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Sample records for erythrocytes practical application

  1. Erythrocytes for Drug Delivery and their Applications: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , dogs, rabbits, rats and mice. Encapsulation in erythrocytes drastically changes the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in both animals and humans, enhancing liver and spleen uptake and targeting the reticulo-endothelial system (RES).

  2. Practical applications of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawn from the second edition of the best-selling Phosphor Handbook, Practical Applications of Phosphors outlines methods for the production of various phosphors and discusses a broad spectrum of applications. Beginning with methods for synthesis and related technologies, the book sets the stage by classifying and then explaining practical phosphors according to usage. It describes the operating principle and structure of phosphor devices and the phosphor characteristics required for a given device, then covers the manufacturing processes and characteristics of phosphors. The book discusses research and development currently under way on phosphors with potential for practical usage and touches briefly on phosphors that have played a historical role, but are no longer of practical use. It provides a comprehensive treatment of applications including lamps and cathode-ray tubes, x-ray and ionizing radiation, and for vacuum fluorescent and field emission displays and covers inorganic and organic electroluminescen...

  3. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes

  4. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio [Life Science Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Sony Bioinformatics Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Asami, Koji [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Division of Multidisciplinary Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihito.Hayashi@jp.sony.com

    2008-05-21

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  5. Tracing of erythrocytes in vitro with technetium-99 m: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    The human beings' erythrocytes were studied in vitro by the pre tinning method, using the pyrophosphate - Stannous Chloride Kit. Investigation of factors that can alter the labeling efficiency includes tin concentration, temperature and incubation period, besides of plasma concentration and hematocrit. It was seen that tin uptake by the red blood cells (RBC) was in an exponential fashion, with a reaction constant, K = 0,03 min -1 . The reaction approaches the equilibrium about the 90 minutes. The binding of Tc-99 m in the Acidic insoluble fraction occurs in greater amounts with more concentrated tin solutions. The labeled and heated TBC were used in vivo to scintigraphic investigation. Normal subjects, splenomegaly, accessory spleen and splenic function in sickel-cell disease were studied. Circulation time of labeled RBC appears to be greater in sickel-cell anemia than in controls or splenectomized patients. Uptake was greater in kidney than lungs and liver. (author)

  6. Erythrocyte-like hollow carbon capsules and their application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2010-12-14

    Hierarchical nanostructured erythrocyte-like hollow carbon (EHC) with a hollow hemispherical macroporous core of ca. 230 nm in diameter and 30-40 nm thick mesoporous shell was synthesized and explored as a cathode catalyst support in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The morphology control of EHC was successfully achieved using solid core/mesoporous shell (SCMS) silica template and different styrene/furfuryl alcohol mixture compositions by a nanocasting method. The EHC-supported Pt (20 wt%) cathodes prepared have demonstrated markedly enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) and greatly improved PEMFC polarization performance compared to carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC)-supported ones, probably due to the superb structural characteristics of the EHC such as uniform size, well-developed porosity, large specific surface area and pore volume. In particular, Pt/EHC cathodes exhibited ca. 30-60% higher ORR activity than a commercial Johnson Matthey Pt catalyst at a low catalyst loading of 0.2 mg Pt cm(-2).

  7. Very Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Morphologic Classification of Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Thomas J S; Olson, Eben M; Schulz, Wade L; Torres, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Morphologic profiling of the erythrocyte population is a widely used and clinically valuable diagnostic modality, but one that relies on a slow manual process associated with significant labor cost and limited reproducibility. Automated profiling of erythrocytes from digital images by capable machine learning approaches would augment the throughput and value of morphologic analysis. To this end, we sought to evaluate the performance of leading implementation strategies for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) when applied to classification of erythrocytes based on morphology. Erythrocytes were manually classified into 1 of 10 classes using a custom-developed Web application. Using recent literature to guide architectural considerations for neural network design, we implemented a "very deep" CNN, consisting of >150 layers, with dense shortcut connections. The final database comprised 3737 labeled cells. Ensemble model predictions on unseen data demonstrated a harmonic mean of recall and precision metrics of 92.70% and 89.39%, respectively. Of the 748 cells in the test set, 23 misclassification errors were made, with a correct classification frequency of 90.60%, represented as a harmonic mean across the 10 morphologic classes. These findings indicate that erythrocyte morphology profiles could be measured with a high degree of accuracy with "very deep" CNNs. Further, these data support future efforts to expand classes and optimize practical performance in a clinical environment as a prelude to full implementation as a clinical tool. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF QUALITY TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Pavletić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dealing with one segment of broader research of universality an systematicness in application of seven basic quality tools (7QC tools, which is possible to use in different areas: power plant, process industry, government, health and tourism services. The aim of the paper was to show on practical examples that there is real possibility of application of 7QC tools. Furthermore, the research has to show to what extent are selected tools in usage and what reasons of avoiding their broader application are. The simple example of successful application of the quality tools are shown on selected company in process industry.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte photo-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, W.T.; Souza, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The role of singlet oxygen and the lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane are studied. The irradiation of erythrocytes with visible light in the presence of a photodynamic mediator (toluidine blue) is reported. A system of light application by optical fiber, connected to a catheter is suggested for local instillation of the photosensitizing agent. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Application of the micronucleus test and comet assay in Trachemys callirostris erythrocytes as a model for in situ genotoxic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Orozco, Luz Yaneth; Palacio, Jaime A

    2016-05-01

    Trachemys callirostris is a turtle species endemic to northern South America. In northern Colombia it occurs in the middle and lower Magdalena River drainage and its principal tributaries (lower Cauca and San Jorge rivers) and in other minor drainages such as the lower Sinú River. In recent years, industrial, agricultural, and mining activities have altered natural habitats in Colombia where this species occurs, and many of the pollutants released there are known to induce genetic alterations in wildlife species. The micronucleus test and comet assay are two of the most widely used methods to characterize DNA damage induced by physical and chemical agents in wildlife species, but have not been employed previously for genotoxic evaluations in T. callirostris. The goal of this study was to optimize these genotoxic biomarkers for T. callirostris erythrocytes in order to establish levels of DNA damage in this species and thereby evaluate its potential as a sentinel species for monitoring genotoxic effects in freshwater environments in northern Colombia. Both genotoxic techniques were applied on peripheral blood erythrocytes from 20 captive-reared T. callirostris individuals as a negative control, as well as from samples obtained from 49 individuals collected in Magangué (Magdalena River drainage) and 24 individuals collected in Lorica (Sinú River drainage) in northern Colombia. Negative control individuals exhibited a baseline frequency of micronuclei of 0.78±0.58 and baseline values for comet tail length and tail moment of 3.34±0.24µm and 10.70±5.5, respectively. In contrast, samples from both field sites exhibited significantly greater evidence of genotoxic effects for both tests. The mean MN frequencies in the samples from Magangué and Lorica were 8.04±7.08 and 12.19±12.94, respectively. The mean tail length for samples from Magangué and Lorica were 5.78±3.18 and 15.46±7.39, respectively. Finally, the mean tail moment for samples from Magangué and

  11. Application of human erythrocytes to a radioimmune assay of immune complexes in serum. [Lupus erythematosus, type B hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, F; Miyakawa, Y; Mayumi, M [Tokyo Metropolitan Lab. of Public Health (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    An immune adherence receptor exists on the surface of primate erythrocytes, and has been characterized as a receptor for the activated third component of complement (C3b). Human red blood cells (RCBs, blood group O) were applied to a sensitive determination of complement-fixing, soluble immune complexes in serum. The method involved the binding of immune complexes with RBCs in the presence of complement and the detection of cell-bound IgG molecules by radiolabelled anti-human IgG antibodies. Since the binding of RBCs with monomeric IgG was minimal, cell bound IgG molecules were taken as representing immune complexes. When aggregated human gammaglobulin (AHG) was used as a model of immune complexes, as little as 5 ..mu..g dissolved in 1 ml of normal human serum were detected. The binding of RBCs with AHG was inhibited in EDTA solution where the classical complement pathway could not be activated. The RBC radioimmune assay was successfully applied to the determination of soluble immune complexes in pathological serum samples obtained from the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with fulminant Type B hepatitis. False-positive results by autoantibodies against RBCs could be excluded by a Coombs test and by comparing the binding in the presence of complement with that in EDTA solution. The ubiquitous availability of RBCs coupled with a high sensitivity would allow the RBC radioimmune assay to be used as a further method of determining immune complexes in the serum.

  12. Hepatic or splenic targeting of carrier erythrocytes: a murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocchi, E.; Guida, L.; Benatti, U.; Canepa, M.; Borgiani, L.; Zanin, T.; De Flora, A.

    1987-01-01

    Carrier mouse erythrocytes, i.e., red cells, subjected to a dialysis technique involving transient hypotonic hemolysis and isotonic resealing were treated in vitro in three different ways: (a) energy depletion by exposure for 90 min at 42 degrees C; (b) desialylation by incubation with neuroaminidase; and (c) oxidative stress by incubation with H 2 O 2 and NaN3. Procedure (c) afforded maximal damage, as shown by analysis of biochemical properties of the treated erythrocytes. Reinfusion in mice of the variously manipulated erythrocytes following their 51 Cr labeling showed extensive fragilization as indicated by rapid clearance of radioactivity from the circulation. Moreover, both the energy-depleted and the neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes showed a preferential liver uptake, reaching 50 and 75%, respectively, within 2 h. On the other hand, exposure of erythrocytes to the oxidant stress triggered a largely splenic removal, accounting for almost 40% of the reinjected cells within 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy of liver from mice receiving energy-depleted erythrocytes demonstrated remarkable erythrocyte congestion within the sinusoids, followed by hyperactivity of Kupffer cells and by subsequent thickening of the perisinusoidal Disse space. Concomitantly, levels of serum transaminase activities were moderately increased. Each of the three procedures of manipulation of carrier erythrocytes may prove applicable under conditions where selective targeting of erythrocyte-encapsulated chemicals and drugs to either the liver or the spleen has to be achieved

  13. Practical sonochemistry power ultrasound uses and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, T J

    2002-01-01

    This updated version of Practical Sonochemistry for advanced students and teachers in chemistry and chemical engineering conveys the increasing growth in applications and equipment to power ultrasound. Equipment now on the market offers a wider range of frequencies with more reproducible experimentation and a variety of scale-up systems. The book provides detailed descriptions of newer ultrasonic equipment and its applications, and practical laboratory uses of ultrasound technology for industrial scale performance.Modern exercises familiarise readers with recent sonochemical operations

  14. Gentic engineering for practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmüller, W

    1979-04-01

    Genetic engineering has ushered in a new era in biology. Although many problems are still to be solved, there are examples that point to a possible later application for the benefit of mankind: Bacteria can be manipulated to degrade crude-oil spillages, to produce human insulin and to bind nitrogen from the air. If all the bacteria that are indigenous to agricultural soils could be made to bind nitrogen, an increase in soil fertility might well result.

  15. Gentic engineering for practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingmuller, W.

    1979-04-01

    Genetic engineering has ushered in a new era in biology. Although many problems are still to be solved, there are examples that point to a possible later application for the benefit of mankind: Bacteria can be manipulated to degrade crude-oil spillages, to produce human insulin and to bind nitrogen from the air. If all the bacteria that are indigenous to agricultural soils could be made to bind nitrogen, and increase in soil fertility might well result.

  16. Towards New Web Application Development Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Poulymenakou

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce over the Internet, aims to become a global conveyor belt of business transactions. Web applications of increasing sophistication emerge in almost every business sector, reflecting a variety of technical and technological approaches. In this paper we argue that system developers need to reconsider their professional practices in the context of these new technologies by taking advantage of opportunities like short response cycles and easy diffusion of systems results, while they recognise the limitations of traditional practice. We discuss a framework of IS development issues for Internet based applications and propose guidelines towards new development practices.

  17. Practical Challenges for Digital Watermarking Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ravi K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of digital watermarking has recently seen numerous articles covering novel techniques, theoretical studies, attacks, and analysis. In this paper, we focus on an emerging application to highlight practical challenges for digital watermarking applications. Challenges include design considerations, requirements analysis, choice of watermarking techniques, speed, robustness, and the tradeoffs involved. We describe common attributes of watermarking systems and discuss the challenges in developing real world applications. Our application uses digital watermarking to connect ordinary toys to the digital world. The application captures important aspects of watermarking systems and illustrates some of the design issues faced.

  18. Structural Biology: Practical NMR Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, Quincy

    2005-01-01

    This textbook begins with an overview of NMR development and applications in biological systems. It describes recent developments in instrument hardware and methodology. Chapters highlight the scope and limitation of NMR methods. While detailed math and quantum mechanics dealing with NMR theory have been addressed in several well-known NMR volumes, chapter two of this volume illustrates the fundamental principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy in a more descriptive manner. Topics such as instrument setup, data acquisition, and data processing using a variety of offline software are discussed. Chapters further discuss several routine stategies for preparing samples, especially for macromolecules and complexes. The target market for such a volume includes researchers in the field of biochemistry, chemistry, structural biology and biophysics.

  19. Practical applications of coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The predictable nature of transition radiation (TR) emissions has been demonstrated under a wide variety of experimental conditions. The reliable character of TR allows the design of specific practical applications that use emissions from the optical to the x-ray spectral regions. Applications often can be enhanced by the spatial coherence of TR, and some have become highly developed. New applications may be developed through the use of other related radiation mechanisms. 20 refs., 3 figs

  20. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

  1. APM Best Practices Realizing Application Performance Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sydor, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of APM Best Practices: Realizing Application Performance Management is to establish reliable application performance management (APM) practices - to demonstrate value, to do it quickly, and to adapt to the client circumstances. It's important to balance long-term goals with short-term deliverables, but without compromising usefulness or correctness. The successful strategy is to establish a few reasonable goals, achieve them quickly, and then iterate over the same topics two more times, with each successive iteration expanding the skills and capabilities of the APM team. This str

  2. Erythrocyte nanovesicles: Biogenesis, biolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamaleldin I. Harisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanovesicles (NVs represent a novel transporter for cell signals to modify functions of target cells. Therefore, NVs play many roles in both physiological and pathological processes. This report highlights biogenesis, composition and biological roles of erythrocytes derived nanovesicles (EDNVs. Furthermore, we address utilization of EDNVs as novel drug delivery cargo as well as therapeutic target. EDNVs are lipid bilayer vesicles rich in phospholipids, proteins, lipid raft, and hemoglobin. In vivo EDNVs biogenesis is triggered by an increase of intracellular calcium levels, ATP depletion and under effect of oxidative stress conditions. However, in vitro production of EDNVs can be achieved via hypotonic treatment and extrusion of erythrocyte. NVs can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of therapy and drug delivery system. Many therapeutic agents are suggested to decrease NVs biogenesis.

  3. Withholding and withdrawing treatment: practical applications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Withholding and withdrawing treatment: practical applications of ethical principles in end-of-life care. L Gwyther. Abstract. No Abstract South African Journal of Bioethics and Law Vol. 1 (1) 2008: pp. 24-26. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Machining dynamics fundamentals, applications and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Kai

    2008-01-01

    Machining dynamics are vital to the performance of machine tools and machining processes in manufacturing. This book discusses the state-of-the-art applications, practices and research in machining dynamics. It presents basic theory, analysis and control methodology. It is useful for manufacturing engineers, supervisors, engineers and designers.

  5. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  6. Configuration management theory, practice, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Quigley, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Configuration Management: Theory, Practice, and Application details a comprehensive approach to configuration management from a variety of product development perspectives, including embedded and IT. It provides authoritative advice on how to extend products for a variety of markets due to configuration options. The book also describes the importance of configuration management to other parts of the organization. It supplies an overview of configuration management and its process elements to provide readers with a contextual understanding of the theory, practice, and application of CM. Explaining what a configuration item is and what it implies, the book illustrates the interplay of configuration and data management with all enterprise resources during each phase of a product lifecycle. It also demonstrates the interrelationship of CM to functional resources. Shedding light on current practice, the book describes CM baselines, configuration identification, management baseline changes, and acceptance criteria ...

  7. Experiment study and FEM simulation on erythrocytes under linear stretching of optical micromanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Huadong; Zhu, Panpan; Lu, Hao; Tang, Qi

    2017-08-01

    The elasticity of erythrocytes is an important criterion to evaluate the quality of blood. This paper presents a novel research on erythrocytes' elasticity with the application of optical tweezers and the finite element method (FEM) during blood storage. In this work, the erythrocytes with different in vitro times were linearly stretched by trapping force using optical tweezers and the time dependent elasticity of erythrocytes was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the membrane shear moduli of erythrocytes increased with the increasing in vitro time, namely the elasticity was decreasing. Simultaneously, an erythrocyte shell model with two parameters (membrane thickness h and membrane shear modulus H) was built to simulate the linear stretching states of erythrocytes by the FEM, and the simulations conform to the results obtained in the experiment. The evolution process was found that the erythrocytes membrane thicknesses were decreasing. The analysis assumes that the partial proteins and lipid bilayer of erythrocyte membrane were decomposed during the in vitro preservation of blood, which results in thin thickness, weak bending resistance, and losing elasticity of erythrocyte membrane. This study implies that the FEM can be employed to investigate the inward mechanical property changes of erythrocyte in different environments, which also can be a guideline for studying the erythrocyte mechanical state suffered from different diseases.

  8. Mindful Application of Aviation Practices in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Brennan, Peter A; Peerally, Mohammad Farhad; Kapur, Narinder; Hynes, Jonny M; Hodkinson, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment. In order to establish British healthcare applications of aviation practices, a PubMed search of UK authored manuscripts published between 2005-2016 was undertaken using search terms 'aviation,' 'healthcare,' 'checklist,' and 'CRM.' A convenience sample of UK-authored aviation medical conference presentations and UK-authored patient safety manuscripts were also reviewed. A total of 11 of 94 papers with UK academic affiliations published between 2005-2016 and relevant to aviation modeled healthcare delivery were found. The debrief process, incident analysis, and CRM are the primary practices incorporated into UK healthcare, with success dependent on cultural acceptance and mindful application. CRM training has gained significant acceptance in UK healthcare environments. Aviation modeled incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and CRM training are increasingly undertaken within the UK healthcare system. Nuanced application, in which the unique aspects of the healthcare setting are addressed as part of a comprehensive safety approach, shows promise for long-term success. The patient safety brief and aviation modeled incident analysis are in earlier phases of implementation, and warrant further analysis.Powell-Dunford N, Brennan PA, Peerally MF, Kapur N, Hynes JM, Hodkinson PD. Mindful application of aviation practices in healthcare. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1107-1116.

  9. Possible role of plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in assessing compliance with occupational hygiene and safety practices in waste management workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Odewabi, Adenike A; Oritogun, Kolawole S; Ekor, Martins

    2013-05-01

    Work-related health and safety risks are common among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the level of compliance with safety measures in relation to levels of inflammatory markers among WMWs in Sagamu, South-West Nigeria. WMWs comprising 30 cart pushers (CPs) and 50 truck users (TUs) were recruited alongside 45 people from the normal population as control. Data on health complaints were obtained from questionnaire surveys. Inflammation was assessed by measuring plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin. WMWs exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and poor compliance with health and safety measures. Significant (P footwear between TUs and CPs. ESR, Cp, and CRP increased significantly (P safety measures. ESR and Cp may be useful predictors of occupational hygiene and compliance with safety measures among Nigerian WMWs.

  10. Systems For Telemetry And Telecontrol - Practical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovski, Mile J.; Kolemishevska-Gugulovska, Tatjana; Stanojkovski, Ratko

    2003-01-01

    This paper present practical aspects in application of telemetry and tele control using new aspect of electronics, signal processing, telecommunications, and of course theory of control systems. In the paper some aspects during the design of telemetry and tele control systems are presented. Also it is presented one real system of telemetry and tele control in water distribution, level measurement in four tanks on the different locations. (Author)

  11. Dynamics of interaction between complement-fixing antibody/dsDNA immune complexes and erythrocytes. In vitro studies and potential general applications to clinical immune complex testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Horgan, C.; Hooper, M.; Burge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble antibody/ 3 H-double-stranded PM2 DNA (dsDNA) immune complexes were briefly opsonized with complement and then allowed to bind to human erythrocytes (via complement receptors). The cells were washed and subsequently a volume of autologous blood in a variety of media was added, and the release of the bound immune complexes from the erythrocytes was studied as a function of temperature and time. After 1-2 h, the majority of the bound immune complexes were not released into the serum during blood clotting at either 37 degrees C or room temperature, but there was a considerably greater release of the immune complexes into the plasma of blood that was anticoagulated with EDTA. Similar results were obtained using various conditions of opsonization and also using complexes that contained lower molecular weight dsDNA. Thus, the kinetics of release of these antibody/dsDNA immune complexes differed substantially from the kinetics of release of antibody/bovine serum albumin complexes that was reported by others. Studies using the solution phase C1q immune complex binding assay confirmed that in approximately half of the SLE samples that were positive for immune complexes, there was a significantly higher level of detectable immune complexes in plasma vs. serum. Freshly drawn erythrocytes from some SLE patients exhibiting this plasma/serum discrepancy had IgG antigen on their surface that was released by incubation in EDTA plasma. Thus, the higher levels of immune complexes observed in EDTA plasma vs. serum using the C1q assay may often reflect the existence of immune complexes circulating in vivo bound to erythrocytes

  12. Practical Application of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Eckley, Jeri Cassel; Culver, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, who often have different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated will all relevant information informing system decisions. The practical application of the sociology in systems engineering brings in various organizational development concepts including the principles of planned renegotiation and the application of principles to address information barriers created by organizational culture. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, consistent terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that help address the organizational social structure (culture). In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, and insider-outsider behavior. Unintended consequences can result when these social issues are present. These issues can occur when localized subcultures shift from the overarching organizational culture, or when the organizational culture prevents achievement of system goals. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information and provides key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss the practical application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  13. Practical application of standards in special libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Češnovar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Special libraries in Slovenia represent an important part of information infrastructure.They operate in the spheres of economy, culture, politics, health, and others.Although they perform an important role in the process of professional training of the employees they are too often set aside.Our government is undoubtedly aware of the deficiency of normative regulation in these areas; however, passing of certain acts is often delayed because there is no direct damage to the state itself if they are not passed. New standards for special libraries regulating their operation have been prepared. Their practical application will be tested in practice. Several years of experience as a counsellor to special libraries enable the author an insight into the use of standards. Standards are certainly an indispensable "reading" for special libraries although they are certainly not perfect.

  14. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF A MODEL FOR ASSESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr NOVOTNÝ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an important sub-sector of transport infrastructure. Disruption of its operation due to emergencies can result in a reduction in functional parameters of provided services with consequent impacts on society. Identification of critical elements of this system enables its timely and effective protection. On that ground, the article presents a draft model for assessing the criticality of railway infrastructure elements. This model uses a systems approach and multicriteria semi-quantitative analysis with weighted criteria for calculating the criticality of individual elements of the railway infrastructure. In the conclusion, it presents a practical application of the proposed model including the discussion of results.

  15. Snapshot hyperspectral imaging and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G

    2009-01-01

    Traditional broadband imaging involves the digital representation of a remote scene within a reduced colour space. Hyperspectral imaging exploits the full spectral dimension, which better reflects the continuous nature of actual spectra. Conventional techniques are all time-delayed whereby spatial or spectral scanning is required for hypercube generation. An innovative and patented technique developed at Heriot-Watt University offers significant potential as a snapshot sensor, to enable benefits for the wider public beyond aerospace imaging. This student-authored paper seeks to promote awareness of this field within the photonic community and its potential advantages for real-time practical applications.

  16. Designing SCADA application software a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    McCrady, Stuart G

    2013-01-01

    Automation systems, often referred to as SCADA systems, involve programming at several levels; these systems include computer type field controllers that monitor and control plant equipment such as conveyor systems, pumps, and user workstations that allow the user to monitor and control the equipment through color graphic displays. All of the components of these systems are integrated through a network, such as Ethernet for fast communications. This book provides a practical guide to developing the application software for all aspects of the automation system, from the field controll

  17. Frontal cephalometrics: practical applications, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummons, Duane; Ricketts, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    To (1) demonstrate the needs and benefits of three-dimensional diagnostic and treatment applications; (2) illustrate practical clinical applications of anteroposterior images and frontal analysis; and (3) enhance utilization of the Ricketts and Grummons frontal analyses. Frontal analysis methods and applications are specified and integrated into facial, smile, jaw, and occlusal therapies. Asymmetry conditions must be differentially diagnosed and effectively treated. Frontal and related image analysis and tracing steps are detailed. Asymmetry of facial parts is the rule, rather than the exception. Dental and facial midlines, occlusal plane, chin location, and smile esthetics are primarily emphasized. Beautiful facial proportions and smile harmony can be developed despite initial facial dysmorphosis and disproportions. Patients view themselves from the frontal perspective, so this carries priority when assessing problems. It is important to know the etiology of asymmetry to assist others with genetic counseling. Facial harmony and smile beauty are optimal when facial and maxillary dental midlines are aligned. The maxillary dentition width should be sufficiently wide to be in harmony with the individual patient facial morphology. The occlusal plane should be level and the chin centered as much as possible. Best facial development and proportionality exist when the skeletal and dental components are optimized transversely and are symmetric.

  18. [Ceruloplasmin receptor on human erythrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, E L; Basevich, V V; Iaropolov, A I

    1988-08-01

    The structural fragments of the human ceruloplasmin (CP) molecule and of erythrocyte receptors which provide for the specific interaction of CP with erythrocytes were identified, and their properties were investigated. The interaction of CP with erythrocytes, both intact and treated with neuroaminidase and proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin, papaine, pronase E) is described. Experiments with CP reception were performed at 4 degrees C, using [125I]CP and [125I]asialo-CP. The parameters of binding were determined in Scatchard plots. It was demonstrated that the specific binding of CP to erythrocyte receptors is determined by its interaction with two structural sites of the carbohydrate moiety of the CP molecule, i.e., the terminal residues of sialic acids and a site, (formula; see text) located at a large distance from the chain terminus.

  19. Erythrocyte fluorescence and lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K G

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples from people exposed to inorganic lead were examined by fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin. With continued lead absorption, fluorescent erythrocytes appeared in the circulation of workers handling this metal or its compounds, and they progressively increased in number and brilliance. These changes ensued if the blood lead concentration was maintained above 2-42 mumol/l (50 mug/100 ml), and preceded any material fall in the haemoglobin value. At one factory, 62-5% of 81 symptomless workers showed erythrocyte fluorescence attributable to the toxic effects of lead. Excess fluorocytes were found in blood samples from a child with pica and three of her eight siblings. These four were subsequently shown to have slightly increased blood lead concentrations (2-03 to 2-32 mumol/l). Fluorescence microscopy for excess erythrocyte porphyrin is a sensitive method for the detection of chronic lead intoxication. A relatively slight increase in the blood lead is associated with demonstrabel changes in erythrocyte porphyrin content. The procedure requires little blood, and may be performed upon stored samples collected for lead estimation. The results are not readily influenced by contamination, and provide good confirmatory evidence for the absorption of biochemically active lead. PMID:963005

  20. Practical Stereology Applications for the Pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danielle L

    2017-05-01

    Qualitative histopathology is the gold standard for routine examination of morphological tissue changes in the regulatory or academic environment. The human eye is exceptional for pattern recognition but often cannot detect small changes in quantity. In cases where detection of subtle quantitative changes is critical, more sensitive methods are required. Two-dimensional histomorphometry can provide additional quantitative information and is quite useful in many cases. However, the provided data may not be referent to the entire tissue and, as such, it makes several assumptions, which are sources of bias. In contrast, stereology is design based rather than assumption based and uses stringent sampling methods to obtain accurate and precise 3-dimensional information using geometrical and statistical principles. Recent advances in technology have made stereology more approachable and practical for the pathologist in both regulatory and academic environments. This review introduces pathologists to the basic principles of stereology and walks the reader through some real-world examples for the application of these principles in the workplace.

  1. Factors influencing erythrocyte choline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L; Jenden, D J; Tang, C; Read, S

    1989-01-01

    Choline concentrations in human erythrocytes increase after freezing and thawing, during incubation in Krebs-phosphate for 30 min or on storage at 0 degrees C for 3-24 hr. The increase is prevented by protein precipitation by 10% perchloric acid, 10% zinc hydroxide, 10% sodium tungstate or boiling in water. It is not prevented by EDTA (10 mM) and is increased by oleate (5 mM). We suggest that the increase is due to the action of phospholipase D on erythrocyte phospholipids.

  2. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  3. PRACTICAL METHODS OF BANKING MANAGEMENT – APPLICATION IN PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodretskiy M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article presents the latest trends in the development of banking management in Ukraine. Purpose. The research is aimed at the study of practical methods of banking institutions management in Ukraine. Results. The results of the research, which prove the determination by most banks of such management methods based on the principles of minimizing operating costs of a banking institution, are proved. The main areas of such a minimization, most banks identified: the involvement of inexperienced staff, increase the level of automation of banking processes, increasing attention to non-price methods of attracting customers. A classification of non-price methods of attracting customers is made. The use of mathematical tools for determining the quality of management by a banking institution is proposed. The article states that in order to prevent the manifestations of crisis phenomena in a banking institution (predictors of which may be: the emergence of a negative spread, loss-making activity of the bank, etc. it is necessary to have an optimal, economically sound portfolio of practical management methods that can be practically useful for execution on operational and tactical level of managerial decisions of banking management. The article contains the results of the survey of specialists and scientists who took part in the scientific and practical conference “Anti-crisis management of economy and finances”, held in 2017. The main areas of work of the mentioned conference were: search of ways of overcoming of crisis phenomena in economy and finances of Ukraine; definition of strategic aspects of the development of the financial system of the state in the context of the growth of the negative consequences of the growth of tension in international and economic relations; definition of fiscal policy of Ukraine and the impact of its quality on the quality of the banking system in the conditions of stagnation of financial markets, etc

  4. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. Keywords: Haematological parameters, erythrocyte ...

  5. MODIFICATION OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE PROTEINS WITH POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 1500

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zemlianskykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study the effect of polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 on the Ca2+-ATPase activity and changes in CD44 surface marker expression in human erythrocyte membranes. Determination of the Ca2+-ATPase activity was carried out in sealed erythrocyte ghosts by the level of accumulation of inorganic phosphorus. Changes in the expression of CD44 and amount of CD44+-erythrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. The inhibition of Ca2+-ATPase activity and a reduction in the level of CD44 expression and also the decrease in the amount CD44+-cells were found, reflecting a fairly complex restructuring in the membrane-cytoskeleton complex of erythrocytes under the influence of PEG-1500. Effect of PEG-1500 on the surface CD44 marker could be mediated by modification of proteins of membrane-cytoskeleton complex, as indicated by accelerated loss of CD44 in erythrocyte membranes after application of protein cross-linking reagent diamide. Reduced activity of Ca2+-ATPase activity may contribute to the increase in intracellular Ca2+ level and thus leads to a modification of interactions of integral proteins with cytoskeletal components that eventually could result in membrane vesiculation and decreasing in expression of the CD44 marker, which is dynamically linked to the cytoskeleton.

  6. Practical applications of radiative wireless power transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pflug, H.; Visser, H.J.; Keyrouz, S.

    2015-01-01

    For practical use of radiative wireless power transfer (WPT), it is necessary to design a system which is able to supply circuits with a dynamic loading characteristic. In this paper we present a practical way to obtain efficiency and dc output power characteristics of a WPT system. An Avago

  7. The acceptability of computer applications to group practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, J; Gordon, R S; Tao, D K; Boxerman, S B

    1978-01-01

    Of the 72 identified group practices in a midwest urban environment, 39 were found to use computers. The practices had been influenced strongly by vendors in their selection of an automated system or service, and had usually spent less than a work-month analyzing their needs and reviewing alternate ways in which those needs could be met. Ninety-seven percent of the practices had some financial applications and 64% had administrative applications, but only 2.5% had medical applications. For half the practices at least 2 months elapsed from the time the automated applications were put into operation until they were considered to be integrated into the office routine. Advantages experienced by at least a third of the practices using computers were that the work was done faster, information was more readily available, and costs were reduced. The most common disadvantage was inflexibility. Most (89%) of the practices believed that automation was preferable to their previous manual system.

  8. A three-layer immunoradiometric assay for antibodies in different immunoglobulin classes and its application to the detection of chicken thyroglobulin autoantibodies and of antibodies to sheep erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, L.C.P. de; Roitt, I.M.; Wick, G.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile solid-phase assay for detection of antibodies in different immunoglobulin classes is described. The assay has been applied to: (1) the detection of IgG and IgM antithyroglobulin autoantibodies in chickens with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis, and (2) the detection of anti-sheep cell antibodies in normal chickens. Thyroglobulin-coated plastic tubes or formaldehyde-fixed sheep erythrocytes were used as the solid phase. Antisera were added in succession to the solid-phase antigen so as to form 3 antibody layers: (1) chicken antibody against the solid-phase antigen; (2) heavy-chain-specific rabbit anti-chicken immunoglobulin; and (3) 125 I-labelled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin. The assay is suitable for routine determinations on large numbers of samples; its sensitivity enables small volumes of serum to be tested and allows considerable economy in the use of valuable class-specific antisera. The radiolabelled reagent can be readily applied to other assays employing rabbit antisera. (Auth.)

  9. Audio production principles practical studio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elmosnino, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    A new and fully practical guide to all of the key topics in audio production, this book covers the entire workflow from pre-production, to recording all kinds of instruments, to mixing theories and tools, and finally to mastering.

  10. The genomic applications in practice and prevention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Feero, W Gregory; Reyes, Michele; Citrin, Toby; Freedman, Andrew; Leonard, Debra; Burke, Wylie; Coates, Ralph; Croyle, Robert T; Edwards, Karen; Kardia, Sharon; McBride, Colleen; Manolio, Teri; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Rasooly, Rebekah; St Pierre, Jeannette; Terry, Sharon

    2009-07-01

    The authors describe the rationale and initial development of a new collaborative initiative, the Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network. The network convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health includes multiple stakeholders from academia, government, health care, public health, industry and consumers. The premise of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network is that there is an unaddressed chasm between gene discoveries and demonstration of their clinical validity and utility. This chasm is due to the lack of readily accessible information about the utility of most genomic applications and the lack of necessary knowledge by consumers and providers to implement what is known. The mission of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network is to accelerate and streamline the effective integration of validated genomic knowledge into the practice of medicine and public health, by empowering and sponsoring research, evaluating research findings, and disseminating high quality information on candidate genomic applications in practice and prevention. Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Network will develop a process that links ongoing collection of information on candidate genomic applications to four crucial domains: (1) knowledge synthesis and dissemination for new and existing technologies, and the identification of knowledge gaps, (2) a robust evidence-based recommendation development process, (3) translation research to evaluate validity, utility and impact in the real world and how to disseminate and implement recommended genomic applications, and (4) programs to enhance practice, education, and surveillance.

  11. Influence of Erythrocyte Membrane Stability in Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Garrote-Filho, Mario; Bernardino-Neto, Morun; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to show how an excess of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane contributes stochastically to the progression of atherosclerosis, leading to damage in blood rheology and O 2 transport, deposition of cholesterol (from trapped erythrocytes) in an area of intraplaque hemorrhage, and local exacerbation of oxidative stress. Cholesterol contained in the membrane of erythrocytes trapped in an intraplaque hemorrhage contributes to the growth of the necrotic nucleus. There is even a relationship between the amount of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane and the severity of atherosclerosis. In addition, the volume variability among erythrocytes, measured by RDW, is predictive of a worsening of this disease. Erythrocytes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in several ways, especially when trapped in intraplate hemorrhage. These erythrocytes are oxidized and phagocytosed by macrophages. The cholesterol present in the membrane of these erythrocytes subsequently contributes to the growth of the atheroma plaque. In addition, when they rupture, erythrocytes release hemoglobin, which leads to the generation of free radicals. Finally, increased RDW may predict the worsening of atherosclerosis, due to the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress on erythropoiesis and erythrocyte volume. A better understanding of erythrocyte participation in atherosclerosis may contribute to the improvement of the prevention and treatment strategies of this disease.

  12. APPLICATION OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor T. Uzunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study is to determine the extent of the use of photography by dentists for the needs of everyday practice. Material and methods: The survey was conducted among 254 dentists practicing in Sofia, 64 (25.2% - men and 190 (74.8% - women. The average age of respondents is 43.21 years. Questionnaire was developed, consisting of 9 questions, divided into two parts. The first part covers questions about the nature of the dental practice of respondent doctor. The second part includes questions about the use of photography for the purpose of daily practice. Results: A statistical data processing is made. The average values of the responses received by groups of questions are analyzed. The factors that affect the use of dental photography were defined. The results show that from all of the surveyed persons, 82 (32.28% people use photography for dental practice and 172 (67.72% dentists do not to apply this method in their daily work. It was found that the reasons for not using the photography by dentists are: fear of cross-infection - 4 persons (1.57%; lack of need to use photography - 14 persons (5.51%; lack of interest - 18 persons (7.09%; cost of clinical time - 24 persons (9.45%; additional training - 58 (22.83%; expensive investment - 98 persons (38.58%. Conclusion: The extent and reasons for use of photography for the dental practice were found. The factors that are relevant to the use of dental photography by dentists were investigated.

  13. Practical applications of the routine measuring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busl, G.; Dehos, R.; Erl, S.; Kohl, R.; Pieper, H.; Winkovich, J.

    1989-01-01

    The colloquium participants were primarily concerned with discussing the tasks defined by Paragraph 3 of the Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrVG). There are 23 papers in the proceedings focussing on the various tasks and their practical aspects, such as sampling, sample preparation, measurement and measuring techniques, data evaluation, and reporting and documentation. (HP) [de

  14. Application of empowerment theory for CNS practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Catalano, J M

    1993-11-01

    Power is necessary for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) to successfully conduct objectives of practice in bureaucratic hospital settings. To obtain power, the CNS could use strategies of an empowerment theory to fully operationalize roles in hospitals. This article will discuss how the CNS may be empowered utilizing strategies in four empowering categories. In addition, the many benefits of empowering the CNS are reviewed.

  15. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  16. Practical applications of internal dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.

    1994-06-01

    Accurate estimates of intake magnitude and internal dose are the goal for any assessment of an actual intake of radioactivity. When only one datum is available on which to base estimates, the choices for internal dose assessment become straight-forward: apply the appropriate retention or excretion function, calculate the intake, and calculate the dose. The difficulty comes when multiple data and different types of data become available. Then practical decisions must be made on how to interpret conflicting data, or how to adjust the assumptions and techniques underlying internal dose assessments to give results consistent with the data. This article describes nine types of adjustments which can be incorporated into calculations of intake and internal dose, and then offers several practical insights to dealing with some real-world internal dose puzzles

  17. Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybold, L Earle

    2009-01-01

    Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures.

  18. Heat transfer applications for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view. The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, inclu

  19. Richardson extrapolation practical aspects and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zlatev, Zahari; Faragó, István; Havasi, Ágnes

    2017-01-01

    The series is devoted to the publication of high-level monographs and specialized graduate texts which cover the whole spectrum of applied mathematics, including its numerical aspects. The focus of the series is on the interplay between mathematical and numerical analysis, and also on its applications to mathematical models in the physical and life sciences.

  20. Controlled functionalization of nanoparticles & practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Khaled

    With the increasing use of nanoparticles in both science and industry, their chemical modification became a significant part of nanotechnology. Unfortunately, most commonly used procedures provide just randomly functionalized materials. The long-term objective of our work is site- and stoichiometrically-controlled functionalization of nanoparticles with the utilization of solid supports and other nanostructures. On the examples of silica nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanorods, we have obtained results on the solid-phase chemistry, method development, and modeling, which advanced us toward this goal. At the same time, we explored several applications of nanoparticles that will benefit from the controlled functionalization: imaging of titanium-dioxide-based photocatalysts, bioimaging by fluorescent nanoparticles, drug delivery, assembling of bone implants, and dental compositions. Titanium dioxide-based catalysts are known for their catalytic activity and their application in solar energy utilization such as photosplitting of water. Functionalization of titanium dioxide is essential for enhancing bone-titanium dioxide nanotube adhesion, and, therefore, for its application as an interface between titanium implants and bones. Controlled functionalization of nanoparticles should enhance sensitivity and selectivity of nanoassemblies for imaging and drug delivery applications. Along those lines, we studied the relationship between morphology and surface chemistry of nanoparticles, and their affinity to organic molecules (salicylic and caffeic acid) using Langmuir adsorption isotherms, and toward material surfaces using SEM- and TEM-imaging. We focused on commercial samples of titanium dioxide, titanium dioxide nanorods with and without oleic acid ligands, and differently functionalized silica nanoparticles. My work included synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of several types of nanoparticles, exploring their application in imaging, dentistry, and bone

  1. Derived limits and their practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarik, F.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is devoted to the approach and methodological procedure in determining derived limits for surface contamination with special regard to external exposure of hands, inhalation of resuspended activity, contamination of the skin and with regard to ingestion of radioactive material from the skin. In the practical part of the article, results are given of measuring contamination by radionuclides 134 Cs, 133 Cs and 60 Co, and the resulting annual equivalent dose rates and their comparison with derived air contamination in the sense of ICRP Publ. No. 30. (author)

  2. Mobile and Social: Ten Best Practices for Designing Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu LICA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives ten best practices for designing mobile applications that have social-networking functions. The need for such an approach is given by the rapid growth in impor-tance of both social networks and mobile applications. In order to make it easy to follow where the best practices come from, the paper starts with a look at why social networks are more than just a buzz word and at how the field of mobile applications is evolving. It also shows how and why the two fields go together so well. To further make the point, there is a case study of four interesting mobile applications that are textbooks examples of successful applications. The best practices are based on research done for this article and on the extensive knowledge of the author.

  3. Theoretical and practical application of radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolowski, G.; Wood, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes experiences made not only in developing and producing commercial reagent kits, but also those made in university research and diagnostic laboratories. The fundamental principles (radioactivity, immunoassay) are explained briefly and tersely. Then the components of the radioimmunoassay are described in detail and illustrated by selected practical examples (production of antibodies, separation of bound and free portions, standards). This chapter is followed by systematic instructions for composing a radioimmunoassay. The actual conditions of the complex problem of quality safety is explained, a field in which particularly the authors are to be regarded as pioneers. Finally an outlook indicates that radioactive alternatives, incorporating the principle of immunologic determinations methods, are available or will be developed for at least a few radioimmunoassays. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  5. Soil bioengineering application and practices in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  6. [The 2,3-diphosphoglycerate shunt and stabilization of the ATP level in mammalian erythrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataullakhanov, A I; Ataullakhanov, F I; Vitvitskiĭ, V M; Zhabotinskiĭ, A M; Pichugin, A V

    1985-06-01

    The mechanisms of regulation of energy metabolism in erythrocytes of various mammalian species were investigated. In native erythrocytes of man, sheep, cow, dog and mouse the dependencies of the rates of glucose uptake on ATP concentration (i.e., regulatory parameters of glycolysis) were measured. These parameters plotted in normalized coordinates are not species-specific (invariant). The dependence of the rate of ATP-consuming processes on ATP concentration has been studied for the first time in intact mammalian erythrocytes. This dependence was found to be linear only in the species, in whose erythrocytes the activity of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate shunt is practically zero. In all species under study, the stabilization of ATP level is provided for mainly by the hexokinase-phosphofructokinase system. A comparison of regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism in mammalian (sheep, cow) erythrocytes, in which the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate shunt is absent, with human and animal erythrocytes, in which this pathway is active, points to the important role of the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate shunt in regulation of energy conversion in erythrocytes. This shunt operates as an additional stabilizer protecting the cell from extremal influences.

