WorldWideScience

Sample records for erythrochelin requires unprecedented

  1. How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomas, Kim

    2005-01-01

    How to analyse a Big Bang of data: the mammoth project at the Cern physics laboratory in Geneva to recreate the conditions immediately after the universe began requires computing power on an unprecedented scale

  2. WIPP startup: Overcoming unprecedented challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Arlen E.

    1992-01-01

    Since its authorization by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 96-164, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Program has achieved significant progress. Subsequent to a Record of Decision based on the October 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), the scientific and engineering challenge of constructing a 100-acre mined repository to demonstrate the safe and environmentally sound disposal of defense program generated transuranic waste became reality. Since initial conception, however, a complex program has evolved. Demonstration of compliance with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal Standards defined in 10 CFR 191, Subpart B (yet to be repromulgated), became prerequisites to a disposal decision. On June 13, 1990, based on a supplement to the 1980 FEIS, the decision was made to redefine the program to include a formal test phase. This decision required an addendum to the Final Safety Analysis Report to assure commitment to safety considerations, an intensive operational readiness review effort, and the need for a No-Migration Determination for the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to meeting the technical challenges, the need to satisfy a broad spectrum of oversight groups (some directly funded by the Department of Energy) was required. With the decision making process publicly displayed on the Secretary of Energy's Decision Plan, the unprecedented challenges of the WIPP Program were painstakingly met, one by one, in an accountable and visible manner. (author)

  3. Unprecedented emergency in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Despite knowledge of better prevention strategies, AIDS continues to be an unprecedented emergency in southern Africa. Statistics show that in 1998, 1.4 million people between the ages of 15 and 49 in the 9 countries of southern Africa were infected, with nearly three-quarters of a million of these new infections occurring in South Africa. In addition, some 2 million people died of AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa in 1998 and millions of new infections are occurring every year. Factors such as the loneliness suffered by migrant laborers, the wars and armed conflicts in Rwanda, and the stigma of shame, silence, and denial associated with AIDS all generate fertile conditions for the spread of HIV in southern Africa. Overcoming silence and denial, and bringing AIDS out into the open, has been considered by some countries in southern Africa. In Botswana and South Africa, appeals for greater awareness and openness by the top leadership have been coupled with a decision to set up government funding and AIDS. The challenge now will be to translate these into effective prevention and care programs.

  4. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented precipitation along with heavy falls occurred over many parts of India from 28th February to 2nd March 2015. Many of the stations of northwest and central India received an all time high 24 hr cumulative precipitation of March during this period. Even the national capital, New Delhi, broke all the previous ...

  5. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to this event, huge loss to agricultural and horticultural crops occurred in several parts of India. In the present study, an attempt is made to understand the various meteorological features associated with this unprecedented precipitation event over India. It occurred due to the presence of an intense western disturbance ...

  6. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    India during 1st week of March 2015. Keywords: Meteorological features, Western Disturbance and Unprecedented precipitation. Manuscript. Click here to view linked References. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 ...... Mean Omega (Pa/s) at 500 hPa of (a) 28.02.2015, (b) 01.03.2015 and (c) 02.03.2015. Fig.10. 925 hPa GFS model wind ...

  7. Probabilistic attribution of individual unprecedented extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen a rapid increase in efforts to understand the influence of global warming on individual extreme climate events. Although trends in the distributions of climate observations have been thoroughly analyzed, rigorously quantifying the contribution of global-scale warming to individual events that are unprecedented in the observed record presents a particular challenge. This paper describes a method for leveraging observations and climate model ensembles to quantify the influence of historical global warming on the severity and probability of unprecedented events. This approach uses formal inferential techniques to quantify four metrics: (1) the contribution of the observed trend to the event magnitude, (2) the contribution of the observed trend to the event probability, (3) the probability of the observed trend in the current climate and a climate without human influence, and (4) the probability of the event magnitude in the current climate and a climate without human influence. Illustrative examples are presented, spanning a range of climate variables, timescales, and regions. These examples illustrate that global warming can influence the severity and probability of unprecedented extremes. In some cases - particularly high temperatures - this change is indicated by changes in the mean. However, changes in probability do not always arise from changes in the mean, suggesting that global warming can alter the frequency with which complex physical conditions co-occur. Because our framework is transparent and highly generalized, it can be readily applied to a range of climate events, regions, and levels of climate forcing.

  8. Mobile quantum gravity sensor with unprecedented stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leykauf, Bastian; Freier, Christian; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Krutzik, Markus; Peters, Achim

    2017-04-01

    The gravimetric atom interferometer GAIN is based on interfering ensembles of laser-cooled 87Rb atoms in a fountain setup, using stimulated Raman transitions. GAIN's rugged design allows for transports to sites of geodetic and geophysical interest while maintaining a high accuracy compatible with the best classical instruments. We compared our instrument's performance with falling corner-cube and superconducting gravimeters in two measurement campaigns at geodetic observatories in Wettzell, Germany and Onsala, Sweden. Our instrument's long-term stability of 0.5 nm/s2 is the best value for absolute gravimeters reported to date [1]. Our measured gravity value agrees with other state-of-the-art gravimeters on the 10-9 level in g, demonstrating effective control over systematics including wavefront distortions of the Raman beams [2]. By using the juggling technique [3], we are able to perform gravity measurements on two atomic clouds simultaneously. Advantages include the suppression of common mode phase noise, enabling differential phase shift extraction without the need for vibration isolation. We will present the results of our first gravity gradient measurements. [1] Freier, Hauth, Schkolnik, Leykauf, Schilling, Wziontek, Scherneck, Müller and Peters (2016). Mobile quantum gravity sensor with unprecedented stability. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 8th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology 2015, 723, 12050. [2] Schkolnik, Leykauf, Hauth, Freier and Peters (2015). The effect of wavefront aberrations in atom interferometry. Applied Physics B, 120(2), 311 - 316. [3] Legere and Gibble (1998). Quantum Scattering in a Juggling Atomic Fountain. Physical Review Letters, 81(1), 5780 - 5783.

  9. Nanotwinned metal MEMS films with unprecedented strength and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Gi-Dong; Krogstad, Jessica A; Reddy, K Madhav; Xie, Kelvin Y; Valentino, Gianna M; Weihs, Timothy P; Hemker, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    Silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors have become ubiquitous in consumer-based products, but realization of an interconnected network of MEMS devices that allows components to be remotely monitored and controlled, a concept often described as the "Internet of Things," will require a suite of MEMS materials and properties that are not currently available. We report on the synthesis of metallic nickel-molybdenum-tungsten films with direct current sputter deposition, which results in fully dense crystallographically textured films that are filled with nanotwins. These films exhibit linear elastic mechanical behavior and tensile strengths exceeding 3 GPa, which is unprecedented for materials that are compatible with wafer-level device fabrication processes. The ultrahigh strength is attributed to a combination of solid solution strengthening and the presence of dense nanotwins. These films also have excellent thermal and mechanical stability, high density, and electrical properties that are attractive for next-generation metal MEMS applications.

  10. LEADIR-PS: providing unprecedented SMR safety and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.S., E-mail: N2i2@xplornet.ca [Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated (N{sup 2} I{sup 2}) is developing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) called LEADIR-PS, an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor-Passively Safe. LEADIR-PS integrates proven technologies including TRISO fuel, Pebble Bed core and graphite moderator, with molten lead coolant in an integral pool type reactor configuration to achieve unprecedented safety and economics. Plants under development are LEADIR-PS30, producing 30 MWth, LEADIR-PS100 producing 100 MWth and LEADIR-PS300 producing 300 MWth that are focused on serving the energy demands of areas with a small electrical grid and/or process heat applications. A plant consisting of six LEADIR-PS300 reactor modules serving a common turbine-generator, called the LEADIR-PS Six-Pack, is focused on serving areas with higher energy demands and a robust electricity grid. The Gen{sup +} I LEADIR-PS plants are inherently/passively safe. There is no potential for a Loss Of Coolant Accident, a reactivity transient without shutdown, a loss of heat sink, or hydrogen generation. No active systems or operator actions are required to assure safety. The unprecedented safety of LEADIR-PS reactors avoids large exclusion radius and demanding evacuation plan requirements. LEADIR-PS, with steam conditions of 370 {sup o}C and 12 MPa can serve over 85% of the world's non-transportation process heat demands. In Canada, the electricity and process heat demands, ranging from those of remote communities and the oil sands to densely populated areas can be served by LEADIR-PS. (author)

  11. Unprecedented migration of N-alkoxycarbonyl groups in protected pyroglutaminol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Norrby, Per-Ola; Frydenvang, Karla

    2001-01-01

    Cleavage of an O-silyl ether in an NBOC protected pyroglutaminol using TBAF led to an unprecedented migration of the BOC group. An investigation of the mechanism, based on experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations, is presented. Similar migration was observed for KCbz and N-methoxycar......Cleavage of an O-silyl ether in an NBOC protected pyroglutaminol using TBAF led to an unprecedented migration of the BOC group. An investigation of the mechanism, based on experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations, is presented. Similar migration was observed for KCbz and N...

  12. Unprecedented migration of N-alkoxycarbonyl groups in protected pyroglutaminol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Norrby, Per-Ola; Frydenvang, Karla

    2001-01-01

    Cleavage of an O-silyl ether in an NBOC protected pyroglutaminol using TBAF led to an unprecedented migration of the BOC group. An investigation of the mechanism, based on experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations, is presented. Similar migration was observed for KCbz and N...

  13. Recent unprecedented numbers of Red-necked Phalaropes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ordinators of the Tanzania Bird Atlas Database, and to the Senior Warden of Ruaha National. Park for their assistance and support. We are grateful to Sheila Mackenzie and Olive Geddes of the Scottish ... Scopus 32: 39–41, June 2013. Received 9 February 2011. Recent unprecedented numbers of Red-necked Phalaropes.

  14. Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper (II) complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper(II) complexes: Crystal structure and bio-mimicking of Catecholase activity. ABHRANIL DE DHANANJAY DEY HARE RAM YADAV MILAN MAJI VINAYAK RANE R M KADAM ANGSHUMAN ROY CHOUDHURY BHASKAR BISWAS. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 11 ...

  15. Unprecedented migration of N-alkoxycarbonyl groups in protected pyroglutaminol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, L; Norrby, Per-Ola; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2001-01-01

    [figure: see text] Cleavage of an O-silyl ether in an N-BOC-protected pyroglutaminol using TBAF led to an unprecedented migration of the BOC group. An investigation of the mechanism, based on experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations, is presented. Similar migration was observed for N...

  16. Schrödinger equation solved for the hydrogen molecule with unprecedented accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof, E-mail: krp@fuw.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Komasa, Jacek, E-mail: komasa@man.poznan.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-28

    The hydrogen molecule can be used for determination of physical constants, including the proton charge radius, and for improved tests of the hypothetical long range force between hadrons, which require a sufficiently accurate knowledge of the molecular levels. In this work, we perform the first step toward a significant improvement in theoretical predictions of H{sub 2} and solve the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation to the unprecedented accuracy of 10{sup −12}. We hope that it will inspire a parallel progress in the spectroscopy of the molecular hydrogen.

  17. An Unprecedented Photochemical Reaction for Anthracene-Containing Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang-Lin; Jiang, Xue-Kai; Wu, Chong; Wang, Chuan-Zeng; Zeng, Xi; Redshaw, Carl; Yamato, Takehiko

    2016-10-18

    A series of anthracene-containing derivatives have been synthesised and characterised. The photochemical behaviour of these derivatives have been investigated by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. An unprecedented photolysis reaction for anthracene-containing derivatives was observed in the case of anthracenes directly armed with a -CH 2 O-R group upon UV irradiation. The photolysis reaction process has been demonstrated to occur in three steps. Firstly, the anthracene-containing derivatives are converted into the corresponding endoperoxide intermediate upon UV irradiation in the presence of air; then, the endoperoxide intermediate is decomposed to the corresponding starting compound and 9-anthraldehyde; finally, 9-anthraldehyde is further oxidised to anthraquinone. Additionally, the photolysis reaction of anthracene-containing derivatives is significantly promoted in the presence of a thiacalix[4]arene platform. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Australia's Unprecedented Future Temperature Extremes Under Paris Limits to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie C.; King, Andrew D.; Mitchell, Daniel M.

    2017-10-01

    Record-breaking temperatures can detrimentally impact ecosystems, infrastructure, and human health. Previous studies show that climate change has influenced some observed extremes, which are expected to become more frequent under enhanced future warming. Understanding the magnitude, as a well as frequency, of such future extremes is critical for limiting detrimental impacts. We focus on temperature changes in Australian regions, including over a major coral reef-building area, and assess the potential magnitude of future extreme temperatures under Paris Agreement global warming targets (1.5°C and 2°C). Under these limits to global mean warming, we determine a set of projected high-magnitude unprecedented Australian temperature extremes. These include extremes unexpected based on observational temperatures, including current record-breaking events. For example, while the difference in global-average warming during the hottest Australian summer and the 2°C Paris target is 1.1°C, extremes of 2.4°C above the observed summer record are simulated. This example represents a more than doubling of the magnitude of extremes, compared with global mean change, and such temperatures are unexpected based on the observed record alone. Projected extremes do not necessarily scale linearly with mean global warming, and this effect demonstrates the significant potential benefits of limiting warming to 1.5°C, compared to 2°C or warmer.

  19. Anthropogenic carbon release rate unprecedented during past 66 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon release rates from anthropogenic sources have reached a record high of about 10 Pg C/y in 2013. However, due to uncertainties in the strength of climate system feedbacks, the full impact of the rapid carbon release on the Earth system is difficult to predict with confidence. Geologic analogues from past transient climate changes could provide invaluable constraints but only if the associated carbon release rates can be reliably reconstructed. We present a new technique - based on combined data-model analysis - to extract rates of change from the geological record, without the need for a stratigraphic age model. Given currently available records, we then show that the present anthropogenic carbon release rate is unprecedented during the Cenozoic (past 66 million years) by at least an order of magnitude. Our results have important implications for our ability to use past analogues to predict future changes, including constraints on climate sensitivity, ocean acidification, and impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, the fact that we have effectively entered an era of 'no analogue' state presents fundamental challenges to constraining forward modeling. Furthermore, future ecosystem disruptions will likely exceed the relatively limited extinctions observed during climate aberrations throughout the Cenozoic.

  20. A linear projection for the timing of unprecedented climate in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Jeong; Jang, Chan Joo; Chung, Il-Ung

    2017-11-01

    Recently we have had abnormal weather events worldwide that are attributed by climate scientists to the global warming induced by human activities. If the global warming continues in the future and such events occur more frequently and someday become normal, we will have an unprecedented climate. This study intends to answer when we will have an unprecedented warm climate, focusing more on the regional characteristics of the timing of unprecedented climate. Using an in-situ observational data from weather stations of annual-mean surface air temperature in Korea from 1973 to 2015, we estimate a timing of unprecedented climate with a linear regression method. Based on the in-situ data with statistically significant warming trends at 95% confidence level, an unprecedented climate in Korea is projected to occur first in Cheongju by 2043 and last in Haenam by 2168. This 125-year gap in the timing indicates that a regional difference in timing of unprecedented climate is considerably large in Korea. Despite the high sensitivity of linear estimation to the data period and resolution, our findings on the large regional difference in timing of unprecedented climate can give an insight into making policies for climate change mitigation and adaptation, not only for the central government but for provincial governments.

  1. An unprecedented tetranuclear niobium aqua ion with a capping μ4-sulfido ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Bee Lean; Søtofte, Inger

    2005-01-01

    A new niobium aqua ion, with an unprecedented metal-metal bonded tetranuclear Nb4(μ4-S)(μ2-O)54+ core, is obtained upon treatment of Zn-reduced ethanolic solutions of NbCl5 with HCl in the presence of a sulfide source. The red aqua ion, obtained upon cation-exchange chromatography, forms readily ...

  2. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of an unprecedented phosphinine-Cu4Br4 cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesch, Philipp; Nitsch, Jörn; Lutz, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Wiecko, Jelena; Steffen, Andreas; Müller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A hitherto unprecedented polynuclear phosphinine-Cu(I) complex has been prepared and crystallographically characterized. The molecular structure in the crystal verifies the presence of the heterocubanetype tetrameric cluster [LCuBr]4 (L = 2,4-diphenyl-5-methyl-6-(2,3- dimethylphenyl)phosphinine),

  3. Unprecedented high-resolution view of bacterial operon architecture revealed by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Tyrrell; Creecy, James P; Maddox, Scott M; Grissom, Joe E; Conkle, Trevor L; Shadid, Tyler M; Teramoto, Jun; San Miguel, Phillip; Shimada, Tomohiro; Ishihama, Akira; Mori, Hirotada; Wanner, Barry L

    2014-07-08

    We analyzed the transcriptome of Escherichia coli K-12 by strand-specific RNA sequencing at single-nucleotide resolution during steady-state (logarithmic-phase) growth and upon entry into stationary phase in glucose minimal medium. To generate high-resolution transcriptome maps, we developed an organizational schema which showed that in practice only three features are required to define operon architecture: the promoter, terminator, and deep RNA sequence read coverage. We precisely annotated 2,122 promoters and 1,774 terminators, defining 1,510 operons with an average of 1.98 genes per operon. Our analyses revealed an unprecedented view of E. coli operon architecture. A large proportion (36%) of operons are complex with internal promoters or terminators that generate multiple transcription units. For 43% of operons, we observed differential expression of polycistronic genes, despite being in the same operons, indicating that E. coli operon architecture allows fine-tuning of gene expression. We found that 276 of 370 convergent operons terminate inefficiently, generating complementary 3' transcript ends which overlap on average by 286 nucleotides, and 136 of 388 divergent operons have promoters arranged such that their 5' ends overlap on average by 168 nucleotides. We found 89 antisense transcripts of 397-nucleotide average length, 7 unannotated transcripts within intergenic regions, and 18 sense transcripts that completely overlap operons on the opposite strand. Of 519 overlapping transcripts, 75% correspond to sequences that are highly conserved in E. coli (>50 genomes). Our data extend recent studies showing unexpected transcriptome complexity in several bacteria and suggest that antisense RNA regulation is widespread. Importance: We precisely mapped the 5' and 3' ends of RNA transcripts across the E. coli K-12 genome by using a single-nucleotide analytical approach. Our resulting high-resolution transcriptome maps show that ca. one-third of E. coli operons are

  4. The Scope of Big Data in One Medicine: Unprecedented Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly E. McCue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in high-throughput molecular biology and electronic health records (EHR, coupled with increasing computer capabilities have resulted in an increased interest in the use of big data in health care. Big data require collection and analysis of data at an unprecedented scale and represents a paradigm shift in health care, offering (1 the capacity to generate new knowledge more quickly than traditional scientific approaches; (2 unbiased collection and analysis of data; and (3 a holistic understanding of biology and pathophysiology. Big data promises more personalized and precision medicine for patients with improved accuracy and earlier diagnosis, and therapy tailored to an individual’s unique combination of genes, environmental risk, and precise disease phenotype. This promise comes from data collected from numerous sources, ranging from molecules to cells, to tissues, to individuals and populations—and the integration of these data into networks that improve understanding of heath and disease. Big data-driven science should play a role in propelling comparative medicine and “one medicine” (i.e., the shared physiology, pathophysiology, and disease risk factors across species forward. Merging of data from EHR across institutions will give access to patient data on a scale previously unimaginable, allowing for precise phenotype definition and objective evaluation of risk factors and response to therapy. High-throughput molecular data will give insight into previously unexplored molecular pathophysiology and disease etiology. Investigation and integration of big data from a variety of sources will result in stronger parallels drawn at the molecular level between human and animal disease, allow for predictive modeling of infectious disease and identification of key areas of intervention, and facilitate step-changes in our understanding of disease that can make a substantial impact on animal and human health. However, the use of big data

  5. An unprecedented alpha-olefin distribution arising from a homogeneous ethylene oligomerization catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Atanas K; Chirinos, Juan J; Long, Richard J; Gibson, Vernon C; Elsegood, Mark R J

    2006-06-21

    Treatment of the bis(benzimidazolyl)amine chromium complex 2 with ethylene in the presence of MAO affords an exceptionally active oligomerization catalyst and an unprecedented distribution of 1-olefin products in which the C4n series is much more abundant than the C4n+2 series. Deuterium labeling studies are consistent with a metallacyclic chain growth mechanism in which the unusual product distribution arises from the interplay of two sites.

  6. Unprecedented multi-stable spin crossover molecular material with two thermal memory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyuk, Maksym; Muñoz, M Carmen; Castro, Miguel; Romero-Morcillo, Tania; Gaspar, Ana B; Real, Jose Antonio

    2013-05-17

    Two in one: A new iron(II) complex with short alkyl substituents exhibits an unprecedented bimodal behavior governed by the coexistence of three phases: two structurally different low-spin phases and one high-spin phase. The compound features two distinct well-separated strong cooperative spin-crossover transitions by varying the scan rate (see graphic). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An unprecedented tetranuclear niobium aqua ion with a capping μ4-sulfido ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Bee Lean; Søtofte, Inger

    2005-01-01

    A new niobium aqua ion, with an unprecedented metal-metal bonded tetranuclear Nb4(μ4-S)(μ2-O)54+ core, is obtained upon treatment of Zn-reduced ethanolic solutions of NbCl5 with HCl in the presence of a sulfide source. The red aqua ion, obtained upon cation-exchange chromatography, forms readily ...... the thiocyanate complex which have been crystallized as Cs4.67Na1.33[¬Nb4SO5(NCS)10]∙2.33H2O and structurally characterized....

  8. Massive thymoma of the mid-posterior mediastinum: an unprecedented case in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fernandes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract We report an unprecedented case of ectopic thymoma in a young adult. A 33-year-old male presented with a 10-day history of non-productive cough and fever. Investigation revealed mediastinal widening without pulmonary involvement. Computed tomography showed a large mass-14.8 × 10.8 × 8.4 cm-in the mid-posterior mediastinum, and a biopsy obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy indicated that the mass was a tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed combined thymoma type AB1. Because of the considerable proportions of the tumor and its close proximity to major structures, the patient was treated with chemotherapy.

  9. Unprecedented actions: the Federal Reserve’s response to the global financial crisis in historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkin, Frederic S.; White, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Interventions by the Federal Reserve during the financial crisis of 2007-2009 were generally viewed as unprecedented and in violation of the rules---notably Bagehot’s rule---that a central bank should follow to avoid the time-inconsistency problem and moral hazard. Reviewing the evidence for central banks’ crisis management in the U.S., the U.K. and France from the late nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth century, we find that there were precedents for all of the unusual actions ta...

  10. Unprecedented Activity of Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for High Power Density Aqueous Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengfan; Qian, Tao; Liu, Sisi; Zhou, Jinqiu; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-06-28

    The development of nonprecious metal catalysts with desirable bifunctional activities to supersede noble metal catalysts is of vital importance for high performance aqueous zinc-air batteries. Here, an unprecedented activity of bifunctional electrocatalyst is reported by in situ growth of nitrogen-enriched carbon nanotubes with transition metal composite. The resultant catalyst delivers surprisingly high OER (potential@10 mA cm -2 of 1.58 V) and ORR (onset potential of 0.97 V, half-wave potential of 0.86 V) performance. The overall oxygen electrode activity (overvoltage between ORR and OER) of the catalyst is as low as 0.72 V. In aqueous Zn-air battery tests, primary batteries demonstrate high maximum power density and two-electrode rechargeable batteries also exhibit good cycle performance. The unprecedented electrocatalyst opens up new avenues for developing highly active nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube-supported electrocatalysts and offers prospects for the next generation of fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and photocatalysis applications.

  11. A new scoring function for protein-protein docking that identifies native structures with unprecedented accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Irina S.; da Silva Martins, João Miguel; Coimbra, João T.S.

