been characterized using various definitions. We applied three definitions of hyporesponsiveness to a large, national cohort of hemodialysis patients to assess the impact of definition on counts and on characteristics associated with hyporesponsiveness. Methods We studied point-prevalent hemodialysis patients on May 1, 2008, with Medicare as primary payer, who survived through December 31, 2008. Included patients received recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO in each month, August-December. Hyporesponsiveness definitions were: above the ninetieth percentile of total monthly EPO dose; above the ninetieth percentile of total monthly EPO dose divided by weight in kg; above the ninetieth percentile of total monthly EPO dose divided by hemoglobin level. Hyporesponsiveness was further classified as chronic, acute, or other. Comorbid conditions were assessed before and concurrent with the hyporesponsive period. Results Women, African Americans, and patients aged Conclusions As associations were similar between patient characteristics and three methods of characterizing EPO hyporesponsiveness, the simplest definition using EPO dose can be used.

  6. The FIND-CKD study--a randomized controlled trial of intravenous iron versus oral iron in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: background and rationale. (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Cushway, Timothy; Roger, Simon D


    Rigorous data are sparse concerning the optimal route of administration and dosing strategy for iron therapy with or without concomitant erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy for the management of iron deficiency anaemia in patients with non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD). FIND-CKD was a 56-week, open-label, multicentre, prospective, randomized three-arm study (NCT00994318) of 626 patients with ND-CKD and iron deficiency anaemia randomized to (i) intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) at an initial dose of 1000 mg iron with subsequent dosing as necessary to target a serum ferritin level of 400-600 µg/L (ii) IV FCM at an initial dose of 200 mg with subsequent dosing as necessary to target serum ferritin 100-200 µg/L or (iii) oral ferrous sulphate 200 mg iron/day. The primary end point was time to initiation of other anaemia management (ESA therapy, iron therapy other than study drug or blood transfusion) or a haemoglobin (Hb) trigger (two consecutive Hb values FIND-CKD was the longest randomized trial of IV iron therapy to date. Its findings will address several unanswered questions regarding iron therapy to treat iron deficiency anaemia in patients with ND-CKD. It was also the first randomized trial to utilize both a high and low serum ferritin target range to adjust IV iron dosing, and the first not to employ Hb response as its primary end point.

  7. Thermal simulations of the STIX instrument for ESA Solar Orbiter mission (United States)

    Białek, Agata; Severyn, Karol; Grassmann, Kamil; Orleańskii, Piotr; Skup, Konrad R.; Arnold, Nicolas; Gröbelbauer, Hans-Peter; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Samuel; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Mann, Gottfied; Önel, Hakan; Bernet, Adeline; Blecha, Luc; Grimm, Oliver; Limousin, Olivier; Martignac, Jerome; Meuris, Aline


    The ESA Solar Orbiter mission, planned to be launched in 2017, is going to study the Sun with ten different instruments including the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays - STIX. The thermal environment on the elliptical orbit around the Sun - 0.28 AU at perihelion and 0.952 AU at aphelion - is extreme, where at one point of the orbit is very hot, while on another very cold. That makes the requirements for the heat fluxes exchanged between each instrument and the spacecraft, as well as between the instrument - subsystems, very restrictive. Here the authors discuss the thermal design with respect to the defined requirements and present the results of the thermal analyses performed with ESATAN TMS software.

  8. Fiber-optic sensor demonstrator (FSD) for the monitoring of spacecraft subsystems on ESA's PROBA-2 (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Zou, Jing; Mohammed, Najeeb; Haddad, Emile; Jamroz, Wes; Ricci, Francesco; Lamorie, Joshua; Edwards, Eric; McKenzie, Iain; Vuilleumier, Pierrik


    MPB Communications (MPBC) is developing solutions to the monitoring requirements of spacecraft based on its fiber-laser and Fiber Bragg Grating expertise. This is cumulating in the Fiber Sensor Demonstrator for ESA's Proba-2 that is scheduled for launch in 2007. The advantages of the MPBC approach include a central interrogation system that can be used to control a variety of different fiber-optic sensors including temperature, pressure, actuator status, and propellant leakage. This paper reviews the design and ground qualification of the FSD system in preparation for integration with Proba-2. The FSD will provide monitoring for various Proba-2 subsystems, including a hybrid propulsion system. Some of the challenges associated with using fiber-optics in space are discussed.

  9. Surface elevation changes of the greenland ice sheet - results from ESA'S ice sheet CCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia


    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find...... the most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser...... and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed....

  10. Una manera de nombrar el deseo en Toda esa gran verdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio List


    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la novela Toda esa gran verdad (2006 del mexicano Eduardo Montagner. El artículo centra su atención en el tema de la sexualidad, particularmente la del personaje principal. La idea es reflexionar acerca de formas disidentes de la sexualidad que rompen con las maneras normativas y que son sancionadas socialmente. En este caso en particular, unas botas de hule son el centro de la atención de un joven de una comunidad rural que dice estar enamorado del dueño de dicho calzado. Él va aprendiendo que un sujeto fetichista requiere de su objeto para disfrutar del placer erótico.

  11. The assessment of GRASP as a prospective ESA gamma ray astronomy mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignami, G.; Villa, G.; Dean, A.J.


    The GRASP mission - Gamma-Ray Astronomy with Spectroscopy and Positioning was originally proposed as a prospective European astronomy mission by the representatives of a wide European community. The project was selected by ESA for a detailed assessment study which was duly completed in December 1986. The telescope has been designed as a high quality spectral imager (E/ΔE∼1000, Δθ∼6') which operates over a wide spectral range (15 keV to >∼100 MeV) with a (3σ) sensitivity of typically 10 m Crab or better over the entire operational range within an observation period of 10 5 s. Two principal mission scenarios were considered

  12. Plasma kinetics issues in an ESA study for a plasma laboratory in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annaratone, B M; Biancalani, A; Ceccherini, F; Pegoraro, F; Bruno, D; Capitelli, M; Pascale, O de; Longo, S; Daly, E; Hilgers, A; Diomede, P; D'Ammando, G; Marcuccio, S; Mendonca, J T; Nagnibeda, V; Sanmartin, J R


    A study supported by the European Space Agency (ESA), in the context of its General Studies Programme, performed an investigation of the possible use of space for studies in pure and applied plasma physics, in areas not traditionally covered by 'space plasma physics'. A set of experiments have been identified that can potentially provide access to new phenomena and to allow advances in several fields of plasma science. These experiments concern phenomena on a spatial scale (10 1 -10 4 m) intermediate between what is achievable on the ground and the usual solar system plasma observations. Detailed feasibility studies have been performed for three experiments: active magnetic experiments, large-scale discharges and long tether-plasma interactions. The perspectives opened by these experiments are discussed for magnetic reconnection, instabilities, MHD turbulence, atomic excited states kinetics, weakly ionized plasmas, plasma diagnostics, artificial auroras and atmospheric studies. The discussion is also supported by results of numerical simulations and estimates

  13. ESA 86: proceedings for the second annual conference of the Ergonomics Society of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The proceedings contain presentations from ESA 86 which reflect most of the major areas of Ergonomics as it is researched and practised internationally. Highlights include presentations dealing with transport and computer system ergonomics, office furniture and other consumer products, safety at work and executive health. One seminar 'Ergonomics and nuclear power generation', looks at the control systems and its safety in a nuclear power plant. Ergonomics is concerned with the relationship between people and technology: specifically the design of the user interface. Its objective is to enhance efficiency, usability and safety and it is applied to the design of a wide range of industrial and consumer products. However not the least consideration is to achieve as near as possible total wellbeing for the Human Factor

  14. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.


    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  15. Individualized anemia management reduces hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Gaweda, Adam E; Aronoff, George R; Jacobs, Alfred A; Rai, Shesh N; Brier, Michael E


    One-size-fits-all protocol-based approaches to anemia management with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) may result in undesired patterns of hemoglobin variability. In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we tested the hypothesis that individualized dosing of ESA improves hemoglobin variability over a standard population-based approach. We enrolled 62 hemodialysis patients and followed them over a 12-month period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ESA doses guided by the Smart Anemia Manager algorithm (treatment) or by a standard protocol (control). Dose recommendations, performed on a monthly basis, were validated by an expert physician anemia manager. The primary outcome was the percentage of hemoglobin concentrations between 10 and 12 g/dl over the follow-up period. A total of 258 of 356 (72.5%) hemoglobin concentrations were between 10 and 12 g/dl in the treatment group, compared with 208 of 336 (61.9%) in the control group; 42 (11.8%) hemoglobin concentrations were hemoglobin concentrations were >12 g/dl in the treatment group compared with 46 (13.4%) in the control group. The median ESA dosage per patient was 2000 IU/wk in both groups. Five participants received 6 transfusions (21 U) in the treatment group, compared with 8 participants and 13 transfusions (31 U) in the control group. These results suggest that individualized ESA dosing decreases total hemoglobin variability compared with a population protocol-based approach. As hemoglobin levels are declining in hemodialysis patients, decreasing hemoglobin variability may help reduce the risk of transfusions in this population.

  16. ESA's Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform "Supporting Sustainable Food Production from Space" (United States)

    Gilliams, S. J.


    In line with the paradigm shift in Earth Observation of "Bringing the users to the data", ESA provides collaborative, virtual work environments giving access to EO data and tools, processors, and ICT resources through coherent interfaces. These coherent interfaces are categorized thematically, tailored to the related user communities and named Thematic Exploitation Platforms (TEP). The Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform (FS-TEP) is the youngest out of seven TEPs and is developed in an agile mode in close coordination with its users. It will provide a "one stop platform" for the extraction of information from EO data for services in the food security sector mainly in Europe & Africa, allowing both access to EO data and processing of these data sets. Thereby it will foster smart, data-intensive agricultural and aquacultural applications in the scientific, private and public domain. The FS-TEP builds on a large and heterogeneous user community, spanning from application developers in agriculture to aquaculture, from small-scale farmers to agricultural industry, from public science to the finance and insurance sectors, from local and national administration to international agencies. To meet the requirements of these groups, the FS-TEP will provide different frontend interfaces. Service pilots will demonstrate the platform's ability to support agriculture and aquaculture with tailored EO based information services.The project team developing the FS-TEP and implementing pilot services during a 30 months period (started in April 2017) is led by Vista GmbH, Germany, supported by CGI Italy, VITO, Belgium, and Hatfield Consultants, Canada. It is funded by ESA under contract number 4000120074/17/I-EF.

  17. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage" (United States)


    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  18. Treatment and management of myelofibrosis in the era of JAK inhibitors. (United States)

    Keohane, Clodagh; Radia, Deepti H; Harrison, Claire N


    Myelofibrosis (MF) can present as a primary disorder or evolve from polycythemia vera (PV) or essential thrombocythemia (ET) to post-PV MF or post-ET MF, respectively. MF is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, leukoerythroblastosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and a collection of debilitating symptoms. Until recently, the therapeutic options for patients with MF consisted of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT), the use of cytoreductive agents (ie, hydroxyurea), splenectomy and splenic irradiation for treatment of splenomegaly, and management of anemia with transfusions, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), androgens, and immunomodulatory agents. However, with increased understanding of the pathogenesis of MF resulting from dysregulated Janus kinase (JAK) signaling, new targeted JAK inhibitor therapies, such as ruxolitinib, are now available. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical features of MF, discuss the use and future of JAK inhibitors, reassess when and how to use conventional MF treatments in the context of JAK inhibitors, and provide a perspective on the future of MF treatment.

  19. Treatment and management of myelofibrosis in the era of JAK inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keohane C


    Full Text Available Clodagh Keohane, Deepti H Radia, Claire N HarrisonDepartment of Haematology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: Myelofibrosis (MF can present as a primary disorder or evolve from polycythemia vera (PV or essential thrombocythemia (ET to post-PV MF or post-ET MF, respectively. MF is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, splenomegaly, leukoerythroblastosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and a collection of debilitating symptoms. Until recently, the therapeutic options for patients with MF consisted of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT, the use of cytoreductive agents (ie, hydroxyurea, splenectomy and splenic irradiation for treatment of splenomegaly, and management of anemia with transfusions, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs, androgens, and immunomodulatory agents. However, with increased understanding of the pathogenesis of MF resulting from dysregulated Janus kinase (JAK signaling, new targeted JAK inhibitor therapies, such as ruxolitinib, are now available. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical features of MF, discuss the use and future of JAK inhibitors, reassess when and how to use conventional MF treatments in the context of JAK inhibitors, and provide a perspective on the future of MF treatment.Keywords: myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib, JAK inhibitor

  20. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind (United States)


    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  1. A Reference Implementation of the OGC CSW EO Standard for the ESA HMA-T project (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Vitale, Fabrizio


    This work was developed in the context of the ESA Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project, whose main objective is to involve the stakeholders, namely National space agencies, satellite or mission owners and operators, in an harmonization and standardization process of their ground segment services and related interfaces. Among HMA objectives was the specification, conformance testing, and experimentation of two Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) specification: the Earth Observation Products (EO) EP (OGC 06-131) and the Cataloguing of ISO Metadata (CIM) EP (OGC 07-038). Our contributions have included the development and deployment of Reference Implementations (RIs) for both the above specifications, and their integration with the ESA Service Support Environment (SSE). The RIs are based on the GI-cat framework, an implementation of a distributed catalog service, able to query disparate Earth and Space Science data sources (e.g. OGC Web Services, Unidata THREDDS) and to expose several standard interfaces for data discovery (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP). Following our initial planning, the GI-cat framework has been extended in order to expose the CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO interfaces, and to distribute queries to CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO data sources. We expected that a mapping strategy would suffice for accommodating CIM, but this proved to be unpractical during implementation. Hence, a model extension strategy was eventually implemented for both the CIM and EO EPs, and the GI-cat federal model was enhanced in order to support the underlying ebRIM AP. This work has provided us with new insights into the different data models for geospatial data, and the technologies for their implementation. The extension is used by suitable CIM and EO profilers (front-end mediator components) and accessors (back-end mediator components), that relate ISO 19115 concepts to EO and CIM ones. Moreover

  2. ESA's high-energy observatories spot doughnut-shaped cloud with a black-hole filling (United States)


    hi-res Size hi-res: 7265 KB Credits: ESA, V. Beckmann (GSFC) Doughnut-shaped cloud surrounds black hole This artist's impression shows the thick dust torus that astronomers believe surrounds supermassive black holes and their accretion discs, like the one harboured in the nucleus of the spiral galaxy NGC 4388. When the torus is seen `edge-on’ as in this case, the visible light emitted by the accretion disc is partially blocked. However, the sharp X-ray and gamma-ray eyes of XMM-Newton and Integral can peer through the thick dust and see how the energy released by the accretion disc interacts with and is absorbed by the torus. Black holes are objects so compact and with gravity so strong that not even light can escape from them. Scientists think that `supermassive’ black holes are located in the cores of most galaxies, including our Milky Way galaxy. They can contain the mass of thousands of millions of suns, confined within a region no larger than our Solar System. They appear to be surrounded by a hot, thin disk of accreting gas and, farther out, the thick doughnut-shaped torus. Depending on the inclination of the torus, it can hide the black hole and the hot accretion disc from the line of sight. Galaxies in which a torus blocks the light from the central accretion disc are called `Seyfert 2’ types and are usually faint to optical telescopes. Another theory, however, is that these galaxies appear rather faint because the central black hole is not actively accreting gas and the disc surrounding it is therefore faint. An international team of astronomers led by Dr Volker Beckmann, Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, USA) has studied one of the nearest objects of this type, a spiral galaxy called NGC 4388, located 65 million light years away in the constellation Virgo. Since NGC 4388 is relatively close, and therefore unusually bright for its class, it is easier to study. Astronomers often study black holes that are aligned face-on, thus avoiding the

  3. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John


    The GHG-CCI project ( is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  4. The Pilot Project 'Optical Image Correlation' of the ESA Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform (GTEP) (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe


    Since more than 20 years, "Earth Observation" (EO) satellites developed or operated by ESA have provided a wealth of data. In the coming years, the Sentinel missions, along with the Copernicus Contributing Missions as well as Earth Explorers and other, Third Party missions will provide routine monitoring of our environment at the global scale, thereby delivering an unprecedented amount of data. While the availability of the growing volume of environmental data from space represents a unique opportunity for science, general R&D, and applications, it also poses major challenges to fully exploit the potential of archived and daily incoming datasets. Those challenges do not only comprise the discovery, access, processing, and visualization of large data volumes but also an increasing diversity of data sources and end users from different fields (e.g. EO, in-situ monitoring, and modeling). In this context, the GTEP (Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform) initiative aims to build an operational distributed processing platform to maximize the exploitation of EO data from past and future satellite missions for the detection and monitoring of natural hazards. This presentation focuses on the "Optical Image Correlation" Pilot Project (funded by ESA within the GTEP platform) which objectives are to develop an easy-to-use, flexible and distributed processing chain for: 1) the automated reconstruction of surface Digital Elevation Models from stereo (and tristereo) pairs of Spot 6/7 and Pléiades satellite imagery, 2) the creation of ortho-images (panchromatic and multi-spectral) of Landsat 8, Sentinel-2, Spot 6/7 and Pléiades scenes, 3) the calculation of horizontal (E-N) displacement vectors based on sub-pixel image correlation. The processing chains is being implemented on the GEP cloud-based (Hadoop, MapReduce) environment and designed for analysis of surface displacements at local to regional scale (10-1000 km2) targeting in particular co-seismic displacement and slow

  5. ESA BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) and GUT (GOCE User Toolbox) toolboxes (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Ambrozio, A.; Restano, M.


    's variance-covariance matrices. BRAT and GUT toolboxes can be freely downloaded, along with ancillary material, at and

  6. Improved oceanographic measurements fom SAR altimetry: Results and scientific roadmap from ESA cryosat plus for oceans project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotton, P. D.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. It thus provides the first opportunity to test and evaluate, using real data, the significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications. The obje...

  7. The BIOMASS mission — An ESA Earth Explorer candidate to measure the BIOMASS of the earth's forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scipal, K.; Arcioni, M.; Chave, J.


    The European Space Agency (ESA) released a Call for Proposals for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission in March 2005, with the aim to select the 7th Earth Explorer (EE-7) mission for launch in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to scientific and technical assessment...... of any current space systems capable of addressing this need....

  8. Recent Advances in Antenna Measurement Techniques at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav; Pivnenko, Sergey; Kim, Oleksiy S.


    This paper reports recent antenna measurement projects and research at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility at the Technical University of Denmark. High-accuracy measurement projects for the SMOS, SENTINEL-1, and BIOMASS missions of the European Space Agency were driven...

  9. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.


    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  10. Riot Control Agents (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  11. Towards a New Generation of Time-Series Visualization Tools in the ESA Heliophysics Science Archives (United States)

    Perez, H.; Martinez, B.; Cook, J. P.; Herment, D.; Fernandez, M.; De Teodoro, P.; Arnaud, M.; Middleton, H. R.; Osuna, P.; Arviset, C.


    During the last decades a varied set of Heliophysics missions have allowed the scientific community to gain a better knowledge on the solar atmosphere and activity. The remote sensing images of missions such as SOHO have paved the ground for Helio-based spatial data visualization software such as JHelioViewer/Helioviewer. On the other hand, the huge amount of in-situ measurements provided by other missions such as Cluster provide a wide base for plot visualization software whose reach is still far from being fully exploited. The Heliophysics Science Archives within the ESAC Science Data Center (ESDC) already provide a first generation of tools for time-series visualization focusing on each mission's needs: visualization of quicklook plots, cross-calibration time series, pre-generated/on-demand multi-plot stacks (Cluster), basic plot zoom in/out options (Ulysses) and easy navigation through the plots in time (Ulysses, Cluster, ISS-Solaces). However, as the needs evolve and the scientists involved in new missions require to plot multi-variable data, heat maps stacks interactive synchronization and axis variable selection among other improvements. The new Heliophysics archives (such as Solar Orbiter) and the evolution of existing ones (Cluster) intend to address these new challenges. This paper provides an overview of the different approaches for visualizing time-series followed within the ESA Heliophysics Archives and their foreseen evolution.

  12. BOL and EOL Characterization of Azur 3G Lilt Solar Cells for ESA Juice Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorenko Victor


    Full Text Available In the present paper, we describe the results of electrical characterization of AZUR SPACE triple-junction solar cells at a sun light intensity of 3.7% AM0 and temperatures down to −150°C. At these conditions, which are relevant for the anticipated ESA JUICE mission, the cell efficiency reaches 33.5 % at BOL. Special attention has been paid to the establishing of an in-situ characterization procedure for defining EOL cell characteristics after electron and proton irradiation at low temperature low intensity condition. It was shown that solar cells irradiated at low temperature exhibit a strong recovery effect within short time after stopping the irradiation whereas the absolute value of the recovery depends on the irradiation fluence and particle type. Further on, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the maximum power, Pmp, is much stronger than the degradation of Isc and Voc values. Experimentally defined remaining factors for electron and proton irradiation and the quantification of the observed recovery effects allow a realistic prediction of the solar cell performance at JUICE mission conditions and are essential for the planned solar cell qualification activities.