  7. PSA applications. Good practices and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewailly, J.; Magne, L.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, it is shown what the condensed documentation of the main strategic choices and technical assumptions related to a PSA could contain: how to select the internal and external initiating events, how the detail the plant configuration and the general organization of the plant and operating staff, how to highlight the assumptions related to physical models, etc. The proposals in this documentation are based on the R and D D's experience with PSA (construction of PSA models, use of PSA models for operation or maintenance, PSA tools). This document also presents different types of rules or recommendations related to PSA modelling for various applications involved in nuclear power plant operating. Finally, the paper stresses the main difficulties encountered (appropriate use of uncertainties, communication of PSA results to non-specialist users) and it also outlines some prospects for the future. (author)

  8. Evolutionary principles and their practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

  9. Practical application of double-contingency protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, N.A.; Sanders, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Commercial Fuel Fabrication Facility in Columbia, South Carolina, manufactures fuel assemblies and core components for the commercial nuclear power industry. The ammonium diurinate conversion process converts low-enriched ( 235 U) uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) or uranyl nitrate into ceramic-grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder. The UO 2 powder is then tumble blended in 1700-kg containers to ensure powder homogeneity and obtain necessary enrichments. The double-contingency principle is applied to all systems, processes, and components in which special nuclear material is processed, handled, or stored to ensure that an acceptable nuclear criticality margin of safety is maintained. The Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Program at the Columbia plant is divided into three primary functions: analysis and evaluation, implementation, and compliance. The primary task in analysis and evaluation is to develop comprehensive criticality safety evaluations for all proposed new installations and system modifications. These evaluations involve identifying which of the nine physical process parameters directly affect neutron multiplication and establishing bounding assumptions and criticality safety limits (CSLs). The implementation function primarily consists of translating the open-quotes NCS-speakclose quotes (parameters, k eff , contingencies, barriers, controls, etc.) into operator language (procedural requirements, valve positions, flow rates, pressures, temperatures, etc.) and communicating this information clearly to the manufacturing function through procedures and training. The compliance function deals primarily with conducting criticality safety inspections, audits, and process upset investigations. This paper presents two examples of the challenges associated with the practical implementation of the double-contingency principle to the chemical manufacturing process at the Columbia plant

  10. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  11. Idiotypic vaccinations: consideration towards a practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, K; Emmrich, F; Kaufmann, S H

    1987-01-01

    We review the theoretical background as well as the available experimental data in animals and man on the possible use of anti-idiotypic antibodies as vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. In the first part, the basic experiments and concepts that fostered the idea of idiotypic vaccination are discussed. Although many basic aspects are still unknown, we conclude that the immune system can take antibody variable domains as representatives ("semiotypes") of foreign antigens not only in special cases, but also in a general sense. Among the major areas to be studied further are the events that regulate response to antibody in relation to those that regulate responses to antigen. Initial experiments suggest that responses to antibody may be directed intentionally towards a desired outcome. In the second part, we evaluate the actual medical need for idiotypic vaccination. We conclude that most novel vaccination regimes are likely to be developed with the help of protein chemistry and gene technology. Idiotypic vaccines may become applicable only in special, well-defined situations, such as cases of nonresponsiveness to antigen or cases of severe dysregulation of immunity by the antigen. The third part of the article deals with experimental models for idiotypic vaccination. A number of groups have performed protection experiments in various model infections of experimental animals using anti-idiotypic antibodies as vaccines. In a fair number of cases, involving infections with viral, bacterial, and parasitic microorganisms, protection has been successfully induced. In the fourth part, we summarize studies on idiotype expression in human antigen-driven immune responses. The limited data available suggest that human idiotype expression follows similar rules as in experimental animals. In particular, widely cross-relative idiotopes are readily detected using monoclonal anti-idiotopes. Antibodies to such idiotopes reacted with major proportions of the antibodies

  12. Sandia National Laboratories ASCI Applications Software Quality Engineering Practices; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZEPPER, JOHN D.; ARAGON, KATHRYN MARY; ELLIS, MOLLY A.; BYLE, KATHLEEN A.; EATON, DONNA SUE

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a guide to the deployment of the software verification activities, software engineering practices, and project management principles that guide the development of Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) applications software at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The goal of this document is to identify practices and activities that will foster the development of reliable and trusted products produced by the ASCI Applications program. Document contents include an explanation of the structure and purpose of the ASCI Quality Management Council, an overview of the software development lifecycle, an outline of the practices and activities that should be followed, and an assessment tool. These sections map practices and activities at Sandia to the ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines, a Department of Energy document

  13. Tuning SERS for living erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Parshina, E.Y.; Khabanova, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a unique technique to study submembrane hemoglobin (Hbsm) in erythrocytes. We report the detailed design of SERS experiments on living erythrocytes to estimate dependence of the enhancemen t factor for main Raman bands of Hbsm on silver nanoparticle (Ag......NP) properties. We demonstrate that the enhancement factor for 4/A1g, 10/B1g and A2g Raman bands of Hbsm varies from 105 to 107 under proposed experimental conditions with 473 nm laser excitation. For the first time we show that the enhancement of Raman scattering increases with the increase in the relative...... between small AgNPs and Hbsm and, consequently, leads to the higher enhancement of Raman scattering of Hbsm. The enhancement of higher wavenumber bands 10/B1g and A2g is more sensitive to AgNPs' size and the relative amount of small AgNPs than the enhancement of the lower wavenumber band 4/A1g. This can...

  14. Invasion of erythrocytes by Babesia bovis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaffar, Fasila Razzia

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the invasion of erythrocytes taking place during the asexual erythrocytic blood stage of the apicomplexan parasites Babesia bovis parasite. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a complex process requiring multiple receptor-ligand interactions, involving

  15. Enzymatic assay for methotrexate in erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H; Heinsvig, E M

    1985-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) accumulates in erythrocytes in MTX-treated patients. We present a modified enzymatic assay measuring MTX concentrations between 10 and 60 nmol/l in erythrocytes, adapted for a centrifugal analyser (Cobas Bio). About 40 patient's samples could be analysed within 1 h. The detection...

  16. Practical clinical applications of the computer in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.R.; Erickson, J.J.; Patton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Lagan, J.E.; Rollo, F.D.

    1978-01-01

    The impact of the computer on the practice of nuclear medicine has been felt primarily in the area of rapid dynamic studies. At this time it is difficult to find a clinic which routinely performs computer processing of static images. The general purpose digital computer is a sophisticated and flexible instrument. The number of applications for which one can use the computer to augment data acquisition, analysis, or display is essentially unlimited. In this light, the purpose of this exhibit is not to describe all possible applications of the computer in nuclear medicine but rather to illustrate those applications which have generally been accepted as practical in the routine clinical environment. Specifically, we have chosen examples of computer augmented cardiac, and renal function studies as well as examples of relative organ blood flow studies. In addition, a short description of basic computer components and terminology along with a few examples of non-imaging applications are presented

  17. Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyei-Blankson, Lydia, Ed.; Ntuli, Esther, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Learning environments continue to change considerably and is no longer confined to the face-to-face classroom setting. As learning options have evolved, educators must adopt a variety of pedagogical strategies and innovative technologies to enable learning. "Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments"…

  18. Editorial: Practical applications of KM systems for organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Raman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern-day organizations are subject to continuous change. To remain relevant and competitive, it is imperative that organizations cultivate and foster learning capabilities. This special issue focus on examining practical applications of knowledge management systems in support of organizational learning efforts.

  19. Practical application of the theory of errors in measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the practical application of the theory of errors in measurement. The topics of the chapter include fixing on a maximum desired error, selecting a maximum error, the procedure for limiting the error, utilizing a standard procedure, setting specifications for a standard procedure, and selecting the number of measurements to be made

  20. Theoretical orientations and practical applications of psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olckers, C.; van Zyl, L.; van der Vaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    This book shares the theoretical advancements that have been made regarding psychological ownership since the development of the construct and specifically the practical applications within multi-cultural and cross-cultural environments. Enriched by empirical data and case studies by subject

  1. Extracellular histones induce erythrocyte fragility and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordbacheh, Farzaneh; O'Meara, Connor H; Coupland, Lucy A; Lelliott, Patrick M; Parish, Christopher R

    2017-12-28

    Extracellular histones have been shown to play an important pathogenic role in many diseases, primarily through their cytotoxicity toward nucleated cells and their ability to promote platelet activation with resultant thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. In contrast, little is known about the effect of extracellular histones on erythrocyte function. We demonstrate in this study that histones promote erythrocyte aggregation, sedimentation, and using a novel in vitro shear stress model, we show that histones induce erythrocyte fragility and lysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, histones impair erythrocyte deformability based on reduced passage of erythrocytes through an artificial spleen. These in vitro results were mirrored in vivo with the injection of histones inducing anemia within minutes of administration, with a concomitant increase in splenic hemoglobin content. Thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also observed. These findings suggest that histones binding to erythrocytes may contribute to the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates observed in inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, histone-induced increases in red blood cell lysis and splenic clearance may be a significant factor in the unexplained anemias seen in critically ill patients. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Induction of transient radioresistance in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%), were irradiated with γ-rays with single and split doses under air or N 2 O in order to determine the physicochemical changes caused by the dose inducing an increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. The obtained results showed that under the applied irradiation conditions, the dose of 0.4 kGy induced changes in erythrocytes, which were responsible for temporary resistance of erythrocytes to hemolysis. We concluded that the observed resistance is caused mainly by the structural changes in proteins

  3. Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Noonan, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Ethics is fundamental to good research practice and the protection of society. From a historical point of view, research ethics has had a chequered past and without due cognisance there is always the potential for research to do harm. Research ethics is fundamental to research practice, nurse education and the development of evidence. In conducting research, it is important to plan for and anticipate any potential or actual risks. To engage in research, researchers need to develop an understanding and knowledge of research ethics and carefully plan how to address ethics within their research. This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.

  4. Adenosine deaminase activity of erythrocytes in hyperuricemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.; Richter, V.; Beenken, O.; Weinhold, D.; Hirschberg, K.; Rotzsch, W.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1982-01-01

    Erythrocytic adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was determined in 55 patients with primary hyperuricemia and in 37 healthy control persons. Unlike the controls, the ADA activity in the patient group showed a two-peak response. Hyperuricemia patients with high ADA activity also exhibited increased uric acid excretion and elevated 15 N incorporation into uric acid. High activity values of erythrocytic ADA can be interpreted as an uric acid overproduction, giving hints for a therapeutic plan. (author)

  5. Descriptive parameters of the erythrocyte aggregation phenomenon using a laser transmission optical chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderi, Martín A.; Castellini, Horacio V.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2017-01-01

    The study of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is of great interest because of its implications for human health. Altered RBC aggregation can lead to microcirculatory problems as in vascular pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes, due to a decrease in the erythrocyte surface electric charge and an increase in the ligands present in plasma. The process of erythrocyte aggregation was studied in stasis situation (free shear stresses), using an optical chip based on the laser transmission technique. Kinetic curves of erythrocyte aggregation under different conditions were obtained, allowing evaluation and characterization of this process. Two main characteristics of blood that influence erythrocyte aggregation were analyzed: the erythrocyte surface anionic charge (EAC) after digestion with the enzyme trypsin and plasmatic protein concentration in suspension medium using plasma dissolutions in physiological saline with human albumin. A theoretical approach was evaluated to obtain aggregation and disaggregation ratios by syllectograms data fitting. Sensible parameters (Amp100, t) regarding a reduced erythrocyte EAC were determined, and other parameters (AI, M-Index) resulted that are representative of a variation in the plasmatic protein content of the suspension medium. These results are very useful for further applications in biomedicine.

  6. Limits of applicability in NDT inspections. Practical examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodeikat, Christian; Lohse, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Property owners, developers, architects, planners and in many cases courts require further information regarding the state of existing and under construction buildings. In order to avoid concerns on the building structure and to avoid nuisance by noise and dirt and ultimately save costs, structural inspection should be carried out as non-destructive. NDT methods, however, always have application limits that can be very different depending on the methods used and test equipment. However, not every inspection task, the implementation of which customer want, can be solved with NDT methods. The following article presents practical examples of application limits of different NDT methods. [de

  7. Development and application of degradation modeling to define maintenance practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, D.; Samanta, P.; Vesely, W.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the development and application of component degradation modeling to analyze degradation effects on reliability and to identify aspects of maintenance practices that mitigate degradation and aging effects. Using continuous time Markov approaches, a component degradation model is discussed that includes information about degradation and maintenance. The component model commonly used in probabilistic risk assessments is a simple case of this general model. The parameters used in the general model have engineering interpretations and can be estimated using data and engineering experience. The generation of equations for specific models, the solution of these equations, and a methodology for estimating the needed parameters are all discussed. Applications in this report show how these models can be used to quantitatively assess the benefits that are expected from maintaining a component, the effects of different maintenance efficiencies, the merits of different maintenance policies, and the interaction of surveillance test intervals with maintenance practices

  8. Applications of three-dimensional printing technology in urological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ramy F; Spradling, Kyle; Yoon, Renai; Dolan, Benjamin; Chamberlin, Joshua; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Clayman, Ralph; Landman, Jaime

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion in the medical applications of three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology has been seen in recent years. This technology is capable of manufacturing low-cost and customisable surgical devices, 3D models for use in preoperative planning and surgical education, and fabricated biomaterials. While several studies have suggested 3D printers may be a useful and cost-effective tool in urological practice, few studies are available that clearly demonstrate the clinical benefit of 3D-printed materials. Nevertheless, 3D-printing technology continues to advance rapidly and promises to play an increasingly larger role in the field of urology. Herein, we review the current urological applications of 3D printing and discuss the potential impact of 3D-printing technology on the future of urological practice. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Standard Practice for Evaluating Solar Absorptive Materials for Thermal Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a testing methodology for evaluating absorptive materials used in flat plate or concentrating collectors, with concentrating ratios not to exceed five, for solar thermal applications. This practice is not intended to be used for the evaluation of absorptive surfaces that are (1) used in direct contact with, or suspended in, a heat-transfer liquid, (that is, trickle collectors, direct absorption fluids, etc.); (2) used in evacuated collectors; or (3) used in collectors without cover plate(s). 1.2 Test methods included in this practice are property measurement tests and aging tests. Property measurement tests provide for the determination of various properties of absorptive materials, for example, absorptance, emittance, and appearance. Aging tests provide for exposure of absorptive materials to environments that may induce changes in the properties of test specimens. Measuring properties before and after an aging test provides a means of determining the effect of the exposure. 1.3 Th...

  10. Heat pipes and solid sorption transformations fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, LL

    2013-01-01

    Developing clean energy and utilizing waste energy has become increasingly vital. Research targeting the advancement of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has progressed in the past few decades, and the awareness of fuel cells and thermally activated (heat pipe heat exchangers) adsorption systems using natural refrigerants and/or alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon-based refrigerants is becoming ever more important. Heat Pipes and Solid Sorption Transformations: Fundamentals and Practical Applications concentrates on state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for releva

  11. Practical applications of digital tomosynthesis of the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, A; Durran, A; Adlan, T; Gay, D; Riordan, R; Dubbins, P; Williams, M P

    2014-04-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a radiographic technique that generates a number of coronal raw images of a patient from a single pass of the x-ray tube. Tomosynthesis provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT), but at a much lower dose of radiation and cost when compared to CT. This review illustrates the range of practical applications of digital tomosynthesis of the chest. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Practical applications of digital tomosynthesis of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, A.; Durran, A.; Adlan, T.; Gay, D.; Riordan, R.; Dubbins, P.; Williams, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis is a radiographic technique that generates a number of coronal raw images of a patient from a single pass of the x-ray tube. Tomosynthesis provides some of the tomographic benefits of computed tomography (CT), but at a much lower dose of radiation and cost when compared to CT. This review illustrates the range of practical applications of digital tomosynthesis of the chest

  13. Goal setting in sport and exercise: research and practical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg,Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to briefly review the major theoretical and empirical research in goal setting related to sport and develop applications for best practice. Different types of goals were discussed and Locke's theory of goal setting provided the foundation for future research. After briefly reviewing the goal setting literature in sport and organizational settings, principles for how to apply goal setting to enhance performance were developed. The development and implementations o...

  14. Some practical applications of an ICP-MS instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddings, B.; Ng, R.

    1987-01-01

    An early model commercial ICP-MS instrument (PlasmaQuad from VG Isotopes Limited) was acquired more than two years ago. As a typical analytical laboratory in the metallurgical field, the application of the ICP-MS technique to real sample analysis is the authors prime concern. The process of introducing this state-of-the-art instrument into routine analysis will be described. The modifications and limitations necessary to achieve acceptable precision under normal working conditions will be outlined. In most cases, practical problems can be circumvented with some sacrifice in analytical performance in the area of detection limits and dynamic range. In this presentation, specific applications of the ICP-MS technique in the authors laboratory will be discussed. These include trace analysis on high purity metals such as copper, aluminum, cobalt, nickel etc., on refinery feed samples such as nickel sulfate, mixed cobalt and nickel sulfide, cobalt cathode, samarium oxide etc., on alloys such as cobalt-samarium magnetic materials, nickel or cobalt based alloys used in turbine blades etc. Other applications such as the determination of uranium in phosphate rock, trace analysis on fertilizers, water samples and high purity acids will also be mentioned. The solutions to the practical problems encountered in these applications will be discussed. The analytical power of the ICP-MS technique for real sample analysis will be assessed

  15. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  16. [VR and AR Applications in Medical Practice and Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Chai; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2017-12-01

    As technology advances, mobile devices have gradually turned into wearable devices. Furthermore, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) are being increasingly applied in medical fields such as medical education and training, surgical simulation, neurological rehabilitation, psychotherapy, and telemedicine. Research results demonstrate the ability of VR, AR, and MR to ameliorate the inconveniences that are often associated with traditional medical care, reduce incidents of medical malpractice caused by unskilled operations, and reduce the cost of medical education and training. What is more, the application of these technologies has enhanced the effectiveness of medical education and training, raised the level of diagnosis and treatment, improved the doctor-patient relationship, and boosted the efficiency of medical execution. The present study introduces VR, AR, and MR applications in medical practice and education with the aim of helping health professionals better understand the applications and use these technologies to improve the quality of medical care.

  17. Imaging brain microstructure with diffusion MRI: practicality and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Daniel C; Dyrby, Tim B; Nilsson, Markus; Zhang, Hui

    2017-11-29

    This article gives an overview of microstructure imaging of the brain with diffusion MRI and reviews the state of the art. The microstructure-imaging paradigm aims to estimate and map microscopic properties of tissue using a model that links these properties to the voxel scale MR signal. Imaging techniques of this type are just starting to make the transition from the technical research domain to wide application in biomedical studies. We focus here on the practicalities of both implementing such techniques and using them in applications. Specifically, the article summarizes the relevant aspects of brain microanatomy and the range of diffusion-weighted MR measurements that provide sensitivity to them. It then reviews the evolution of mathematical and computational models that relate the diffusion MR signal to brain tissue microstructure, as well as the expanding areas of application. Next we focus on practicalities of designing a working microstructure imaging technique: model selection, experiment design, parameter estimation, validation, and the pipeline of development of this class of technique. The article concludes with some future perspectives on opportunities in this topic and expectations on how the field will evolve in the short-to-medium term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mondani intraoral welding: historical process and main practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Carlo, L; Pasqualini, M E; Mondani, P M; Rossi, F; Moglioni, E; Shulman, M

    2017-01-01

    The intraoral welder was invented by Dr. Pierluigi Mondani during the early 70’s to weld titanium needle implants to a titanium bar in patient’s mouth and to load them immediately by means of resin prosthesis. The clinical use documented dates back to 1972. Over the years, many practical applications have been added to the initial one, which have expanded the use of this device. In this scientific work, main applications are described. The aim of the work was to trace the historical process of intra-oral welding according to Mondani and describe the main practical applications. Intra-oral welding is a process introduced by dr. Pier Luigi Mondani of Genova (Italy) which allows to firmly conjoin titanium implants of any shape by means of a titanium bar or also directly between them in the mouth during surgery. The immediate stabilization achieved by intraoral welding increases implants success rate, allows immediate loading even in situations of bone atrophy, saves implants that are running into failure, re-evaluates fractured implants, allows to stabilize submerged implants postponing prosthesis management, allows to achieve efficient rehabilitation protocols to deal with difficult cases. The 40-years’ experience with intra-oral welding described in this article, confirms the ease of use and efficiency in providing immediate stabilization of titanium implants of all types.

  19. Use of mobile device applications in Canadian dietetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Vance, Vivienne A; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional web-based survey of dietitians was used to explore topics related to mobile devices and their applications (apps) in Canadian dietetic practice. A survey was drafted, posted on SurveyMonkey, and pretested with dietitians and dietetic interns. Dietitians of Canada (DC), a supporter of this work, promoted the survey to members through its monthly electronic newsletters from January 2012 to April 2012. Of 139 dietitians who answered some survey questions, 118 finished the survey; this represents a response rate of approximately 3%. Overall, 57.3% of respondents reported app use in practice, and 54.2% had a client ask about or use a nutrition/food app. About 40.5% of respondents had recommended nutrition/food apps to clients. Respondents were enthusiastic about apps, but many described challenges with use. From the survey data, three themes emerged that can affect dietitians' use of apps and whether they recommend apps to clients: mobile device and app factors (access to information/tools, content quality, usability, accessibility/compatibility, and cost), personal factors (knowledge, interest, suitability, and willingness/ability to pay), and workplace factors. Apps are now infiltrating dietetic practice. Several factors can affect dietitians' use of apps and whether they recommend them to clients. These findings will help guide future development and use of apps in practice.

  20. Allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article literature review of the causes of allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens are presented. It is shown that the ability to produce antierythrocyte antibodies is affected by many factors, principal of whom it is difficult to identify. For the allosensibilisation development requires genetically determined differences in erythrocyte antigens phenotypes of donor and recipient, mother and fetus, which can lead to immune response and antibodies production. The biochemical nature of erythrocyte antigens, antigen dose (the amount of transfused doses, the number of antigens determinants on donor and fetus erythrocytes, the number of pregnancies are important. Individual patient characteristics: age, gender, diseases, the use of immunosuppressive therapy and the presence of inflammatory processes, are also relevant. Note that antibody to one erythrocyte antigens have clinical value, and to the other – have no. The actual data about frequency of clinically significant antibodies contribute to the development of post-transfusion hemolytic complications prophylaxis as well as the improvement of laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the presence of maternal antierythrocyte antibodies.

  1. Sensors advancements in modeling, design issues, fabrication and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhash Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Sensors are the most important component in any system and engineers in any field need to understand the fundamentals of how these components work, how to select them properly and how to integrate them into an overall system. This book has outlined the fundamentals, analytical concepts, modelling and design issues, technical details and practical applications of different types of sensors, electromagnetic, capacitive, ultrasonic, vision, Terahertz, displacement, fibre-optic and so on. The book: addresses the identification, modeling, selection, operation and integration of a wide variety of se

  2. Ultrasonic testing technique for users in practical application. Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsepius, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    In the present, eighth part of ultrasonic testing technique for users in practical application, the two methods 1) testing by gap coupling and 2) testing by the dipping technique are treated. By the first method the probe is clamped in a holding device in such manner that a water-filled gap remains between probe and surface. Through this gap the sonic signal gets into the specimen without mechanical contact between probe and specimen taking place. By the dipping technique testing is performed in a tank filled with water, the probe being guided over the specimen under water. (RW) [de

  3. INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF LEGAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE UNITS IN PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova, E.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the variety of borrowings, internationalisms, phraseological units, idioms in the professional-oriented texts is considered. It opens an opportunity to understand the statement of a thought and laconicism of its expression, including the field of jurisprudence. The research objective is demonstration the ways of interpretation and application of legal English language units in practice through characteristic features of English legal terminology. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of phraseological units and their translation in oral and written speech.

  4. Human erythrocyte electrofusion kinetics monitored by aqueous contents mixing.

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, D A; Hui, S W

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of electrically induced fusion of human erythrocyte ghosts were monitored by the Tb/DPA and ANTS/DPX fluorescence fusion assays. Ghosts were aligned by dielectrophoresis using a 3-MHz 350-V/cm alternating field and were fused by single 15- or 50-microseconds electric field pulses of amplitude 2.5-5.0 kV/cm. Fusion was detected immediately after the pulse. The peak fluorescence change due to fusion was always obtained within 7 s of pulse application, and was highest for a 5.0 kV/c...

  5. Erythrocyte Membrane Failure by Electromechanical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We envision that electrodeformation of biological cells through dielectrophoresis as a new technique to elucidate the mechanistic details underlying membrane failure by electrical and mechanical stresses. Here we demonstrate the full control of cellular uniaxial deformation and tensile recovery in biological cells via amplitude-modified electric field at radio frequency by an interdigitated electrode array in microfluidics. Transient creep and cyclic experiments were performed on individually tracked human erythrocytes. Observations of the viscoelastic-to-viscoplastic deformation behavior and the localized plastic deformations in erythrocyte membranes suggest that electromechanical stress results in irreversible membrane failure. Examples of membrane failure can be separated into different groups according to the loading scenarios: mechanical stiffening, physical damage, morphological transformation from discocyte to echinocyte, and whole cell lysis. These results show that this technique can be potentially utilized to explore membrane failure in erythrocytes affected by other pathophysiological processes.

  6. Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.

    2008-08-01

    It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

  7. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media on the Micromorphology of the Junctional Complex of Erythrocytes Visualized by Immunocytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Ralf-Peter; Krüger, Anne; Scharnweber, Tim; Wenzel, Folker; Jung, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Effects of radiographic contrast media (RCM) application were demonstrated in vitro and in vivo where the injection of RCM into the A. axillaris of patients with coronary artery disease was followed by a significant and RCM-dependent decrease of erythrocyte velocity in downstream skin capillaries. Another study in pigs revealed that the deceleration of erythrocytes coincided with a significant reduction of the oxygen partial pressure in the myocardium—supplied by the left coronary artery—after the administration of RCM into this artery. Further reports showed RCM dependent alterations of erythrocytes like echinocyte formation and exocytosis, sequestration of actin or band 3 and the buckling of endothelial cells coinciding with a formation of interendothelial fenestrations leading to areas devoid of endothelial cells. Key to morphological alterations of erythrocytes is the membrane cytoskeleton, which is linked to the band 3 in the erythrocyte membrane via the junctional complex. Fundamental observations regarding the cell biological and biochemical aspects of the structure and function of the cell membrane and the membrane cytoskeleton of erythrocytes have been reported. This review focuses on recent results gained, e.g., by advanced confocal laser scanning microscopy of different double-stained structural elements of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton. PMID:25222553

  9. 78 FR 53151 - The Applicability of Good Laboratory Practice in Premarket Device Submissions: Questions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...] The Applicability of Good Laboratory Practice in Premarket Device Submissions: Questions and Answers... availability of the draft guidance entitled ``The Applicability of Good Laboratory Practice in Premarket Device... applicability of good laboratory practice (GLP) to nonclinical laboratory studies conducted in support of...

  10. Technical basis of radiation therapy. Practical clinical applications. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Seymour H. [Karolinska Institutet Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncol-Pathol; Perez, Carlos A. [Washington Univ. Medical Center, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Purdy, James A. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-07-01

    This well-received book, now in its fifth edition, is unique in providing a detailed description of the technological basis of radiation therapy. Another novel feature is the collaborative writing of the chapters by North American and European authors. This considerably broadens the book's perspective and increases its applicability in daily practice throughout the world. The book is divided into two sections. The first covers basic concepts in treatment planning, including essential physics and biological principles related to time-dose-fractionation, and explains the various technological approaches to radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and high and low dose rate brachytherapy. Issues relating to quality assurance, technology assessment, and cost-benefit analysis are also reviewed. The second part of the book discusses in depth the practical clinical applications of the different radiation therapy techniques in a wide range of cancer sites. All of the chapters have been written by leaders in the field. This book will serve to instruct and acquaint teachers, students, and practitioners in the various fields of oncology with the basic technological factors and approaches in radiation therapy. (orig.)

  11. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, Michel [Faculty of Medicine of Paris, Deputy Director General, Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  12. Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA exclamation point s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports

  13. Application of diagnostic reference levels in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis reference levels (D.R.L.) are defined in the Council Directive 97/43 EURATOM as 'Dose levels in medical radio diagnosis practices or in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, levels of activity, for typical examinations for groups of standards-sized patients or standards phantoms for broadly defined types of equipment. These levels are expected not to be exceeded for standard procedures when good and normal practice regarding diagnostic and technical performance is applied'. Thus D.R.L. apply only to diagnostic procedures and does not apply to radiotherapy. Radiation protection of patients is based on the application of 2 major radiation protection principles, justification and optimization. The justification principle must be respected first because the best way to protect the patient is not to carry a useless test. Radiation protection of the patient is a continuous process and local dose indicator values in the good range should not prevent the radiologist or nuclear medicine physician to continue to optimize their practice. (N.C.)

  14. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions...

  15. Role of erythrocyte tropomodulin in the biomechanics and topology of the erythrocyte membrane skeletal network

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Terrell Ann

    2010-01-01

    The erythrocyte membrane skeleton is a multi-protein complex providing mechanical properties and stability to erythrocytes. Defects in the skeleton can manifest in dysfunction and disease such as hemolytic anemia. Erythrocyte tropomodulin (E-Tmod) is a slow-growing end actin-capping protein and has been proposed that together with tropomyosin 5 or 5b they form a "molecular ruler" which dictates protofilament length of 37 nm in the network. In this study, the role for E-Tmod in the network org...

  16. Estimation of vascular spaces using radiolabeled erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasseri, K.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of vascular volume is important in many physiological and pathological studies. For isolated organ preparations, this is usually performed using normal erythrocytes (red blood cell; RBC) and in the whole body studies, labeled RBCs are used. The aim of the present project was to compare the two methods in model organ (the liver) in terms of sensitivity and packed RBCs are suspended in normal saline. 100 u l aliquot is injected into the portal vein of rat. The outflow samples collected, hemo lysed and measured by colorimeter. In the second method, the packed RBCs are incubated with Cr-sodium and then resuspended in normal saline. A bolus of labelled RBCs with known activity is injected into portal vein of rats and the outflow activity is determined by gamma spectrometry. The extend of Cr binding to RBCs was investigated; in all experiments less than 2% of the total radioactivity after washing was extra cellular. Both methods were tested in 30 preparations. The normalized frequency outflow profiles of RBCs counted by two methods were then compared. The standard curves of the two methods were also obtained and the correlation was compared. The shape of the curves and calculated vascular volume obtained from the two methods were similar. A good correlation was observed between the methods of measurement of RBCs. The results indicated the second method is more precise and sensitive to low grade changes while the first method is quicker and better preserves RBCs than the second method. Theses advantages, together with safety considerations, favour the first method when it is applicable

  17. Biohydrogen production: prospects and limitations to practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, D.B. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Biology and Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Pitt, L.; Love, M. [Univ. of Victoria, Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Hydrogen may be produced by a number of processes, including electrolysis of water, thermocatalytic reformation of hydrogen rich organic compounds, and biological processes. Currently, hydrogen is produced, almost exclusively, by electrolysis of water or by steam reformation of methane. Biological production of hydrogen (Biohydrogen) technologies provide a wide range of approaches to generate hydrogen, including Direct biophotolysis, Indirect Biophotolysis, Photo-fermentations, and Dark-fermentation. The practical application of these technologies to every day energy problems, however, is unclear. In order to assess which biohydrogen systems may be practical when combined with fuel cell technologies, we have calculated the size of biohydrogen bioreactors that would be required to power Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells of various sizes. Our analysis suggests that light-driven biohydrogen systems (Direct Photolysis, Indirect Photolysis, and Photo-fermentation) do not produce H{sub 2} at rates that are sufficient to power PEMFCs of sufficient size to be of practical use. Thermophilic and extreme thermophilic biohydrogen systems would require very large bioreactors (in the range of approximately 2900 L to 14,600 L) to provide sufficient H{sub 2} to power PEMFCs of 1.5 kW to 5.0 kW, respectively. Some Dark-fermentation systems, however, appear promising. Bioreactors of 500 L and 1000 L, designed so that H{sub 2} is rapidly removed from the culture medium, would be sufficient to power PEMFCs of 2.5 kW and 5.0 kW, respectively. Further research and development aimed at increasing rates of synthesis and final yields of H{sub 2} are essential if biohydrogen systems are to be of practical use. (author)

  18. Biohydrogen production: prospects and limitations to practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.B.; Pitt, L.; Love, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen may be produced by a number of processes, including electrolysis of water, thermocatalytic reformation of hydrogen rich organic compounds, and biological processes. Currently, hydrogen is produced, almost exclusively, by electrolysis of water or by steam reformation of methane. Biological production of hydrogen (Biohydrogen) technologies provide a wide range of approaches to generate hydrogen, including Direct biophotolysis, Indirect Biophotolysis, Photo-fermentations, and Dark-fermentation. The practical application of these technologies to every day energy problems, however, is unclear. In order to assess which biohydrogen systems may be practical when combined with fuel cell technologies, we have calculated the size of biohydrogen bioreactors that would be required to power Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells of various sizes. Our analysis suggests that light-driven biohydrogen systems (Direct Photolysis, Indirect Photolysis, and Photo-fermentation) do not produce H 2 at rates that are sufficient to power PEMFCs of sufficient size to be of practical use. Thermophilic and extreme thermophilic biohydrogen systems would require very large bioreactors (in the range of approximately 2900 L to 14,600 L) to provide sufficient H 2 to power PEMFCs of 1.5 kW to 5.0 kW, respectively. Some Dark-fermentation systems, however, appear promising. Bioreactors of 500 L and 1000 L, designed so that H 2 is rapidly removed from the culture medium, would be sufficient to power PEMFCs of 2.5 kW and 5.0 kW, respectively. Further research and development aimed at increasing rates of synthesis and final yields of H 2 are essential if biohydrogen systems are to be of practical use. (author)

  19. Paired Chicken and Mammalian Erythrocyte Indicator Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three levels of erythrocytes suspensions, 1.5%, 1% and 0.5% respectively from goat and guinea pig, were compared to conventional 0.5% chicken erythrocytes, in an attempt to investigate the suitability for the two sources of mammalian erythrocytes as indicators for Newcastle disease virus haemagglutination (HA) tests.

  20. A simplified algorithm for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Yurchuk, Yu S [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    The possibility of measuring the dispersion of red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry) is analysed theoretically. A diffraction pattern parameter is found, which is sensitive to the dispersion of erythrocyte deformability and to a lesser extent – to such parameters as the level of the scattered light intensity, the shape of red blood cells, the concentration of red blood cells in the suspension, the geometric dimensions of the experimental setup, etc. A new algorithm is proposed for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by using data of laser ektacytometry. (laser applications in medicine)

  1. Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine contractions of isolated rabbit carotid arteries. ... enhancement of histamine contractions, compared with phenylephrine (in AS and SS), suggests a possible role for histamine in the increased vascular tone and vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease.

  2. Baseline Haematology and Erythrocyte Morphological Changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study evaluates the haematological parameters and the observed erythrocytes morphological changes in dogs raised in Ibadan, Oyo State in the south western part of Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from sixty-four apparently healthy dogs. The haematological parameters of the blood samples ...

  3. Erythrocyte aging in sickle cell disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Physiological removal of old erythrocytes from the circulation by macrophages is initiated by binding of autologous IgG to senescent cell antigen (SCA). SCA is generated from the anion exchanger band 3. This process is accompanied by a number of alterations in the function and structure of band 3.

  4. Erythrocyte seditnentation rate in elderly blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This study inv~tigated the erythrocyte sedimen- tation rate (ESR) in an elderly population with the objective of establishing reference ranges and the diagnostic value of the ESR. Elderly blacks were randomly selected frOIn conununities in the. Orange Free State. ESR determinations were done according to the ...

  5. Sickle erythrocytes enhance phenylephrine and histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    the influence of sickle erythrocyte on contractile responses induced by phenylephrine and histamine. ... obtained from subjects of different haemoglobin (Hb) genotypes (AA, AS and SS), under ... the sixth position of the β-chain of the hemoglobin S. Address for ... blood pressure values in sickle cell anaemia subjects as.

  6. Comparative Erythrocytes Osmotic Fragility Test and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erythrocytes osmotic fragility and haematological parameters of subjects with HbAS (sickle cell trait) and HbSS (sickle cell anaemia) were determined and compared with subjects with HbAA (normal adult haemoglobin), which acted as control. They were divided into three groups of 40 subjects for HbAA, 35 subjects for ...

  7. Study on practical application of risk informed inservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chikahiro; Machida, Hideo; Takeda, Shuhei; Miyata, Koichi; Nishino, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes pilot study relevant to the application of risk informed inservice inspection (RI-ISI) to class 1 piping systems in a Japanese typical BWR5 plant. The benefits of making use of risk information are improvement in plant safety, quality of inspection and explanation of security activities in nuclear power plants. The current RI-ISI procedures and rules were developed to take advantage of lessons learned from PSA data and piping failure experiences, and are expected to rationalize of security activities for plant operation and maintenance. To introduce RI-ISI, it is necessary to collaborate with industry, academia and government. Development of the technical basis is one of the key issues to become practical of RI-ISI programs. (author)

  8. Polymers and electromagnetic radiation fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnabel, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    This first book to cover the interaction of polymers with radiation from the entire electromagnetic spectrum adopts a multidisciplinary approach to bridge polymer chemistry and physics, photochemistry, photophysics and materials science. The text is equally unique in its scope, devoting equal amounts of attention to the three aspects of synthesis, characterization, and applications. The first part deals with the interaction of polymers with non-ionizing radiation in the frequency-range from sub-terahertz via infrared radiation to visible and ultraviolet light, while the second covers interaction with ionizing radiation from the extreme ultraviolet to X-ray photons. The result is a systematic overview of how both types of radiation can be used for different polymerization approaches, spectroscopy methods and lithography techniques. Authored by a world-renowned researcher and teacher with over 40 years of experience in the field, this is a highly practical and authoritative guide.

  9. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  10. Radiation protection. Scientific fundamentals, legal regulations, practical applications. Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Guido; Gay, Juergen; Kirchner, Gerald; Michel, Rolf; Niggemann, Guenter; Schumann, Joerg; Wust, Peter; Jaehnert, Susanne; Strilek, Ralf; Martini, Ekkehard

    2011-06-01

    The compendium on radiation protection, scientific fundamentals, legal regulations and practical applications includes contributions to the following issues: (1) Effects and risk of ionizing radiation: fundamentals on effects and risk of ionizing radiation, news in radiation biology, advantages and disadvantages of screening investigations; (2) trends and legal regulations concerning radiation protection: development of European and national radiation protection laws, new regulations concerning X-rays, culture and ethics of radiation protection; (3) dosimetry and radiation measuring techniques: personal scanning using GHz radiation, new ''dose characteristics'' in practice, measuring techniques for the nuclear danger prevention and emergency hazard control; (4) radiation exposure in medicine: radiation exposure of modern medical techniques, heavy ion radiotherapy, deterministic and stochastic risks of the high-conformal photon radiotherapy, STEMO project - mobile CT for apoplectic stroke patients; (5) radiation exposure in technology: legal control of high-level radioactive sources, technical and public safety using enclosed radioactive sources for materials testing, radiation exposure in aviation, radon in Bavaria, NPP Fukushima-Daiichi - a status report; (6) radiation exposure in nuclear engineering: The Chernobyl accident - historical experiences or sustaining problem? European standards for radioactive waste disposal, radioactive material disposal in Germany risk assessment of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (7) Case studies.

  11. APPLICABILITY OF A HUMAN LACTOFERRIN IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern data on efficiency and safety of a recombinant human lactoferrin (hLf and prospects of its use in pediatric practice are presented in the review of literary data. The unique anti-infectious properties of biologically active protein of the hLf, its high antimicrobic, antiviral, antifungal and anti-parasitic activity are noted. Ability to stimulate natural immunity, to interact with other antimicrobic peptides, in particular, with lysozyme and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is analysed. In this regard it is indicated prospects of application of the hLf in treatment of prematurely born and hypotrophic children, patients with chronic nutritional deficiency for the purpose of prevention of infectious diseases and correction of inflammatory changes in the organism of a child, includingacute respiratory virus and enteric infections in children. It is expedient to apply hLf in surgical practice for reduction of a degree of manifestation of the acute pro-inflammatory response, and also for prevention of infectious complications, especially after abdominal operations, in complex treatment of children with a severe generalized infection and multi-organ failure, for prevention of intrahospital nosocomial infections in children hospitals.Key words: children, prematurely born, nutritional deficiency, infections, lactoferrin, recombinant human lactoferrin.

  12. Clofazimine Induced Suicidal Death of Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbace Officioso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The antimycobacterial riminophenazine clofazimine has previously been shown to up-regulate cellular phospholipase A2 and to induce apoptosis. In erythrocytes phospholipase A2 stimulates eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Phospholipase A2 is in part effective by fostering formation of prostaglandin E2, which triggers Ca2+ entry. Stimulators of Ca2+ entry and eryptosis further include oxidative stress and energy depletion. The present study tested, whether and how clofazimine induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS from 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, and cytosolic ATP level utilizing a luciferin-luciferase assay kit. Results: A 24-48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to clofazimine (≥1.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells without appreciably modifying forward scatter. Clofazimine significantly increased [Ca2+]i, significantly decreased cytosolic ATP, but did not significantly modify ROS. The effect of clofazimine on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not fully abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, and by phospholipase A2 inhibitor quinacrine (25 µM. Clofazimine further augmented the effect of Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (0.1 µM on eryptosis. The clofazimine induced annexin-V-binding was, however, completely abrogated by combined Ca2+ removal and addition of quinacrine. Conclusion: Clofazimine stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part dependent on entry of extracellular Ca2+, paralleled by cellular energy depletion and sensitive to

  13. Practical aspects of photovoltaic technology, applications and cost (revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide the reader with the background, understanding, and computational tools needed to master the practical aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology, application, and cost. The focus is on stand-alone, silicon solar cell, flat-plate systems in the range of 1 to 25 kWh/day output. Technology topics covered include operation and performance of each of the major system components (e.g., modules, array, battery, regulators, controls, and instrumentation), safety, installation, operation and maintenance, and electrical loads. Application experience and trends are presented. Indices of electrical service performance - reliability, availability, and voltage control - are discussed, and the known service performance of central station electric grid, diesel-generator, and PV stand-alone systems are compared. PV system sizing methods are reviewed and compared, and a procedure for rapid sizing is described and illustrated by the use of several sample cases. The rapid sizing procedure yields an array and battery size that corresponds to a minimum cost system for a given load requirement, insulation condition, and desired level of service performance. PV system capital cost and levelized energy cost are derived as functions of service performance and insulation. Estimates of future trends in PV system costs are made.

  14. A conception of practical application of the ICRP Publ. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakunai, Takao

    1999-01-01

    The report of view for practical application of ICRP Publ. 60 in Japanese regulations and its technical guideline proposal were published by the Advisory Committee of radiation protection in June, 1998 and April, 1999, respectively. This paper described the summary of the above reports and essential conception for the actual application. Following items were summarized: the change of technical terms such as the use of ''dose'' in place of dose equivalent, dose limits in occupational exposure (the effective dose limit not to exceed 100 mSv/5 y and 50 mSv/y), dose limits in women's occupational exposure (not to exceed 5 mSv/3 mth), the working area (the controlled area), public dose limits with consideration for medical exposure, exposure by natural sources of radiation, exposure in volunteers and nursing persons, occupational health service for radiation workers, emergency exposure (100 mSv; 300 mSv for lens and 1 Sv for skin), intervention in the public at emergency exposure, document, and the system for radiation control. It was expected for suitable institutions and groups to develop and make the guideline through the examination of the reports. (K.H.)

  15. A conception of practical application of the ICRP Publ. 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numakunai, Takao [Inst. of Radiation Measurements, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The report of view for practical application of ICRP Publ. 60 in Japanese regulations and its technical guideline proposal were published by the Advisory Committee of radiation protection in June, 1998 and April, 1999, respectively. This paper described the summary of the above reports and essential conception for the actual application. Following items were summarized: the change of technical terms such as the use of ''dose'' in place of dose equivalent, dose limits in occupational exposure (the effective dose limit not to exceed 100 mSv/5 y and 50 mSv/y), dose limits in women's occupational exposure (not to exceed 5 mSv/3 mth), the working area (the controlled area), public dose limits with consideration for medical exposure, exposure by natural sources of radiation, exposure in volunteers and nursing persons, occupational health service for radiation workers, emergency exposure (100 mSv; 300 mSv for lens and 1 Sv for skin), intervention in the public at emergency exposure, document, and the system for radiation control. It was expected for suitable institutions and groups to develop and make the guideline through the examination of the reports. (K.H.)