    2015-01-01

    the most correct one, in particular when a single answer is asked for. With such a low success rate it is difficult to point out one docked structure as being native-like. Here we present a new, high accuracy, scoring method to identify the 3D structure of P-P complexes among a set of trial poses...... the trial structures and identifies the native-like structures with unprecedented accuracy (∼94%), providing the correct P-P 3D structures that biochemists and molecular biologists need to pursue their studies. With such a success rate, the bottleneck of protein-protein docking moves from the scoring....... It incorporates alanine scanning mutagenesis experimental data that need to be obtained a priori. The scoring scheme works by matching the computational and the experimental alanine scanning mutagenesis results. The size of the trial P-P interface area is also taken into account. We show that the method ranks...

  12. Unprecedented Proline-Based Heterogeneous Organocatalyst for Selective Production of Vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farveh Saberi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An organocatalytic system based on an unprecedented proline analogue and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Prn/Fe2O3@SiO2 was designed and employed in vanillin production from isoeugenol and vanillyl alcohol. Full characterization of the obtained catalyst revealed the successful functionalization of the nanoparticle surface with the organic moieties. The activity of the magnetic bifunctional material was compared with its proton-unexchanged counterpart. Interestingly, the oxidation of isoeugenol resulted in being highly dependent on the acidic functionalities of the organocatalyst. Nonetheless, the catalytic performance of the proton-unexchanged catalyst suggested that the acidic and basic sites of the Prn/Fe2O3@SiO2 exhibited a synergic effect, giving rise to higher conversion and selectivity. The presence of bifunctional groups in the proline analogue, together with the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles, could lead to high efficiency, versatility, recoverability, and reusability.

  13. Stratospheric Smoke With Unprecedentedly High Backscatter Observed by Lidars Above Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaykin, S. M.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pelon, J.; Ravetta, F.; Keckhut, P.

    2018-02-01

    Extreme pyroconvection events triggered by wildfires in northwest Canada and United States during August 2017 resulted in vast injection of combustion products into the stratosphere. The plumes of stratospheric smoke were observed by lidars at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP) for many weeks that followed the fires as distinct aerosol layers with backscatter reaching unprecedentedly high values for a nonvolcanic aerosol layer. We use spaceborne CALIOP lidar to track the spatiotemporal evolution of the smoke plumes before their detection at OHP. A remarkable agreement between ground- and spaced-based lidars sampling the same smoke plume on a particular date allowed us to extrapolate the OHP observations to a regional scale, where CALIOP reported extreme aerosol optical depth values as high as 0.21. On a monthly time scale, the lidar observations indicate that boreal summer 2017 forest fires had a hemisphere-scale impact on stratospheric aerosol load, similar to that of moderate volcanic eruptions.

  14. Quantifying the Influence of Global Warming on Unprecedented Extreme Climate Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Singh, Deepti; Mankin, Justin S.; Horton, Daniel E.; Swain, Daniel L.; Touma, Danielle; Charland, Allison; Liu, Yunjie; Haugen, Matz; Tsiang, Michael; hide

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to understand the influence of historical global warming on individual extreme climate events have increased over the past decade. However, despite substantial progress, events that are unprecedented in the local observational record remain a persistent challenge. Leveraging observations and a large climate model ensemble, we quantify uncertainty in the influence of global warming on the severity and probability of the historically hottest month, hottest day, driest year, and wettest 5-d period for different areas of the globe. We find that historical warming has increased the severity and probability of the hottest month and hottest day of the year at >80% of the available observational area. Our framework also suggests that the historical climate forcing has increased the probability of the driest year and wettest 5-d period at 57% and 41% of the observed area, respectively, although we note important caveats. For the most protracted hot and dry events, the strongest and most widespread contributions of anthropogenic climate forcing occur in the tropics, including increases in probability of at least a factor of 4 for the hottest month and at least a factor of 2 for the driest year. We also demonstrate the ability of our framework to systematically evaluate the role of dynamic and thermodynamic factors such as atmospheric circulation patterns and atmospheric water vapor, and find extremely high statistical confidence that anthropogenic forcing increased the probability of record-low Arctic sea ice extent.

  15. Quantifying the influence of global warming on unprecedented extreme climate events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Singh, Deepti; Mankin, Justin S.; Horton, Daniel E.; Swain, Daniel L.; Touma, Danielle; Charland, Allison; Liu, Yunjie; Haugen, Matz; Tsiang, Michael; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2017-05-01

    Efforts to understand the influence of historical global warming on individual extreme climate events have increased over the past decade. However, despite substantial progress, events that are unprecedented in the local observational record remain a persistent challenge. Leveraging observations and a large climate model ensemble, we quantify uncertainty in the influence of global warming on the severity and probability of the historically hottest month, hottest day, driest year, and wettest 5-d period for different areas of the globe. We find that historical warming has increased the severity and probability of the hottest month and hottest day of the year at >80% of the available observational area. Our framework also suggests that the historical climate forcing has increased the probability of the driest year and wettest 5-d period at 57% and 41% of the observed area, respectively, although we note important caveats. For the most protracted hot and dry events, the strongest and most widespread contributions of anthropogenic climate forcing occur in the tropics, including increases in probability of at least a factor of 4 for the hottest month and at least a factor of 2 for the driest year. We also demonstrate the ability of our framework to systematically evaluate the role of dynamic and thermodynamic factors such as atmospheric circulation patterns and atmospheric water vapor, and find extremely high statistical confidence that anthropogenic forcing increased the probability of record-low Arctic sea ice extent.

  16. An unprecedented 3D POM-Ag architecture with intertwined and homological helical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jing-Quan; Li, Meng-Ting; Sun, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Nan; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Guang-Ming

    2013-06-07

    A new hybrid compound, Na[Ag6(pyttz)2(H2O)][PMo12O40] (pyttz = 3-(pyrid-3-yl)-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1,2,4-triazolyl), has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by routine techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the title compound is constructed by the 2D Ag-pyttz coordination polymer and 3D Ag-POM architecture with helix. A fascinating structural feature is the assembling fashion of the right- and left-helical chain, namely, the helical chains with different orientations are intertwined with each other forming intertwined double helical layers along the c-axis, and the identical left- or right-handed helical chains are fused together in a hand-by-hand mode generating another homological helical layer along the a-axis. As a result, these helical layers intersect each other obtaining an unprecedented 3D POM-Ag inorganic architecture. Note that the 3D framework with a helix constructed by POMs and metal ions has never been observed up to date. Additionally, its photocatalytic degradation of RhB was also investigated.

  17. Facile and green fabrication of cation exchange membrane adsorber with unprecedented adsorption capacity for protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Kamran; Luo, Jianquan; Khan, Rashid; Fan, Jinxin; Wan, Yinhua

    2017-10-27

    Fabricating membrane adsorbers with high adsorption capacity and appreciable throughput for the separation and purification of protein products is challenging in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel membrane adsorber by functionalizing a nylon microfiltration membrane with alginate dialdehyde (ADA) followed by sulphonic addition, without any solvent usage, and its successful application in the purification of lysozyme. Taking advantage of abundant dual cation exchange (CEX) groups on sulphonic-ADA (S-ADA) ligands, this novel S-ADA-nylon membrane adsorber showed an unprecedented static binding capicity of 286mg/mL for lysozyme adsorption. Meanwhile, the prepared membrane adsorber could be easily regenerated (complete protein elution) under mild conditions and be reused at least for five times. Featured with a unique selectivity, the S-ADA-nylon membrane also captured lysozyme from chicken egg white solution with a high purity (100%) and a high recovery of 98%. The purified lysozyme showed similar specific activity as commercial product. The present work provides a facile, green and low-cost approach for the preparation of high-performance membrane adsorbers, which has a great potential in protein production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heteroepitaxially grown zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes with unprecedented propylene/propane separation performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Taek; Jeong, Hae-Kwon; Lee, Albert S; An, He Seong; Lee, Jong Suk

    2015-09-30

    Propylene/propane separation is one of the most challenging separations, currently achieved by energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. Despite the great potential for energy-efficient membrane-based separations, no commercial membranes are currently available due to the limitations of current polymeric materials. Zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-8, with the effective aperture size of ∼4.0 Å, has been shown to be very promising for propylene/propane separation. Despite the extensive research on ZIF-8 membranes, only a few reported ZIF-8 membranes have displayed good propylene/propane separation performances presumably due to the challenges of controlling the microstructures of polycrystalline membranes. Here we report the first well-intergrown membranes of ZIF-67 (Co-substituted ZIF-8) by heteroepitaxially growing ZIF-67 on ZIF-8 seed layers. The ZIF-67 membranes exhibited impressively high propylene/propane separation capabilities. Furthermore, when a tertiary growth of ZIF-8 layers was applied to heteroepitaxially grown ZIF-67 membranes, the membranes exhibited unprecedentedly high propylene/propane separation factors of ∼200 possibly due to enhanced grain boundary structure.

  19. Wave-Particle Interactions in the Earth's Radiation Belts: Recent Advances and Unprecedented Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    In the collisionless heliospheric plasmas, wave-particle interaction is a fundamental physical process in transferring energy and momentum between particles with different species and energies. This presentation focuses on one of the important wave-particle interaction processes: interaction between whistler-mode waves and electrons. Whistler-mode waves have frequencies between proton and electron cyclotron frequency and are ubiquitously present in the heliospheric plasmas including solar wind and planetary magnetospheres. I use Earth's Van Allen radiation belt as "local space laboratory" to discuss the role of whistler-mode waves in energetic electron dynamics using multi-satellite observations, theory and modeling. I further discuss solar wind drivers leading to energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, which is critical in predicting space weather that has broad impacts on our technological systems and society. At last, I discuss the unprecedented future opportunities of exploring space science using multi-satellite observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling.

  20. Weathering The Storm – Icelandic Municipalities’ Handling of an Unprecedented Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Árni Skjöld MAGNÚSSON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within a few days in October 2008, following serious turmoil on financial markets worldwide, some 85% of the Icelandic banking sector collapsed, together with the Icelandic currency, the króna. Almost all the rest followed early in 2009. The Icelandic stock market took a nosedive. The Republic of Iceland had entered the worst economic crisis of its history. Icelandic municipalities, which had taken on an increasing burden of running the welfare state, were hard hit financially, without the ability of the state to help out. In fact, some of the post-crisis actions of the state, under IMF direction, were difficult for the municipalities. It did not make things easier that the crisis had been precluded by an unprecedented period of growth, encouraging the municipalities to borrow in international markets and invest in infrastructure that turned out to be superfluous in the post-crisis period. This paper will look at the reactions of the Icelandic municipalities to the crisis, the political implications of it, where they are now and if there are lessons that can be learned from the difficult years in the last decade.

  1. Magnetically Alignable Bicelles with Unprecedented Stability Using Tunable Surfactants Derived from Cholic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ryoichi; Uchida, Noriyuki; Ohtani, Masataka; Yamada, Kuniyo; Shigeta, Arisu; Kawamura, Izuru; Aida, Takuzo; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-05

    Five novel surfactants were prepared by modifying the three hydroxy groups of sodium cholate with triethylene glycol chains endcapped with an amide (SC-C 1 , SC- n C 4 , and SC- n C 5 ) or a carbamoyl group (SC-O n C 4 and SC-O t C 4 ). The phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of these surfactants with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) was systematically studied by 31 P NMR spectroscopy. The surfactants endcapped with carbamate groups (SC-O n C 4 and SC-O t C 4 ) formed magnetically alignable bicelles over unprecedentedly wide ranges of conditions, in terms of temperature (from 21-23 to >90 °C), lipid/surfactant ratio (from 5 to 8), total lipid content (5-20 wt %), and lipid type [DMPC, 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC), or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC)]. In conjunction with appropriate phospholipids, the carbamate-endcapped surfactants afforded unique bicelles, characterized by exceptional thermal stabilities (from 0 to >90 °C), biomimetic lipid compositions (DMPC/POPC=25:75 to 50:50), and extremely large 2 H quadrupole splittings (up to 71 Hz). © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Quantifying the influence of global warming on unprecedented extreme climate events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Singh, Deepti; Mankin, Justin S; Horton, Daniel E; Swain, Daniel L; Touma, Danielle; Charland, Allison; Liu, Yunjie; Haugen, Matz; Tsiang, Michael; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2017-05-09

    Efforts to understand the influence of historical global warming on individual extreme climate events have increased over the past decade. However, despite substantial progress, events that are unprecedented in the local observational record remain a persistent challenge. Leveraging observations and a large climate model ensemble, we quantify uncertainty in the influence of global warming on the severity and probability of the historically hottest month, hottest day, driest year, and wettest 5-d period for different areas of the globe. We find that historical warming has increased the severity and probability of the hottest month and hottest day of the year at >80% of the available observational area. Our framework also suggests that the historical climate forcing has increased the probability of the driest year and wettest 5-d period at 57% and 41% of the observed area, respectively, although we note important caveats. For the most protracted hot and dry events, the strongest and most widespread contributions of anthropogenic climate forcing occur in the tropics, including increases in probability of at least a factor of 4 for the hottest month and at least a factor of 2 for the driest year. We also demonstrate the ability of our framework to systematically evaluate the role of dynamic and thermodynamic factors such as atmospheric circulation patterns and atmospheric water vapor, and find extremely high statistical confidence that anthropogenic forcing increased the probability of record-low Arctic sea ice extent.

  3. Unprecedented 21st century drought risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I; Ault, Toby R; Smerdon, Jason E

    2015-02-01

    In the Southwest and Central Plains of Western North America, climate change is expected to increase drought severity in the coming decades. These regions nevertheless experienced extended Medieval-era droughts that were more persistent than any historical event, providing crucial targets in the paleoclimate record for benchmarking the severity of future drought risks. We use an empirical drought reconstruction and three soil moisture metrics from 17 state-of-the-art general circulation models to show that these models project significantly drier conditions in the later half of the 21st century compared to the 20th century and earlier paleoclimatic intervals. This desiccation is consistent across most of the models and moisture balance variables, indicating a coherent and robust drying response to warming despite the diversity of models and metrics analyzed. Notably, future drought risk will likely exceed even the driest centuries of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1100-1300 CE) in both moderate (RCP 4.5) and high (RCP 8.5) future emissions scenarios, leading to unprecedented drought conditions during the last millennium.

  4. La Niña forces unprecedented Leeuwin Current warming in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming; McPhaden, Michael J; Xie, Shang-Ping; Hafner, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies were observed off the west coast of Australia in February-March 2011. Peak SST during a 2-week period were 5°C warmer than normal, causing widespread coral bleaching and fish kills. Understanding the climatic drivers of this extreme event, which we dub "Ningaloo Niño", is crucial for predicting similar events under the influence of global warming. Here we use observational data and numerical models to demonstrate that the extreme warming was mostly driven by an unseasonable surge of the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current in austral summer, which transported anomalously warm water southward along the coast. The unusual intensification of the Leeuwin Current was forced remotely by oceanic and atmospheric teleconnections associated with the extraordinary 2010-2011 La Niña. The amplitude of the warming was boosted by both multi-decadal trends in the Pacific toward more La Niña-like conditions and intraseasonal variations in the Indian Ocean.

  5. Sinorhizobium meliloti YbeY is an endoribonuclease with unprecedented catalytic features, acting as silencing enzyme in riboregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramago, Margarida; Peregrina, Alexandra; Robledo, Marta; Matos, Rute G; Hilker, Rolf; Serrania, Javier; Becker, Anke; Arraiano, Cecilia M; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I

    2017-02-17

    Structural and biochemical features suggest that the almost ubiquitous bacterial YbeY protein may serve catalytic and/or Hfq-like protective functions central to small RNA (sRNA)-mediated regulation and RNA metabolism. We have biochemically and genetically characterized the YbeY ortholog of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti (SmYbeY). Co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) with a FLAG-tagged SmYbeY yielded a poor enrichment in RNA species, compared to Hfq CoIP-RNA uncovered previously by a similar experimental setup. Purified SmYbeY behaved as a monomer that indistinctly cleaved single- and double-stranded RNA substrates, a unique ability among bacterial endoribonucleases. SmYbeY-mediated catalysis was supported by the divalent metal ions Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+, which influenced in a different manner cleavage efficiency and reactivity patterns, with Ca2+ specifically blocking activity on double-stranded and some structured RNA molecules. SmYbeY loss-of-function compromised expression of core energy and RNA metabolism genes, whilst promoting accumulation of motility, late symbiotic and transport mRNAs. Some of the latter transcripts are known Hfq-binding sRNA targets and might be SmYbeY substrates. Genetic reporter and in vitro assays confirmed that SmYbeY is required for sRNA-mediated down-regulation of the amino acid ABC transporter prbA mRNA. We have thus discovered a bacterial endoribonuclease with unprecedented catalytic features, acting also as gene silencing enzyme.

  6. The new challenges of energy operators. To bring strategic answers to market changes and to unprecedented competitive threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    Because of regulatory and technological changes, energy operators have to reconsider their business model, i.e. to identify their tomorrow's key activities and skills, and to keep control of the value chain as a multitude of new and various operators try to be present on the production sector and on the distribution sector. In order to give an insight on these issues, this study proposes three reports and a video. While the video proposes an original presentation of the main conclusions of this study, the first document is an executive synthesis which outlines and discusses some important issues: regulatory and technological changes submit energy operators to an unprecedented competitive and strategic paradigm; an efficient management of transition requires a profession-based approach and renewed strategic assets; energy operators must take the risk of 'uberisation' of their profession into account in order to better respond. The second document is an analysis report which addresses the upheavals of the energy operator environment (regulatory changes, technological upheavals, focus on the new energy deal), and the main strategic challenges faced by energy operators (redesign of the energy model, projection on non-core activities, acquisition of new strategic assets). It also proposes a discussion on the reconfiguration of the energy value chain (an upstream disruption of the value chain, a risk of reversal of the whole value chain). The third document proposes presentations of the evolution of key figures of energy markets in France (electricity, gas, renewable energy, turnovers of specialised actors in gas production and distribution and of the electricity sectors), a presentation of the sector economic structure and competitive landscape (sites, personnel, market shares, market key figures, main operators, electric power producers, gas providers, and renewable plant operators), and an overview of main events (asset management strategy

  7. Unprecedented carbon accumulation in mined soils: the synergistic effect of resource input and plant species invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas C R; Corrêa, Rodrigo S; Doane, Timothy A; Pereira, Engil I P; Horwath, William R

    2013-09-01

    Opencast mining causes severe impacts on natural environments, often resulting in permanent damage to soils and vegetation. In the present study we use a 14-year restoration chronosequence to investigate how resource input and spontaneous plant colonization promote the revegetation and reconstruction of mined soils in central Brazil. Using a multi-proxy approach, combining vegetation surveys with the analysis of plant and soil isotopic abundances (delta13C and delta15N) and chemical and physical fractionation of organic matter in soil profiles, we show that: (1) after several decades without vegetation cover, the input of nutrient-rich biosolids into exposed regoliths prompted the establishment of a diverse plant community (> 30 species); (2) the synergistic effect of resource input and plant colonization yielded unprecedented increases in soil carbon, accumulating as chemically stable compounds in occluded physical fractions and reaching much higher levels than observed in undisturbed ecosystems; and (3) invasive grasses progressively excluded native species, limiting nutrient availability, but contributing more than 65% of the total accumulated soil organic carbon. These results show that soil-plant feedbacks regulate the amount of available resources, determining successional trajectories and alternative stable equilibria in degraded areas undergoing restoration. External inputs promote plant colonization, soil formation, and carbon sequestration, at the cost of excluding native species. The introduction of native woody species would suppress invasive grasses and increase nutrient availability, bringing the system closer to its original state. However, it is difficult to predict whether soil carbon levels could be maintained without the exotic grass cover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings, describing how the combination of resource manipulation and management of invasive species could be used to optimize restoration strategies

  8. Diffuse interstellar bands of unprecedented strength in the line of sight towards high-mass X-ray binary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, N.L.J.; Kaper, L.; Foing, B.H.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution VLT/UVES spectra of the strongly reddened O supergiant companion to the X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 provide a unique opportunity to study the nature of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at unprecedented strength. We detect about 180 known DIBs, of which about 25

  9. Unprecedented Al supersaturation in single-phase rock salt structure VAlN films by Al+ subplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Hans, M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Lu, J.; Hultman, L.; Schneider, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    Modern applications of refractory ceramic thin films, predominantly as wear-protective coatings on cutting tools and on components utilized in automotive engines, require a combination of excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, and oxidation resistance. Conventional design approaches for transition metal nitride coatings with improved thermal and chemical stability are based on alloying with Al. It is well known that the solubility of Al in NaCl-structure transition metal nitrides is limited. Hence, the great challenge is to increase the Al concentration substantially while avoiding precipitation of the thermodynamically favored wurtzite-AlN phase, which is detrimental to mechanical properties. Here, we use VAlN as a model system to illustrate a new concept for the synthesis of metastable single-phase NaCl-structure thin films with the Al content far beyond solubility limits obtained with conventional plasma processes. This supersaturation is achieved by separating the film-forming species in time and energy domains through synchronization of the 70-μs-long pulsed substrate bias with intense periodic fluxes of energetic Al+ metal ions during reactive hybrid high power impulse magnetron sputtering of the Al target and direct current magnetron sputtering of the V target in the Ar/N2 gas mixture. Hereby, Al is subplanted into the cubic VN grains formed by the continuous flux of low-energy V neutrals. We show that Al subplantation enables an unprecedented 42% increase in metastable Al solubility limit in V1-xAlxN, from x = 0.52 obtained with the conventional method to 0.75. The elastic modulus is 325 ± 5 GPa, in excellent agreement with density functional theory calculations, and approximately 50% higher than for corresponding films grown by dc magnetron sputtering. The extension of the presented strategy to other Al-ion-assisted vapor deposition methods or materials systems is straightforward, which opens up the way for producing supersaturated single

  10. Aspergilones A and B, two benzylazaphilones with an unprecedented carbon skeleton from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2011-01-01

    Two novel benzylazaphilone derivatives with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, aspergilone A (1), and its symmetrical dimer with a unique methylene bridge, aspergilone B (2), have been isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. from a gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. Their structures and relative stereochemistries of 1 and 2 were elucidated using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 not only exhibited in vitro selective cytotoxicity but also showed potent antifouling activity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unprecedented loss of ammonia assimilation capability in a urease-encoding bacterial mutualist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernegreen Jennifer J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blochmannia are obligately intracellular bacterial mutualists of ants of the tribe Camponotini. Blochmannia perform key nutritional functions for the host, including synthesis of several essential amino acids. We used Illumina technology to sequence the genome of Blochmannia associated with Camponotus vafer. Results Although Blochmannia vafer retains many nutritional functions, it is missing glutamine synthetase (glnA, a component of the nitrogen recycling pathway encoded by the previously sequenced B. floridanus and B. pennsylvanicus. With the exception of Ureaplasma, B. vafer is the only sequenced bacterium to date that encodes urease but lacks the ability to assimilate ammonia into glutamine or glutamate. Loss of glnA occurred in a deletion hotspot near the putative replication origin. Overall, compared to the likely gene set of their common ancestor, 31 genes are missing or eroded in B. vafer, compared to 28 in B. floridanus and four in B. pennsylvanicus. Three genes (queA, visC and yggS show convergent loss or erosion, suggesting relaxed selection for their functions. Eight B. vafer genes contain frameshifts in homopolymeric tracts that may be corrected by transcriptional slippage. Two of these encode DNA replication proteins: dnaX, which we infer is also frameshifted in B. floridanus, and dnaG. Conclusions Comparing the B. vafer genome with B. pennsylvanicus and B. floridanus refines the core genes shared within the mutualist group, thereby clarifying functions required across ant host species. This third genome also allows us to track gene loss and erosion in a phylogenetic context to more fully understand processes of genome reduction.