  13. CryoSat: ESA's ice explorer mission. One year in operations: status and achievements (United States)

    Parrinello, T.; Mardle, N.; Ortega, B. H.; Bouzinac, C.; Badessi, S.; Frommknecht, B.; Davidson, M.; Cullen, R.; Wingham, D.


    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. After an intensive but rewarding six months of commissioning, the CryoSat mission entered the science phase in November last year. Data was released to the scientific community in February 2011 and since then, products have been systematically distributed to more than 150 Principal Investigators and used by more than 400 scientists worldwide. This community is increasing every day. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements since the start of the science phase. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on accessing Cryosat products following the new ESA Earth Observation Data Policy.

  14. Cryosat: Esa's Ice Explorer Mission. Two YEARs in Operations: Status and Achievements (United States)

    Parrinello, T.; Mardle, N.; Hoyos, B.; Bouzinac, C.; Badessi, S.; Frommknecht, B.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Davidson, M.; Laxon, S.


    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Experimental evidence have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. After an intensive but rewarding six months of commissioning, the CryoSat mission entered the science phase in November last year. Data was released to the scientific community in February 2011 and since then, products have been systematically distributed to more than 150 Principal Investigators and used by more than 400 scientists worldwide. This community is increasing every day. In April 2012, the first winter [2010 -2011] sea-ice variation map of the Arctic was released to the scientific community. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements in the last twelve months. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on accessing Cryosat products following the new ESA Earth Observation Data Policy.

  15. SCOSII: ESA's new generation of mission control systems: The user's perspective (United States)

    Kaufeler, P.; Pecchioli, M.; Shurmer, I.


    In 1974 ESOC decided to develop a reusable Mission Control System infrastructure for ESA's missions operated under its responsibility. This triggered a long and successful product development line, which started with the Multi Mission Support System (MSSS) which entered in service in 1977 and is still being used today by the MARECS and ECS missions; it was followed in 1989 by a second generation of systems known as SCOS-I, which was/is used by the Hipparcos, ERS-1 and EURECA missions and will continue to support all future ESCO controlled missions until approximately 1995. In the meantime the increasing complexity of future missions together with the emergence of new hardware and software technologies have led ESOC to go for the development of a third generation of control systems, SCOSII, which will support their future missions up to at least the middle of the next decade. The objective of the paper is to present the characteristics of the SCOSII system from the perspective of the mission control team; i.e. it will concentrate on the improvements and advances in the performance, functionality and work efficiency of the system.

  16. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly (United States)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo


    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  17. Densities inferred from ESA's Venus Express aerobraking campaign at 130 km altitude (United States)

    Bruinsma, Sean; Marty, Jean-Charles; Svedhem, Håkan; Williams, Adam; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo


    In June-July 2014, ESA performed a planned aerobraking campaign with Venus Express to measure neutral densities above 130 km in Venus' atmosphere by means of the engineering accelerometers. To that purpose, the orbit perigee was lowered to approximately 130 km in order to enhance the atmospheric drag effect to the highest tolerable levels for the spacecraft; the accelerometer resolution and precision were not sufficient at higher altitudes. This campaign was requested as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE). A total of 18 orbits (i.e. days) were processed using the attitude quaternions to correctly orient the spacecraft bus and solar arrays in inertial space, which is necessary to accurately compute the exposed surface in the ram direction. The accelerometer data provide good measurements approximately from 130-140 km altitude; the length of the profiles is about 85 seconds, and they are on the early morning side (LST=4.5) at high northern latitude (70°N-82°N). The densities are a factor 2-3 larger than Hedin's VTS-3 thermosphere model, which is consistent with earlier results obtained via classical precise orbit determination at higher altitudes. Wavelike structures with amplitudes of 20% and more are detected, with wavelengths of about 100-500 km. We cannot entirely rule out that these waves are caused by the spacecraft or due to some unknown instrumental effect, but we estimate this probability to be very low.

  18. The SCD - Stem Cell Differentiation ESA Project: Preparatory Work for the Spaceflight Mission (United States)

    Versari, Silvia; Barenghi, Livia; van Loon, Jack; Bradamante, Silvia


    Due to spaceflight, astronauts experience serious, weightlessness-induced bone loss because of an unbalanced process of bone remodeling that involves bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as well as osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. The effects of microgravity on osteo-cells have been extensively studied, but it is only recently that consideration has been given to the role of BMSCs. Previous researches indicated that human BMSCs cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) alter their proliferation and differentiation. The spaceflight opportunities for biomedical experiments are rare and suffer from a number of operative constraints that could bias the validity of the experiment itself, but remain a unique opportunity to confirm and explain the effects due to microgravity, that are only partially activated/detectable in simulated conditions. For this reason, we carefully prepared the SCD - STEM CELLS DIFFERENTIATION experiment, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) and now on the International Space Station (ISS). Here we present the preparatory studies performed on ground to adapt the project to the spaceflight constraints in terms of culture conditions, fixation and storage of human BMSCs in space aiming at satisfying the biological requirements mandatory to retrieve suitable samples for post-flight analyses. We expect to understand better the molecular mechanisms governing human BMSC growth and differentiation hoping to outline new countermeasures against astronaut bone loss.

  19. The advanced along track scanning radiometer (aatsr) on esa's envisat satellite - an early assessment (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Mutlow, C.; Smith, D.; Edwards, M.

    The AATSR sensor is an imaging radiometer designed to measure top-of-the- atmosphere brightness temperature in seven thermal infrared, reflected infrared and visible wavelength channels. The main objective of the AATSR mission is to generate fields of global sea-surface temperature to the high levels of accuracy required for the monitoring and detection of climate change, and to support a broad range of associated research into the marine, terrestrial, cryospheric and atmospheric environments. An essential component of this objective is maintain continuity with the high-quality data-sets already collected form the two predecessor sensors, ATSR1 and 2 on ESA's ERS-1 and -2 satellites respectively. Following the successful launch of ENVISAT on March 1 2002, the AATSR sensor was activated and systematically brought up to full operating configuration in accordance with the agreed Switch-On and Data Acquisition Plan (SODAP). The early images form AATSR are of a quality that is consistent with its objective of effective data continuity. Since the instrument has been returning data, a programme of quality assessment has been taking place. This has included a systematic assessment of instrumental aspects such as signal-to-noise performance and image stability as well as the initial observations in the AATSR validation programme. In this programme, AATSR data-products are compared with correlative observations from other sources, which include, sea-borne radiometers, meteorological analysis fields and data from other satellites. This paper reports early results from some of the activities.

  20. ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe (United States)


    First image from the XMM-LSS survey hi-res Size hi-res: 87 kb Credits: ESA First image from the XMM-LSS survey The first image from the XMM-LSS survey is actually a combination of fourteen separate 'pointings' of the space observatory. It represents a region of the sky eight times larger than the full Moon and contains around 25 clusters. The circles represent the sources previously known from the 1991 ROSAT All-Sky Survey. A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region hi-res Size hi-res: 86 kb Credits: ESA A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region of the image and identifies the possible cluster. Each point on this graph represents a single X-ray photons detected by XMM-Newton. Most come from distant actie galaxies and the computer must perform a sophisticated, statistical computation to determine which X-ray come from clusters. Contour map of clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 139 kb Credits: ESA Contour map of clusters The computer programme transforms the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of the cluster's probable extent and superimposes it over the CFHT snapshot, allowing the individual galaxies in the cluster to be targeted for further observations with ESO's VLT, to measure its distance and locate the cluster in the universe. Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies like our own which themselves congregate into clusters. These clusters are 'strung' throughout the Universe in a web-like structure. Astronomers have studied this large-scale structure of the nearby Universe but have lacked the instruments to extend the search to the large volumes of the distant Universe. Thanks to its unrivalled sensitivity, in less than three hours, ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton can see back about 7000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size, and clusters of galaxies

  1. Serum proteomic changes after randomized prolonged erythropoietin treatment and/or endurance training: detection of novel biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Christensen

    Full Text Available Despite implementation of the biological passport to detect erythropoietin abuse, a need for additional biomarkers remains. We used a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers of prolonged erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA exposure (Darbepoietin-α and/or aerobic training.Thirty-six healthy young males were randomly assigned to the following groups: Sedentary-placebo (n = 9, Sedentary-ESA (n = 9, Training-placebo (n = 10, or Training-ESA (n = 8. They were treated with placebo/Darbepoietin-α subcutaneously once/week for 10 weeks followed by a 3-week washout period. Training consisted of supervised biking 3/week for 13 weeks at the highest possible intensity. Serum was collected at baseline, week 3 (high dose Darbepoietin-α, week 10 (reduced dose Darbepoietin-α, and after a 3-week washout period.Serum proteins were separated according to charge and molecular mass (2D-gel electrophoresis. The identity of proteins from spots exhibiting altered intensity was determined by mass spectrometry.Six protein spots changed in response to Darbepoietin-α treatment. Comparing all 4 experimental groups, two protein spots (serotransferrin and haptoglobin/haptoglobin related protein showed a significant response to Darbepoietin-α treatment. The haptoglobin/haptoglobin related protein spot showed a significantly lower intensity in all subjects in the training-ESA group during the treatment period and increased during the washout period.An isoform of haptoglobin/haptoglobin related protein could be a new anti-doping marker and merits further NCT01320449.

  2. Efficacy and safety of once-weekly intravenous epoetin alfa in maintaining hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Messa, Piergiorgio; Filippini, Armando; Cannella, Giuseppe; De Ferrari, Giacomo; Naso, Agostino; Rossi, Egidio; Formica, Marco; Lombardi, Luigi; Rotolo, Ugo; Conte, Feruccio


    Although an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) is most frequently administered intravenously for treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease who are on dialysis, few studies have compared the efficacy of different intravenous (i.v.) dosing schedules. This multicenter, phase IIIb, open-label, controlled study randomized 289 stable hemodialysis patients to continue with conventional dosing of i.v. epoetin alfa or darbepoetin, or to switch to once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa at the same cumulative weekly starting dose, to maintain hemoglobin levels at 11.0-13.0 g/dL, and within 1.0 g/dL of the baseline value. Hemoglobin levels and ESA doses were recorded every 4 weeks for 28 weeks. Hemoglobin levels fell significantly and ESA doses increased significantly between baseline and week 28 (mean of week 16-28 values) in the once-weekly epoetin alfa group, compared with the conventional treatment group (phemoglobin levels between the groups was 0.73 g/dL (greater than the threshold for therapeutic equivalence of 0.5 g/dL). The changes between groups from baseline was significant at all time points for hemoglobin levels (0.36, 0.46, 0.81, 0.87, 0.78, 0.62 and 0.49 g/dL) and from week 12 for ESA dose (718.5, 1,326.5, 1,732.0, 1,839.7 and 1,959.1 IU/week; p=0.005). Hemoglobin was maintained at the target level in 78% and 84% of patients on conventional dosing, and 67% and 64% of those on once-weekly epoetin alfa in the intention-to-treat (p=0.1) and per protocol (p=0.016) populations, respectively. This study did not show therapeutic equivalence of once-weekly i.v. epoetin alfa with conventional dosing regimens.

  3. Reasoning about emotional agents


    Meyer, J.-J.


    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  4. Mission,System Design and Payload Aspects of ESA's Mercury Cornerstone Mission (United States)

    Ferri, A.; Anselmi, A.; Scoon, G. E. N.


    Aim of this paper is to summarise the 1-year study performed by Alenia Aerospazio in close co-operation with the European Space Agency, on the Mercury Cornerstone System and Technology Study, as a part of Horizon 2000+ Scientific Programme plan. ESA's definition study towards a mission to Mercury conceives the launch of a S/C in 2009, on a two to three years journey, plus a one-year scientific observations and data take. The mission's primary objectives are manyfolded, aiming at approaching basic scientific questions on the origin and evolution of Mercury: identify and map the chemical and mineral composition of the surface, measure the topography of surface landforms, define the gravitational field, investigate particles and magnetic fields. The mission is also intended to resolve the librational state of the planet, in a system experiment requiring high accuracy inertial attitude (arcsecond level) and orbit (m-level) reconstitution. This experiment will allow to infer whether Mercury has a molten core, which is crucial to theories of magnetic field generation, and theories of the thermal history of terrestrial type planets. A hard-lander is planned to perform in-situ surface geochemical analysis. The mission is expected to provide scientists with a global portrait of Mercury returning about 1200 Gbits of scientific data, during a 1-year observation phase. The crucial aspects of the spacecraft design have to do with the high-temperature and high-radiation environment. Thermal control is achieved by a combination of orbit selection, attitude law, and special design provisions for IR shielding and HT insulation. Ad-hoc design provisions are envisaged for power and antenna mechanisms. Though the conceptual objectives of this industrial study focused on system architectures and enabling technologies for a "Cornerstone" class mission, in this paper emphasis is given on the scientific payload aspects.

  5. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow


    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  6. Web-GIS visualisation of permafrost-related Remote Sensing products for ESA GlobPermafrost (United States)

    Haas, A.; Heim, B.; Schaefer-Neth, C.; Laboor, S.; Nitze, I.; Grosse, G.; Bartsch, A.; Kaab, A.; Strozzi, T.; Wiesmann, A.; Seifert, F. M.


    The ESA GlobPermafrost ( provides a remote sensing service for permafrost research and applications. The service comprises of data product generation for various sites and regions as well as specific infrastructure allowing overview and access to datasets. Based on an online user survey conducted within the project, the user community extensively applies GIS software to handle remote sensing-derived datasets and requires preview functionalities before accessing them. In response, we develop the Permafrost Information System PerSys which is conceptualized as an open access geospatial data dissemination and visualization portal. PerSys will allow visualisation of GlobPermafrost raster and vector products such as land cover classifications, Landsat multispectral index trend datasets, lake and wetland extents, InSAR-based land surface deformation maps, rock glacier velocity fields, spatially distributed permafrost model outputs, and land surface temperature datasets. The datasets will be published as WebGIS services relying on OGC-standardized Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) technologies for data display and visualization. The WebGIS environment will be hosted at the AWI computing centre where a geodata infrastructure has been implemented comprising of ArcGIS for Server 10.4, PostgreSQL 9.2 and a browser-driven data viewer based on Leaflet ( Independently, we will provide an `Access - Restricted Data Dissemination Service', which will be available to registered users for testing frequently updated versions of project datasets. PerSys will become a core project of the Arctic Permafrost Geospatial Centre (APGC) within the ERC-funded PETA-CARB project ( The APGC Data Catalogue will contain all final products of GlobPermafrost, allow in-depth dataset search via keywords, spatial and temporal coverage, data type, etc., and will provide DOI-based links to the datasets archived in the

  7. Status of the assessment phase of the ESA M3 mission candidate LOFT (United States)

    Corral van Damme, Carlos; Ayre, Mark; Lumb, David; Short, Alexander D.; Rando, Nicola


    LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) is one of four candidates for the M3 slot (launch in 2024, with the option of a launch in 2022) of ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025 Plan, and as such it is currently undergoing an initial assessment phase lasting one year. The objective of the assessment phase is to provide the information required to enable the down selection process, in particular: the space segment definition for meeting the assigned science objectives; consideration of and initial definition of the implementation schedule; an estimate of the mission Cost at Completion (CaC); an evaluation of the technology readiness evaluation and risk assessment. The assessment phase is divided into two interleaved components: (i) A payload assessment study, performed by teams funded by member states, which is primarily intended for design, definition and programmatic/cost evaluation of the payload, and (ii) A system industrial study, which has essentially the same objectives for the space segment of the mission. This paper provides an overview of the status of the LOFT assessment phase, both for payload and platform. The initial focus is on the payload design status, providing the reader with an understanding of the main features of the design. Then the space segment assessment study status is presented, with an overview of the principal challenges presented by the LOFT payload and mission requirements, and a presentation of the expected solutions. Overall the mission is expected to enable cutting-edge science, is technically feasible, and should remain within the required CaC for an M3 candidate.

  8. NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching. (United States)


    On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

  9. The afocal telescope optical design and tolerance analysis for the ESA ARIEL mission (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Middleton, Kevin; Focardi, Mauro; Morgante, Gianluca; Grella, Samuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Pace, Emanuele; Ficai Veltroni, Iacopo; Micela, Giuseppina


    ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three present candidates for the next ESA medium-class science mission (M4) to be launched in 2026. During its 3.5 years of scientific operations from L2 orbit, this mission will observe spectroscopically in the infrared (IR) a large population of known transiting planets in the neighbourhood of the Solar System. The aim is to enable a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of these exoplanets. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of a suite of instruments: two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.80 µm and four photometric channels (two wide and two narrow band) in the range 0.5 to 1.9 μm. The ARIEL optical design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is based on an eccentric pupil two-mirror classic Cassegrain configuration coupled to a tertiary paraboloidal mirror. An all-aluminum structure has been considered for the telescope layout, and a detailed tolerance analysis has been conducted to assess the telescope feasibility. This analysis has been done including the different parts of the realization and life of the instrument, from integration on-ground to in-flight stability during the scientific acquisitions. The primary mirror (M1) temperature will be monitored and finely tuned via an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. The heaters will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ±1K thanks to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller.

  10. The afocal telescope of the ESA ARIEL mission: analysis of the layout (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Middleton, Kevin; Focardi, Mauro; Morgante, Gianluca; Corso, Alain Jody; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Micela, Giuseppina


    ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three present candidates as an M4 ESA mission to be launched in 2026. During its foreseen 3.5 years operation, it will observe spectroscopically in the infrared a large population of known transiting planets in the neighborhood of the Solar System. The aim is to enable a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of these exoplanets. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of a suite of instruments: two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.8 μm and four photometric channels (two wide and two narrow band) in the range 0.5 to 1.9 μm. The ARIEL optical design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is based on an eccentric pupil two-mirror classic Cassegrain configuration coupled to a tertiary paraboloidal mirror. The temperature of the primary mirror (M1) will be monitored and finely tuned by means of an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ±1 K thanks to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller implemented within the Telescope Control Unit (TCU), a Payload electronics subsystem mainly in charge of the active thermal control of the two detectors owning to the spectrometer. TCU will collect the housekeeping data of the controlled subsystems and will forward them to the spacecraft (S/C) by means of the Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the main Payload's electronic Unit linked to the S/C On Board Computer (OBC).

  11. PACA_Rosetta67P: Global Amateur Observing Support for ESA/Rosetta Mission (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Alexander, Claudia; Morales, Efrain; Feliciano-Rivera, Christiana


    The PACA (Professional - Amateur Collaborative Astronomy) Project is an ecosystem of several social media platforms (Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, Flickr, Vimeo) that takes advantage of the global and immediate connectivity amongst amateur astronomers worldwide, that can be galvanized to participate in a given observing campaign. The PACA Project has participated in organized campaigns such as Comet Observing Campaign (CIOC_ISON) in 2013 and Comet Siding Spring (CIOC_SidingSpring)in 2014. Currently the PACA Project is supporting ESA/Rosetta mission with ground-based observations of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) through its perihelion in August 2015 and beyond; providing baseline observations of magnitude and evolution from locations around the globe. Comet 67P/CG will reach its brightest post-perihelion and pass closest to Earth in November 2015. We will present the various benefits of our professional - amateur collaboration: developing and building a core astronomer community; defining an observing campaign from basic information of the comet from its previous apparitions; coordinating with professionals and the mission to acquire observations, albeit low-resolution, but on a long timeline; while addressing the creation of several science products such as the variation of its magnitude over time and the changing morphology. We will present some of our results to date and compare with observations from professionals and previous apparations of the comet. We shall also highlight the challenges faced in building a successful collaborative partnership between the professional and amateur observers and their resolution. With the popularity of mobile platforms and instant connections with peers globally, the multi-faceted social universe has become a vital part of engagement of multiple communities for collaborative scientific partnerships and outreach. We shall also highlight other cometary observing campaigns that The PACA Project has initiated to evolve

  12. Conceptual design of the X-IFU Instrument Control Unit on board the ESA Athena mission (United States)

    Corcione, L.; Ligori, S.; Capobianco, V.; Bonino, D.; Valenziano, L.; Guizzo, G. P.


    Athena is one of L-class missions selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program for the science theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. The Athena model payload includes the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), an advanced actively shielded X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer for high spectral resolution imaging, utilizing cooled Transition Edge Sensors. This paper describes the preliminary architecture of Instrument Control Unit (ICU), which is aimed at operating all XIFU's subsystems, as well as at implementing the main functional interfaces of the instrument with the S/C control unit. The ICU functions include the TC/TM management with S/C, science data formatting and transmission to S/C Mass Memory, housekeeping data handling, time distribution for synchronous operations and the management of the X-IFU components (i.e. CryoCoolers, Filter Wheel, Detector Readout Electronics Event Processor, Power Distribution Unit). ICU functions baseline implementation for the phase-A study foresees the usage of standard and Space-qualified components from the heritage of past and current space missions (e.g. Gaia, Euclid), which currently encompasses Leon2/Leon3 based CPU board and standard Space-qualified interfaces for the exchange commands and data between ICU and X-IFU subsystems. Alternative architecture, arranged around a powerful PowerPC-based CPU, is also briefly presented, with the aim of endowing the system with enhanced hardware resources and processing power capability, for the handling of control and science data processing tasks not defined yet at this stage of the mission study.