  16. Lipidomic data analysis: Tutorial, practical guidelines and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checa, Antonio [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Scheeles väg 2, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bedia, Carmen [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Jaumot, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.jaumot@idaea.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

    2015-07-23

    Highlights: • An overview of chemometric methods applied to lipidomic data analysis is presented. • A lipidomic data set is analyzed showing the strengths of the introduced methods. • Practical guidelines for lipidomic data analysis are discussed. • Examples of applications of lipidomic data analysis in different fields are provided. - Abstract: Lipids are a broad group of biomolecules involved in diverse critical biological roles such as cellular membrane structure, energy storage or cell signaling and homeostasis. Lipidomics is the -omics science that pursues the comprehensive characterization of lipids present in a biological sample. Different analytical strategies such as nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry with or without previous chromatographic separation are currently used to analyze the lipid composition of a sample. However, current analytical techniques provide a vast amount of data which complicates the interpretation of results without the use of advanced data analysis tools. The choice of the appropriate chemometric method is essential to extract valuable information from the crude data as well as to interpret the lipidomic results in the biological context studied. The present work summarizes the diverse methods of analysis than can be used to study lipidomic data, from statistical inference tests to more sophisticated multivariate analysis methods. In addition to the theoretical description of the methods, application of various methods to a particular lipidomic data set as well as literature examples are presented.

  17. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  18. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

  19. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  20. Training transfer: scientific background and insights for practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issurin, Vladimir B

    2013-08-01

    Training transfer as an enduring, multilateral, and practically important problem encompasses a large body of research findings and experience, which characterize the process by which improving performance in certain exercises/tasks can affect the performance in alternative exercises or motor tasks. This problem is of paramount importance for the theory of training and for all aspects of its application in practice. Ultimately, training transfer determines how useful or useless each given exercise is for the targeted athletic performance. The methodological background of training transfer encompasses basic concepts related to transfer modality, i.e., positive, neutral, and negative; the generalization of training responses and their persistence over time; factors affecting training transfer such as personality, motivation, social environment, etc. Training transfer in sport is clearly differentiated with regard to the enhancement of motor skills and the development of motor abilities. The studies of bilateral skill transfer have shown cross-transfer effects following one-limb training associated with neural adaptations at cortical, subcortical, spinal, and segmental levels. Implementation of advanced sport technologies such as motor imagery, biofeedback, and exercising in artificial environments can facilitate and reinforce training transfer from appropriate motor tasks to targeted athletic performance. Training transfer of motor abilities has been studied with regard to contralateral effects following one limb training, cross-transfer induced by arm or leg training, the impact of strength/power training on the preparedness of endurance athletes, and the impact of endurance workloads on strength/power performance. The extensive research findings characterizing the interactions of these workloads have shown positive transfer, or its absence, depending on whether the combinations conform to sport-specific demands and physiological adaptations. Finally, cross

  1. Practical considerations in the development and application of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J. M.; Kennedy, W. E. Jr.; Swinth, K. L.; Gilbert, R. O.; Soldat, J. K.

    1988-05-01

    Radiological exposures to the public during an accident that releases radioactive materials to the environment occur initially through the air pathway, secondly through a water pathway, and finally, through the food chain. From these exposure pathways, reference levels of radionuclides must be applied to limit public radiation doses. Such reference levels are difficult to develop and apply, particularly if the contaminants are transuranic elements such as plutonium. The reference level must be related to a resultant theoretical dose to the public through generic calculations. However, to permit rapid decisions after an accident, the reference levels need to be related to conditions or media in the environment that can be directly measured. They must also be tied to specific countermeasures such as sheltering, evacuation, or interdiction of drinking water or food supplies. This paper discusses the practical considerations in the development and application of reference levels for transuranic in the environment and the present capability to rapidly detect and quantify their concentrations following accidental contamination events. 16 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Practical application of reliability engineering in detailed design and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    Modern plant systems are closely coupled combinations of sophisticated and expensive equipment, some important parts of which may be in the development stage (high technology sector), and simpler, crude but not necessarily cheap equipment (low technology sector). Manpower resources involved with such plant systems can also be placed in high and low technology categories (i.e. specialist design and construction staff, and production staff, respectively). Neither can operate effectively without the other, and both are equally important. A sophisticated on-line computer controlling plant or analysing fault symptoms is useless, if not unsafe, if the peripheral sensing and control equipment on plant providing input data is poorly designed and inaccurate, and/or unreliable because of inadequate maintenance. Similarly, the designer can be misled and misinformed, and subsequent design evolution can be wrongly directed, if production recors do not accurately reflect what is actually happening on the plant. The application of Reliability Technology can be counter productive if it demands more effort in the collection of data that it save in facilitating quick, correct engineering decisions, and more accurate assessments of resource requirements. Reliability Engineering techniques must be simplified to made their use widely adopted in the important low technology sector, and established in all financial and contractural procedures associated with design specification and production management. This paper develops this theme with practical examples. (author)

  3. Practical application of the KMS: 2) site characterisation - 16355

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semba, Takeshi; Osawa, Hideaki; Hioki, Kazumasa; Tachibana, Shoko; Takase, Hiroyasu; McKinley, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The characterisation of potential repository sites will produce huge volumes of information, which must be correlated, quality assured, integrated, analysed, documented and archived in a rigorous and efficient manner. While some of this work involves rather routine data handling that may be easily automated, much of it requires input of tacit knowledge which involves the experience of expert staff. To provide support for the Japanese implementer and also the regulator, a JAEA team is attempting to capture both Japanese and international geo-synthesis experience within a Knowledge Management System (KMS) framework, which is termed ISIS. This is a hybrid system that combines 'smart' software with human experts, although an aim is to capture tacit knowledge within expert systems to the maximum extent practicable. Initial tests, based mainly on field work carried out by JAEA at the sites of the Mizunami and Horonobe underground research laboratories, have utilised expert systems as modules in a 'blackboard system' approach to planning or implementing the processing of field data. Examples are presented of sub-systems where this approach has already been demonstrated and perspectives for more extensive application to integrated geo-synthesis management are discussed. (authors)

  4. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-12-05

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous "membrane detoxification proteins" implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality.

  5. The mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation. Part 2: The global collapse of settling erythrocyte network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    2010-01-01

    Results reported in the companion paper showed that erythrocytes in quiescent blood are combined into a network followed by the formation of plasma channels within it. This study is focused on structural changes in the settling dispersed phase subsequent to the channeling and the effect of the structural organization on the sedimentation rate. It is suggested that the initial, slow stage of erythrocyte sedimentation is mainly controlled by the gravitational compactness of the collapsed network. The lifetime of RBC network and hence the duration of the slow regime of erythrocyte sedimentation decrease with an increase in the intercellular pair potential and with a decrease in Hct. The gravitational compactness of the collapsed network causes its rupture into individual fragments. The catastrophic collapse of the network transforms erythrocyte sedimentation from slow to fast regime. The size of RBC network fragment is insignificantly affected by Hct and is mainly determined by the intensity of intercellular attractive interactions. When cells were suspended in the weak aggregating medium, the Stokes radius of fragments does not differ measurably from that of individual RBCs. The proposed mechanism provides a reasonable explanation of the effects of RBC aggregation, Hct and the initial height of the blood column on the delayed erythrocyte sedimentation.

  6. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Zierle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. Methods: To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml, but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Conclusions: Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+.

  7. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Regorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierle, Jens; Bissinger, Rosi; Bouguerra, Ghada; Abbès, Salem; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Side effects of regorafenib include anemia. At least in theory, regorafenib induced anemia could result from stimulated suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study explored, whether regorafenib induces eryptosis and, if so, whether it is effective up- and/or downstream of Ca2+. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to regorafenib (≥ 0.5 µg/ml) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥ 1.25 µg/ml), but did not significantly increase Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence or ceramide abundance. The effect of regorafenib on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Regorafenib (5 µg/ml) significantly augmented the increase of annexin-V-binding, but significantly blunted the decrease of forward scatter following treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. Regorafenib triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part downstream of Ca2+. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Garcinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Fazio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The benzophenone garcinol from dried fruit rind of Garcinia indica counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of apoptosis. The proapototic effect of garcinol is attributed in part to inhibition of histone acetyltransferases and thus modification of gene expression. Moreover, garcinol triggers mitochondrial depolarisation. Erythrocytes lack gene expression and mitochondria but are nevertheless able to enter apoptosis-like suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include oxidative stress, energy depletion and Ca2+ entry with increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i. The present study explored, whether and how garcinol induces eryptosis. Methods: To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence and cytosolic ATP levels utilizing a luciferin-luciferase-based assay. Results: A 24 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to garcinol (2.5 or 5 µM significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Garcinol decreased (at 1 µM and 2.5 µM or increased (at 5 µM forward scatter. Garcinol (5 µM further increased Fluo3-fluorescence, increased DCFDA fluorescence, and decreased cytosolic ATP levels. The effect of garcinol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusions: Garcinol triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part due to stimulation of ROS formation, energy depletion and Ca2+ entry.

  9. Fucoxanthin Induced Suicidal Death of Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Briglia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fucoxanthin, a carotenoid isolated from brown seaweeds, induces suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells and is thus considered for the treatment or prevention of malignancy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cell, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry with increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and activation of p38 kinase or protein kinase C. The present study explored, whether and how fucoxanthin induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS from DCFDA dependent fluorescence and lipid peroxidation using BODIPY fluoresence. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to fucoxanthin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥ 50 µM, significantly decreased average forward scatter (≥ 25 µM, significantly increased hemolysis (≥ 25 µM, significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence (≥ 50 µM, significantly increased lipid peroxidation, but did not significantly modify DCFDA fluorescence. The effect of fucoxanthin on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, and was insensitive to p38 kinase inhibitor skepinone (2 µM and to protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin (100 nM. Conclusion: Fucoxanthin triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part due to stimulation of Ca2+ entry.

  10. How to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, T D; Clauson, K A; Misra, S; Lewis, T L; Husain, I

    2014-02-01

    There are thousands of medical applications for mobile devices targeting use by healthcare professionals. However, several factors related to the structure of the existing market for medical applications create significant barriers preventing practitioners from effectively identifying mobile medical applications for individual professional use. To define existing market factors relevant to selection of medical applications and describe a framework to empower clinicians to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in their own practice. Resources available on the Internet regarding mobile medical applications, guidelines and published research on mobile medical applications. Mobile application stores (e.g. iTunes, Google Play) are not effective means of identifying mobile medical applications. Users of mobile devices that desire to implement mobile medical applications into practice need to carefully assess individual applications prior to utilisation. Searching and identifying mobile medical applications requires clinicians to utilise multiple references to determine what application is best for their individual practice methods. This can be done with a cursory exploration of mobile application stores and then moving onto other available resources published in the literature or through Internet resources (e.g. blogs, medical websites, social media). Clinicians must also take steps to ensure that an identified mobile application can be integrated into practice after carefully reviewing it themselves. Clinicians seeking to identify mobile medical application for use in their individual practice should use a combination of app stores, published literature, web-based resources, and personal review to ensure safe and appropriate use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Novobiocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lupescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Novobiocin, an aminocoumarin antibiotic, interferes with heat shock protein 90 and hypoxia inducible factor dependent gene expression and thus compromises cell survival. Similar to survival of nucleated cells, erythrocyte survival could be disrupted by eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipd scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. The Ca2+ sensitivity of phospholipid scrambling is enhanced by ceramide. The present study explored, whether novobiocin elicits eryptosis. Methods: [Ca2+]i was estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance utilizing fluorescent antibodies, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding. Results: A 48 hours exposure to novobiocin (500 µM was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i, decrease of forward scatter, increase of annexin-V-binding and enhanced ceramide formation. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ virtually abrogated the increase of annexin-V-binding following novobiocin exposure. Conclusions: Novobiocin stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and formation of ceramide.

  12. Applications of Situated Learning to Foster Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Cady, Cynthia; Sosulski, Marya R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss 2 macro-level community practice courses, examining how each applies the concepts of situated learning to foster the development of communities of practice through use of a unique model for antioppressive practice. The theoretical underpinnings and a discussion of the implementation of each stage of the model is provided. The…

  13. Practical Application of Fundamental Concepts in Exercise Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom R.; Kinch, R. F. T.; Morris, M. G.; Dennis, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    The collection of primary data in laboratory classes enhances undergraduate practical and critical thinking skills. The present article describes the use of a lecture program, running in parallel with a series of linked practical classes, that emphasizes classical or standard concepts in exercise physiology. The academic and practical program ran…

  14. The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire: Dimensions and Practical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fries James F

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to effectively measure health-related quality-of-life longitudinally is central to describing the impacts of disease, treatment, or other insults, including normal aging, upon the patient. Over the last two decades, assessment of patient health status has undergone a dramatic paradigm shift, evolving from a predominant reliance on biochemical and physical measurements, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lipid profiles, or radiographs, to an emphasis upon health outcomes based on the patient's personal appreciation of their illness. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, published in 1980, was among the first instruments based on generic, patient-centered dimensions. The HAQ was designed to represent a model of patient-oriented outcome assessment and has played a major role in many diverse areas such as prediction of successful aging, inversion of the therapeutic pyramid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, quantification of NSAID gastropathy, development of risk factor models for osteoarthrosis, and examination of mortality risks in RA. Evidenced by its use over the past two decades in diverse settings, the HAQ has established itself as a valuable, effective, and sensitive tool for measurement of health status. It is available in more than 60 languages and is supported by a bibliography of more than 500 references. It has increased the credibility and use of validated self-report measurement techniques as a quantifiable set of hard data endpoints and has contributed to a new appreciation of outcome assessment. In this article, information regarding the HAQ's development, content, dissemination and reference sources for its uses, translations, and validations are provided.

  15. Telerehabilitation Store and Forward Applications: A Review of Applications and Privacy Considerations in Physical and Occupational Therapy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  16. Telerehabilitation store and forward applications: a review of applications and privacy considerations in physical and occupational therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    An overview of store and forward applications commonly used in physical and occupational therapy practice is reviewed with respect to regulation, privacy, security, and clinical applications. A privacy and security checklist provides a clear reference of pertinent regulatory issues regarding these software applications. A case study format is used to highlight clinical applications of store and forward software features. Important considerations of successful implementation of store and forward applications are also identified and discussed.

  17. A Study of Ginger Herbal Pharmacopuncture for Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Woo Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to present the standard for practical application of ginger herbal pharmacopuncture Material and Methods : We refer to ancient literatures and the recent papers for ginger. Conclusions : The following results have been obtained 1. The effect of ginger(Zingiber officinale Roscoe is to "release exterior", "balance nutrient & defe nsive qi", "resolve phlegm", "arrest coughing", "warm the lungs". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating fever, chilling sign, headchae, snuffle and gasping cough due to cold affection and treating the symptoms like sputum and asthma that be revealed by pulmonary disease. 2. The effect of ginger is to "warm spleen and stomach", "arrest vomiting" "promote normal flow of water". So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and diarrhea due to phlegm & dampness and treating edema. 3. The effect of ginger is to eliminate blood stasis. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating contusion, blood stasis, sprain and gynecologic disease. 4. Ginger can treat myalgia and pain due to wind-damp and have anti-inflammatory effect in pharmacology. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating disease of joint, ligament and muscle. 5. Ginger can resolve phlegm and resuscitate. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating unconsciousness. But, treating incipient cardiovascular accident, it needs to call your special attention to the danger of blood pressure increase. 6. In pharmacology, ginger is effective for antitumor, antioxidant effects and activating immunocyte. So ginger herbal pharmacopuncture can be applied to treating broadly varieties of tumor and allergic disease.

  18. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated [ 14 C]sucrose, [ 3 H]inulin, and 51 Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated [ 3 H]inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs

  19. Smartphone Applications for the Clinical Oncologist in UK Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozati, Hamoun; Shah, Sonya Pratik; Shah, Neha

    2015-06-01

    A number of medical smartphone applications have been developed to assist clinical oncology specialists. Concerns have arisen that the information provided may not be under sufficient scrutiny. This study aims to analyse the current applications available for clinical oncologists in the UK. Applications aimed specifically at physician clinical oncologists were searched for on the major smartphone operating systems: Apple iOS; Google Android; Microsoft Windows OS; and Blackberry OS. All applications were installed and analysed. The applications were scrutinised to assess the following information: cost; whether the information included was referenced; when the information was last updated; and whether they made any reference to UK guidelines. A novel rating score based on these criteria was applied to each application. Fifty applications were identified: 24 for Apple's iOS; 23 for Google's Android; 2 for Blackberry OS; and 1 for Windows OS. The categories of applications available were: drug reference; journal reference; learning; clinical calculators; decision support; guidelines; and dictionaries. Journal reference and guideline applications scored highly on our rating system. Drug reference application costs were prohibitive. Learning tools were poorly referenced and not up-to-date. Smartphones provide easy access to information. There are numerous applications devoted to oncology physicians, many of which are free and contain referenced, up-to-date data. The cost and quality of drug reference and learning applications have significant scope for improvement. A regulatory body is needed to ensure the presence of peer-reviewed, validated applications to ensure their reliability.

  20. Use of erythrocyte indicators of health and condition in vertebrate ecophysiology: a review and appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Christopher P; Lill, Alan; Reina, Richard D

    2017-02-01

    We review evidence for and against the use of erythrocyte indicators of health status and condition, parasite infection level and physiological stress in free-living vertebrates. The use of indicators that are measured directly from the blood, such as haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and parameters that are calculated from multiple measured metrics, such as mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin content or mean cell haemoglobin concentration is evaluated. The evidence for or against the use of any given metric is equivocal when the relevant research is considered in total, although there is sometimes strong support for using a particular metric in a particular taxon. Possibly the usefulness of these metrics is taxon, environment or condition specific. Alternatively, in an uncontrolled environment where multiple factors are influencing a metric, its response to environmental change will sometimes, but not always, be predictable. We suggest that (i) researchers should validate a metricfres utility before use, (ii) multiple metrics should be used to construct an overall erythrocyte profile for an individual or population, (iii) there is a need for researchers to compile reference ranges for free-living species, and (iv) some metrics which are useful under controlled, clinical conditions may not have the same utility or applicability for free-living vertebrates. Erythrocyte metrics provide useful information about health and condition that can be meaningfully interpreted in free-living vertebrates, but their use requires careful forethought about confounding factors. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Strategies for application of learning theories in art studio practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights the link between learning theories and art studio practices. The paper is of the opinion that if these theories are critically understood and applied to the practical aspect of fine and applied arts then learning will be more functional. Nigerian Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 8(1) 2003: ...

  2. Electrical charging of aerosol nanoparticles and some practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, M.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article summarizes the main results of recent fundamental research on the electrical charging of nanometer-sized aerosol particles (particle diameter below 10 nm, Knudsen number above about 15, kinetic regime. It covers topics of great relevance to aerosol processing and measurement, such as the effect of the presence of a number of ions on the surface of a nanoparticle on its electrical mobility; the experimental measurement of charging probability / efficiency for particle diameter below 10 nm, both for diffusion and corona discharge type chargers; the effect of particle growth by Brownian coagulation on the charging process; and the examination of after-charging effects downstream of an aerosol neutralizes The last part of this article discusses two practical applications of nanoaerosol charging, namely, the particle size measurement by electrical methods, and some electrostatic effects on the removal of nanoparticles from gas streams.

    El presente artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre el cargado eléctrico de aerosoles de nanopartículas (diámetro de partícula inferior a 10 nm, número de Knudsen mayor de 15, régimen cinético. El artículo abarca algunos tópicos de gran interés para el procesado y la medición de aerosoles, tales como el efecto de la presencia de iones en la superficie de la nanopartícula en su movilidad eléctrica; la medición experimental de probabilidad / eficacia de cargado para partículas de diámetro inferior a 10 nm, tanto para cargadores de tipo difusivo como para los de descarga de corona; el efecto del crecimiento de partícula por coagulación browniana en el proceso de cargado; y los efectos de post-cargado corriente abajo del neutralizados En la parte final del artículo, se analizan someramente dos aplicaciones prácticas del cargado eléctrico de nanoaerosoles, a saber, la medición del tamaño de partícula por métodos eléctricos, y algunos efectos electrostáticos en el

  3. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system (1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Isao; Sato, Masayuki

    This paper describes a development, practical applicatioin, problem of a system, evaluation of practical system, and development trend of machine translation. Most recent system contains next four problems. 1) the vagueness of a text, 2) a difference of the definition of the terminology between different language, 3) the preparing of a large-scale translation dictionary, 4) the development of a software for the logical inference. Machine translation system is already used practically in many industry fields. However, many problems are not solved. The implementation of an ideal system will be after 15 years. Also, this paper described seven evaluation items detailedly. This English abstract was made by Mu system.

  4. 15 year experience of tacrolimus application in medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kondratyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents modern literature data on the use of tacrolimus in medical practice. The results of national and international research on the effectiveness and safety of the drug at various dermatoses are presented.

  5. A microteaching application on a teaching practice course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahide Can

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated effectivenes of a teaching practice course which realized using the microteaching methods. Theparticipants of the study were six student teachers who experienced teaching practices for two times in a real classroomenvironment. Each of the two teaching practices of the student teachers were videotaped. Having observed of the first videorecords the instructur gave the student teachers feedback about their effectiveness in teaching. Analysis of the video recordsrevealed that student teachers achieved a better performance in their second teachings in terms of explaining basic theoriesand principles, identifying and observing necessary teaching roles and behaviours, preparing lesson plans, and conducting moreeffective teaching practices. In light of the these findings, it is suggested that this method should be integrated into teachingpractice courses.

  6. The Application of the Prototype Theory in Lexicographic Practice:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the classical view of words and their meaning relying on psychology and its ... ever, after analysis of this dictionary's practice, Van der Meer (2000: 428) con- ..... metaphorical senses) involves an implied resemblance between the literal and.

  7. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron (ALexandra); M. Ewen (Margaret); R. Laing (Richard); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. __Methods:__ The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a

  8. Fungicide application practices and personal protective equipment use among orchard farmers in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, C J; Deddens, J A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M C R

    2007-04-01

    Fungicides are routinely applied to deciduous tree fruits for disease management. Seventy-four private orchard applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study participated in the Orchard Fungicide Exposure Study in 2002-2003. During 144 days of observation, information was obtained on chemicals applied and applicator mixing, application, personal protective, and hygiene practices. At least half of the applicators had orchards with orchard applicators.

  9. Erythrocytes labelling for to value bleeding of digestive tract in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, R.

    2002-01-01

    The erythrocytes labelling has been facilitated by several factors: a) They are the cellular elements more abundant in the blood (5 x 10 9 / ml blood). b) They are easy to be isolated and manipulated In vitro and they are not very sensitive to the physical or chemical damages. c) They do not depend on energy or nutritious requirements as another cellular elements In vitro. d) With respect to another cells they show an easier labelling with radionuclides due to the availability of a variety of transporter mechanisms and of internal hemoglobin which is rich in active metal with multiple union sites. The erythrocytes are biconcave disks without nucleus composed by a 65% water, 32% hemoglobin and a 3% by lipids and proteins which form the stroma.The hemoglobin is the most important component of erythrocytes, it contains 4 heme groups and one globin molecule (with molecular weight of 68000) and fix iron covalently with 4 atoms of nitrogenated porfyrin. The oxygen is reversibly joined to iron. The hemoglobin does not experiment re-synthesis or degradation during its lifetime in the erythrocyte. It has been stipulated that the diagnostic applications in nuclear medicine are: a) That the radionuclide should have a high intensity of emission with an adequate energy for the image, with minimum particulate radiation and a half life time average similar to the length of the study that is carried out. b) That the radionuclide is joined firmly to the In vivo cells without altering physical and biochemical properties of the cells and their function In vitro. c) That the radionuclide once incorporated to the interior of cell must not be liberated during the study neither reused after of destruction. A quick procedure is now found available for labelling erythrocytes with 99m Tc offering a high performance and quality labelling. This is narrowly related to the 99m Tc chemistry understanding. (Author)

  10. Bifenthrin-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro and protective effect of selected flavonols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Woda, Izabela; Popowicz, Diana; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata

    2010-03-01

    Bifenthrin is a synthetic pyrethroid with a broad spectrum of insecticidal and acaricidal activity used to control wide range of insect pests in a variety of applications. This investigation was designed to examine (1) bifenthrin as an inducer of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro through effects on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and (2) the role of the flavonoids quercetin (Q, 40 and 80microM) and rutin (R, 80microM) in alleviating the effects of bifenthrin. Erythrocytes were divided into portions. The first portion was incubated for 4h at 37 degrees C with different concentrations (0, 42.2, 211, 1055ppm) of bifenthrin. The other portions were preincubated with Q or R for 30min, followed incubation with bifenthrin for 4h. The influence of solvent (ethanol) was also checked on the parameters studied. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, CAT and SOD activities were measured in all treatment portions of erythrocytes. Our results demonstrated that bifenthrin-induced oxidative stress causes enhanced lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidative enzyme activities in human peripheral blood. R pretreated erythrocytes were protected against the increase of MDA induced by bifenthrin. Q (80microM) and R pretreated erythrocytes were protected against the inhibition of CAT activity induced by bifenthrin. The protective action against the inhibition of SOD activity of Q was greater than that of R at the same concentration. These results suggest that Q and R may play a role in reducing bifenthrin-induced oxidative stress in vitro. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metallic mercury uptake by catalase Part 1 In Vitro metallic mercury uptake by various kind of animals' erythrocytes and purified human erythrocyte catalase

    OpenAIRE

    劒持,堅志

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of metallic mercury was studied using erythrocytes with different catalase activities taken from various kind of animals. The results were: 1) The uptake of metallic mercury by erythrocytes paralleled the activity of catalase in the erythrocytes with and without hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the erythrocyte catalase activity is related to the uptake of metallic mercury. 2) The uptake of metallic mercury occurred not only with purified human erythrocyte catalase but also with h...

  12. HVO applications and practical experiences; HVO Anwendungen und Praxiserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Sebastian [Neste Oil Corporation, Espoo (Finland); Honkanen, Markku; Mikkonen, Seppo

    2012-07-01

    Since 2007 Neste Oil Finland is producing renewable Diesel based on vegetable oils. The key process step is hydro treatment, products are called HVO = Hydrotreated Vegetable Oils. Process and main product performance will be introduced. Main focus is on applications and experience from several field tests. The presentation will give an overview and short outlook to future applications and challenges. (orig.)

  13. Eco-SCC: From Theory to Practical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hüsken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Shui, Z.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the application of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with reduced cement content and fine stone waste materials. Two SCC mixes containing stone waste material were designed for the application in a new formwork system developed for

  14. Plasmodium falciparum secretome in erythrocyte and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani eSoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of deadly malaria disease. It is an intracellular eukaryote and completes its multi-stage life cycle spanning the two hosts viz, mosquito and human. In order to habituate within host environment, parasite conform several strategies to evade host immune responses such as surface antigen polymorphism or modulation of host immune system and it is mediated by secretion of proteins from parasite to the host erythrocyte and beyond, collectively known as, malaria secretome. In this review, we will discuss about the deployment of parasitic secretory protein in mechanism implicated for immune evasion, protein trafficking, providing virulence, changing permeability and cyto-adherence of infected erythrocyte. We will be covering the possibilities of developing malaria secretome as a drug/vaccine target. This gathered information will be worthwhile in depicting a well-organized picture for host-pathogen interplay during the malaria infection and may also provide some clues for development of novel anti-malarial therapies.

  15. Enzymatic oxidation of mercury vapor by erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbach, S; Clarkson, T W

    1978-01-01

    The formation of glutathione radicals, the evolution of nascent oxygen or the peroxidatic reaction with catalase complex I are considered as possible mechanisms for the oxidation of mercury vapor by red blood cells. To select among these, the uptake of atomic mercury by erythrocytes from different species was studied and related to their various activities of catalase (hydrogen-peroxide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione peroxidase (glutathione:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.9). A slow and continuouus infusion of diluted H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was used to maintain steady concentrations of complex I. 1% red cell suspensions were found most suitable showing high rates of Hg uptake and yielding still enough cells for subsequent determinations. The results indicate that the oxidation of mercury depends upon the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-generation rate and upon the specific acticity of red-cell catalase. The oxidation occurred in a range of the catalase-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ reaction where the evolution of oxygen could be excluded. Compounds reacting with complex I were shown to be effective inhibitors of the mercury uptake. GSH-peroxidase did not participate in the oxidation but rather, was found to inhibit it by competing with catalase for hydrogen peroxide. These findings support the view that elemental mercury is oxidized in erythrocytes by a peroxidatic reaction with complex I only.

  16. The role of the erythrocyte in antitumour drug transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumez, Herlinde

    2005-01-01

    The area of research on the substance-carrier capacity of the erythrocyte is rather limited and it remains difficult to estimate the impact of erythrocyte drug level monitoring in the clinic. Although equilibrium between blood and tissues based on the dissolution of compounds in the plasma water

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Young and Old Erythrocytes of Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Götting

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding gene expression changes over the lifespan of cells is of fundamental interest and gives important insights into processes related to maturation and aging. This study was undertaken to understand the global transcriptome changes associated with aging in fish erythrocytes. Fish erythrocytes retain their nuclei throughout their lifetime and they are transcriptionally and translationally active. However, they lose important functions during their lifespan in the circulation. We separated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss erythrocytes into young and old fractions using fixed angle-centrifugation and analyzed transcriptome changes using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq technology and quantitative real-time PCR. We found 930 differentially expressed between young and old erythrocyte fractions; 889 of these showed higher transcript levels in young, while only 34 protein-coding genes had higher transcript levels in old erythrocytes. In particular genes involved in ion binding, signal transduction, membrane transport, and those encoding various enzyme classes are affected in old erythrocytes. The transcripts with higher levels in old erythrocytes were associated with seven different GO terms within biological processes and nine within molecular functions and cellular components, respectively. Our study furthermore found several highly abundant transcripts as well as a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs for which the protein products are currently not known revealing the gaps of knowledge in most non-mammalian vertebrates. Our data provide the first insight into changes involved in aging on the transcriptional level and thus opens new perspectives for the study of maturation processes in fish erythrocytes.

  18. The Role and Mechanism of Erythrocyte Invasion by Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Schmitt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F. tularensis to colonize ticks following a blood meal. Erythrocyte residence protected F. tularensis from a low pH environment similar to that of gut cells of a feeding tick. Mechanistic studies revealed that the F. tularensis type VI secretion system (T6SS was required for erythrocyte invasion as mutation of mglA (a transcriptional regulator of T6SS genes, dotU, or iglC (two genes encoding T6SS machinery severely diminished bacterial entry into RBCs. Invasion was also inhibited upon treatment of erythrocytes with venom from the Blue-bellied black snake (Pseudechis guttatus, which aggregates spectrin in the cytoskeleton, but not inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization. These data suggest that erythrocyte invasion by F. tularensis is dependent on spectrin utilization which is likely mediated by effectors delivered through the T6SS. Our results begin to elucidate the mechanism of a unique biological process facilitated by F. tularensis to invade erythrocytes, allowing for enhanced colonization of ticks.

  19. Desickling of Sickle Cell Erythrocytes by Pulsed RF Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-16

    spectrophotometery. Field induced menbrane potential which causes the L partyl breakdown of the memrbrane and the formation of pores was calculated... plasma . Fig.5 shows the photographs of sickled and desickled SS erythrocytes which are suspended in Hank’s solution. As shown, desickled erythrocytes

  20. Paired Chicken and Mammalian Erythrocyte Indicator Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective flock health analysis revealed that the higher titres were associated with confirmable Newcastle Disease (ND) outbreaks in the affected flocks. These findings therefore suggested that the use of standardised guinea pig erythrocytes in parallel with chicken erythrocytes as indicators, might facilitate field ND ...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700 Erythrocyte...

  2. Erythrocyte metallothionein as an index of zinc status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, A.; Bailey, L.B.; Cousins, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein concentrations in erythrocyte lysates derived from human subjects were measured by an ELISA procedure. IgG obtained from serum of sheep injected with human metallothionein 1 was used in this competitive assay. Subjects were fed a semipurified zinc-deficient diet for an 8-day depletion period after 3 days of acclimation. Fasting plasma zinc concentrations were reduced ∼7%. Metallothionein in the erythrocyte lysates was significantly decreased to 59% of the initial level by the end of the depletion period. Supplementation of these depleted subjects with zinc did not increase erythrocyte metallothionein levels within 24 hr. Daily supplementation of control subjects with zinc increased erythrocyte metallothionein to a 7-fold maximum within 7 days. These levels were reduced by 61% within 14 days after zinc supplementation was terminated. Incubation of rat [ 35 S]metallothionein with human erythrocyte lysate showed a time-dependent increase in 35 S soluble in 20% trichloroacetic acid, indicating degradation of the labeled protein, presumably via protease activity in the lysate. It is proposed that zinc supplementation induces erythrocyte metallothionein during erythropoiesis and that low zinc intake decreases synthesis and/or accelerates degradation of the protein in reticulocytes/erythrocytes. Metallothionein levels in erythrocytes may provide a useful index upon which to assess zinc status in humans

  3. Assessment of application of 5S practices in ceramic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danel Kleszcz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of research connected with determining the degree of implementation of 5S practices in ceramics industry are discussed in this paper. Direct survey with employees of companies plus ex-pert interview was used in the research. A 21 point scale was used to assess the degree of implemen-tation the 5S practices at individual stages of the manufacturing process. The specificity of produc-tion in ceramics industry enforces maintaining the regime of cleanliness during production. The research revealed that the level of conscious implementation of the 5S practices in companies de-pends on the culture of organization and the degree of involvement of employees in the improvement actions in their company. The presented results are a part of the research aimed at determining refer-ence requirements for companies in terms of implementation and making use of the Lean Manage-ment (LM instruments.

  4. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  5. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma 59 Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished

  6. The application of the precautionary principle in practice: comparative dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zander, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    ... regime and international environmental law. The author then goes on to offer a more detailed study of its application within three specific regulatory regimes within the United Kingdom, the United States and Sweden"-- "This overview...

  7. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  8. Sickle erythrocytes inhibit human endothelial cell DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, R.; Zhou, M.A.; Bartlett-Pandite, A.; Wenc, K.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia experience severe vascular occlusive phenomena including acute pain crisis and cerebral infarction. Obstruction occurs at both the microvascular and the arterial level, and the clinical presentation of vascular events is heterogeneous, suggesting a complex etiology. Interaction between sickle erythrocytes and the endothelium may contribute to vascular occlusion due to alteration of endothelial function. To investigate this hypothesis, human vascular endothelial cells were overlaid with sickle or normal erythrocytes and stimulated to synthesize DNA. The erythrocytes were sedimented onto replicate monolayers by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 17 g to insure contact with the endothelial cells. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into endothelial cell DNA was markedly inhibited during contact with sickle erythrocytes. This inhibitory effect was enhanced more than twofold when autologous sickle plasma was present during endothelial cell labeling. Normal erythrocytes, with or without autologous plasma, had a modest effect on endothelial cell DNA synthesis. When sickle erythrocytes in autologous sickle plasma were applied to endothelial monolayers for 1 minute, 10 minutes, or 1 hour and then removed, subsequent DNA synthesis by the endothelial cells was inhibited by 30% to 40%. Although adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelial monolayers was observed under these experimental conditions, the effect of sickle erythrocytes on endothelial DNA synthesis occurred in the absence of significant adherence. Hence, human endothelial cell DNA synthesis is partially inhibited by contact with sickle erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of sickle erythrocytes occurs during a brief (1 minute) contact with the endothelial monolayers, and persists for at least 6 hours of 3H-thymidine labeling

  9. Mindfulness in School Psychology: Applications for Intervention and Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felver, Joshua C.; Doerner, Erin; Jones, Jeremy; Kaye, Nicole C.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of mindfulness is increasing in other areas of applied psychology, school psychology has yet to embrace it in practice. This article introduces school psychologists to the burgeoning field of mindfulness psychology and to the possibilities that it offers to their discipline. A background on the Western scientific study and…

  10. Introduction to Part III: Application of LCA in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2018-01-01

    While Part II of this book presents the theoretical foundation and methodology of LCA, Part III is dedicated to a comprehensive discussion of how this methodology has been adapted and applied in practice. The chapters of Part III provide an easily readable and accessible introduction to different...

  11. Practical secure decision tree learning in a teletreatment application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoogh, Sebastiaan; Schoenmakers, Berry; Chen, Ping; op den Akker, Harm

    In this paper we develop a range of practical cryptographic protocols for secure decision tree learning, a primary problem in privacy preserving data mining. We focus on particular variants of the well-known ID3 algorithm allowing a high level of security and performance at the same time. Our

  12. Practical secure decision tree learning in a teletreatment application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogh, de S.J.A.; Schoenmakers, B.; Chen, Ping; Op den Akker, H.; Christin, N.; Safavi-Naini, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a range of practical cryptographic protocols for secure decision tree learning, a primary problem in privacy preserving data mining. We focus on particular variants of the well-known ID3 algorithm allowing a high level of security and performance at the same time. Our

  13. Practical application of the geometric geoid for heighting over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because a geoid model is required to convert ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights that are used in practice. A local geometric geoid ... The geoid height is expressed as a function of the local plane coordinates through a biquadratic surface polynomial, using 14 GPS/levelling points. Five points have been used ...

  14. THE APPLICATION OF EKS TEST IN SPORTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Nemec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study treats the birth and history of testing in general and the application of EKS test in particular, as an expert evaluation of specific motoric abilities with children. It is based on professional experience and is scientifically proved later. This test has several advantages on previous tests. It is less expensive and more efficient as well as easier in its application.

  15. Facilitating Transfer of Skills and Strategies in Occupational Therapy Practice: Practical Application of Transfer Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Foster, Erin R; Wolf, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    In Occupational Therapy (OT) practice, practitioners assume that the skills and strategies taught to clients during rehabilitation will transfer to performance and participation in everyday life. Despite transfer serving as a practice foundation, outcome studies conclude that this assumption of transfer is not occurring and it often results in decreased efficacy of rehabilitation. This paper investigated key aspects of transfer and found concepts in the psychology literature that can support transfer of skills and strategies in OT. Six key principles proposed from educational psychology can serve as a guide for practitioners to better train for transfer. In this paper, we discuss the six principles and apply concepts from psychology. Each principle is supported with examples of how they may be incorporated OT practice. If occupational therapists understand these principles and implement them in treatment, the efficacy of treatment may improve for many populations.

  16. Application of The APA Practice Guidelines on Suicide to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Douglas G; Brewer, Margaret L

    2006-06-01

    This article presents charts from The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline for the Assessment and Treatment of Patients with Suicidal Behaviors, part of the Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Compendium, and a summary of the assessment information in a format that can be used in routine clinical practice. Four steps in the assessment process are presented: the use of a thorough psychiatric examination to obtain information about the patient's current presentation, history, diagnosis, and to recognize suicide risk factors therein; the necessity of asking very specific questions about suicidal ideation, intent, plans, and attempts; the process of making an estimation of the patient's level of suicide risk is explained; and the use of modifiable risk and protective factors as the basis for treatment planning is demonstrated. Case reports are used to clarify use of each step in this process.

  17. Practical applications of technica data to waterflood design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwell, H E

    1965-03-01

    Two principles must be applied to the practical use of technical data in designing and operating water injection systems. The first is that corrosion must be tied inseparably to considerations of injection well plugging. Corrosion and plugging represent a single problem. This problem may be solved by applying research information to system conditions of water source. The second principle that must be applied is that current, past, and future results of research in this area can be utilized most directly by first measuring the conditions that actually exist in the system, or in the source water. Two things must be known: contents and composition of all materials not in solution under system conditions; and relatively comprehensive analyses of the water. They are needed for each water source and at each point in the system where some change could be occurring. These studies will generally disclose practical operating requirements.

  18. Cardinal principle and application practice of 3D digital model design for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruobing; Wu Yan

    2005-01-01

    The practical application of 3D digital model design at nuclear power plants was introduced in detail in the paper. The whole process for system choice, program constitution, model design and project practice were also summarized. By demonstrating the cardinal principal and application practice of 3D digital model design as an important sub-project of CGNPC Digital Plant, the paper validates the rationality and validity of the major architecture system and program configuration of the digital plant, carries out beneficial attempt and study in the overall power plant life engineering management and site practice, and has achieved significant engineering and social benefits. The success of practices in the project accelerates the extended and extensive application of Digital Plant in the operation and maintenance simulation of Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plants, and the engineering design management for Ling'ao II and III of CGNPC on a consolidated basis. (authors)

  19. Beaconless Georouting Under The Spotlight: Practical Link Models and Application Scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    practical application scenarios. Furthermore, beaconless georouting protocols have been studied in literature assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. In reality, this is not true since the communication range is actually a

  20. 7 CFR 50.1 - Scope and applicability of rules of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 50.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL... failure to comply with any similar requirements set forth in applicable regulations. ...

  1. Grenz rays. An illustrated guide to the theory and practical application of soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.; Thomson, J.

    1980-01-01

    The uses of soft x-rays (Grenz rays) as investigative tools in the fields of medical diagnosis, botany, art, entomology and forensic science, are discussed and the practical applications of the techniques illustrated by numerous photographs. (U.K.)

  2. The Virtual and the Real in Planning and Urban Design: Perspectives, Practices and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamu, Claudia; Poplin, Alenka; Devisch, Oswald; de Roo, Gert

    2018-01-01

    The Virtual and the Real: Perspectives, Practices and Applications for the Built Environment explores the merging relationship between physical and virtual spaces in planning and urban design. Technological advances such as smart sensors, interactive screens, locative media and evolving computation

  3. State E-Government Strategies: Identifying Best Practices and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-23

    Internet; ! Developing meaningful online applications for local government, businesses, educators, and other sectors; ! Establishing local “ eCommunity ...state, national, and international levels. However, frequently there is little meaningful coordination or communication between various e-government...weekly with the governor, 13% reported meeting monthly, and 21% reported “other,” meaning that these states have a different meeting schedule

  4. Polymerase chain reaction: Theory, practice and application: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one cycle can serve as a template in the next. Hence the number of target DNA copies approximately doubles at every cycle. Since its inception, PCR has had an enormous impact in both basic and diagnostic aspects of molecular biology. Like the PCR itself, the number of applications has been accumulating exponentially.

  5. Practical applications of the geographic coordinate data base in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickie Warwick; Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    Though not intended for these applications, the General Land Office (GLO) survey notes are a primary source of historical, ecological, and cultural information, making it imperative that their spatial coordinates be as reliable as possible. The Geographic Coordinate Data Base (GCDB) is a statistically-based coordinate fitting program that uses the GLO notes and other...

  6. A practical Hadamard transform spectrometer for astronomical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    The mathematical properties of Hadamard matrices and their application to spectroscopy are discussed. A comparison is made between Fourier and Hadamard transform encoding in spectrometry. The spectrometer is described and its laboratory performance evaluated. The algorithm and programming of inverse transform are given. A minicomputer is used to recover the spectrum.

  7. Practical uses of galvanized steel in electric utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueche, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Steel corrosion has been shown to be a major problem for the electric utility industry. Galvanizing has been shown to prevent or substantially slow steel corrosion. This paper describes the galvanizing process, discusses the properties associated with the galvanized coating, and demonstrates galvanizing's durability in specific, real world applications in the electric utility industry

  8. Practical application of AMLCDs for tactical fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaskey, Paul; Craddock, Roger

    1995-06-01

    Development and testing of an AMLCD-display to replace a dichroic display in a fighter aircraft environment has presented a unique set of technical challenges. This paper addresses design concepts used on the Engine Fuel Display and proposes design guidelines generally applicable for AMLCD projects.