  12. The Ocean Observatories Initiative: Unprecedented access to real-time data streaming from the Cabled Array through OOI Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, F.; Vardaro, M.; Belabbassi, L.; Smith, M. J.; Garzio, L. M.; Crowley, M. F.; Kerfoot, J.; Kawka, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    The National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), is a broad-scale, multidisciplinary facility that will transform oceanographic research by providing users with unprecedented access to long-term datasets from a variety of deployed physical, chemical, biological, and geological sensors. The Cabled Array component of the OOI, installed and operated by the University of Washington, is located on the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate off the coast of Oregon. It is a unique network of >100 cabled instruments and instrumented moorings transmitting data to shore in real-time via fiber optic technology. Instruments now installed include HD video and digital still cameras, mass spectrometers, a resistivity-temperature probe inside the orifice of a high-temperature hydrothermal vent, upward-looking ADCP's, pH and pC02 sensors, Horizontal Electrometer Pressure Inverted Echosounders and many others. Here, we present the technical aspects of data streaming from the Cabled Array through the OOI Cyberinfrastructure. We illustrate the types of instruments and data products available, data volume and density, processing levels and algorithms used, data delivery methods, file formats and access methods through the graphical user interface. Our goal is to facilitate the use and access to these unprecedented, co-registered oceanographic datasets. We encourage researchers to collaborate through the use of these simultaneous, interdisciplinary measurements, in the exploration of short-lived events (tectonic, volcanic, biological, severe storms), as well as long-term trends in ocean systems (circulation patterns, climate change, ocean acidity, ecosystem shifts).

  13. Yemen's Unprecedented Humanitarian Crisis: Implications for International Humanitarian Law, the Geneva Convention, and the Future of Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The current humanitarian crisis in Yemen is unprecedented in many ways. The Yemeni War tragedy is symptomatic of gross failures to recognize, by combatants, existing humanitarian law and the Geneva Convention that have become the new norm in unconventional armed conflicts and are increasingly replicated in Africa, Afghanistan, and other areas of the Middle East with dire consequences on aid workers and the noncombatant population. The health and humanitarian professions must take collective responsibility in calling for all belligerent parties to cease the massacre and commit to guaranteed medical assistance, humanitarian aid, and the free flow of information and respect for the humanitarian principles that protect the neutrality and impartiality of the humanitarian workforce. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 3).

  14. Unprecedented Integral-Free Debye Temperature Formulas: Sample Applications to Heat Capacities of ZnSe and ZnTe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pässler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analytical and numerical analyses are performed for combinations of several complementary sets of measured heat capacities, for ZnSe and ZnTe, from the liquid-helium region up to 600 K. The isochoric (harmonic parts of heat capacities, CVh(T, are described within the frame of a properly devised four-oscillator hybrid model. Additional anharmonicity-related terms are included for comprehensive numerical fittings of the isobaric heat capacities, Cp(T. The contributions of Debye and non-Debye type due to the low-energy acoustical phonon sections are represented here for the first time by unprecedented, integral-free formulas. Indications for weak electronic contributions to the cryogenic heat capacities are found for both materials. A novel analytical framework has been constructed for high-accuracy evaluations of Debye function integrals via a couple of integral-free formulas, consisting of Debye’s conventional low-temperature series expansion in combination with an unprecedented high-temperature series representation for reciprocal values of the Debye function. The zero-temperature limits of Debye temperatures have been detected from published low-temperature Cp(T data sets to be significantly lower than previously estimated, namely, 270 (±3 K for ZnSe and 220 (±2 K for ZnTe. The high-temperature limits of the “true” (harmonic lattice Debye temperatures are found to be 317 K for ZnSe and 262 K for ZnTe.

  15. hERG Channel Inhibitory Daphnane Diterpenoid Orthoesters and Polycephalones A and B with Unprecedented Skeletons from Gnidia polycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mieri, Maria; Du, Kun; Neuburger, Markus; Saxena, Priyanka; Zietsman, Pieter C; Hering, Steffen; van der Westhuizen, Jan H; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-07-24

    The hERG channel is an important antitarget in safety pharmacology. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market or received severe usage restrictions because of hERG-related cardiotoxicity. In a screening of medicinal plants for hERG channel inhibition using a two-microelectrode voltage clamp assay with Xenopus laevis oocytes, a dichloromethane extract of the roots of Gnidia polycephala reduced the peak tail hERG current by 58.8 ± 13.4% (n = 3) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. By means of HPLC-based activity profiling daphnane-type diterpenoid orthoesters (DDOs) 1, 4, and 5 were identified as the active compounds [55.4 ± 7.0% (n = 4), 42.5 ± 16.0% (n = 3), and 51.3 ± 9.4% (n = 4), respectively, at 100 μM]. In a detailed phytochemical profiling of the active extract, 16 compounds were isolated and characterized, including two 2-phenylpyranones (15 and 16) with an unprecedented tetrahydro-4H-5,8-epoxypyrano[2,3-d]oxepin-4-one skeleton, two new DDOs (3 and 4), two new guaiane sesquiterpenoids (11 and 12), and 10 known compounds (1, 2, 5-10, 13, and 14). Structure elucidation was achieved by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, and electronic circular dichroism), computational methods, and X-ray crystallography.

  16. Magnitudes of nearshore waves generated by tropical cyclone Winston, the strongest landfalling cyclone in South Pacific records. Unprecedented or unremarkable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Lau, A. Y. Annie

    2018-02-01

    We delimit nearshore storm waves generated by category-5 Tropical Cyclone Winston in February 2016 on the northern Fijian island of Taveuni. Wave magnitudes (heights and flow velocities) are hindcast by inverse modelling, based on the characteristics of large carbonate boulders (maximum 33.8 m3, 60.9 metric tons) that were quarried from reef-front sources, transported and deposited on coral reef platforms during Winston and older extreme events. Results indicate that Winston's storm waves on the seaward-margin of reefs fringing the southeastern coasts of Taveuni reached over 10 m in height and generated flow velocities of 14 m s- 1, thus coinciding with the scale of the biggest ancient storms as estimated from pre-existing boulder evidence. We conclude that although Winston tracked an uncommon path and was described as the most powerful storm on record to make landfall in the Fiji Islands, its coastal wave characteristics were not unprecedented on centennial timescales. At least seven events of comparable magnitude have occurred over the last 400 years.

  17. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  18. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.

  19. An unprecedented amplification of near-infrared emission in a Bodipy derived π-system by stress or gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherumukkil, Sandeep; Ghosh, Samrat; Praveen, Vakayil K; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2017-08-01

    We report an unprecedented strategy to generate and amplify near-infrared (NIR) emission in an organic chromophore by mechanical stress or gelation pathways. A greenish-yellow emitting film of π-extended Bodipy-1 , obtained from n -decane, became orange-red upon mechanical shearing, with a 15-fold enhancement in NIR emission at 738 nm. Alternatively, a DMSO gel of Bodipy-1 exhibited a 7-fold enhancement in NIR emission at 748 nm with a change in emission color from yellow to orange-red upon drying. The reason for the amplified NIR emission in both cases is established from the difference in chromophore packing, by single crystal analysis of a model compound ( Bodipy-2 ), which also exhibited a near identical emission spectrum with red to NIR emission (742 nm). Comparison of the emission features and WAXS and FT-IR data of the sheared n -decane film and the DMSO xerogel with the single crystal data supports a head-to-tail slipped arrangement driven by the N-H···F-B bonding in the sheared or xerogel states, which facilitates strong exciton coupling and the resultant NIR emission.

  20. Branched multifunctional polyether polyketals: variation of ketal group structure enables unprecedented control over polymer degradation in solution and within cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Rajesh A; Narayanannair, Jayaprakash K; Hamilton, Jasmine L; Lai, Benjamin F L; Horte, Sonja; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Varghese, Jos P; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Manoharan, Muthiah; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-09-12

    Multifunctional biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials incorporating specific degradable linkages that respond to various stimuli and with defined degradation profiles are critical to the advancement of targeted nanomedicine. Herein we report, for the first time, a new class of multifunctional dendritic polyether polyketals containing different ketal linkages in their backbone that exhibit unprecedented control over degradation in solution and within the cells. High-molecular-weight and highly compact poly(ketal hydroxyethers) (PKHEs) were synthesized from newly designed α-epoxy-ω-hydroxyl-functionalized AB(2)-type ketal monomers carrying structurally different ketal groups (both cyclic and acyclic) with good control over polymer properties by anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization. Polymer functionalization with multiple azide and amine groups was achieved without degradation of the ketal group. The polymer degradation was controlled primarily by the differences in the structure and torsional strain of the substituted ketal groups in the main chain, while for polymers with linear (acyclic) ketal groups, the hydrophobicity of the polymer may play an additional role. This was supported by the log P values of the monomers and the hydrophobicity of the polymers determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as the probe. A range of hydrolysis half-lives of the polymers at mild acidic pH values was achieved, from a few minutes to a few hundred days, directly correlating with the differences in ketal group structures. Confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated similar degradation profiles for PKHEs within live cells, as seen in solution and the delivery of fluorescent marker to the cytosol. The cell viability measured by MTS assay and blood compatibility determined by complement activation, platelet activation, and coagulation assays demonstrate that PKHEs and their degradation products are highly biocompatible. Taken together, these data

  1. Unprecedented antioxidative cyclic ether from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii with anti-cyclooxygenase and lipoxidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-05-01

    An unprecedented non-isoprenoid oxocine carboxylate cyclic ether characterised as (3S, 4R, 5S, 6Z)-3-((R)-hexan-2'-yl)-3,4,5,8-tetrahydro-4-methyl-2H-oxocin-5-yl acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate-methanol extract of the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii. The structure, as well as its relative stereochemistry, was proposed on the basis of extensive spectral data. The antioxidative activity of the isolated metabolite was found to have significantly greater as determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activities (IC 50  ~ 0.3 mg/mL) compared to α-tocopherol (IC 50  > 0.6 mg/mL) and was comparable to the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole (IC 50  ~ 0.35-0.34 mg/mL). The compound exhibited greater activity against COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) than COX-1 (cyclooxygenase-1) isoform, and therefore, the selectivity index remained significantly lesser (anti-COX-1 IC50 : anti-COX-2 IC50 0.87) than synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs (0.02-0.44). No significant difference of in vivo 5-lipoxidase activity (IC 50 0.95 mg/mL) than ibuprofen (IC 50 0.93 mg/mL) indicated the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the title compound.

  2. Observing Planetary Rings and Small Satellites with the James Webb Space Telescope: Science Justification and Observation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Showalter, Mark R.; French, Richard G.; Burns, Joseph A.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; de Pater, Imke; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Tamayo, Daniel; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide unprecedented opportunities to observe the rings and small satellites in our Solar System, accomplishing three primary objectives: (1) discovering new rings and moons, (2) unprecedented spectroscopy, and (3) time-domain observations. We give details on these science objectives and describe requirements that JWST must fulfill in order to accomplish the science objectives.

  3. Hexagonal@Cubic CdS Core@Shell Nanorod Photocatalyst for Highly Active Production of H2with Unprecedented Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui; Han, Min; Chen, Rong; Li, Shun-Li; Xie, Shuai-Lei; Mao, Chengyu; Bu, Xianhui; Cao, Xue-Li; Dong, Long-Zhang; Feng, Pingyun; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2016-10-01

    A highly effective, low-cost strategy for improved photocatalytic efficiency and stability of CdS is described. Based on the integration of hexagonal-cubic core-shell architecture with nanorod morphology, the concentric CdS nanorod phase junctions (NRPJs) obtained demonstrate extremely high H 2 production rate and unprecedented photocatalytic stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  5. Seamless Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Naumchev, Alexandr; Meyer, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Popular notations for functional requirements specifications frequently ignore developers' needs, target specific development models, or require translation of requirements into tests for verification; the results can give out-of-sync or downright incompatible artifacts. Seamless Requirements, a new approach to specifying functional requirements, contributes to developers' understanding of requirements and to software quality regardless of the process, while the process itself becomes lighter...

  6. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires. The haze aerosols sampled were more heat-absorbing than expected, which means the haze layer may have a significant warming influence on the region's atmosphere. For more information, see the press release Image courtesy NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Science Visualization Studio

  7. High density, genome-wide markers and intra-specific replication yield an unprecedented phylogenetic reconstruction of a globally significant, speciose lineage of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Steane, Dorothy A; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2016-12-01

    We used genome-wide markers and an unprecedented scale of sampling to construct a phylogeny for a globally significant Eucalyptus lineage that has been impacted by hybridisation, recent radiation and morphological convergence. Our approach, using 3109 DArT markers distributed throughout the genome and 540 samples covering 185 terminal taxa in sections Maidenaria, Exsertaria, Latoangulatae and related smaller sections, with multiple geographically widespread samples per terminal taxon, produced a phylogeny that largely matched the morphological treatment of sections, though sections Exsertaria and Latoangulatae were polyphyletic. At lower levels there were numerous inconsistencies between the morphological treatment and the molecular phylogeny, and taxa within the three main sections were generally not monophyletic at the series (at least 62% polyphyly) or species (at least 52% polyphyly) level. Some of the discrepancies appear to be the result of morphological convergence or misclassifications, and we propose some taxonomic reassessments to address this. However, many inconsistencies appear to be the products of incomplete speciation and/or hybridisation. Our analysis represents a significant advance on previous phylogenies of these important eucalypt sections (which have mainly used single samples to represent each species), thus providing a robust phylogenetic framework for evolutionary and ecological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unprecedented access to strong and ductile poly(lactic acid) by introducing In Situ Nanofibrillar Poly(butylene succinate) for green packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Niu, Ben; Ji, Xu; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji

    2014-11-10

    The notion of toughening poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by adding flexible biopolymers has generated enormous interest but has yielded few desirable advances, mainly blocked by the sacrifice of strength and stiffness due to uncontrollable phase morphology and poor interfacial interactions. Here the phase control methodology, that is, intense extrusion compounding followed by "slit die extrusion-hot stretching-quenching" technique, was proposed to construct well-aligned, stiff poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanofibrils in the PLA matrix for the first time. We show that generating nanosized discrete droplets of PBS phase during extrusion compounding is key to enable the development of in situ nanofibrillar PBS assisted by the shearing/stretching field. The size of PBS nanofibrils strongly dependent on the PBS content, showing an increased average diameter from 83 to 116 and 236 nm for the composites containing 10, 20, and 40 wt % nanofibrils, respectively. More importantly, hybrid shish-kebab superstructure anchoring ordered PLA kebabs were induced by the PBS nanofibrils serving as the central shish, conferring the creation of tenacious interfacial crystalline ligaments. The exceptional combination of strength, modulus, and ductility for the composites loaded 40 wt % PBS nanofibrils were demonstrated, outperforming pure PLA with the increments of 31, 51, and 72% in strength, modulus, and elongation at break (56.4 MPa, 1702 MPa, and 92.4%), respectively. The high strength, modulus, and ductility are unprecedented for PLA and are in great potential need for packaging applications.

  9. Neutron spectroscopy measurements of 14 MeV neutrons at unprecedented energy resolution and implications for deuterium-tritium fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, D.; Giacomelli, L.; Gorini, G.; Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Angelone, M.; Batistoni, P.; Cufar, A.; Ghani, Z.; Jednorog, S.; Klix, A.; Laszynska, E.; Loreti, S.; Pillon, M.; Popovichev, S.; Roberts, N.; Thomas, D.; Contributors, JET

    2018-04-01

    An accurate calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics with a 14 MeV neutron generator was performed in the first half of 2017 in order to provide a reliable measurement of the fusion power during the next JET deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign. In order to meet the target accuracy, the chosen neutron generator has been fully characterized at the Neutron Metrology Laboratory of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, United Kingdom. The present paper describes the measurements of the neutron energy spectra obtained using a high-resolution single-crystal diamond detector (SCD). The measurements, together with a new neutron source routine ‘ad hoc’ developed for the MCNP code, allowed the complex features of the neutron energy spectra resulting from the mixed D/T beam ions interacting with the T/D target nuclei to be resolved for the first time. From the spectral analysis a quantitative estimation of the beam ion composition has been made. The unprecedented intrinsic energy resolution (neutron spectroscopy on ITER.

  10. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). An unprecedented view of galaxies and large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Fritz, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the construction and general features of VIPERS, the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. This ESO Large Programme is using the Very Large Telescope with the aim of building a spectroscopic sample of ~ 100 000 galaxies with iABcontamination is found to be only 3.2%, endorsing the quality of the star-galaxy separation process and fully confirming the original estimates based on the VVDS data, which also indicate a galaxy incompleteness from this process of only 1.4%. Using a set of 1215 repeated observations, we estimate an rms redshift error σz/ (1 + z) = 4.7 × 10-4 and calibrate the internal spectral quality grading. Benefiting from the combination of size and detailed sampling of this dataset, we conclude by presenting a map showing in unprecedented detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies between 5 and 8 billion years ago. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS website is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  11. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Couch

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM, the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth, and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies, depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting

  12. Requirements Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Elizabeth; Dick, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Written for those who want to develop their knowledge of requirements engineering process, whether practitioners or students.Using the latest research and driven by practical experience from industry, Requirements Engineering gives useful hints to practitioners on how to write and structure requirements. It explains the importance of Systems Engineering and the creation of effective solutions to problems. It describes the underlying representations used in system modeling and introduces the UML2, and considers the relationship between requirements and modeling. Covering a generic multi-layer r

  13. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  14. Combined Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulations Unlock Unprecedented Temporal Elasticity and Reveal Phase-Specific Modulation of the Molecular Circadian Clock of the Mouse Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Andrew P; Chesham, Johanna E; Hastings, Michael H

    2016-09-07

    activity of the CK1ε isoform. In conclusion, extreme period manipulation reveals unprecedented elasticity and temporal structure of the SCN circadian oscillation. The master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) encodes time-of-day information that allows mammals to predict and thereby adapt to daily environmental cycles. Using combined genetic and pharmacological interventions, we assessed the temporal elasticity of the SCN network. Despite having evolved to generate a 24 h circadian period, we show that the molecular clock is surprisingly elastic, able to reversibly sustain coherent periods between ≤17 and >42 h at the levels of individual cells and the overall circuit. Using quantitative techniques to analyze these extreme periodicities, we reveal that the oscillator progresses as a sequence of distinct stages. These findings reveal new properties of how the SCN functions as a network and should inform biological and mathematical analyses of circadian timekeeping. Copyright © 2016 Patton et al.

  15. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  16. A novel octanuclear vanadium(V) oxide cluster complex having an unprecedented neutral V8O20 core functionalized with 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Shintaro; Taya, Nobuto; Ishii, Youichi

    2014-03-17

    A novel octanuclear vanadium(V) oxide cluster complex, [V8O20(4,4'-(t)Bubpy)4] (1), was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis to reveal that 1 has an unprecedented neutral V8O20 core. An unexpected interconversion between 1 and the methoxo(oxo)vanadium(V) cluster complex, [V4O8(OMe)4(4,4'-(t)Bubpy)2] (2), was observed upon changes in the solvent systems.

  17. Plutonium storage: Requirements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Haschke, J.M.; Martz, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The retirement of large numbers of nuclear weapons will necessitate management of unprecedented quantities of excess plutonium. In addition, surplus material and residues from previous weapon production activities comprise a substantial quantity of concentrated plutonium that exists in a variety of chemical forms. Storage of plutonium for an indefinite period will be necessary until a decision regarding ultimate disposition is made. Selection of the most suitable storage option(s) for this interim period is complicated by technical issues, nuclear proliferation concerns, contingency planning, political factors, and uncertainty regarding the length of the interim period. Options for excess plutonium include storage as intact weapon components and storage as extracted nuclear material. Specific advantages for storage of excess material in a variety of chemical forms have been presented. In this paper, technical issues associated with various storage options are examined with emphasis on relevant physical and chemical properties of candidate materials. Technology and facility requirements for preparing and certifying storage forms are considered and recommendations, based on our assessment of options, are presented

  18. Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials

  19. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Unprecedented hetero-geometric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu1 unit attached with Cu2 unit via moderately strong H-bonding between sulphur atoms (yellow coloured) of terminal thiocyanate ions and hydrogen atoms (pale blue coloured). Figure S3. UV-Vis spectrum of the Cu complex in MeCN. Figure S4. EPR spectra of the Cu complex at RT and LT in MeCN. Figure S5. Plot of rate ...

  20. Exploring the unprecedented rise in Danish burglary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David W.M.

    2012-01-01

    burglary increased so dramatically. This paper explores four sets of possible explanations for the increase, namely: Changes in public reporting, police recording and insurance practices; changes in population age, drug use and economic recession; increasing crime tourism; and impediments policing caused...... by the National Police Reform of 2007. While some or all of these factors may have contributed to the overall rise, none of them come close to explaining it on their own. This absence of evidence is especially interesting in light of widespread assumptions in the media and among some police about foreign burglary......-year period 2005-2010, plus data on long term crime trends (1990-2010) and other social indicators....

  1. Materials on the brink: unprecedented transforming materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Mudivarthi, J. R. Cullen , A. B. Flatau, W.-C. Chen, S. M. Watson, M. Wuttig. Magnetostriction and Magnetic Heterogeneities in Iron-Gallium...doi: 12/18/2012 7.00 Y. Yang, , L. J. Li, , J. Y. Li . Monte Carlo simulation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BiFeO3 , Appl. Phys. Lett

  2. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  3. The Free Energy Requirements of Biological Organisms; Implications for Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wolpert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in nonequilibrium statistical physics have provided unprecedented insight into the thermodynamics of dynamic processes. The author recently used these advances to extend Landauer’s semi-formal reasoning concerning the thermodynamics of bit erasure, to derive the minimal free energy required to implement an arbitrary computation. Here, I extend this analysis, deriving the minimal free energy required by an organism to run a given (stochastic map π from its sensor inputs to its actuator outputs. I use this result to calculate the input-output map π of an organism that optimally trades off the free energy needed to run π with the phenotypic fitness that results from implementing π. I end with a general discussion of the limits imposed on the rate of the terrestrial biosphere’s information processing by the flux of sunlight on the Earth.

  4. Unprecedented conformational variability in main group inorganic chemistry: the tetraazidoarsenite and -antimonite salts A+ [M(N3)4]- (A = NMe4, PPh4, (Ph3P)2N; M = As, Sb), five similar salts, five different anion structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiges, Ralf; Rahm, Martin; Christe, Karl O

    2013-01-07

    A unique example for conformational variability in inorganic main group chemistry has been discovered. The arrangement of the azido ligands in the pseudotrigonal bipyramidal [As(N(3))(4)](-) and [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) anions theoretically can give rise to seven different conformers which have identical MN(4) skeletons but different azido ligand arrangements and very similar energies. We have now synthesized and structurally characterized five of these conformers by subtle variations in the nature of the counterion. Whereas conformational variability is common in organic chemistry, it is rare in inorganic main group chemistry and is usually limited to two. To our best knowledge, the experimental observation of five distinct single conformers for the same type of anion is unprecedented. Theoretical calculations at the M06-2X/cc-pwCVTZ-PP level for all seven possible basic conformers show that (1) the energy differences between the five experimentally observed conformers are about 1 kcal/mol or less, and (2) the free monomeric anions are the energetically favored species in the gas phase and also for [As(N(3))(4)](-) in the solid state, whereas for [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) associated anions are energetically favored in the solid state and possibly in solutions. Raman spectroscopy shows that in the azide antisymmetric stretching region, the solid-state spectra are distinct for the different conformers, and permits their identification. The spectra of solutions are solvent dependent and differ from those of the solids indicating the presence of rapidly exchanging equilibria of different conformers. The only compound for which a solid with a single well-ordered conformer could not be isolated was [N(CH(3))(4)][As(N(3))(4)] which formed a viscous, room-temperature ionic liquid. Its Raman spectrum was identical to that of its CH(3)CN solution indicating the presence of an equilibrium of multiple conformers.