  13. Reticulocyte dynamic and hemoglobin variability in hemodialysis patients treated with Darbepoetin alfa and C.E.R.A.: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Forni, Valentina; Bianchi, Giorgia; Ogna, Adam; Salvadé, Igor; Vuistiner, Philippe; Burnier, Michel; Gabutti, Luca


    In a simulation based on a pharmacokinetic model we demonstrated that increasing the erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) half-life or shortening their administration interval decreases hemoglobin variability. The benefit of reducing the administration interval was however lessened by the variability induced by more frequent dosage adjustments. The purpose of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte and hemoglobin kinetics and variability under different ESAs and administration intervals in a collective of chronic hemodialysis patients. The study was designed as an open-label, randomized, four-period cross-over investigation, including 30 patients under chronic hemodialysis at the regional hospital of Locarno (Switzerland) in February 2010 and lasting 2 years. Four subcutaneous treatment strategies (C.E.R.A. every 4 weeks Q4W and every 2 weeks Q2W, Darbepoetin alfa Q4W and Q2W) were compared with each other. The mean square successive difference of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and ESAs dose was used to quantify variability. We distinguished a short- and a long-term variability based respectively on the weekly and monthly successive difference. No difference was found in the mean values of biological parameters (hemoglobin, reticulocytes, and ferritin) between the 4 strategies. ESAs type did not affect hemoglobin and reticulocyte variability, but C.E.R.A induced a more sustained reticulocytes response over time and increased the risk of hemoglobin overshooting (OR 2.7, p = 0.01). Shortening the administration interval lessened the amplitude of reticulocyte count fluctuations but resulted in more frequent ESAs dose adjustments and in amplified reticulocyte and hemoglobin variability. Q2W administration interval was however more favorable in terms of ESAs dose, allowing a 38% C.E.R.A. dose reduction, and no increase of Darbepoetin alfa. The reticulocyte dynamic was a more sensitive marker of time instability of the hemoglobin response under ESAs therapy

  14. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut candidates for Columbus missions II: Personality assessment (United States)

    Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Fassbender, Christoph

    A unique composition of personality assessment methods was applied to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers. This group is highly comparable to real astronaut candidates with respect to age and education. The list of used tests includes personality questionnaires, problem solving in groups as well as a projective technique. The study goals were: 1. Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests to the target group; 2. Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national European groups can be examined; 3. Identification of test methods by which the adaptability of the candidates to the psycho-social stress of long-duration space flights can be assessed. Based on the empirical findings, a test battery was defined which can be used in the selection of ESA space personnel.

  15. Outsourcing the development of specific application software using the ESA software engineering standards the SPS software Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, B


    CERN is considering outsourcing as a solution to the reduction of staff. To need to re-engineer the SPS Software Interlock System provided an opportunity to explore the applicability of outsourcing to our specific controls environment and the ESA PSS-05 standards were selected for the requirements specification, the development, the control and monitoring and the project management. The software produced by the contractor is now fully operational. After outlining the scope and the complexity of the project, a discussion on the ESA PSS-05 will be presented: the choice, the way these standards improve the outsourcing process, the quality induced but also the need to adapt them and their limitation in the definition of the customer-supplier relationship. The success factors and the difficulties of development under contract will also be discussed. The maintenance aspect and the impact on in-house developments will finally be addressed.

  16. Which benefits and limits derive from ESA membership for European Countries owning ;medium-sized; space agencies? (United States)

    Petroni, Giorgio; Bigliardi, Barbara; Galati, Francesco; Petroni, Alberto


    This study investigates the benefits and limits deriving from membership with ESA of six medium-sized space agencies in terms of strengthening and development (or not) of space technologies, as well as their contribution to the growth of productive activities and to the increase of services for citizens. This research contributes to the more general issue of the usefulness of space activities, not only for scientific or military-political purposes but also for economic and social development. Results show that, on the one hand, the membership with ESA has allowed smaller Countries to access space programs, to develop advanced technologies and to support the growth of their firms in some significant markets, but, on the other hand, the membership has also limited the access to space to few companies, without encouraging the broad dissemination of technological knowledge.

  17. Chemical warfare agents. (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav


    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  18. Azacitidine in Lower-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Meta-Analysis of Data from Prospective Studies. (United States)

    Komrokji, Rami; Swern, Arlene S; Grinblatt, David; Lyons, Roger M; Tobiasson, Magnus; Silverman, Lewis R; Sayar, Hamid; Vij, Ravi; Fliss, Albert; Tu, Nora; Sugrue, Mary M


    After erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) failure, lenalidomide and hypomethylating agents are the only remaining treatment options for most patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS). Optimal choice of these agents as front-line therapy in non-del(5q) LR-MDS is unclear. Because azacitidine clinical data mainly describe experience in higher-risk MDS, we performed a meta-analysis of patient-level data to evaluate azacitidine in patients with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent LR-MDS. We searched English-language articles for prospective phase II and III azacitidine clinical trials and patient registries published between 2000 and 2015, and Embase abstracts from 2015 conferences. Patient-level data from identified relevant studies were provided by investigators. Meta-analyses followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Efficacy endpoints were RBC transfusion independence (TI) and Clinical Benefit (RBC-TI, erythroid response, and complete or partial remission, per International Working Group 2006 criteria for MDS). Data for 233 patients from 6 clinical studies and 1 registry study met criteria for inclusion in analyses. Overall, 90.3% of patients had non-del(5q) LR-MDS. Pooled estimates from random-effects models of RBC-TI and Clinical Benefit were 38.9% and 81.1%, respectively; for the ESA-refractory subgroup, they were 40.5% and 77.3%; and for patients with isolated anemia, they were 41.9% and 82.5%. In multivariate analyses, planned use of ≥6 azacitidine treatment cycles was significantly predictive of response. Azacitidine effects in these patients, most with non-del(5q) LR-MDS, were promising and generally similar to those reported for lenalidomide in similar patients. The choice of initial therapy is important because most patients eventually stop responding to front-line therapy and alternatives are limited. Lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (LR-MDS) are primarily characterized by

  19. The ESA FELYX High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set System Design and Implementation (United States)

    Taberner, M.; Shutler, J.; Walker, P.; Poulter, D.; Piolle, J.-F.; Donlon, C.; Guidetti, V.


    Felyx is currently under development and is the latest evolution of a generalised High Resolution Diagnostic Data Set system funded by ESA. It draws on previous prototype developments and experience in the GHRSST, Medspiration, GlobColour and GlobWave projects. In this paper, we outline the design and implementation of the system, and illustrate using the Ocean Colour demonstration activities. Felyx is fundamentally a tool to facilitate the analysis of EO data: it is being developed by IFREMER, PML and Pelamis. It will be free software written in python and javascript. The aim is to provide Earth Observation data producers and users with an opensource, flexible and reusable tool to allow the quality and performance of data streams from satellite, in situ and model sources to be easily monitored and studied. New to this project, is the ability to establish and incorporate multi-sensor match-up database capabilities. The systems will be deployable anywhere and even include interaction mechanisms between the deployed instances. The primary concept of Felyx is to work as an extraction tool. It allows for the extraction of subsets of source data over predefined target areas(which can be static or moving). These data subsets, and associated metrics, can then be accessed by users or client applications either as raw files or through automatic alerts. These data can then be used to generate periodic reports or be used for statistical analysis and visualisation through a flexible web interface. Felyx can be used for subsetting, the generation of statistics, the generation of reports or warnings/alerts, and in-depth analyses, to name a few. There are many potential applications but important uses foreseen are: * monitoring and assessing the quality of Earth observations (e.g. satellite products and time series) through statistical analysis and/or comparison with other data sources * assessing and inter-comparing geophysical inversion algorithms * observing a given phenomenon

  20. Maximising the benefits of satellite LST within the user community: ESA DUE GlobTemperature (United States)

    Ghent, D.


    Land surface temperature (LST) is the mean radiative skin temperature of an area of land resulting from the mean balance of solar heating and land-atmosphere cooling fluxes. It is a basic determinant of the terrestrial thermal behaviour, as it controls the effective radiating temperature of the Earth's surface. The sensitivity of LST to soil moisture and vegetation cover means it is an important component in numerous applications. With the demand for LST data from Earth Observation currently experiencing considerable growth it is important that the users of this data are appropriately engaged by the LST data providers. The GlobTemperature project under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017) aims to promote the wider uptake of global-scale satellite LST by the research and operational user communities; the key to success depending on the coherence and openness of the interactions between the LST and user communities. By incorporating detailed user input into the specifications, their subsequent testing of the LST data sets, and sustained access to data in a user-friendly manner through common data formats GlobTemperature is enhancing the portfolio of LST products from Earth Observation, while concurrently breaking down the barriers to successful application of such data through its programme of dialogue between the data providers and data users. Here we present the outcomes from the first phase of the project, which is achieving some innovative developments: a globally representative and consistent matchup database enabling validation and intercomparison of multi-sensor LST data sets; a prototype combined geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) global data set for LST to resolve the diurnal cycle which is a key request from users of LST data; the delivery of the first LST data sets via a dedicated Data Portal in harmonised data format; and the establishment, in collaboration with international colleagues

  1. Approach to technology prioritization in support of moon initiatives in the framework of ESA exploration technology roadmaps (United States)

    Aleina, Sara Cresto; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio


    Exploration technology roadmaps have been developed by ESA in the past few years and the latest edition has been released in 2015. Scope of these technology roadmaps, elaborated in consultation with the different ESA stakeholders (e.g. European Industries and Research Entities), is to provide a powerful tool for strategic, programmatic and technical decisions in support of the European role within an International Space Exploration context. In the context of preparation for possible future European Moon exploration initiatives, the technology roadmaps have been used to highlight the role of technology within Missions, Building Blocks and Operational Capabilities of relevance. In particular, as part of reference missions to the Moon that would fit in the time frame 2020 to 2030, ESA has addressed the definition of lunar surface exploration missions in line with its space exploration strategy, with the common mission goals of returning samples from the Moon and Mars and expanding human presence to these destinations in a step-wise approach. The roadmaps for the procurement of technologies required for the first mission elements of the above strategy have been elaborated through their main building blocks, i.e. Visual navigation, Hazard detection and avoidance; Sample acquisition, processing and containment system; Surface mobility elements; Tele-robotic and autonomous control systems; and Storable propulsion modules and equipment. Technology prioritization methodologies have been developed in support of the ESA Exploration Technology Roadmaps, in order to provide logical and quantitative instruments to verify choices of prioritization that can be carried out based on important, but non-quantitative factors. These methodologies, which are thoroughly described in the first part of the paper, proceed through subsequent steps. First, technology prioritization's criteria are selected; then decision trees are developed to highlight all feasible paths of combination of

  2. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  3. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen


    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  4. Practical Approaches to the Use of Lenalidomide in Multiple Myeloma: A Canadian Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Reece


    Full Text Available In Canada, lenalidomide combined with dexamethasone (Len/Dex is approved for use in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM. Our expert panel sought to provide an up-to-date practical guide on the use of lenalidomide in the managing RRMM within the Canadian clinical setting, including management of common adverse events (AEs. The panel concluded that safe, effective administration of Len/Dex treatment involves the following steps: (1 lenalidomide dose adjustment based on creatinine clearance and the extent of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, (2 dexamethasone administered at 20–40 mg/week, and (3 continuation of treatment until disease progression or until toxicity persists despite dose reduction. Based on available evidence, the following precautions should reduce the risk of common Len/Dex AEs: (1 all patients treated with Len/Dex should receive thromboprophylaxis, (2 erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs should be used cautiously, and (3 females of child-bearing potential and males in contact with such females must use multiple contraception methods. Finally, while Len/Dex can be administered irrespective of prior therapy and in all prognostic subsets, patients with chromosomal deletion 17(p13 have less favorable outcomes with all treatments, including Len/Dex. New directions for the use of lenalidomide in RRMM are also considered.

  5. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina


    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  6. Asymptotically Optimal Agents


    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus


    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  7. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  8. Software Agents Applications Using Real-Time CORBA (United States)

    Fowell, S.; Ward, R.; Nielsen, M.

    This paper describes current projects being performed by SciSys in the area of the use of software agents, built using CORBA middleware, to improve operations within autonomous satellite/ground systems. These concepts have been developed and demonstrated in a series of experiments variously funded by ESA's Technology Flight Opportunity Initiative (TFO) and Leading Edge Technology for SMEs (LET-SME), and the British National Space Centre's (BNSC) National Technology Programme. Some of this earlier work has already been reported in [1]. This paper will address the trends, issues and solutions associated with this software agent architecture concept, together with its implementation using CORBA within an on-board environment, that is to say taking account of its real- time and resource constrained nature.

  9. The design of Janus, the visible camera for the ESA JUICE mission (United States)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Schmitz, Nicole; Castro, José Maria; Leese, Mark; Debei, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio; Michalik, Harald


    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. During the whole operational phase, JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) will acquire panchromatic and narrow-band images in the visible - NIR range of many targets within the Jovian system: the Galilean satellites surfaces and exospheres, Jupiter atmosphere, minor and irregular satellites, the ring system. After a long trade-off between different design solutions, based on performance requirements, mission design and constraints, the present JANUS design has been based on the following architectural choices detailed below. A catoptric telescope with excellent optical quality is coupled with a framing CMOS detector, avoiding any scan-ning mechanism or operational requirement on the S/C. The three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) off-axis design with F#=4.67 allows an MTF between 62% and 72% at Nyquist, with good straylight rejection. The detector is the CIS115 from e2v; it is a CMOS with a squared 7 micron pixel pitch and image format of 2000x1504. It performs a high readout rate of up to 40 Mpixel/s, high quantum efficiency and low readout noise and dark signal. Fine tuning of instrument parameters allows to perform both high resolution targeted observations and lower resolution global coverage of targets, as required to meet science objectives. The IFoV (Fieldo of View per pixel) is 15 microrad, al-lowing sampling of 7.5 m/pixel from 500 km and 15 km/pixel from 10E6 km, while the FoV is 1.72x1.29 deg. The acquisition parameters allow to cope with the many different observation requirements and conditions that JANUS will face. Design of the two electronics units (a proximity electronics controlling the detector and a main electronics controlling the instrument and the interfaces with

  10. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.


    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  11. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  12. Development Of Electro-Spark Alloying (ESA) And Thermo-Reactive Electro-Spark Surface Strengthening (TRESS) Technologies And Set Of Equipment With Attachments For Mechanization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levashov, Evgeny A


    ... (Technological University) as follows: The main goal of the project is to develop advanced ESA and TRESS coating technologies for application on Ti and superalloys substrates to resist high-cycle fatigue failure initiated at the blade roots...

  13. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on the ESA Envisat satellite produced by UPA (GDS version 1) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Launched in March 2002 by the European Space Agency (ESA), Envisat is the largest Earth Observation spacecraft ever built. It carries ten sophisticated optical and...

  14. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on the ESA Envisat satellite produced by EUR (GDS version 1) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Launched in March 2002 by the European Space Agency (ESA), Envisat is the largest Earth Observation spacecraft ever built. It carries ten sophisticated optical and...

  15. Machine Learning Approach to Deconvolution of Thermal Infrared (TIR) Spectrum of Mercury Supporting MERTIS Onboard ESA/JAXA BepiColombo (United States)

    Varatharajan, I.; D'Amore, M.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.


    Machine learning approach to spectral unmixing of emissivity spectra of Mercury is carried out using endmember spectral library measured at simulated daytime surface conditions of Mercury. Study supports MERTIS payload onboard ESA/JAXA BepiColombo.

  16. Oral Zinc Supplementation Reduces the Erythropoietin Responsiveness Index in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Background: In hemodialysis (HD patients, zinc depletion caused by inadequate intake, malabsorption, and removal by HD treatment leads to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA hyporesponsiveness. This study investigated the effects of zinc supplementation in HD patients with zinc deficiency on changes in the erythropoietin responsiveness index (ERI. Methods: Patients on HD with low serum zinc levels (<65 μg/dL were randomly assigned to two groups: The polaprezinc group (who received daily polaprezinc, containing 34 mg/day of zinc (n = 35 and the control group (no supplementation (n = 35 for 12 months. All the 70 patients had been taking epoetin alpha as treatment for renal anemia. ERI was measured with the following equation: Weekly ESA dose (units/dry weight (kg/hemoglobin (g/dL. Results: There were no significant changes in hemoglobin levels within groups or between the control and polaprezinc groups during the study period. Although reticulocyte counts were increased immediately after zinc supplementation, this change was transient. Serum zinc levels were significantly increased and serum copper levels were significantly decreased in the polaprezinc group after three months; this persisted throughout the study period. Although there was no significant change in the serum iron or transferrin saturation levels in the polaprezinc group during the study period, serum ferritin levels significantly decreased following polaprezinc treatment. Further, in the polaprezinc group, ESA dosage and ERI were significantly decreased at 10 months and nine months, respectively, as compared with the baseline value. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that the change in the serum zinc level was an independent predictor of lowered ERI. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation reduces ERI in patients undergoing HD and may be a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with renal anemia and low serum zinc levels.

  17. The anaemia control model: Does it help nephrologists in therapeutic decision-making in the management of anaemia? (United States)

    Bucalo, María Laura; Barbieri, Carlo; Roca, Susana; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ros Romero, Maria Soledad; Ramos, Rosa; Albaladejo, Mercedes; Manzano, Diana; Mari, Flavio; Molina, Manuel


    Anaemia is common in haemodialysis patients and treating it with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) is complex due to many factors. To assess the usefulness of the Anaemia Control Model (ACM) in the treatment of anaemia in haemodialysis. ACM is a software that predicts the optimal dose of darbepoetin and iron sucrose to achieve target haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels, and makes prescription suggestions. Study conducted in dialysis clinics lasting 18months with two intervention phases (IPs) with ACM (IP1, n:213; IP2, n:218) separated by a control phase (CP, n:219). The primary outcome was the percentage of Hb in range and the median dose of ESAs, and the secondary outcomes were transfusion, hospitalisation and cardiovascular events. Clinical and patient analyses were performed. Hb variability was assessed by the standard deviation (SD) of the Hb. We also analysed the patients with most of the suggestions confirmed (ACM compliant group). ACM increased the percentage of Hb in range: 80.9% in IP2, compared with 72.7% in the CP and reduced the intake of darbepoetin (IP1: 20 [70]; CP 30 [80] μg P=0.032) with less Hb fluctuation (0.91±0.49 in the CP to 0.82±0.37g/dl in IP2, P<0.05), improving in the ACM compliant group. The secondary outcomes decreased with the use of ACM. ACM helps to obtain better anaemia results in haemodialysis patients, minimising the risks of treatment with ESAs and reducing costs. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore


    The scope of this presentation is to feature the G-POD SARvatore service to users for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 and Sentniel-3 data, which was designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The G-POD service coined SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) is a web platform that allows any scientist to process on-line, on-demand and with user-selectable configuration CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products up to SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor takes advantage of the G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform (350 CPUs in ~70 Working Nodes) to timely deliver output data products and to interface with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive (210'000 SAR passes and 120'000 SARin passes). The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format (using CF Convention), therefore being compatible with the multi-mission Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (BRAT) and other NetCDF tools. By using the G-POD graphical interface, it is straightforward to select a geographical area of interest within the time-frame related to the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile, allowing users to customize and to adapt the processing, according to their specific requirements, by setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing. From the web interface, users can choose to generate experimental SAR data products as stack data and RIP (Range Integrated Power) waveforms. The processing service, initially developed to support the development contracts awarded by confronting the deliverables to ESA's computations, has been made available to the worldwide SAR Altimetry Community for research & development experiments, for hands-on demonstrations/training in

  19. An Enhanced MWR-Based Wet Tropospheric Correction for Sentinel-3: Inheritance from Past ESA Altimetry Missions (United States)

    Lazaro, Clara; Fernandes, Joanna M.