  9. Erythrocyte 22Na+ influx in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, O.; Eaton, J.W.; Ben-Ishay, D.

    1984-01-01

    We assessed 22Na+ uptake by erythrocytes (RBC) from 38 individuals with essential hypertension and 37 healthy controls. All subjects were male, white, non-obese and with normal renal function, obviating sex, race, hormonal, ponderal and renal factors known to influence RBC Na+ handling. The mean +/- sem 22Na+ uptake of the patients was 284 +/- 16 mumole/liter RBC/hour while that of normal controls was 249 +/- 11 mumole/liter RBC/hour; although the difference reached borderline significance, individual values showed considerable overlap. Consequently, in our population, RBC 22Na+ uptake is not a reliable marker for essential hypertension. We believe that previous studies should be reassessed with regard to patients' characteristics and future studies employ rigorous criteria in selection of subjects

  10. Fluorescence energy transfer on erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.M.; Hof, M.; Lawaczeck, R.

    1995-08-01

    Stationary and time-dependent fluorescence have been measured for a donor/acceptor (DA) pair bound to membrane proteins of bovine erythrocyte ghosts. The donor N-(p-(2-benzoxazolyl)phenyl)-maleimid (BMI) and the acceptor fluram bind to SH- and NH 2 -residues, respectively. The fluorescence spectra and the time-dependent emission are consistent with a radiationless fluorescence energy transfer (RET). The density of RET-effective acceptor binding sites c=0.072 nm -2 was calculated on the basis of the two-dimensional Foerster-kinetic. Band3 protein is the only membrane spanning protein with accessible SH-groups, and therefore only effective binding sites on the band3 protein are counted for the RET measurements performed. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  12. [Polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Part II: application in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, D; Fulín, P; Slouf, M; Jahoda, D; Landor, I; Sosna, A

    2010-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the up-to-date organic polymer thermoplastics with applications in orthopaedics and trauma medicine. This study presents a detailed analysis of its tests and applications in clinical medicine. A wide range of PEEK modifications and composites are commercially available, e.g., PEEK-Classix, PEEK-Optima, Endolign and Motis. They differ in their physical properties, which makes them suitable for different applications. Other forms, so-called PEEK bioactive composites, contain beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. Research in this field is also concerned with the surface finish of this polymer thermoplastic and involves macroporous titanium and hydroxyapatite layers, or treatment with laser for an exactly defined surface structure. The clinical applications of PEEK and its composites include, in addition to components for spinal surgery, osteosynthesis plates, screws, intramedullary nails or external fixators, which are implants still at the stage of prototypes. In this review, attention is paid to the use of PEEK thermoplastics for joint replacement. Mid-term studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that, for instance, the VerSys Epoch Fullcoat Hip System (Zimmer) has a markedly lower stress-shielding effect. Carbon fibre-reinforced (CFR-PEEK) composites are used to make articulating components for total hip replacement. Their convenient properties allow for production of much thinner liners and an enlargement of the femoral head diameter, thus reducing the wear of joint implants. CFR-PEEK composites are particularly effective for hip resurfacing in which the Mitch PCR (Stryker) acetabular component has been used with good results. The MOTIS polymer acetabular cup (Invibio Ltd.) is another example. Further PEEK applications include the construction of finger-joint prostheses (Mathys AG), suture anchors (Stryker) and various kinds of augmentations (Medin). Based on the information obtained, the authors suggest

  13. In Vitro Protective Effect of Phikud Navakot Extraction on Erythrocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Kengkoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phikud Navakot (PN, Thai herbal remedy in National List of Essential Medicines, has been claimed to reduce many cardiovascular symptoms especially dizziness and fainting. Apart from blood supply, erythrocyte morphology, in both shape and size, is one of the main consideration factors in cardiovascular diseases and may be affected by vascular oxidative stress. However, little is known about antioxidative property of PN on erythrocyte to preserve red blood cell integrity. In this study, 1,000 μM hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress was conducted on sheep erythrocyte. Three doses of PN (1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/mL and 10 μM of ascorbic acid were compared. The released hemoglobin absorbance was measured to demonstrate hemolysis. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were also performed to characterize dysmorphic erythrocyte and osmotic ability in relation to aquaporin- (AQP- 1 expression, respectively. The results revealed that all doses of PN and ascorbic acid decreased the severity of dysmorphic erythrocyte, particularly echinocyte, acanthocyte, knizocyte, codocyte, clumping, and other malformations. However, the most effective was 0.5 mg/mL PN dosage. In addition, hydrostatic pressure may be increased in dysmorphic erythrocyte in association with AQP-1 upregulation. Our results demonstrated that PN composes antioxidative effect to maintain the integrity and osmotic ability on sheep erythrocyte.

  14. Deformability of Erythrocytes and Oxidative Damage in Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukerrem Betul Yerer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A lowered cerebral perfusion as a consequence of hemodynamic microcirculatory insufficiency is one of the factors underlying in Alzheimer's disease, which is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive cognitive impairment. Erythrocyte deformability is one of the major factors affecting the microcirculatory hemodynamics which is closely related to the oxidative damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the erythrocyte deformability, nitric oxide levels and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The blood samples of 30 elderly people in three groups consisting of healthy control and different severities of the disease (low and severe were used. Then the erythrocytes were isolated and the deformability of erythrocytes was determined by Rheodyne SSD evaluating the elongation indexes of the erythrocytes under different shear stress. The catalase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma nitric oxide levels were measured spectrophotometric ally. Results: The plasma nitric oxide levels, catalase activities were found significantly higher and glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly lower in severe Alzheimer's disease patients compared to the control group. However, the deformability of erythrocytes was not significantly affected from these alterations. Conclusion: the oxidant-antioxidant status is dramatically changed in Alzheimer's disease patients with the severity of the disease and similar alterations were seen in the nitric oxide levels without any significant change in erythrocyte deformability. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(2.000: 65-75

  15. Automated guided vehicle systems a primer with practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ullrich, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This primer is directed at experts and practitioners in intralogistics who are concerned with optimizing material flows. The presentation is comprehensive covering both, practical and theoretical aspects with a moderate degree of specialization, using clear and concise language. Areas of operation as well as technical standards of all relevant components and functions are described. Recent developments in technology and in the markets are taken into account. The goal of this book is to further stronger use of automated guided transport systems and the enhancement of their future performance.

  16. Practical example of game theory application for production route selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2017-08-01

    The opportunity which opens before manufacturers on the dynamic market, especially before those from the sector of the small and medium-sized enterprises, is associated with the use of the virtual organizations concept. The planning stage of such organizations could be based on supporting decision-making tasks using the tools and formalisms taken from the game theory. In the paper the model of the virtual manufacturing network, along with the practical example of decision-making situation as two person game and the decision strategies with an analysis of calculation results are presented.

  17. The Uremic Toxin Acrolein Promotes Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siyabeldin E. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a major complication of end stage renal disease. The anemia is mainly the result of impaired formation of erythrocytes due to lack of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Compelling evidence, however, points to the contribution of accelerated erythrocyte death, which decreases the life span of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Erythrocytes could be sensitized to cytosolic Ca2+ by ceramide. In end stage renal disease, eryptosis may possibly be stimulated by uremic toxins. The present study explored, whether the uremic toxin acrolein could trigger eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin-V-binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. Results: A 48 h exposure to acrolein (30 - 50 µM did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i but significantly decreased forward scatter and increased annexin-V-binding. Acrolein further triggered slight, but significant hemolysis and increased ceramide formation in erythrocytes. Acrolein (50 µM induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Acrolein augmented the annexin-V-binding following treatment with Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 µM. Conclusion: Acrolein stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of ceramide formation with subsequent sensitisation of the erythrocytes to cytosolic Ca2+.

  18. [Application of SPECT/CT in neurosurgical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, A V; Kotel'nikova, T M; Melikian, A G; Dolgushin, M B; Sorokin, V S; Soboleva, O I; Khokhlova, E V; Gorlachev, G E; Krasnianskiĭ, S A

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of application of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT in neurosurgery. Combination of these two techniques in the single system provides higher precision of both methods. The novel technique allows assessment of tumor spread in the brain, differential diagnosis of tumor regrowth and radiation-induced necrosis, evaluation of cerebral perfusion in epilepsy, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and diagnostics of secondary CNS lesions. Examples of primary diagnosis, dynamic follow-up and differential diagnosis of cerebral neoplasms, localization of epileptogenic foci in planning of surgery, prediction of outcome after TBI and evaluation of spread of metastatic skeletal involvement and further application of acquire data are presented.

  19. Multiagent Systems and Applications Volume 1Practice and Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the book is on completed implementations of agent-based software systems. Here, agent technology is considered broadly, starting from development of agent platforms, all the way through systems actually implemented. The covered topics also include lessons learned during implementation of agent platforms and the reflection on the process of development and application of agent-based systems.   The book includes 10 chapters where interested reader can find discussion of important issues encountered during development of well-known agent platforms such as JADE and Jadex as well as some interesting experiences in developing a new platform that combines software agent and Web Services. Furthermore, the book shows readers several valuable examples of applications based on multi-agent systems including simulations, agents in autonomous negotiations and agents in public administration modelling. We believe that the book will prove useful to the researchers, professors and the practitioners in all discip...

  20. Practical Application of Monte Carlo Code in RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Julia Abdul Karim; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin; Na'im Syauqi Hamzah; Mark Dennis Anak Usang; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Muhammad Khairul Ariff Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo neutron transport codes are widely used in various reactor physics applications in RTP and other related nuclear and radiation research in Nuklear Malaysia. The main advantage of the method is the capability to model geometry and interaction physics without major approximations. The disadvantage is that the modelling of complicated systems is very computing-intensive, which restricts the applications to some extent. The importance of Monte Carlo calculation is likely to increase in the future, along with the development in computer capacities and parallel calculation. This paper presents several calculation activities, its achievements and challenges in using MCNP code for neutronics analysis, nuclide inventory and source term calculation, shielding and dose evaluation. (author)

  1. Efficiency of working memory: Theoretical concept and practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of working memory is the concept which connects psychology of memory with different fields of cognitive, differential and applied psychology. In this paper, the history of interest for the assessment of the capacity of short-term memory is presented in brief, as well as the different methods used nowadays to assess the individual differences in the efficiency of working memory. What follows is the consideration of studies that indicate the existence of significant links between the efficiency of working memory and general intelligence, the ability of reasoning, personality variables, as well as some socio-psychological phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the links between the efficiency of working memory and certain aspects of pedagogical practice: acquiring the skill of reading, learning arithmetic and shedding light on the cause of general failure in learning at school. What is also provided are the suggestions that, in the light of knowledge about the development and limitations of working memory at school age, can be useful for teaching practice.

  2. On the validity and practical applicability of derivative analyticity relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, P.; Fischer, J.

    1983-09-01

    We examine derivative analyticity relations (DAR), which were originally proposed by Bronzan as an alternative to dispersion relations and in which the dispersion integral is replaced by a tangent series of derivatives. We characterize the class of functions satisfying DAR, and show that outside this class the dispersion integral represents a Borel-like sum of tangent series. We point out difficulties connected with the application of DAR. (author)

  3. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  4. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Di Giacomo

    Full Text Available Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i widely occur in erythrocytes, ii are polarized, and iii seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  5. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of 3 H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease

  7. Practical applications of superconducting technology; Chodendo gijutsu to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Urata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in superconducting technology recently. This paper describes the details and technical features of every cooling type of practical superconducting magnet (SCM), including the SCM for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), SCM for semiconductor pulling devices, high-field SCM, SCM for magnetically confined plasma devices, and SCM for particle detectors. Commercial production of pool-boil-cooled SCMs has been realized by reducing helium evaporation and decreasing the frequency of helium pouring. The development of forced-cooled SCMs has made it possible to build large SCMs. Moreover, the development of the 4 K-GM refrigerator has enabled liquid-helium-free SCMs to be introduced. Since this type of SCM can be operated merely by turning on a switch, SCMs are expected to come into more widespread use. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Practical application of Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP) using microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a practical microcomputer-based, hierarchical modelling framework for Integrated National Energy Planning (INEP), and policy analysis. The rationale for the concept and the development of the methodology are traced, following the energy crises of the 1970s. Details of the INEP process, which includes analysis at three hierarchical levels (the energy-microeconomic, energy sector and energy subsector) are given. A description of the various models, the scenarios and assumptions used in the analysis, as well as the linkages and interactions, is provided. The Sri Lanka energy situation is summarized, and the principal energy issues and options derived from the modelling are used to synthesize a national energy strategy. (author). 11 refs, 8 figs, 11 tabs

  9. Practical applications and methods in performing cardiac digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, D.M.; Withrow, S.; Moodie, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    One of the purposes of this book is to outline the utility of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in common clinical practice. No text has dealt with the actual physical setup of the room or the patient prior and during a digital subtraction angiographic study at rest and with exercise. This chapter outlines the steps commonly used when cardiac DSA is performed on patients in the authors' laboratory. The authors have learned over the last few years the best way to prepare the patient and the equipment and it is hoped that utilizing this experience, other centers may avoid the mistakes the authors have made in the past and develop new techniques for the future

  10. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  11. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US' investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health.

  12. Clinical application of pharmacogenetics: focusing on practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Matthew T; McCarthy, Jeanette J; Shin, Jaekyu

    2015-01-01

    Recent large-scale genetic-based studies have transformed the field of pharmacogenetics to identify, characterize and leverage genetic information to inform patient care. Genetic testing can be used to alter drug selection, optimize drug dosing and prevent unnecessary adverse events. As precision medicine becomes the mainstay in the clinic, it becomes critical for clinicians to utilize pharmacogenetics to guide patient care. One primary challenge is identifying patients where genetic tests that can potentially impact patient care. To address this challenge, our review highlights many practical issues clinicians may encounter: identifying candidate patients and clinical laboratories for pharmacogenetic testing, selecting highly curated resources to help asses test validity, reimbursing costs of pharmacogenetic tests, and interpreting of pharmacogenetic test results.

  13. Miniaturized Balanced Antenna with Integrated Balun for Practical LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. E. Elfergani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A design of dual-band balanced antenna structure operating in the 700 and 2600MHz LTE bands is studied and investigated. The overall dimensions of the radiator are 50 × 18 × 7 mm^3 allowing it to be easily concealed within mobile handsets. A broad-band balun is designed and integrated with the antenna handset in order to provide the feeding network and perform the measurements of the antenna radiation performance. Prototypes of proposed antenna with and without balun are fabricated and verified. The simulated and practical results with and without the handheld effects in terms of reflection coefficient, power gain and radiation pattern, are studied and shown reasonable agreement.

  14. Practical applications of surface analytic tools in tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1980-01-01

    Many of the currently, widely used tools available for surface analysis are described. Those which have the highest applicability for giving elemental and/or compound analysis for problems of interest in tribology and are truly surface sensitive (that is, less than 10 atomic layers) are presented. The latter group is evaluated in detail in terms of strengths and weaknesses. Emphasis is placed on post facto analysis of experiments performed under 'real' conditions (e.g., in air with lubricants). It is further indicated that such equipment could be used for screening and quality control.

  15. Properties and practical application of thin CeOx films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimchuk N. V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The properties of CeOx films produced by various methods have been investigated. According to the comparative analisys “metallic mirror oxidation” method allows to produce films with significantly better characteristics than the «explosive evaporation» method. Though the latter method yields higher photosensitivity of CeOx films and structures on their base. In the process the optimal value of the substrate temperature was determined. Obtained data expand the CeOx application potential in microelectronic sensor sphere.

  16. Small Wind Turbine Applications: Current Practice in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Numerous small wind turbines are being used by homeowners in Colorado. Some of these installations are quite recent while others date back to the federal tax-credit era of the early 1980s. Through visits with small wind turbine owners in Colorado, I have developed case studies of six small wind energy applications focusing on the wind turbine technology, wind turbine siting, the power systems and electric loads, regulatory issues, and motivations about wind energy. These case studies offer a glimpse into the current state-of-the-art of small-scale wind energy and provide some insight into issues affecting development of a wider market

  17. [Application of paramunity inducers in small animal practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2016-01-01

    Paramunity inducers have been used to treat small animals for decades. Paramunity inducers are based on attenuated and inactivated poxviruses (avipox virus and parapox virus). Their applications include both therapeutic and prophylactic use in various diseases. Despite their wide and variable use, only a very small number of placebo-controlled studies has been published. Positive effects in preventing kitten mortality and in treating feline stomatitis have been reported, however, no statistically significant effect of their therapeutic use in canine parvovirus infection, feline leukemia infection virus infection or canine papillomavirus infection could be demonstrated. For these infectious diseases, paramunity inducers do not appear to be effective.

  18. Development and Use of an EFL Reading Practice Application for an Android Tablet Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yasushige; Smith, Craig; Kondo, Mutsumi; Akano, Ichiro; Maher, Kate; Wada, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of an English-language reading practice application for an Android tablet computer with students who are not native speakers of English. The application materials for vocabulary learning in reading-passage contexts were created to include words from a database of low-frequency and technical noun-verb collocations…

  19. Biofungicides and Their Applicability in Modern Agricultural Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production in developed countries undergoes various changes, some of which take place at consumers’ request, while others are of ethical importance. This is especially true of plant protection. A global demand for reducing the use of chemical pesticides, which are regarded as harmful to the consumer, induce the developement of new, less harmful and sustainable strategies of plant protection. Many chemical pesticides have been excluded from further use (e.g. organochlorine insecticides, methyl bromide due totheir potential risk to human health, the environment and non-target organisms, or developement of resistance of harmful organisms to those substances. A need for developing alternative protection systems in the future is beyond doubt and they should be implementedeither as an addition or a substitute for conventional pesticides. Well-considered use of biological products in combination with other protection measures would meet the requirements for producing sanitary and health-safe agricultural products, and food in general. In the paper, we discuss the modes of action, formulation types and applicability of different biological fungicides, and list them individually with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the production and application risks associated with biological products.

  20. Morphological Characterization of Nanofibers: Methods and Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Širc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical applications such as wound dressing for skin regeneration, stem cell transplantation, or drug delivery require special demands on the three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Besides the biocompatibility and mechanical properties, the morphology is the most important attribute of the scaffold. Specific surface area, volume, and size of the pores have considerable effect on cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation. In the case of incorporated biologically active substances, their release is also influenced by the internal structure of nanofibers. Although many scientific papers are focused on the preparation of nanofibers and evaluation of biological tests, the morphological characterization was described just briefly as service methods. The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods applicable for morphological characterization of nanofibers and supplement it by the results of our research. Needleless electrospinning technique was used to prepare nanofibers from polylactide, poly(ε-caprolactone, gelatin, and polyamide. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the fiber diameters and to reveal eventual artifacts in the nanofibrous structure. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were employed to measure the specific surface areas. Mercury porosimetry was used to determine total porosities and compare pore size distributions of the prepared samples.

  1. Problems and their solutions in practical application of Eurocodes in seismic design of RC structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milev Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to present practical application of Eurocodes in the field of RC structures design. The selected examples represent the main problems in practical application of Eurocodes for seismic analysis and design of RC Structures in Bulgarian construction practice. The analysis is focused on some structural and economic problems as well as on some contradictions in Eurocode 8 itself. Special attention is paid to the practical solution of the following problems: recognition of torsionally flexible systems, stiffness reduction of RC elements for linear analysis dimensions and detailing of confined boundary areas of shear walls, detailing of wall structures, etc. Those problems appear during the practical design of some buildings in Bulgaria. Several proposals for solving some problems defined in the paper are presented through some practical examples. Some conclusions are made for further application of Eurocode 8 in the design and construction practice. The importance of some rules and procedures in Eurocode 8 is supported by the examples of damaged RC members during the past earthquakes. The problems of Eurocode 8 and their solutions are illustrated through the experience of Bulgarian construction practice.

  2. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iveson, Steven W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Chemical Security Threat Reduction

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction: Theory, practice and application: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Atawodi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR is a rapid procedure for in vitro enzymatic amplification of specific DNA sequences using two oligonucleotide primers that hybridize to opposite strands and flank the region of interest in the target DNA. Repetitive cycles involving template denaturation, primer annealing and the extension of the annealed primers by DNA polymerase, result in the exponential accumulation of a specific fragment whose termini are defined by 5′ end of the primers. The primer extension products synthesized in one cycle can serve as a template in the next. Hence the number of target DNA copies approximately doubles at every cycle. Since its inception, PCR has had an enormous impact in both basic and diagnostic aspects of molecular biology. Like the PCR itself, the number of applications has been accumulating exponentially. It is therefore recommended that relevant scientists and laboratories in developing countries like Nigeria should acquire this simple and relatively inexpensive, but rather robust technology.

  4. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  5. Logic, mathematics, and computer science modern foundations with practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nievergelt, Yves

    2015-01-01

    This text for the first or second year undergraduate in mathematics, logic, computer science, or social sciences, introduces the reader to logic, proofs, sets, and number theory. It also serves as an excellent independent study reference and resource for instructors. Adapted from Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Science and Cryptography © 2002 Birkhӓuser, this second edition provides a modern introduction to the foundations of logic, mathematics, and computers science, developing the theory that demonstrates construction of all mathematics and theoretical computer science from logic and set theory.  The focus is on foundations, with specific statements of all the associated axioms and rules of logic and set theory, and  provides complete details and derivations of formal proofs. Copious references to literature that document historical development is also provided. Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so uni...

  6. DNA methylation based biomarkers: Practical considerations and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Myrtue; How Kit, Alexandre; Tost, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    of biochemical molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA or lipids, whereby protein biomarkers have been the most extensively studied and used, notably in blood-based protein quantification tests or immunohistochemistry. The rise of interest in epigenetic mechanisms has allowed the identification of a new type...... of biomarker, DNA methylation, which is of great potential for many applications. This stable and heritable covalent modification mostly affects cytosines in the context of a CpG dinucleotide in humans. It can be detected and quantified by a number of technologies including genome-wide screening methods...... as well as locus- or gene-specific high-resolution analysis in different types of samples such as frozen tissues and FFPE samples, but also in body fluids such as urine, plasma, and serum obtained through non-invasive procedures. In some cases, DNA methylation based biomarkers have proven to be more...

  7. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. Practical application of COD measurement in welded assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghe, S.

    1975-01-01

    Measurement of the COD makes it possible to evaluate sensitivity to brittle fracture initiation. This technique is ideal for welded structures, owing to the types of defect likely to affect them, and the magnitude of the residual stresses introduced. Moreover, the COD concept, based on thickness and temperature experiments on materials, enables evaluation of the critical defect size in these structures. However, its application to welded joints encounters certain problems. The presence of fatigue cracks in the molten zone of a welded joint is frequently disturbed by the residual stresses caused by welding. An additional difficulty is created by the problem of stable growth of the crack during the bending test. This discussion covers all these matters and suggests some solutions [fr

  9. Practical application of computer graphics in nuclear power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Hirobumi; Sasaki, Norio

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a vast amount of equipment, piping, and so on, and six or seven years are required to complete the design and engineering from the initial planning stage to the time of commercial operation. Furthermore, operating plants must be continually maintained and improved for a long period. Computer graphics were first applied to the composite arrangement design of nuclear power plants in the form of 3-dimensional CAD. Subsequently, as the introduction of CAE has progressed, a huge assortment of information has been accumulated in database, and measures have been sought that would permit the convenient utilization of this information. Using computer graphics technologies, improvement of the interface between the user and such databases has recently been accomplished. In response to the growth in environmental consciousness, photo-realistic simulations for artistic design of the interior and overviews showing harmony with the surroundings have been achieved through the application of computer graphics. (author)

  10. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  11. New Classification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia: Application to Practical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon-Sung; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Se Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Malformation of cortical development (MCD) is a well-known cause of drug-resistant epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most common neuropathological finding in surgical specimens from drug-resistant epilepsy patients. Palmini’s classification proposed in 2004 is now widely used to categorize FCD. Recently, however, Blumcke et al. recommended a new system for classifying FCD in 2011. Methods: We applied the new classification system in practical diagnosis of a sample of 117 patients who underwent neurosurgical operations due to drug-resistant epilepsy at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Korea. Results: Among 117 cases, a total of 16 cases were shifted to other FCD subtypes under the new classification system. Five cases were reclassified to type IIIa and five cases were categorized as dual pathology. The other six cases were changed within the type I category. Conclusions: The most remarkable changes in the new classification system are the advent of dual pathology and FCD type III. Thus, it will be very important for pathologists and clinicians to discriminate between these new categories. More large-scale research needs to be conducted to elucidate the clinical influence of the alterations within the classification of type I disease. Although the new FCD classification system has several advantages compared to the former, the correlation with clinical characteristics is not yet clear. PMID:24649461

  12. Some practical applications of fundamental standards in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, Francis; Lavie, Jean-Marie

    1964-05-01

    After some general considerations on the recommendations made by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) regarding standards of internal or external exposure of organs or tissues to different types of radiations, and a recall of the main problems raised by acute radio-exposures (dose assessment in case of accident, assessment of the dose due to an emergency intervention in case of accident, classification of radio-elements), this report describes how ICRP recommendations have been implemented by the CEA, and tries to relate the problem of acute radio-exposures to the problem of chronic radio-exposures. This study is limited to the case of workers and to internal contamination by inhalation, but can be easily extended to other groups or other contamination types. The authors thus recall some fundamental data and definitions regarding values recommended by the ICRP for chronic radio-exposure and for acute exposure (acceptable exposure, accidental exposure, concerted exposure, units), present and comment how standards are practically applied for dose calculation and assessment. Formulas allow a quick assessment of radiological consequences of an acute radio-exposure, or vice-versa [fr

  13. Practical applications of the exemption principle in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of exemption has been widely used in radiological protection. It is part of the regulator's arsenal for applying legislative requirements in a graded fashion, to avoid the expenditure of effort on situations where the return in terms of improvement in protection would otherwise be trivial. Nevertheless, it still remains a controversial matter. It is not so much the dosimetric criteria for exemption that cause debate; it is more the way in which the concept is used; the scenarios employed to calculate derived activity concentrations, and its relationship to the somewhat analogous concept of exclusion. A particular problem has been the full integration into the legislative system of protection of exposures to radiation from sources of natural origin and the degree to which exemption is a relevant concept for dealing with such situations. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to provide some clarity on the two concepts and their practical implementation with a view to encouraging international harmonization and avoiding further unnecessary debate. (orig.)

  14. Application of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in Dermatology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is a non-invasive method, imaging cellular structures in living skin at a level close to the histological resolution. It is easier to diagnose melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin tumors especially in difficult cases when RCM features have been identified. Determination of the cellular features, presence of cellular and structural atypia with RCM allows the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. Preoperative differential diagnosis of malignant lesions, determining preoperative lesion borders in complicated cases, identification of local recurrence after excision of malignant lesions, monitoring the treatment efficacy in patients using topical treatment and who can not be operated, are the main areas of RCM in tumoral lesions. Besides, RCM is helpful in the establishing the diagnosis of inflammatory disease like psoriasis, contact dermatitis, lichen planus and in evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, detecting of infestation like tinea, skabiyes, demodicosis and determining the level of bullae in bullous disease. Due to being noninvasive, RCM is preferred in cosmetology, in clinical research and practice for the evaluation of the effectiveness of cosmetic products and cosmetic procedures.

  15. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR); p. 267– ...

  16. Spin labelling of human erythrocytes with nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagalj, C.; DePaoli, T.C.P.; Hager, A.A.; Palaoro, L.A.; Rubin de Celis, E.; Farach, H.A.; Poole, C.P. jr

    1984-01-01

    Human erythrocytes were labelled with nitroxide, the spin label SYNVAR 101, under various experimantal conditions. A study was made of the influence of antireductants on the labelling efficiency and the kinetics of the radical decay during the labelling process

  17. Status report on the operation of the cyclotron and on the programs of its practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Ander, I.; Ando, L.; Ditroi, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Kiraly, B.; Kormany, Z.; Kovacs, P.; Kovacs, Z.; Mahunka, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Cyclotron Department is to operate the ATOMKI MGC-20E cyclotron, to support the research in different scientific fields and to use the accelerator in practice related applications. The Cyclotron Laboratory has been installed in a research institute so research is the most important task. Considering that some results of the basic research can be used in different routine applications, the second important task is to help developing systems for this reason. The capacity of the accelerator usually allows making routine applications to ensure the financial background for the service and for the development of the cyclotron. The cyclotron is applied directly for basic nuclear physics research and it indirectly helps the research in other fields via interdisciplinary studies. It is used in broad scale for different practical applications which have direct results in basic sciences in many cases therefore the classification sometimes is not simple. The irradiations at the cyclotron are dedicated to basic research in the field of nuclear structure and nuclear reaction studies and from other side to the so-called practical applications. The cyclotron has been in operation in ATOMKI since 1985. Since then the cyclotron has been reliably running with very short undesired breakdowns and it has been used for a wide range of research and application programs. This overview gives a short summary of the status of cyclotron operation and the practical applications and gives some indications on the future plans. (author)

  18. Insulin binding to erythrocytes after acute 16-methyleneprednisolone ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, A; Holle, W; Zick, R; Trautschold, I

    1982-10-01

    The binding of [125I]insulin to erythrocytes, glucose and insulin were determined before and 1, 7 and 35 days after ingestion of 2 X 60-methyleneprednisolone. None of two groups of volunteers (7 males, 4 females showed clear alterations of the insulin binding parameters (Ka and R0), or of the fasting cortisol, glucose and insulin concentrations. These results exclude the possibility that the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoides is accompanied by an alteration of the insulin receptor characteristics of erythrocytes.

  19. Effects of dietary fat on lipid composition of serum and erythrocytes of the swine and in vitro incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki

    1974-01-01

    Changes in ftty acid patterns of lipids in serum and erythrocytes induced by dietary fats and in vitro incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes were investigated with pigs. On feeding various diets, it was found that fatty acid composition of serum and erythrocytes could be modified and altered toward the fatty acid pattern of the diet. In vitro, the incorporation of labelled fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes was accelerated by the addition of cofactors such as lysolecithin, CoA and ATP. Dietary fats also had certain effects on the incorporation of fatty acids into erythrocyte membranes. Erythrocytes, collected from the blood of pigs fed corn oil, incorporated and also released more labelled linoleate than those of pigs fed hydrogenated soybean oil. Palmitic acid was more slowly incorporated into erythrocyte membranes than linoleic acid in the pigs fed both a commercial chow and scheduled meals, indicating selective esterification of fatty acids in the erythrocyte membranes. (author)

  20. Presentation of the escadre system, together with a practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Cenerino, G.; Dumas, J.M.; Gauvain, J.; Fermandjian, J.; L'Heriteau, J.P.; Lhiaubet, G.

    1988-08-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) is in charge of research in phenomenology of severe accidents which are not taken into account in the design basis but which could occur on the dfferent types of reactor operated in France. Related potential applications are varied and include: - assessment of radioactive release as to nature, quantity and kinetics, in order to validate the population evacuation plans, - analysis of the efficiency of the procedures and corrective actions envisaged by the operating utilities to minimize the consequences of severe accidents, - general risk surveys for the PRA programs. In order to carry out this task effectively, the IPSN has developed a set of computer programs to model on the one hand, the physics of fission product transfers (release from damaged fuel, vapour and aerosol behavior, transport outside the reactor containment), and on the other hand, the core, primary system and containment thermal hydraulics (including the incidence of safeguard systems, ultimate emergency procedures and corium-concrete interaction) determining fission product transfer kinetics. The system is completed by provision for modelling fission product atmophere, aquatic and hydrological transfers outside the containment. This computer program, known as ESCADRE, is presented in this paper

  1. Bioimmobilization of uranium-practical tools for field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Extensive laboratory and field research has conclusively demonstrated that it is possible to stimulate indigenous microbial activity and create conditions favorable for the reductive precipitation of uranium from groundwater, reducing aqueous U concentrations below regulatory levels. A wide variety of complex and coupled biogeochemical processes have been identified and specific reaction mechanisms and parameters have been quantified for a variety of experimental systems including pure, mixed, and natural microbial cultures, and single mineral, artificial, and natural sediments, and groundwater aquifers at scales ranging from very small (10s nm) to very large (10s m). Multicomponent coupled reactive transport models have also been developed to simulate various aspects of this process in 3D heterogeneous environments. Nevertheless, full-scale application of reductive bioimmobilization of uranium (and other radionuclides and metals) remains problematical because of the technical and logistical difficulties in creating and maintaining reducing environment in the many large U contaminated groundwater aquifers currently under aerobic and oxidizing conditions and often containing high concentrations of competing and more energetically favorable electron acceptors (esp. nitrate). This talk will discuss how simple tools, including small-scale in situ testing and geochemical reaction path modeling, can be used to quickly assess the feasibility of applying bioimmobilization to remediate U contaminated groundwater aquifers and provide data needed for full-scale design.

  2. Silver Nanoclusters: From Design Principles to Practical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulhalim, Lina G.

    2015-12-08

    A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic ligands into atomically precise gold and silver nanoclusters (NCs) with high monodispersity has been advanced to a point that allows the design of NCs with strict stoichiometries, functionalities and valence. Of the Ag NCs discovered, Ag44 is the most studied, not only due to its high absorption that transcends the visible spectrum suitable for photovoltaics but also because of its long excited state lifetime, as revealed by nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A major principle discovered in this dissertation is the ability to produce Ag44 in scalable amounts and with high stability in addition to modulation of the functional groups of the organic ligands via a fast and complete ligand exchange process. This new discovery has led to the development of synthetic designs in which new sizes were obtained by varying the reaction parameters (e.g., ligands functionality, reaction temperature and time), namely, Ag29 using dithiols and phosphines. The synthesized NCs possess tetravalent functionalities that facilitate their crystallization and characterization. Furthermore, Ag29 glows red and is therefore a possible candidate for sensing and imaging applications.

  3. Dual detector neutron lifetime log: theory and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpas, C.J.; Wichmann, P.A.; Fertl, W.H.; DeVries, M.R.; Rndall, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Neutron Lifetime Log instrumentation has continued to evolve and now is equipped with dual detectors for increased ease in gas detection and also a ratio response for a simultaneous porosity determination. A good deal of experimentation was involved to minimize both lithology and salinity effects on the porosity indication. This paper contains a discussion of the theory and concepts related to the application of the Dual Detector Neutron Lifetime Log (DNLL). It is important to note that with these advances the recording of thermal neutron capture cross section (Σ) remains consistent with the past measurements of earlier generations of instruments as the most accurate determination of this parameter. A number of field examples of the newly logged results are shown. These field cases include Dual Detector NLL's run thru the drill strings of highly deviated holes when difficulties were encountered in getting conventional open hole logs to bottom, logs thru open perforations and hot radioactive zones, comparisons of the large and small diameter instruments, logs with anomalous fluids in the annulus, logs thru multiple casing strings, and a number of other examples

  4. Platelet inhibition by nitrite is dependent on erythrocytes and deoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirada Srihirun

    Full Text Available Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated.Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger, suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes.Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia.

  5. Erythrocyte zinc levels in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik Yilmaz, E; Ozmen, S; Bostanci, I; Misirlioglu, E Dibek; Ertan, U

    2011-12-01

    Zinc deficiency may be suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis, control, and severity of asthma because of its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate whether there was any relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and childhood asthma. The erythrocyte zinc levels of 67 asthmatic and 45 healthy children were analyzed in this case-control study. The mean concentrations of erythrocyte zinc were 1215.8 ± 145.1 µg/dl in asthma patients and 1206.9 ± 119.5 µg/dl in controls with no significant difference (P = 0.472). The erythrocyte zinc level was below 1,000 µg/dl in 6 asthmatic patients (8.9%) and 2 control group patients (4.4%). There was no relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and duration of follow-up, severity, and control of the asthma (P > 0.05). On the other hand, patients hospitalized for an asthma attack had significantly lower erythrocyte zinc levels compared with nonhospitalized patients and the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.004 respectively). This study's findings indicate that asthmatic children are not a risk group for zinc deficiency. We emphasize that checking zinc levels in children who are hospitalized for an asthma attack may be useful. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Temperature-dependent binding of cyclosporine to an erythrocyte protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.P.; Threatte, G.A.; McPherson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this competitive binding assay to measure endogenous binding capacity for cyclosporine (CsA) in erythrocyte lysates, a fixed amount of [ 3 H]CsA plus various concentrations of unlabeled CsA is incubated with aliquots of a test hemolysate. Free CsA is then adsorbed onto charcoal and removed by centrifugation; CsA complexed with a cyclosporine-binding protein (CsBP) remains in the supernate. We confirmed the validity of this charcoal-separation mode of binding analysis by comparison with equilibrium dialysis. Scatchard plot analysis of the results at 4 degrees C yielded a straight line with slope corresponding to a binding constant of 1.9 X 10(7) L/mol and a saturation capacity of approximately 4 mumol per liter of packed erythrocytes. Similar analysis of binding data at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that the binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, but the saturation capacity did not change. CsBP was not membrane bound but appeared to be freely distributed within erythrocytes. 125 I-labeled CsA did not complex with the erythrocyte CsBP. Several antibiotics and other drugs did not inhibit binding between CsA and CsBP. These findings may explain the temperature-dependent uptake of CsA by erythrocytes in whole blood and suggest that measurement of CsBP in erythrocytes or lymphocytes may help predict therapeutic response or toxicity after administration of CsA

  7. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by the Antimalarial Drug Mefloquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Bissinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimalarial drug mefloquine has previously been shown to stimulate apoptosis of nucleated cells. Similar to apoptosis, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, and ceramide. Methods: Phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from specific antibody binding. Results: A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with mefloquine significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥5 µg/ml, significantly decreased forward scatter (≥5 µg/ml, significantly increased ROS abundance (5 µg/ml, significantly increased [Ca2+]i (7.5 µg/ml and significantly increased ceramide abundance (10 µg/ml. The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following mefloquine treatment was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, mefloquine significantly increased annexin-V-binding. Conclusions: Mefloquine treatment leads to erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling, effects at least partially due to induction of oxidative stress, increase of [Ca2+]i and up-regulation of ceramide abundance.

  8. Erythrocyte signal transduction pathways, their oxygenation dependence and functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvitenko, Nadezhda N; Adragna, Norma C; Weber, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocytes play a key role in human and vertebrate metabolism. Tissue O2 supply is regulated by both hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity and erythrocyte rheology, a key determinant of tissue perfusion. Oxygenation-deoxygenation transitions of Hb may lead to re-organization of the cytoskeleton and signalling pathways activation/deactivation in an O2-dependent manner. Deoxygenated Hb binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the anion exchanger band 3, which is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and is considered a major mechanism underlying the oxygenation-dependence of several erythrocyte functions. This work discusses the multiple modes of Hb-cytoskeleton interactions. In addition, it reviews the effects of Mg2+, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, NO, shear stress and Ca2+, all factors accompanying the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle in circulating red cells. Due to the extensive literature on the subject, the data discussed here, pertain mainly to human erythrocytes whose O2 affinity is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ectothermic vertebrate erythrocytes that use ATP, and to bird erythrocytes that use inositol pentaphosphate. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantsker, E.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO 3 -YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room

  10. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantsker, Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO3-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  11. Cytogenotoxicity screening of source water, wastewater and treated water of drinking water treatment plants using two in vivo test systems: Allium cepa root based and Nile tilapia erythrocyte based tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka. Measured physico-chemical parameters of the raw water, effluents and treated water samples complied with the respective Sri Lankan standards. In the in vivo tests, raw water induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitodepression and chromosomal abnormalities in the root meristem of the plant and micronuclei/nuclear buds evolution and genetic damage (as reflected by comet scores) in the erythrocytes of the fish compared to the aged tap water controls signifying greater genotoxicity of the source water especially in the dry period. The effluents provoked relatively high cytogenotoxic effects on both test systems but the toxicity in most cases was considerably reduced to the raw water level with the effluent dilution (1:8). In vivo tests indicated reduction of cytogenotoxic potential in the tested drinking water samples. The results support the potential applications of practically feasible in vivo biological test systems such as A. cepa root based tests and the fish erythrocyte based tests as complementary tools for screening cytogenotoxicity potential of the source water and water treatment waste reaching downstream of aquatic ecosystems and for evaluating cytogenotoxicity eliminating efficacy of the DWTPs in different seasons in view of human and ecological safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetic Erythrocytes Test by Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, A.M; Foresto, P; Darrigo, M; Rosso, O.A

    2008-01-01

    Even when a healthy individual is studied, his/her erythrocytes in capillaries continually change their shape in a synchronized erratic fashion. In this work, the problem of characterizing the cell behavior is studied from the perspective of bounded correlated random walk, based on the assumption that diffractometric data involves both deterministic and stochastic components. The photometric readings are obtained by ektacytometry over several millions of shear elongated cells, using a home-made device called Erythrodeformeter. We have only a scalar signal and no governing equations; therefore the complete behavior has to be reconstructed in an artificial phase space. To analyze dynamics we used the technique of time delay coordinates suggested by Takens, May algorithm, and Fourier transform. The results suggest that on random-walk approach the samples from healthy controls exhibit significant differences from those from diabetic patients and these could allow us to claim that we have linked mathematical nonlinear tools with clinical aspects of diabetic erythrocytes’ rheological properties. PMID:19415139

  13. Kinetics of heat-damaged homologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, P.A.; Depascouale, A.K.; Germenis, A.E.; Antipas, S.E.P.

    1990-01-01

    A new theoretical five-compartmental model (5CM) was developed for analysis of the clearance of heat-damaged erythroctes (HDE) labelled with chronium 51. Besides the HDE-spleen interaction, this new model also takes into account the interaction between extrasplenic reticuloendothelial (RES) sites and HDE, i.e. the hepatic clearance of fragment erythrocytes (FE). Accordingly, HDE clearance curves are analysed into three exponential components, the fastest of which describes the RES-FE interaction, whereas the others describe the splenic clearance of spherocytes. Therefore, an estimation of the effective liver blood flow for HDE (ELBF) was achieved, along with a series of parameters describing splenic function. The 5CM proved to be more efficient than a previously proposed three-compartmental model (3CM) in the mathematical description of HDE clearance. Comparison was made by applying both models to 37 experimental curves obtained from 20 patients with congenital hemolytic anemias. The values for the splenic function parameters calculated by 5CM analysis and the strong correlations observed among them offer evidence that this model provides an adequate approximation to the real conditions under which HDE clearance takes place. Furthermore, a detailed quantitative analysis of the pooling of spherocytes within the spleen was attempted in this work, and this phenomenon was found to compete with splenic irreversible spherocyte trapping. The ELBF proved to be closely correlated with the hemodynamic splenic parameters, following first-order kinetics, as do low-dose colloids. (orig.)

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation and steady magnetic field on erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S. P.; Galutzov, B. P.; Kuzmanova, M. A.; Markov, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A complex biophysical test for studying the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation has been developed. The following cell and membrane parameters have been investigated: cell size, cell shape, cell distribution by size, electrophoretic mobility, extent of hemolysis, membrane transport and membrane impedance. Gamma ray doses of 2.2 Gy and 3.3 Gy were used as ionizing radiation and steady (DC) magnetic field of 5-90 mT representing the non-ionizing radiation. Erythrocytes from humans and rats were exposed in vitro to both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In some experiments ionizing radiation was applied in vivo as well. Each of the simultaneously studied parameters have been found to change as a function of applied radiation. The proposed test allows an estimation of the changes in the elastic, rheological and electrical parameters of cells and biological membranes. Results indicate that ionizing radiation is significantly more effective in an in vivo application, while magnetic fields are more effective when applied in vitro. Surprisingly, steady magnetic fields were found to act as protector against some harmful effects of ionizing radiation. (authors)

  15. 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Miguel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Paz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings presents recent practical applications of Computational Biology and  Bioinformatics. It contains the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at June 3rd-5th, 2015. The International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics (PACBB) is an annual international meeting dedicated to emerging and challenging applied research in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. Biological and biomedical research are increasingly driven by experimental techniques that challenge our ability to analyse, process and extract meaningful knowledge from the underlying data. The impressive capabilities of next generation sequencing technologies, together with novel and ever evolving distinct types of omics data technologies, have put an increasingly complex set of challenges for the growing fields of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The analysis o...