  5. Pro-toxic 1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Esters, Including Unprecedented 10-Membered Macrocyclic Diesters, in the Medicinally-used Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae: Nerieae and Apocyneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Betz, Joseph M; Fischer, Ottmar W; Liede-Schumann, Sigrid; Boppré, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Within the Apocynoideae (Apocynaceae) pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids have been reported only in Echiteae. However, attraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects suggested their presence in Alafia cf. caudata Stapf (Nerieae: Alafiinae) and Amphineurion marginatum (Roxb.) D.J. Middleton (Apocyneae: Amphineuriinae), both used as medicinal plants. To confirm the presence of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in Alafia cf. caudata and Amphineurion marginatum and identify their structures. Methanol extracts of air-dried roots, stems and leaves of non-flowering plants were analysed using HPLC-ESI(+)MS and MS/MS or collision-induced dissociation MS in low and/or high resolution modes. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on the mass spectrometry data. Solid phase extraction combined with semi-preparative HPLC were used to isolate major alkaloids. Structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. Monoesters of retronecine with senecioic, hydroxysenecioic or syringic acids were identified in roots of Alafia cf. caudata. Two unprecedented 10-membered macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters were isolated from roots of Amphineurion marginatum. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in root and leaf material of Alafia cf. caudata at 0.34 and 0.01% dry weight (DW), and 0.13, 0.02 and 0.09% DW in root, leaf and stem material of Amphineurion marginatum. The presence of pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids suggests that medical preparations of these plants pose potential health risks to consumers. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are evidently more widespread in Apocynoideae than previously assumed, and it would seem rewarding to study other members of this family for the presence of pyrrolizidines, dehydropyrrolizidines and dihydropyrrolizines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  7. Discovering system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  8. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  9. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  10. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  11. Future Home Network Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonnier, Benoit; Wessing, Henrik; Lannoo, Bart

    This paper presents the requirements for future Home Area Networks (HAN). Firstly, we discuss the applications and services as well as their requirements. Then, usage scenarios are devised to establish a first specification for the HAN. The main requirements are an increased bandwidth (towards 1...

  12. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  13. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... involvement and requirements elicitation Usable security requirements for design of privacy...

  14. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, D.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study is an empirical investigation of requirements evolution for groupware systems in use by means of case studies. Its goal is to contribute to the development of a theory of requirements evolution. A conceptual framework offering an integrated view of requirements as a collection of domains

  15. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  16. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  17. Semantic Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements engineering (RE) techniques play a crucial role in information systems development processes. There are many excellent techniques of RE to assist requirements analysts and stakeholders in producing requirements specification of higher quality, and some of them are put into practice in industry. However, one of the issues of these RE techniques is that they do not handle semantic aspects of requirements. If we can deal with the meaning of requirements by using automated techniques, we can get more effective RE techniques to produce requirements specifications of higher quality. In this chapter, we consider an ontology as a semantic domain so as to provide the meaning for requirements, and discuss the potentials of the RE techniques using an ontology as a semantic basis. Especially, we illustrate an extension of goal-oriented requirements analysis where this idea is embedded, i.e. we provide the semantics for goal descriptions written in natural language using a mapping from them to an ontology. The inference mechanisms of the ontology allow us to decompose a goal into sub-goals and to find missing goals. Furthermore, in this chapter we discuss the possibilities of the techniques to support the other activities of RE processes using this ontological technique, e.g. measuring quality metrics and controlling versions of requirements from a semantic view. Due to similarity to Semantic Web techniques, we call a family of these engineering techniques Semantic Requirements Engineering in this chapter.

  18. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  19. Creativity in Requirement Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Olesen, Henning

    Traditional requirements engineering focuses mainly on analysis and elicitation. However, current trends in new system, device and software are towards involving all stakeholders in the early stages of the engineering process to define the user requirements. Creativity is here seen as a major...

  20. Navigating the Requirements Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Boris; Tautschnig, Michael

    Research on validation and verification of requirements specifications has thus far focused on functional properties. Yet, in embedded systems, functional requirements constitute only a small fraction of the properties that must hold to guarantee proper and safe operation of the system under design.

  1. Writing testable software requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirk, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  2. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems......, and different software. That makes the elicitation of user requirements an inherent part of any software development project and a resourceful activity as well. This book provides insights to the process of identifying user requirements and to different types by describing varying case studies in which...

  3. Requirements in engineering projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, João M

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on various topics related to engineering and management of requirements, in particular elicitation, negotiation, prioritisation, and documentation (whether with natural languages or with graphical models). The book provides methods and techniques that help to characterise, in a systematic manner, the requirements of the intended engineering system.  It was written with the goal of being adopted as the main text for courses on requirements engineering, or as a strong reference to the topics of requirements in courses with a broader scope. It can also be used in vocational courses, for professionals interested in the software and information systems domain.   Readers who have finished this book will be able to: - establish and plan a requirements engineering process within the development of complex engineering systems; - define and identify the types of relevant requirements in engineering projects; - choose and apply the most appropriate techniques to elicit the requirements of a giv...

  4. Science requirements and the design of cabled ocean observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mikada

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ocean sciences are beginning a new phase in which scientists will enter the ocean environment and adaptively observe the Earth-Ocean system through remote control of sensors and sensor platforms. This new ocean science paradigm will be implemented using innovative facilities called ocean observatories which provide unprecedented levels of power and communication to access and manipulate real-time sensor networks deployed within many different environments in the ocean basins. Most of the principal design drivers for ocean observatories differ from those for commercial submarine telecommunications systems. First, ocean observatories require data to be input and output at one or more seafloor nodes rather than at a few land terminuses. Second, ocean observatories must distribute a lot of power to the seafloor at variable and fluctuating rates. Third, the seafloor infrastructure for an ocean observatory inherently requires that the wet plant be expandable and reconfigurable. Finally, because the wet communications and power infrastructure is comparatively complex, ocean observatory infrastructure must be designed for low life cycle cost rather than zero maintenance. The origin of these differences may be understood by taking a systems engineering approach to ocean observatory design through examining the requirements derived from science and then going through the process of iterative refinement to yield conceptual and physical designs. This is illustrated using the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory power and data communications sub-systems.

  5. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  6. Turning Desirements into Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    27 Defense AT&L: September–October 2015 Turning “Desirements” into Requirements Charles Court Court is the Requirements Center Director at the...Defense Systems Management College at the Defense Acquisition University at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. He is a former Wild Weasel Electronic Warfare Officer...a Mustang would do much better. (The author wanted the Aston Martin from the movie “Goldfinger.” You know: The one with the ejection seat, automated

  7. Automatic requirements traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Andžiulytė, Justė

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on automatic requirements traceability and algorithms that automatically find recommendation links for requirements. The main objective of this paper is the evaluation of these algorithms and preparation of the method defining algorithms to be used in different cases. This paper presents and examines probabilistic, vector space and latent semantic indexing models of information retrieval and association rule mining using authors own implementations of these algorithms and o...

  8. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  9. BRD usability requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-12

    This document describes the usability requirements for the Biosurveillance resource directory (BRD); that is, who will be using the tool and what tasks they will be using it for. It does not include information on technical implementation (e.g., whether specific information is contained in the database or pulled on demand from other sources). It also avoids specific design ideas (such as widget descriptions) unless they are necessary to illustrate a requirement.

  10. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  11. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  12. NP Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rotman, Lauren [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  13. Quantifying requirements volatility effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2008-01-01

    In an organization operating in the bancassurance sector we identified a low-risk IT subportfolio of 84 IT projects comprising together 16,500 function points, each project varying in size and duration, for which we were able to quantify its requirements volatility. This representative portfolio

  14. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plata, Charity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  15. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ely, James H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Harper, Warren W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heimbigner, Tom R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hubbard, Charles W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Humble, Paul H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Madison, Jill C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Panisko, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ripplinger, Mike D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stewart, Timothy L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  16. Requirements for Xenon International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  17. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  18. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning......This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  19. Ecodesign requirements for televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    phase. This is not in line with the scientific understanding of ecodesign, where attention should be put on all life cycle phases and all relevant environmental impact categories. This study focuses on the requirements for televisions (TV). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out on two TVs...... to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs....... In one case, the data were delivered in Excel spreadsheets; in the other case, the authors of this paper together with the manufacturer disassembled a TV and collected the data manually. Results and discussion When applying the consequential approach, the production phase has the highest environmental...

  20. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  1. LHCb Online Networking Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, B

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the networking requirements of the LHCb online installation. It lists both quantitative aspects such as the number of required switch ports, as well as some qualitative features of the equipment, such as minimum buffer sizes in switches. The document comprises both the data acquisition network and the controls/general-purpose network. While the numbers represent our best current knowledge and are intended to give (in particular) network equipment manufacturers an overview of our needs, this document should not be confused with a market survey questionnaire or a formal tendering document. However the information contained in this document will be the input of any such document. A preliminary schedule for procurement and installation is also given.

  2. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  3. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  4. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM

  5. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  6. Nm-scale spatial resolution x-ray imaging with MLL nanofocusing optics: instrumentational requirements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaretski, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yan, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lauer, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kalbfleisch, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yan, Hui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Li, Li [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bouet, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhou, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shu, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Conley, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Chu, Y. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN) beamline at NSLS-II has been designed and constructed to enable imaging experiments with unprecedented spatial resolution and detection sensitivity. The HXN X-ray Microscope is a key instrument for the beamline, providing a suite of experimental capabilities which includes scanning fluorescence, diffraction, differential phase contrast and ptychography utilizing Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLL) and zoneplate (ZP) as nanofocusing optics. In this paper, we present technical requirements for the MLL-based scanning microscope, outline the development concept and present first ~15 x 15 nm2 spatial resolution x-ray fluorescence images.

  7. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  8. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  9. NIRVANA network requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, B.J.

    1990-08-01

    NIRVANA is an effort to standardize electrical computer-aided design workstations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The early effect of this project will be the introduction of at least 60 new engineering workstations at Sandia National Laboratories. Albuquerque, and at Allied Signal, Kansas City Division. These workstations are expected to begin arriving in September 1990. This paper proposes a design and outlines the requirements for a network to support the NIRVANA project. The author proposes a near-term network design, describes the security profile and caveats of this design, and proposes a long-term networking strategy for NIRVANA. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Finding Incorrect and Missing Quality Requirements Definitions Using Requirements Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Atsushi

    Defining quality requirements completely and correctly is more difficult than defining functional requirements because stakeholders do not state most of quality requirements explicitly. We thus propose a method to measure a requirements specification for identifying the amount of quality requirements in the specification. We also propose another method to recommend quality requirements to be defined in such a specification. We expect stakeholders can identify missing and unnecessary quality requirements when measured quality requirements are different from recommended ones. We use a semi-formal language called X-JRDL to represent requirements specifications because it is suitable for analyzing quality requirements. We applied our methods to a requirements specification, and found our methods contribute to defining quality requirements more completely and correctly.

  11. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  12. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Finding Incorrect and Missing Quality Requirements Definitions Using Requirements Frame

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiya, Haruhiko; Ohnishi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Defining quality requirements completely and correctly is more difficult than defining functional requirements because stakeholders do not state most of quality requirements explicitly. We thus propose a method to measure a requirements specification for identifying the amount of quality requirements in the specification. We also propose another method to recommend quality requirements to be defined in such a specification. We expect stakeholders can identify missing and unnecessary quality r...

  14. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  15. SOFG: Standards requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, V.; Brashkova, N.

    2005-01-01

    It is well-known that Solid Oxide Fuel Cells will have industrial application in the nearest future. In this context, the problem of SOFC materials and SOFC systems standardization is of high level of priority. In the present study the attention is focused on the methods for physical and chemical characterization of the materials for SOFC components fabrication and about requirements on single SOFC cells tests. The status of the CEN, ISO, ASTM (ANSI, ASSN) and JIS class of standards has been verified. Standards regarding the test methods for physical-chemical characterization of vitreous materials (as sealing SOFC component), ceramic materials (as electrodes and electrolyte components, including alternative materials used) and metallic materials (interconnect components) are subject of overview. It is established that electrical, mechanical, surface and interfacial phenomena, chemical durability and thermal corrosion behaviour are the key areas for standardization of the materials for SOFC components

  16. SDC detector foundation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western, J.L.; Butalla, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) Detector weighs approximately 32,000 metric tons, and its ability to perform to design specifications is directly related to its internal alignment. The limits of the misalignment tolerance envelope in combination with the detector weight impose a set of tolerance limits of performance directly upon the foundation structure. The foundation must accommodate different detector loading conditions during installation, operation, maintenance, and future enhancements. The foundation must also respond to the loading conditions within a restrictive set of displacement limitations in order to maintain the detector's critical alignment, thereby guaranteeing its operational integrity. This paper will present the results of this study, which has been issued to the Architect Engineer/Construction Manager as user requirements of design. The total structural system performance of the combination of both the detector and its foundation will be discussed

  17. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  18. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  19. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  20. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  1. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  2. Child. Unprecedented achievement. National vaccination coverage reaches 95 percent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W

    1994-03-01

    China actively promotes child health in the international arena. It has signed the Declaration for the World Summit for Children in 1991, contributed to the drafting of and ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and supports the UN General Assembly's approval of the Convention. The government has established a National Program of Action for Children, which has 10 major goals for the year 2000. In January, 1992, it passed a comprehensive national law on the protection of juveniles that secures children's rights. The infant mortality rate in China has fallen from 200 to 34/1000 live births in the last 40 years. Severe malnutrition among 5-year-old children is rare. Almost all children (95%) have been vaccinated against common childhood diseases. Nationwide, primary school enrollment has reached 97%. In 1993, 207 hospitals have achieved Baby Friendly status, indicating that they promote breast feeding. China needs a system to monitor child health and to identify ways to reach those children who do not have access to quality health care. About 40% of all cases of iodine deficiency in the world live in China. With support from UN agencies and WHO, China has stepped up efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, particularly in women and children, by the year 2000. Since China is experiencing 2 new phenomena (1-child families and change in family values as a result of rapid socioeconomic development), the country should develop and foster strategies to improve, support, and recognize the family as the social unit which provides proper child development. China aims to eliminate polio and neonatal tetanus by 1995. China's commitment to child health, proper use of resources, and the public's support for child health development indicate that China faces a prosperous future for its children.

  3. An unprecedented UV/optical flare in TV Columbae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, P.; Mateo, M.

    1984-01-01

    A surprising, 2 mag, short time scale (hr) outburst of TV Col (2A 0526-328) was observed simultaneously at IUE and optical wavelengths in 1982 November. During this 'flare', the IUE emission lines of N v 1240, C IV 1550, and He II 1640, intensified by more than an order of magnitude and developed P Cygni profiles, indicating mass loss. Continuum fits with a power-law plus a blackbody from the UV through the optical showed a steepening of the UV power-law component and an increase in the temperature and size of the blackbody component during the flare activity. This unusual behavior is discussed in terms of an accretion disk instability.

  4. Unprecedented hetero-geometric discrete copper(II) complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dpa)2(NCS)2](ClO4)2 (1). [dpa = 2,2 -dipyridylamine; SCN = thiocyanate], has been synthesized and crystallographically characterized with the aim to study the catecholase activity. The Cu(II) complex mimics the full catalytic cycle of the active.

  5. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin eApte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value-based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty which blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multi-disciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform which can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient-entered, embodies the highest quality in research and education, yet transforms into a sustainable and agile sub-specialty to pro-actively and effectively manage the immense and relentless financial pressures and regulatory expectations that will be faced over the next decade.

  6. Carbon loss from an unprecedented Arctic tundra wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michelle C; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Hollingsworth, Teresa N; Jandt, Randi R; Schuur, Edward A G; Shaver, Gaius R; Verbyla, David L

    2011-07-27

    Arctic tundra soils store large amounts of carbon (C) in organic soil layers hundreds to thousands of years old that insulate, and in some cases maintain, permafrost soils. Fire has been largely absent from most of this biome since the early Holocene epoch, but its frequency and extent are increasing, probably in response to climate warming. The effect of fires on the C balance of tundra landscapes, however, remains largely unknown. The Anaktuvuk River fire in 2007 burned 1,039 square kilometres of Alaska's Arctic slope, making it the largest fire on record for the tundra biome and doubling the cumulative area burned since 1950 (ref. 5). Here we report that tundra ecosystems lost 2,016 ± 435 g C m(-2) in the fire, an amount two orders of magnitude larger than annual net C exchange in undisturbed tundra. Sixty per cent of this C loss was from soil organic matter, and radiocarbon dating of residual soil layers revealed that the maximum age of soil C lost was 50 years. Scaled to the entire burned area, the fire released approximately 2.1 teragrams of C to the atmosphere, an amount similar in magnitude to the annual net C sink for the entire Arctic tundra biome averaged over the last quarter of the twentieth century. The magnitude of ecosystem C lost by fire, relative to both ecosystem and biome-scale fluxes, demonstrates that a climate-driven increase in tundra fire disturbance may represent a positive feedback, potentially offsetting Arctic greening and influencing the net C balance of the tundra biome.

  7. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Donier

    Full Text Available Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes.

  8. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes.

  9. Recent unprecedented numbers of Red-necked Phalaropes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Technetium-99m nitrido radiopharmaceuticals with unprecedented biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Duatti

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical methods for the production of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals containing a terminal TcºN triple bond have been established more than a decade ago. From that time, the chemistry of nitrido Tc-99m complexes has provided a highly efficient tool for the design and preparation of novel classes of diagnostic agents, and a number of potentially useful radiopharmaceuticals have been discovered. In particular, nitrido technetium-99m tracers have been developed for heart perfusion imaging. In this short review, the chemical and biological properties of the neutral myocardial perfusion tracer bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyl-dithiocarbamato nitrido Tc-99m (TcN-NOEt will be summarized along with the preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of the first class of monocationic nitrido technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals exhibiting improved biodistribution properties closer to those expected for an ideal perfusion imaging agent.Os métodos químicos para produção de radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m contendo a ligação tripla terminal TcºN foram estabelecidos há mais de uma década. Desde esta época, a química dos complexos nitridos marcados com 99mTc tem sido uma ferramenta altamente eficiente para o desenho e preparo de novas classes de agentes para diagnóstico e, foi descoberto um número de radiofarmacos potencialmente úteis. Nesta pequena revisão, as propriedades biológicas e químicas do traçador para perfusão miocárdica neutra, o bis(N-etoxi, N-etil-ditiocarbamato nitrido 99mTc (TcN-NOEt, serão resumidas junto com o preparo e avaliação biológica preliminar da primeira classe de radiofármacos nitrido monocatiônico marcado com tecnécio-99m que exibe melhores propriedades em relação à biodistribuição, mais próximas daquelas esperadas para um agente perfusor ideal para imagens.

  11. Champion lineman scores unprecedented 100 on written test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-01-15

    The 27th annual international lineman's rodeo saw a lineman from Duke Energy Distribution named World Champion Apprentice. He was also the first competitor to score 100 % in the written test and finished first in the apprentice category in the investor owned utility (IOU) division. The apprentice division is made up of linemen within their first four years of trade. Events include a hurt man rescue, pole climb, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mystery event and a written test. The rodeo began in 1984, and this year more than 650 men competed.

  12. Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, David S; Naylor, Rosamond L

    2009-01-09

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.

  13. Cognition 2035: Surviving a Complex Environment Through Unprecedented Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    fictional literature and film . Iconic AIs include Asimov’s robots, HAL in 2001: Space Odyssey, the ship’s computer on Star Trek, and Star Wars’ C3PO, to...Cultural Concerns One consideration that should be taken into account when deciding whether to promote the development of superintelligence is that if... superintelligence is feasible, it will likely be developed sooner or later. Therefore, we will probably one day have to take the gamble of

  14. Soil bacteria show different tolerance ranges to an unprecedented disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jurburg, Stephanie; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste

    2018-01-01

    of functional response groups (FRGs). Increasing microwaving doses resulted in 90% loss in total and transcriptionally active bacterial communities after 6.8 and 4.7 min, respectively. Four distinct FRGs with peculiar phylogenetic signatures were identified, revealing a link between taxonomy and increasing...

  15. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust

  16. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia.The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely:1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools.2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth.3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector.4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-4

  17. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia. The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely: 1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools. 2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth. 3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector. 4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.

  18. A Year of Unprecedented Progress in Down Syndrome Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Roger H.; Garner, Craig C.

    2007-01-01

    The years 2006 and 2007 saw the publication of three new and different approaches to prevention or amelioration of Down syndrome effects on the brain and cognition. We describe the animal model systems that were critical to this progress, review these independent breakthrough studies, and discuss the implications for therapeutic approaches…

  19. The unprecedented 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Holbrook, Neil J.; Mundy, Craig N.; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    The Tasman Sea off southeast Australia exhibited its longest and most intense marine heatwave ever recorded in 2015/16. Here we report on several inter-related aspects of this event: observed characteristics, physical drivers, ecological impacts and the role of climate change. This marine heatwave lasted for 251 days reaching a maximum intensity of 2.9??C above climatology. The anomalous warming is dominated by anomalous convergence of heat linked to the southward flowing East Australian Curr...

  20. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes. PMID:26448333

  1. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered, embodies the highest quality in research and education, yet transforms into a sustainable and agile sub-specialty to pro-actively and effectively manage the immense and relentless financial pressures and regulatory expectations that will be faced over the next decade.

  2. The unprecedented 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Holbrook, Neil J.; Mundy, Craig N.; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.

    2017-07-01

    The Tasman Sea off southeast Australia exhibited its longest and most intense marine heatwave ever recorded in 2015/16. Here we report on several inter-related aspects of this event: observed characteristics, physical drivers, ecological impacts and the role of climate change. This marine heatwave lasted for 251 days reaching a maximum intensity of 2.9 °C above climatology. The anomalous warming is dominated by anomalous convergence of heat linked to the southward flowing East Australian Current. Ecosystem impacts range from new disease outbreaks in farmed shellfish, mortality of wild molluscs and out-of-range species observations. Global climate models indicate it is very likely to be that the occurrence of an extreme warming event of this duration or intensity in this region is respectively >=330 times and >=6.8 times as likely to be due to the influence of anthropogenic climate change. Climate projections indicate that event likelihoods will increase in the future, due to increasing anthropogenic influences.

  3. Carbon loss from an unprecedented Arctic tundra wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michelle C.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Jandt, Randi R.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Verbyla, David L.

    2011-07-01

    Arctic tundra soils store large amounts of carbon (C) in organic soil layers hundreds to thousands of years old that insulate, and in some cases maintain, permafrost soils. Fire has been largely absent from most of this biome since the early Holocene epoch, but its frequency and extent are increasing, probably in response to climate warming. The effect of fires on the C balance of tundra landscapes, however, remains largely unknown. The Anaktuvuk River fire in 2007 burned 1,039 square kilometres of Alaska's Arctic slope, making it the largest fire on record for the tundra biome and doubling the cumulative area burned since 1950 (ref. 5). Here we report that tundra ecosystems lost 2,016+/-435gCm-2 in the fire, an amount two orders of magnitude larger than annual net C exchange in undisturbed tundra. Sixty per cent of this C loss was from soil organic matter, and radiocarbon dating of residual soil layers revealed that the maximum age of soil C lost was 50 years. Scaled to the entire burned area, the fire released approximately 2.1teragrams of C to the atmosphere, an amount similar in magnitude to the annual net C sink for the entire Arctic tundra biome averaged over the last quarter of the twentieth century. The magnitude of ecosystem C lost by fire, relative to both ecosystem and biome-scale fluxes, demonstrates that a climate-driven increase in tundra fire disturbance may represent a positive feedback, potentially offsetting Arctic greening and influencing the net C balance of the tundra biome.