    The GNSS-derived Path Delay (GPD) and the Data Combination (DComb) algorithms were developed by University of Porto (U.Porto), in the scope of different projects funded by ESA, to compute a continuous and improved wet tropospheric correction (WTC) for use in satellite altimetry. Both algorithms are mission independent and are based on a linear space-time objective analysis procedure that combines various wet path delay data sources. A new algorithm that gets the best of each aforementioned algorithm (GNSS-derived Path Delay Plus, GPD+) has been developed at U.Porto in the scope of SL_cci project, where the use of consistent and stable in time datasets is of major importance. The algorithm has been applied to the main eight altimetric missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2 and SARAL). Upcoming Sentinel-3 possesses a two-channel on-board radiometer similar to those that were deployed in ERS-1/2 and Envisat. Consequently, the fine-tuning of the GPD+ algorithm to these missions datasets shall enrich it, by increasing its capability to quickly deal with Sentinel-3 data. Foreseeing that the computation of an improved MWR-based WTC for use with Sentinel-3 data will be required, this study focuses on the results obtained for ERS-1/2 and Envisat missions, which are expected to give insight into the computation of this correction for the upcoming ESA altimetric mission. The various WTC corrections available for each mission (in general, the original correction derived from the on-board MWR, the model correction and the one derived from GPD+) are inter-compared either directly or using various sea level anomaly variance statistical analyses. Results show that the GPD+ algorithm is efficient in generating global and continuous datasets, corrected for land and ice contamination and spurious measurements of instrumental origin, with significant impacts on all ESA missions.

  20. An evaluation of the MEDALUS ESA index (environmental sensitivity to land degradation), from regional to plot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavado Contador, J. J.; Schnabel, S.; Gomez Gutierrez, A.


    An assessment of the sensitivity to land degradation have been carried out for the region of Extramadura, Sw Spain, by means of the modelling approach developed in the European Commission funded MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use) which identifies such areas on the basis of an index (ESA index) that incorporates data on environmental quality (climate, vegetation, soil) as well as on anthropogenic factors (management). Two maps of environmental sensitivity to degradation with different legend resolution (4 and 8 classes of sensitivity) have been made. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.


    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  2. Airborne direct-detection and coherent wind lidar measurements over the North Atlantic in 2015 supporting ESA's aeolus mission (United States)

    Marksteiner, Uwe; Reitebuch, Oliver; Lemmerz, Christian; Lux, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Witschas, Benjamin; Schäfler, Andreas; Emmitt, Dave; Greco, Steve; Kavaya, Michael J.; Gentry, Bruce; Neely, Ryan R.; Kendall, Emma; Schüttemeyer, Dirk


    The launch of the Aeolus mission by the European Space Agency (ESA) is planned for 2018. The satellite will carry the first wind lidar in space, ALADIN (Atmospheric Laser Doppler INstrument). Its prototype instrument, the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator (A2D), was deployed during several airborne campaigns aiming at the validation of the measurement principle and optimization of algorithms. In 2015, flights of two aircraft from DLR & NASA provided the chance to compare parallel wind measurements from four airborne wind lidars for the first time.

  3. Interstellar Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere from IBEX Observations. V. Observations in IBEX-Lo ESA Steps 1, 2, and 3 (United States)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Sokół, Justyna M.; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Galli, André; Heirtzler, David; Kucharek, Harald; McComas, David J.; Möbius, Eberhard; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Wurz, P.


    Direct-sampling observations of interstellar neutral (ISN) He by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) provide valuable insight into the physical state of and processes operating in the interstellar medium ahead of the heliosphere. The ISN He atom signals are observed at the four lowest ESA steps of the IBEX-Lo sensor. The observed signal is a mixture of the primary and secondary components of ISN He and H. Previously, only data from one of the ESA steps have been used. Here, we extend the analysis to data collected in the three lowest ESA steps with the strongest ISN He signal, for the observation seasons 2009–2015. The instrument sensitivity is modeled as a linear function of the atom impact speed onto the sensor’s conversion surface separately for each ESA step of the instrument. We find that the sensitivity increases from lower to higher ESA steps, but within each of the ESA steps it is a decreasing function of the atom impact speed. This result may be influenced by the hydrogen contribution, which was not included in the adopted model, but seems to exist in the signal. We conclude that the currently accepted temperature of ISN He and velocity of the Sun through the interstellar medium do not need a revision, and we sketch a plan of further data analysis aiming at investigating ISN H and a better understanding of the population of ISN He originating in the outer heliosheath.

  4. Moral actor, selfish agent. (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison


    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  5. Agent Architectures for Compliance (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  6. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.


    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  7. Stability and Repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised (ESAS-r with Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Leclair

    Full Text Available Parents report psychological distress in association with their child's cancer. Reliable tools are needed to screen parental distress over the cancer trajectory. This study aimed to estimate the stability and repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Depression and Anxiety items of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r-D; -A in parents of children diagnosed with cancer.Fifty parents (28 mothers, median age = 44 of clinically stable survivors of childhood solid and brain tumours completed questionnaires about their own distress (DT, ESAS-r-D; -A, Brief Symptom Inventory-18: BSI-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9: PHQ-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7: GAD-7 and their children's quality of life (QoL; Peds Quality of Life: PedsQL twice, with a month interval between the two assessments. At retest, parents also evaluated life events that occurred between the two time points. Hierarchical regressions explored moderators for the temporal stability of test measures.Stability estimates were ICC = .78 for the DT, .55 for the ESAS-r-D, and .47 for the ESAS-r-A. Caseness agreement between test and retest was substantial for the DT, fair for the ESAS-r-D, and slight for the ESAS-r-A. Repeatability analyses indicated that the error range for the DT was more than 2 pts below/above actual measurement, whereas it was more than 3 pts for the ESAS-r-A, and 2.5 for the ESAS-r-D. Instability of the DT could be explained by changes in children's physical QoL, but not by other components of QoL or life events. No moderators of stability could be identified for the ESAS-r items.The DT appears to be a fairly stable measure when the respondent's condition is stable yet with a relatively wide error range. Fluctuations in distress-related constructs may affect the temporal stability of the DT. The lower stability of ESAS-r items may result from shorter time-lapse instructions resulting in a greater sensitivity to change. Findings support

  8. Performance and technical feasibility comparison of reusable launch systems: A synthesis of the ESA winged launcher studies (United States)

    Berry, W.; Grallert, H.


    The paper presents a synthesis of the performance and technical feasibility assessment of 7 reusable launcher types, comprising 13 different vehicles, studied by European Industry for ESA in the ESA Winged Launcher Study in the period January 1988 to May 1994. The vehicles comprised single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles, propelled by either air-breathing/rocket propulsion or entirely by rocket propulsion. The results showed that an SSTO vehicle of the HOTOL-type, propelled by subsonic combustion air-breathing/rocket engines could barely deliver the specified payload mass and was aerodynamically unstable; that a TSTO vehicle of the Saenger type, employing subsonic combustion airbreathing propulsion in its first stage and rocket propulsion in its second stage, could readily deliver the specified payload mass and was found to be technically feasible and versatile; that an SSTO vehicle of the NASP type, propelled by supersonic combustion airbreathing/rocket propulsion was able to deliver a reduced payload mass, was very complex and required very advanced technologies; that an air-launched rocket propelled vehicle of the Interim HOTOL type, although technically feasible, could deliver only a reduced payload mass, being constrained by the lifting capability of the carrier airplane; that three different, entirely rocket-propelled vehicles could deliver the specified payload mass, were technically feasible but required relatively advanced technologies.

  9. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.


    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  11. Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic renal failure. (United States)

    Schmid, Holger


    Since more than two decades erythropoiesis-stimulating agents are the main pillar for treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease. Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (MPG-EPO), also called continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, is the longest acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agent currently available. MPG-EPO is characterized by an elimination half-life of approximately 137 h and offers extended dosing intervals up to 4 weeks. Numerous phase I/II studies and a comprehensive clinical phase III program demonstrated the feasibility of MPG-EPO therapy for anemia correction and maintenance of stable hemoglobin levels in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Due to patent disputes MPG-EPO was only available outside the US market so far. In view of a prevailing US market introduction, this review focuses on efficacy and safety data from pivotal trials, summarizes recent clinical research and finally tries to substantiate potential benefits associated with the use of this anti-anemic drug.

  12. Change Agent Survival Guide (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.


    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  13. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John


    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  14. Travel Agent Course Outline. (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  15. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.


    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  16. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.


    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  17. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  18. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.


    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  19. Geophysical validation of temperature retrieved by the ESA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT atmospheric limb-emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ridolfi


    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS has been operating since March 2002 onboard of the ENVIronmental SATellite of the European Space Agency (ESA. The high resolution (0.035 cm−1 full width half maximum, unapodized limb-emission measurements acquired by MIPAS in the first two years of operation have very good geographical and temporal coverage and have been re-processed by ESA with the most recent versions (4.61 and 4.62 of the inversion algorithms. The products of this processing chain are pressures at the tangent points and geolocated profiles of temperature and of the volume mixing ratios of six key atmospheric constituents: H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O and NO2. As for all the measurements made with innovative instruments and techniques, this data set requires a thorough validation. In this paper we present a geophysical validation of the temperature profiles derived from MIPAS measurements by the ESA retrieval algorithm. The validation is carried-out by comparing MIPAS temperature with correlative measurements made by radiosondes, lidars, in-situ and remote sensors operated either from the ground or stratospheric balloons.

    The results of the intercomparison indicate that the bias of the MIPAS profiles is generally smaller than 1 or 2 K depending on altitude. Furthermore we find that, especially at the edges of the altitude range covered by the MIPAS scan, the random error estimated from the intercomparison is larger (typically by a factor of two to three than the corresponding estimate derived on the basis of error propagation.

    In this work we also characterize the discrepancies between MIPAS temperature and the temperature fields resulting from the analyses of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The bias and the standard deviation of these discrepancies are consistent with those obtained when

  20. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John


    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  1. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam


    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Biological warfare agents (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan


    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  3. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions (United States)

    Heather, David


    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  4. New data on the epigraphy of Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico-Sangüesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the conclusions of two new epigraphic autopsies over two latin inscriptions –unpublished the first one, the second already known but here for the first time reviewed– found in the archaeological site of Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico-Sangüesa, in the northeast part of ancient Vascones’ territory. Some new archaeological materials related with the history of the monumentalization process of this ancient ciuitas are also presented: specially an spectacular funerary osteotheca made of stone with glass case, an unicum in the archeology of the death in the North-East part of the Iberian Peninsula. The paper is completed with a paleoanthropological and geological characterization of some of the most important evidences presented (including two pieces of green “campán” and turkish marble.

  5. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Cazenave, Anny; Larnicol, Gille

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition...... to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV...... validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the main improvements derived from the algorithms development dedicated to the 2016 full reprocessing of the dataset are described. Efforts have also focused on the improvement of the sea level estimation...

  6. Cluster and SOHO - a joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Domingo, V.; Shawhan, S.D.; Bohlin, D.


    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed. 19 references

  7. ESA STSE Project “Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend – Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    of the vertical extend of diurnal signals. Drifting buoys provide measurements close to the surface but are not always available. Moored buoys are generally not able to resolve the daily SST signal, which strongly weakens with depth within the upper water column. For such reasons, the General Ocean Turbulence......, atmospheric and oceanic modelling, bio-chemical processes and oceanic CO2 studies. The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, is currently not properly understood. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are currently not adequately resolving...... the daily SST variability, resulting in biases of the total heat budget estimates and therefore, demised model accuracies. The ESA STSE funded project SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M. aimed at characterising the regional extend of diurnal SST signals and their impact in atmospheric modelling. This study will briefly...

  8. SM2RAIN-CCI: a new global long-term rainfall data set derived from ESA CCI soil moisture (United States)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Massari, Christian; Brocca, Luca; Gruber, Alexander; Reimer, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian; Paulik, Christoph; Dorigo, Wouter; Kidd, Richard; Wagner, Wolfgang


    Accurate and long-term rainfall estimates are the main inputs for several applications, from crop modeling to climate analysis. In this study, we present a new rainfall data set (SM2RAIN-CCI) obtained from the inversion of the satellite soil moisture (SM) observations derived from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) via SM2RAIN (Brocca et al., 2014). Daily rainfall estimates are generated for an 18-year long period (1998-2015), with a spatial sampling of 0.25° on a global scale, and are based on the integration of the ACTIVE and the PASSIVE ESA CCI SM data sets.The quality of the SM2RAIN-CCI rainfall data set is evaluated by comparing it with two state-of-the-art rainfall satellite products, i.e. the Tropical Measurement Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 real-time product (TMPA 3B42RT) and the Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH), and one modeled data set (ERA-Interim). A quality check is carried out on a global scale at 1° of spatial sampling and 5 days of temporal sampling by comparing these products with the gauge-based Global Precipitation Climatology Centre Full Data Daily (GPCC-FDD) product. SM2RAIN-CCI shows relatively good results in terms of correlation coefficient (median value > 0.56), root mean square difference (RMSD, median value test the capabilities of the data set to correctly identify rainfall events under different climate and precipitation regimes.The SM2RAIN-CCI rainfall data set is freely available at

  9. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry over Coastal and Open Ocean: performance assessment and improved retrieval methods in the ESA SCOOP Project. (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Moreau, T.; Raynal, M.; Varona, E.; Cipollini, P.; Cancet, M.; Martin, F.; Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Naeije, M.; Fernandes, J.; Lazaro, C.; Restano, M.; Ambrózio, A.


    The ESA Sentinel-3 satellite, launched in February 2016 as a part of the Copernicus programme, is the second satellite to operate a SAR mode altimeter. The Sentinel 3 Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) is based on the heritage from Cryosat-2, but this time complemented by a Microwave Radiometer (MWR) to provide a wet troposphere correction, and operating at Ku and C-Bands to provide an accurate along-track ionospheric correction. The SRAL is operated in SAR mode over the whole ocean and promises increased performance w.r.t. conventional altimetry. SCOOP (SAR Altimetry Coastal & Open Ocean Performance) is a project funded under the ESA SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) Programme Element, started in September 2015, to characterise the expected performance of Sentinel-3 SRAL SAR mode altimeter products, in the coastal zone and open-ocean, and then to develop and evaluate enhancements to the baseline processing scheme in terms of improvements to ocean measurements. There is also a work package to develop and evaluate an improved Wet Troposphere correction for Sentinel-3, based on the measurements from the on-board MWR, further enhanced mostly in the coastal and polar regions using third party data, and provide recommendations for use. In this presentation we present results from the SCOOP project that demonstrate the excellent performance of SRAL in terms of measurement precision, and we illustrate the development and testing of new processing approaches designed specifically to improve performance close to the coast. The SCOOP test data sets and relevant documentation are available to external researchers on application to the project team. At the end of the project recommendations for further developments and implementations will be provided through a scientific roadmap.

  10. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut applicants for Columbus missions I: Aptitude testing (United States)

    Fassbender, Christoph; Goeters, Klaus-Martin

    European participation in the Space Station Freedom brought about new challenges for the psychological selection of astronaut candidates, particularly in respect to specific demands of long duration space flights. For this reason existing selection criteria and methods were reassessed. On these grounds a study was undertaken applying a unique composition of aptitude tests to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers who are highly comparable to the expected astronaut applicants with respect to age and education. The tests assessed operational aptitudes such as logical reasoning, memory function, perception, spatial orientation, attention, psychomotor function, and multiple task capacity. The study goals were: 1) Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests in a normative group; 2) Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national groups can be examined; 3) Identification of test methods which consider general and special operational demands of long duration space flights. Based on the empirical findings a test battery was arranged for use in the selection of ESA astronaut applicants. Results showed that 16 out of the 18 employed tests have good psychometric qualities and differentiate reliably in the special group of testees. The meta structure of the test battery as described by a factorial analysis is presented. Applicability of tests was generally high. Tests were culture-fair, however, a relation between English language skills and test results was identified. Since most item material was language-free, this was explained with the importance of English language skills for the understanding of test instructions. Solutions to this effect are suggested.

  11. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko


    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  12. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  13. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey


    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  14. Monitoring the airborne dust and water vapor in the low atmosphere of Mars: the MEDUSA experiment for the ESA ExoMars mission (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca; Colangeli, Luigi; Palumbo, Pasquale; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Molfese, Cesare; Merrison, Jonathan; Nornberg, Per; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez Gomez, Julio

    Dust and water vapour are fundamental components of Martian atmosphere. Dust amount varies with seasons and with the presence of local and global dust storms, but never drops entirely to zero. Aerosol dust has always played a fundamental role on the Martian climate. Dust interaction with solar and thermal radiation and the related condensation and evaporation processes influence the thermal structure and balance, and the dynamics (in terms of circulation) of the atmosphere. Water vapour is a minor constituent of the Martian atmosphere but it plays a fundamental role and it is important as indicator of seasonal climate changes. Moreover, the interest about the water cycle on local and global scales is linked to the fundamental function that water could have played in relation to the existence of living organisms on Mars. In view of tracing the past environmental conditions on Mars, that possibly favoured the appearing of life forms, it is important to study the present climate and its evolution, on which dust and water vapour have (and have had) strong influence. Moreover, nowadays, dust is a relevant agent that affects environmental conditions in the lower Martian atmosphere and, thus, may interact / interfere with any instrumentation delivered to Mars surface for in situ analyses. So, information on dust properties and deposition rate is also of great interest for future mission design. Knowledge of how much dust settles on solar arrays and the size and shape of particles will be crucial elements for designing missions that will operate by solar power for periods of several years and will have moving parts which will experience degradation by dust. This information is essential also for proper planning of future manned missions in relation to characterisation of environmental hazardous conditions. Little is known about dust structure and dynamics, so far. Size distribution is known only roughly and the mechanism of settling and rising into the atmosphere, the

  15. Delta agent (Hepatitis D) (United States)

    ... this page: // Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  16. Agents Within our Midst (United States)


    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  17. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.


    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  18. Clinical, analytical and bioimpedance characteristics of persistently overhydrated haemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Castellano, Sandra; Palomares, Inés; Molina, Manuel; Pérez-García, Rafael; Aljama, Pedro; Ramos, Rosa; Merello, J Ignacio


    Fluid overload is an important and modifiable cardiovascular risk factor for haemodialysis patients. So far, the diagnosis was based on clinical methods alone. Nowadays, we have new tools to assess more objectively the hydration status of the patients on haemodialysis, as BCM (Body Composition Monitor). A Relative Overhydration (AvROH) higher than 15% (it means, Absolute Overhydration or AWOH higher than 2.5 Litres) is associated to greater risk in haemodialysis. However, there is a group of maintained hyperhydrated patients. The aim of the present study is to identify the characteristics of patients with maintained hyperhydrated status (AvROH higher than 15% or AWOH higher than 2.5 liters). The secondary aim is to show the hemodynamic and analytical changes that are related to the reduction in hyperhydration status. Longitudinal cohort study during six months in 2959 patients in haemodialysis (HD) that are grouped according to their hydration status by BCM. And we compare their clinical, analytical and bioimpedance spectroscopy parameters. The change in overhydration status is followed by a decrease in blood pressure and the need for hypotensive drugs (AHT) and erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA). The target hydration status is not reached by two subgroups of patients. First, in diabetic patients with a high comorbidity index and high number of hypotensive drugs (AHT) but a great positive sodium gradient during dialysis sessions; and, younger non-diabetic patients with longer time on hemodialysis and positive sodium gradient, lower fat tissue index (FTI) but similar lean tissue index (LTI) and albumin than those with a reduction in hyperhydration status. Those patients with a reduction in hyperhydration status, also show a better control in blood pressure and anemia with less number of AHT and ESA. The maintained hyperhydrated patients, diabetic patients with many comorbidities and young men patients with longer time on hemodialysis and non-adherence treatment

  19. Erythropoietic response to oral iron in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease in the FIND-CKD trial
. (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Wyck, David Van; Meier, Yvonne; Larroque, Sylvain; Perrin, Amandine; Roger, Simon D


    To evaluate erythropoietic response rates to oral iron over time in iron-deficient anemic patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD). FIND-CKD was a 1-year, randomized, multicenter trial of iron therapy in patients with ND-CKD, anemia, and iron deficiency, without erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy. Patients with active infection or C-reactive protein > 20 mg/L were excluded. In this post-hoc analysis, response was defined as ≥ 1 g/dL increase in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline, before initiation of alternative anemia therapy (i.e., ESA, transfusion, or intravenous iron). 308 patients received oral iron (200 mg elemental iron/day). Mean (SD) Hb at baseline was 10.4 (0.7) g/dL. At week 4, Hb data were available from 292 patients without alternative anemia therapy: 63/292 (21.6%) showed a response. Among the 229 nonresponders at week 4, 48.8% showed a cumulative response on ≥ 1 occasion by week 52 (11.1%, 19.9%, 25.9%, and 28.7% had a response at weeks 8, 12, 24, and 52, respectively), and 27.9% had received alternative iron therapy by week 52. Baseline levels of Hb, ferritin, and transferrin saturation were lower in responders than in nonresponders. Neither concomitant medication nor adherence (as assessed by medication count) was substantially different between early responders and nonresponders. Four weeks after starting oral iron therapy, only 21.6% of anemic patients with ND-CKD and iron deficiency showed an Hb increase of at least 1 g/dL. Among early nonresponders, < 30% responded at any subsequent time point. Earlier consideration of alternative therapy could improve anemia management in this population.