  16. Residual tissue post splenectomy detected by splenic scintillography with erythrocytes damaged by heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera B, B.; Garcia C, E.S.; Garcia O, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Feminine of 26 years old with diagnostic of purple thrombocytopenic idiopathic to those 4 years of age, tried with steroids and splenectomy at 11 years old. Pathway practically asymptomatic until 4 months ago she had presented asthenia, adynamia and general uneasiness, with platelet figures of 40,000 plat/microliter. It was carried out scintillographic study with damaged erythrocytes for post surgical remainder search. Its were took two-dimensional images and tomography by single photon emission (SPECT), being knitted splenic residual in area of anatomical projection of the spleen. (Author)

  17. Morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Minakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephropathies with erythrocyturia make up about 1/3 of all diseases of the kidneys and the urinary system, and they have some difficulties in differential diagnostics. Quite often, erythrocyturia is the only symptom of these diseases. In connection with this, determination of its origin is an important task in forming the correct diagnosis. Erythrocyturia in most diseases of the lower urinary tract is not accompanied by proteinuria or the presence of cylinders in the urine. The presence of proteinuria (more than 0.3 g/l or 1 g protein in urine per day, along with the appearance of erythrocytic cylinder in the urine sediment, raises suspicion in favor of glomerular or tubular diseases. Glomerular erythrocytes may be detected by means of urea concentration factor (UCF in the urinary sediment as a preliminary test for the determination of the erythrocyturia site. Erythrocytes that pass through the glomerular membrane have a changed form (dysmorphic. Determination of acanthocytes in the urine (ring-shaped erythrocytes with one or several bulges in the form of bubbles of different sizes and types is a more precise criterion of glomerular nephropathy than the presence of dysmorphic erythrocytes. The purpose of the study was to determine the morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia, to improve the quality of differential diagnosis. Materials and methods. Determination of the morphological characteristics of urinary erythrocytes using UCF in 73 patients aged 1 to 18 years, of which 45 (61.6 % are patients with hematuric form of glomerulonephritis, 23 (31.5 % — with hereditary nephritis, and 5 (6.8 % — with dysmetabolic nephropathy. Detection of 50 to 80 % of dysmorphic erythrocytes in the urine sediment and finding in urine of more than 5 % of acanthocytes is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic criterion for glomerular hematuria. Results. In children with a clinical diagnosis

  18. POSSIBILITIES OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE ON THE GENERAL PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola А. Fedoniuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of use of information technologies during the training practices of geographical disciplines is shown. Some features of work with Google Earth and Stellarium software products are described. Examples of practical tasks for the students are given. In particular, such topics are considered: orienteering, determination of coordinates, of azimuths, work with photomap images, determining of the position and the apparent motion of celestial bodies, etc. Possible algorithms of work with services of archives of weather data are described. Prospects of further improvement of the organization of the educational practice of natural-study disciplines with application of information technologies are estimated.

  19. Application of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in current clinical practice guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Seong, Jin Sil [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In oncologic practice, treatment guidelines provide appropriate treatment strategies based on evidence. Currently, many guidelines are used, including those of the European Association for the Study of the Liver and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE), and Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and National Cancer Centre (KLCSG-NCC). Although radiotherapy is commonly used in clinical practice, some guidelines do not accept it as a standard treatment modality. In this review, we will investigate the clinical practice guidelines currently used, and discuss the application of radiotherapy.

  20. Application of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in current clinical practice guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Seong, Jin Sil

    2016-01-01

    In oncologic practice, treatment guidelines provide appropriate treatment strategies based on evidence. Currently, many guidelines are used, including those of the European Association for the Study of the Liver and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE), and Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and National Cancer Centre (KLCSG-NCC). Although radiotherapy is commonly used in clinical practice, some guidelines do not accept it as a standard treatment modality. In this review, we will investigate the clinical practice guidelines currently used, and discuss the application of radiotherapy

  1. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Increased Extracellular Phosphate Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Voelkl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Anemia in renal insufficiency results in part from impaired erythrocyte formation due to erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Beyond that, renal insufficiency enhances eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be stimulated by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Several uremic toxins have previously been shown to stimulate eryptosis. Renal insufficiency is further paralleled by increase of plasma phosphate concentration. The present study thus explored the effect of phosphate on erythrocyte death. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. Results: Following a 48 hours incubation, the percentage of phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes markedly increased as a function of extracellular phosphate concentration (from 0-5 mM. The exposure to 2 mM or 5 mM phosphate was followed by slight but significant hemolysis. [Ca2+]i did not change significantly up to 2 mM phosphate but significantly decreased at 5 mM phosphate. The effect of 2 mM phosphate on phosphatidylserine exposure was significantly augmented by increase of extracellular Ca2+ to 1.7 mM, and significantly blunted by nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+, by additional presence of pyrophosphate as well as by presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580. Conclusion: Increasing phosphate concentration stimulates erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect depending on extracellular but not intracellular Ca2+ concentration. It is hypothesized that suicidal erythrocyte death is triggered by complexed CaHPO4.

  2. Insulin radioreceptor assay on murine splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, F.; Kahn, R.

    1982-01-01

    Insulin radioreceptor assays were developed using splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes from individual mice. Splenic leukocytes were prepared using an NH 4 Cl buffer which did not alter insulin binding, but gave much higher yields than density gradient methods. Mouse erythrocytes were isolated from heparinized blood by three passages over a Boyum gradient, and a similar buffer was used to separate cells from free [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at the end of the binding incubation. Insulin binding to both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes had typical pH, temperature, and time dependencies, and increased linearly with an increased number of cells. Optimal conditions for the splenic leukocytes (6 x 10 7 /ml) consisted of incubation with [ 125 I]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.0. In cells from 20 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 2.6 +/- 0.1% (SEM), and nonspecific binding was 0.3 +/- 0.04% (10.6% of total binding). Erythrocytes (2.8 x 10 9 /ml) were incubated with [ 125 ]iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.2. In cells from 25 individual mice, the specific [ 125 I]iodoinsulin binding was 4.5 +/- 0.2%, and nonspecific binding was 0.7 +/- 0.03% (13.6% of total binding). In both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes, analysis of equilibrium binding data produced curvilinear Scatchard plots with approximately 3500 binding sites/leukocyte and 20 binding sites/erythrocyte. These data demonstrate that adequate numbers of splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes can be obtained from individual mice to study insulin binding in a precise and reproducible manner

  3. Translating Behavioral Science into Practice: A Framework to Determine Science Quality and Applicability for Police Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kimberley A; McGuire, Katherine L; Chapan, Denis M

    2018-05-07

    Policy on officer-involved shootings is critically reviewed and errors in applying scientific knowledge identified. Identifying and evaluating the most relevant science to a field-based problem is challenging. Law enforcement administrators with a clear understanding of valid science and application are in a better position to utilize scientific knowledge for the benefit of their organizations and officers. A recommended framework is proposed for considering the validity of science and its application. Valid science emerges via hypothesis testing, replication, extension and marked by peer review, known error rates, and general acceptance in its field of origin. Valid application of behavioral science requires an understanding of the methodology employed, measures used, and participants recruited to determine whether the science is ready for application. Fostering a science-practitioner partnership and an organizational culture that embraces quality, empirically based policy, and practices improves science-to-practice translation. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  5. Trends in practical applications of heterogeneous multi-agent systems : the PAAMS collection

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Juan; Mathieu, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew; Ortega, Alfonso; Adam, Emmanuel; Navarro, Elena; Ahrndt, Sebastian; Moreno, María; Julián, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2014 special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM), Agents and Mobile Devices (AM), Bio-Inspired and Multi-Agents Systems: Applications to Languages (BioMAS), Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI), Self-Explaining Agents (SEA), Web Mining and Recommender systems (WebMiRes) and Intelligent Educational Systems (SSIES).

  6. A practical approach in porous medium combustion for domestic application: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. K.; Ibrahim, N. H.; Shamsuddin, K. A.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Zubair, M.

    2018-05-01

    Combustion in porous media has been widely studied. Many application involving the combustion of porous media has been reported in various way with most consider on numerical works and industrial application. Besides, recent application of porous medium combustion for domestic is the topic of interest among researchers. In this paper, a review was conducted on the combustion of porous media in term of practical application for domestic consumers. Details on the type of fuel used including bio fuel and their system have been search thoroughly. Most of the system have utilized compressed air system to provide lean combustion in domestic application. Some self-aspirating system of porous medium burner was also reported. The application of new technology such as cogeneration by using thermoelectric cells in tandem with porous medium combustion is also revised according to recent work which have already been published. Besides, the recent advances which include coating of porous material is also considered at the end of this paper.

  7. Detection of Occult Erythrocytic Membrane Damages upon Pharmacological Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu. Alekseyeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood administration of pharmaceuticals may cause occult effects of these agents on erythrocytic membranes. These effects may damage and cause additional membrane defects, but may strengthen. The type and degree of the effects of an agent were detected by calibrated irreversible electroporation with a pulsed electric field (PEF. The paper considers the erythrocytic membranous effects of a wide concentration range of agents used in anesthesiology, such as esmerone, tracrium, and mar-caine-adrenaline. Under the action of PEF and esmerone at the normal concentration N, the rate of erythrocytic hemolysis increased by several times as compared with the control. The similar effect also occurred when esmerone was added at the concentration C=10N. Tracrium exerted a fixing effect on erythrocytic membranes. Upon a combined exposure to PEF and tracrium in the normal concentration C=N; erythrocytic hemolysis was slow. So was with the concentration C=10N. The rate of hemolysis of the red blood cells subjected to a combined action of marcaine adrenaline at the normal concentration C=N and even at the concentration C=10N and PEF was comparable with the hemolytic rate of the reference suspension. 

  8. Erythrocyte and platelet fatty acids in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzial, A M; Bonomi, L; Cobbe, C; Olivieri, O; Girelli, D; Trevisan, M T; Bassi, A; Ferrari, S; Corrocher, R

    1991-05-01

    The fatty acid composition and the glutathione-peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) of erythrocytes and platelets, the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) by platelets and the activity of the main systems of transmembrane cation transport in erythrocyte have been studied in 12 patients (5 males and 7 females) affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). A remarkable increase of saturated fatty acids (SFA), particularly of stearic acid (C18:0), has been noted in these patients. The reduced unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA) observed in both erythrocytes and platelets and the decrease of arachidonic acid in platelets may depend by an active peroxidation process as documented by the increase of MDA. Platelet glutathione-peroxidase (PTL-GSH-PX) and plasma retinol were in the normal range, whereas erythrocyte glutathione-peroxidase (E-GSH-PX), MDA and plasma alfa-toco-pherol were increased in patients with RP. The activities of Na(+)-K+ pump, cotransport and Na(+)-Li+ countertransport were normal in RP erythrocytes.

  9. Principals' Application of Instructional Leadership Practices for Secondary School Effectiveness in Oyo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyce, Onyali Chiedozie; Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale

    2017-01-01

    This study ascertained the principals' application of instructional leadership practices for secondary school effectiveness in Oyo State. Two research questions guided the study and two null hypotheses were tested. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised 8,701 which were made of 969…

  10. Practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Qunzhang

    1999-01-01

    The author reviewed recent development and practical application of solid phase spectrophotometry in analysis of materials and goods of mining-metallurgy. Separation and preconcentration and conditions of coloring determination, sensitivity and range of detection, as well as interference of corresponding method are discussed

  11. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) – Best practice guide for application of WASA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Carsten; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Cronin, Tom

    The present report is a best practice guide for application of results from the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). A general description of the methodological framework – the wind atlas methodology – is given, including validation results of the numerical wind atlas at 10 measurement sites...

  12. New possibilities of complex "Thermodyn" application for contactless remote diagnostics in medical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, M. Ye.; Shayko-Shaykovskiy, O. G.; Makhrova, Ye. G.; Kramar, V. M.; Oleksuik, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    We represent here the theoretical justifications, block scheme and experimental sample of a new automated complex "Thermodyn" for remote contactless diagnostics of inflammatory processes of the surfaces and in subcutaneous areas of human body. Also we described here the methods and results of diagnostic measurements, and results of practical applications of this complex.

  13. The application of Quick Response Manufacturing practices in Brazil, Europe, and the USA : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinho Filho, Moacir; Marchesini, Antonio Gilberto; Riezebos, Jan; Vandaele, Nico; Devos Ganga, Gilberto Miller

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the application of Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) practices by enterprises in Brazil, Europe, and the USA. QRM is a management concept that focuses on time as the key factor in competitive manufacturing, particularly in customer-oriented Engineer and Make to Order

  14. Innovative Second Language Speaking Practice with Interactive Videos in a Rich Internet Application Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Juan A.; Sanz-Santamaría, Silvia; Montero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Attaining a satisfactory level of oral communication in a second language is a laborious process. In this action research paper we describe a new method applied through the use of interactive videos and the Babelium Project Rich Internet Application (RIA), which allows students to practice speaking skills through a variety of exercises. We present…

  15. Effectiveness of best management practices that have application to forest roads: a literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Frederica Wood; Robin L. Quinlivan

    2016-01-01

    Literature describing the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) applicable to forest roads is reviewed and synthesized. Effectiveness is considered from the perspective of protecting water quality and water resources. Both paved and unpaved forest roads are considered, but BMPs that involve substantial engineering are not considered. Some of the BMPs...

  16. 9 CFR 355.43 - Scope and applicability of rules of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and applicability of rules of practice. 355.43 Section 355.43 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  17. Community College Faculty Recruitment Practices: The Effects of Applicant Gender, Instructional Programs, and Job Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that applied marketing and advertising theory to recruit community-college business faculty. The reactions of male and female target applicants to recruitment advertisements and job descriptions were assessed, with differences found between the two groups. Discusses results, and implications for practice, theory and research. (36…

  18. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  19. Mobile applications in clinical practice: What is needed in the pharmacy scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan Elnaem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.

  20. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  1. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Specific binding of beta-endorphin to normal human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenet, B.; Hollis, V. Jr.; Kang, Y.; Simpkins, C.

    1986-03-05

    Beta-endorphin (BE) exhibits peripheral functions which may not be mediated by interactions with receptors in the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated binding of BE to both opioid and non-opioid receptors on lymphocytes and monocytes. Abood has reported specific binding of /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine in erythrocytes. Using 5 x 10/sup -11/M /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and 10/sup -5/M unlabeled BE, they have detected 50% specific binding to human erythrocytes. This finding is supported by results from immunoelectron microscopy using rabbit anti-BE antibody and biotinylated secondary antibody with avidin-biotin complexes horseradish peroxidase. Binding is clearly observed and is confined to only one side of the cells. Conclusions: (1) BE binding to human erythrocytes was demonstrated by radioreceptor assay and immunoelectron microscopy, and (2) BE binding sites exist on only one side of the cells.

  4. Genotoxic Biomarkers in Erythrocytes of Lepidochelys olivacea (Cheloniidae from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Quiroz Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the municipality of Bahia Solano, Colombia, and had as a goal to detect damage erythrocytes circulating with nuclear lesions in fifty-five Olive Ridley adult females using acridine orange immunostain, and correlate its frequencies with some physiological and biometric parameters. We determine a micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE frequency of 0.6 ± 0.6 and nuclear buds (NBE of 2.1 ± 1.9. We not found any relationship between the nuclear lesions with physiological or biometric parameters evaluated (Pearson and Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.05. We define a significative statistical difference (p=0.035 between both nuclear lesions frequencies. This results show nuclear damages in erythrocytes of Olive Ridley sea turtle for the first time in Colombia as an outcome of genotoxic stress. Also contributes key information for future research in the ecotoxicology area for endangered marine species.

  5. A novel approach for assessments of erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribush, A; Hatskelzon, L; Meyerstein, N

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the dispersed phase of sedimenting blood undergoes dramatic structural changes: Discrete red blood cell (RBC) aggregates formed shortly after a settling tube is filled with blood are combined into a continuous network followed by its collapse via the formation of plasma channels, and finally, the collapsed network is dispersed into individual fragments. Based on this scheme of structural transformation, a novel approach for assessments of erythrocyte sedimentation is suggested. Information about erythrocyte sedimentation is extracted from time records of the blood conductivity measured after a dispersion of RBC network into individual fragments. It was found that the sedimentation velocity of RBC network fragments correlates positively with the intensity of attractive intercellular interactions, whereas no effect of hematocrit (Hct) was observed. Thus, unlike Westergren erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sedimentation data obtained by the proposed method do not require correction for Hct. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Red not dead: signaling in and from erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Randy S; Stephenson, Alan H; Ellsworth, Mary L

    2007-11-01

    The oxygen required to meet metabolic needs of all tissues is delivered by the erythrocyte, a small, flexible cell which, in mammals, is devoid of a nucleus and mitochondria. Despite its simple appearance, this 'bag of hemoglobin' has an important role in its own distribution, enabling the delivery of oxygen to precisely meet localized metabolic need. When an erythrocyte enters an area in which tissue oxygen demand exceeds supply, a signaling pathway is activated resulting in the release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). This ATP acts in a paracrine fashion to increase vascular caliber resulting in increased oxygen delivery. Defects in this pathway are found in erythrocytes of humans with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and could contribute to the perfusion abnormalities in skeletal muscle associated with this disease.

  7. The malaria parasite RhopH protein complex interacts with erythrocyte calmyrin identified from a comprehensive erythrocyte protein library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Takeo, Satoru; Ntege, Edward H; Otsuki, Hitoshi; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Ishino, Tomoko; Takashima, Eizo; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2018-06-02

    Malaria merozoite apical organelles; microneme and rhoptry secreted proteins play functional roles during and following invasion of host erythrocytes. Among numerous proteins, the rhoptries discharge high molecular weight proteins known as RhopH complex. Recent reports suggest that the RhopH complex is essential for growth and survival of the malaria parasite within erythrocytes. However, an in-depth understanding of the host-parasite molecular interactions is indispensable. Here we utilized a comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library consisting of 443 proteins produced by a wheat germ cell-free system, combined with AlphaScreen technology to identify mouse erythrocyte calmyrin as an interacting molecule of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii RhopH complex (PyRhopH). The PyRhopH interaction was dependent on the calmyrin N-terminus and divalent cation capacity. The finding unveils a recommendable and invaluable usefulness of our comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library together with the AlphaScreen technology in investigating a wide-range of host-parasite molecular interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A murine model of falciparum-malaria by in vivo selection of competent strains in non-myelodepleted mice engrafted with human erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Angulo-Barturen

    Full Text Available To counter the global threat caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria, new drugs and vaccines are urgently needed. However, there are no practical animal models because P. falciparum infects human erythrocytes almost exclusively. Here we describe a reliable falciparum murine model of malaria by generating strains of P. falciparum in vivo that can infect immunodeficient mice engrafted with human erythrocytes. We infected NOD(scid/beta2m-/- mice engrafted with human erythrocytes with P. falciparum obtained from in vitro cultures. After apparent clearance, we obtained isolates of P. falciparum able to grow in peripheral blood of engrafted NOD(scid/beta2m-/- mice. Of the isolates obtained, we expanded in vivo and established the isolate Pf3D7(0087/N9 as a reference strain for model development. Pf3D7(0087/N9 caused productive persistent infections in 100% of engrafted mice infected intravenously. The infection caused a relative anemia due to selective elimination of human erythrocytes by a mechanism dependent on parasite density in peripheral blood. Using this model, we implemented and validated a reproducible assay of antimalarial activity useful for drug discovery. Thus, our results demonstrate that P. falciparum contains clones able to grow reproducibly in mice engrafted with human erythrocytes without the use of myeloablative methods.

  9. Erythrocyte stiffness during morphological remodeling induced by carbon ion radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zhang

    Full Text Available The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy. The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study

  10. Viral erythrocytic necrosis: Chapter 2.2.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN), originally termed piscine erythrocytic necrosis, is a condition that has been reported to affect the red blood cells (RBCs) of many species of marine and anadromous fishes in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Nicholson and Reno 1981; Smail 1982; Wolf 1988; Dannevig and Thorud 1999). Fish with VEN may develop a severe anemia that can reduce their stamina, predispose them to other infections or increase the impact of other stressors (MacMillan et al. 1980; Nicholson and Reno 1981; Meyers et al. 1986; Haney et al. 1992) resulting in population-scale impacts in susceptible species (Hershberger et al. 2009).

  11. The complete amino acid sequence of human erythrocyte diphosphoglycerate mutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggarty, N W; Dunbar, B; Fothergill, L A

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of human erythrocyte diphosphoglycerate mutase, comprising 239 residues, was determined. The sequence was deduced from the four cyanogen bromide fragments, and from the peptides derived from these fragments after digestion with a number of proteolytic enzymes. Comparison of this sequence with that of the yeast glycolytic enzyme, phosphoglycerate mutase, shows that these enzymes are 47% identical. Most, but not all, of the residues implicated as being important for the activity of the glycolytic mutase are conserved in the erythrocyte diphosphoglycerate mutase. PMID:6313356

  12. Erythrocyte-derived nano-probes functionalized with antibodies for targeted near infrared fluorescence imaging of cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anvari, Bahman; Mac, Jenny T.; Nunez, Vicente; Burns, Joshua M.; Guerrero, Yadir A.

    2016-01-01

    Constructs derived from mammalian cells are emerging as a new generation of nano-scale platforms for clinical imaging applications. Herein, we report successful engineering of hybrid nano-structures composed of erythrocyte-derived membranes doped with FDA-approved near infrared (NIR) chromophore, indocyanine green (ICG), and surface-functionalized with antibodies to achieve molecular targeting. We demonstrate that these constructs can be used for targeted imaging of cancer cells in vitro. The...

  13. Python erythrocytes are resistant to α-hemolysin from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Casper K; Skals, Marianne; Wang, Tobias; Cheema, Muhammad U; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A

    2011-12-01

    α-Hemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli lyses mammalian erythrocytes by creating nonselective cation pores in the membrane. Pore insertion triggers ATP release and subsequent P2X receptor and pannexin channel activation. Blockage of either P2X receptors or pannexin channels reduces HlyA-induced hemolysis. We found that erythrocytes from Python regius and Python molurus are remarkably resistant to HlyA-induced hemolysis compared to human and Trachemys scripta erythrocytes. HlyA concentrations that induced maximal hemolysis of human erythrocytes did not affect python erythrocytes, but increasing the HlyA concentration 40-fold did induce hemolysis. Python erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress than human erythrocytes, but osmotic stress tolerance per se did not confer HlyA resistance. Erythrocytes from T. scripta, which showed higher osmotic resistance than python erythrocytes, were as susceptible to HlyA as human erythrocytes. Therefore, we tested whether python erythrocytes lack the purinergic signalling known to amplify HlyA-induced hemolysis in human erythrocytes. P. regius erythrocytes increased intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration and reduced cell volume when exposed to 3 mM ATP, indicating the presence of a P2X₇-like receptor. In addition, scavenging extracellular ATP or blocking P2 receptors or pannexin channels reduced the HlyA-induced hemolysis. We tested whether the low HlyA sensitivity resulted from low affinity of HlyA to the python erythrocyte membrane. We found comparable incorporation of HlyA into human and python erythrocyte membranes. Taken together, the remarkable HlyA resistance of python erythrocytes was not explained by increased osmotic resistance, lack of purinergic hemolysis amplification, or differences in HlyA affinity.

  14. From principles to practice in site remediation: Specific application in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Higgins, P.; Longley, P.; Kerrigan, E.; Smith, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of wide-scale application of radioactive materials in research, medicine, defence, nuclear power and industry, significant areas of land have become contaminated with radioactivity. Whilst many practices aim to minimise the potential for contamination, there remain a number of sites that are contaminated as a result of historical discharges and accidental releases. In the UK, defence sites are being remediated to be released for redevelopment. International principles, national guidelines and best practice are taken into account, but quantities of low or very low activity radioactive waste are generated, and require disposal. This paper discusses these issues and illustrates their implementation at a specific site in the UK. (author)

  15. Integrating Quality and Safety Competencies to Improve Outcomes: Application in Infusion Therapy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Gwen; Nickel, Barbara

    Despite intense scrutiny and process improvement initiatives, patient harm continues to occur in health care with alarming frequency. The Quality and Safety Education for Nursing (QSEN) project provides a roadmap to transform nursing by integrating 6 competencies: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. As front-line caregivers, nurses encounter inherent risks in their daily work. Infusion therapy is high risk with multiple potential risks for patient harm. This study examines individual and system application of the QSEN competencies and the Infusion Nurses Society's 2016 Infusion Therapy Standards of Practice in the improvement of patient outcomes.

  16. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  17. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  18. 40 CFR 432.72 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.72 Section 432.72... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors § 432.72 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT...

  19. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.22 Section 432.22... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as... limitations: (1) In the case of process wastewater associated with the slaughtering of animals on-site or the...

  20. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.12 Section 432.12... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as...) In the case of process wastewater associated with the slaughtering of animals on-site or the...

  1. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.42 Section 432.42... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as...) In the case of process wastewater associated with the slaughtering of animals on-site or the...

  2. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.32 Section 432.32... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as...) In the case of process wastewater associated with slaughtering of animals on-site or the processing...

  3. Poly(o-aminophenol) film electrodes synthesis, transport properties and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tucceri, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This review book is concerned with the synthesis, charge transport properties and practical applications of poly (o-aminophenol) (POAP) film electrodes. It is divided into three parts. The first one has a particular emphasis on problems of synthesis and structure of POAP. The second part deals with the mechanism of charge transfer and charge transport processes occurring in the course of the redox reactions of POAP. The third part describes the promising applications of POAP in the different fields of sensors, electrocatalysis, bioelectrochemistry, corrosion protection, among others. This review covers the literature on POAP in the time period comprised between 1987 and 2013.

  4. [Algorithms of artificial neural networks--practical application in medical science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Bogusław; Cholewiński, Witold; Tarkowska, Anna

    2005-12-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) may be a tool alternative and complementary to typical statistical analysis. However, in spite of many computer applications of various ANN algorithms ready for use, artificial intelligence is relatively rarely applied to data processing. This paper presents practical aspects of scientific application of ANN in medicine using widely available algorithms. Several main steps of analysis with ANN were discussed starting from material selection and dividing it into groups, to the quality assessment of obtained results at the end. The most frequent, typical reasons for errors as well as the comparison of ANN method to the modeling by regression analysis were also described.

  5. Associations of erythrocyte fatty acid patterns with insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Synergistic and/or additive effects on cardiometabolic risk may be missed by examining individual fatty acids (FA). A pattern analysis may be a more useful approach. As well, it remains unclear whether erythrocyte fatty acid composition relates to insulin resistance among Hispanic/Latino...

  6. Fragmentation of Human Erythrocyte Actin following Exposure to Hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Risso, A.; Santamaria, B.; Pistarino, E.; Cosulich, M. E.; Pompach, Petr; Bezouška, Karel; Antonutto, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2010), s. 6-13 ISSN 0001-5792 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : beta-Actin * Erythrocytes * Hypoxia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2010

  7. Erythrocyte membrane modified janus polymeric motors for thrombus therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Jingxin; Abdelghani, Mona; Shen, Guizhi; Cao, Shoupeng; Williams, David S.; van Hest, Jan C.M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the construction of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked Janus polymeric motors (EM-JPMs) which are propelled by near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation and are successfully applied in thrombus ablation. Chitosan (a natural polysaccharide with positive charge, CHI) and heparin (glycosaminoglycan

  8. Determination of molecular species of lecithin from erythrocytes and plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, L.M.G. van; Tomasi, V.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    The molecular species of lecithin from erythrocyte and plasma of man and rabbit were determined after conversion of the lecithins into diglycerides by means of hydrolysis with phospholipase C. The resultant diglycerides were separated by thin-layer chromatography on silica impregnated with silver

  9. Erythrocyte antioxidant protection of rose hips (Rosa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widén, C; Ekholm, A; Coleman, M D; Renvert, S; Rumpunen, K

    2012-01-01

    Rose hips are popular in health promoting products as the fruits contain high content of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether health benefits are attributable to ascorbic acid, phenols, or other rose-hip-derived compounds. Freeze-dried powder of rose hips was preextracted with metaphosphoric acid and the sample was then sequentially eluted on a C(18) column. The degree of amelioration of oxidative damage was determined in an erythrocyte in vitro bioassay by comparing the effects of a reducing agent on erythrocytes alone or on erythrocytes pretreated with berry extracts. The maximum protection against oxidative stress, 59.4 ± 4.0% (mean ± standard deviation), was achieved when incubating the cells with the first eluted meta-phosphoric extract. Removal of ascorbic acid from this extract increased the protection against oxidative stress to 67.9 ± 1.9%. The protection from the 20% and 100% methanol extracts was 20.8 ± 8.2% and 5.0 ± 3.2%, respectively. Antioxidant uptake was confirmed by measurement of catechin by HPLC-ESI-MS in the 20% methanol extract. The fact that all sequentially eluted extracts studied contributed to protective effects on the erythrocytes indicates that rose hips contain a promising level of clinically relevant antioxidant protection.

  10. Erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) four weeks old Ross breed broiler finisher birds were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal as a replacement for fish meal on erythrocyte indices and serum biochemical constituents. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3 , T4 and T5 with 24 birds per ...

  11. The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Eiko; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1988-01-01

    The role of inorganic phosphate in intact human erythrocytes was investigated by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 31 P NMR). When erythrocytes stored for 5 weeks were incubated at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, in medium containing 2 mM adenine and 10 mM inosine, with or without 5 mM glucose, a substance of around 4 ppm, as assessed by 31 P NMR chemical shift, was detected in the mixture. However, this substance disappeared by the addition of inorganic phosphate. When erythrocytes stored for 4 weeks in acid citrate dextrose (ACD) solution were incubated with 2 mM adenine, 10 mM inosine, 5 mM glucose, 50 mM inorganic phosphate and 10 mM pyruvate at 37 deg C, pH 7.4, the 2,3-DPG level increased gradually, whereas the ATP level initially increased and then decreased. Intracellular inorganic phosphate appeared to be used for the synthesis of ATP and 2,3-DPG during the first 30 min. of the reaction. These results suggests that the inorganic phosphate accelerates glycolysis by increasing the activity of glycolytic enzymes rather than its direct involvement in synthesizing organic phosphorus compounds in stored erythrocytes. The results also suggests that the reserve energy from ATP synthesis is not sufficient for the synthesis of 2,3-DPG. (author)

  12. Erythrocytes and von Willebrand factor in venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.W.J.

    2018-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism represents the third leading vascular disease after myocardial infarction and stroke. Erythrocytes, the most abundant cells in venous thrombi, were thought to be innocent bystanders that become tangled up in the fibrin mesh of venous thrombi. However, this thesis describes

  13. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    protect cells against oxidative stress in rats (Wang et al., 2000) and ... method, total red blood cell (RBC) count, total leukocyte (WBC) count .... maturative stages of the erythroblast (pluripotent stem cells) involved in cell formation (Kaur and. Kapoor, 2005). ... effect of zinc on chlorpyrifos- induced erythrocyte fragility in wistar ...

  14. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of exogenous 32 Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-[ 32 P]ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments

  15. Delayed effects of radiation on enzymes in erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Zhang Weiping; Liu Benti

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the delayed effects of radiation on the enzymes in erythrocytes. Methods: The activity of 8 enzymes, related glycolysis, hexose monophosphate shunt, nucleotide metabolism, redox reaction and esterase in erythrocytes of five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were assayed at 1,2,3 and 6 years after exposure to 60 Co radiation. Results: The decreased activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), pyruvate kinase (PK), NADH-methemoglobin reductase (MR) during the stage of crisis and of acetylcholinesterase (ACE) during the stage of convalescence were recovered to varying extent, whereas the lowered activities of the first three enzymes in some cases remained unchanged. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and the radiation dose as well as the age of the patients. Conclusion: It is demonstrated that the delayed effects of radiation damage to erythrocyte enzymes are most significant in PK of glycolysis, G6PD of hexose monophosphate shunt and MR of redox reaction. It is suggested that the genes related to the synthesis of erythrocyte enzymes may be damaged by radiation

  16. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot ...

  17. A review on radiation damage of erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junling; Wang Weidong; Qin Guangyong

    2007-01-01

    Biomembrane has very important biological function. Its damage will seriously disturb the directivity, the orderly nature and coordination of cell metabolism, and finally causes the cell death. This paper reviewed the effects of radiation damage on erythrocyte membrane in membrane composition, membrane function and oxidation resistance system. (authors)

  18. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs administered ascorbic acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... procedure, were taken early in the morning a day before ... transportation and the difference in the post-transportation values was higher (P < 0.05) in experimental ..... erythrocytes in sedentary rats but not exercise-trained rats.

  19. Erratum Detergent-resistant membranes in human erythrocytes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Figure 3. Immunodetection of flotillin-2 and band 3 in DRMs isolated from erythrocyte ghosts by various treatments. Flotillin-2. (left) and band 3 (right) Western blotting in ten fractions of 0⋅5 ml each, obtained from the sucrose gradients described in figure 2 and numbered from top to bottom. Flotillin-2 is enriched in DRMs ...

  20. Alterations of thalassemic erythrocytes detected by wavelet entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, A. M.; Rasia, R. J.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-02-01

    A quantitative analysis of erythrocytes deformation under shear stress (the viscoelastic properties) observed on healthy donors as well as thalassemic patients are made by means of the normalized total wavelet entropy (NTWS). The results suggest that NTWS quantifier could be useful for characterizing pathological disturbances for the sake of clinical treatment.

  1. Apolipoprotein M mediates sphingosine-1-phosphate efflux from erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille M.; Bosteen, Markus H.; Hajny, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid implicated in e.g. angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking, and endothelial barrier function. Erythrocytes are a main source of plasma S1P together with platelets and endothelial cells. Apolipoprotein M (apoM) in HDL carries 70% of plasma S1P, whereas...... 30% is carried by albumin. The current aim was to investigate the role of apoM in export of S1P from human erythrocytes. Erythrocytes exported S1P more efficiently to HDL than to albumin, particularly when apoM was present in HDL. In contrast, export of sphingosine to HDL was unaffected...... by the presence of apoM. The specific ability of apoM to promote export of S1P was independent of apoM being bound in HDL particles. Treatment with MK-571, an inhibitor of the ABCC1 transporter, effectively reduced export of S1P from human erythrocytes to apoM, whereas the export was unaffected by inhibitors...

  2. Dyslipidemia, altered erythrocyte fatty acids and selenium are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous blood sample was drawn from all subjects and erythrocytes separated for the determination of fatty acids. Plasma lipids, selenium and vitamin E levels were also measured. There were no differences in BMI, weight and height among the three groups except for systolic BP that was lower in VD (148.3±41.8mmHg) ...

  3. Changes in erythrocyte ATPase activity under different pathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in erythrocyte ATPase activity under different pathological conditions. Ali A Kherd, Nawal Helmi, Khadijah Saeed Balamash, Taha A Kumosani, Shareefa A AL-Ghamdi, Qari M, Etimad A Huwait, Soonham S Yaghmoor, Alaama Nabil, Maryam A AL-Ghamdi, Said S Moselhy ...

  4. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  5. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 - contaminated feed on goat erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... action was concentration-dependent, typical of a saturation kinetic effect. The degree of stimulation varied from 20% to more than 90% between the lowest (0.1 M) and highest (1000 M) contentrations. AFB1 induced changes in the apparent kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, of the erythrocyte membrane-bound enzyme.

  6. NMR studies of transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, E.C.; Bubb, W.A.; Kuchel, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electron transport systems exist in the plasma membranes of all cells. These systems appear to play a role in cell growth and proliferation, intracellular signalling, hormone responses, apoptotic events, cell defence and perhaps most importantly they enable the cell to respond to changes in the redox state of both the intra- and extracellular environments. Previously, 13 C NMR has been used to study transmembrane electron transport in human erythrocytes, specifically the reduction of extracellular 13 C-ferricyanide. NMR is a particularly useful tool for studying such systems as changes in the metabolic state of the cell can be observed concomitantly with extracellular reductase activity. We investigated the oxidation of extracellular NADH by human erythrocytes using 1 H and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Recent results for glucose-starved human erythrocytes indicate that, under these conditions, extracellular NADH can be oxidised at the plasma membrane with the electron transfer across the membrane resulting in reduction of intracellular NAD + . The activity is inhibited by known trans-plasma membrane electron transport inhibitors (capsaicin and atebrin) and is unaffected by inhibition of the erythrocyte Band 3 anion transporter. These results suggest that electron import from extracellular NADH allows the cell to re-establish a reducing environment after the normal redox balance is disturbed

  7. Role of aminotransferases in glutamate metabolism of human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, James J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lewis, Ian A. [Princeton University, Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics (United States); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Human erythrocytes require a continual supply of glutamate to support glutathione synthesis, but are unable to transport this amino acid across their cell membrane. Consequently, erythrocytes rely on de novo glutamate biosynthesis from {alpha}-ketoglutarate and glutamine to maintain intracellular levels of glutamate. Erythrocytic glutamate biosynthesis is catalyzed by three enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and glutamine aminohydrolase (GA). Although the presence of these enzymes in RBCs has been well documented, the relative contributions of each pathway have not been established. Understanding the relative contributions of each biosynthetic pathway is critical for designing effective therapies for sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemia, pulmonary hypertension, and other glutathione-related disorders. In this study, we use multidimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multiple reaction mode mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) to measure the kinetics of de novo glutamate biosynthesis via AST, ALT, and GA in intact cells and RBC lysates. We show that up to 89% of the erythrocyte glutamate pool can be derived from ALT and that ALT-derived glutamate is subsequently used for glutathione synthesis.

  8. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Mercury can exist in the environment as metal, as monovalent and divalent salts and as organomercurials, one of the most important of which is mercuric chloride (HgCl2). It has been shown to induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes through the generation of free radicals and alteration of the.

  9. Changes in erythrocytic deformability and plasma viscosity in neonatal ictericia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonillo-Perales, A; Muñoz-Hoyos, A; Martínez-Morales, A; Molina-Carballo, A; Uberos-Fernández, J; Puertas-Prieto, A

    1999-01-01

    We studied 45 full-term newborns divided into 3 groups. Group 1: 17 newborns with bilirubin ictericia (bilirubin 11-20 mg/dL) and Group 3: 10 newborns with moderate hemolytic ictericia needing exchange transfusion. The following were studied: erythrocytic deformability, plasma viscosity, plasmatic osmolarity, seric bilirubin, bilirubin/albumin ratio, free fatty acids and corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes. In full-term newborns, the following are risk factors for increased erythrocytic rigidity: neonatal hemolytic illness (p = 0.004, odds ratio: 7.02), increases in total bilirubin (p = 0.02, odds ratio: 4.3) and increases in the bilirubin/albumin ratio (p = 0.025, odds ratio: 4.25). Furthermore, the most important risk factor for high plasma viscosity is also neonatal hemolytic illness (p = 0.01, odds ratio: 2.30). The role of total bilirubin is also important (p = 0.09, odds ratio: 2.10), while that of the bilirubin/albumin ratio (p = 0.012, NS) is less so. The greater the hemolysis, the greater the erythrocytic rigidity and plasma viscosity (p ictericia, hemolytic illness and increases in the bilirubin/albumin ratio are accompanied by rheological alterations that could affect cerebral microcirculation and cause a neurological deficit not exclusively related to the levels of bilirubin in plasma.

  10. Effect of garlic's mode of administration on erythrocytes and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to erythrocytes parameters, p.o. garlic treatment was found to have beneficial effects as it increased hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Garlic i.p. treatment showed detrimental activity as it decreased these parameters. Our results reveal that garlic administered by p.o. does not involve any significant variation on ...

  11. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology policy on the application for, and implementation of, clinical practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder; Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Hookey, Lawrence; Enns, Robert; Bistritz, Lana; Rioux, Louis-Charles; Hope, Louise; Sinclair, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An important mandate of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG), as documented in the Association’s governance policies, is to optimize the care of patients with digestive disorders. Clinical practice guidelines are one means of achieving this goal. The benefits of timely, high-quality and evidenced-based recommendations include: Enhancing the professional development of clinical members through education and dissemination of synthesized clinical research;Improving patient care provided by members by providing focus on quality and evidence;Creating legislative environments that favour effective clinical practice;Enhancing the clinical care provided to patients with digestive disease by nongastroenterologists; andIdentifying areas that require further information or research to improve clinical care.The present document provides the foundation required to ensure that clinical practice guidelines produced by the CAG are necessary, appropriate, credible and applicable. These recommendations should be adhered to as closely as possible to obtain CAG endorsement. PMID:25314352

  12. Some singularities of application of the principle of justification for decision making about new practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubiev, V.; Makarovska, O.

    1999-01-01

    For the purpose of establishing a unified approach for the regulation of activities that are connected with exposure of people, ICRP, INSAG and the IAEA have developed the series of regulations in which a variety of practical kinds of activities are brought together in terms of PRACTICES and INTERVENTIONS. For the overwhelming majority of real situations, the exposure of people from radiation sources occur due to the side effect of the utilization of atomic energy. Recommendations that are developed in detail about regulation of such activities by authorities could be applicable for a majority of situations. However, for some cases, where planned exposure of people isn't directly connected with atomic energy utilization or with radiation accident consequences, mitigation and liquidation, the estimation of the situation in terms of the definitions of PRACTICE and INTERVENTION is acceptable with some restrictions. It is necessary to work out new approaches for making decisions by regulatory authorities for these situations. (author)

  13. Manual of Good Practice in Food Irradiation. Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Other Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that the process of irradiating food delivers the desired result consistently is essential for the correct application of the technology and will help to inspire consumer confidence in irradiated food. This publication aims to help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices and also to provide detailed, yet straightforward, technical information for stakeholders such as food regulators, manufacturers and traders, who also need to understand ‘good practice’

  14. Manual of Good Practice in Food Irradiation. Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Other Applications (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring that the process of irradiating food delivers the desired result consistently is essential for the correct application of the technology and will help to inspire consumer confidence in irradiated food. This publication aims to help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices and also to provide detailed, yet straightforward, technical information for stakeholders such as food regulators, manufacturers and traders, who also need to understand ‘good practice’.

  15. Analysis of Practical and Academic Application for Knowledge of Lanquage for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rutkienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the methods applied by graduate master’s degree students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University for the purposes of using knowledge of language for specific purposes in the work and study environment. Their linguistic situation is ambivalent: they act in the academic environment, and therefore the used language has to meet academic requirements; on the other hand, most of them are adapting to the linguistic environment at work. Thus, master’s degree students are able to view the subject of language for specific purposes and the knowledge and skills gained from a practical perspective. With the help of a questionnaire and an interview, the article is aimed at assessing the experience of applying the knowledge gained by the students who completed a course on language for specific purposes 2–5 years ago. The article analyses both academic and practical applications regarding knowledge of language for specific purposes. Extralinguistic factors are taken into account when examining why employed master’s degree students do not always use what they have learnt. The problems of the practical application of knowledge are closely related to the cultural situation; hence, the relevant issues of the postmodern epoch are discussed. The paper explores the interconnection of the practical application of knowledge that covers economic and political factors and globalisation. The study focuses on the academic application of knowledge about the language for specific purposes. Attention is paid to dangers posed for the youth language by the predominance of information technologies in higher education institutions. The article analyses how employed master’s degree students evaluate the course on language for specific purposes and the linguistic revision of MA theses, as well as explores how the knowledge provided meets their needs.

  16. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiru Gachie; Desmond Wesley Govender

    2017-01-01

    The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question tha...