  4. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered, embodies the highest quality in research and education, yet transforms into a sustainable and agile sub-specialty to pro-actively and effectively manage the immense and relentless financial pressures and regulatory expectations that will be faced over the next decade. PMID:27148476

  5. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  6. Requirements Reasoning for Distributed Requirements Analysis using Semantic Wiki

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; Clerc, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    In large-scale collaborative software projects, thousands of requirements with complex interdependencies and different granularity spreading in different levels are elicited, documented, and evolved during the project lifecycle. Non-technical stakeholders involved in requirements engineering

  7. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  8. II - Detector simulation for the LHC and beyond : how to match computing resources and physics requirements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Detector simulation at the LHC is one of the most computing intensive activities. In these lectures we will show how physics requirements were met for the LHC experiments and extrapolate to future experiments (FCC-hh case). At the LHC, detectors are complex, very precise and ambitious: this implies modern modelisation tools for geometry and response. Events are busy and characterised by an unprecedented energy scale with hundreds of particles to be traced and high energy showers to be accurately simulated. Furthermore, high luminosities imply many events in a bunch crossing and many bunch crossings to be considered at the same time. In addition, backgrounds not directly correlated to bunch crossings have also to be taken into account. Solutions chosen for ATLAS (a mixture of detailed simulation and fast simulation/parameterisation) will be described and CPU and memory figures will be given. An extrapolation to the FCC-hh case will be tried by taking as example the calorimeter simulation.

  9. I - Detector Simulation for the LHC and beyond: how to match computing resources and physics requirements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Detector simulation at the LHC is one of the most computing intensive activities. In these lectures we will show how physics requirements were met for the LHC experiments and extrapolate to future experiments (FCC-hh case). At the LHC, detectors are complex, very precise and ambitious: this implies modern modelisation tools for geometry and response. Events are busy and characterised by an unprecedented energy scale with hundreds of particles to be traced and high energy showers to be accurately simulated. Furthermore, high luminosities imply many events in a bunch crossing and many bunch crossings to be considered at the same time. In addition, backgrounds not directly correlated to bunch crossings have also to be taken into account. Solutions chosen for ATLAS (a mixture of detailed simulation and fast simulation/parameterisation) will be described and CPU and memory figures will be given. An extrapolation to the FCC-hh case will be tried by taking as example the calorimeter simulation.

  10. Self-organized criticality in glassy spin systems requires a diverging number of neighbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Juan Carlos; Zhu, Zheng; Andrist, Ruben S; Katzgraber, Helmut G; Dobrosavljević, V; Zimanyi, Gergely T

    2013-08-30

    We investigate the conditions required for general spin systems with frustration and disorder to display self-organized criticality, a property which so far has been established only for the fully connected infinite-range Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Ising spin-glass model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1034 (1999)]. Here, we study both avalanche and magnetization jump distributions triggered by an external magnetic field, as well as internal field distributions in the short-range Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass for various space dimensions between 2 and 8, as well as the fixed-connectivity mean-field Viana-Bray model. Our numerical results, obtained on systems of unprecedented size, demonstrate that self-organized criticality is recovered only in the strict limit of a diverging number of neighbors and is not a generic property of spin-glass models in finite space dimensions.

  11. Waste management system requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This volume defines the top level requirements for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1 of the WMSR, General System Requirements. It provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MGDS in Volume 1 and elaborates on each requirement by providing associated performance criteria as appropriate. Volumes 1 and 4 of the WMSR provide a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MGDS design. This document sets forth specific requirements that must be fulfilled. It is not the intent or purpose of this top level document to describe how each requirement is to be satisfied in the final MGDS design. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy must provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements is to be implemented in the design. It is expected that each subsequent level of requirements will be significantly more detailed. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional description of the MGDS. Each function is addressed in terms of requirements, and performance criteria. Section 3 provides a list of controlling documents. Each document cited in a requirement of Chapter 2 is included in this list and is incorporated into this document as a requirement on the final system. The WMSR addresses only federal requirements (i.e., laws, regulations and DOE orders). State and local requirements are not addressed. However, it will be specifically noted at the potentially affected WMSR requirements that there could be additional or more stringent regulations imposed by a state or local requirements or administering agency over the cited federal requirements

  12. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Stephan R.; Baker, David Frank; Schuh, Andrew E.; Abshire, James Brice; Browell, Edward V.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument.

  13. Imperfect Requirements in Software Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.; van den Broek, P.M.; Aksit, Mehmet; Sawyer, Pete; Paech, Barbara; Heymans, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Requirement Specifications are very difficult to define. Due to lack of information and differences in interpretation, software engineers are faced with the necessity to redesign and iterate. This imperfection in software requirement specifications is commonly addressed by incremental design. In

  14. Requirement Development Process and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Requirements capture the system-level capabilities in a set of complete, necessary, clear, attainable, traceable, and verifiable statements of need. Requirements should not be unduly restrictive, but should set limits that eliminate items outside the boundaries drawn, encourage competition (or alternatives), and capture source and reason of requirement. If it is not needed by the customer, it is not a requirement. They establish the verification methods that will lead to product acceptance. These must be reproducible assessment methods.

  15. Waste Management System Requirement document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This volume defines the top level technical requirements for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. It is designed to be used in conjunction with Volume 1, General System Requirements. Volume 3 provides a functional description expanding the requirements allocated to the MRS facility in Volume 1 and, when appropriate, elaborates on requirements by providing associated performance criteria. Volumes 1 and 3 together convey a minimum set of requirements that must be satisfied by the final MRS facility design without unduly constraining individual design efforts. The requirements are derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA), the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (40 CFR 191), NRC Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear and High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR 72), and other federal statutory and regulatory requirements, and major program policy decisions. This document sets forth specific requirements that will be fulfilled. Each subsequent level of the technical document hierarchy will be significantly more detailed and provide further guidance and definition as to how each of these requirements will be implemented in the design. Requirements appearing in Volume 3 are traceable into the MRS Design Requirements Document. Section 2 of this volume provides a functional breakdown for the MRS facility. 1 tab

  16. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  17. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  18. Tool-based requirement traceability between requirement and design artifacts

    CERN Document Server

    Turban, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinkin

  19. Developing a Standard Based Advanced Lab Course that Fulfills COM3 Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Rudi

    2015-03-01

    An advanced physics lab has been developed into a course that fulfills the requirements for a university studies program `COM3' course using Standard Teaching (ST) methods. The COM3 course is a capstone course under the new USP2015 study requirements for all majors. It replaces the WC writing requirement, typically filled in the English Dept., and adds the teaching of oral and digital communication skills. ST is a method that replaces typical assessments (homework / exam grades) with new assessments that measure certain specified learning outcomes. In combination with oral assessments and an oral final exam, the ST proves an efficient tool to implement the USP Learning Outcomes into a physics course. COM3 requires an unprecedented seven learning outcomes in a single course. Variety of learning outcomes: interdisciplinary goals, levels of writing (with drafting steps), organizational structure, standard language metrics, research and presentation deliverance skills, appropriate addressing of a variety of audiences, etc. With other assessment approaches than ST this variety would be difficult to meet in a physics course. An extended ST rubric has been developed for this course and will be presented and discussed in some detail.

  20. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  1. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  2. Information requirements for enterprise systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Lock, Russell; Storer, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss an approach to system requirements engineering, which is based on using models of the responsibilities assigned to agents in a multi-agency system of systems. The responsibility models serve as a basis for identifying the stakeholders that should be considered in establishing the requirements and provide a basis for a structured approach, described here, for information requirements elicitation. We illustrate this approach using a case study drawn from civil emergenc...

  3. Addressing the Resource Requirements Mismatch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braun, William

    2003-01-01

    ... on the other, appear to be developing a requirements-resource mismatch. The goals and objectives of the transformation rhetoric intuitively resonate with the military's increasingly technologic culture...

  4. Requirements for Medical Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The development of tailor-made domain-specific modeling languages is sometimes desirable in medical informatics. Naturally, the development of such languages should be guided. The purpose of this article is to introduce a set of requirements for such languages and show their application in analyzing and comparing existing modeling languages. Design: The requirements arise from the practical experience of the authors and others in the development of modeling languages in both general informatics and medical informatics. The requirements initially emerged from the analysis of information modeling techniques. The requirements are designed to be orthogonal, i.e., one requirement can be violated without violation of the others. Results: The proposed requirements for any modeling language are that it be “formal” with regard to syntax and semantics, “conceptual,” “expressive,” “comprehensible,” “suitable,” and “executable.” The requirements are illustrated using both the medical logic modules of the Arden Syntax as a running example and selected examples from other modeling languages. Conclusion: Activity diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language, task structures for work flows, and Petri nets are discussed with regard to the list of requirements, and various tradeoffs are thus made explicit. It is concluded that this set of requirements has the potential to play a vital role in both the evaluation of existing domain-specific languages and the development of new ones. PMID:11230383

  5. Federal Environmental Requirements for Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This guide provides information on federal environmental requirements for construction projects. It is written primarily for owners of construction projects and for...

  6. An unprecedented binuclear cadmium dithiocarbamate adduct: bis[μ2-N-(2-hydroxyethyl-N-isopropylcarbamodithioato-κ3S:S,S′]bis{[N-(2-hydroxyethyl-N-isopropylcarbamodithioato-κ2S,S′](3-{(1E-[(E-2-(pyridin-3-ylmethylidenehydrazin-1-ylidene]methyl}pyridine-κNcadmium]} dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi D. Arman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit in the title binuclear compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS22(C12H10N4]2·2H2O, comprises a CdII atom, two dithiocarbamate (dtc anions, a monodentate 3-pyridinealdazine ligand and a lattice water molecule. The binuclear molecule is constructed by the application of inversion symmetry. One dtc ligand simultaneously chelates one cadmium atom and bridges the centrosymmetric mate, while the other dtc ligand is chelating only. This leads to a centrosymmetric [Cd(dtc2]2 core to which are appended two 3-pyridinealdazine ligands. The resulting NS5 donor set is based on an octahedron. The three-dimensional molecular packing is sustained by hydroxyl-O—H(hydroxyl and water-O—H...O(hydroxyl hydrogen bonding, leading to supramolecular layers parallel to (101 which are connected by water-O—H...N(pyridyl hydrogen bonding; additional C—H...O, S π(chelate ring interactions are also evident. The retention of the central [Cd(dtc2]2 core upon adduct formation is unprecedented in the structural chemistry of the zinc-triad dithiocarbamates.

  7. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning

  8. Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment

  9. Requirements Engineering for Pervasive Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolos, L.; Poulisse, Gert-Jan; van Eck, Pascal; Videira lopes, C.; Schaefer, S.; Clarke, S.; Elrad, T.; Jahnke, J.

    2005-01-01

    Developing pervasive mobile services for a mass market of end customers entails large up-front investments and therefore a good understanding of customer requirements is of paramount importance. This paper presents an approach for developing requirements engineering method that takes distinguishing

  10. Physician Requirements-1990. For Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Joan K.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in nephrology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for nephrology, a nephrology Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 34 conditions that are treated in the…

  11. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  12. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  13. Industrial requirements in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, P M

    1990-01-01

    The principles of establishing industrial requirements in food safety are described, taking risk potentials all along the food chain into their respective account. Regulations will, in the future, lead to increased autocontrol in production. The rapid changes in food technology require constant adaptation to new problems, to keep the global quality of food at a high level. Regulatory authorities will, in the new European market, concentrate on enforcement of 'essential requirements' while industrialists will follow good manufacturing practices. Open dialogue between the latter, the former and the scientific community is highly desirable since mutual knowledge of the problem will help maintain a high level of food safety, for the benefit of everybody.

  14. Development of transportation operations requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, S.T.; Best, R.E.; Danese, F.L.; Peterson, R.W.; Pope, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Transport conditions at various utility sties vary dramatically in terms of characteristics at and near the site, requirements, administrative procedures, and other factors. Continuation of design efforts for the OCRWM transportation operations system requires that the operating requirements for the transportation system -- quantity of fuel per unit time per site -- be identified so that the effect the variations have on the system can be accommodated. The approach outlined in this paper provides for an identification of specific sites, evaluation of shipment capabilities at each site, and integration of the sites into multi-site shipping campaigns to scope the logistics management problem for the transportation operations system. 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  16. Electrocardiogram Scanner-System Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been conducted to establish the feasibility for scanning and digitizing electrocardiogram records. The technical requirements and relative costs for two systems are discussed herein. One is designed to automat...

  17. PFP requirements development planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The PFP Requirements Development Planning Guide presents the strategy and process used for the identification, allocation, and maintenance of requirements within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) integrated project baseline. Future revisions to this document will be included as attachments (e.g., results of the PFP Requirements Analysis attributable to this approach). This document is intended be a Project-owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. Future updates may be made to this document by PFP management and final approval of the content will be accomplished in a Baseline Change Request as it impacts the Multi-Year Work Plan, or baseline information managed in the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Baseline

  18. Guest Comment: Universal Language Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne

    1979-01-01

    Explains that reading English among Scientists is almost universal, however, there are enormous problems with spoken English. Advocates the use of Esperanto as a viable alternative, and as a language requirement for graduate work. (GA)

  19. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  20. Fusion technology status and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined

  1. Grant Closeout Requirements and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requirements and reports to comply with grant closeout, including Final Federal Financial Report (FFR, SF425); Final Research Performance Progress Report (FRPPR); Interim Research Performance Progress Report (IRPPR); Final Invention Statement (FIS, HHS

  2. Requirement Tracing using Term Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saati, Najla; Abdul-Jaleel, Raghda

    2015-01-01

    Requirements traceability is an essential step in ensuring the quality of software during the early stages of its development life cycle. Requirements tracing usually consists of document parsing, candidate link generation and evaluation and traceability analysis. This paper demonstrates the applicability of Statistical Term Extraction metrics to generate candidate links. It is applied and validated using two data sets and four types of filters two for each data set, 0.2 and 0.25 for MODIS, 0...

  3. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  4. Quality Assurance Requirements and Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram Murthy

    2002-01-01

    The Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) is the principal Quality Assurance (QA) document for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (Program). It establishes the minimum requirements for the QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p2s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. The QARD contains regulatory requirements and program commitments necessary for the development of an effective QA program [INTRODUCTION :1p3s (NOT A REQUIREMENT)]. Implementing documents must be based on, and be consistent with the QARD. The QARD applies to the following: (1) Acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (2) Transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. (3) Storage of spent nuclear fuel through receipt of storage cask certification or a facility operating license. (4) Monitored Geologic Repository, including the site characterization activities [Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and surface based testing], through receipt of an operating license. (5) High-level waste form development through qualification, production, and acceptance. (6) Characterization of DOE spent nuclear fuel, and conditioning through acceptance of DOE spent nuclear fuel. Section 2.0, Quality Assurance Program, defines in greater detail criteria for determining work subject to the QARD

  5. Requirement Metrics for Risk Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Theodore; Huffman, Lenore; Wilson, William; Rosenberg, Linda; Hyatt, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is part of the Office of Mission Assurance of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SATC's mission is to assist National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects to improve the quality of software which they acquire or develop. The SATC's efforts are currently focused on the development and use of metric methodologies and tools that identify and assess risks associated with software performance and scheduled delivery. This starts at the requirements phase, where the SATC, in conjunction with software projects at GSFC and other NASA centers is working to identify tools and metric methodologies to assist project managers in identifying and mitigating risks. This paper discusses requirement metrics currently being used at NASA in a collaborative effort between the SATC and the Quality Assurance Office at GSFC to utilize the information available through the application of requirements management tools.

  6. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation

  7. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  8. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  9. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deland, Sharon M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  10. Overview of SSC accelerator requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will present a general overview of the requirements of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) accelerators. Each accelerator in the injector chain will be discussed separately, followed by a discussion of the collider itself. In conclusion, the top level requirements of the overall accelerator system will be presented. For each accelerator, the primary operating parameters will be presented in tabular form. A brief narrative discussion of the principal technical features of each machine will be given. Finally, the principal technical design challenges for the machine will be noted, together with the currently planned solution to these challenges

  11. Lysine requirements of growing emus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, P F; Kent, P B; Barram, K M; Trappett, P C; Blight, G W; Sales, J

    1999-05-01

    1. The lysine requirement of growing emus between 23 and 65 d of age was determined according to growth response variables. 2. The optimal lysine requirement of emus was found to be 0.83 and 0.90 g/MJ ME for growth rate and gain:food ratio respectively. These findings are in accordance with the recommended value of 0.80 g/MJ ME, but is lower than the recommended value for ostriches (1.02 g/MJ ME) and higher than determined values for broilers (0.75 g/MJ ME) of the same age range.

  12. An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    This report surveys the requirements traceability literature and gives some recommendations for further research and for an approach to consultancy concerning traceability in the 2RARE project. The problem of maintaining traceability in a development project is viewed as the problem of maintaining

  13. Requirements for flexible learner monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Requirements for flexible learner monitoring. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 89-96). June,

  14. Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.

    2005-01-01

    This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short

  15. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  16. Requirements for effective modelling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaunt, J.L.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.; Penning de Vries, F.W.T.

    1997-01-01

    As the result of a recent BBSRC-funded workshop between soil scientists, modellers, statisticians and others to discuss issues relating to the derivation of complex environmental models, a set of modelling guidelines is presented and the required associated research areas are discussed.

  17. Time Elements May Require Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Molly J.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that school districts may need to use a different time frame to accommodate the varied time requirements of the more flexible outcome-based education. Discusses three "alternate" scheduling methods currently in use and how they affect the teaching of journalism. (SR)

  18. Conversion of dependability deterministic requirements into probabilistic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgade, E.; Le, P.

    1993-02-01

    This report concerns the on-going survey conducted jointly by the DAM/CCE and NRE/SR branches on the inclusion of dependability requirements in control and instrumentation projects. Its purpose is to enable a customer (the prime contractor) to convert into probabilistic terms dependability deterministic requirements expressed in the form ''a maximum permissible number of failures, of maximum duration d in a period t''. The customer shall select a confidence level for each previously defined undesirable event, by assigning a maximum probability of occurrence. Using the formulae we propose for two repair policies - constant rate or constant time - these probabilized requirements can then be transformed into equivalent failure rates. It is shown that the same formula can be used for both policies, providing certain realistic assumptions are confirmed, and that for a constant time repair policy, the correct result can always be obtained. The equivalent failure rates thus determined can be included in the specifications supplied to the contractors, who will then be able to proceed to their previsional justification. (author), 8 refs., 3 annexes

  19. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 614.4935 Section 614.4935... Insurance Requirements § 614.4935 Escrow requirement. If a System institution requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930...

  20. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  1. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  2. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression...

  3. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Host City Contract operational requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Host City Contract - Operational Requirements (the “HCC Operational Requirements”) are an important part of the Host City Contract, detailing a set of core elements for the project, which provide Olympic quality conditions for the athletes and all participants, while at the same time allowing potential host cities to responsibly match their Games concepts to their own sport, economic, social, and environmental long-term planning needs.

  5. Nutritional requirements after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnic, Gordana

    2014-06-01

    This article presents an overview of postoperative nutritional requirements and goals following bariatric surgery. It summarizes current diet progression and nutrient intake guidelines geared toward optimizing weight loss and maintaining adequate nutritional status, nutrient absorption, as well as hydration. The article further emphasizes the importance of postoperative follow-up with a bariatric multidisciplinary team for appropriate postoperative care, diet management, and nutrient deficiency screenings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulatory requirements for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.A.; Cunningham, R.E.; Hard, J.E.; Mattson, R.J.; Smith, R.D.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily

  7. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W,; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2012-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1 G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  8. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeremy C; Arnold, Paul M; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E; Currier, Bradford L; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective case series. In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication.

  9. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  10. Metabolic requirements for fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milley, J R; Simmons, M A

    1979-09-01

    Table 1 outlines a metabolic balance sheet for the sheep fetus. It is clear that maternal substrate concentrations as well as placental function are important in assuring the provision of adequate substrate to meet fetal metabolic and growth requirements. It is intriguing that the fetus appears to use substrates not usually regarded as important in extrauterine diets (lactate) and to use substrates for catabolic purposes normally thought to be primarily anabolic substrates (amino acids). This information emphasizes the hazards of extrapolating metabolic and nutritional patterns seen in extrauterine life in reaching conclusions concerning the fetus. It likewise emphasizes the importance of ongoing studies in maternal and fetal nutrition and metabolism.

  11. The development of safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorel, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the safety approach followed in France for the design of nuclear reactors. This safety approach is based on safety principles from which stem safety requirements that set limiting values for specific parameters. The improvements in computerized simulation, the use of more adequate new materials, a better knowledge of the concerned physical processes, the changes in the reactor operations (higher discharge burnups for instance) have to be taken into account for the definition of safety criteria and the setting of limiting values. The developments of the safety criteria linked to the risks of cladding failure and loss of primary coolant are presented. (A.C.)

  12. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a compl......Abstract Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female....... Another group of studies has investigated boardsailing and provided evidence to show that windsurfing requires very high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although data exist on other types of sailors, the information is limited, and moreover the profile of the Olympic events has changed markedly over...... the last few years to involve more agile, fast and spectacular yachts. The change of events in Olympic sailing has likely added to physical requirements; however, data on sailors in the modern-type yachts are scarce. The present paper describes the recent developments in Olympic sailing with respect...

  13. Quality requirements for EHR archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Dipak; Tapuria, Archana; Austin, Tony; De Moor, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The realisation of semantic interoperability, in which any EHR data may be communicated between heterogeneous systems and fully understood by computers as well as people on receipt, is a challenging goal. Despite the use of standardised generic models for the EHR and standard terminology systems, too much optionality and variability exists in how particular clinical entries may be represented. Clinical archetypes provide a means of defining how generic models should be shaped and bound to terminology for specific kinds of clinical data. However, these will only contribute to semantic interoperability if libraries of archetypes can be built up consistently. This requires the establishment of design principles, editorial and governance policies, and further research to develop ways for archetype authors to structure clinical data and to use terminology consistently. Drawing on several years of work within communities of practice developing archetypes and implementing systems from them, this paper presents quality requirements for the development of archetypes. Clinical engagement on a wide scale is also needed to help grow libraries of good quality archetypes that can be certified. Vendor and eHealth programme engagement is needed to validate such archetypes and achieve safe, meaningful exchange of EHR data between systems.

  14. 12 CFR 760.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 760.5 Section 760.5 Banks... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.5 Escrow requirement. If a credit union requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 760.3...

  15. 12 CFR 339.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 339.5 Section 339.5 Banks... IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of... bank shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  16. 12 CFR 572.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 572.5 Section 572.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.5 Escrow requirement. If a savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  17. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  18. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    The semiconductor market grew 2010 by 70Bio. against 2009, more than in the previous 9 years taken together, and the semiconductor industry launched the biggest investment program in its history with 100Bio. over a 2-year period. This was the overture to a decade with great potential and great challenges. We look at the market segments and the required electronic functions, and we highlight four product and service areas: Approaching 6 Billion mobile-phone subscribers Access to education for any child One Carebot (personal robot) per family Efficient and safe personal mobility. At the level of over four billion active mobile phones 2010, it is clear that mobile electronic companions have become the drivers of nanoelectronic innovations with growth only limited by the creation and support of new, attractive features and services. Energy, bandwidth, size and weight requirements of these consumer products provide the largest pressure for System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. Other exemplary new products are selected for their significance, some for their lengthy path into the market. Health care is such an example: The non-invasive glucose sensor and the portable ECG recorder" with automatic, neuroprocessor-driven event detection in the size of a quarter would serve hundreds of millions of people. Nanoelectronics for self-guided health is an area of public policy in view of the cost of "a posteriori" medical care. Access to information and education for any child/student will be provided by 1 tablets where service contracts and the spin-offs from surfing and cloud-computing will generate the revenue. Personal robots, coined by the ageing Japanese nation as the key product after the PC and ridiculed by others, will arrive as carebots for education, entertainment, rehabilitation, and home-service, accepted as a large-scale need by 2020 in most developed countries including China. Accident prevention systems on rail and road already would make millions of units per year

  19. SGA Requirements in Coming Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Stephen J.

    Refineries report various physical and chemical properties of Smelting Grade Alumina, SGA, on Certificate of Analysis data sheets. Without strong understanding of customer needs this data may fall short of meeting the true needs of smelters and downstream customers. For example, improving excess fluoride control with no specification or target for the variability of Na2O content may be a challenge. Downstream customers for aluminum conductor products require excellent conductivity, but this does not always translate itself into alumina shipping limits for Cr2O3, MnO or V2O5. The author presents these and other examples for consideration during the joint sessions between Alumina & Bauxite and Aluminum Reduction Technology.