  20. Medication-use evaluation with a Web application. (United States)

    Burk, Muriel; Moore, Von; Glassman, Peter; Good, Chester B; Emmendorfer, Thomas; Leadholm, Thomas C; Cunningham, Francesca


    A Web-based application for coordinating medication-use evaluation (MUE) initiatives within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system is described. The MUE Tracker (MUET) software program was created to improve VA's ability to conduct national medication-related interventions throughout its network of 147 medical centers. MUET initiatives are centrally coordinated by the VA Center for Medication Safety (VAMedSAFE), which monitors the agency's integrated databases for indications of suboptimal prescribing or drug therapy monitoring and adverse treatment outcomes. When a pharmacovigilance signal is detected, VAMedSAFE identifies "trigger groups" of at-risk veterans and uploads patient lists to the secure MUET application, where locally designated personnel (typically pharmacists) can access and use the data to target risk-reduction efforts. Local data on patient-specific interventions are stored in a centralized database and regularly updated to enable tracking and reporting for surveillance and quality-improvement purposes; aggregated data can be further analyzed for provider education and benchmarking. In a three-year pilot project, the MUET program was found effective in promoting improved prescribing of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and enhanced laboratory monitoring of ESA-treated patients in all specified trigger groups. The MUET initiative has since been expanded to target other high-risk drugs, and efforts are underway to refine the tool for broader utility. The MUET application has enabled the increased standardization of medication safety initiatives across the VA system and may serve as a useful model for the development of pharmacovigilance tools by other large integrated health care systems.

  1. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.


    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  2. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care


    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  3. Agent independent task planning (United States)

    Davis, William S.


    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  4. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies (United States)

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme


    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  5. Hubble space telescope servicing mission joint ESA/BAE UK technical press briefing Wednesday 10 March 1993 (United States)


    On Wednesday 10 March 1993 astronauts from ESA and NASA will be at British Aerospace Space Systems Limited, Filton, Bristol, UK, training on the replacement set of solar arrays which they are scheduled to fit to the Hubble Space Telescope at year end. You are invited to attend a technical briefing on that day, which will be given by senior representatives of the European Space Agency and British Aerospace. The briefing will include details of the design modifications and status of the solar arrays, together with a brief overview of the scientific results already achieved by the teams of astronomers using the telescope. There will be an opportunity for interviews with the mission specialists in the crew of NASA's Space Shuttle flight STS-61, who will be carrying out the servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope in a series of "Extra-Vehicular Activities - EVA' (space-walks). Five astronauts are expected : Story Musgrave, Colonel Tom Akers, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Kathryn C. Thornton from NASA and Claude Nicollier from ESA. There will also be a chance to view the solar arrays in the British Aerospace clean room area where the astronauts are working on their familiarisation programme. The briefing will take place on Wednesday 10 March 1993 at British Aerospace Space Systems, Filton, Bristol, UK (on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol). The event will begin at 10h30 a.m. and end with a buffet lunch running from approximately 01h30 p.m. to 02h30 p.m. In order to assists with arrangements for travel to and from bristol, British Aerospace proposes to run a free coach from and to London Victoria Coach Station - if there proves to be sufficient press interest. This coach would depart from London at approximately 07h50 a.m. and arrive back at around 05h30 p.m. Further details will be available on request when numbers are known. In order to gain access to the site and the briefing it is essential that all attendees are expected and their names are provided in

  6. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics]. (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N


    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  7. Teaching tourism change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John


    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  8. The Oxford Questionnaire on the Emotional Side-effects of Antidepressants (OQuESA): development, validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. (United States)

    Price, Jonathan; Cole, Victoria; Doll, Helen; Goodwin, Guy M


    Some patients with major depression report a restricted range of emotions that may appear to arise as a side-effect of treatment with antidepressants. It is uncertain whether this phenomenon, sometimes called emotional blunting, represents residual symptoms of depression or side-effects of antidepressant treatment. There is currently no adequate instrument to measure this phenomenon. A draft questionnaire was developed from patient-derived qualitative data, refined using cognitive interviewing, and administered on three occasions to patients taking antidepressants. Statistical methods including factor analysis were used to reduce the size of the draft questionnaire, and to assess the performance of the resulting Oxford Questionnaire on the Emotional Side-effects of Antidepressants (OQuESA). 207 patients completed the OQuESA on at least one occasion. Their BDI-II scores and self-reported emotional blunting were spread across the possible range. The factor analysis resulted in four dimensions: 'not caring', 'emotional detachment', 'reduction in positive emotions', and 'general reduction in emotions'. The OQuESA appears to be acceptable, valid, and reliable, with sensitivity to change. The OQuESA offers promise as an effective self-report measure of the symptoms of emotional blunting in patients with depression. It can be used as a clinical tool, to facilitate the identification of patients with the syndrome of emotional blunting. It should also be used in research studies, to advance our understanding of the nature, causes and treatment of this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary results from the ESA STSE project on SST diurnal variability, its regional extent and implications in atmospheric modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Høyer, Jacob L.


    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR...

  10. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter


    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  11. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler


    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  12. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission (United States)

    Dekoulis, George


    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  13. Wavefront error measurement of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph on ESA Solar Orbiter mission (United States)

    Sandri, P.


    The paper describes the alignment technique developed for the wavefront error measurement of ellipsoidal mirrors presenting a central hole. The achievement of a good alignment with a classic setup at the finite conjugates when mirrors are uncoated cannot be based on the identification and materialization at naked eye of the retro-reflected spot by the mirror under test as the intensity of the retro-reflected spot results to be ≈1E-3 of the intensity of the injected laser beam of the interferometer. We present the technique developed for the achievement of an accurate alignment in the setup at the finite conjugate even in condition of low intensity based on the use of an autocollimator adjustable in focus position and a small polished flat surface on the rear side of the mirror. The technique for the alignment has successfully been used for the optical test of the concave ellipsoidal mirrors of the METIS coronagraph of the ESA Solar Orbiter mission. The presented method results to be advantageous in terms of precision and of time saving also when the mirrors are reflective coated and integrated into their mechanical hardware.

  14. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.


    CERN Multimedia



    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  16. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.


    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  17. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  18. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias


    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  19. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.


    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  20. A waterproofing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.


    A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.

  1. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola


    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  2. E-Learning Agents (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  3. Topical antifungal agents: an update. (United States)

    Diehl, K B


    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  4. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    ). Other differential expression was observed for genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellum formation and nitrogen metabolism. Except genes related to oxidoreduction system, the same group of genes were found in the simulated microgravity study. Transcriptomic data were combined to LC-MS/MS proteomic data collected from the same R. rubrum samples since parallel profiling of mRNA and protein on a global scale could provide insight into metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. These results indicate that low doses of ionising radiation and changes in gravity on life-support microorganisms have observable effects and deserve specific attention in the perspective of long term space missions. The presented project was financially supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) (PRODEX agreements No C90247 and No 90094). We are grateful to C. Lasseur and C. Pailĺ, both from ESTEC/ESA, e for their constant support and advice.

  5. In Vivo Microdialysis and Electroencephalographic Activity in Freely Moving Guinea Pigs Exposed to Organophosphorus Nerve Agents Sarin and VX: Analysis of Acetylcholine and Glutamate (United States)


    support the idea that there is a triphasic NT model for onset and progression of seizures and subsequent brain damage upon acute exposure to nerve agent...col- umn reactor (ACH-SPR Part No. 70-0640), and analytical cell (Model 5040) were all obtained from ESA Biosci- ences, Inc. (Chelmsford, MA...injection volume was 10 ll. To facilitate EC detection, a post-column reactor was utilized to convert ACh and Ch to hydrogen peroxide. The signal from

  6. An improved version of the Shadow Position Sensor readout electronics on-board the ESA PROBA-3 Mission (United States)

    Noce, V.; Focardi, M.; Buckley, S.; Bemporad, A.; Fineschi, S.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Loreggia, D.; Casti, M.; Romoli, M.; Accatino, L.; Thizy, C.; Denis, F.; Ledent, P.


    PROBA-3 [1] [2] is a Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) composed by two satellites flying in formation and aimed at achieving unprecedented performance in terms of relative positioning. The mission purpose is, in first place, technological: the repeated formation break and acquisition during each orbit (every about twenty hours) will be useful to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop control system in keeping the formation-flying (FF) and attitude (i.e. the alignment with respect to the Sun) of the system. From the scientific side, instead, the two spacecraft will create a giant instrument about 150 m long: an externally occulted coronagraph named ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun) dedicated to the study of the inner part of the visible solar corona. The two satellites composing the mission are: the Coronagraph Spacecraft (CSC), hosting the Coronagraph Instrument (CI), and the disk-shaped (1.4 m diameter) Occulter Spacecraft (OSC). The PROBA-3 GNC (Guidance, Navigation and Control) system will employ several metrological subsystems to keep and retain the desired relative position and the absolute attitude (i.e. with respect to the Sun) of the aligned spacecraft, when in observational mode. The SPS subsystem [5] is one of these metrological instruments. It is composed of eight silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), sensors operated in photovoltaic mode [6] that will sense the penumbra light around the Instrument's pupil so to detect any FF displacement from the nominal position. In proximity of the CDR (Critical Design Review) phase, we describe in the present paper the changes occurred to design in the last year in consequence of the tests performed on the SPS Breadboard (Evaluation Board, EB) and the SPS Development Model (DM) and that will finally lead to the realization of the flight version of the SPS system.

  7. Lunar Net—a proposal in response to an ESA M3 call in 2010 for a medium sized mission (United States)

    Smith, Alan; Crawford, I. A.; Gowen, Robert Anthony; Ambrosi, R.; Anand, M.; Banerdt, B.; Bannister, N.; Bowles, N.; Braithwaite, C.; Brown, P.; Chela-Flores, J.; Cholinser, T.; Church, P.; Coates, A. J.; Colaprete, T.; Collins, G.; Collinson, G.; Cook, T.; Elphic, R.; Fraser, G.; Gao, Y.; Gibson, E.; Glotch, T.; Grande, M.; Griffiths, A.; Grygorczuk, J.; Gudipati, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heldmann, J.; Hood, L. L.; Jones, A. P.; Joy, K. H.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kramer, G.; Lawrence, D.; Marczewski, W.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Miljkovic, K.; Narendranath, S.; Palomba, E.; Phipps, A.; Pike, W. T.; Pullan, D.; Rask, J.; Richard, D. T.; Seweryn, K.; Sheridan, S.; Sims, M.; Sweeting, M.; Swindle, T.; Talboys, D.; Taylor, L.; Teanby, N.; Tong, V.; Ulamec, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Wilson, L.; Wright, I.


    Emplacement of four or more kinetic penetrators geographically distributed over the lunar surface can enable a broad range of scientific exploration objectives of high priority and provide significant synergy with planned orbital missions. Whilst past landed missions achieved a great deal, they have not included a far-side lander, or investigation of the lunar interior apart from a very small area on the near side. Though the LCROSS mission detected water from a permanently shadowed polar crater, there remains in-situ confirmation, knowledge of concentration levels, and detailed identification of potential organic chemistry of astrobiology interest. The planned investigations will also address issues relating to the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system and other Solar System planetary bodies. Manned missions would be enhanced with use of water as a potential in-situ resource; knowledge of potential risks from damaging surface Moonquakes, and exploitation of lunar regolith for radiation shielding. LunarNet is an evolution of the 2007 LunarEX proposal to ESA (European Space Agency) which draws on recent significant advances in mission definition and feasibility. In particular, the successful Pendine full-scale impact trials have proved impact survivability for many of the key technology items, and a penetrator system study has greatly improved the definition of descent systems, detailed penetrator designs, and required resources. LunarNet is hereby proposed as an exciting stand-alone mission, though is also well suited in whole or in-part to contribute to the jigsaw of upcoming lunar missions, including that of a significant element to the ILN (International Lunar Network).

  8. Examining Environmental Gradients with satellite data in permafrost regions - the current state of the ESA GlobPermafrost initative (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Bartsch, A.; Kääb, A.; Westermann, S.; Strozzi, T.; Wiesmann, A.; Duguay, C. R.; Seifert, F. M.; Obu, J.; Nitze, I.; Heim, B.; Haas, A.; Widhalm, B.


    Permafrost cannot be directly detected from space, but many surface features of permafrost terrains and typical periglacial landforms are observable with a variety of EO sensors ranging from very high to medium resolution at various wavelengths. In addition, landscape dynamics associated with permafrost changes and geophysical variables relevant for characterizing the state of permafrost, such as land surface temperature or freeze-thaw state can be observed with spaceborne Earth Observation. Suitable regions to examine environmental gradients across the Arctic have been defined in a community white paper (Bartsch et al. 2014, hdl:10013/epic.45648.d001). These transects have been revised and adjusted within the DUE GlobPermafrost initiative of the European Space Agency. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements Earth Observation (EO) products to support research communities and international organisations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Prototype product cases will cover different aspects of permafrost by integrating in situ measurements of subsurface and surface properties, Earth Observation, and modelling to provide a better understanding of permafrost today. The project will extend local process and permafrost monitoring to broader spatial domains, support permafrost distribution modelling, and help to implement permafrost landscape and feature mapping in a GIS framework. It will also complement active layer and thermal observing networks. Both lowland (latitudinal) and mountain (altitudinal) permafrost issues are addressed. The status of the Permafrost Information System and first results will be presented. Prototypes of GlobPermafrost datasets include: Modelled mean annual ground temperature by use of land surface temperature and snow water equivalent from satellites Land surface characterization including shrub height, land cover and parameters related to surface roughness Trends from

  9. Improvements of Storm Surge Modelling in the Gulf of Venice with Satellite Data: The ESA Due Esurge-Venice Project (United States)

    De Biasio, F.; Bajo, M.; Vignudelli, S.; Papa, A.; della Valle, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Donlon, C.; Zecchetto, S.


    Among the most detrimental natural phenomena, storm surges heavily endanger the environment, the economy and the everyday life of sea-side countries and coastal zones. Considering that 120.000.000 people live in the Mediterranean area, with additional 200.000.000 presences in Summer for tourism purposes, the correct prediction of storm surges is crucial to avoid fatalities and economic losses. Earth Observation (EO) can play an important role in operational storm surge forecasting, yet it is not widely diffused in the storm surge community. In 2011 the European Space Agency (ESA), through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, financed two projects aimed at encouraging the uptake of EO data in this sector: eSurge and eSurge-Venice (eSV). The former was intended to address the issues of a wider users' community, while the latter was focused on a restricted geographical area: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Venice. Among the objectives of the two projects there were a number of storm surge hindcast experiments using satellite data, to demonstrate the improvements on the surge forecast brought by EO. We report here the results of the hindcast experiments of the eSV project. They were aimed to test the sensitivity of a storm surge model to a forcing wind field modified with scatterometer data in order to reduce the bias between simulated and observed winds. Hindcast experiments were also performed to test the response of the storm surge model to the assimilation, with a dual 4D-Var system, of satellite altimetry observations as model errors of the initial state of the sea surface level. Remarkable improvements on the storm surge forecast have been obtained for what concerns the modified model wind forcing. Encouraging results have been obtained also in the assimilation experiments.

  10. Halon firefighting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.R.; Dalzell, G.A.


    This paper examines the current state of the International agreements on the use of halons and the subsequent National and industry approaches to the subject. It examines the definition of Essential Use and gives particular examples to clarify its interpretation. Alternative methods of loss control are reviewed. It does not address alternative active firefighting agents but examines the need for protection in particular areas. It addresses reduction of the hazards and consequences so that the need for protection can be minimized. Practical measures to minimize the installed quantities of halon are described. This covers specifications for new, essential, systems and the short term reduction of inventories in existing systems. The causes of leakage and accidental releases are studied and preventive measures are proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the current research into replacement agents and the future outlook

  11. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.


    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  12. Historical clinical and economic consequences of anemia management in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis using erythropoietin stimulating agents versus routine blood transfusions: a retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. (United States)

    Naci, Huseyin; de Lissovoy, Gregory; Hollenbeak, Christopher; Custer, Brian; Hofmann, Axel; McClellan, William; Gitlin, Matthew


    To determine whether Medicare's decision to cover routine administration of erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) to treat anemia of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been a cost-effective policy relative to standard of care at the time. The authors used summary statistics from the actual cohort of ESRD patients receiving ESAs between 1995 and 2004 to create a simulated patient cohort, which was compared with a comparable simulated cohort assumed to rely solely on blood transfusions. Outcomes modeled from the Medicare perspective included estimated treatment costs, life-years gained, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated relative to the hypothetical reference case of no ESA use in the transfusion cohort. Sensitivity of the results to model assumptions was tested using one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Estimated total costs incurred by the ESRD population were $155.47B for the cohort receiving ESAs and $155.22B for the cohort receiving routine blood transfusions. Estimated QALYs were 2.56M and 2.29M, respectively, for the two groups. The ICER of ESAs compared to routine blood transfusions was estimated as $873 per QALY gained. The model was sensitive to a number of parameters according to one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. This model was counter-factual as the actual comparison group, whose anemia was managed via transfusion and iron supplements, rapidly disappeared following introduction of ESAs. In addition, a large number of model parameters were obtained from observational studies due to the lack of randomized trial evidence in the literature. This study indicates that Medicare's coverage of ESAs appears to have been cost effective based on commonly accepted levels of willingness-to-pay. The ESRD population achieved substantial clinical benefit at a reasonable cost to society.

  13. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.


    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  14. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles


    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  15. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)


    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  16. ESA CryoVEx 2014 - Airborne ASIRAS radar and laser scanner measurements during 2014 CryoVEx campaign in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, S. M.; Nielsen, J. E.; Sørensen, L. Sandberg

    the penetration depth of the ASIRAS radar. An opportunity site on the Greenland Ice Sheet was surveyed near Jakobshavn Isbræ. No other ground experiments were coordinated with the CryoVEx campaing on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The CryoVEx 2014 campaign was a success and the processed data is of high quality......This report outlines the airborne field operations with the ESA airborne Ku‐band interferometric radar (ASIRAS), coincident airborne laser scanner (ALS) and vertical photography to acquire data over sea‐ and land ice along validation sites and CryoSat‐2 ground tracks. The airborne campaign...... in the Beaufort Sea lead by US office of Naval Research (ONR) and north of Greenland as a dedicated ESA CryoVEx initiative. In addition, selected CryoSat‐2 ground tracks were under‐flown in the Lincoln Sea from CFS Alert, North of Greenland and Svalbard from St. Nord and Longyearbyen. Several of the flights...

  17. Gross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992-2015) (United States)

    Li, Wei; MacBean, Natasha; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Lamarche, Céline; Bontemps, Sophie; Houghton, Richard A.; Peng, Shushi


    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) impacts local energy and water balance and contributes on global scale to a net carbon emission to the atmosphere. The newly released annual ESA CCI (climate change initiative) land cover maps provide continuous land cover changes at 300 m resolution from 1992 to 2015, and can be used in land surface models (LSMs) to simulate LULCC effects on carbon stocks and on surface energy budgets. Here we investigate the absolute areas and gross and net changes in different plant functional types (PFTs) derived from ESA CCI products. The results are compared with other datasets. Global areas of forest, cropland and grassland PFTs from ESA are 30.4, 19.3 and 35.7 million km2 in the year 2000. The global forest area is lower than that from LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), Hansen et al. (2013) or Houghton and Nassikas (2017) while cropland area is higher than LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), in which cropland area is from HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016). Gross forest loss and gain during 1992-2015 are 1.5 and 0.9 million km2 respectively, resulting in a net forest loss of 0.6 million km2, mainly occurring in South and Central America. The magnitudes of gross changes in forest, cropland and grassland PFTs in the ESA CCI are smaller than those in other datasets. The magnitude of global net cropland gain for the whole period is consistent with HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016), but most of the increases happened before 2004 in ESA and after 2007 in HYDE 3.2. Brazil, Bolivia and Indonesia are the countries with the largest net forest loss from 1992 to 2015, and the decreased areas are generally consistent with those from Hansen et al. (2013) based on Landsat 30 m resolution images. Despite discrepancies compared to other datasets, and uncertainties in converting into PFTs, the new ESA CCI products provide the first detailed long-term time series of land-cover change and can be implemented in LSMs to characterize recent carbon dynamics

  18. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    The Sea Ice Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by GCOS pertains of both sea ice concentration, thickness, and drift. Now in its second phase, the ESA CCI Sea Ice project is conducting the necessary research efforts to address sea ice drift.Accurate estimates of sea ice drift direction an...... in the final product. This contribution reviews the motivation for the work, the plans for sea ice drift algorithms intercomparison and selection, and early results from our activity....

  19. Assimilation of the ESA CCI Soil Moisture ACTIVE and PASSIVE Product into the SURFEX Land Surface Model using the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (United States)

    Blyverket, J.; Hamer, P.; Bertino, L.; Lahoz, W. A.