  17. Biophysical Properties of Irradiated Erythrocytes and Role of Antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eman Mohammed Elbakrawy, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation of blood and blood components with gamma-irradiation is recommended for the inactivation of T-lymphocytes and prevention of transfusion-associated graft versus host diseases. The aim of the present work is to ensure that the currently applied irradiation dose 25 Gy is a safe dose based on the study of the electrical behavior, rheological properties, membrane solubilization, membrane hemolysis and scanning electron microscope of stored erythrocytes. In addition it aims to study the possibility of increasing the irradiation doses to 50 and 100 Gy. Moreover Alpha lipoic acid (a potent natural antioxidant) was added to the stored erythrocytes before irradiation for radioprotection. Irradiation of erythrocytes with 25 Gy did not show significant changes for the calculated dielectric parameters. However, increasing the irradiation doses resulted in significant decrease in the calculated dielectric parameters reflecting the damaging effects of radiation on the membrane structure. The obtained results showed that α lipoic acid can play an important role in minimizing the radiation-induced damage to the erythrocytes and conserve their electrical properties. There were non-significant changes in viscosity after exposure to 25 Gy, while a significant increase at 50 Gy and a significant decrease at 100 Gy were observed. The study found that α lipoic acid (ALA) resulted in non-significant change in viscosity after exposure to 50 Gy and 100 Gy. A significant increase in the yield stress was observed after exposure to 25 and 50 Gy while at 100 Gy, the yield stress showed a remarkable decrease. Addition of .-lipoic acid before irradiation resulted in non-significant changes in the yield stress at doses 25, 50, 100 Gy.The obtained results of the average membrane solubilization (D 50 ) and the average membrane hemolysis (H 50 ) showed non-significant change at 25 Gy; while an observable decrease was observed at 50 Gy and 100 Gy. The addition of lipoic acid did not

  18. A Descriptive Study towards Green Computing Practice Application for Data Centers in IT Based Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jnr. Bokolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The progressive upsurge in demand for processing and computing power has led to a subsequent upsurge in data center carbon emissions, cost incurred, unethical waste management, depletion of natural resources and high energy utilization. This raises the issue of the sustainability attainment in data centers of Information Technology (IT based industries. Green computing practice can be applied to facilitate sustainability attainment as IT based industries utilizes data centers to provide services to staffs, practitioners and end users. But it is a known fact that enterprise servers utilize huge quantity of energy and incur other expenditures in cooling operations and it is difficult to address the needs of accuracy and efficiency in data centers while yet encouraging a greener application practice alongside cost reduction. Thus this research study focus on the practice application of Green computing in data centers which houses servers and as such presents the Green computing life cycle strategies and best practices to be practiced for better management in data centers in IT based industries. Data was collected through questionnaire from 133 respondents in industries that currently operate their in-house data centers. The analysed data was used to verify the Green computing life cycle strategies presented in this study. Findings from the data shows that each of the life cycles strategies is significant in assisting IT based industries apply Green computing practices in their data centers. This study would be of interest to knowledge and data management practitioners as well as environmental manager and academicians in deploying Green data centers in their organizations.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes do not adhere well to C32 melanoma cells or CD36 unless rosettes with uninfected erythrocytes are first disrupted.

    OpenAIRE

    Handunnetti, S M; Hasler, T H; Howard, R J

    1992-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites modify the human erythrocytes in which they grow so that some parasitized erythrocytes (PE) can cytoadhere (C+) to host vascular endothelial cells or adhere in rosettes (R+) to uninfected erythrocytes. These C+ and R+ adherence properties of PE appear to mediate much of the pathogenesis of severe malaria infections, in part by blocking blood flow in microvessels. From one parasite strain, PE were selected in vitro for C+ R+ or C+ R- adherence properties...

  20. Stimulation of erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure by mercury ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisele, Kerstin; Lang, Philipp A.; Kempe, Daniela S.; Klarl, Barbara A.; Niemoeller, Olivier; Wieder, Thomas; Huber, Stephan M.; Duranton, Christophe; Lang, Florian

    2006-01-01

    The sequelae of mercury intoxication include induction of apoptosis. In nucleated cells, Hg 2+ -induced apoptosis involves mitochondrial damage. The present study has been performed to elucidate effects of Hg 2+ in erythrocytes which lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like alterations of the cell membrane. Previous studies have documented that activation of a Ca 2+ -sensitive erythrocyte scramblase leads to exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface, a typical feature of apoptotic cells. The erythrocyte scramblase is activated by osmotic shock, oxidative stress and/or energy depletion which increase cytosolic Ca 2+ activity and/or activate a sphingomyelinase leading to formation of ceramide. Ceramide sensitizes the scramblase to Ca 2+ . The present experiments explored the effect of Hg 2+ ions on erythrocytes. Phosphatidylserine exposure after mercury treatment was estimated from annexin binding as determined in FACS analysis. Exposure to Hg 2+ (1 μM) indeed significantly increased annexin binding from 2.3 ± 0.5% (control condition) to 23 ± 6% (n = 6). This effect was paralleled by activation of a clotrimazole-sensitive K + -selective conductance as measured by patch-clamp recordings and by transient cell shrinkage. Further experiments revealed also an increase of ceramide formation by ∼66% (n = 7) after challenge with mercury (1 μM). In conclusion, mercury ions activate a clotrimazole-sensitive K + -selective conductance leading to transient cell shrinkage. Moreover, Hg 2+ increases ceramide formation. The observed mechanisms could similarly participate in the triggering of apoptosis in nucleated cells by Hg 2+

  1. Triggering of Erythrocyte Cell Membrane Scrambling by Emodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Mischitelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The natural anthraquinone derivative emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone is a component of several Chinese medicinal herbal preparations utilized for more than 2000 years. The substance has been used against diverse disorders including malignancy, inflammation and microbial infection. The substance is effective in part by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells erythrocytes may enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in the triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, oxidative stress and ceramide. The present study aimed to test, whether emodin induces eryptosis and, if so, to elucidate underlying cellular mechanisms. Methods: Phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence, and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: Exposure of human erythrocytes for 48 hours to emodin (≥ 10 µM significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and at higher concentrations (≥ 50 µM significantly increased forward scatter. Emodin significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence (≥ 10 µM, DCFDA fluorescence (75 µM and ceramide abundance (75 µM. The effect of emodin on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusions: Emodin triggers phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of Ca2+ entry and paralleled by oxidative stress and ceramide appearance at the erythroctye surface.

  2. Leech management before application on patient: a nationwide survey of practices in French university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Grau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leech therapy in plastic/reconstructive microsurgery significantly improves a successful outcome of flap salvage but the drawback is a risk of severe infection that results in a drop of the salvage rates from 70-80% to below 30%. We report the results of a national survey conducted in all the French university hospitals to assess the current extent of use of leech for medical practices in the hospital and to investigate maintenance, delivery practices and prevention of the risk of infection. Methods Data concerning conditions of storage, leech external decontamination, microbiological controls, mode of delivery and antibiotic prophylaxis were collected from all the French university hospitals in practicing leech therapy, on the basis of a standardized questionnaire. Results Twenty-eight of the 32 centers contacted filled the questionnaire, among which 23 practiced leech therapy, mostly with a centralized storage in the pharmacy; 39.1% of the centers declared to perform leech external decontamination and only 2 centers recurrent microbiological controls of the water storage. Leech delivery was mostly nominally performed (56.5%, but traceability of the leech batch number was achieved in only 39.1% of the cases. Only 5 centers declared that a protocol of antibiotic prophylaxis was systematically administered during leech therapy: either quinolone (2, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (2 or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1. Conclusions Measures to prevent infectious complications before application to patient have to be better applied and guidelines of good practices are necessary.

  3. The application of nuclear technique for practical controlling of Ectomyelois Ceratoniae zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfagharieh, H.R.; Farazmand, H.; Vafaei Shoushtari, R.; Babaii, M.; Tabatabaii, S. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Iran ranks the first producer and exporter of pomegranate in the world. Carob moth Ectomyelois ceratiniae(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has also been recognized as an important pest of pomegranate in the country. Due to biology of the pest, the application of pesticide has not been considered practical and the losses to this product are more than 30 percent of the yield. The application of Sterile Insect Technique is a method that is used on a few insects with the specific characters. This research was accomplished for evaluation of the practical control of this pest upon application of nuclear methods on pomegranate. Larval and pupal stages were collected from Saveh, transferred to Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School and reared on artificial diet at 28±2 d egree C , 60±5% Rh, 14:10 light: dark photo period. The produced pupae (young and old) were irradiated by gamma radiation and were reared with 0:0:1:1-9:9:1:1 (Irradiated male: Irradiated female: Natural male: Natural female) ratios on pomegranate fruits in the cages. The results show that the application of sterile doses (120 and 160 Gy) on pupae (Young 1,2 days and old 3-4 days old) and releasing ratios 7:7:1:1 to 9:9:1:1 in comparison with the controlled treatment by the releasing ratio of 0:0:1:1 that prevents damage of E. ceratiniae on the pomegranate.

  4. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert

    2012-12-24

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen.

  5. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert; Hall, Joanna M.; Rangkuti, Farania; Ho, YungShwen; Almond, Neil M.; Mitchell, Graham Howard; Pain, Arnab; Holder, Anthony A.; Blackman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann methods for complex micro-flows: applicability and limitations for practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, K, E-mail: suga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    The extensive evaluation studies of the lattice Boltzmann method for micro-scale flows ({mu}-flow LBM) by the author's group are summarized. For the two-dimensional test cases, force-driven Poiseuille flows, Couette flows, a combined nanochannel flow, and flows in a nanochannel with a square- or triangular cylinder are discussed. The three-dimensional (3D) test cases are nano-mesh flows and a flow between 3D bumpy walls. The reference data for the complex test flow geometries are from the molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid by the author's group. The focused flows are mainly in the slip and a part of the transitional flow regimes at Kn < 1. The evaluated schemes of the {mu}-flow LBMs are the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook and the multiple-relaxation time LBMs with several boundary conditions and discrete velocity models. The effects of the discrete velocity models, the wall boundary conditions, the near-wall correction models of the molecular mean free path and the regularization process are discussed to confirm the applicability and the limitations of the {mu}-flow LBMs for complex flow geometries. (invited review)

  7. Lattice Boltzmann methods for complex micro-flows: applicability and limitations for practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K

    2013-01-01

    The extensive evaluation studies of the lattice Boltzmann method for micro-scale flows (μ-flow LBM) by the author's group are summarized. For the two-dimensional test cases, force-driven Poiseuille flows, Couette flows, a combined nanochannel flow, and flows in a nanochannel with a square- or triangular cylinder are discussed. The three-dimensional (3D) test cases are nano-mesh flows and a flow between 3D bumpy walls. The reference data for the complex test flow geometries are from the molecular dynamics simulations of the Lennard-Jones fluid by the author's group. The focused flows are mainly in the slip and a part of the transitional flow regimes at Kn < 1. The evaluated schemes of the μ-flow LBMs are the lattice Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook and the multiple-relaxation time LBMs with several boundary conditions and discrete velocity models. The effects of the discrete velocity models, the wall boundary conditions, the near-wall correction models of the molecular mean free path and the regularization process are discussed to confirm the applicability and the limitations of the μ-flow LBMs for complex flow geometries. (invited review)

  8. Exploring the Possibility of Cryopreservation of Feline and Canine Erythrocytes by Rapid Freezing with Penetrating and Non-Penetrating Cryoprotectants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Pogozhykh

    Full Text Available Efficient application of veterinary blood transfusion approaches for small companion animals requires readily available supply of the donor material. This can be achieved by developing of effective biobanking technologies allowing long-term storage of donor blood components via cryopreservation. Transfusion of an erythrocyte concentrate allows the successful correction of various hematological pathologies, severe bleeding, and etc. While in the past there were several approaches to cryopreserve red blood cells of dogs, to our knowledge there is virtually no data on cryopreservation of feline erythrocytes. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive parameter optimization for low temperature storage of RBCs of both species. Here, the efficiency of single-component and multicomponent cryoprotective media as well as necessary time of pre-incubation with penetrating and non-penetrating cryoprotectants prior to rapid freezing is analyzed. This study showed that glycerol was not sufficient for cryopreservation of red blood cells of the studied species under the investigated conditions. Application of 10% (v/v ME2SO allowed for a significant reduction of canine and feline erythrocytes hemolysis after thawing. 17.5% hydroxyethyl starch demonstrated the highest cryoprotective activity for both species. It was found that dog RBCs should be incubated in cryoprotective media for 30 min at 22°C prior to freezing, while for cat RBCs 20 min is sufficient. Combination of CPAs was less effective. Presented data may be considered in further studies in veterinary transfusion and blood banking optimization.

  9. Standard Practice for Application and Analysis of Nuclear Research Emulsions for Fast Neutron Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 Nuclear Research Emulsions (NRE) have a long and illustrious history of applications in the physical sciences, earth sciences and biological sciences (1,2) . In the physical sciences, NRE experiments have led to many fundamental discoveries in such diverse disciplines as nuclear physics, cosmic ray physics and high energy physics. In the applied physical sciences, NRE have been used in neutron physics experiments in both fission and fusion reactor environments (3-6). Numerous NRE neutron experiments can be found in other applied disciplines, such as nuclear engineering, environmental monitoring and health physics. Given the breadth of NRE applications, there exist many textbooks and handbooks that provide considerable detail on the techniques used in the NRE method. As a consequence, this practice will be restricted to the application of the NRE method for neutron measurements in reactor physics and nuclear engineering with particular emphasis on neutron dosimetry in benchmark fields (see Matrix E706). 1...

  10. Application of artificial intelligence in Geodesy - A review of theoretical foundations and practical examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Alexander; Egly, Uwe; Vicovac, Tanja; Mai, Enrico; Moafipoor, Shahram; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A.; Toth, Charles K.

    2010-12-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the key technologies in many of today's novel applications. It is used to add knowledge and reasoning to systems. This paper illustrates a review of AI methods including examples of their practical application in Geodesy like data analysis, deformation analysis, navigation, network adjustment, and optimization of complex measurement procedures. We focus on three examples, namely, a geo-risk assessment system supported by a knowledge-base, an intelligent dead reckoning personal navigator, and evolutionary strategies for the determination of Earth gravity field parameters. Some of the authors are members of IAG Sub-Commission 4.2 - Working Group 4.2.3, which has the main goal to study and report on the application of AI in Engineering Geodesy.

  11. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  12. Flow cytometric determination of osmotic behaviour of animal erythrocytes toward their engineering for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ivana T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the methods based on the osmotic properties of the cells are the most widely used for loading of drugs in human and animal erythrocytes, data related to the osmotic properties of erythrocytes derived from animal blood are scarce. This work was performed with an aim to investigate the possibility of use the flow cytometry as a tool for determination the osmotic behaviour of porcine and bovine erythrocytes, and thus facilitate the engineering of erythrocytes from animal blood to be drug carriers. The method of flow cytometry successfully provided the information about bovine and porcine erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and made the initial steps in assessment of erythrocyte shape in a large number of erythrocytes. Although this method is not able to confirm the swelling of pig erythrocytes, it indicated to the differences in pig erythrocytes that had basic hematological parameters inside and outside the reference values. In order to apply/use the porcine and bovine erythrocytes as drug carriers, the method of flow cytometry, confirming the presence of osmotically different fractions of red blood cells, indicated that various amounts of the encapsulated drug in porcine and bovine erythrocytes can be expected.

  13. Acute dark chocolate ingestion is beneficial for hemodynamics via enhancement of erythrocyte deformability in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, Jana; Horvathova, Martina; Frimmel, Karel; Muchova, Jana; Vidosovicova, Maria; Vazan, Rastislav; Bernatova, Iveta

    2017-03-01

    Erythrocyte deformability is an important property of erythrocytes that considerably affects blood flow and hemodynamics. The high content of polyphenols present in dark chocolate has been reported to play a protective role in functionality of erythrocytes. We hypothesized that chocolate might influence erythrocytes not only after repeated chronic intake, but also immediately after its ingestion. Thus, we determined the acute effect of dark chocolate and milk (with lower content of biologically active substances) chocolate intake on erythrocyte deformability. We also focused on selected factors that may affect erythrocyte deformability, specifically nitric oxide production in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. We determined posttreatment changes in the mentioned parameters 2hours after consumption of chocolate compared with their levels before consumption of chocolate. In contrast to milk chocolate intake, the dark chocolate led to a significantly higher increase in erythrocyte deformability. Nitric oxide production in erythrocytes was not changed after dark chocolate intake, but significantly decreased after milk chocolate. The plasma total antioxidant capacity remained unaffected after ingestion of both chocolates. We conclude that our hypothesis was confirmed. Single ingestion of dark chocolate improved erythrocyte deformability despite unchanged nitric oxide production and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Increased deformability of erythrocytes may considerably improve rheological properties of blood and thus hemodynamics in humans, resulting in better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Erythrocyte membrane ATPase and calcium pumping activities in porcine malignant hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatte, H.S.; Mickelson, J.R.; Addis, P.B.; Louis, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate possible abnormalities in erythrocyte membrane enzyme activities in the pharmacogenetic disorder MH, membrane ATPase activities have been examined in erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells of MHS and normal swine. While no differences were noted in Mg2+-ATPase activities, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity of MHS erythrocyte ghosts was less than that of normal ghosts. Ca2+-ATPase activity exhibited low- and high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites in both types of erythrocyte ghost. While the Km for Ca2+ was greater for normal than for MHS erythrocyte ghosts at the high-affinity Ca2+-binding site, the reverse was true at the low-affinity Ca2+-binding site. Irrespective of the type of calcium binding site occupied, the Vmax for normal erythrocyte ghost Ca2+-ATPase activity was greater than that for MHS ghosts. In the presence of calmodulin, there was now no difference between MHS and normal erythrocyte ghosts in either the Km for Ca2+ or the Vmax of the Ca2+-ATPase activity. To determine if the calcium pumping activity of intact MHS and normal pig erythrocytes differed, calcium efflux from the 45 Ca-loaded erythrocytes was determined; this activity was significantly greater for MHS than for normal erythrocytes. Thus, the present study confirms that there are abnormalities in the membranes of MHS pig red blood cells. However, we conclude that these abnormalities are unlikely to result in an impaired ability of MHS erythrocytes to regulate their cytosolic Ca2+ concentration

  15. Peer Review of Grant Applications: Criteria Used and Qualitative Study of Reviewer Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul, Hendy; Perrey, Christophe; Amiel, Philippe; Tubach, Florence; Gottot, Serge; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Alberti, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Background Peer review of grant applications has been criticized as lacking reliability. Studies showing poor agreement among reviewers supported this possibility but usually focused on reviewers’ scores and failed to investigate reasons for disagreement. Here, our goal was to determine how reviewers rate applications, by investigating reviewer practices and grant assessment criteria. Methods and Findings We first collected and analyzed a convenience sample of French and international calls for proposals and assessment guidelines, from which we created an overall typology of assessment criteria comprising nine domains relevance to the call for proposals, usefulness, originality, innovativeness, methodology, feasibility, funding, ethical aspects, and writing of the grant application. We then performed a qualitative study of reviewer practices, particularly regarding the use of assessment criteria, among reviewers of the French Academic Hospital Research Grant Agencies (Programmes Hospitaliers de Recherche Clinique, PHRCs). Semi-structured interviews and observation sessions were conducted. Both the time spent assessing each grant application and the assessment methods varied across reviewers. The assessment criteria recommended by the PHRCs were listed by all reviewers as frequently evaluated and useful. However, use of the PHRC criteria was subjective and varied across reviewers. Some reviewers gave the same weight to each assessment criterion, whereas others considered originality to be the most important criterion (12/34), followed by methodology (10/34) and feasibility (4/34). Conceivably, this variability might adversely affect the reliability of the review process, and studies evaluating this hypothesis would be of interest. Conclusions Variability across reviewers may result in mistrust among grant applicants about the review process. Consequently, ensuring transparency is of the utmost importance. Consistency in the review process could also be improved by

  16. Application of best practice guidelines for OSCEs-An Australian evaluation of their feasibility and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marion L; Henderson, Amanda; Jeffrey, Carol; Nulty, Duncan; Groves, Michele; Kelly, Michelle; Knight, Sabina; Glover, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) are widely used in health professional education and should be based on sound pedagogical foundations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and utility of using Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs) within an OSCE format in a broad range of tertiary education settings with under-graduate and post-graduate nursing and midwifery students. We evaluated how feasible it was to apply the BPGs to modify OSCEs in a course; students' perspective of the OSCE; and finally, if the BPG-revised OSCEs better prepared students for clinical practice when compared with the original OSCEs. A mixed method with surveys, focus groups and semi-structured interviews evaluated the BPGs within an OSCE. Four maximally different contexts across four sites in Australia were used. Participants included lecturers and undergraduate nursing students in high and low fidelity simulation settings; under-graduate midwifery students; and post-graduate rural and remote area nursing students. 691 students participated in revised OSCEs. Surveys were completed by 557 students; 91 students gave further feedback through focus groups and 14 lecturers participated in interviews. At all sites the BPGs were successfully used to modify and implement OSCEs. Students valued the realistic nature of the modified OSCEs which contributed to students' confidence and preparation for clinical practice. The lecturers considered the revised OSCEs enhanced student preparedness for their clinical placements. The BPGs have a broad applicability to OSCEs in a wide range of educational contexts with improved student outcomes. Students and lecturers identified the revised OSCEs enhanced student preparation for clinical practice. Subsequent examination of the BPGs saw further refinement to a set of eight BPGs that provide a sequential guide to their application in a way that is consistent with best practice curriculum design principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  17. The Redox Balance in Erythrocytes, Plasma, and Periosteum of Patients with Titanium Fixation of the Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borys

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium miniplates and screws are commonly used for fixation of jaw fractured or osteotomies. Despite the opinion of their biocompatibility, in clinical practice symptoms of chronic inflammation around the fixation develop in some patients, even many years after the application of miniplates and screws. The cause of these complications is still an unanswered question. Taking into account that oxidative stress is one of the toxic action of titanium, we have evaluated the antioxidant barrier as well as oxidative stress in the erythrocytes, plasma and periosteum covering the titanium fixation of the jaw. The study group was composed of 32 patients aged 20–30 with inserted miniplates and screws. The antioxidant defense: catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, uric acid (UA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, as well as oxidative damage products: advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGE, dityrosine, kynurenine, N-formylkynurenine, tryptophan, malondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative status index (OSI were evaluated. SOD1 activity (↓37%, and tryptophan levels (↓34% showed a significant decrease while AOPP (↑25%, TOS (↑80% and OSI (↑101% were significantly elevated in maxillary periosteum of patients who underwent bimaxillary osteotomies as compared to the control group. SOD-1 (↓55%, TAC (↓58.6%, AGE (↓60% and N-formylkynurenine (↓34% was statistically reduced while AOPP (↑38%, MDA (↑29%, 4-HNE (↑114%, TOS (↑99%, and OSI (↑381% were significantly higher in the mandibular periosteum covering miniplates/screw compared with the control tissues. There were no correlations between antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in the periosteum of all patients and the blood. As exposure to the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy leads to disturbances of redox balance in the periosteum surrounding titanium implants of the maxilla

  18. A practical sensitivity analysis method for ranking sources of uncertainty in thermal–hydraulics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad, E-mail: pourgolmohammad@sut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen [Department of Basic Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoseyni, Seyed Mojtaba [Building & Housing Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Existing uncertainty ranking methods prove inconsistent for TH applications. • Introduction of a new method for ranking sources of uncertainty in TH codes. • Modified PIRT qualitatively identifies and ranks uncertainty sources more precisely. • The importance of parameters is calculated by a limited number of TH code executions. • Methodology is applied successfully on LOFT-LB1 test facility. - Abstract: In application to thermal–hydraulic calculations by system codes, sensitivity analysis plays an important role for managing the uncertainties of code output and risk analysis. Sensitivity analysis is also used to confirm the results of qualitative Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT). Several methodologies have been developed to address uncertainty importance assessment. Generally, uncertainty importance measures, mainly devised for the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) applications, are not affordable for computationally demanding calculations of the complex thermal–hydraulics (TH) system codes. In other words, for effective quantification of the degree of the contribution of each phenomenon to the total uncertainty of the output, a practical approach is needed by considering high computational burden of TH calculations. This study aims primarily to show the inefficiency of the existing approaches and then introduces a solution to cope with the challenges in this area by modification of variance-based uncertainty importance method. Important parameters are identified by the modified PIRT approach qualitatively then their uncertainty importance is quantified by a local derivative index. The proposed index is attractive from its practicality point of view on TH applications. It is capable of calculating the importance of parameters by a limited number of TH code executions. Application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated on LOFT-LB1 test facility.

  19. A practical sensitivity analysis method for ranking sources of uncertainty in thermal–hydraulics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad; Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen; Hoseyni, Seyed Mojtaba; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Existing uncertainty ranking methods prove inconsistent for TH applications. • Introduction of a new method for ranking sources of uncertainty in TH codes. • Modified PIRT qualitatively identifies and ranks uncertainty sources more precisely. • The importance of parameters is calculated by a limited number of TH code executions. • Methodology is applied successfully on LOFT-LB1 test facility. - Abstract: In application to thermal–hydraulic calculations by system codes, sensitivity analysis plays an important role for managing the uncertainties of code output and risk analysis. Sensitivity analysis is also used to confirm the results of qualitative Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT). Several methodologies have been developed to address uncertainty importance assessment. Generally, uncertainty importance measures, mainly devised for the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) applications, are not affordable for computationally demanding calculations of the complex thermal–hydraulics (TH) system codes. In other words, for effective quantification of the degree of the contribution of each phenomenon to the total uncertainty of the output, a practical approach is needed by considering high computational burden of TH calculations. This study aims primarily to show the inefficiency of the existing approaches and then introduces a solution to cope with the challenges in this area by modification of variance-based uncertainty importance method. Important parameters are identified by the modified PIRT approach qualitatively then their uncertainty importance is quantified by a local derivative index. The proposed index is attractive from its practicality point of view on TH applications. It is capable of calculating the importance of parameters by a limited number of TH code executions. Application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated on LOFT-LB1 test facility.

  20. Beaconless Georouting Under The Spotlight: Practical Link Models and Application Scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-06-18

    Beaconless georouting has emerged as a viable packetforwarding technique in distributed wireless networks, particularly for applications requiring portability and scalability. In this paper, we focus on fine-tuning and developing the analytical tools associated with the study of beaconless georouting protocols. For instance, they have been traditionally analyzed and simulated from the perspective of a single hop only. However, end-to-end performance analysis is instrumental when considering practical application scenarios. Furthermore, beaconless georouting protocols have been studied in literature assuming equal communication ranges for the data and control packets. In reality, this is not true since the communication range is actually a function of the packet length (among other factors). Control packets are typically much shorter than data packets. As a consequence, a substantial discrepancy exists in practice between their respective communication ranges, causing many data packet drops. Accordingly, we introduce two simple strategies for bridging the gap between the control and data packet communication ranges. Our primary objective in this paper is to construct a realistic analysis describing the end-to-end performance of beaconless georouting protocols. Two flagship protocols are selected in this paper for further investigation. For a better perspective, the two protocols are actually compared to a hypothetical limit case, one which offers optimal energy and latency performance. Finally, we present four different application scenarios. For each scenario, we highlight the georouting protocol which performs the best and discuss the reasons behind it. © 2007-2012 IEEE.

  1. Current Trends in the Studies of Allelochemicals for Their Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen V.Viter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The allelochemicals have been largely used in agriculture, forestry, landscape design and ornamental plant growing for many decades. However, there is a lack of the comprehensive studies, where existing publications are analyzed and synthesized with regards to the theoretic aspects for such usage. The objective of this paper was to systemize the advances in the research on allelochemicals’ application in practice. Numerous novel methodological propositions have risen recently. We classified them into the physical, chemical, biological, biotechnological and cropgrowing approaches. The allelochemicals consist of the wide diversity of the substances according to their chemical nature. Among these substances we outlined, firstly, the unidentified plant exudates and the products of green manuring, secondly, the chemically characterized or purified substances, which include alcohols, organic acids, aliphatic compounds, aromatic, alicyclic and nitrogen-contain organic compounds. Several groups of the biotic sources of allelochemicals were described: dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, particularly under their colonization by non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum, marine flora and fungi, which exhibit the herbicidal activity. Different targets of the allelochemical application were listed in the paper and they were categorized into several groups: higher flora, animals, unicellular and multi-cellular fungi. We concluded that there is lack of the modern multifaceted knowledge bases for the information about the allelochemical application. Those knowledge bases must be useful in order to choose the appropriate biological method for solving each particular problem of plant cultivation. To that end we systemized the results of current investigation about the usage of allelochemicals in practice.

  2. Evaluation of critical thinking application in medical ultrasound practice among sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwu, K.K.; Ogbu, S.O.I.; Okpara, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of critical thinking (CT) in medical ultrasound by sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria as a measure of the quality of practice. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire based on six elements of CT was distributed to 82 sonographers selected through a simple random sampling. The questionnaire investigated the application of the elements of interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation and self-regulation involved in CT by medical sonographers. The data for each respondent were categorized into age, experience and the elements of CT. Statistical analyses were done using mean and Spearman's Rank correlation. Results: The overall mean score of the practitioners on all the elements of CT application was 8.65 ± 6.76 against a total of 60. The application of CT did not show any correlation with age or clinical experience using Spearman's Rank correlation (r = -0.017; p > 0.05 and r = -0.086; p > 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The results show that there is poor application of CT by medical sonographers in the locality which may impact negatively on the outcome of this diagnostic process. Increase in the number of formal training programmes in sonography and inclusion of CT skills in the curriculum are recommended

  3. Near infrared spatial frequency domain fluorescence imaging of tumor phantoms containing erythrocyte-derived optical nanoplatforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joshua M.; Schaefer, Elise; Anvari, Bahman

    2018-02-01

    Light-activated theranostic constructs provide a multi-functional platform for optical imaging and phototherapeutic applications. Our group has engineered nano-sized vesicles derived from erythrocytes that encapsulate the FDAapproved near infrared (NIR) absorber indocyanine green (ICG). We refer to these constructs as NIR erythrocytemimicking transducers (NETs). Once photo-excited by NIR light these constructs can transduce the photons energy to emit fluorescence, generate heat, or induce chemical reactions. In this study, we investigated fluorescence imaging of NETs embedded within tumor phantoms using spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). Using SFDI, we were able to fluorescently image simulated tumors doped with different concentration of NETs. These preliminary results suggest that NETs can be used in conjunction with SFDI for potential tumor imaging applications.

  4. Laboratory projects using inquiry-based learning: an application to a practical inorganic course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Carriazo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports how laboratory projects (LP coupled to inquiry-based learning (IBL were implemented in a practical inorganic chemistry course. Several coordination compounds have been successfully synthesised by students according to the proposed topics by the LP-IBL junction, and the chemistry of a number of metals has been studied. Qualitative data were collected from written reports, oral presentations, lab-notebook reviews and personal discussions with the students through an experimental course with undergraduate second-year students at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia during the last 5 years. Positive skills production was observed by combining LP and IBL. Conceptual, practical, interpretational, constructional (questions, explanations, hypotheses, communicational, environmental and application abilities were revealed by the students throughout the experimental course.

  5. Advanced practice nursing role delineation in acute and critical care: application of the strong model of advanced practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, D J; Ackerman, M H

    2000-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to differentiate between the roles of clinical nurse specialists and acute care nurse practitioners. Hypothesized blending of the clinical nurse specialist and acute care nurse practitioner roles is thought to result in an acute care clinician who integrates the clinical skills of the nurse practitioner with the systems knowledge, educational commitment, and leadership ability of the clinical nurse specialist. Ideally, this role blending would facilitate excellence in both direct and indirect patient care. The Strong Model of Advanced Practice, which incorporates practice domains of direct comprehensive care, support of systems, education, research, and publication and professional leadership, was tested to search for practical evidence of role blending. This descriptive, exploratory, pilot study included subjects (N = 18) solicited from an academic medical center and from an Internet advanced practice listserv. Questionnaires included self-ranking of expertise in practice domains, as well as valuing of role-related tasks. Content validity was judged by an expert panel of advanced practice nurses. Analyses of descriptive statistics revealed that clinical nurse specialists, who had more experience both as registered nurses and in the advanced practice nurse role, self-ranked their expertise higher in all practice domains. Acute care nurse practitioners placed higher importance on tasks related to direct comprehensive care, including conducting histories and physicals, diagnosing, and performing diagnostic procedures, whereas clinical nurse specialists assigned greater importance to tasks related to education, research, and leadership. Levels of self-assessed clinical expertise as well as valuing of role-related tasks differed among this sample of clinical nurse specialists and acute care nurse practitioners. Groundwork has been laid for continuing exploration into differentiation in advanced practice nursing roles. As the clinical

  6. Examination of the calcium-erythrocyte membrane interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardos, Gy.; Szasz, I.; Sarkadi, B.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the cation-transport mechanisms of human erythrocytes is given. The following experimental methods were applied: measurement of 45 Ca influx, 45 Ca efflux, 42 K influx, 42 K efflux, 22 Na efflux and determination of the activity of the Ca-ATP-ase enzyme. The increase of the intracellular Ca-level opens some specific K-channels, through which K is leaking out passively. The kinetics and the chemical nature of this K-transport are given in detail. On the other hand, Ca ions taken up are removed by active transport. Detailed data are given on the activity and specific inhibition of this Ca-pump. In human erythrocytes the pump is working with the stoichiometry of Ca:ATP=2. (L.E.)

  7. Quantitative evaluation of respiration induced metabolic oscillations in erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn; Madsen, Mads F; Danø, Sune

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide (P(O(2)) and P(CO(2))) during blood circulation alter erythrocyte metabolism, hereby causing flux changes between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. In the study we have modeled this effect by extending the comprehensive kinetic...... model by Mulquiney and Kuchel [P.J. Mulquiney, and P.W. Kuchel. Model of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate metabolism in the human erythrocyte based on detailed enzyme kinetic equations: equations and parameter refinement, Biochem. J. 1999, 342, 581-596.] with a kinetic model of hemoglobin oxy...... solely by steady state consideration. The metabolic system exhibits a broad distribution of time scales. Relaxations of modes with hemoglobin and Mg(2+) binding reactions are very fast, while modes involving glycolytic, membrane transport and 2,3-BPG shunt reactions are much slower. Incomplete slow mode...

  8. Radiation safety practice in Sudan with respect to industrial radioisotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.D.; Hassan, B.A.; Zeada, D.O.M.; Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Salih, S.A.; Hassan, M.S.

    2008-06-01

    The use of radioisotope technology in petrochemical industry in Sudan started in 2003, since then gamma scanning for distillation columns and tracer applications for leak detection was performed 6 times at a refinery 60 Km away from Khartoum, by Sudan Atomic Energy Commission II T group. This paper focuses on safety and radiation protection for this practice, also describes safety requirements, the emergency plan and evaluation of dose worker value which was done on these missions. The assessment of worker's doses performed showed that they are within an acceptable range. Recommendations are made to even bring them lower. The paper also sheds light on some problems raised and suggests remedial actions.(Author)

  9. Optics and optical instruments an introduction with special reference to practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, B K

    1947-01-01

    This book illustrates basic practical applications of optical principle. Working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses, and optical projection systems are diagrammed and explained in full, as are the basic experiments for determining accuracy, power, angular field of view, amount of aberration, and all other necessary facts about the instrument. Throughout the book, only elementary mathematics is used, for the benefit of the student and the beginner in the field of optics.The author, an assistant professor at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, shows ho

  10. Teaching practice of the course of Laser Principle and Application based on PBL mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongliang; Lv, Beibei; Wang, Siqi

    2017-08-01

    The primary task of university education is to stimulate students' autonomic learning and cultivate students' creative thinking. This paper put to use problem based learning (PBL) teaching mode, to enable students master flexible knowledge as the goal, and a detailed analysis of the implementation method and concrete measures of PBL teaching reform in the course of Laser Principle and Application, then compared with the former teaching methods. From the feedback of students and teaching experience, we get good teaching effect and prove the feasibility of PBL teaching mode in practice.

  11. Robert Lacoste's the darker side practical applications for electronic design concepts from circuit cellar

    CERN Document Server

    Lacoste, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Robert Lacoste's The Darker Side column has quickly become a must read among Circuit Cellar devotees. His column provides readers with succinct theoretical concepts and practical applications on topics as far reaching as digital modulation to antenna basics. Difficult concepts are demystified as Robert shines a light on complex topics within electronic design.This book collects sixteen Darker Side articles that have been enriched with new, exclusive content from the author. An intro into The Darker Side will give examples of material that can enhance and optimize the way you design. A

  12. Purification and properties of enolase of human erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, R.K.J.; Flikweert, J.P.; Staal, Gerard E.J.

    1974-01-01

    1. 1. Human erythrocyte enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydrolyase, EC 4.2.1.11) was purified I000-fold. 2. 2. The pH-optimum was at pH 6.5. The molecular weight, estimated by gel filtration, was found to be 95,000 ± 5,000. 3. 3. Electrophoresis on agar-agarose at pH 8.5 and 6.4 showed only one

  13. Tirilazad mesylate protects stored erythrocytes against osmotic fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, D E; Knechtel, T J; Bacznskyj, O; Decker, D; Guido, D M; Buxser, S E; Mathews, W R; Buffenbarger, S L; Lutzke, B S; McCall, J M

    1994-12-01

    The hypoosmotic lysis curve of freshly collected human erythrocytes is consistent with a single Gaussian error function with a mean of 46.5 +/- 0.25 mM NaCl and a standard deviation of 5.0 +/- 0.4 mM NaCl. After extended storage of RBCs under standard blood bank conditions the lysis curve conforms to the sum of two error functions instead of a possible shift in the mean and a broadening of a single error function. Thus, two distinct sub-populations with different fragilities are present instead of a single, broadly distributed population. One population is identical to the freshly collected erythrocytes, whereas the other population consists of osmotically fragile cells. The rate of generation of the new, osmotically fragile, population of cells was used to probe the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is responsible for the induction of membrane fragility. If it is so, then the antioxidant, tirilazad mesylate (U-74,006f), should protect against this degradation of stored erythrocytes. We found that tirilazad mesylate, at 17 microM (1.5 mol% with respect to membrane lecithin), retards significantly the formation of the osmotically fragile RBCs. Concomitantly, the concentration of free hemoglobin which accumulates during storage is markedly reduced by the drug. Since the presence of the drug also decreases the amount of F2-isoprostanes formed during the storage period, an antioxidant mechanism must be operative. These results demonstrate that tirilazad mesylate significantly decreases the number of fragile erythrocytes formed during storage in the blood bank.

  14. Triggering of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death Following Boswellic Acid Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatrice Calabrò

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The antinflammatory natural product boswellic acid is effective against cancer at least in part by inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, energy depletion, ceramide formation and p38 kinase activation. The present study tested, whether and how boswellic acid induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies, reactive oxygen species (ROS from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofuorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence, and cytosolic ATP concentration utilizing a luciferin-luciferase assay kit. Results: A 24 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to boswellic acid (5 µg/ml significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (to 9.3 ±0.9 % and significantly decreased forward scatter. Boswellic acid did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i, cytosolic ATP, ROS, or ceramide abundance. The effect of boswellic acid on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by p38 kinase inhibitors skepinone (2 µM and SB203580 (2 µM. Conclusions: Boswellic acid stimulates cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part dependent on p38 protein kinase activity.

  15. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  16. Effect of fluorozis on the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdogan, M.; YiImaz, D.; Yontem, M.; Kalei, S.; Kilic, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the flourine level of (drinking) water was higher than normal ranges in the center of Isparta region before 1995 year, this problematic situation is solved in later years. (However) the individuals who are staying in Yenice district are still expose to high levels of fluorine because of the usage of Andik spring water (3.8 mg/L flour level) as drinking water. In this study we aimed to investigate the harmful effect of floride on human erythrocytes via antioxidant defence system and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we studied the activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px) and Catalase (CAT), and the level of erythrocyte Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the level of urine floride in high floride exposed people (children, adult and elderly). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT and the level of GSH, TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed children (Group II) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control children (Group I) (p 0.05). The activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were lower and the levels of TBARS and urine floride were higher in 3.8 mg/L floride exposed elderly people (Group VI) than 0.8 mg/L floride exposed control elderly people (Group V) (p 0.05). As a result we thought that increased SOD, GSH-Px and CAT activities in floride exposed children and adult people, decreased activities of these enzymes in floride exposed elderly people, and increased TBARS in all groups may indicate floride caused oxidative damage in erythrocytes. (author)

  17. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  18. The complete amino acid sequence of human erythrocyte diphosphoglycerate mutase.

    OpenAIRE

    Haggarty, N W; Dunbar, B; Fothergill, L A

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of human erythrocyte diphosphoglycerate mutase, comprising 239 residues, was determined. The sequence was deduced from the four cyanogen bromide fragments, and from the peptides derived from these fragments after digestion with a number of proteolytic enzymes. Comparison of this sequence with that of the yeast glycolytic enzyme, phosphoglycerate mutase, shows that these enzymes are 47% identical. Most, but not all, of the residues implicated as being important...

  19. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barretto O.C. de O.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 ± 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 ± 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 µM for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 µM were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively. A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate.

  20. Fundamental studies on the insulin receptor in rabbit erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinomiya, Y; Kagawa, S; Konishi, Y; Morimoto, H; Tsumura, Y [Hyogo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    The authors studied the binding of insulin to rabbit erythrocytes as a mode case in the hope of characterizing the physiologic role of the binding of insulin to receptor in both normal adults and patients. Specific binding sites for insulin were detected in rabbit erythrocytes. The characteristics of the binding were similar to those observed in other target tissues. The specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled insulin was competitively inhibited by a small amount of unlabeled insulin and was completely inhibited by 1,000 ng/ml of unlabeled insulin. Glucagon, however, had no effect on the insulin binding to fat cells or liver membranes nor had it any effect on the binding of insulin to rabbit erythrocytes. Scatchard analysis of this binding reaction indicated two different binding sites with Ksub(aff)=3.2 x 10/sup 8//M, Ksub(diss)=3.1 x 10/sup -9/M; Ksub(aff)=1.4 x 10/sup 8//M, Ksub(diss)=7.1 x 10/sup -9/M respectively, and the binding capacities of each site were estimated at 0.011 ng/4 x 10/sup 8/ cells and 0.138 ng/4 x 10/sup 8/ cells. The binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to rabbit erythrocytes was a saturable function of the insulin concentration and was a linear function of cell concentration. The pH optimum for the reaction was 7.4 at 0/sup 0/C, the amount of insulin binding increased continuously under the reaction and this binding reaction reached a steady state after 10 to 15hr. On the other hand, the specific binding of insulin at higher temperatures showed maximal amounts after 20 to 30 min. and subsequently fell off at later time points.

  1. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC

  2. Bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in lipid-symmetric erythrocytes assessed by a photoactivable phospholipid analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, D.; Schlegel, R.A.; Williamson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed for maintenance of transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, one involving specific interactions between the aminophospholipids of the inner leaflet of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton, particularly spectrin, and the other involving the aminophospholipid translocase. If the former mechanism is correct, then erythrocytes which have lost their asymmetric distribution of phospholipids should display altered bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions. To test this possibility, normal erythrocytes, erythrocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or sickle disease, and lipid-symmetric and -asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with the radioactive photoactivable analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-(2-azido-4-nitrobenzoyl)-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho[ 14 C] ethanolamine ([ 14 C]AzPE), previously shown to label cytoskeletal proteins from the bilayer. The labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in pathologic erythrocytes and lipid-asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts was indistinguishable from normal erythrocytes, indicating that the probe detects no differences in bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in these cells. In contrast, in lipid-symmetric erythrocyte ghosts, labeling of bands 4.1 and 4.2 and actin, and to a lesser extent ankyrin, by [ 14 C]AzPE was considerably reduced. Significantly, however, labeling of spectrin was unaltered in the lipid-symmetric cells. These results do not support a model in which spectrin is involved in the maintenance of an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in erythrocytes

  3. Robotic 3D SQUID imaging system for practical nondestructive evaluation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, K.; Nakayama, S.; Ikeda, M.; Takagi, S.; Tosaka, S.; Kasai, N.