  20. [Regulatory requirements for topical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, J; Klauck, D; Savtcheva, E

    2014-03-01

    Professional use of topical treatment in dermatological practice requires not only knowledge about the pharmacological properties, efficacy, safety and pharmaceutical quality of a preparation, but also about its regulatory classification. The latter essentially determines the physician's prescription practice and therapeutic freedom. The regulatory framework with which one is confronted unfortunately lacks transparency. It regulates not only the prescribability and reimbursability of proprietary medicinal products and extemporaneous preparations, but also the obligation to give information as well as the details of liability of both the prescriber (physician) and the manufacturer (pharmaceutical company or pharmacist). The prescriber needs to be aware of to what extent the pharmacist has the possibility and even obligation to change the prescribed preparation. In some cases this can directly affect the therapeutic concept of the physician and even impair the effectiveness and safety of the chosen therapy.

  1. Chilling requirement of Ribes cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlyn eJones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usually thought that adequate winter chill is required for the full flowering of many temperate woody species. This paper investigates the sensitivity of blackcurrant bud burst and flowering to natural weather fluctuations in a temperate maritime climate, and compares a range of chill models that have been proposed for assessing the accumulation of winter chill. Bud break for four contrasting cultivars are compared in an exceptionally cold and in a mild winter in Eastern Scotland. The results confirm the importance of chilling at temperatures lower than 0ºC and demonstrate that no single chilling function applies equally to all blackcurrant cultivars. There is a pressing need for further model development to take into account the relationship between chilling temperatures and warming temperatures occurring both during and after the chill accumulation period.

  2. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  3. Requirements engineering for digital health

    CERN Document Server

    Thümmler, Christoph; Gavras, Anastasius

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare and well-being have captured the attention of established software companies, start-ups, and investors. Software is starting to play a central role for addressing the problems of the aging society and the escalating cost of healthcare services. Enablers of such digital health are a growing number of sensors for sensing the human body and communication infrastructure for remote meetings, data sharing, and messaging. The challenge that lies in front of us is how to effectively make use of these capabilities, for example to empower patients and to free the scarce resources of medical personnel. Requirements engineering is the process by which the capabilities of a software product are aligned with stakeholder needs and a shared understanding between the stakeholders and development team established. This book provides guide for what to look for and do when inquiring and specifying software that targets healthcare and well-being, helping readers avoid the pitfalls of the highly regulated and sensible h...

  4. The EURS (European utilities requirements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbey, P.

    2000-01-01

    The major European electricity producers have worked on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992 to get specifications acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs that could be acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Public and authority's acceptance should be improved as well. Significant saving are expected in development and construction costs. Since the release of the last versions of the EUR texts in 1996, a lot of work has been carried out: reviews by the regulators and other external organisations, comparisons, assessment of compliance of designs vs. EUR and clarification works on the controversial topics that deserved changes or clarification. At the beginning of 1999 enough material was available to start a complete revision of the EUR document

  5. Requirements for an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conant, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central issue facing the US today lies in the rise of oil imports. No supergiant (5 billion barrels) oil discoveries have been made in the US. Production from existing fields is declining. The 1985-86 oil price collapse from $26 to less than $15 per barrel had a disastrous effect on the budgets of smaller oil companies which do most of the exploring, and on the service industry. Budgets for overseas exploration has been generally sustained. Oil prices are not expected to sustain domestic exploration. Gulf oil sources will, in the next five years, supply some 75 percent of all oil in international trade. Without an energy policy, involvement in Middle East oil will grow exponentially, as will the needs of others for Gulf oil. The natural gas situation is different, with a spare producing capacity of one trillion cubic feet this year, which could double next year. Natural gas deregulation has created an unbelievable mess in the requirements of producers/suppliers and purchasers to have dependable business arrangements. Coal is plentiful and will be until the end of time. Public opposition to emission problems and the greenhouse effect are an obstacle to greater use of coal. The nuclear option may be dead, with no new orders since 1978. Statistics are provided on proven world reserves of conventional crude oil, recoverable heavy oils, tar sands, and shale oil; which indicates for the long term an ability to transform the Geopolitics of oil away from the middle east. Energy options require energy R ampersand D, use of Alaskan gas, conservation and efficiency in energy use, strategic reserves, close energy relations with allies, and a government-industry link which insures meeting the US oil needs from the Western Hemisphere

  6. Reversed field pinch ignition requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma models are described and used to calculated numerically the transport confinement (nτ E ) requirements and steady state operation points for both the reversed field pinch (RFP) and the tokamak. The models are used to examine the CIT tokamak ignition conditions and the RFP experimental and ignition conditions. Physics differences between RFPs and tokamaks and their consequences for a D-T ignition machine are discussed. Compared with a tokamak, the ignition RFP has many physics advantages, including Ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, lower ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits) and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f RAD ∼ 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic field, larger aspect ratios and smaller plasma cross-sections, translate to significant cost reductions for both ignition and reactor applications. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. Devices that are under construction should go a long way toward resolving this scaling uncertainty. The 4 MA ZTH is expected to extend the nτ E transport scaling data by three orders of magnitude above the results of ZT-40M, and, if the present scaling holds, ZTH is expected to achieve a D-T equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q = 1. A base case RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. (author). 19 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Physical System Requirements: Transport Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for the conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Director subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. The functional analysis approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. This approach recognizes that just as the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being. The objective of this document is to establish the essential functions, requirements, interfaces, and system architecture for the Transport Waste mission. Based upon the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the mission of the Waste Transportation System is to transport SNF and/or HLW from the purchaser's/producer's facilities to, and between, NWMS facilities in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment makes effective use of financial and other resources, and to the fullest extent possible uses the private sector

  8. Meeting US and European supplier control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers operating under European quality system requirements are sometimes surprised to learn that their supplier control procedures do not fully meet United States (US) requirements. This article discusses important differences between US and European requirements for controlling suppliers.

  9. Design requirement on HYPER blanket fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, B. O.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lee, B. S.; Park, W. S.

    2000-07-01

    This document describes design requirements which are needed for designing the blanket assembly of the HYPER as design guidance. The blanket assembly of the HYPER consists of blanket fuel rods, mounting rail, spacer, upper nozzle with handling socket, bottom nozzle with mounting rail and skeleton structure. The blanket fuel rod consists of top end plug, bottom end plug with key way, blanket fuel slug, and cladding. In the assembly, the rods are in a triangular pitch array. This report contains functional requirements, performance and operational requirements, interfacing systems requirements, core restraint and interface requirements, design limits and strength requirements, system configuration and essential feature requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements for the blanket fuel assembly of the HYPER

  10. Rapid quality assurance with requirements smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, Henning; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Eder, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. Objectives: We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. Method: We transfer the concept of code smells to Requirements Engineering as Requirements Smells. To evaluate the benefits and limitations, we define Requirements Smells, real...

  11. 77 FR 27539 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ...-world driving of passenger car and truck drivers have provided unprecedented information describing... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. A comment to OMB is most effective...

  12. Design-build agreements : a case study review of the included handover requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Road infrastructure is a key component of any regions transportation system. It allows : unprecedented levels of mobility, accessibility, and economic growth. On the other hand, the cost : associated with inadequate road infrastructure can amount ...

  13. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  14. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  15. Menorrhagia in adolescents requiring hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Y R; Quint, E H; Hertzberg, R B

    1998-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the causes and treatments of menorrhagia in adolescents hospitalized for this menstrual disorder. A retrospective chart review was performed of all adolescents adolescents with 46 admissions for menorrhagia were identified. The average age of menarche was 12.9 years and the average age at admission was 15.9 years. Nineteen adolescents had significant medical diseases. For the 46 admissions, causes of menorrhagia were anovulation (21), hematologic disease (15), chemotherapy-related (5), and infections (5). Transfusions of blood products were performed in 28 of the admissions. Treatments included oral contraceptive pills or progestins (30), intravenous conjugated estrogens (8), antibiotics (4), immune gammaglobulin (3), DDAVP (3), and prednisone (1). Twelve surgical procedures were performed, including eight dilatation and curettages (D&Cs), three laparoscopies, and one hysterectomy. Sixty-one percent of admissions for adolescent menorrhagia were in adolescents with significant medical problems. The patients with menorrhagia who required admission had severe anemia and were transfused in 63% of cases. The predominant causes for these admissions included anovulation in 46%, hematologic disease in 33%, chemotherapy in 11%, and infection in 11%. Hormonal regulation or suppression of menses should be considered in adolescents with significant medical disease.

  16. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  17. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  18. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  19. 12 CFR 22.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 22.5 Section 22.5 Banks and... HAZARDS § 22.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of taxes, insurance premiums, fees, or..., increased, extended, or renewed on or after October 1, 1996, the bank shall also require the escrow of all...

  20. 17 CFR 41.45 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 41.45 Section... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.45 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures intermediary shall determine the required margin for the security futures and related...

  1. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the inventory of the registered location to which they are subject to control or to which the person... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each inventory...

  2. 10 CFR 61.59 - Institutional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Institutional requirements. 61.59 Section 61.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.59 Institutional requirements. (a) Land ownership...

  3. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151 must...

  4. Definition and validation of requirements management measures

    OpenAIRE

    Loconsole, Annabella

    2007-01-01

    The quality of software systems depends on early activities in the software development process, of which the management of requirements is one. When requirements are not managed well, a project can fail or become more costly than intended, and the quality of the software developed can decrease. Among the requirements management practices, it is particularly important to quantify and predict requirements volatility, i.e., how much the requirements are likely to change over time. Software meas...

  5. Virtual Observatories: Requirements for Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, L. J.

    2008-12-01

    The principal act that separates science from engineering is that of discovery. Virtual Observatories are a development with great potential for advancing our ability to do science by enabling us to do research effectively and to do research across disciplines. Access to data is one of the factors that enables discovery. A well-designed VO should enable discovery as well as providing for a uniform means by which data are accessed: thus, enabling discovery is the key challenge of a VO in fact it is and should be the principle that distinguishes a VO from a traditional archive. As the number of satellites in the Heliophysics Great observatory starts to decline due to the slower launch cadence and the reduction in funding for extended missions, it becomes more imperative that the community have the means to fully utilize and access the available resources. With the proliferation of low-cost computing and community-based models, cross-disciplinary studies become the new frontier. Many, if not the great majority of research papers are, at this time, confined to a particular discipline. Some of this "stove piping" may be due to the difficulty in accessing products from outside one's own discipline. One would hope and expect that VOs would address this. Two of the principal challenges associated with the vitality of the VOs, aside from the provision of the funds required to maintain the VOs, is 1) the limitation on the availability of data from non-NASA sources and 2) the need for some level of continued support for expertise on the data accessed through the VOs. The first issue is one of culture - some organizations support the view that the data belong to the PI whereas in Heliophysics "data rights" are curtailed. The second issue is to be addressed by the concept of the Resident Archive. This talk will provide an overview of the issues and challenges associated with VOs, Resident Archives, data rights, space missions, and instruments and their associated ground data

  6. Closed Loop Requirements and Analysis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Michael; Verhoef, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Effective systems engineering involves the use of analysis in the derivation of requirements and verification of designs against those requirements. The initial development of requirements often depends on analysis for the technical definition of specific aspects of a product. Following the allocation of system-level requirements to a product's components, the closure of those requirements often involves analytical approaches to verify that the requirement criteria have been satisfied. Meanwhile, changes that occur in between these two processes need to be managed in order to achieve a closed-loop requirement derivation/verification process. Herein are presented concepts for employing emerging Team center capabilities to jointly manage requirements and analysis data such that analytical techniques are utilized to effectively derive and allocate requirements, analyses are consulted and updated during the change evaluation processes, and analyses are leveraged during the design verification process. Recommendations on concept validation case studies are also discussed.

  7. Personal belief exemptions from school vaccination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekema, Douglas S

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact vaccination has had on the control and prevention of many infectious diseases, some parents choose not to vaccinate their children. Although there is no federal law requiring vaccination of children in the United States, all states require evidence of vaccination against at least some diseases as a condition of school entry. Which vaccines are required; how many doses are required; whether entry requirements apply to child care, kindergarten, or middle school; and whether exemptions from vaccine requirements will be allowed all differ by state. All but two states allow some kind of personal belief exemption from school vaccination requirements. This article reviews the history of school vaccination requirements and exemptions, the legal status of state vaccination laws and exemptions, the impact of school vaccination requirements and personal belief exemptions on vaccination rates and disease incidence, and strategies for maintaining adequate vaccination rates in states that allow personal belief exemptions.

  8. 7 CFR 1416.7 - Insurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. For the Citrus, Fruit and Vegetable, Tropical Fruit and Nursery Disaster Programs: (a) Payment... producers required to purchase a citrus policy may purchase a fruit or tree policy; or (2) NAP coverage. (c...

  9. Higher speed freight truck design : performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This proposed requirements document combines a set of requirements for high-speed freight car truck design and performance : from the generally accepted standards in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), the Association of American Railroads : (...

  10. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  11. Requirements Engineering for Software Integrity and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Requirements flaws are the most common cause of errors and software-related accidents in operational software. Most aerospace firms list requirements as one of their most important outstanding software development problems and all of the recent, NASA spacecraft losses related to software (including the highly publicized Mars Program failures) can be traced to requirements flaws. In light of these facts, it is surprising that relatively little research is devoted to requirements in contrast with other software engineering topics. The research proposed built on our previous work. including both criteria for determining whether a requirements specification is acceptably complete and a new approach to structuring system specifications called Intent Specifications. This grant was to fund basic research on how these ideas could be extended to leverage innovative approaches to the problems of (1) reducing the impact of changing requirements, (2) finding requirements specification flaws early through formal and informal analysis, and (3) avoiding common flaws entirely through appropriate requirements specification language design.

  12. Ecological flow requirements for South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferrar, AA

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the proceedings of a workshop which was convened to debate the ecological flow requirements of South African rivers. Topics which are discussed include the influence of weirs and impoundments, the quantity requirements...

  13. Security Requirements for Post-Transition Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crowther, Glenn A

    2007-01-01

    .... With that change, Cuba's security requirements will change as well. This monograph analyzes security requirements that the new Cuba will face and proposes what missions and structure the Cuban security forces might have after a...

  14. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  15. 8 CFR 1216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... second time of the requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file... does not relieve the alien and the petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file...

  16. Rapid quality assurance with Requirements Smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, H.; Fernández, D. Méndez; Wagner, S.; Eder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. %-- the faster a problem is found, the cheaper it is to fix. This makes explicit the need of a lightweight detection mechanism of requirements quality violations. We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. We transfer the concept of code sm...

  17. Meta-requirements that Model Change

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Prakash

    2010-01-01

    One of the common problems encountered in software engineering is addressing and responding to the changing nature of requirements. While several approaches have been devised to address this issue, ranging from instilling resistance to changing requirements in order to mitigate impact to project schedules, to developing an agile mindset towards requirements, the approach discussed in this paper is one of conceptualizing the delta in requirement and modeling it, in order t...

  18. Cloud computing security requirements: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Iankoulova, Iliana; Daneva, Maia; Rolland, C; Castro, J.; Pastor, O

    2012-01-01

    Many publications have dealt with various types of security requirements in cloud computing but not all types have been explored in sufficient depth. It is also hard to understand which types of requirements have been under-researched and which are most investigated. This paper's goal is to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of cloud computing security requirements and solutions. We carried out a systematic review and identified security requirements from previous publications th...

  19. Dosimeter characteristics and service performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.

    1999-01-01

    The requirements for personal dosimeters and dosimetry services given by ICRP 26, ICRP 35, ICRP 60 and ICRP 75 are summarised and compared with the requirements given in relevant international standards. Most standards could be made more relevant to actual workplace conditions. In some standards, the required tests of energy and angular dependence of the response are not sufficient, or requirements on overall uncertainty are lacking. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 141.80 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... service line replacement, and public education. These requirements are triggered, in some cases, by lead... requirements. (1) All water systems shall install and operate optimal corrosion control treatment as defined in... specified by the State under § 141.83. (f) Lead service line replacement requirements. Any system exceeding...

  1. 7 CFR 1948.96 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program § 1948.96 Audit requirements. (a) Audit requirements for Site Development and Acquisition Grants will be made in accordance with FmHA Instruction 1942-G. (b) Audits for planning grants made in... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Audit requirements. 1948.96 Section 1948.96...

  2. Understand the Design Requirement in Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    requirements can lead to inappropriate products (Hall, et al., 2002). Understanding the nature of design requirements and the sources, from where they can or should be generated, is critical to before developing methods and processes to support this process. Requirement Engineering research, originated from...

  3. Capturing security requirements for software systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadary, Hassan; El-Kassas, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Security is often an afterthought during software development. Realizing security early, especially in the requirement phase, is important so that security problems can be tackled early enough before going further in the process and avoid rework. A more effective approach for security requirement engineering is needed to provide a more systematic way for eliciting adequate security requirements. This paper proposes a methodology for security requirement elicitation based on problem frames. The methodology aims at early integration of security with software development. The main goal of the methodology is to assist developers elicit adequate security requirements in a more systematic way during the requirement engineering process. A security catalog, based on the problem frames, is constructed in order to help identifying security requirements with the aid of previous security knowledge. Abuse frames are used to model threats while security problem frames are used to model security requirements. We have made use of evaluation criteria to evaluate the resulting security requirements concentrating on conflicts identification among requirements. We have shown that more complete security requirements can be elicited by such methodology in addition to the assistance offered to developers to elicit security requirements in a more systematic way. PMID:25685514

  4. 24 CFR 241.1069 - Escrow requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escrow requirements. 241.1069...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1069 Escrow requirements. (a) An equity loan provided in connection with a plan... behalf of the borrower, 10 percent of the loan amount in an escrow account, controlled by the...

  5. 12 CFR 16.31 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 16.31 Section 16.31 Banks... RULES § 16.31 Escrow requirement. The OCC may require that any funds received in connection with an offer or sale of securities be held in an independent escrow account at an unrelated insured depository...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4704 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Escrow requirement. 36...) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4704 Escrow requirement. If the Secretary requires the escrow of taxes, insurance premiums, fees, or any other charges for a loan...

  7. 28 CFR 80.12 - Accounting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting requirements. 80.12 Section 80... PROCEDURE § 80.12 Accounting requirements. Neither the submission of a request for an FCPA Opinion, its... comply with the accounting requirements of 15 U.S.C. 78m(b)(2) and (3). ...

  8. Understanding the Requirements for Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-17

    Elicitation in the Post-Methodology Era’, Requirements Engineering, 5, 67-73, (2000). 3. Bollinger , T.: Use of Free and Open-Source Software (FOSS) in the U.S...Paris, France , December, (2003). 46. Robinson, W.: A Requirements Monitoring Framework for Enterprise Systems, Requirements Engineering, 11(1), 17

  9. 49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... importance of proper visual search, and proper visual search methods. (6) Communication. The principles and procedures for proper communications and the hazards of failure to signal properly. (7) Speed management. The... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge. All...

  10. 7 CFR 1770.13 - Accounting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting requirements. 1770.13 Section 1770.13... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.13 Accounting requirements. (a) Each borrower shall maintain its books of accounts on the...

  11. 22 CFR 126.13 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 126.13 Section 126.13... PROVISIONS § 126.13 Required information. (a) All applications for licenses (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, and DSP... are multiple consignors, consignees or freight forwarders, and all the required information cannot be...

  12. 50 CFR 660.15 - Equipment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operational requirements for scales used to weigh catch at sea, scales used to weigh catch at IFQ first... software requirements. (i) A personal computer with Pentium 75-MHz or higher. Random Access Memory (RAM... required under this subsection are fully operational and functional whenever the Pacific whiting primary...

  13. 46 CFR 298.13 - Financial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the reporting requirements imposed by § 298.42. (2) “Working Capital” means the excess, if any, of... Working Capital requirements, as set forth in paragraph (f) of this section. (1) The various financial..., minimum requirements at Closing usually are as follows: (i) Working Capital. The Company's Working Capital...

  14. 10 CFR 4.21 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements. 4.21 Section 4.21 Energy NUCLEAR... and Title IV of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 Assurances Required § 4.21 General requirements... purpose involving the provision of similar services or benefits. In the case of personal property the...

  15. Variations in land requirements for meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E. V.; Nonhebel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land

  16. 40 CFR 35.6450 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Copyright Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6450 General requirements. The recipient... comply with the requirements regarding contract copyright provisions described in § 35.6595(b)(2). Use of...

  17. 75 FR 12803 - Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule... Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule, title 28 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 901. FOR FURTHER... the Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule (28 CFR, part 901) when health or safety of vulnerable...

  18. 29 CFR 96.12 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The audit requirements contained in 29 CFR part 99 shall be followed for audits of all fiscal... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audit requirements. 96.12 Section 96.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS, CONTRACTS, AND OTHER AGREEMENTS Audits of States, Local...

  19. 23 CFR 1313.4 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING PREVENTION PROGRAMS § 1313.4 General requirements. (a) Qualification requirements... enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving prevention programs in § 1313.6 and other associated costs permitted... certification that it has an alcohol-impaired driving prevention program that meets the requirements of 23 U.S.C...

  20. 10 CFR 61.40 - General requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirement. 61.40 Section 61.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.40 General requirement. Land disposal facilities must be sited, designed, operated, closed...

  1. 40 CFR 63.181 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring, quality improvement) for each type of equipment. All records and information required by this... service is not required. Equipment subject to the provisions of this subpart may be identified on a plant... information shall be recorded for each dual mechanical seal system: (i) Design criteria required in §§ 63.163...

  2. 40 CFR 97.6 - Standard requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard requirements. 97.6 Section 97... General Provisions § 97.6 Standard requirements. (a) Permit requirements. (1) The NOX authorized account... a complete NOX Budget permit application under § 97.22 in accordance with the deadlines specified in...

  3. 76 FR 50881 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ..., Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale Tests AGENCY: Grain... January 20, 2011, and on April 4, 2011, concerning required scale tests. Those documents defined ``limited...), concerning required scale tests. Those documents incorrectly defined limited seasonal basis in Sec. 201.72(a...

  4. Observing System Simulations for the NASA ASCENDS Lidar CO2 Mission Concept: Substantiating Science Measurement Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Michalak, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons) is envisioned as the next generation of dedicated, space-based CO2 observing systems, currently planned for launch in about the year 2022. Recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, active (lidar) sensing of CO2 from space has several potentially significant advantages, in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments, that promise to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle understanding into the next decade. Assessment and testing of possible lidar instrument technologies indicates that such sensors are more than feasible, however, the measurement precision and accuracy requirements remain at unprecedented levels of stringency. It is, therefore, important to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for the prospective active system in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. This amounts to establishing minimum requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we present results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, for a range of possible mission implementation options that are intended to substantiate science measurement requirements for a laser-based CO2 space instrument. To this end, we have assembled a relatively complete description of the prospective mission sampling, atmospheric, and surface states that enables us to quantitatively scale measurement errors globally for a variety of nominal CO2 instrument approaches. The resulting error distributions are used in inverse studies to estimate the impact

  5. From document to database: modernizing requirements management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giajnorio, J.; Hamilton, S.