    The European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative for soil moisture (ESA CCI SM) was initiated in 2012 for a period of six years, the objective for this period was to produce the most complete and consistent global soil moisture data record based on both active and passive sensors. The ESA CCI SM products consist of three surface soil moisture datasets: The ACTIVE product and the PASSIVE product were created by fusing scatterometer and radiometer soil moisture data, respectively. The COMBINED product is a blended product based on the former two datasets. In this study we assimilate globally both the ACTIVE and PASSIVE product at a 25 km spatial resolution. The different satellite platforms have different overpass times, an observation is mapped to the hours 00.00, 06.00, 12.00 or 18.00 if it falls within a 3 hour window centred at these times. We use the SURFEX land surface model with the ISBA diffusion scheme for the soil hydrology. For the assimilation routine we apply the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF). The land surface model is driven by perturbed MERRA-2 atmospheric forcing data, which has a temporal resolution of one hour and is mapped to the SURFEX model grid. Bias between the land surface model and the ESA CCI product is removed by cumulative distribution function (CDF) matching. This work is a step towards creating a global root zone soil moisture product from the most comprehensive satellite surface soil moisture product available. As a first step we consider the period from 2010 - 2016. This allows for comparison against other global root zone soil moisture products (SMAP Level 4, which is independent of the ESA CCI SM product).

  20. Three-agent Peer Evaluation


    Vicki Knoblauch


    I show that every rule for dividing a dollar among three agents impartially (so that each agent's share depends only on her evaluation by her associates) underpays some agent by at least one-third of a dollar for some consistent profile of evaluations. I then produce an impartial division rule that never underpays or overpays any agent by more than one-third of a dollar, and for most consistent evaluation profiles does much better.

  1. Agent control of cooperating satellites


    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei


    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  2. Believable Social and Emotional Agents. (United States)


    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  3. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R


    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  4. Chemical warfare agents (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.


    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  5. Generation of Digital Surface Models from satellite photogrammetry: the DSM-OPT service of the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP) (United States)

    Stumpf, André; Michéa, David; Malet, Jean-Philippe


    The continuously increasing fleet of agile stereo-capable very-high resolution (VHR) optical satellites has facilitated the acquisition of multi-view images of the earth surface. Theoretical revisit times have been reduced to less than one day and the highest spatial resolution which is commercially available amounts now to 30 cm/pixel. Digital Surface Models (DSM) and point clouds computed from such satellite stereo-acquisitions can provide valuable input for studies in geomorphology, tectonics, glaciology, hydrology and urban remote sensing The photogrammetric processing, however, still requires significant expertise, computational resources and costly commercial software. To enable a large Earth Science community (researcher and end-users) to process easily and rapidly VHR multi-view images, the work targets the implementation of a fully automatic satellite-photogrammetry pipeline (i.e DSM-OPT) on the ESA Geohazards Exploitation Platform (GEP). The implemented pipeline is based on the open-source photogrammetry library MicMac [1] and is designed for distributed processing on a cloud-based infrastructure. The service can be employed in pre-defined processing modes (i.e. urban, plain, hilly, and mountainous environments) or in an advanced processing mode (i.e. in which expert-users have the possibility to adapt the processing parameters to their specific applications). Four representative use cases are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the resulting surface models and ortho-images as well as the overall processing time. These use cases consisted of the construction of surface models from series of Pléiades images for four applications: urban analysis (Strasbourg, France), landslide detection in mountainous environments (South French Alps), co-seismic deformation in mountain environments (Central Italy earthquake sequence of 2016) and fault recognition for paleo-tectonic analysis (North-East India). Comparisons of the satellite-derived topography to airborne

  6. IR detectors for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument payload for the METOP-1 ESA polar platform (United States)

    Royer, Michel; Lorans, Dominique; Bischoff, Isabelle; Giotta, Dominique; Wolny, Michel


    IASI is an Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer devoted to the operational meteorology and to atmospheric studies and is to be installed on board the second ESA Polar Platform called METOP-1, planned to be launched in the year 2000. The main purpose of this high performance instrument is to record temperature and humidity profiles. The required lifetime is 4 years. This paper presents the characteristics of the LW IR detection arrays for the IASI spectrometer which consist of HgCdTe de- tectors. SAT has to develop the Engineering Model, Qualification Model and Fight Models of detectors, each having 4 pixels and AR-coated microlenses in a dedicated space housing equipped with a flexible line and a connector. An array is composed of HgCdTe photoconductive detectors. For this long wavelength the array is sensitive from 8.26 micrometers to 15.5 micrometers . The detectors, with sensitive areas of 900 x 900 micrometers 2, are 100 K operating with passive cooling. High quality HgCdTe material is a key feature for the manufacturing of high performance photoconductive detectors. Therefore epitaxial HgCdTe layers are used in this project. These epilayers are grown at CEA/LETI on lattice matched CdZnTe substrates, by Te-rich liquid phase epitaxy, based on a slider technique. The Cd content in the layer is carefully adjusted to meet the required cut off wavelength on the devices. After growth of the epilayers, the samples are annealed under Hg pressure in order to convert them into N type mate- rials. The electrical transport properties of the liquid phase epitaxied wafers are, at 100 K, mobility (mu) over 150,000 cm2/V.s and electrical concentration N of 1.5 1015 cm-3, the residual doping level being 1014 cm-3 at low temperature. On these materials the feasibility study of long wavelength HgCdTe photoconductors has been achieved with the following results: the responsivity is 330 V/W. The bias voltage is Vp=300 mV for a 4 mW limitation of power for each element. The

  7. ASPIICS: a giant, white light and emission line coronagraph for the ESA proba-3 formation flight mission (United States)

    Lamy, P. L.; Vivès, S.; Curdt, W.; Damé, L.; Davila, J.; Defise, J.-M.; Fineschi, S.; Heinzel, P.; Howard, Russel; Kuzin, S.; Schmutz, W.; Tsinganos, K.; Zhukov, A.


    Classical externally-occulted coronagraphs are presently limited in their performances by the distance between the external occulter and the front objective. The diffraction fringe from the occulter and the vignetted pupil which degrades the spatial resolution prevent useful observations of the white light corona inside typically 2-2.5 solar radii (Rsun). Formation flying offers and elegant solution to these limitations and allows conceiving giant, externally-occulted coronagraphs using a two-component space system with the external occulter on one spacecraft and the optical instrument on the other spacecraft at a distance of hundred meters [1, 2]. Such an instrument ASPIICS (Association de Satellites Pour l'Imagerie et l'Interférométrie de la Couronne Solaire) has been selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to fly on its PROBA-3 mission of formation flying demonstration which is presently in phase B (Fig. 1). The classical design of an externally-occulted coronagraph is adapted to the formation flying configuration allowing the detection of the very inner corona as close as 0.04 solar radii from the solar limb. By tuning the position of the occulter spacecraft, it may even be possible to reach the chromosphere and the upper part of the spicules [3]. ASPIICS will perform (i) high spatial resolution imaging of the continuum K+F corona in photometric and polarimetric modes, (ii) high spatial resolution imaging of the E-corona in two coronal emission lines (CEL): Fe XIV and He I D3, and (iii) two-dimensional spectrophotometry of the Fe XIV emission line. ASPIICS will address the question of the coronal heating and the role of waves by characterizing propagating fluctuations (waves and turbulence) in the solar wind acceleration region and by looking for oscillations in the intensity and Doppler shift of spectral lines. The combined imaging and spectral diagnostics capabilities available with ASPIICS will allow mapping the velocity field of the corona both in the

  8. Report on ESA Topical Team on the Large Radius Human Centrifuge: "The Human Hypergravity Habitat; H3" (United States)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bücker, N.; Berte, J.; Bok, K.; Bos, J.; Boyle, R.; Bravenoer, N.; Chouker, A.; Clement, G.; Cras, P.; Denise, D.; Eekhoff, M.; Felsenberg, D.; Fong, K.; Fuller, C.; Groen, E.; Heer, M.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Iwase, S.; Karemaker, J. M.; Linnarsson, D.; Lüthen, C.; Narici, M.; Norsk, P.; Paloski, W.; Rutten, M.; Saggini, R.; Stephan, A.; Ullrich, O.; Vautmans, V.; Wuyts, F.; Young, L.

    Over the last decades a significant amount of knowledge has been accumulated on the adap-tation of the human body going into near weightless conditions and on its re-adaptation to 1g Earth conditions after space flight. Ground-based paradigms for microgravity simulation have been developed such as head down tilted bed rest and dry-immersion. In such systems the adaptations to long term immobilization and to head-ward fluid shifts have been studied. Questions we address here are: can long-term ground-based centrifugation help us to under-stand and even predict the adaptations to long-term increased gravity conditions? How does the body adapt to chronic (days, weeks or longer) exposure to a hypergravity environment? And, once the body has fully adapted to a hypergravity environment, how does it re-adapt going from a hypergravity state back to a relatively hypo-gravity condition of 1g, or even going from a centrifuge / hypergravity environment into a bed-rest setting? Can such transitions in well-controlled studies bring us closer to understanding the consequences of gravity transitions that the crews will likely experience going to the Moon or to Mars. Is hypergravity a good model to study the effect of re-entry in gravitational environments after long duration space flight? In an ESA -supported Topical Team we address all organ systems known so far to change directly or indirectly by altered gravity conditions. We will identify to which gravity levels the human body can be exposed for longer periods of time and what protocols could be applied to address the questions at hand. We also identify the technology required to ac-complish such long duration hypergravity and re-adaptation studies. Issues like ethics, safety and required logistics should be addressed. As there is limited experience with exposure of hu-man test subjects to prolonged periods of moderately increased g-forces, unexpected harm may occur. Therefore, the information, disclosure and informed consent

  9. Holograms as Teaching Agents (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.


    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  10. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.


    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  11. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia]. (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen


    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hong Sik


    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  13. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.


    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  14. A Composite Agent Architecture for Multi-Agent Simulations


    VanPutte, Michael; Osborn, Brian; Hiles, John


    CGF Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation The MOVES Institute’s Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior easier to create and control. This research has led to several techniques for agent construction, that includes a social and organization relationship management engine, a composite agent architecture, an agent goal apparatus, a structure for capturi...

  15. ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  16. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU


    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  17. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella


    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  18. Safety and efficacy of the CD95-ligand inhibitor asunercept in transfusion-dependent patients with low and intermediate risk MDS. (United States)

    Boch, Tobias; Luft, Thomas; Metzgeroth, Georgia; Mossner, Maximilian; Jann, Johann-Christoph; Nowak, Daniel; Meir, Franziska La; Schumann, Christiane; Klemmer, Jennifer; Brendel, Susanne; Fricke, Harald; Kunz, Claudia; Weiß, Christel; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Nolte, Florian


    In low risk MDS, increased apoptosis of erythroid progenitors mediated via CD95 (Fas) activation has been described to result in peripheral cytopenia. Blockade of the CD95 system can improve erythropoiesis in MDS. Asunercept (APG101) is a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human CD95 and the Fc domain of human IgG1 blocking the interaction between CD95 and its ligand. Here we report on results from a phase I study in 20 transfusion-dependent low and intermediate risk MDS patients treated with intravenous asunercept (EudraCT 2012-003027-37). Primary objectives were safety and tolerability as well as pharmacodynamic effects. Secondary objectives were hematologic improvement, incidence and time to leukemic progression as well as overall survival. Frequency and severity of adverse events were in range of what could be expected in a patient cohort comprising of elderly MDS patients. Two patients experienced a serious adverse event with a suspected relationship to asunercept. The incidence of disease progression was low. In the 20 patients a decrease of the transfusion need from a mean of 10,8 (±5,1) pRBCs during the 12 weeks treatment phase to a mean of 10,0 (±4,2) pRBCs at the end of the study was observed. In conclusion, asunercept was well tolerated and showed efficacy in transfusion-dependent low and intermediate risk MDS patients. Further clinical investigation is warranted, particularly in combination with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.


    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  20. Principals, agents and research programmes


    Elizabeth Shove


    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  1. A population approach to disease management: hepatitis C direct-acting antiviral use in a large health care system. (United States)

    Belperio, Pamela S; Backus, Lisa I; Ross, David; Neuhauser, Melinda M; Mole, Larry A


    The introduction of the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), telaprevir and boceprevir, marked a unique event in which 2 disease-changing therapies received FDA approval at the same time. Comparative safety and effectiveness data in real-world populations upon which to make formulary decisions did not exist. To describe the implementation, measurement, and outcomes of an enduring population-based approach of surveillance of medication management for HCV. The foundation of the population approach to HCV medication management used by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) relied upon a basic framework of (a) providing data for effective regional and local management, (b) education and training, (c) real-time oversight and feedback from a higher organization level, and (d) prompt outcome sharing. These population-based processes spanned across the continuum of the direct-acting antiviral oversight process. We used the VA's HCV Clinical Case Registry-which includes pharmacy, laboratory, and diagnosis information for all HCV-infected veterans from all VA facilities-to assess DAA treatment eligibility, DAA uptake and timing, appropriate use of DAAs including HCV RNA monitoring and medication possession ratios (MPR), nonconcordance with guidance for adjunct erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) use, hematologic adverse effects, discontinuation rates, and early and sustained virologic responses. Training impact was assessed via survey and change in pharmacist scope of practice. One year after FDA approval, DAAs had been prescribed at 120 of 130 VA facilities. Over 680 VA providers participated in live educational training programs including 380 pharmacists, and pharmacists with a scope of practice for HCV increased from 59 to 110 pharmacists (86%). HCV RNA futility testing improved such that only 1%-3% of veterans did not have appropriate testing compared with 15%-17% 6

  2. Evaluation and prioritization of stream habitat monitoring in the Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery Domain as related to the habitat monitoring needs of ESA recovery plans (United States)

    Puls, Amy L.; Anlauf Dunn, Kara; Graham Hudson, Bernadette


    The lower Columbia River and its tributaries once supported abundant runs of salmon and steelhead; however, there are five species currently listed under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). The National Marine Fisheries Service has completed, and is proposing for adoption, a comprehensive ESA Recovery Plan for the Lower Columbia Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) based on the recovery plans developed by Oregon and Washington. One of the primary factors attributed to the decline of these species is habitat degradation. There are numerous entities conducting status and/or trends monitoring of instream habitat in the lower Columbia River Basin, but because the programs were developed for agency specific reasons, the existing monitoring efforts are not well coordinated, and often lack the spatial coverage, certainty, or species coverage necessary to answer questions related to status and trends of the ESA listed populations. The Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership’s Integrated Status and Trends Monitoring (ISTM) project was initiated to improve integration of existing and new monitoring efforts by developing recommendations for sampling frames, protocols, and data sharing. In an effort to meet the ISTM project goals, five objectives were identified: (1) identify and prioritize decisions, questions, and monitoring objectives, (2) evaluate how existing programs align with these management decisions, questions, and objectives, (3) identify the most appropriate monitoring design to inform priority management decisions, questions, and objectives, (4) use trade-off analysis to develop specific recommendations for monitoring based on outcomes of Objectives 1-3 and (5) recommend implementation and reporting mechanisms. This report summarizes the effort to address Objectives 1 and 2, detailing the commonalities among the habitat characteristics that all entities measure and monitor, and how the metrics align with the priorities listed in the

  3. The Elbow Self-Assessment Score (ESAS): development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measurement tool for elbow disorders. (United States)

    Beirer, Marc; Friese, Henrik; Lenich, Andreas; Crönlein, Moritz; Sandmann, Gunther H; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Siebenlist, Sebastian


    To develop and validate an elbow self-assessment score considering subjective as well as objective parameters. Each scale of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system (BMS), the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) Questionnaire, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) was analysed, and after matching of the general topics, the dedicated items underwent a fusion to the final ESAS's item and a score containing 22 items was created. In a prospective clinical study, validity, reliability and responsiveness in physically active patients with traumatic as well as degenerative elbow disorders were evaluated. Validation study included 103 patients (48 women, 55 men; mean age 43 years). A high test-retest reliability was found with intraclass correlation coefficients of at least 0.71. Construct validity and responsiveness were confirmed by correlation coefficients of -0.80 to -0.84 and 0.72-0.84 (p Self-Assessment Score (ESAS), a valid and reliable instrument for a qualitative self-assessment of subjective and objective parameters (e.g. range of motion) of the elbow joint is demonstrated. Quantitative measurement of elbow function may not longer be limited to specific elbow disorders or patient groups. The ESAS seems to allow for a broad application in clinical research studying elbow patients and may facilitate the comparison of treatment results in elbow disorders. The treatment efficacy can be easily evaluated, and treatment concepts could be reviewed and revised. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  4. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA


    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  5. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic


    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe


    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  6. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.


    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  7. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.


    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  8. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  9. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict. (United States)

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  10. On the control of magnetic perturbing field onboard landers: the Magnetometer Protection program for the ESA ExoMars/Humboldt MSMO magnetometer experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menvielle, M.; Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter

    to planetary research. The major difficulty in implementing a magnetometer experiment onboard a lander is to achieve at acceptable costs a good Magnetometer Protection, namely to control the perturbing magnetic field generated by the lander during operations at the planetary surfa ce, so as to achieve...... scientific payload in the frame of the ESA ExoMars mission. Experience from previous missions constitutes the background for the MSMO Magnetometer Protection strategy. DC and AC lander generated magnetic perturbations are discussed, with particular attention to those related to solar generators. Emphasis...... and very resource consuming....

  11. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.


    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  12. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  13. Artificial agents learning human fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.; Padgham, xx; Parkes, xx


    Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be deployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, research in the field of behavioral

  14. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.


    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  15. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den


    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  16. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.


    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  17. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents (United States)

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  18. Una ciudad de los vascones en el yacimiento de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico-Sangüesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Pintado, Javier


    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the detailed and preliminary study of the archaeological site of Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico/Sangüesa, between today Zaragoza and Navarra provinces specially focusing in its Roman period. The paper exposes a review of the archeological and epigraphical material from the site, proposes an urban condition for it and raises some hypothesis on its identification with one of the cities that ancient sources tribued to Vascones.El presente trabajo aborda el estudio detallado y preliminar del yacimiento arqueológico de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico/Sangüesa, en el límite entre las actuales provincias de Zaragoza y Navarra con especial atención a su etapa romana. Se procede a la revisión del material arqueológico y epigráfico procedente del lugar, se defiende la condición de enclave urbano del yacimiento y se plantea una hipótesis respecto de su identificación con las ciudades que las fuentes antiguas atribuyen a los Vascones.

  19. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav


    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 209-219 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06075; GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : heterogeneous agent model * market structure * smart traders * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  20. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.


    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate [Renografin 76] were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk

  1. Agents Play Mix-game (United States)

    Gou, Chengling

    In recent years, economics and finance see the shift of paradigm from representative agent models to heterogeneous agent models [1, 2]. More and more economists and physicists made efforts in research on heterogeneous agent models for financial markets. Minority game (MG) proposed by D. Challet, and Y. C. Zhang [3] is an example among such efforts. Challet and Zhang's MG model, together with the original bar model of Arthur, attracts a lot of following studies [4-6]. Given MG's richness and yet underlying simplicity, MG has also received much attention as a financial market model [4]. MG comprises an odd number of agents choosing repeatedly between the options of buying (1) and selling (0) a quantity of a risky asset. The agents continually try to make the minority decision, i.e. buy assets when the majority of other agents are selling, and sell when the majority of other agents are buying. Neil F. Johnson [4, 5] and coworkers extended MG by allowing a variable number of active traders at each timestep— they called their modified game as the Grand Canonical Minority Game (GCMG). GCMG, and to a lesser extent the basic MG itself, can reproduce the stylized facts of financial markets, such as volatility clustering and fat-tail distributions.

  2. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.


    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  3. Immunological effects of hypomethylating agents. (United States)

    Lindblad, Katherine E; Goswami, Meghali; Hourigan, Christopher S; Oetjen, Karolyn A


    Epigenetic changes resulting from aberrant methylation patterns are a recurrent observation in hematologic malignancies. Hypomethylating agents have a well-established role in the management of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition to the direct effects of hypomethylating agents on cancer cells, there are several lines of evidence indicating a role for immune-mediated anti-tumor benefits from hypomethylating therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical and basic science literature for the effects of hypomethylating agents, including the most commonly utilized therapeutics azacitidine and decitabine, on immune cell subsets. We summarized the effects of hypomethylating agents on the frequency and function of natural killer cells, T cells, and dendritic cells. In particular, we highlight the effects of hypomethylating agents on expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors, leukemia-associated antigens, and endogenous retroviral elements. Expert commentary: In vitro and ex vivo studies indicate mixed effects on the function of natural killer, dendritic cells and T cells following treatment with hypomethylating agents. Clinical correlates of immune function have suggested that hypomethylating agents have immunomodulatory functions with the potential to synergize with immune checkpoint therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancy, and has become an active area of clinical research.