    2005-01-01

    A robotic three-dimensional (3D) scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) imaging system was developed for practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The major feature of this SQUID-NDE system is that the SQUID sensor itself scans in 3D by traveling over the surface of an object during testing without the need for magnetic shielding. This imaging system consists of (i) DC-SQUID gradiometer for effective movement of the sensor, (ii) SQUID sensor manipulator utilizing an articulated-type robot used in industry, (iii) laser charge-coupled-device (CCD) displacement sensor to measure the 3D coordinates of points on the surface of the object, and (iv) computer-aided numerical interpolation scheme for 3D surface reconstruction of the object. The applicability of this system for NDE was demonstrated by successfully detecting artificial damage of cylindrical-shaped steel tubes

  4. Monolithic Highly Stable Yb-Doped Femtosecond Fiber Lasers for Applications in Practical Biophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    in the development of all-fiber nonlinear-optical laser control schemes, which resulted in the demonstration of highly stable monolithic, i.e., not containing any free-space elements, lasers with direct fiber-end delivery of femtosecond pulses. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development...... of such all-fiber mode-locked lasers based on Yb-fiber as gain medium, operating at the wavelength around 1 $\\mu$m, and delivering femtosecond pulses reaching tens of nanojoules of energy.......Operational and environmental stability of ultrafast laser systems is critical for their applications in practical biophotonics. Mode-locked fiber lasers show great promise in applications such as supercontinuum sources or multiphoton microscopy systems. Recently, substantial progress has been made...

  5. Good Modeling Practice for PAT Applications: Propagation of Input Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are evaluated for their usefulness as part of the model-building within Process Analytical Technology applications. A mechanistic model describing a batch cultivation of Streptomyces coelicolor for antibiotic production was used as case study. The input...... compared to the large uncertainty observed in the antibiotic and off-gas CO2 predictions. The output uncertainty was observed to be lower during the exponential growth phase, while higher in the stationary and death phases - meaning the model describes some periods better than others. To understand which...... promising for helping to build reliable mechanistic models and to interpret the model outputs properly. These tools make part of good modeling practice, which can contribute to successful PAT applications for increased process understanding, operation and control purposes. © 2009 American Institute...

  6. Transport of 3-bromopyruvate across the human erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Soszyński, Mirosław; Ułaszewski, Stanisław; Ko, Young; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    3-Bromopyruvic acid (3-BP) is a promising anticancer compound because it is a strong inhibitor of glycolytic enzymes, especially glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The Warburg effect means that malignant cells are much more dependent on glycolysis than normal cells. Potential complications of anticancer therapy with 3-BP are side effects due to its interaction with normal cells, especially erythrocytes. Transport into cells is critical for 3-BP to have intracellular effects. The aim of our study was the kinetic characterization of 3-BP transport into human erythrocytes. 3-BP uptake by erythrocytes was linear within the first 3 min and pH-dependent. The transport rate decreased with increasing pH in the range of 6.0-8.0. The Km and Vm values for 3-BP transport were 0.89 mM and 0.94 mmol/(l cells x min), respectively. The transport was inhibited competitively by pyruvate and significantly inhibited by DIDS, SITS, and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Flavonoids also inhibited 3-BP transport: the most potent inhibition was found for luteolin and quercetin.

  7. Proton NMR studies of creatine in human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchel, P W; Chapman, B E [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1983-09-01

    Proton spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the relative levels of some metabolites in intact human erythrocytes that had been fractionated by density gradient centrifugation. Age dependent changes in the concentrations of free glycine, choline and ergothioneine were seen for the first time, while glutathione was essentially invariant. In addition, there was a 10-fold decrease in creatine levels from the youngest to oldest cells. This confirms earlier reports and provides a simple explanation for the variable creatine resonance intensities seen in spectra obtained from different erythrocyte samples prepared from the same donor. The different chemical shifts of the methylene resonances of creatine and creatine phosphate was demonstrated and hence confirmed that the bulk of the creatine in intact erythrocytes is not phosphorylated. The chemical shift difference enabled the monitoring of the creatine phosphokinase catalysed reaction in lysates to which the rabbit muscle enzyme had been added. This experiment indicated that the enzyme is not significantly inhibited by factors in the lysates, and introduced a new means of assaying the in situ activity of the enzyme.

  8. Drug-loaded erythrocytes: on the road toward marketing approval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourgeaux V

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Bourgeaux,1 José M Lanao,2 Bridget E Bax,3 Yann Godfrin11ERYTECH Pharma, Lyon, France; 2Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain; 3Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George’s University of London, London, UKAbstract: Erythrocyte drug encapsulation is one of the most promising therapeutic alternative approaches for the administration of toxic or rapidly cleared drugs. Drug-loaded erythrocytes can operate through one of the three main mechanisms of action: extension of circulation half-life (bioreactor, slow drug release, or specific organ targeting. Although the clinical development of erythrocyte carriers is confronted with regulatory and development process challenges, industrial development is expanding. The manufacture of this type of product can be either centralized or bedside based, and different procedures are employed for the encapsulation of therapeutic agents. The major challenges for successful industrialization include production scalability, process validation, and quality control of the released therapeutic agents. Advantages and drawbacks of the different manufacturing processes as well as success key points of clinical development are discussed. Several entrapment technologies based on osmotic methods have been industrialized. Companies have already achieved many of the critical clinical stages, thus providing the opportunity in the future to cover a wide range of diseases for which effective therapies are not currently available.Keywords: red blood cell, encapsulation method, drug carrier, industrial development, clinical use

  9. Proton NMR studies of creatine in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchel, P.W.; Chapman, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    Proton spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the relative levels of some metabolites in intact human erythrocytes that had been fractionated by density gradient centrifugation. Age dependent changes in the concentrations of free glycine, choline and ergothioneine were seen for the first time, while glutathione was essentially invariant. In addition, there was a 10-fold decrease in creatine levels from the youngest to oldest cells. This confirms earlier reports and provides a simple explanation for the variable creatine resonance intensities seen in spectra obtained from different erythrocyte samples prepared from the same donor. The different chemical shifts of the methylene resonances of creatine and creatine phosphate was demonstrated and hence confirmed that the bulk of the creatine in intact erythrocytes is not phosphorylated. The chemical shift difference enabled the monitoring of the creatine phosphokinase catalysed reaction in lysates to which the rabbit muscle enzyme had been added. This experiment indicated that the enzyme is not significantly inhibited by factors in the lysates, and introduced a new means of assaying the in situ activity of the enzyme. (author)

  10. Age related changes in erythrocyte A and B antigen strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B; Ishii, Goro

    1961-11-01

    The strength of A and B antigens of the erythrocyte, as indicated by agglutinability with dilutions of specific antibody, has been investigated in a group of subjects in Hiroshima. Antigen strength was found to rise to maximal levels at age 25 to 29, and decline with advancing years. Degree of irradiation from the Hiroshima atomic bomb in 1945 did not appear in the limited sample to affect this age-dependent structural property of erythrocytes. Antigen strength of females was somewhat less than that of males for those individuals from 20 to 40 years of age. When compared with group A or B subjects, individuals of group AB demonstrated full strength of both A and B antigens. Since Rh antigenicity also has been reported to change with age, it seems probable that multiple changes in the erythrocyte membrane occur with age. Further investigation into the nature of these changes may be fruitful to an understanding of aging processes at the cellular level. 13 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Bbbbbb... - Applicability Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks 1 Table 1 to Subpart BBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of... Criteria, Emission Limits, and Management Practices for Storage Tanks If you own or operate Then you must 1...

  13. Erythrocytes as Carriers for Drugs and Contrast Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Magnani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes, also known as Red Blood Cells (RBC, are typically used in transfusion medicine to replace lost blood in patients who underwent different kinds of medical treatments as well as those involved in accidents resulting in blood loss. In addition to these common uses, RBC are being used for a variety of new applications either as therapeutics or as diagnostics. Most of these novel approaches are made possible due to the peculiar properties of these cells. We have invented a technology that allows cells to be opened and resealed without affecting their main physiological characteristics with a minimal amount of patient blood.  Uses of processed RBCs in biomedical engineering include work with drugs, biomedical compounds and/or nanomaterials. These constructs are a new armamentarium available to the physicians for the release of drugs in circulation, for targeting drugs to selected sites in the body, or for in vivo diagnostic procedures based on magnetic and/or optical methods. Autologous human RBC loaded with dexamethasone (EryDex, a common corticosteroid,  have been used in the treatment of Cystic Fibrosis, Crohn’s Disease, and other severe inflammatory conditions. Benefits and safety of this technology have been documented in over 2,500 treatments. EryDel SpA is a company focused on developing and commercializing innovative therapies and diagnostics based on the use of autologous RBCs as agent carriers. More recently, EryDel SpA completed a Phase II Proof of Concept study in patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT, a rare progressive neurological autosomal recessive disorder that leads to mortality in most patients at an early age, with significant benefit seen on primary and secondary end-points. EryDex treatment has received Orphan Drug Designation by EMA for the treatment of Cystic Fibrosis and both by EMA and FDA for the treatment of AT. The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles within RBC has lead to the generation

  14. [Application of the Smoking Scale for Primary Care (ETAP) in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Romero, M P; Cuevas-Fernández, F J; Marcelino-Rodríguez, I; Covas, V J; Rodríguez Pérez, M C; Cabrera de León, A; Aguirre-Jaime, A

    2017-08-23

    To determine if the ETAP smoking scale, which measures accumulated exposure to tobacco, both actively and passively, is applicable and effective in the clinical practice of Primary Care for the prevention of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Location Barranco Grande Health Centre in Tenerife, Spain. A study of 61 cases (AMI) and 144 controls. Sampling with random start, without matching. COR-II curves were analysed, and effectiveness was estimated using sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV). A questionnaire was provided to participating family physicians on the applicability of ETAP in the clinic. The opinion of the participating physicians was unanimously favourable. ETAP was easy to use in the clinic, required less than 3min per patient, and was useful to reinforce the preventive intervention. The ETAP COR-II curve showed that 20years of exposure was the best cut-off point, with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95%CI: 0.62-0.78), and a combination of sensitivity (98%) and NPV (96%) for AMI. When stratifying age and gender, all groups achieved sensitivities and NPVs close to 100%, except for men aged ≥55years, in whom the NPV fell to 75%. The results indicate that ETAP is a valid tool that can be applied and be effective in the clinical practice of Primary Care for the prevention of AMI related to smoking exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of Agents for Palliative Sedation/Continuous Deep Sedation: Pharmacology and Practical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, John

    2017-03-01

    Continuous deep sedation at the end of life is a specific form of palliative sedation requiring a care plan that essentially places and maintains the patient in an unresponsive state because their symptoms are refractory to any other interventions. Because this application is uncommon, many providers may lack practical experience in this specialized area and resources they can access are outdated, nonspecific, and/or not comprehensive. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence- and experience-based reference that specifically addresses those medications and regimens and their practical applications for this very narrow, but vital, aspect of hospice care. Patient goals in a hospital and hospice environments are different, so the manner in which widely used sedatives are dosed and applied can differ greatly as well. Parameters applied in end-of-life care that are based on experience and a thorough understanding of the pharmacology of those medications will differ from those applied in an intensive care unit or other medical environments. By recognizing these different goals and applying well-founded regimens geared specifically for end-of-life sedation, we can address our patients' symptoms in a more timely and efficacious manner.

  16. Practical experience in the application of quality control in water-reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollath, D.

    1984-07-01

    Highly industrialized countries have gained vast experience in manufacturing water reactor fuel. Manufacturing is followed by a stringent system of quality assurance and quality control. The Seminar on Practical Experience in the Application of Quality Control in Water-Reactor Fuel Fabrication provided a forum for an exchange of information on methods and systems of quality assurance and quality control for reactor fuel. In addition, many developing countries which have started or intend to set up a nuclear fuel industry are interested in the application of quality assurance and quality control. This meeting has been preceded by two different series of conferences: the IAEA meetings 1976 in Oslo, 1978 in Prague and 1979 in Buenos Aires, and the Karlsruhe meetings on Characterization and Quality Control of Nuclear Fuel held in 1978 and 1981. Quality control and quality assurance has many different facets. Unlike the purely technical aspects, covered by the Karlsruhe conference series, the IAEA meetings always relate to a wider field of topics. They include governmental regulations and codes for practical quality assurance. This volume contains the papers presented at the seminar and a record of the discussions. (orig.)

  17. Research Progress toward the Practical Applications of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochala, Joshua; Liu, Dianying; Wu, Bingbin; Robinson, Cynthia; Xiao, Jie

    2017-07-26

    The renaissance of Li-S battery technology is evidenced by the intensive R&D efforts in recent years. Although the theoretical capacity and energy of a Li-S battery is theoretically very high, the projected usable energy is expected to be no more than twice that of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, or 500 Wh/kg. The recent "sulfur fever" has certainly gathered new knowledge on sulfur chemistry and electrochemistry, electrolytes, lithium metal, and their interactions in this "new" system; however, a real advance toward a practical Li-S battery is still missing. One of the main reasons behind this is the sensitivity of Li-S batteries to the experimental testing parameters. Sophisticated nanostructures are usually employed, while the practicality of these nanomaterials for batteries is rarely discussed. The sulfur electrode, usually engineered in a thin-film configuration, further poses uncertainties in the knowledge transfer from the lab to industry. This review article briefly overviews the recent research progress on Li-S batteries, followed by a discussion of the Li-S battery system from the authors' own understandings collected from their past few years of research. The critical findings, the unresolved issues, and the scientific gap between lab research and industrial application are discussed. The future work in Li-S battery research is also explored to propel relevant research efforts toward industrial applications.

  18. The application of optimization of protection to regulation and operational practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilari, O.

    1989-01-01

    Optimization of protection and the problems of its practical application have been of concern for several years to the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health. The present paper summarizes the principal conclusions of a meeting on this topic organized by the NEA in March 1988, with the participation of radiation protection, nuclear safety and radioactive waste management experts. From the results of the meeting it appears that there is now as increasingly solid background of knowledge and common understanding of the conceptual aspects of optimization of protection. However, its degree of implementation in the regulatory and operational practices is very uneven. The areas of plant design and operation appear the most promising in terms of examples of concrete application, whilst severe reservations exist in the nuclear safety community on the possibility of applying this approach to the prevention of nuclear accidents. There is also consensus on the fact that optimization of protection can only play a partial and minor role in decisions concerning the choice of radioactive waste disposal options

  19. Practical applications approach to design, development and implementation of an integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdsworth, Rodger

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of quality, risk, safety, health and environmental management philosophies has significantly changed industry's view of company organization and controlling processes. Quality, risk, safety, health and environmental programs and systems, such as ISO 9000, ISO 14000, process safety, and risk management are impacting the way industry will meet the challenges of safety and environmental risks and the needs of the customer in the future. A wealth of knowledge has been extracted from practical application case studies, which would otherwise be unobtainable without years of experience related to management systems design, development, implementation and control. This paper discusses a practical applications approach to design, develop and implement an integrated management system encompassing quality (ISO 9000), process safety management (CFR 29 1910.119), risk management programs (CFR 40 part 68), environmental management (ISO 14000), and safety and health. This paper includes a discussion of management systems integration and an overview of management systems standards that apply to the petrochemical and chemical manufacturers industries. The paper also provides an overview on integrating management systems, including issues related to the following topics: - Establishing a management system team and objectives. - Assessing and knowing your organization. - Designing the management system to meet site objectives. - Developing system documentation. - Implementing effective management systems. - Measuring program performance. - Continuous improvement

  20. Issues and Challenges Facing Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries for Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyungyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Yoonji; Cho, Jaephil; Park, Minjoon

    2017-12-27

    With the advent of flexible electronics, lithium-ion batteries have become a key component of high performance energy storage systems. Thus, considerable effort is made to keep up with the development of flexible lithium-ion batteries. To date, many researchers have studied newly designed batteries with flexibility, however, there are several significant challenges that need to be overcome, such as degradation of electrodes under external load, poor battery performance, and complicated cell preparation procedures. In addition, an in-depth understanding of the current challenges for flexible batteries is rarely addressed in a systematical and practical way. Herein, recent progress and current issues of flexible lithium-ion batteries in terms of battery materials and cell designs are reviewed. A critical overview of important issues and challenges for the practical application of flexible lithium-ion batteries is also provided. Finally, the strategies are discussed to overcome current limitations of the practical use of flexible lithium-based batteries, providing a direction for future research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics: viewpoints on the current status and applications in nutrition research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Cahill, Leah; Ferguson, Lynnette R; French, Tapaeru-Ariki C; Tai, E Shyong; Milner, John; Koh, Woon-Puay; Xie, Lin; Zucker, Michelle; Buckley, Michael; Cosgrove, Leah; Lockett, Trevor; Fung, Kim Y C; Head, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics hold much promise for providing better nutritional advice to the public generally, genetic subgroups and individuals. Because nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics require a deep understanding of nutrition, genetics and biochemistry and ever new 'omic' technologies, it is often difficult, even for educated professionals, to appreciate their relevance to the practice of preventive approaches for optimising health, delaying onset of disease and diminishing its severity. This review discusses (i) the basic concepts, technical terms and technology involved in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics; (ii) how this emerging knowledge can be applied to optimise health, prevent and treat diseases; (iii) how to read, understand and interpret nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic research results, and (iv) how this knowledge may potentially transform nutrition and dietetic practice, and the implications of such a transformation. This is in effect an up-to-date overview of the various aspects of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics relevant to health practitioners who are seeking a better understanding of this new frontier in nutrition research and its potential application to dietetic practice. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Application of three-dimensional computed tomography in craniofacial clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Yong, R; Surman, T L; Rajion, Z A; Ranjitkar, S

    2014-06-01

    Following the invention of the first computed tomography (CT) scanner in the early 1970s, many innovations in three-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging technology have occurred, leading to a wide range of applications in craniofacial clinical practice and research. Three-dimensional image analysis provides superior and more detailed information compared with conventional plain two-dimensional (2D) radiography, with the added benefit of 3D printing for preoperative treatment planning and regenerative therapy. Current state-of-the-art multidetector CT (MDCT), also known as medical CT, has an important role in the diagnosis and management of craniofacial injuries and pathology. Three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT), pioneered in the 1990s, is gaining increasing popularity in dental and craniofacial clinical practice because of its faster image acquisition at a lower radiation dose, but sound guidelines are needed to ensure its optimal clinical use. Recent innovations in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have revolutionized craniofacial biology research by enabling higher resolution scanning of teeth beyond the capabilities of MDCT and CBCT, presenting new prospects for translational clinical research. Even after four decades of refinement, CT technology continues to advance and broaden the horizons of craniofacial clinical practice and phenomics research. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Oracle Application Express 5 for beginners a practical guide to rapidly develop data-centric web applications accessible from desktop, laptops, tablets, and smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Oracle Application Express has taken another big leap towards becoming a true next generation RAD tool. It has entered into its fifth version to build robust web applications. One of the most significant feature in this release is a new page designer that helps developers create and edit page elements within a single page design view, which enormously maximizes developer productivity. Without involving the audience too much into the boring bits, this full colored edition adopts an inspiring approach that helps beginners practically evaluate almost every feature of Oracle Application Express, including all features new to version 5. The most convincing way to explore a technology is to apply it to a real world problem. In this book, you’ll develop a sales application that demonstrates almost every feature to practically expose the anatomy of Oracle Application Express 5. The short list below presents some main topics of Oracle APEX covered in this book: Rapid web application development for desktops, la...

  4. Development and initial evaluation of a mobile application to help with mindfulness training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza García, Inmaculada; Sánchez, Carlos Medrano; Espílez, Ángel Sánchez; García-Magariño, Iván; Guillén, Guillermo Azuara; García-Campayo, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Different review articles support the usefulness and effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in health and wellbeing. In this paper we present a first prototype of a mobile application to help with the training and practice of mindfulness, taking into account the lacks detected in a previous literature review. Our aim was to measure acceptance and perceived quality, as well as gather data about app usage. Their dependence on demographic variables and the change in mindful level was also measured. Two versions of a new application were developed, "Mindfulness" and "Mindfulness Sci". The application has been tested in two pilot studies: in traditional face-to-face mindfulness groups and in individual and independent use. 3977 users were involved in this study: 26 in the first trial during an 8-week usage period and 3951 in the second trial during 17 months. In the first study, participants assessed the app with high scores. They considered it as a helping tool for mindfulness practice, user-friendly and with high quality of use. The positive perception was maintained after 8-weeks meditation workshops, and participants considered that its use could contribute to obtain benefits for mental and physical health. In the second study, we found rather weak associations between usage time and age, nationality and educational level. The mindful level showed a weak positive correlation with the session accomplished but slightly above the boundary of statistical significance (p-value=0.051). Videos and information stood out as the most accessed resources. Up to our knowledge, this is the first app developed with the help of health professionals in Spanish that could be used with a general aim, in health and wellbeing. The results are promising with a positive evaluation in face-to-face and independent use situations. Therefore, the number of potential users is enormous in a global worldwide context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding and estimating effective population size for practical application in marine species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Matthew P; Nunney, Leonard; Schwartz, Michael K; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Burford, Martha; Waples, Robin S; Ruegg, Kristen; Palstra, Friso

    2011-06-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) determines the strength of genetic drift in a population and has long been recognized as an important parameter for evaluating conservation status and threats to genetic health of populations. Specifically, an estimate of N(e) is crucial to management because it integrates genetic effects with the life history of the species, allowing for predictions of a population's current and future viability. Nevertheless, compared with ecological and demographic parameters, N(e) has had limited influence on species management, beyond its application in very small populations. Recent developments have substantially improved N(e) estimation; however, some obstacles remain for the practical application of N(e) estimates. For example, the need to define the spatial and temporal scale of measurement makes the concept complex and sometimes difficult to interpret. We reviewed approaches to estimation of N(e) over both long-term and contemporary time frames, clarifying their interpretations with respect to local populations and the global metapopulation. We describe multiple experimental factors affecting robustness of contemporary N(e) estimates and suggest that different sampling designs can be combined to compare largely independent measures of N(e) for improved confidence in the result. Large populations with moderate gene flow pose the greatest challenges to robust estimation of contemporary N(e) and require careful consideration of sampling and analysis to minimize estimator bias. We emphasize the practical utility of estimating N(e) by highlighting its relevance to the adaptive potential of a population and describing applications in management of marine populations, where the focus is not always on critically endangered populations. Two cases discussed include the mechanisms generating N(e) estimates many orders of magnitude lower than census N in harvested marine fishes and the predicted reduction in N(e) from hatchery-based population

  6. Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 1 - General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Pichereau, F.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Loeffler, H.; Roesch, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Bassi, C.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Vincon, L.; Helstroem, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance and application of Level 2 PSA with a view to achieve harmonisation at EU level and to allow a meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluation in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with communities in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for Level 2 PSA development and application. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The Level 2 PSA experts from ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience, open literature, and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop). There are a large number of technical issues addressed in the guideline which are not all covered with the same level of detail in the first version of the guideline. This version was submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident and PSA experts (especially from SARNET and OECD-NEA members). The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned for March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactors (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help Level 2 PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help Level 2 PSA reviewers by positioning one specific study in

  7. Student Responses to an ICT-Based E-Assessment Application for the Teaching Practicum/Teaching Practice MODULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, M. Noor

    2017-01-01

    Situated within the context of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) in South Africa, this study introduces the notion of an interactive Teaching Practicum E- Assessment application: e-assessment application for the teaching practicum/Teaching Practice module to replace the current model of assessment. At present students enrolled for an Initial Teacher…

  8. Nonenzymatic glycation of phosphatidylethanolamine in erythrocyte vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkowska, M.J.; Horowitz, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    Unsealed inside-out and right-side out vesicles were prepared from human red cells. The vesicles were incubated with D-glucose [ 14 C(U)] and sodium cyanoborohydride in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. After incubation, lipids were extracted with 1-butanol and non-lipid contaminants removed by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. Phosphatidylethanolamine-sorbitol was purified by chromatography on columns of silicic acid and phenylboronate agarose gel. Phospholipase C (B. cereus) liberated phosphoethanolamine-sorbitol (I) which comigrated on TLC with synthetic I prepared by reductive condensation of phosphoethanolamine and D-glucose and also with the product of phospholipase C (B. cereus) hydrolysis of reference phosphatidylethanolamine-sorbitol. Exposure of I to alkaline phosphatase (E. coli) gave P/sub i/ and ethanolamine-sorbitol (II) which comigrated on TLC with synthetic II prepared by reductive condensation of ethanolamine and D-glucose or by phospholipase D hydrolysis of reference phosphatidylethanolamine-sorbitol. These studies demonstrate that vesicular phosphatidylethanolamine can be reductively glycated and illustrate the applicability of both phospholipase C and phospholipase D in characterizing glycated phosphoglycerides

  9. Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2007-01-01

    Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the influential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na+/H+ exchange and HC3 -/Cl- anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore dama...

  10. Radiation degradation of poly(olefin sulphone)s - Fundamental research to practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, M.J.; O'Donnell, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The degradation of poly(olefin sulphone)s by high energy radiation, particularly by γ-rays and electron beams, provides an example of the application of fundamental science to high technology industry. Scientific interest in the radiation degradation of these polymers was first aroused by the discovery that they underwent highly specific bond scission in the backbone chain as the primary result of absorption of high energy radiation and in fact they were the first polymers in which such an effect had been demonstrated. This conclusion was initially based mainly on evidence from electron spin resonance spectroscopy and was subsequently verified by studies of molecular weight changes. These studies showed that the poly(olefin sulphone)s not only degraded by main chain scission but were also among the most radiation-sensitive polymers known. The extremely high sensitivity of poly(olefin sulphone)s to radiation-induced main-chain scission has found application in the field of microelectronics. Electron beam writing on poly(olefin sulphone) films is used to produce lithographic masks for the manufacture of integrated circuits on silicon wafers. Poly(1-butene sulphone) (PBS) is currently used in the production of a substantial proportion of the masks for the industry. The fundamental aspects of the radiation degradation of poly(olefin sulphone)s and the practical applications to high technology are reviewed. (author)

  11. Ontology construction and application in practice case study of health tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrapornchai, Chantana; Choksuchat, Chidchanok

    2016-01-01

    Ontology is one of the key components in semantic webs. It contains the core knowledge for an effective search. However, building ontology requires the carefully-collected knowledge which is very domain-sensitive. In this work, we present the practice of ontology construction for a case study of health tourism in Thailand. The whole process follows the METHONTOLOGY approach, which consists of phases: information gathering, corpus study, ontology engineering, evaluation, publishing, and the application construction. Different sources of data such as structure web documents like HTML and other documents are acquired in the information gathering process. The tourism corpora from various tourism texts and standards are explored. The ontology is evaluated in two aspects: automatic reasoning using Pellet, and RacerPro, and the questionnaires, used to evaluate by experts of the domains: tourism domain experts and ontology experts. The ontology usability is demonstrated via the semantic web application and via example axioms. The developed ontology is actually the first health tourism ontology in Thailand with the published application.

  12. Quantification of Strategic Plans Through the Business Budget: A Practical Application Using Stochastic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Luiz Eyerkaufer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the process of estimating the quantitative predictions of the strategic plan through the budget happens as from the deterministic data, together with analysis of factors of internal and external environments. As from the budget data decisions are made, often before the fact, which creates uncertainty as to the assertiveness of forecasts. Combined with the traditional preparation methods of corporate budget forecasts, this study presents an application of stochastic methods where the probabilism is presented as an alternative for the minimization of uncertainties related to the assertiveness of the estimates. It also demonstrates itself, as from a practical application, the use of the Monte Carlo method in the sales forecasting; at the same time it is tested the probability of these sales forecasting be materialized within certain intervals that meet the investors’ expectations, by using the limit central theorem and, finally, by using the absorbing Markov chain, it is demonstrated the overall performance of the system as from the funds input and output. The study was limited to a basic application of stochastic methods as from a hypothetical case which, however, allowed to  conclude that both methods, together or separately, can minimize the effects of uncertainty in budget forecasts.

  13. Decreased Oxygen Transfer Capacity of Erythrocytes as a Cause of 5-Fluorouracil Related Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Spasojević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available cisplatin have similar effects on the erythrocyte membrane, thus eliminating those changes as a potential source of cardiotoxicity. On the contrary, 31P-NMR and polarography showed that the effects of these cytostatics on the intracellular milieu differ significantly. 5-FU provoked a pronounced decrease of the O2 level in blood and affected the metabolism of phosphate compounds, while cisplatin had no such effects. When combined these two drugs showed synergistic effects, which matches the higher frequency of cardiotoxicity of the combination relative to the sole application of 5-FU. Preliminary results acquired on blood of patients receiving cisplatin/5-FU therapy verified observations obtained ex vivo. These results open a possibility of applying NMR in preclinical trials of new drugs in order to predict their ischemic potential.

  14. A Lectin-Like Receptor is Involved in Invasion of Erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungery, M.; Pasvol, G.; Newbold, C. I.; Weatherall, D. J.

    1983-02-01

    Glycophorin both in solution and inserted into liposomes blocks invasion of erythrocytes by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, one sugar, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), completely blocks invasion of the erythrocyte by this parasite. GlcNAc coupled to bovine serum albumin to prevent the sugar entering infected erythrocytes was at least 100,000 times more effective than GlcNAc alone. Bovine serum albumin coupled to lactose or bovine serum albumin alone had no effect on invasion. These results suggest that the binding of P. falciparum to erythrocytes is lectin-like and is determined by carbohydrates on glycophorin.

  15. Stimulation of ceramide formation and suicidal erythrocyte death by vitamin K(3) (menadione).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Eberhard, Matthias; Mahmud, Hasan; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2009-11-25

    Vitamin K(3) is an essential micronutrient required for the activation of coagulation factors and thus hemostasis. Administration of vitamin K(3) analogues may cause anemia, which at least in theory could be due to stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane leading to exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis is triggered by an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, by ceramide and by energy depletion (decrease of cytosolic ATP). The present experiments explored, whether vitamin K(3) may influence eryptosis. Hemolysis was estimated from the supernatant hemoglobin concentration, phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes from annexin V-binding in fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, erythrocyte volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis, ceramide formation from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and erythrocyte ATP content from a luciferin-luciferase assay. As a result, vitamin K(3) (> or =1microM) caused lysis of an only small fraction of erythrocytes, but significantly increased ceramide formation, significantly increased the percentage of annexin V-binding erythrocytes, significantly decreased forward scatter and, at higher concentrations, significantly decreased the cellular ATP content. In conclusion, vitamin K(3) stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death, an effect at least partially due to ceramide formation and ATP depletion.

  16. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing [gamma- 32 P]ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the 32 P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references

  17. Physiological variations in levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in horse erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, I M; McLan, J G

    1975-03-01

    The levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), which affects the transport of oxygen by haemoglobin, were examined in horse blood. Resting levels of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG were established in thoroughbred horses, and levels of 2,3-DPG together with haemoglobin levels, were examined in a variety of conditions. A negative correlation was observed between erythrocyte 2,3-DPG and haemoglobin levels. Mares had higher erythrocyte 2,3-DPG levels was observed during training, and this variation may have a significant effect on haemoglobin oxygen transport. Erythrocyte 2,3-DPG levels were not affected by age or exercise.

  18. Morphometric analysis of erythrocytes from patients with thalassemia using tomographic diffractive microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang-Hsien; Huang, Shin-Shyang; Wu, Shang-Ju; Sung, Kung-Bin

    2017-11-01

    Complete blood count is the most common test to detect anemia, but it is unable to obtain the abnormal shape of erythrocytes, which highly correlates with the hematologic function. Tomographic diffractive microscopy (TDM) is an emerging technique capable of quantifying three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) distributions of erythrocytes without labeling. TDM was used to characterize optical and morphological properties of 172 erythrocytes from healthy volunteers and 419 erythrocytes from thalassemic patients. To efficiently extract and analyze the properties of erythrocytes, we developed an adaptive region-growing method for automatically delineating erythrocytes from 3-D RI maps. The thalassemic erythrocytes not only contained lower hemoglobin content but also showed doughnut shape and significantly lower volume, surface area, effective radius, and average thickness. A multi-indices prediction model achieved perfect accuracy of diagnosing thalassemia using four features, including the optical volume, surface-area-to-volume ratio, sphericity index, and surface area. The results demonstrate the ability of TDM to provide quantitative, hematologic measurements and to assess morphological features of erythrocytes to distinguish healthy and thalassemic erythrocytes.

  19. EXPANSION OF OBJECTIVES OF THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF TECHNICAL AUDIT AT RAILWAY TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to study, compare and summarize information on the current state and peculiarities of conducting technical audit in various branches of business in order to obtain the possibility of developing proposals for expanding the objectives of this procedure in railway enterprises. Methodology. In the course of the research there were used the methods of analysis and synthesis to study the content and basic provisions of scientific publications, normative legal acts of Ukraine, and other data on conducting technical audit in the field of industry, construction, gas extraction, electricity, marine and rail transport, followed by their comparison and generalization. Findings. Taking into account the positive experience of the audit carrying out in other sectors the article expands the goals of practical application of technical audit in railway transport enterprises. This envisages assessment of the current technical condition and the residual life of exploited vehicles and equipment of PJSC "Ukrzaliznytsia". As a result, there is an opportunity to detect and activate the reserves for improving the efficiency of railway transport enterprises, estimating and forecasting the costs for repair cycles and modernization, as well as for increasing the train safety level and improving investment attractiveness of the industry. Originality. The obtained results make it possible to broaden the concept of "technical audit" in railway transport, to define the purpose of its carrying out and the list of tasks. Application of the extended technical audit will provide an opportunity to receive objective information on the actual technical condition of the objects of the railway infrastructure, means of transport and equipment, and to use it for the formation of development programs as individual enterprises and the railway as a whole. Practical value. Expanding the goals of practical application of the technical audit at railway enterprises

  20. The Practical Application of Uav-Based Photogrammetry Under Economic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, M.; Siegrist, E.; Eisenbeiss, H.; Demir, N.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, small size UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) have reached a level of practical reliability and functionality that enables this technology to enter the geomatics market as an additional platform for spatial data acquisition. Though one could imagine a wide variety of interesting sensors to be mounted on such a device, here we will focus on photogrammetric applications using digital cameras. In praxis, UAV-based photogrammetry will only be accepted if it a) provides the required accuracy and an additional value and b) if it is competitive in terms of economic application compared to other measurement technologies. While a) was already proven by the scientific community and results were published comprehensively during the last decade, b) still has to be verified under real conditions. For this purpose, a test data set representing a realistic scenario provided by ETH Zurich was used to investigate cost effectiveness and to identify weak points in the processing chain that require further development. Our investigations are limited to UAVs carrying digital consumer cameras, for larger UAVs equipped with medium format cameras the situation has to be considered as significantly different. Image data was acquired during flights using a microdrones MD4-1000 quadrocopter equipped with an Olympus PE-1 digital compact camera. From these images, a subset of 5 images was selected for processing in order to register the effort of time required for the whole production chain of photogrammetric products. We see the potential of mini UAV-based photogrammetry mainly in smaller areas, up to a size of ca. 100 hectares. Larger areas can be efficiently covered by small airplanes with few images, reducing processing effort drastically. In case of smaller areas of a few hectares only, it depends more on the products required. UAVs can be an enhancement or alternative to GNSS measurements, terrestrial laser scanning and ground based photogrammetry. We selected the above mentioned

  1. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  2. Standard practice for verification of testing frame and specimen alignment under tensile and compressive axial force application

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    1.1 Included in this practice are methods covering the determination of the amount of bending that occurs during the application of tensile and compressive forces to notched and unnotched test specimens in the elastic range and to plastic strains less than 0.002. These methods are particularly applicable to the force application rates normally used for tension testing, creep testing, and uniaxial fatigue testing.

  3. A robust mass spectrometry method for rapid profiling of erythrocyte ghost membrane proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fye, Haddy K S; Mrosso, Paul; Bruce, Lesley; Thézénas, Marie-Laëtitia; Davis, Simon; Fischer, Roman; Rwegasira, Gration L; Makani, Julie; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) physiology is directly linked to many human disorders associated with low tissue oxygen levels or anemia including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, sleep apnea and sickle cell anemia. Parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and phylum Apicomplexa directly target RBCs, and surface molecules within the RBC membrane are critical for pathogen interactions. Proteomics of RBC membrane 'ghost' fractions has therefore been of considerable interest, but protocols described to date are either suboptimal or too extensive to be applicable to a larger set of clinical cohorts. Here, we describe an optimised erythrocyte isolation protocol from blood, tested for various storage conditions and explored using different fractionation conditions for isolating ghost RBC membranes. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument was used to profile proteins isolated from the comparative conditions. Data analysis was run on the MASCOT and MaxQuant platforms to assess their scope and diversity. The results obtained demonstrate a robust method for membrane enrichment enabling consistent MS based characterisation of > 900 RBC membrane proteins in single LC-MS/MS analyses. Non-detergent based membrane solubilisation methods using the tissue and supernatant fractions of isolated ghost membranes are shown to offer effective haemoglobin removal as well as diverse recovery including erythrocyte membrane proteins of high and low abundance. The methods described in this manuscript propose a medium to high throughput framework for membrane proteome profiling by LC-MS of potential applicability to larger clinical cohorts in a variety of disease contexts.

  4. Application of the new International Code of Practice for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology to conventional exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Gonzalez, A.; Cardenas Herrera, J.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Machado, A.; Mora Machado, R. de la

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the recent years, a policy for updating and installation of the X-ray equipment, specialized as well as conventional, have been carrying out, in Cuba. Conventional equipment has reached almost the whole primary level. Considering this situation, the quality control programs and clinical dosimetry have become even more important. Regarding the last one, an International Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology had been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in order to been used as a guide and to standardize the methodologies used to evaluate the patient exposure in radiodiagnostic. Taken into consideration the above reasons, an assessment of the aforementioned code of practice was done in order to choose the most feasible methodology to implement in the country. The evaluation was performed considering the lack of dosimetric equipment and medical physicists in this practice, in the interests of increasing the measurements scope to a large number of services as well as to standardize the methodology on a national scale. The present work shows the results obtained from the application of the new code of practice to conventional radiology exams in some medical institutions. Out of 3 on patients measurements methodologies described in the code of practice, the one of measurement of the incident air kerma was chosen. This methodology allow to the physicist to focus on the diagnostic equipment tests and to delegate the collection of the patient and exposure parameters data to the technicians, which make the increased of the patient and diagnostic departments sample, possible. The measurements were carried out in 2 hospital of the capital. The exams involved in the assessments were thorax PA, lumbar spine AP and lumbar spine LAT. In every diagnostic service, 25 patients were chosen on each projection. The weight and height average of the patient sample were 68 kg and 167 cm respectively. In the assessment were considered only

  5. The development and application practice of neglected tidal energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li-qun; Liu, Chun-xia; Sun, Zhi-yi; Han, Ru-cheng [Department of Electronic and Information, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, 030024 Taiyuan, Shanxi Province (China)

    2011-02-15

    Along the eastcoasts of China are large bodies of water, China has abundant ocean energy resource, such as the theory reserves of tidal resource is about 0.2 billion kW, as early as 1958, Jizhou tidal power station is the first tidal power station in China, which built in Shunde, Guangdong province, and more than 40 small tidal power stations are built in east coastal region in 1960s, and the total installed capacity is about 0.5 MW. But it is a pity, the application and development of tidal energy has not been regarded by the government and ordinary people due to the investment of power plant is big and the technology is not mature, so there are only several small tidal power stations in China, and Jiangxia tidal power station with an installed capacity of 3.2 MW is the most famous. Fortunately, with the rapid development of Chinese economic and society, the renewable and sustainable energy have been regarded by Chinese government, and the application and development of wind energy and solar energy is increasing in an incredible speed, and more and more specialists began to regard the application of tidal energy, and they thought that tidal energy can relieve the energy stress of east coastal region, and many layout of tidal energy exploitation is unfold in recently. This paper discusses the distribution zone and current developmental situation of tidal energy in China. Then, some application practice is described, such as tidal power station and tidal stream turbine. The policies and law of China central government and local governments are described in the following paragraph. At the end, the developmental prospect of tidal energy in future China and the development barriers and recommendations are introduced, respectively. (author)

  6. Consideration of the environmental effects on fatigue behavior of austenitic components. Calculation methods and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seichter, Johannes; Reese, Sven H.; Klucke, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    During the last years environmental effects on the fatigue behavior of nuclear power plant components has worldwide been discussed controversial with respect to the transferability of laboratory data on real components. A publication from Argonne National Laboratory on experimental results concerning environmental effects (air and LWR coolant) on fatigue of austenitic steels included a proposal on calculation methods concerning the lifetime reduction due to environmental effects. This calculation method, i.e. multiplication of the usage factor by a F(en), has been included into the ASME Code, Section III, Division I, as Code Case N-792 (fatigue evaluations including environmental effects). The presented contribution evaluates the practical application of this calculation procedure and demonstrates the determination of the usage factor of an austenitic component under environmental exposure.

  7. 6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Luscombe, Nicholas; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Rodríguez, Juan; Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics

    2012-01-01

    The growth in the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology fields over the last few years has been remarkable.. The analysis of the datasets of Next Generation Sequencing needs new algorithms and approaches from fields such as Databases, Statistics, Data Mining, Machine Learning, Optimization, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Also Systems Biology has also been emerging as an alternative to the reductionist view that dominated biological research in the last decades. This book presents the results of the  6th International Conference on Practical Applications of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics held at University of Salamanca, Spain, 28-30th March, 2012 which brought together interdisciplinary scientists that have a strong background in the biological and computational sciences.

  8. Application of the GRAPPA psoriatic arthritis treatment recommendations in clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mumtaz, Aizad

    2012-02-01

    Psoriatic disease presents with a complex array of clinical features, including peripheral synovitis and skin psoriasis, but there is also variable involvement of the nail, dactylitis, enthesitis, and spinal disease. Composite assessment of disease activity and response taking into account the impact of the disease as a whole on an individual\\'s health and quality of life is of vital importance. Following an extensive literature review, discussions, and consensus, the Group for Research in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) published guidelines to help clinicians make treatment decisions. The utility of these guidelines in routine clinical practice is further enhanced by incorporating them into a Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index (CPDAI). The potential application of the CPDAI in typical psoriatic disease patients is presented and discussed. Validation and possible modification of a composite disease activity and responder index is currently being undertaken by GRAPPA.

  9. A rigorous pole representation of multilevel cross sections and its practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    In this article a rigorous method for representing the multilevel cross sections and its practical applications are described. It is a generalization of the rationale suggested by de Saussure and Perez for the s-wave resonances. A computer code WHOPPER has been developed to convert the Reich-Moore parameters into the pole and residue parameters in momentum space. Sample calculations have been carried out to illustrate that the proposed method preserves the rigor of the Reich-Moore cross sections exactly. An analytical method has been developed to evaluate the pertinent Doppler-broadened line shape functions. A discussion is presented on how to minimize the number of pole parameters so that the existing reactor codes can be best utilized

  10. Advanced Practice Nursing Committee on Process Improvement in Trauma: An Innovative Application of the Strong Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sarah Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to summarize the successes and future implications for a nurse practitioner-driven committee on process improvement in trauma. The trauma nurse practitioner is uniquely positioned to recognize the need for clinical process improvement and enact change within the clinical setting. Application of the Strong Model of Advanced Practice proves to actively engage the trauma nurse practitioner in process improvement initiatives. Through enhancing nurse practitioner professional engagement, the committee aims to improve health care delivery to the traumatically injured patient. A retrospective review of the committee's first year reveals trauma nurse practitioner success in the domains of direct comprehensive care, support of systems, education, and leadership. The need for increased trauma nurse practitioner involvement has been identified for the domains of research and publication.