    2007-01-01

    The creation, communication, and management of design requirements are central to the successful completion of any large engineering project, both technically and commercially. Design requirements in the Canadian nuclear industry are typically numbered lists in multiple documents created using word processing software. As an alternative, GE Nuclear Products implemented a central requirements management database for a major project at Bruce Power. The database configured the off-the-shelf software product, Telelogic Doors, to GE's requirements structure. This paper describes the advantages realized by this scheme. Examples include traceability from customer requirements through to test procedures, concurrent engineering, and automated change history. (author)

  6. Legal requirements governing proxy voting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The requirements in Danish company law concerning proxy voting in companies whose shares have been accepted for listing on a regulated market have been successively tightened in recent years, and corporate governance principles have also led to the introduction of several requirements concerning...... proxy holders. A thorough knowledge of these requirements is important not only for the listed companies but also for their advisers and investors in Denmark and abroad. This article considers these requirements as well as the additional requirements which will derive from Directive 2007...

  7. TRACER - TRACING AND CONTROL OF ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is a database/word processing system created to document and maintain the order of both requirements and descriptive material associated with an engineering project. A set of hierarchical documents are normally generated for a project whereby the requirements of the higher level documents levy requirements on the same level or lower level documents. Traditionally, the requirements are handled almost entirely by manual paper methods. The problem with a typical paper system, however, is that requirements written and changed continuously in different areas lead to misunderstandings and noncompliance. The purpose of TRACER is to automate the capture, tracing, reviewing, and managing of requirements for an engineering project. The engineering project still requires communications, negotiations, interactions, and iterations among people and organizations, but TRACER promotes succinct and precise identification and treatment of real requirements separate from the descriptive prose in a document. TRACER permits the documentation of an engineering project's requirements and progress in a logical, controllable, traceable manner. TRACER's attributes include the presentation of current requirements and status from any linked computer terminal and the ability to differentiate headers and descriptive material from the requirements. Related requirements can be linked and traced. The program also enables portions of documents to be printed, individual approval and release of requirements, and the tracing of requirements down into the equipment specification. Requirement "links" can be made "pending" and invisible to others until the pending link is made "binding". Individuals affected by linked requirements can be notified of significant changes with acknowledgement of the changes required. An unlimited number of documents can be created for a project and an ASCII import feature permits existing documents to be incorporated

  8. Managing Legal Texts in Requirements Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.

    Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.

  9. Requirements Analysis in the Value Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, Alison Marie

    2001-05-01

    The Value Methodology (VM) study brings together a multidisciplinary team of people who own the problem and have the expertise to identify and solve it. With the varied backgrounds and experiences the team brings to the study, come different perspectives on the problem and the requirements of the project. A requirements analysis step can be added to the Information and Function Analysis Phases of a VM study to validate whether the functions being performed are required, either regulatory or customer prescribed. This paper will provide insight to the level of rigor applied to a requirements analysis step and give some examples of tools and techniques utilized to ease the management of the requirements and functions those requirements support for highly complex problems.

  10. Waste Acceptance System Requirements document (WASRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Waste Acceptance System Requirements document (WA-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and the technical requirements for a Waste Acceptance System for accepting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This revision of the WA-SRD addresses the requirements for the acceptance of HLW. This revision has been developed as a top priority document to permit DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to commence waste qualification runs at the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in a timely manner. Additionally, this revision of the WA-SRD includes the requirements from the Physical System Requirements -- Accept Waste document for the acceptance of SNF. A subsequent revision will fully address requirements relative to the acceptance of SNF

  11. Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and commercial and defense high level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The development and control of the MGDS-RD is quality-affecting work and is subject to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements Document (QARD). As part of the technical requirements baseline, it is also subject to Baseline Management Plan controls. The MGDS-RD and the other program-level requirements documents have been prepared and managed in accordance with the Technical Document Preparation Plan (TDPP) for the Preparation of System Requirements Documents

  13. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION SINAPRA BERBASIS SISTEM INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hadi Waryanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana (SINAPRA merupakan bagian dari beberapa sistem informasi yang dipakai oleh Univeristas Negeri Yogyakarta. SINAPRA merupakan salah satu sistem yang akan dikembangkan dalam Sistem Informasi Terpadu (SIPADU. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA merupakan acuan teknis developer dalam mengembangkan sistem untuk tahap selanjutnya. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA dikembangkan menggunakan model WSU-TC CptS 322  dengan berbasis sistem informasi terpadu UNY Kata Kunci : Software Requirements Specification, WSU-TC CptS 322, SINAPRA

  14. Identify and Manage the Software Requirements Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Khloud Abd Elwahab; Mahmoud Abd EL Latif; Sherif Kholeif

    2016-01-01

    Management of software requirements volatility through development of life cycle is a very important stage. It helps the team to control significant impact all over the project (cost, time and effort), and also it keeps the project on track, to finally satisfy the user which is the main success criteria for the software project. In this research paper, we have analysed the root causes of requirements volatility through a proposed framework presenting the requirements volatility causes and how...

  15. Training Requirements and Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cillan, T.F.; Hodgson, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    This is the software user's guide for the Training Requirements and Information Management System. This guide defines and describes the software operating procedures as they apply to the end user of the software program. This guide is intended as a reference tool for the user who already has an indepth knowledge of the Training Requirements and Information Management System functions and data reporting requirement.

  16. Requirements engineering for human activity systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Guide for System Life Cycle Processes. Version 3.2. Edited by C. Haskins. San Diego, California: International Council on Systems Engineering, 2010. Jordan, J. Scott, ed. Systems Theories and A Priori Aspects of Perception. Amsterdam: Elsevier... to ensure that such requirements are properly developed and managed, by applying well defined rules and techniques (Hull, Jackson and Dick 2011). For example, a requirement should not be unrealistic and each requirement must be accompanied by criteria...

  17. Towards a framework for improving requirement traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Toranzo Céspedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Work regarding requirement traceability focuses on programming aspects instead of identifying, analysing and modelling all traceable data in a software project. This paper describes the development of a framework for improving software requirement traceability. The framework consisted of classifying traced information, defining and using relationship types regarding traced information, a set of guidelines for developing a requirements traceability model for a software project and using my management tool (MyMT tool to support developing a requirement traceability model. A university library management system was used to illustrate applying the framework.

  18. Safety of Research Reactors. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to provide a basis for safety and a basis for safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Another objective is to establish requirements on aspects relating to regulatory control, the management of safety, site evaluation, design, operation and decommissioning. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives. This Safety Requirements publication is intended for use by organizations engaged in the site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, operation and decommissioning of research reactors as well as by regulatory bodies

  19. 36 CFR 254.3 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; consolidation of split estates; expansion of communities; accommodation of existing or planned land use... required to exchange any Federal lands. Land exchanges are discretionary, voluntary real estate...

  20. EMS certification requirements for flight nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, Michael A; Lord, Wendy R

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medical technician (EMT) or paramedic (EMTP) certification requirements for flight nurses (FNs) providing on-scene patient care vary. We surveyed those requirements and evaluated the relationships between flight team composition or program location and FN EMS certification. Telephone survey of all 184 rotor-wing programs responding with a nurse to scenes The overall EMS training requirement for FNs was: none-57.6%, EMT-21.7%, EMTP-14.7%, local credential (not EMT or EMTP)-6.0%. Second team members were EMTP, RN, physician, or respiratory therapist (RRT). Overall, team configuration related significantly to FN EMS certification (P =.01). FN/EMTP and FN/RRT teams were individually significant (P EMTP teams tending not to require certification and all FN/RRT teams tending toward a certification requirement. Neither FN/FN nor FN/physician pairings related significantly with FN EMS certification requirements. Regional patterns emerged to both crew configuration and FN EMS certification requirements. Most flight programs do not require FN EMT/EMTP certification. Team configuration and geography are related to those requirements.

  1. SE Requirements Development Tool User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Faith Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The LANL Systems Engineering Requirements Development Tool (SERDT) is a data collection tool created in InfoPath for use with the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) SharePoint sites. Projects can fail if a clear definition of the final product requirements is not performed. For projects to be successful requirements must be defined early in the project and those requirements must be tracked during execution of the project to ensure the goals of the project are met. Therefore, the focus of this tool is requirements definition. The content of this form is based on International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and Department of Defense (DoD) process standards and allows for single or collaborative input. The “Scoping” section is where project information is entered by the project team prior to requirements development, and includes definitions and examples to assist the user in completing the forms. The data entered will be used to define the requirements and once the form is filled out, a “Requirements List” is automatically generated and a Word document is created and saved to a SharePoint document library. SharePoint also includes the ability to download the requirements data defined in the InfoPath from into an Excel spreadsheet. This User Guide will assist you in navigating through the data entry process.

  2. Hydrogen tomorrow: Demands and technology requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    National needs for hydrogen are projected and the technologies of production, handling, and utilization are evaluated. Research and technology activities required to meet the projected needs are determined.

  3. Defense Logistics Agency Family Housing Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The Director, Defense Logistics Agency (Installation Support Group) requested the audit to review the process the Defense Logistics Agency installations use to determine family housing requirements...

  4. Nursing staff requirements for neonatal intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, S; Whelan, A; Weindling, A M; Cooke, R W

    1993-01-01

    A study to estimate the number of nursing staff required for neonatal nursing was undertaken. Certain nursing tasks, such as transporting any infant, caring for the dying infant, and looking after the very unstable infant required continuous attention by one nurse (5.5 whole time equivalent (wte) nurses for each cot). The stable ventilated infant required 10.5 nursing hours each day-that is, 2.4 wte/cot. Infants with intravenous infusions, but not ventilated, required only slightly less nursi...

  5. Calculating crop water requirement satisfaction in the West Africa Sahel with remotely sensed soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Gregory J. Husak,; Molly Brown,; Carroll, Mark L.; Funk, Christopher C.; Soni Yatheendradas,; Kristi Arsenault,; Christa Peters-Lidard,; Verdin, James

    2015-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will provide soil moisture data with unprecedented accuracy, resolution, and coverage, enabling models to better track agricultural drought and estimate yields. In turn, this information can be used to shape policy related to food and water from commodity markets to humanitarian relief efforts. New data alone, however, do not translate to improvements in drought and yield forecasts. New tools will be needed to transform SMAP data into agriculturally meaningful products. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possibility and efficiency of replacing the rainfall-derived soil moisture component of a crop water stress index with SMAP data. The approach is demonstrated with 0.1°-resolution, ~10-day microwave soil moisture from the European Space Agency and simulated soil moisture from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network Land Data Assimilation System. Over a West Africa domain, the approach is evaluated by comparing the different soil moisture estimates and their resulting Water Requirement Satisfaction Index values from 2000 to 2010. This study highlights how the ensemble of indices performs during wet versus dry years, over different land-cover types, and the correlation with national-level millet yields. The new approach is a feasible and useful way to quantitatively assess how satellite-derived rainfall and soil moisture track agricultural water deficits. Given the importance of soil moisture in many applications, ranging from agriculture to public health to fire, this study should inspire other modeling communities to reformulate existing tools to take advantage of SMAP data.

  6. 7 CFR 352.8 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking requirements. 352.8 Section 352.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.8 Marking requirements. Prohibited and...

  7. 40 CFR 264.1065 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1065 Reporting requirements. (a) A semiannual report...). (iii) The equipment identification number of each compressor for which a leak was not repaired as... monitoring required by § 264.1060 and was not corrected within 24 hours, the duration and cause of each...

  8. 40 CFR 63.982 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.982 Requirements. (a) General compliance requirements for storage vessels, process vents... subpart apply to emissions being routed to a fuel gas system or process. (e) Final recovery devices...

  9. Requirements engineering: foundation for software quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Pastor, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of the 22nd edition of REFSQ: the International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering – Foundation for Software Quality! Requirements engineering (RE) has been recognized as a critical factor that impacts the quality of software, systems, and services. Since the

  10. Regulatory capital requirements and bail in mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, B.P.M.; Haentjens, M.; Wessels, B.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) in the European Union, the qualitative requirements for bank regulatory capital have changed. These changes aim at implementing in Europe the Basel III principles for better bank capital that is able to absorb losses of banks,

  11. 24 CFR 290.11 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.11 Notification requirements. (a) In general. HUD may combine two or more of the required notifications, as appropriate, to simplify the disposition...

  12. Quality assurance management policies and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to: set forth overall, integrated quality assurance management policies and requirements for the entire Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program; define management responsibilities for assuring quality; and provide a general framework for the development of more detailed quality assurance management policies and requirements by program, project, and contractor organizations

  13. 12 CFR 614.4255 - Independence requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4255 Independence requirements. (a) Prohibitions. For all personal and intangible property, and for all real property exempted under § 614.4260(c) of this subpart, no... indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the loan or subject property; (2) As a director, vote on or...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5050 - Collateral requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral requirements. 615.5050 Section 615... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5050 Collateral requirements. (a) Each... property acquired in connection with loans made under the Act, obligations of the United States or any...

  15. 12 CFR 614.4260 - Evaluation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on real property has been taken as collateral in an abundance of caution, and the application, when... Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4260 Evaluation requirements. (a) Valuation. Valuations of personal and intangible property, as well as real property exempted under paragraph (c) of this section, shall...

  16. 42 CFR 433.74 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Financial Participation § 433.74 Reporting requirements. (a) Beginning with the first quarter of Federal fiscal year 1993, each State must submit to CMS quarterly summary information on the source and use of... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting requirements. 433.74 Section 433.74...

  17. 29 CFR 4010.3 - Filing requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.3 Filing requirement. (a) General....10, all information specified in § 4010.6(a) with respect to all members of a controlled group and...

  18. 40 CFR 59.105 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 59.105 Section... Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.105 Reporting requirements. (a) Each regulated entity must submit an initial report no later than January 11, 1999 or within...

  19. 42 CFR 54.7 - Nondiscrimination requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination requirement. 54.7 Section 54.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE... PROJECTS FOR ASSISTANCE IN TRANSITION FROM HOMELESSNESS GRANTS § 54.7 Nondiscrimination requirement. A...

  20. 42 CFR 441.208 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 441.208 Section 441.208 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Abortions § 441.208 Recordkeeping requirements. Medicaid agencies must maintain copies of the certifications...

  1. 46 CFR 108.213 - Heating requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating requirements. 108.213 Section 108.213 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.213 Heating requirements. (a) Each accommodation space must be heated by a heating system that can maintain at least 20°C. (68°F.). (b) Radiators...

  2. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required counseling. 21.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or her...

  3. 46 CFR 184.100 - General requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirement. 184.100 Section 184.100 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 184.100 General requirement...

  4. 40 CFR 761.40 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marking requirements. 761.40 Section 761.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... PROHIBITIONS Marking of PCBs and PCB Items § 761.40 Marking requirements. (a) Each of the following items in...

  5. 11 CFR 200.2 - Procedural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedural requirements. 200.2 Section 200.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING § 200.2 Procedural requirements. (a) Any interested person may file with the Commission a written petition for the...

  6. 12 CFR 574.6 - Procedural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedural requirements. 574.6 Section 574.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACQUISITION OF CONTROL OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 574.6 Procedural requirements. (a) Form of application or notice. An application...

  7. 40 CFR 63.707 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed limit; and (iv) A statement signed by a responsible official of the company that the control... monitoring system performance report and summary reports shall be submitted as required by § 63.10(e). (1... the performance test required by § 63.7: (i) The performance test or CEM data collected to establish...

  8. 50 CFR 15.12 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION... CONSERVATION ACT Prohibitions and Requirements § 15.12 Requirements. (a) No person shall import into the United...) Any exotic bird can be imported to the United States if it was legally exported from the United States...

  9. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...

  10. 24 CFR 201.24 - Security requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufactured home. (c) Recording and perfection of security. The lender shall assure that the legal description... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security requirements. 201.24... TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Eligibility and Disbursement Requirements § 201...

  11. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Pressure Garment Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center advanced pressure garment technology development team is addressing requirements development for exploration missions. Lessons learned from the Z-2 high fidelity prototype development have reiterated that clear low-level requirements and verification methods reduce risk to the government, improve efficiency in pressure garment design efforts, and enable the government to be a smart buyer. The expectation is to provide requirements at the specification level that are validated so that their impact on pressure garment design is understood. Additionally, the team will provide defined verification protocols for the requirements. However, in reviewing exploration space suit high level requirements there are several gaps in the team's ability to define and verify related lower level requirements. This paper addresses the efforts in requirement areas such as mobility/fit/comfort and environmental protection (dust, radiation, plasma, secondary impacts) to determine the by what method the requirements can be defined and use of those methods for verification. Gaps exist at various stages. In some cases component level work is underway, but no system level effort has begun, in other cases no effort has been initiated to close the gap. Status of ongoing efforts and potential approaches to open gaps are discussed.

  12. 8 CFR 312.1 - Literacy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Literacy requirements. 312.1 Section 312.1... FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.1 Literacy requirements. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in... determining English proficiency, as outlined in paragraph(c) of this section. (c) Literacy examination—(1...

  13. Tracing And Control Of Engineering Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.; Stoller, Richard L.; Neville, Ted; Boyle, Karen A.

    1991-01-01

    TRACER (Tracing and Control of Engineering Requirements) is data-base/word-processing software system created to document and maintain order of both requirements and descriptions associated with engineering project. Implemented on IBM PC under PC-DOS. Written with CLIPPER.

  14. Modeling uncertainty in requirements engineering decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Maynard-Zhang, Pedrito; Kiper, James D.

    2005-01-01

    One inherent characteristic of requrements engineering is a lack of certainty during this early phase of a project. Nevertheless, decisions about requirements must be made in spite of this uncertainty. Here we describe the context in which we are exploring this, and some initial work to support elicitation of uncertain requirements, and to deal with the combination of such information from multiple stakeholders.

  15. 37 CFR 2.51 - Drawing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawing required. 2.51... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.51 Drawing required. (a) In an application under section 1(a) of the Act, the drawing of the mark must be a substantially exact representation of the mark...

  16. NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Mark P.

    1992-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management (CM) goes over CM requirements for single mission and multi-mission orientations, CM automation and CALS implementation initiatives, NASA implementation of DOD standards and DID's (data item descriptions), impact of traceability in NASA CM support, NASA's CM efforts in modifying/upgrading equipment, and CM control of multi-vendor hardware.

  17. 40 CFR 191.13 - Containment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. (a) Disposal systems for spent nuclear fuel or high-level or transuranic radioactive wastes shall... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Containment requirements. 191.13 Section 191.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION...

  18. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Trebules

    2006-01-01

    This document establishes the Monitored Geologic Repository system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are based on the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document'' (CRD) (DOE 2004a). The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Systems Requirements Document'' (MGR-RD) is developed in accordance with LP-3.3 SQ-OCRWM, ''Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of Repository Development Requirements Document''. As illustrated in Figure 1, the MGR-RD forms part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Technical Requirements Baseline. Revision 0 of this document identifies requirements for the current phase of repository design that is focused on developing a preliminary design for the repository and will be included in the license application submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a repository at Yucca Mountain in support of receiving a construction authorization and subsequent operating license. As additional information becomes available, more detailed requirements will be identified in subsequent revisions to this document

  19. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Trebules

    2006-06-02

    This document establishes the Monitored Geologic Repository system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are based on the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document'' (CRD) (DOE 2004a). The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Systems Requirements Document'' (MGR-RD) is developed in accordance with LP-3.3 SQ-OCRWM, ''Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of Repository Development Requirements Document''. As illustrated in Figure 1, the MGR-RD forms part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Technical Requirements Baseline. Revision 0 of this document identifies requirements for the current phase of repository design that is focused on developing a preliminary design for the repository and will be included in the license application submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a repository at Yucca Mountain in support of receiving a construction authorization and subsequent operating license. As additional information becomes available, more detailed requirements will be identified in subsequent revisions to this document.

  20. On the Similarity between Requirements and Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.C.; van Vliet, H.

    2009-01-01

    Many would agree that there is a relationship between requirements engineering and software architecture. However, there have always been different opinions about the exact nature of this relationship. Nevertheless, all arguments have been based on one overarching notion: that of requirements as

  1. 14 CFR 205.3 - Basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.3 Basic requirements. (a) A U.S. or foreign direct air carrier shall not engage in air transportation unless it has in effect aircraft accident liability insurance coverage that meets the requirements of this part for its air carrier or foreign air carrier...

  2. 48 CFR 8.1103 - Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor or the Government for furnishing gasoline, motor oil, antifreeze, and similar items. (e) Unless it... PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 8.1103 Contract requirements. Contracting officers shall include the following items in each contract for leasing motor vehicles: (a) Scope...

  3. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  4. 13 CFR 307.5 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application requirements. 307.5 Section 307.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... EDA) a CEDS, except that a CEDS is not required when applying for a Strategy Grant; and (2) Explain...

  5. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design

  6. 8 CFR 216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirement that the alien apply for removal of the conditions within the ninety days immediately preceding... petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file a petition to remove conditions within... status of conditional permanent resident. At the time an alien acquires conditional permanent residence...

  7. 49 CFR 451.25 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required information. 451.25 Section 451.25....25 Required information. (a) The safety approval number appearing on line 1 of the safety approval... safety approval plate on the freight container provided that all the information contained on the...

  8. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Technical Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRAHN, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this section is to explain the meaning of logical connectors with specific examples. Logical connectors are used in Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) to discriminate between, and yet connect, discrete Conditions, Required Actions, Completion Times, Surveillances, and Frequencies. The only logical connectors that appear in TSRs are AND and OR. The physical arrangement of these connectors constitutes logical conventions with specific meanings

  9. 40 CFR 65.5 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic media. (h) Adjustment to timing of submittals and review of required communications—(1) Alignment...) through (5) of this section. (7) Process unit identification. As an alternative to requirements specified... individual pieces of equipment. For this alternative, the kind of emission point in the process unit that...

  10. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements of § 65.77, pass a written test covering the construction and maintenance of aircraft appropriate to the...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1018 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1018 Reporting requirements. (a... § 63.1007(e)(2) and those pumps complying with the closed vent system provisions of § 63.1007(e)(3). (iv) Number of compressors subject to the requirements of § 63.1012, excluding those compressors...

  12. 13 CFR 120.860 - Required objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required objectives. 120.860 Section 120.860 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Project Economic Development Goals § 120.860 Required objectives. A Project...

  13. 49 CFR 229.206 - Design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-climber, emergency egress, emergency interior lighting, and interior configuration design requirements set... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design requirements. 229.206 Section 229.206..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Locomotive Crashworthiness Design...

  14. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert L. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130) contains all technical, safety, and crew health medical requirements that are mandatory for achieving a Crew Transportation System Certification that will allow for International Space Station delivery and return of NASA crew and limited cargo. Previously approved on TN23183.

  15. 7 CFR 1794.41 - Document requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document requirements. 1794.41 Section 1794.41....41 Document requirements. Applicants will provide an ER in accordance with the appropriate guidance documents referenced in § 1794.7. After RUS has evaluated the ER and has determined the ER adequately...

  16. Oxygen requirement of separated hybrid catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channel catfish egg masses require hatchery water with over 7.8 ppm dissolved oxygen at 80° F (95% air saturation) to maintain maximum oxygen consumption as they near hatching. This concentration is called the critical oxygen requirement by scientists but for the purpose of this article we will call...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.113 - Insurance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section A. Grants § 4280.113 Insurance requirements. Agency approved... 1806, subpart B, of this title, if applicable. (b) Business interruption insurance is required except...

  18. 14 CFR 121.433 - Training required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in a certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program when... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training required. 121.433 Section 121.433..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Crewmember Qualifications § 121.433 Training required. (a) Initial...

  19. 10 CFR 60.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 60.3 Section 60.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.3 License required. (a) DOE shall not receive or possess source, special nuclear, or...

  20. 10 CFR 61.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 61.3 Section 61.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General... containing source, special nuclear, or byproduct material at a land disposal facility unless authorized by a...