  4. Complex responses to alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.D.


    Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip analysis, we previously found that, upon exposure to the simple alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate, the transcript levels for about one third of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome (∼2,000 transcripts) are induced or repressed during the first hour or two after exposure. In order to determine whether the responsiveness of these genes has any relevance to the protection of cells against alkylating agents we have undertaken several follow-up studies. First, we explored the specificity of this global transcriptional response to MMS by measuring the global response of S. cerevisiae to a broad range of agents that are known to induce DNA damage. We found that each agent produced a very different mRNA transcript profile, even though the exposure doses produced similar levels of toxicity. We also found that the selection of genes that respond to MMS is highly dependent upon what cell cycle phase the cells are in at the time of exposure. Computational clustering analysis of the dataset derived from a large number of exposures identified several promoter motifs that are likely to control some of the regulons that comprise this large set of genes that are responsive to DNA damaging agents. However, it should be noted that these agents damage cellular components other than DNA, and that the responsiveness of each gene need not be in response to DNA damage per se. We have also begun to study the response of other organisms to alkylating agents, and these include E. coli, cultured mouse and human cells, and mice. Finally, we have developed a high throughput phenotypic screening method to interrogate the role of all non-essential S. cerevisiae genes (about 4,800) in protecting S. cerevisiae against the deleterious effects of alkylating agents; we have termed this analysis 'genomic phenotyping'. This study has uncovered a plethora of new pathways that play a role in the recovery of eukaryotic cells after exposure to toxic

  5. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  6. Dynamics of Three Agent Games


    Rador, Tonguc; Mungan, Muhittin


    We study the dynamics and resulting score distribution of three-agent games where after each competition a single agent wins and scores a point. A single competition is described by a triplet of numbers $p$, $t$ and $q$ denoting the probabilities that the team with the highest, middle or lowest accumulated score wins. We study the full family of solutions in the regime, where the number of agents and competitions is large, which can be regarded as a hydrodynamic limit. Depending on the parame...

  7. Bench to Bedside: Future Therapies For Treatment Of Anemia In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KM Murali


    Full Text Available The link between chronic kidney disease (CKD and anemia has been known for over 180 years ever since it was highlighted by the legendary Richard Bright. The key etiological factors responsible for anemia due to renal disease were identified in the 1950s as relative deficiency of erythropoietin and reduced red cell survival as well as abnormalities in iron metabolism. This knowledge was not translated to therapeutics for the next three decades and red cell transfusions were the main-stay of treatment of renal anemia till recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO was introduced in the 1980s. Recurrent transfusions, in addition to causing HLA sensitization, frequently resulted in iron overload with subsequent parenchymal iron deposition and organ dysfunction - a well-known scenario in the pre-erythropoetin era and use of iron chelation therapy was a feasible therapeutic option in long-term dialysis patients. This situation changed dramatically with the widespread clinical use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA, and polar opposite to the iron overload problems, most patient on erythropoietin therapy required oral or parenteral iron supplements to replenish iron stores for optimal erythropoiesis. Over the last three decades developments in molecular engineering lead to the modification of the original rHuEPO to longer acting analogues such as darbepoetin (Aranesp ® and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera ® and a raft of EPO biosimilars. In India, where the cost of medications constrains the universal access to ESA therapy, biosimilar erythropoetins offer a relative advantage in that they cost less than half the price of the premium brands. Nevertheless, the progress in clinically prescribed ESA therapy since the discovery of rHuEPO has resulted from modest modification of existing knowledge rather than a revolutionary break from convention. Over the last few years newer molecules capable of revolutionizing the therapy of renal

  8. FIND-CKD: a randomized trial of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anaemia. (United States)

    Macdougall, Iain C; Bock, Andreas H; Carrera, Fernando; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Gaillard, Carlo; Van Wyck, David; Roubert, Bernard; Nolen, Jacqueline G; Roger, Simon D


    The optimal iron therapy regimen in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Ferinject® assessment in patients with Iron deficiency anaemia and Non-Dialysis-dependent Chronic Kidney Disease (FIND-CKD) was a 56-week, open-label, multicentre, prospective and randomized study of 626 patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, anaemia and iron deficiency not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Patients were randomized (1:1:2) to intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), targeting a higher (400-600 µg/L) or lower (100-200 µg/L) ferritin or oral iron therapy. The primary end point was time to initiation of other anaemia management (ESA, other iron therapy or blood transfusion) or haemoglobin (Hb) trigger of two consecutive values <10 g/dL during Weeks 8-52. The primary end point occurred in 36 patients (23.5%), 49 patients (32.2%) and 98 patients (31.8%) in the high-ferritin FCM, low-ferritin FCM and oral iron groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR): 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.95; P = 0.026 for high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron]. The increase in Hb was greater with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (P = 0.014) and a greater proportion of patients achieved an Hb increase ≥1 g/dL with high-ferritin FCM versus oral iron (HR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.52-2.72; P < 0.001). Rates of adverse events and serious adverse events were similar in all groups. Compared with oral iron, IV FCM targeting a ferritin of 400-600 µg/L quickly reached and maintained Hb level, and delayed and/or reduced the need for other anaemia management including ESAs. Within the limitations of this trial, no renal toxicity was observed, with no difference in cardiovascular or infectious events. NCT00994318. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  9. Noncontraceptive use of contraceptive agents. (United States)

    Nickles, Monique Collier; Alderman, Elizabeth


    • On the basis of strong research evidence, there are many noncontraceptive advantages to use of hormonal contraceptive agents in adolescent girls. (3) (4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, most of these agents are safe with minor adverse effects. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, through application of evidence-based approaches and proper counseling, pediatricians can use various contraceptive agents to treat several medical conditions and to help alleviate many of the undesired symptoms and complications associated with menstrual periods. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13) (14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, these agents may be used in sexually active adolescents to simultaneously help prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14).

  10. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  11. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  12. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warfield, Kelly L; Panchal, Rekha G; Aman, M J; Bavari, Sina


    ... a variety of pathogens in cell culture studies and nonhuman primate models of infection. For these reasons, antisense technologies are being pursued as treatments against biothreat agents such as Ebola virus, dengue virus and Bacillus anthracis...

  13. Macroeconomic Policies and Agent Heterogeneity


    GOTTLIEB, Charles


    Defence date: 24 February 2012 Examining Board: Giancarlo Corsetti, Arpad Abraham, Juan Carlos Conesa, Jonathan Heathcote. This thesis contributes to the understanding of macroeconomic policies’ impact on the distribution of wealth. It belongs to the strand of literature that departs from the representative agent assumption and perceives agent heterogeneity and the induced disparities in wealth accumulation, as an important dimension of economic policy-making. Within such economic envir...

  14. Agents in E-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mencke


    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  15. Building Agents to Serve Customers


    Barbuceanu, Mihai; Fox, Mark S.; Hong, Lei; Lallement, Yannick; Zhang, Zhongdong


    AI agents combining natural language interaction, task planning, and business ontologies can help companies provide better-quality and more costeffective customer service. Our customer-service agents use natural language to interact with customers, enabling customers to state their intentions directly instead of searching for the places on the Web site that may address their concern. We use planning methods to search systematically for the solution to the customer's problem, ensuring that a r...

  16. Business Intelligence using Software Agents


    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA


    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  17. What makes virtual agents believable? (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon


    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  18. European SpaceCraft for the study of Atmospheric Particle Escape (ESCAPE): a planetary mission to Earth, proposed in response to the ESA M5-call (United States)

    Dandouras, I.; Yamauchi, M.; Rème, H.; De Keyser, J.; Marghitu, O.; Fazakerley, A.; Grison, B.; Kistler, L.; Milillo, A.; Nakamura, R.; Paschalidis, N.; Paschalis, A.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Sakanoi, T.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Yoshikawa, I.; Häggström, I.; Liemohn, M.; Tian, F.


    ESCAPE is a mission proposed in response to the ESA-M5 call that will quantitatively estimate the amount of escaping particles of the major atmospheric components (nitrogen and oxygen), as neutral and ionised species, escaping from the Earth as a magnetised planet. The goal is to understand the importance of each escape mechanism, its dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity, and to infer the history of the Earth's atmospheric composition over a long (geological scale) time period. Since the solar EUV and solar wind conditions during solar maximum at present are comparable to the solar minimum conditions 1-2 billion years ago, the escaping amount and the isotope and N/O ratios should be obtained as a function of external forcing (solar and geomagnetic conditions) to allow a scaling to the past. The result will be used as a reference to understand the atmospheric/ionospheric evolution of magnetised planets, which is essential for habitability.

  19. Interactions of ionic and nonionic contrast agents with thrombolytic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, J.; Moncada, R.; Scanlon, P.; Hoppensteadt, D.; Huan, X.; Walenga, J.M.


    Both the ionic and nonionic intravascular contrast media have been used before and after the administration of thrombolytic agents to evaluate clot lysis during angioplasty and the treatment of myocardial infarction. In experimental animal models, the authors found that the clot lytic efficacy of streptokinase, streptokinase-plasminogen complex, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is markedly augmented if these agents are administered within 1 hour after the angiographic producers. Furthermore, contrast agents injected after the administration of t-Pa exhibit a synergistic action. In stimulated models administration of one ionic contrast medium (Angiovist, Berlex, Wayne, NJ) and two nonionic contrast agents (Isovue-370, Squibb Diagnostics, New Brunswick, NJ; Omnipaque-350, Winthrop, NY) 15 minutes before the administration of t-PA resulted in marked enhancement of the lytic activity. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown at this time, it should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, in whom contrast agents are continually used to evaluate the therapeutic lysis. Furthermore, this interaction may be partly related to the therapeutic efficacy and/or hemorrhagic actions observed

  20. Characterizing ecosystem response to water supply changes inferred from GRACE drought severity index and surface soil moisture anomalies from ESA CCI and SMAP (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.


    Climate change such as more frequent heatwaves and drought is threatening our food security and ecosystem by reducing water supply to vegetation. Characterizing vegetation response to water supply changes is not only important for evaluating and mitigating climatic change impacts on ecosystem functions and services, but also to determine the feedback mechanisms that ecosystem response may generate on the climate itself. However, such characterization is not well-known at the global scale partly because large scale observations of underground water supply changes are limited. Satellite observations of soil moisture (SM) datasets such as from Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) do not penetrate more than a few centimeters and do not capture the entire root-zone. Here we employ a newly developed Drought Severity Index from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE-DSI) to complement SM observations by informing total water supply changes in the entire terrestrial hydrological cycle. We use MODIS vegetation indices as proxies for vegetation growth and investigate their seasonal and interannual variability in relation to GRACE-DSI. We find that total water supply constrains vegetation growth across the entire continental US. Water constraint begins at an earlier date of year and lasts for a longer period in the lower latitude than in the higher latitude. We also find that water constraint occurs at different phenological stages depending on vegetation type. For instance, water constrain forest growth during reproductive period in eastern US but constrain shrub land growth during green-up in Arizona (Fig. 1). In western United States, eastern Australia and the horn of Africa, we find that vegetation growth changes closely follows GRACE-DSI but can have 16-day to one-month delay with respect to SM anomalies from SMAP and ESA CCI. This suggests that in these regions, vegetation is sensitive to water

  1. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    -, č. 81 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Smart traders * price movements * smart traders concept Subject RIV: AH - Economics smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  2. Homeostatic Agent for General Environment (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoto


    One of the essential aspect in biological agents is dynamic stability. This aspect, called homeostasis, is widely discussed in ethology, neuroscience and during the early stages of artificial intelligence. Ashby's homeostats are general-purpose learning machines for stabilizing essential variables of the agent in the face of general environments. However, despite their generality, the original homeostats couldn't be scaled because they searched their parameters randomly. In this paper, first we re-define the objective of homeostats as the maximization of a multi-step survival probability from the view point of sequential decision theory and probabilistic theory. Then we show that this optimization problem can be treated by using reinforcement learning algorithms with special agent architectures and theoretically-derived intrinsic reward functions. Finally we empirically demonstrate that agents with our architecture automatically learn to survive in a given environment, including environments with visual stimuli. Our survival agents can learn to eat food, avoid poison and stabilize essential variables through theoretically-derived single intrinsic reward formulations.

  3. Validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from altimetry over the Jakobshavn Isbræ drainage basin, Greenland – Round Robin results from ESA's Ice_Sheets_CCI (ID #EGU2013-6007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Ticconi, Francesca

    elevation changes (SEC), surface velocities, calving front locations, and grounding line locations. This work focuses on SEC, and the goal is to develop the best routine for estimating this by means of radar altimetry. In order to find the most optimal approach we have completed a Round Robin experiment (RR......In order to ensure long-term climate records, ESA has launched the Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI), which puts focus on 13 different Essential Climate Variables, one of them being Ice Sheets. In this program, four selected key parameters will be determined for the Greenland Ice Sheet: Surface...

  4. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.


    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  5. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell


    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  6. Monitoring presence of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.M.


    The specification describes a case for use with a hand-portable chemical agent detector for continuously monitoring an atmosphere for the presence of predetermined chemical agents. The detector having means for ionizing air samples and providing at an output terminal electrical signals representative of the mobility spectrum of ionized chemical vapours produced by the ionizing means. The case comprises means for defining a chamber in the case for supporting and removably enclosing the detector, means for communicating ambient atmosphere to the chamber, electrical circuit means in the case, the circuit means being adapted to be detachably connected to the detector output terminal when the detector is positioned in the chamber and being responsive to the electrical signals for producing an alarm signal when the signals detect a chemical agent concentration in the atmosphere exceeding a predetermined concentration level, and alarm means responsive to the alarm signal. (author)

  7. Alkylating agents for Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia. (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Tan, Jianlong; Wu, Taixiang


    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow infiltration and production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. Uncertainty remains if alkylating agents, such as chlorambucil, melphalan or cyclophosphamide, are an effective form of management. To assess the effects and safety of the alkylating agents on Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008), the Chinese Biomedical Base (1982 to 2008) and reference lists of articles.We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings from 1990 to 2008. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing alkylating agents given concomitantly with radiotherapy, splenectomy, plasmapheresis, stem-cell transplantation in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of WM. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected adverse effects information from the trials. One trial involving 92 participants with pretreated/relapsed WM compared the effect of fludarabine versus the combination of cyclophosphamide (the alkylating agent), doxorubicin and prednisone (CAP). Compared to CAP, the Hazard ratio (HR) for deaths of treatment with fludarabine was estimated to be 1.04, with a standard error of 0.30 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.48) and it indicated that the mean difference of median survival time was -4.00 months, and 16.00 months for response duration. The relative risks (RR) of response rate was 2.80 (95% CI 1.10 to 7.12). There were no statistically difference in overall survival rate and median survival months, while on the basis of response rate and response duration, fludarabine seemed to be superior to CAP for pretreated/relapsed patients with macroglobulinaemia. Although alkylating agents have been used for decades they have never actually been tested in a proper randomised trial. This

  8. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA) (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.


    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  9. Imprecise Beliefs in a Principal Agent Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigotti, L.


    This paper presents a principal-agent model where the agent has multiple, or imprecise, beliefs. We model this situation formally by assuming the agent's preferences are incomplete. One can interpret this multiplicity as an agent's limited knowledge of the surrounding environment. In this setting,

  10. 2APL: a practical agent programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.


    This article presents a BDI-based agent-oriented programming language, called 2APL (A Practical Agent Programming Language). This programming language facilitates the implementation ofmulti-agent systems consisting of individual agents thatmay share and access external environments. It realizes

  11. Clustering recommendations to compute agent reputation (United States)

    Bedi, Punam; Kaur, Harmeet


    Traditional centralized approaches to security are difficult to apply to multi-agent systems which are used nowadays in e-commerce applications. Developing a notion of trust that is based on the reputation of an agent can provide a softer notion of security that is sufficient for many multi-agent applications. Our paper proposes a mechanism for computing reputation of the trustee agent for use by the trustier agent. The trustier agent computes the reputation based on its own experience as well as the experience the peer agents have with the trustee agents. The trustier agents intentionally interact with the peer agents to get their experience information in the form of recommendations. We have also considered the case of unintentional encounters between the referee agents and the trustee agent, which can be directly between them or indirectly through a set of interacting agents. The clustering is done to filter off the noise in the recommendations in the form of outliers. The trustier agent clusters the recommendations received from referee agents on the basis of the distances between recommendations using the hierarchical agglomerative method. The dendogram hence obtained is cut at the required similarity level which restricts the maximum distance between any two recommendations within a cluster. The cluster with maximum number of elements denotes the views of the majority of recommenders. The center of this cluster represents the reputation of the trustee agent which can be computed using c-means algorithm.

  12. Fundamental studies of oral contrast agents for MR. Comparison of manganese agent and iron agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Osamu; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Suginobu, Yoshito; Takeuchi, Masayasu; Narabayashi, Isamu


    We investigated and compared signal intensity and the effect of imaging the upper abdomen with blueberry juice (B.J.), a Mn agent utilizing the properties of paramagnetic metals, and FerriSeltz (F.S.), an iron agent. Since the relaxation effect was much stronger with B.J. than with F.S., the signal intensity required of a peroral contrast agent was able to be obtained at a much lower concentration of B.J. In imaging the upper abdomen, B.J. had a positive effect on imaging in T1-weighted images, and a negative effect in T2-weighted images. F.S. had a positive imaging effect in both, and because it showed extremely high signals in T2-weighted images, motion artifact arose. (author)

  13. Ten years of MIPAS measurements with ESA Level 2 processor V6 – Part 1: Retrieval algorithm and diagnostics of the products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raspollini


    Full Text Available The MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding instrument on the Envisat (Environmental satellite satellite has provided vertical profiles of the atmospheric composition on a global scale for almost ten years. The MIPAS mission is divided in two phases: the full resolution phase, from 2002 to 2004, and the optimized resolution phase, from 2005 to 2012, which is characterized by a finer vertical and horizontal sampling attained through a reduction of the spectral resolution. While the description and characterization of the products of the ESA processor for the full resolution phase has been already described in previous papers, in this paper we focus on the performances of the latest version of the ESA (European Space Agency processor, named ML2PP V6 (MIPAS Level 2 Prototype Processor, which has been used for reprocessing the entire mission. The ESA processor had to perform the operational near real time analysis of the observations and its products needed to be available for data assimilation. Therefore, it has been designed for fast, continuous and automated analysis of observations made in quite different atmospheric conditions and for a minimum use of external constraints in order to avoid biases in the products. The dense vertical sampling of the measurements adopted in the second phase of the MIPAS mission resulted in sampling intervals finer than the instantaneous field of view of the instrument. Together with the choice of a retrieval grid aligned with the vertical sampling of the measurements, this made ill-conditioned the retrieval problem of the MIPAS operational processor. This problem has been handled with minimal changes to the original retrieval approach but with significant improvements nonetheless. The Levenberg–Marquardt method, already present in the retrieval scheme for its capability to provide fast convergence for nonlinear problems, is now also exploited for the reduction of the ill-conditioning of

  14. The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview (United States)

    Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor


    The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable

  15. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan


    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  16. Real Estate Agent Commission Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Duarte


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among Procuring Cause Law, real estate agent years of experience, and real estate commission disputes. A pilot survey was conducted in the southwestern United States among real estate agents, realtor(s, and brokers. After testing the hypothesis, the decision was made to fail to reject the hypothesis and conclude that real estate agent experience and not Procuring Cause Law produced favorable outcomes in disputes. As a result, the following recommendations were made: (a Agency seller and buyer’s agreements should be used in each transaction to avoid disputes, (b proper expectations and guidelines should be reviewed prior to starting any real estate transaction, (c a checklist may assist in the assurance that all valuable information is reviewed, (d agents could benefit from fully understanding Procuring Cause Law and sharing this information with their clients, (e state and national regulatory requirements of the law could be modified for easier understanding and use, and (f consumers who willfully violate the law could be subject to monetary penalties.

  17. Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubble Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, M.L.J.; Vos, Henk; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Paradossi, Gaio; Pellegretti, Paolo; Trucco, Andrea


    Ultrasound contrast agents are traditionally used in ultrasound-assisted organ perfusion imaging. Recently the use of coated microbubbles has been proposed for molecular imaging applications where the bubbles are covered with a layer of targeting ligands to bind specifically to their target cells.

  18. Travel Agent. Occupational Simulation Kit. (United States)

    Peterson, Wayne

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the travel agent's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of what a travel…

  19. Why Do Extension Agents Resign? (United States)

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.


    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  20. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.


    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  1. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)


    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  2. Design of Collaborative Information Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Klusch, M.; Treur, J.; Klusch, M.; Kerschberg, L.


    Effective development of nontrivial systems of collaborative information agents requires that an in-depth analysis is made resulting in (1) specification of requirements at different levels of the system, (2) specification of design structures, and (3) a systematic verification. To support a

  3. FACT : forgiving agent comfort technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Akkermans, Hans; Jelsma, J.; Bakker, L.


    To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, a new control technology is needed in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Improvement of the energy consumption is offered by agent-based systems for energy management in buildings, as well as possibilities for enhancing the comfort

  4. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, J.; Trumper, J.