  11. Practical Application of Site-Specific Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Katsuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The development of an on-site warning system was reported. This system improves the timing of warnings and reduces the number of false alarms by improving the method of estimating the JMA seismic intensity using earthquake early warning system information based on site-specific data. Moreover, the development of an application for practical use in a construction company and an integrated system for realizing system shutdown was also reported. The concept of this system is based on the following. Seismic intensity is not distributed concentrically, and the attenuation relationship cannot explain the distribution of seismic intensity precisely. The standard method of seismic intensity prediction is construed as 'attenuation relationship + soil amplification factor', but this may be improved in the reformulation 'original attenuation relationship for each site + correction factors dependent on the epicenter location and depth' using a seismic intensity database that includes data on recent and historical earthquakes. (authors)

  12. Fuzzy hierarchical model for risk assessment principles, concepts, and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Hing Kai

    2013-01-01

    Risk management is often complicated by situational uncertainties and the subjective preferences of decision makers. Fuzzy Hierarchical Model for Risk Assessment introduces a fuzzy-based hierarchical approach to solve risk management problems considering both qualitative and quantitative criteria to tackle imprecise information.   This approach is illustrated through number of case studies using examples from the food, fashion and electronics sectors to cover a range of applications including supply chain management, green product design and green initiatives. These practical examples explore how this method can be adapted and fine tuned to fit other industries as well.   Supported by an extensive literature review, Fuzzy Hierarchical Model for Risk Assessment  comprehensively introduces a new method for project managers across all industries as well as researchers in risk management.

  13. Solvent extraction and its practical application for the recovery of copper and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.

    1975-01-01

    In recent years solvent extraction has been developed to a stage that allows practical application first for the recovery of uranium and later also for winning copper from low-grade acid-soluble ores. By now it has been realized in several plants with great technical and ecomomic success. Solvent extraction includes the following essential operations: leaching, solvent extraction, back extraction of the organically bonded valuable mineral to an acid, aqueous solution and finally separation of the valuable metal from the final acid by precipitation or electrolytic procedures. Upon assessing the cost of the solvent extraction process for the recovery of copper it turns out that from an economic point of view it is significantly superior to the conventional cementation process. (orig.) [de

  14. Ultrasonic inspection technology development and search units design examples of practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, Mark V

    2012-01-01

    "Ultrasonic testing is a relatively new branch of science and industry. The development of ultrasonic testing started in the late 1920s. At the beginning, the fundamentals of this method were borrowed from basic physics, geometrical and wave optics, acoustics and seismology. Later it became clear that some of these theories and calculation methods could not always explain the phenomena observed in many specific cases of ultrasonic testing. Without knowing the nuances of the ultrasonic wave propagation in the test object it is impossible to design effective inspection technique and search units for it realization. This book clarifies the theoretical differences of ultrasonics from the other wave propagation theories presenting both basics of physics in the wave propagation, elementary mathematic and advanced practical applications. Almost every specific technique presented in this book is proofed by actual experimental data and examples of calculations"--

  15. Practical applications of the R6 leak-before-break procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    A forthcoming revision to the R6 Leak-before-Break Assessment Procedure is briefly described. Practical application of the LbB concepts to safety-critical nuclear plant is illustrated by examples covering both low temperature and high temperature (>450 degrees C) operating regimes. The examples highlight a number of issues which can make the development of a satisfactory LbB case problematic: for example, coping with highly loaded components, methodology assumptions and the definition of margins, the effect of crack closure owing to weld residual stresses, complex thermal stress fields or primary bending fields, the treatment of locally high stresses at crack intersections with free surfaces, the choice of local limit load solution when predicting ligament breakthrough, and the scope of calculations required to support even a simplified LbB case for high temperature steam pipe-work systems

  16. Practical applications of the R6 leak-before-break procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, P.J.

    1997-04-01

    A forthcoming revision to the R6 Leak-before-Break Assessment Procedure is briefly described. Practical application of the LbB concepts to safety-critical nuclear plant is illustrated by examples covering both low temperature and high temperature (>450{degrees}C) operating regimes. The examples highlight a number of issues which can make the development of a satisfactory LbB case problematic: for example, coping with highly loaded components, methodology assumptions and the definition of margins, the effect of crack closure owing to weld residual stresses, complex thermal stress fields or primary bending fields, the treatment of locally high stresses at crack intersections with free surfaces, the choice of local limit load solution when predicting ligament breakthrough, and the scope of calculations required to support even a simplified LbB case for high temperature steam pipe-work systems.

  17. Practical Application of Art. 9 OECD Model Convention: the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All transfer prices determined between the associated enterprises must comply with the arm’s length principle. The arm’s length principle for associated enterprises is mentioned in Art. 9(1 of the OECD Model Convention, which was also adopted by the OECD Member states into their national law. However, not all OECD Member states adopted the next part of Art. 9, namely Art. 9(2, with the same way, some of them, like the Czech Republic, entered a reservation on Art. 9 (2 OECD Model Convention. In this paper the practical application of Art. 9 is analyzed from the point of view of the Czech Ministry of Finance, where the corresponding adjustment and time-limit issue are highlighted. On the basis of the results of analysis, where the history, context and purpose of Art. 9 OECD Model Convention have to be taken into account, are made some recommendations.

  18. Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering Robust Techniques for Forecasting, Trading and Hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Iba, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Practical Applications of Evolutionary Computation to Financial Engineering” presents the state of the art techniques in Financial Engineering using recent results in Machine Learning and Evolutionary Computation. This book bridges the gap between academics in computer science and traders and explains the basic ideas of the proposed systems and the financial problems in ways that can be understood by readers without previous knowledge on either of the fields. To cement the ideas discussed in the book, software packages are offered that implement the systems described within. The book is structured so that each chapter can be read independently from the others. Chapters 1 and 2 describe evolutionary computation. The third chapter is an introduction to financial engineering problems for readers who are unfamiliar with this area. The following chapters each deal, in turn, with a different problem in the financial engineering field describing each problem in detail and focusing on solutions based on evolutio...

  19. How Can We See the Corporate Social Responsibility within Its Application in Business Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Ubrežiová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, CSR along with other social issues (such as corporate philanthropy and social enterprise has become one of the key business trends all over the world. Companies have begun to realize certain commitment to society and its values, and have understood the importance of their contribution into social, environmental and economic issues. Globally, CSR is considered as narrower part of international business ethics and with regard to accession of multinational companies as well as small and medium sized enterprises, and its importance is increasing. Many of those companies perceive CSR as the factor increasing their competitiveness in the business environment. From this point of view, we stated the main goal of submitted article like the evaluation how can we see the corporate social responsibility within its application in business practice. For the evaluation, we used the material, which consists from primary data and secondary data. All data were elaborated by the statistical methods. The main part of this article includes the description of the questionnaire evaluation including tables, graphs and statistical evaluation of our three set research hypotheses. In conclusion, we evaluate the overall results of our practical research and propose recommendations for the future. The research results show how the interviewed people in the company have been evaluated according to the characteristics, benefits, reasons and consideration of CSR.

  20. Smartphone applications for communicating avalanche risk information - a review of existing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, M. K. M.; Bogaard, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Every year, in all mountainous regions, people are victims of avalanches. One way to decrease those losses is believed to be informing about danger levels. The paper presents a study on current practices in the development of smartphones applications that are dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The analysis based on semi-structured interviews with developers of smartphone apps highlights the context of their development, how choices of content and visualization were made as well as how their effectiveness is evaluated. It appears that although the communicators agree on the message to disseminate, its representation triggers debate. Moreover, only simple evaluation processes are conducted but there is a clear awareness that further scientific efforts are needed to analyze the effectiveness of the smartphone apps. Finally, the current or planned possibility for non-experts users to report feedback on the snow and avalanches conditions open the doors to a transition of these apps from one-way communication tools to two-ways communication platforms. This paper also indicates the remaining challenges that avalanche risk communication is facing, although it is disputably the most advanced and standardized practice compared to other natural hazards. Therefore, this research is of interest for the entire field of natural hazards related risk communication.

  1. M.Y.S.P.A.C.E. : Multinational Youth Studying Practical Applications of Climatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, M.; Arvedson, J. P.; Arvedson, P.

    2014-12-01

    M.Y. S.P.A.C.E. (Multinational Youth Studying Practical Applications of Climatic Events) is an international collaboration of high school students engaged in self-selected research projects on the local impact of global environmental issues. Students work with their own, trained, Teacher Leaders at their school sites using both locally generated and satellite-based remote-sensing data with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Teams from each school meet at the annual Satellites & Education Conference to discover global trends in their collective data and present their findings. Students learn and practice techniques of scientific investigation; methods of data processing, analysis and interpretation; leadership; and effective communication. They work with NOAA and NASA scientists and engineers, experience university campus life, and can apply for special internships at selected university research centers such as the Center for Energy and Sustainability (CE&S), the Center for Spatial Analysis and Remote Sensing (CSARS), and graduate research opportunities in Geosciences and Environment. The M.Y. S.P.A.C.E. Program is an initiative of the Satellites & Education Conference, which is produced by the non-profit Satellite Educators Association. It is administered from the campus of California State University, Los Angeles. NOAA, NASA, and the NOAA-CREST West grant support the program. It is aligned with NOAA goals of building excitement about careers in science, math, engineering and technology.

  2. Application of X-rays to dental age estimation in medico-legal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The paper addresses the use of dental age assessment methods based on radiographs in medico-legal practice. Different cases of practical application of the methods are presented including identification of human remains, dental age assessment in a living person and one archaeological case. Material and methods : The study material consisted of cases involving dental age assessment performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. Depending on the preliminary assessment of age, the Liversidge or the Kvaal et al. methods were applied. Dental age was estimated on the basis of available pantomograms. In the case of the living person, it was a radiograph supplied for expert evaluation. In the other cases, dental computed tomography was performed. Results : Dental age was successfully estimated in all of the cases. Various methods based on the analysis of X-ray images were applied. Dental age was shown to be correlated with skeletal age. Conclusions : The methods based on radiographs were demonstrated to be useful, and the results they yield are fully correlated with results of anthropological analyses.

  3. Experimental sea slicks: Their practical applications and utilization for basic studies of air-sea interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Garrett, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Practical applications of organic surface films added to the sea surface date back to ancient times. Aristotle, Plutarch, and Pliny the Elder describe the seaman's practice of calming waves in a storm by pouring oil onto the sea [Scott, 1977]. It was also noted that divers released oil beneath the water surface so that it could rise and spread over the sea surface, thereby suppressing the irritating flicker associated with the passage of light through a rippled surface. From a scientific point of view, Benjamin Franklin was the first to perform experiments with oils on natural waters. His experiment with a `teaspoonful of oil' on Clapham pond in 1773 inspired many investigators to consider sea surface phenomena or to conduct experiments with oil films. This early research has been reviewed by Giles [1969], Giles and Forrester [1970], and Scott [1977]. Franklin's studies with experimental slicks can be regarded as the beginning of surface film chemistry. His speculations on the wave damping influence of oil induced him to perform the first qualitative experiment with artificial sea slicks at Portsmouth (England) in October of 1773. Although the sea was calmed and very few white caps appeared in the oil-covered area, the swell continued through the oiled area to Franklin's great disappointment.

  4. The Omaha system and meaningful use: applications for practice, education, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen S; Monsen, Karen A; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful use has become ubiquitous in the vocabulary of health information technology. It suggests that better healthcare does not result from the adoption of technology and electronic health records, but by increasing interoperability and informing clinical decisions at the point of care. Although the initial application of meaningful use was limited to eligible professionals and hospitals, it incorporates complex processes and workflow that involve all nurses, other healthcare practitioners, and settings. The healthcare community will become more integrated, and interdisciplinary practitioners will provide enhanced patient-centered care if electronic health records adopt the priorities of meaningful use. Standardized terminologies are a necessary component of such electronic health records. The Omaha System is an exemplar of a standardized terminology that enables meaningful use of clinical data to support and improve patient-centered clinical practice, education, and research. It is user-friendly, generates data that can be shared with patients and their families, and enables healthcare providers to analyze and exchange patient-centered coded data. Use of the Omaha System is increasing steadily in diverse practice, education, and research settings nationally and internationally.

  5. Surgical Safety in Pediatrics: practical application of the Pediatric Surgical Safety Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula de Oliveira Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to assess the practical application of the Pediatric Surgical Safety Checklist on the preoperative period and to verify family satisfaction regarding the use of the material. Method: exploratory study that aimed to analyze the use of the checklist by children who underwent surgical interventions. The sample was constituted by 60 children (from preschoolers to teens and 60 family members. The variables related to demographic characterization, filling out the checklist, and family satisfaction, being evaluated through inferential and descriptive statistical analysis. Results: most children (71.7% were male, with a median age of 7.5 years. We identified the achievement of 65.3% of the checklist items, 30.0% were not filled due to non-performance of the team and 4.7% for children and family reasons. In the association analysis, we found that the removal of accessories item (p = 0.008 was the most checked by older children. Regarding satisfaction, the family members evaluated the material as great (63.3% and good (36.7% and believed that there was a reduction of the child's anxiety (83.3%. Conclusion: the use of the checklist in clinical practice can change health services regarding safety culture and promote customer satisfaction.

  6. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF EXCLUSIVE AND INCLUSIVE TALENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY IN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Savanevičienė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the practical application of exclusive and inclusive talent management strategies in order to form and maintain a competitive human resource potential of the company. The features of both exclusive and inclusive talent management strategies were defined and their practical appication in companies of various Lithuaniam industries was studied. The input from the respondents suggests that major companies prefer the inclusive talent management strategy, rather than exclusive. Summing up all the research results, the following conclusions were formulated: the features characteristic to inclusive talent management strategy dominate in the companies of manufacturing, banking, catering, consulting, trade, energy, transport, and agribusiness industries. In the company of technology industry, features of a mixed (having both exclusive and inclusive talent management strategy are apparent. The company in the construction-engineering industry has the dominating features of exclusive talent management strategy. Inclusive talent management strategy responds to the principles of human potential development-oriented expression and is an important message for the formulation of further insight into talent management, based on the use of internal potential.

  7. Best Practice Guidelines for the Use of CFD in Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications - Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.; Chung, B.; Song, C.; Dubois, F.; Graffard, E.; Ducros, F.; Heitsch, M.; Scheuerer, M.; Henriksson, M.; Komen, E.; Moretti, F.; Morii, T.; Muehlbauer, P.; Rohde, U.; Smith, B.L.; Watanabe, T.; Zigh, G.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended to provide an internally complete set of guidelines for a range of single phase applications of CFD to NRS problems. However, it is not meant to be comprehensive. We recognize that for any specific application a higher level of specificity is possible on questions of nodalization, model selection, and validation. This document should provide direct guidance on the key considerations in known single phase applications, and general directions for resolving remaining details. After review of other Best Practice Guidelines, and discussion with many CFD practitioners and developers, we have assembled guidance covering a fully verified and validated NRS analysis. The document begins with a summary of NRS related CFD analysis in countries represented by the authors, to give a feeling for the existing range of experience. Some key terminology in the field is defined in the field. These definitions are not meant simply for novices, but also provide experienced users with an understanding of how some terms (e.g. verification and validation) are used within this document. Chapter 3 deals with definition of the problem and its solution approach. This includes isolation of the portion of the NRS problem most in need of CFD, and use of a classic thermal-hydraulic (TH) safety code to provide boundary conditions for the CFD based upon less detailed simulation of the balance of plant. The chapter discusses the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process, which identifies phenomena critical to the problem, provides a basis for selection of an appropriate simulation tool, and establishes the foundation for the validation process needed for confidence in final results. The chapter also discusses theory and modelling needs associated with a number of special phenomena important to NRS but not commonly modelled in the CFD community. Chapter 5 discusses selection of physical models available as user options. As is appropriate for single phase CFD

  8. Interaction of erythrocytes and hexavalent uranium compounds -an autoanalytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, W.I.; Shying, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    An automated analytical system was devised to measure the kinetics of hemolysis by uranyl compounds. Accurate plots of percentage hemolysis v. time were obtained; these, together with the corresponding differential curves, show that hemolysis of plasma-free erythrocytes is a two-stage process. The first stage of hemolysis is particularly affected by pH and anion content of uranyl solutions, and also by incubation of cell suspensions at 37 deg. before mixing with lysing solution. Complementary studies involving Coulter counting and microscopic observation established the general pattern of hemolysis and showed that cell agglutination is a prominent feature of the interaction of cells with uranyl solutions

  9. Age-dependent effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on the membrane fluidity of human erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Eugenia; Savopol, Tudor; Pologea-Moraru, Roxana; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    1997-12-01

    The low power He-Ne laser radiation has been extensively used in past decades as medical device to relieve pain, accelerate wound healing as well as aiming beam in invisible laser beam in invisible laser beam applications. It is not known however if there are any secondary, undesirable effects of He-Ne laser radiation on the irradiated tissue. In this paper we investigate the changes induced in membrane fluidity of human erythrocyte during/upon the interaction with the He-Ne laser beam having the parameters currently used for target aiming in laser surgery.

  10. Decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in elderly men with early nuclear cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rose

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Imbalance between oxidative processes and antioxidant defenses has been considered to play a role in cataractogenesis, particularly in diabetes patients. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is an important precursor for oxidative stress in the human lens, and its activity is mainly dependent on the copper and zinc levels in the body. The aim of this study was to compare erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc and total serum testosterone levels in male patients with early senile nuclear cataract and evaluate the correlations between the parameters in all subjects. METHODS A community-based study of cross-sectional design was conducted at Cilandak District Primary Health Center where 52 adult and 17 elderly men with early senile nuclear cataract were chosen as the study subjects. Erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone, and fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured in all subjects. Nuclear cataract stage was assessed with the Pentacam® instrument (Oculus, Germany. Independent Student t test and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze the results. RESULTS Erythrocyte SOD level was significantly decreased in elderly men compared to adult men (p=0.014. Erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone and FBG did not differ significantly in adult and elderly males (at p=0.304; p=0.145;and p=0.376, respectively. Erythrocyte SOD activity was significantly associated with erythrocyte zinc level (r=0.486; p=0.048. CONCLUSIONS Lower erythrocyte SOD activity was found in elderly males than in adult males with early nuclear cataract. There was a relationship between erythrocyte SOD and erythrocyte zinc level in elderly males with early nuclear cataract.

  11. Decreased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in elderly men with early nuclear cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Imbalance between oxidative processes and antioxidant defenses has been considered to play a role in cataractogenesis, particularly in diabetes patients. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is an important precursor for oxidative stress in the human lens, and its activity is mainly dependent on the copper and zinc levels in the body. The aim of this study was to compare erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc and total serum testosterone levels in male patients with early senile nuclear cataract and evaluate the correlations between the parameters in all subjects. METHODS A community-based study of cross-sectional design was conducted at Cilandak District Primary Health Center where 52 adult and 17 elderly men with early senile nuclear cataract were chosen as the study subjects. Erythrocyte SOD, erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone, and fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured in all subjects. Nuclear cataract stage was assessed with the Pentacam® instrument (Oculus, Germany. Independent Student t test and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze the results. RESULTS Erythrocyte SOD level was significantly decreased in elderly men compared to adult men (p=0.014. Erythrocyte zinc, serum testosterone and FBG did not differ significantly in adult and elderly males (at p=0.304; p=0.145;and p=0.376, respectively. Erythrocyte SOD activity was significantly associated with erythrocyte zinc level (r=0.486; p=0.048. CONCLUSIONS Lower erythrocyte SOD activity was found in elderly males than in adult males with early nuclear cataract. There was a relationship between erythrocyte SOD and erythrocyte zinc level in elderly males with early nuclear cataract.

  12. Nursing Models: Application to practice Alan Pearson , Barbara Vaughan and Mary Fitzgerald Nursing Models: Application to Practice Quay Books £24.99 280pp [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    AT A time when evidence-based practice is the predominant nursing model, the authors of this book want to interest academics and practitioners in models that were in vogue in the Uk in the 1980s and 1990s.

  13. [Genomic selection of milk cattle. The practical application over five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaragdov, M G

    2013-11-01

    Genomic selection is a method based on the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as markers for detecting animal or plant genotype values. The review describes the genomic selection of milk cattle 5 years after the design of dense SNP chips. References to the application of genomic selection to other animal and plant species are given. The main principles of constructing linear and nonlinear mathematical models that allow one to determine genomic estimates in animals are briefly described. Particular attention is focused on the accuracy and the phenomenon of the additivity ofgenomic estimates, as well as to the prospective use of various genomic selection schemes that consider it over dozens of generations. Information including international organizations that provide the consolidation of genomic information from different countries aimed at designing global reference populations of milk cattle is reported. The results of the practical application of genomic selection to detecting of the breeding value of milk cattle over 5 years are demonstrated in the table, which makes it possible to visually assess the achievements of this highly technological field of cattle breeding.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9 in insects: Applications, best practices and biosafety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taning, Clauvis Nji Tizi; Van Eynde, Benigna; Yu, Na; Ma, Sanyuan; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-04-01

    Discovered as a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated) is being developed as an attractive tool in genome editing. Due to its high specificity and applicability, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing has been employed in a multitude of organisms and cells, including insects, for not only fundamental research such as gene function studies, but also applied research such as modification of organisms of economic importance. Despite the rapid increase in the use of CRISPR in insect genome editing, results still differ from each study, principally due to existing differences in experimental parameters, such as the Cas9 and guide RNA form, the delivery method, the target gene and off-target effects. Here, we review current reports on the successes of CRISPR/Cas9 applications in diverse insects and insect cells. We furthermore summarize several best practices to give a useful checklist of CRISPR/Cas9 experimental setup in insects for beginners. Lastly, we discuss the biosafety concerns related to the release of CRISPR/Cas9-edited insects into the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in Bandwidth-Demanding Mission-Critical Applications: Practical Implementation Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2016-09-28

    There has been recently a growing trend of using live video feeds in mission-critical applications. Real-time video streaming from front-end personnel or mobile agents is believed to substantially improve situational awareness in mission-critical operations such as disaster relief, law enforcement, and emergency response. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) is a natural contender in such contexts. However, classical MANET routing schemes fall short in terms of scalability, bandwidth and latency; all three metrics being quite essential for mission-critical applications. As such, autonomous cooperative routing (ACR) has gained traction as the most viable MANET proposition. Nonetheless, ACR is also associated with a few implementation challenges. If they go unaddressed, will deem ACR practically useless. In this paper, efficient and low-complexity remedies to those issues are presented, analyzed, and validated. The validation is based on field experiments carried out using software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Compared to classical MANET routing schemes, ACR was shown to offer up to 2X better throughput, more than 4X reduction in end-to-end latency, while observing a given target of transport rate normalized to energy consumption.

  16. Practical application of fracture mechanics with consideration of multiaxiality of stress state to degraded nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Blind, D.; Herter, K.H.; Eisele, U.; Schuler, X.

    1995-01-01

    Within the scope of a research project nuclear piping components (T-branches and elbows) with dimensions like the primary coolant lines of PWR plants were investigated. In addition to the experimental full scale tests, extensive numerical calculations by means of the finite element method (FEM) as well as fracture mechanics analyses were performed. The applicability of these methods was verified by comparison with the experimental results. The calculation of fracture mechanics parameters as well as the calculated component stress enabled a statement on crack initiation. The failure behavior could be evaluated by means of the multiaxiality of stress state in the ligament (gradient of the quotient of the multiaxiality of stress state q). With respect to practical application on other pressurized components it is shown how to use the procedure (e.g. in a LBB analysis). A quantitative assessment with regard to crack initiation is possible by comparison of the effective crack initiation value J ieff with the calculated component stress. If the multiaxiality of stress state and the q gradient in the ligament of the fracture ligament of the fracture mechanics specimen and the pressurized component to be evaluated is comparable a quantitative assessment is possible as for crack extension and maximum load. If there is no comparability of the gradients a qualitative assessment is possible for the failure behavior

  17. Practices and developments in spent fuel burnup credit applications. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical committee Meeting on Requirements, Practices and Developments in Burnup Credit (BUC) Applications in Madrid, Spain, from 22 to 26 April 2002. The purpose of this meeting was to explore the progress and status of international activities related to the BUC applications for spent nuclear fuel. This meeting was the third major meeting on the uses of BUC for spent fuel management systems held since the IAEA began to monitor the uses of BUC in spent fuel management systems in 1997. The first major meeting was an Advisory Group meeting (AGM), which was held in Vienna, in October 1997. The second major meeting was a technical committee meeting (TCM), which was held in Vienna, in July 2000. Several consultants meetings were held since 1997 to advise and assist the IAEA in planning and conducting its BUC activities. The proceedings of the 1997 AGM were published as IAEA-TECDOC-1013, and the proceedings of the 2000 TCM as IAEA-TECDOC-1241. BUC for wet and dry storage systems, spent fuel transport, reprocessing and final disposal is needed in many Member States to allow for increased enrichment, and to increase storage capacities, cask capacities and dissolver capacities avoiding the need for extensive modifications. The use of BUC is a necessity for spent fuel disposal.

  18. Practice of Dapagliflozin Application in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Shkala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of using new antihyperglycemic drug — a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 — dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The influence of this drug on the effectiveness of glycemic control, blood pressure level, lipid profile, body weight has been analyzed, compliance has been assessed. According to the practice of dapagliflozin application in the combination antidiabetic therapy, the drug is easy to use, provides sufficient glycemic control (significant decrease in glycated hemoglobin by an average of 0.98 %, reduces body weight in the presence of obesity or overweight (a decrease in the body mass index by an average of 1.78 kg/m2, has a positive effect on blood pressure, has no significant effect on the correction of dyslipidemia in the presence of transient adverse reactions in some women in the form of cystitis and vulvovaginitis, does not require discontinuation of treatment. Application of dapagliflozin in combination hypoglycemic therapy in patients with diabetes type 2 is suitable for achieving compensation.

  19. Re-enactment of the Radiation Protection ordinance - explanations for its application in practice. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.; Bischof, W.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Association (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz) decided to publish explanations for the practical application of the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance, if possible immediately at the time of promulgation. The purpose of this publication is to provide as many advice seekers as possible with whatever information they need for their purposes. The material has therefore been divided into chapters each dedicated to a specific user group. Dedicated chapters containing all the important information for the respective target group have been provided for hospitals and physicians, general and special applications of ionising radiation in industry and trade, companies that perform services in areas or installations exposed to radiation, nuclear power plants and companies affected by the new protective regulations concerning natural radiation. These chapters are supplemented with contributions on generic topics such as the principles of radiation protection, new developments in dosimetry, transport and storage of radioactive substances, expertise and instruction and qualification approval. The section on general topics is rounded off by the transitory regulations, which are crucially important

  20. Development of a personal digital assistant-based wireless application in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Cheng; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Tsai, Ming-Dar; Chang, Hang; Chong, Chee-Fah

    2007-02-01

    Our study aims to develop a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based wireless application in medical information processing by using Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11b wireless standards and SyncML codes. In this study, an "integrated database access module" is used to provide a unified integrated access interface while consistency of wireless data transmission is achieved by using the standardized SyncML protocol. A prototype of the system has been developed, implemented, and tested for its mobility, usability, stability, and performance with questionnaire survey. Response time for browsing/searching was usually less than 3s. The average time intervals needed for data transmissions were 68.6+/-8.5s for Bluetooth and 47.0+/-4.8s for 802.11b. The five-point Likert scale (from 1=least to 5=most) questionnaire survey of 30 medical professionals yielded a high degree of satisfaction with the system's mobility (4.18+/-0.89), usability (4.69+/-0.90), stability (3.81+/-0.94), and performance (3.97+/-0.88). The results of our study suggested that PDA applications which exploit wireless communication are convenient and feasible in clinical practice.

  1. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems.

  2. Practical applications of age-dependent reliability models and analysis of operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Nitoi, M.; Backstrom, O.; Burgazzi, L.; Couallier, V.; Nikulin, M.; Derode, A.; Rodionov, A.; Atwood, C.; Fradet, F.; Antonov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Choi, S.Y.; Starr, F.; Dawson, J.; Palmen, H.; Clerjaud, L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to present the experience of practical application of time-dependent reliability models. The program of the workshop comprises the following sessions: -) aging management and aging PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), -) modeling, -) operation experience, and -) accelerating aging tests. In order to introduce time aging effect of particular component to the PSA model, it has been proposed to use the constant unavailability values on the short period of time (one year for example) calculated on the basis of age-dependent reliability models. As for modeling, it appears that the problem of too detailed statistical models for application is the lack of data for required parameters. As for operating experience, several methods of operating experience analysis have been presented (algorithms for reliability data elaboration and statistical identification of aging trend). As for accelerated aging tests, it is demonstrated that a combination of operating experience analysis with the results of accelerated aging tests of naturally aged equipment could provide a good basis for continuous operation of instrumentation and control systems

  3. Smart Materials in Architecture: Useful Tools with Practical Applications or Fascinating Inventions for Experimental Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarzewska, Bogusława

    2017-10-01

    For at least several decades smart or so-called intelligent materials, being the result of great advancements in material engineering, appear in architecture in different applications. Most of them are called “smart” because of their inherent properties: a real-time response to environmental stimuli. There are also those considered to be “smart” due to smart design: their original structure or the composition of their materials are in nanoscale, providing them with unique properties. Colour changes, physical states, temperature or shape-always repeatable and reversible - make these materials attractive to architects, both from a visual and a practical point of view. Their spectacular applications often inspire architects, scientists and artists to create, for instance, city displays revealing various shapes and figures according to daily weather conditions; thermochromics urban seats that reflect peoples’ presence; wallpaper with organic patterns that glow in darkness, and many others. On the other hand, more practical projects are being developed, such as “switchable” partition glass walls (that is, we can turn them on and they change their transparency while switching on or off: electrochromic glass is a good example). Other concepts include self-cleaning building envelopes; self-repairing concrete; phase-changing materials diminishing cooling loads in the buildings; energy-generating highways; materials that harden at the moment of impact thus withstanding exceptionally great forces; shape memory alloys playing the role of actuators-opening and - closing façade louvers or thin polymer films mimicking the function of living skin, adopted as a building envelope. All those projects result from the fascination of designers with the possibility to create materials and, in effect, a complex environment that is active, “flexible”, and adapts to changing conditions and users’ needs and is compatible with real, natural environments. Smart materials

  4. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  5. 2015 Special Sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Josefa; Mathieu, Philippe; Campbell, Andrew; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Moreno, María; Julián, Vicente; Alonso-Betanzos, Amparo; Jiménez-López, María; Botti, Vicente; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems and Sustainability : the PAAMS Collection

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2015 special sessions of the 13th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, held at University of Salamanca, Spain, at 3rd-5th June, 2015: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and Recommender systems (WebMiRes); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Agent-based Modeling of Sustainable Behavior and Green Economies (AMSBGE); Emotional Software Agents (SSESA) and Intelligent Educational Systems (SSIES). The volume also includes the paper accepted for the Doctoral Consortium in PAAMS 2015. PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest develo...

  6. Anemia in chronic renal failure. Ferrokinetic, erythrocytes-survival time and enzymes of erythrocytes on chronic dialysed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkers, K; Jontofson, R; Meuret, G; Blume, K G; Heinze, V [Freie Univ. Berlin (F.R. Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.; Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.; Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Medizinische Poliklinik)

    1975-12-01

    Radio-iron utilization was nearly normal in these patients, only bilateral nephrectomized patients showed a reduced radio-iron utilization. Red blood half-life span was shortened in all patients, well corresponding to the degree of anemia. Parameters of erythropoesis like plasma iron clearance, bone marrow transit time, erythron iron turnover, non-erythron iron turnover and hemolysis iron turnover failed to quantitate disorders of red blood cell regeneration in these patients. No defect in red blood cell enzyme activity could be demonstrated. Enzymes of glycolysis were increased corresponding to the reduced erythrocyte half-life span.

  7. Best Practice Guidelines for the use of CFD in Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.; Chung, B.; Song, C.; Dubois, F.; Graffard, E.; Ducros, F.; Heitsch, M.; Scheuerer, M.; Henriksson, M.; Komen, E.; Moretti, F.; Morii, T.; Muehlbauer, P.; Rohde, U.; Smith, B. L.; Watanabe, T.; Zigh, G.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2002, an 'Exploratory Meeting of Experts to Define an Action Plan on the Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety Problems' was held at Aix-en-Provence, France. One of three recommended actions was the formation of this writing group to report on the need for guidelines for use of CFD in single phase Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS) applications. CSNI approved this writing group at the end of 2002, and work began in March 2003. A final report was submitted to GAMA in September 2004, summarizing existing Best Practice Guidelines (BPG) for CFD, and recommending creation of a BPG document for Nuclear Reactor Safety (NRS) applications. The present document is intended to provide an internally complete set of guidelines for a range of single phase applications of CFD to NRS problems. However, it is not meant to be comprehensive; it is recognized that for any specific application a higher level of specificity is possible on questions of nodalization, model selection, and validation. This document should provide direct guidance on the key considerations in known single phase applications, and general directions for resolving remaining details. The intent is that it will serve as a template for further application specific (e.g. PTS, induced break) BPG documents that will provide much more detailed information and examples. The document begins with a summary of NRS related CFD analysis in countries represented by the authors. Chapter 3 deals with definition of the problem and its solution approach. This includes isolation of the portion of the NRS problem most in need of CFD, and use of a classic thermal hydraulic (TH) safety code to provide boundary conditions for the CFD based upon less detailed simulation of the balance of plant. Chapter 4 provides guidance in choosing between various options, and also discusses use of a transient calculation with tightly coupled CFD and TH codes. Chapter 5 discusses selection of physical

  8. Comparing Theory and Practice: An Application of Complexity Theory to General Ridgway’s Success in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    will face in an uncertain future. Complexity Theory , History, Practice, Military Theory , Leadership 14. SUBJECT TERMS 70 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...complexity theory : scale, adaptive leadership , and bottom up feedback from the agents (the soldiers in the field). These are all key sub components of...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited COMPARING THEORY AND PRACTICE: AN APPLICATION OF COMPLEXITY THEORY TO GENERAL RIDGWAY’S

  9. Lipid bilayer-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles carrying bovine hemoglobin towards an erythrocyte mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jing; Bussmann, Jeroen; Du, Guangsheng; Gao, Yue; Bouwstra, Joke A; Kros, Alexander

    2018-05-30

    Hemoglobin (Hb)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) coated with a lipid bilayer (LB-MSNs) were investigated as an erythrocyte mimic. MSNs with a large average pore size (10 nm) act as a rigid core and provide a protective environment for Hb encapsulated inside the pores. The colloidal stability of Hb-loaded MSNs was enhanced upon the application of a lipid bilayer, through fusion of PEGylated liposomes onto the exterior surface of Hb-loaded MSNs. The morphology and mesostructure of the MSNs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analysis. The Hb loading capacity (mg/g) in MSNs was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy revealed that Hb inside MSNs had an identical, but slightly broadened peak in the Soret region compared to free Hb. Furthermore the encapsulated Hb exhibits similar peroxidase-like activity in catalyzing the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The introduction of a supported lipid bilayer (LB) demonstrated the potential to prevent premature Hb release (the burst release decreased from 25.50 ± 0.33% to 6.73 ± 0.83%) and increased the colloidal stability of the Hb-loaded MSNs (hydrodynamic diameter remained ∼250 nm for at least one week). The in vivo systemic circulation and biodistribution of LB-MSNs were studied in optically transparent zebrafish embryos, revealing that LB-MSNs have the potential to act as an erythrocyte mimic in transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Right Approach in Practice: A Discussion of the Applicability of EFL Writing Practices in a Saudi Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraif, Iman M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the different approaches applied to teaching writing in the L2 context and the way these different methods have been established so far. The perspectives include a product approach, genre approach and process approach. Each has its own merits and objectives for application. Regarding the study context, it may…

  11. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.; Casimirri, F.; Ambrosioni, E.; Melchionda, N.; Labo, G.

    1985-01-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific 86 Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL) with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition

  12. The knocked-out erythrocyte sedimentation rate: periodontal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Alper; Bayindir, Yasar; But, Ayse

    2008-01-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a common but nonspecific test that is often used as an indicator of active disease. Infection of dental origin may be responsible for a number of cases in unresolved elevated ESR and fever etiology. Dental sepsis is the one of the potential causes of persistent fever that can escape detection. An 18-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency room with complaints of headache, fever, nausea, and vomiting for the past four days. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 110 mm/h. She was started empirically on antibiotic treatment as no etiology was found. Four days later, while searching for the etiology of the fever, the patient experienced an acute pain in association with localizing symptoms in two decayed teeth. Oral examination revealed abscess formation in both teeth. Teeth were extracted and ESR was decreased to 95 mm/h on the day of the second extraction and to 60, 35, and 10 mm/h taken weekly. During the follow-up, she was in good health with no fever seen 3 months after treatment and her ESR was 15 mm/h. Dental infection should be considered as an unusual but very treatable cause of pyrexia of unknown origin.

  13. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  14. Physicochemical characterization of artificial nanoerythrosomes derived from erythrocyte ghost membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Róbert; Mihály, Judith; Szigyártó, Imola Cs; Wacha, András; Lelkes, Gábor; Bóta, Attila

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal stabile nanoerythrosomes with 200 nm average diameter were formed from hemoglobin-free erythrocyte ghost membrane via sonication and membrane extrusion. The incorporation of extra lipid (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC), added to the sonicated ghosts, caused significant changes in the thermotropic character of the original membranes. As a result of the increased DPPC ratio the chain melting of the hydrated DPPC system and the characteristic small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of the lipid bilayers appeared. Significant morphological changes were followed by transmission electron microscopy combined with freeze fracture method (FF-TEM). After the ultrasonic treatment the large entities of erythrocyte ghosts transformed into nearly spherical nanoerythrosomes with diameters between 100 and 300 nm and at the same time a great number of 10-30 nm large membrane proteins or protein clusters were dispersed in the aqueous medium. The infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) pointed out, that the sonication did not cause changes in the secondary structures of the membrane proteins under our preparation conditions. About fivefold of extra lipid--compared to the lipid content of the original membrane--caused homogeneous dispersion of nanoerythrosomes however the shape of the vesicles was not uniform. After the addition of about tenfold of DPPC, monoform and monodisperse nanoerythrosomes became typical. The outer surfaces of these roughly spherical objects were frequently polygonal, consisting of a net of pentagons and hexagons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic and erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase activity in liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, R; Ortiz, A; Hernández, R; López, V; Gómez, M M; Mena, P

    1996-09-01

    Hepatic and erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase activity, together with malondialdehyde levels, were determined as indicators of peroxidation in 83 patients from whom liver biopsies had been taken for diagnostic purposes. On histological study, the patients were classified into groups as minimal changes (including normal liver), steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, light to moderately active chronic hepatitis, and severe chronic active hepatitis. The glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes showed no significant changes in any liver disease group. In the hepatic study, an increased activity was observed in steatosis with respect to the minimal changes group, this increased activity induced by the toxic agent in the initial stages of the alcoholic hepatic disease declining as the hepatic damage progressed. There was a negative correlation between the levels of hepatic malondialdehyde and hepatic glutathione peroxidase in subjects with minimal changes. This suggested the existence of an oxidative equilibrium in this group. This equilibrium is broken in the liver disease groups as was manifest in a positive correlation between malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase activity.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion: combining function with immune evasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J Wright

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All the symptoms and pathology of malaria are caused by the intraerythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium parasite life cycle. Because Plasmodium parasites cannot replicate outside a host cell, their ability to recognize and invade erythrocytes is an essential step for both parasite survival and malaria pathogenesis. This makes invasion a conceptually attractive vaccine target, especially because it is one of the few stages when the parasite is directly exposed to the host humoral immune system. This apparent vulnerability, however, has been countered by the parasite, which has evolved sophisticated molecular mechanisms to evade the host immune response so that parasites asymptomatically replicate within immune individuals. These mechanisms include the expansion of parasite invasion ligands, resulting in multiple and apparently redundant invasion "pathways", highly polymorphic parasite surface proteins that are immunologically distinct, and parasite proteins which are poorly immunogenic. These formidable defences have so far thwarted attempts to develop an effective blood-stage vaccine, leading many to question whether there really is an exploitable chink in the parasite's immune evasion defences. Here, we review recent advances in the molecular understanding of the P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion field, discuss some of the challenges that have so far prevented the development of blood-stage vaccines, and conclude that the parasite invasion ligand RH5 represents an essential pinch point that might be vulnerable to vaccination.

  17. Altered erythrocyte Na-K pump in anorectic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquali, R.; Strocchi, E.; Malini, P.; Casimirri, F.; Ambrosioni, E.; Melchionda, N.; Labo, G.

    1985-07-01

    The status of the erythrocyte sodium pump was evaluated in a group of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and a group of healthy female control subjects. Anorectic patients showed significantly higher mean values of digoxin-binding sites/cell (ie, the number of Na-K-ATPase units) with respect to control subjects while no differences were found in the specific /sup 86/Rb uptake (which reflects the Na-K-ATPase activity) between the two groups. A significant correlation was found between relative weight and the number of Na-K-ATPase pump units (r = -0.66; P less than 0.0001). Anorectic patients showed lower serum T3 concentrations (71.3 +/- 53 ng/dL) with respect to control subjects (100.8 +/- 4.7 ng/dL; P less than 0.0005) and a significant negative correlation between T3 levels and the number of pump units (r = -0.52; P less than 0.003) was found. This study therefore shows that the erythrocyte Na-K pump may be altered in several anorectic patients. The authors suggest that this feature could be interrelated with the degree of underweight and/or malnutrition.

  18. Erythrocyte endogenous proteinase activity during blood bank storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, V; de Matteis, M C; Orazi, B M; Santarossa, L; Della Toffola, L; Raineri, A; Vettore, L

    1990-01-01

    We studied proteolytic alterations of membrane proteins in ghosts derived from human red blood cells, preserved up to 35 days in the liquid state either as whole blood or with additive solution. The study was carried out by performing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of stromal proteins from erythrocytes, either previously treated with proteinase inhibitors or previously incubated in conditions promoting proteolysis. To differentiate the effect of erythrocyte from granulocyte proteinases, the investigation was also carried out in leukocyte-free red cell preparations. The results show: (1) the effects of endogenous proteinases on membrane proteins derived from red cells stored under blood bank conditions; (2) a decrease of proteolytic effects in ghosts derived from red cells which have been submitted to a longer storage; (3) a relevant influence of the red cell resuspending medium before lysis on the time-dependent onset and exhaustion of proteolysis in ghosts. The presence of increased proteolysis in ghosts could be regarded as a marker of molecular lesions induced in red cells by storage under blood bank conditions.

  19. Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizi, T.; Childs, R.A.; Hakomori, S.-I.; Powell, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DAEA-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into chlolesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group-I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the i-determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides. (author)

  20. [Erythrocyte blood groups and geographic pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, C

    1979-01-01

    Blood groups are an obstacle to reproduction, transfusion and transplantation. There are immunological abortions due to the antibodies of "p" phenotype women; and Rh haemolytic disease of the new-born is in direct proportion to the frequency of the "r" gene in a given population; the problem of transfusional allo-immunisation is completely parallel. Certain membrane anomalies (due to exceptional erythrocyte blood groups--Rh null, Rh mod or McLeod, for example), can provoke hemolytic anaemias, but in these cases the subjects are scattered throughout the world. An important problem is that of the relationships between Duffy antigens and malaria: from what is known about plasmodium Knowlesi, Fya and Fyb antigens are related to the erythrocyte receptors for this plasmodium: the Fy(a-b-) red cells, even of exceptional non-blacks, are not infested with parasites. Two kinds of receptors are postulated: one for adherence and another for penetration. In contrast, plasmodium falciparum does not recognise the same receptors as plasmodium Knowlesi. Experiments carried out on man have led to the conclusion that plasmodium vivax also used Fya and Fyb antigens to penetrate the red cell. These recent facts give rise to the problem of a possible natural selection by plasmodium vivax, which would eradicate polymorphism, whilst until now, the facts concerning plasmodium falciparum have explained the balance of polymorphism.