    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  5. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  6. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian


    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  7. Agent Supported Serious Game Environment (United States)

    Terzidou, Theodouli; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Miliou, Christina; Sourvinou, Athanasia


    This study proposes and applies a novel concept for an AI enhanced serious game collaborative environment as a supplementary learning tool in tertiary education. It is based on previous research that investigated pedagogical agents for a serious game in the OpenSim environment. The proposed AI features to support the serious game are the…

  8. Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.


    A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic

  9. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  10. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toru


    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  11. An open-label, sequential, dose-finding study of peginesatide for the maintenance treatment of anemia in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besarab Anatole


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peginesatide is a peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent that was designed and engineered to stimulate specifically the erythropoietin receptor dimer that governs erythropoiesis. The primary objective of this phase 2 dose-finding study was to determine the once-monthly peginesatide dosing strategy that would maintain hemoglobin within ±1.0 g/dL of baseline values after conversion from epoetin alfa; the safety of peginesatide was evaluated concurrently. Methods Chronic hemodialysis patients on stable regimens of epoetin alfa were sequentially assigned to cohorts that differed on (1 how the peginesatide starting dose was determined (using a single epoetin alfa–to-peginesatide dose conversion ratio or a tiered, weight-based or absolute-dose conversion table and on (2 whether or not a 1-week erythropoiesis-stimulating agent-free interval was used. Peginesatide doses were titrated to maintain hemoglobin levels within ±1.0 g/dL from baseline. Results A total of 164 patients were enrolled and received intravenous peginesatide every 4 weeks for up to 6 doses; the duration of the study including follow-up was ≤29 weeks. Overall, the proportion of patients with hemoglobin levels within ±1.0 g/dL of baseline increased over the course of the study from 39% (Weeks 2–13 to 54% (Weeks 18–25. Cohorts that used tiered dose conversion tables trended towards having more stable peginesatide doses than did those cohorts that used a single dose conversion ratio. Moreover, cohorts that used an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent-free interval did not have the substantial initial increase in hemoglobin levels that was seen in those cohorts that did not use such an interval. In this study, the safety profile of peginesatide was consistent with those of marketed erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Conclusions The results of this study were used to guide the dosing regimens used subsequently in phase 3 studies. Once

  12. Security Infrastructure and Applicationsfor Mobile Agents


    Shibli, Awais


    Research areas of this dissertation are security for mobile agents, for applications based on mobile agents, and for distributed network environments in which mobile agents execute. Mobile agents paradigm has captured researchers’ and industry’s interests long time ago because of its innovative capabilities and attractive applications. The ability of mobile agents to autonomously migrate from host to host, transferring their code and internal state, enables them to accomplish tasks in network...

  13. From SMART to agent systems development


    Ashri, R; Luck, M; d'Inverno, M


    In order for agent-oriented software engineering to prove effective it must use principled notions of agents and enabling specification and reasoning, while still considering routes to practical implementation. This paper deals with the issue of individual agent specification and construction, departing from the conceptual basis provided by the smart agent framework. smart offers a descriptive specification of an agent architecture but omits consideration of issues relating to\\ud construction...

  14. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.


    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  15. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.


    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  16. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others


    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  17. Evaluation of a Petition Requesting National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to List the Smooth Hammerhead Shark (Sphryna zygaena) as a Threatened or Endangered Species Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (United States)

    Sturm, A. B.


    The wildlife conservation organization, Defenders of Wildlife, petitioned NMFS to list the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphryna zygaena, as endangered or threatened throughout its range under the ESA. The petition was critically evaluated to determine if the petitioners presented substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the smooth hammerhead shark may warrant listing under the ESA. The petition and the cited scientific literature (as well as scientific literature readily available in NMFS files) were evaluated to determine if the smooth hammerhead shark may be threatened or endangered because of any one or a combination of the following five ESA section 4(a)(1) factors: (1) present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range; (2) over utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (3) disease or predation; (4) inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; (5) or other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. The available scientific literature indicates that the smooth hammerhead shark populations have declined in multiple regions. Smooth hammerhead sharks may warrant listing due to ongoing threats of over utilization for commercial purposes by global fisheries that target and retain incidental catch of these species to obtain their high-value fins, possible inadequacies in global regulatory mechanisms to control this level of exploitation, and natural factors (such as inherent biological vulnerabilities) that may be exacerbating these threats. Based on these findings, the smooth hammerhead shark may warrant listing as a threatened or endangered species under the ESA and a status review of the species is currently being conducted.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Egshatyan


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of parathyroidectomy and cinacalcet on anemia, lipid profile and blood pressure (BP in uremic hyperparathyroidism.Material and methods. Uremic patients (n=39 treated with hemodialysis and having secondary hyperparathyroidism were included into the study. Radical parathyroidectomy was performed in 21 patients, 18 patients were treated with cinacalcet. BP measurement, determination of blood levels of albumin, total calcium, phosphorus, total cholesterol (TC, low (LDL and high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, intact parathyroid hormone, and hemoglobin were performed in all patients initially and during treatment. Doses of antihypertensive and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were also assessed.Results. Calcium-phosphorus metabolism indices improved after 6 months of cinacalcet therapy and parathyroidectomy (p<0.05. BP reduction not requiring antihypertensive drugs dose adjustment was found in patients treated with cinacalcet. Significant BP reduction (p<0.05 was observed after parathyroidectomy and it required antihypertensive drugs cancellation or dose lowering. Cinacalcet therapy and parathyroidectomy led to increase in hemoglobin level by 2.02% (p=0.143 and 7.6% (p=0.029, respectively, as well as reduction in weekly dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating drugs by 2.7% (p=0.875 and 8.9% (p=0.751, respectively. Significant (p<0.05 decrease in LDL (5.6%, and triglycerides (23.7% levels was found in patients treated with cinacalcet. Reduction (p<0.05 in total cholesterol (1.4% and LDL (4.3% levels was observed after parathyroidectomy.Conclusion. The pleiotropic effects (reduction in BP and atherogenic lipids levels, as well as decrease in anemia resistant to the action of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were found after parathyroidectomy and cinacalcet therapy additionally to calcium-phosphorus metabolism improvement.

  19. Innovative agents in cancer prevention. (United States)

    Manson, Margaret M; Farmer, Peter B; Gescher, Andreas; Steward, William P


    There are many facets to cancer prevention: a good diet, weight control and physical activity, a healthy environment, avoidance of carcinogens such as those in tobacco smoke, and screening of populations at risk to allow early detection. But there is also the possibility of using drugs or naturally occurring compounds to prevent initiation of, or to suppress, tumour growth. Only a few such agents have been used to date in the clinic with any success, and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colon, finasteride for prostate and tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast tumours. An ideal chemopreventive agent would restore normal growth control to a preneoplastic or cancerous cell population by modifying aberrant signalling pathways or inducing apoptosis (or both) in cells beyond repair. Characteristics for such an agent include selectivity for damaged or transformed cells, good bioavailability and more than one mechanism of action to foil redundancy or crosstalk in signalling pathways. As more research effort is being targeted towards this area, the distinction between chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents is blurring. Chemotherapeutic drugs are now being designed to target over- or under-active signalling molecules within cancer cells, a philosophy which is just as relevant in chemoprevention. Development of dietary agents is particularly attractive because of our long-standing exposure to them, their relative lack of toxicity, and encouraging indications from epidemiology. The carcinogenic process relies on the cell's ability to proliferate abnormally, evade apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and metastasise to distant sites. In vitro studies with a number of different diet-derived compounds suggest that there are molecules capable of modulating each of these aspects of tumour growth. However, on the negative side many of them have rather poor bioavailability. The challenge is to uncover their multiple mechanisms of action in order to predict their

  20. Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine? (United States)

    Andrews, R. J.


    The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved

  1. European SpaceCraft for the study of Atmospheric Particle Escape (ESCAPE): a mission proposed in response to the ESA M5-call (United States)

    Dandouras, Iannis; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Rème, Henri; De Keyser, Johan; Marghitu, Octav; Fazakerley, Andrew; Grison, Benjamin; Kistler, Lynn; Milillo, Anna; Nakamura, Rumi; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Paschalis, Antonis; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Wieser, Martin; Wurz, Peter; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Häggström, Ingemar; Liemohn, Mike; Tian, Feng


    ESCAPE is a mission proposed in response to the ESA-M5 call that will quantitatively estimate the amount of escaping particles of the major atmospheric components (nitrogen and oxygen), as neutral and ionised species, escaping from the Earth as a magnetised planet. The spatial distribution and temporal variability of the flux of these species and their isotopic composition will be for the first time systematically investigated in an extended altitude range, from the exobase/upper ionosphere (500 km altitude) up to the magnetosphere. The goal is to understand the importance of each escape mechanism, its dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity, and to infer the history of the Earth's atmosphere over a long (geological scale) time period. Since the solar EUV and solar wind conditions during solar maximum at present are comparable to the solar minimum conditions 1-2 billion years ago, the escaping amount and the isotope and N/O ratios should be obtained as a function of external forcing (solar and geomagnetic conditions) to allow a scaling to the past. The result will be used as a reference to understand the atmospheric/ionospheric evolution of magnetised planets. To achieve this goal, a slowly spinning spacecraft is proposed equipped with a suite of instruments developed and supplied by an international consortium. These instruments will detect the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere escaping populations by a combination of in-situ measurements and of remote-sensing observations.

  2. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas


    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...

  3. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats. (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B


    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  4. Diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updike, S.J.


    The invention concerns a diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations. According to the invention, a binding protein (protein globulins, antibodies) of an aqueous solution specific for the substance to be determined is incorporated in gel particles of a strongly hydrophilic insoluble gel of controlled pore size. After subsequent drying of the system, a radioactively labelled form of the substance to be determined from a non-aqueous medium is included. The mixture is dried again. The diagnostic agent forred can be well stored and is very stable. There is no loss of activity of the specific bonding protein when drying according to the invented method. The described reagent can be effectively applied to the determination of many antigens and haptens: The gel is rehydrated by the sample to be investigated; as a result of this, the non-bonded tracer is set free and competes with the non-labelled substance for the bonding position. (VJ) [de

  5. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian


    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... hepatic encephalopathy that were published during 1979 to 1982 were included. Three trials assessed levodopa, and two trials assessed bromocriptine. The mean daily dose was 4 grams for levodopa and 15 grams for bromocriptine. The median duration of treatment was 14 days (range seven to 56 days). None...

  6. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi


    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  7. Behavior acquisition in artificial agents


    Thurau, Christian


    Computational skill acquisition in robots and simulated agents has been a topic of increasing popularity throughout the last years. Despite impressive progress, autonomous behavior at a level of animals and humans are not yet replicated by machines. Especially when a complex environment demands versatile, goal-oriented behavior, current artificial systems show shortcomings. Consider for instance modern 3D computer games. Despite their key role for more emersive game experience, surprisingly l...

  8. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents


    Jin, Yi


    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  9. Oral sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in anemic cancer patients without iron deficiency receiving darbepoetin alfa: a pilot study. (United States)

    Mafodda, Antonino; Giuffrida, D; Prestifilippo, A; Azzarello, D; Giannicola, R; Mare, M; Maisano, R


    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are often used in treatment of patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. Many studies have demonstrated an improved hemoglobin (Hb) response when ESA is combined with intravenous iron supplementation and a higher effectiveness of intravenous iron over traditional oral iron formulations. A new formulation of oral sucrosomial iron featuring an increased bioavailability compared to traditional oral formulations has recently become available and could provide a valid alternative to those by intravenous (IV) route. Our study evaluated the performance of sucrosomial iron versus intravenous iron in increasing hemoglobin in anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and darbepoetin alfa, as well as safety, need of transfusion, and quality of life (QoL). The present study considered a cohort of 64 patients with chemotherapy-related anemia (Hb >8 g/dL iron deficiency, scheduled to receive chemotherapy and darbepoetin. All patients received darbepoetin alfa 500 mcg once every 3 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of IV ferric gluconate 125 mg weekly or oral sucrosomial iron 30 mg daily. The primary endpoint was to demonstrate the performance of oral sucrosomial iron in improving Hb response, compared to intravenous iron. The Hb response was defined as the Hb increase ≥2 g/dL from baseline or the attainment Hb ≥ 12 g/dL. There was no difference in the Hb response rate between the two treatment arms. Seventy one percent of patients treated with IV iron achieved an erythropoietic response, compared to 70% of patients treated with oral iron. By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. There were also no differences in the proportion of patients requiring red blood cell transfusions and changes in QoL. Sucrosomial oral iron was better tolerated. In cancer patients with chemotherapy-related anemia receiving darbepoetin alfa, sucrosomial oral iron provides

  10. Definitive results of a phase III adjuvant trial comparing three chemotherapy regimens in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer: the NSABP B-38 trial. (United States)

    Swain, Sandra M; Tang, Gong; Geyer, Charles E; Rastogi, Priya; Atkins, James N; Donnellan, Paul P; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Azar, Catherine A; Robidoux, André; Polikoff, Jonathan A; Brufsky, Adam M; Biggs, David D; Levine, Edward A; Zapas, John L; Provencher, Louise; Northfelt, Donald W; Paik, Soonmyung; Costantino, Joseph P; Mamounas, Eleftherios P; Wolmark, Norman


    Anthracycline- and taxane-based three-drug chemotherapy regimens have proven benefit as adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This trial (NSABP B-38; Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer) asked whether the incorporation of a fourth drug could improve outcomes relative to two standard regimens and provided a direct comparison of those two regimens. We randomly assigned 4,894 women with node-positive early-stage breast cancer to six cycles of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC), four cycles of dose-dense (DD) doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of DD paclitaxel (P; DD AC→P), or DD AC→P with four cycles of gemcitabine (G) added to the DD paclitaxel (DD AC→PG). Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was required; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were used at the investigator's discretion. There were no significant differences in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (80.6% v 82.2%; HR, 1.07; P = .41), between DD AC→PG and TAC (80.6% v 80.1%; HR, 0.93; P = .39), in 5-year overall survival (OS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (90.8% v 89.1%; HR, 0.85; P = .13), between DD AC→PG and TAC (90.8% v 89.6%; HR, 0.86; P = .17), or between DD AC→P versus TAC for DFS (HR, 0.87; P = .07) and OS (HR, 1.01; P = .96). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities for TAC, DD AC→P, and DD AC→PG, respectively, were febrile neutropenia (9%, 3%, 3%; P < .001), sensory neuropathy (< 1%, 7%, 6%; P < .001), and diarrhea (7%, 2%, 2%; P < .001). Exploratory analyses for ESAs showed no association with DFS events (HR, 1.02; P = .95). Adding G to DD AC→P did not improve outcomes. No significant differences in efficacy were identified between DD AC→P and TAC, although toxicity profiles differed.

  11. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez


    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  12. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de


    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  13. Agent planning in AgScala (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana


    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  14. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen


    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3].......This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  15. ESA CryoVEx 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Einarsson, Indriði

    data obtained with an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) induction sounder conducted by Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) with fixed‐wing airplane (Polar‐5, Basler BT‐67). DTU Space airborne team visited five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing...

  16. ESA CryoVEx 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Einarsson, Indriði; Forsberg, René

    Institute (AWI) with fixed‐wing airplane (Polar‐5, Basler BT‐67). The airborne systems are described in detail, together with campaign implementation plan, data processing and data quality analysis. The CryoVEx 2012 campaign was a success and the processed data is of high quality. The data set includes 16...

  17. Arctic performance management / Esa Jauhola

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jauhola, Esa


    Põhja-Venemaa Barentsi regiooni ettevõtluskeskkonna spetsiifilistest karakteristikutest, ettevõtlusorientatsiooni mõjutavatest sise- ja välisteguritest, strateegilisest planeerimisest ja kvaliteedijuhtimisest seitsmes kohalikus ettevõttes november 2002 kuni veebruar 2005 läbiviidud uuringu põhjal. Skeem

  18. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María


    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  19. Aprendizaje de los roles de los agentes BIM en la organización de proyectos = Learning the roles of BIM agents in project management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Piña Ramirez


    Full Text Available Actualmente la metodología BIM se está desarrollando en todas las ramas de la construcción e ingeniería. La Unión Europea con la Directiva2014/24/UE marca un hito en el mercado, recomendando a los estados miembros el uso de BIM en sus proyectos, y España, por su parte está en fase de desarrollo de una transposición de esa directiva para implantar esa metodología, con el Ministerio de Fomento. Esta transformación del sector nos lleva a la necesidad de instituir profesionales de calidad cuya formación sea la competente para la inmersión en el mercado profesional existente. Por ello, el propósito de este artículo es exportar a la universidad el conocimiento de la relación entre las implicaciones de los agentes intervinientes en la metodología BIM y las fases de un proyecto. Este trabajo tiene como finalidad de conseguir una mejora en la enseñanza del Graduado en Ingeniería de la Edificación de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, hacia el cambio BIM. Abstract Currently the BIM methodology is being developed in all branches of construction and engineering. The European Union with the Directive2014/2/EU set a benchmark in the market, recommending to Member States the use of BIM in projects. Spain is actually in the process of developing a transposition of that directive to implement that methodology. This sector transformation makes it necessary to train professionals with adequate training to be immerse in the market. Therefore, the aim of this article is to export to the university the knowledge of the relationship between the implications of the intervening agents in the BIM methodology and the phases of a project. This has the purpose of obtaining an improvement in the teaching of the Graduate in Engineering of the Building of the Polytechnic University of Madrid, towards the BIM change.

  20. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew


    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  1. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents (United States)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh


    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  2. Prostate Activated Prodrugs and Imaging Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Graham B


    .... The substrate chosen was a 3 component system composed of a peptide sequence with affinity for PSA, an imaging agent and a deactivating bridge-linker, which electronically incapacitates the imaging agent...

  3. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li


    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  4. Protecting mobile agents from external replay attacks


    Garrigues Olivella, Carles; Migas, Nikos; Buchanan, William; Robles, Sergi; Borrell Viader, Joan


    Peer-reviewed This paper presents a protocol for the protection of mobile agents against external replay attacks. This kind of attacks are performed by malicious platforms when dispatching an agent multiple times to a remote host, thus making it reexecute part of its itinerary. Current proposals aiming to address this problem are based on storing agent identifiers, or trip markers, inside agent platforms, so that future reexecutions can be detected and prevented. The problem of these solut...

  5. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires (United States)

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene


    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  6. The ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station Area in the Framework of the SMOS Cal/Val AO Project no. 3252 (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.


    Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA defined and designed the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the purpose of repeating the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming that all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim was to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the campaign consisted of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish

  7. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin


    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  8. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.


    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  9. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong


    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  10. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt


    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  11. Modelling an Agent's Mind and Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Boman, M.


    In agent models often it is assumed that the agent maintains internal representations of the material world (e.g., its beliefs). An overall model of the agent and the material world necessarily incorporates sub-models for physical simulation and symbolic simulation, and a formalisation of the

  12. Switching dynamics of multi-agent learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancx, P.; Tuyls, K.P.; Westra, R.


    This paper presents the dynamics of multi-agent reinforcement learning in multiple state problems. We extend previous work that formally modelled the relation between reinforcement learning agents and replicator dynamics in stateless multi-agent games. More precisely, in this work we use a

  13. Animated BDP agents in virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Egges, A.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Zwiers, Jakob; Krose, B.; de Rijke, M.; Schreiber, G.; van Someren, M.


    We introduce a Believes, Desires and Plans (BDP) agent that acts in a virtual environment using multi-modal interaction with the user. The environment is our virtual theatre environment. In this environment different agents have been introduced. In order to obtain a more uniform framework for agent

  14. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 178.3860 Section 178.3860 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3860 Release agents. Substances listed in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as release agents in petroleum wax complying with § 178.3710 and in polymeric resins...

  15. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Release agents. Substances classified as release agents, when migrating from food-packaging material shall...

  16. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.


    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may

  17. Fairness in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.


    Multi-agent systems are complex systems in which multiple autonomous entities, called agents, cooperate in order to achieve a common or personal goal. These entities may be computer software, robots, and also humans. In fact, many multi-agent systems are intended to operate in cooperation with or as

  18. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, H.S.


    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  19. Effectiveness testing of spill-treating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Stoodley, R.; Laroche, N.


    Laboratory effectiveness tests are described for four classes of spill-treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Many treating agents in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness and the results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil, requiring a large amount of agent to solidify oil-ranging between 16% by weight, to over 200%. Emulsion breakers prevent or reverse the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. A newly-developed effectiveness test shows that only one product is highly effective; however, many products will work, but require large amounts of spill-treating agent. Surfactant--containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that an agent that is a good dispersant is conversely a poor surface-washing agent, and vice versa. Tests of surface-washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25-40%, where this effectiveness is the percentage of heavy oil removed from a test surface. Results using the 'swirling flask' test for dispersant effectiveness are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%. (author)

  20. Individualism and Collectivism in Trade Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.


    Agent-Based Modeling can contribute to the understanding of international trade processes. Models for the effects of culture and cultural differences on agent behavior are required for realistic agent-based simulation of international trade. This paper makes a step toward modeling of culture in