  1. 20 CFR 655.1303 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.1303 Section... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1303 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted... the H-2A workers. All advertising must contain the following information: (a) The employer's name and...

  2. 20 CFR 655.17 - Advertising requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.17 Section 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.17 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the... employment which are not less favorable than those to be offered to the H-2B workers. All advertising must...

  3. Security Requirements – Analysis of the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Needs about security are matters little taken into account when managing requirements engineering , and when considered in the life cycle of the system , they tend to become a general list of functions, as password of protection , firewalls , virus detection tools , and other similar. But in fact, they cannot be considered as requirements of security, because they are implementation mechanisms to try to meet unspecified requirements, as an authenticated access. As a result, the security requirements for the system are ignored, which are required to protect essential services and assets, besides, when are specified, is not considered the prospect of future attacks. This paper describes the need for a systematic approach to managing security requirements engineering, in order to help avoid the problem of generic lists and take into account the future perspective. Several related approaches are described and also are provided references additional material that can help requirements engineers to ensure that their products be taken into account, effectively , the security requirements.

  4. 7 CFR 1779.9 - Environmental requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 1779.9 Section 1779.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.9 Environmental requirements...

  5. 49 CFR 27.9 - Assurance required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.9 Assurance required. (a) General... requirements of this part for so long as the property is used for the purpose for which the Federal financial assistance was provided or for a similar purpose. (2) When Federal financial assistance is used by a...

  6. 20 CFR 632.41 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.41 Reporting requirements... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting requirements. 632.41 Section 632.41... registered mail, financial and program reports. Accuracy of all reports must be verified by the chief...

  7. 5 CFR 1315.9 - Required documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to support payment of invoices and interest penalties: (a) The following information from the... requirements under the Prompt Payment Act, including the payment of interest penalties on late invoice payments... electronic payment is required, the contract will stipulate that banking information must be submitted no...

  8. Requirements for clinical information modelling tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Conde, Alberto; Jódar-Sánchez, Francisco; Kalra, Dipak

    2015-07-01

    This study proposes consensus requirements for clinical information modelling tools that can support modelling tasks in medium/large scale institutions. Rather than identify which functionalities are currently available in existing tools, the study has focused on functionalities that should be covered in order to provide guidance about how to evolve the existing tools. After identifying a set of 56 requirements for clinical information modelling tools based on a literature review and interviews with experts, a classical Delphi study methodology was applied to conduct a two round survey in order to classify them as essential or recommended. Essential requirements are those that must be met by any tool that claims to be suitable for clinical information modelling, and if we one day have a certified tools list, any tool that does not meet essential criteria would be excluded. Recommended requirements are those more advanced requirements that may be met by tools offering a superior product or only needed in certain modelling situations. According to the answers provided by 57 experts from 14 different countries, we found a high level of agreement to enable the study to identify 20 essential and 21 recommended requirements for these tools. It is expected that this list of identified requirements will guide developers on the inclusion of new basic and advanced functionalities that have strong support by end users. This list could also guide regulators in order to identify requirements that could be demanded of tools adopted within their institutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 12 CFR 725.19 - Collateral requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral requirements. 725.19 Section 725.19... CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.19 Collateral requirements. (a) Each Facility advance and each Agent loan shall be secured by a first priority security interest in collateral...

  10. 27 CFR 7.28 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption within Puerto Rico may, if desired, state the information required by this subpart solely in the... millimeters for containers larger than 40 fl. oz. (c) English language. All information, other than the brand name, required by this subpart to be stated on labels shall be in the English language. Additional...

  11. 33 CFR 203.83 - Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., placing sod, or seeding completed work. (d) Adequacy of requirements of local cooperation. In determining.../Cooperation Agreements § 203.83 Additional requirements. (a) Maintenance deficiencies. Rehabilitation... furnishing flood fight assistance during an emergency. (b) Areas of minor damage, flood control works...

  12. 32 CFR 552.56 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Licensing requirements. 552.56 Section 552.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Solicitation on Military Reservations § 552.56 Licensing requirements. To transact...

  13. 47 CFR 73.731 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 73.731 Section 73.731 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.731 Licensing requirements. (a) A license for an international broadcasting station will be issued...

  14. 47 CFR 74.532 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 74.532 Section 74.532 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... § 74.532 Licensing requirements. (a) An aural broadcast STL or an aural broadcast intercity relay...

  15. 47 CFR 74.632 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 74.632 Section 74.632 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.632 Licensing requirements. (a) Licenses for television pickup, television STL, television...

  16. 10 CFR 110.5 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensing requirements. 110.5 Section 110.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.5 Licensing requirements. Except as provided under subpart B of this part, no person may export...

  17. 12 CFR 989.2 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 989.2 Section 989.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE BANKS § 989.2 Audit requirements. (a) Each Bank, the OF and the Financing Corporation shall obtain annually an...

  18. 48 CFR 8.1102 - Presolicitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 8.1102 Presolicitation requirements. (a) Except as specified in 8.1102(b), before preparing solicitations for leasing of... automobiles (sedans and station wagons) larger than Type IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) are...

  19. 76 FR 18348 - Required Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 201 RIN 0580-AB10 Required Scale... Register on January 20, 2011 (76 FR 3485), defining required scale tests. That document incorrectly defined... read as follows: Sec. 201.72 Scales; testing of. (a) * * * Except that if scales are used on a limited...

  20. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  1. 30 CFR 56.6132 - Magazine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magazine requirements. 56.6132 Section 56.6132....6132 Magazine requirements. (a) Magazines shall be— (1) Structurally sound; (2) Noncombustible or the... the inside; (5) Ventilated to control dampness and excessive heating within the magazine; (6) Posted...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6132 - Magazine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Magazine requirements. 57.6132 Section 57.6132...-Surface Only § 57.6132 Magazine requirements. (a) Magazines shall be— (1) Structurally sound; (2... magazine; (6) Posted with the appropriate United States Department of Transportation placards or other...

  3. Integrating semi-formal and formal requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Olivé, Antoni; Dubois, Eric; Pastor, Joan Antoni; Huyts, Sander

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the integration of informal, semiformal and formal requirements specification techniques. We present a framework for requirements specification called TRADE, within which several well-known semiformal specification techniques are placed. TRADE is based on an analysis of

  4. The strictest energy requirements in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily i...

  5. 40 CFR 65.42 - Control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control requirements. 65.42 Section 65.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...) External floating roof (EFR). Operate and maintain an external floating roof meeting the requirements of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1258 - Monitoring Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test is not required, the parametric levels shall be set based on the design evaluation required... device design shall be used to establish the operating parameter level. (b) Monitoring for control... not be limited to, a daily or per batch demonstration that the unit is working as designed and may...

  7. An Online Graduate Requirements Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicay-Ergin, N.; Laplante, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Requirements engineering is one of the fundamental knowledge areas in software and systems engineering graduate curricula. Recent changes in educational delivery and student demographics have created new challenges for requirements engineering education. In particular, there is an increasing demand for online education for working professionals.…

  8. 40 CFR 233.31 - Coordination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordination requirements. 233.31 Section 233.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS Program Operation § 233.31 Coordination requirements. (a) If a proposed...

  9. 48 CFR 509.306 - Solicitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation requirements... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.306... contracting officer must address the requirements in FAR 9.306(d) and (f) through (j) in the solicitation's...

  10. Requirements Level Semantics for UML Statecharts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, S.F.; Eshuis, H.; Talcott, C.L.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    We propose a formal real-time semantics for UML statecharts aimed at the requirements level. A requirements-level model assumes perfect technology and has a considerably simpler semantics than an implementation level model. Our semantics is an adaptation of the Statemate statechart semantics, with

  11. 15 CFR 760.5 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS § 760.5 Reporting requirements. (a) Scope of reporting requirements. (1) A United... a restrictive trade practice or boycott fostered or imposed by a foreign country against a country... foreign boycott or restrictive trade practice. (i) A request received by a United States person located in...

  12. Critical Review of NOAA's Observation Requirements Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJoie, M.; Yapur, M.; Vo, T.; Templeton, A.; Bludis, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Observing Systems Council (NOSC) maintains a comprehensive database of user observation requirements. The requirements collection process engages NOAA subject matter experts to document and effectively communicate the specific environmental observation measurements (parameters and attributes) needed to produce operational products and pursue research objectives. User observation requirements documented using a structured and standardized manner and framework enables NOAA to assess its needs across organizational lines in an impartial, objective, and transparent manner. This structure provides the foundation for: selecting, designing, developing, acquiring observing technologies, systems and architectures; budget and contract formulation and decision-making; and assessing in a repeatable fashion the productivity, efficiency and optimization of NOAA's observing system enterprise. User observation requirements are captured independently from observing technologies. Therefore, they can be addressed by a variety of current or expected observing capabilities and allow flexibility to be remapped to new and evolving technologies. NOAA's current inventory of user observation requirements were collected over a ten-year period, and there have been many changes in policies, mission priorities, and funding levels during this time. In light of these changes, the NOSC initiated a critical, in-depth review to examine all aspects of user observation requirements and associated processes during 2017. This presentation provides background on the NOAA requirements process, major milestones and outcomes of the critical review, and plans for evolving and connecting observing requirements processes in the next year.

  13. 12 CFR 704.15 - Audit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNIONS § 704.15 Audit requirements. (a) External audit. The corporate credit union supervisory committee... supervisory committee shall submit the audit report to the board of directors. A copy of the audit report, and... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit requirements. 704.15 Section 704.15 Banks...

  14. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin... of a customer in a securities account or futures account as set forth in this section. (b) Required... be twenty (20) percent of the current market value of such security future. (2) Offsetting positions...

  15. Training Requirements in OSHA Standards. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains excerpts of the training-related requirements of the standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). It is designed as an aid for employers, safety and health professionals, and others who need to know training requirements. (References to training may be difficult to locate in the long and…

  16. 7 CFR 3550.57 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.57 Section 3550.57... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.57 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one that is considered modest for the area, must not be...

  17. 7 CFR 3550.106 - Dwelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dwelling requirements. 3550.106 Section 3550.106... Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.106 Dwelling requirements. (a) Modest dwelling. The property must be one... § 3550.63. (b) Post-repair condition. Dwellings repaired with section 504 funds need not be brought to...

  18. 40 CFR 205.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.55 Section 205.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55 Requirements. ...

  19. Cloud computing security requirements: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iankoulova, Iliana; Daneva, Maia; Rolland, C; Castro, J.; Pastor, O

    Many publications have dealt with various types of security requirements in cloud computing but not all types have been explored in sufficient depth. It is also hard to understand which types of requirements have been under-researched and which are most investigated. This paper's goal is to provide

  20. Instrumentation requirements for the ESF thermomechanical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Brechtel, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ thermomechanical experiments are planned as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that require instruments to measure stress and displacement at temperatures that exceed the typical specifications of existing geotechnical instruments. A high degree of instrument reliability will also be required to satisfy the objectives of the experiments, therefore a study was undertaken to identify areas where improvement in instrument performance was required. A preliminary list of instruments required for the experiments was developed, based on existing test planning and analysis. Projected temperature requirements were compared to specifications of existing instruments to identify instrumentation development needs. Different instrument technologies, not currently employed in geotechnical instrumentation, were reviewed to identify potential improvements of existing designs for the high temperature environment. Technologies with strong potentials to improve instrument performance with relatively high reliability include graphite fiber composite materials, fiber optics, and video imagery

  1. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    system operation as well as experiences and results from other European projects. On the other hand, it analyses what requirements for future control rooms arise from the ELECTRA proposed control solutions. Hence, different points of view are taken into account. The ELECTRA Use Cases (UCs...... requirements for the future control centres discussed within this report. The analysis of what happened before the European system disturbance occurred on 4th November 2006 and of the existing trends by vendors helped T8.1 in the definition of the requirements for the future control centres. Volunteer......This internal report provides the key requirements for the future control centres. R8.1 represents the starting point of WP8 activities and wants to achieve a double objective. On the one hand it collects general requirements on future control centres emerging from the general trends in power...

  2. ATLAS Future Framework Requirements Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Future Frameworks Requirements Group was constituted in Summer 2013 to consider and summarise the framework requirements from trigger and offline for configuring, scheduling and monitoring the data processing software needed by the ATLAS experiment. The principal motivation for such a re-examination arises from the current and anticipated evolution of CPUs, where multiple cores, hyper-threading and wide vector registers require a shift to a concurrent programming model. Such a model requires extensive changes in the current Gaudi/Athena frameworks and offers the opportunity to consider how HLT and offline processing can be better accommodated within the ATLAS framework. This note contains the report of the Future Frameworks Requirements Group.

  3. Nonfunctional requirements in systems analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Kevin MacG

    2015-01-01

    This book will help readers gain a solid understanding of non-functional requirements inherent in systems design endeavors. It contains essential information for those who design, use, and maintain complex engineered systems, including experienced designers, teachers of design, system stakeholders, and practicing engineers. Coverage approaches non-functional requirements in a novel way by presenting a framework of four systems concerns into which the 27 major non-functional requirements fall: sustainment, design, adaptation, and viability. Within this model, the text proceeds to define each non-functional requirement, to specify how each is treated as an element of the system design process, and to develop an associated metric for their evaluation. Systems are designed to meet specific functional needs. Because non-functional requirements are not directly related to tasks that satisfy these proposed needs, designers and stakeholders often fail to recognize the importance of such attributes as availability, su...

  4. A fuzzy model for exploiting customer requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Javadirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Quality function deployment (QFD is one of the total quality management tools, where customers’ views and requirements are perceived and using various techniques improves the production requirements and operations. The QFD department, after identification and analysis of the competitors, takes customers’ feedbacks to meet the customers’ demands for the products compared with the competitors. In this study, a comprehensive model for assessing the importance of the customer requirements in the products or services for an organization is proposed. The proposed study uses linguistic variables, as a more comprehensive approach, to increase the precision of the expression evaluations. The importance of these requirements specifies the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the requirements relative to competitors. The results of these experiments show that the proposed method performs better than the other methods.

  5. Identifying dependability requirements for space software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Toshiro Yano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems are increasingly used in space, whether in launch vehicles, satellites, ground support and payload systems. Software applications used in these systems have become more complex, mainly due to the high number of features to be met, thus contributing to a greater probability of hazards related to software faults. Therefore, it is fundamental that the specification activity of requirements have a decisive role in the effort of obtaining systems with high quality and safety standards. In critical systems like the embedded software of the Brazilian Satellite Launcher, ambiguity, non-completeness, and lack of good requirements can cause serious accidents with economic, material and human losses. One way to assure quality with safety, reliability and other dependability attributes may be the use of safety analysis techniques during the initial phases of the project in order to identify the most adequate dependability requirements to minimize possible fault or failure occurrences during the subsequent phases. This paper presents a structured software dependability requirements analysis process that uses system software requirement specifications and traditional safety analysis techniques. The main goal of the process is to help to identify a set of essential software dependability requirements which can be added to the software requirement previously specified for the system. The final results are more complete, consistent, and reliable specifications.

  6. Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Mined Geologic Disposal System Requirements Document (MGDS-RD) describes the functions to be performed by, and the requirements for, a Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (including SNF loaded in multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)) and commercial and defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in support of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The purpose of the MGDS-RD is to define the program-level requirements for the design of the Repository, the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and Surface Based Testing Facilities (SBTF). These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MGDS. The document also presents an overall description of the MGDS, its functions (derived using the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents as a starting point), its segments as described in Section 3.1.3, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the program-level interfaces of the MGDS are identified. As such, the MGDS-RD provides the technical baseline for the design of the MGDS

  7. TWRS configuration management requirement source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann, J.M.

    1997-09-17

    The TWRS Configuration Management (CM) Requirement Source document prescribes CM as a basic product life-cycle function by which work and activities are conducted or accomplished. This document serves as the requirements basis for the TWRS CM program. The objective of the TWRS CM program is to establish consistency among requirements, physical/functional configuration, information, and documentation for TWRS and TWRS products, and to maintain this consistency throughout the life-cycle of TWRS and the product, particularly as changes are being made.

  8. TWRS configuration management requirement source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The TWRS Configuration Management (CM) Requirement Source document prescribes CM as a basic product life-cycle function by which work and activities are conducted or accomplished. This document serves as the requirements basis for the TWRS CM program. The objective of the TWRS CM program is to establish consistency among requirements, physical/functional configuration, information, and documentation for TWRS and TWRS products, and to maintain this consistency throughout the life-cycle of TWRS and the product, particularly as changes are being made

  9. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  10. Quality Assurance Source Requirements Traceability Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MURTHY, R.; NAYDENOVA, A.; DEKLEVER, R.; BOONE, A.

    2006-01-01

    At the Yucca Mountain Project the Project Requirements Processing System assists in the management of relationships between regulatory and national/industry standards source criteria, and Quality Assurance Requirements and Description document (DOE/R W-0333P) requirements to create compliance matrices representing respective relationships. The matrices are submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assist in the commission's review, interpretation, and concurrence with the Yucca Mountain Project QA program document. The tool is highly customized to meet the needs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Office of Quality Assurance

  11. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  12. Danish Requirements for Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Christensen, H. H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious failure consequences combined with strengthened requirements to efficiency in design and execution as well as increased risk of human errors necessitates requirements for the robustness of new structures, essential....... This paper describes the background of the revised robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures in 2003 [1, 2, 3]. According to the Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures where consequences of failure are serious. This paper...

  13. Protein requirements of infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    During the last 35 years there have been various published assessments of human protein needs, including those of infants and children. Most recently, the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academies has published its report on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Macronutrients, and WHO/FAO/UNU have convened a new Expert Consultation, which is due to be published soon. Although there have been a number of published studies on children's protein requirements determined by the nitrogen balance technique, the results of these studies in themselves are insufficient to derive requirement values for all ages. Instead, a meta-analysis of the data from a range of studies in children has been used to derive values for the requirement for maintenance (i.e. no growth), and for the efficiency of utilization of dietary protein for growth. These values were then combined with age-specific rates of protein deposition to calculate the average requirement at any age. New values for protein deposition in children have been derived from studies of potassium- 40 accumulation in infants and children, and these have been employed in new calculations of the average protein requirement. By combining values for the maintenance requirement, derived from adults, with the requirement for growth, estimated by analysis of the data for total-body potassium at different ages, the age-specific average protein requirement was determined. The safe level of intake is the amount of dietary protein that will provide the needs of almost all of the specified age group, and this is usually taken as the average requirement plus 2 times the standard deviation (SD) of the requirement. The SD of the children's requirement was determined by combining the SD for maintenance (from the adult data) with the SD for protein deposition, derived by combining data for rates of growth of body mass and data for the whole body potassium-40 content at different ages. The resulting values for the average protein

  14. Quality Assurance Source Requirements Traceability Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MURTHY, R., NAYDENOVA, A., DEKLEVER, R., BOONE, A.

    2006-01-30

    At the Yucca Mountain Project the Project Requirements Processing System assists in the management of relationships between regulatory and national/industry standards source criteria, and Quality Assurance Requirements and Description document (DOE/R W-0333P) requirements to create compliance matrices representing respective relationships. The matrices are submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to assist in the commission's review, interpretation, and concurrence with the Yucca Mountain Project QA program document. The tool is highly customized to meet the needs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Office of Quality Assurance.

  15. Security Requirements for One Stop Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georg E.

    The highest ranking e-government solutions are based on one-window, one-click or one stop government concepts. For Europe, the EU services directive sets new requirements for e-government, that have to be met till December 2009. Simple, easy to understand and complete information is one requirement. The other requirements are, that the services covered by this directive shall be available electronically and at a distance (which means mostly “by Internet”). Acceptable solutions are digitally signed mails and, as an alternative or supplement, transaction oriented online services. To implement this, a one stop government with document safe is best practice.

  16. Financial responsibility requirements for commercial motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Minimum liability insurance levels and related requirements for motor carriers to demonstrate financial responsibility in case of damages from crashes were established in the 1980s by Congressional legislation. These levels have not been changed s...

  17. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  18. Traceability and change in legal requirements engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Winkels, R.

    2010-01-01

    While isomorphism of knowledge representation has been recognized as important, particularly to maintenance in legal knowledge representation, the requirements of the maintenance process in general get less attention. Traceability from knowledge resources used in the organization to the sources of

  19. 7 CFR 1468.21 - Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... net environmental and societal benefits; (ii) Refund with interest any program payments received and... under the CFO contract; (v) Supply information as required by CCC to determine compliance with the...

  20. Pellet injection requirements for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferranderie, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main parameters of TORE SUPRA are outlined and pellet injection requirements to meet plasma density goals are discussed. Topics considered include plasma buildup, plasma refueling and penetration depth

  1. 40 CFR 80.75 - Reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produced submit to the Administrator, with the fourth quarterly report, a report that contains the identity... corporate officer of the refiner or importer. (o) Additional reporting requirements for refiners that blend...

  2. Requirement Generation For The Habitation Extension Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempsell, M.

    As part of a debate within United Kingdom regarding its policy to avoid project involving human space flight, a study design was produced to explore the implications of a late entry as a full partner in the International Space Station (ISS). This objective generates many diverse requirements from the two primary stakeholders, the existing ISS partners and United Kingdom itself. It was found that a Soyuz/Fregat launched Habitation Extension Module with a logistic supply capability could meet all these requirements. It is unusual for a system to successfully meet such a wide range of requirements, but in this case the ability to scope the requirements in a single objective and the flexibility inherent in the wide design space created by the many options have made it possible.

  3. 47 CFR 80.1081 - Functional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1081 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements...) Of transmitting and receiving maritime safety information; (h) Of transmitting and receiving general...

  4. 7 CFR 1416.502 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.502 Eligibility requirements. (a) Eligible Tropical Fruit... the four eligible fruits located in Tier I or II as designated under § 1416.2 shall be considered for...

  5. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... effects of such changes include an increase in lead-time and cost. Thus, support to mitigate change in requirements is essential. A thorough understanding of the nature of changes in requirements is essential before a method or tool to mitigate these changes can be proposed. Therefore, a case study...... approach was employed to understand the nature of change in requirements during the design process - particularly concerning the initiation, discovery, and motivation of these changes. Semi-structured interviews were adopted as the data collection method. The interviews were transcribed and analysed based...

  6. Interpreting the SARA and RCRA training requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreland, W.M.; Wells, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) promulgated by the EPA (RCRA) and the OSHA (SARA) require hazardous materials training for all individuals working with hazardous materials. Facilities that are involved in the generation, storage, treatment, transportation, or disposal/removal of hazardous materials/waste must comply with all relevant training regulations. Using the guidelines contained in the RCRA and SARA regulations, decisions must be made to determine: the type of regulatory requirement based on facility function (i.e., whether the facility is a RCRA or CERCLA facility). The type of training required for specific categories of workers (e.g. managers, supervisors, or general site workers). The level of training needed for each category of worker. This presentation outlines how the Environmental Compliance and Health Protection Technical Resources and Training Group, working with waste operations personnel, establishes specific training requirements

  7. Requirements Engineering and Design Technology Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganska, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the STSC's recommendations for the selection and usage of software engineering products aimed at the requirements analysis and high-level design portions of the software lifecycle...

  8. Rationale Management Challenges in Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Avgeriou, Paris; He, Keqing

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and rationale management have been playing an increasingly prominent role in software system development mainly due to the knowledge demand during system evaluation, maintenance, and evolution, especially for large and complex systems. The rationale management for requirements engineering,

  9. 27 CFR 26.272 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 26.272 General requirements. Except as provided in § 26.273, every person, other than a tourist... under this part with respect of liquors while in customs custody. (Approved by the Office of Management...

  10. 48 CFR 203.1003 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1003 Requirements. (b) Notification of possible contractor violation. Upon...

  11. Fertilizer effects on attaining vegetation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This project was developed to evaluate the effects of varying the substrate and fertilization regimes on the success of complex warm-season grass and forb seedings on recent roadside construction sites. Re-vegetating construction projects is required...

  12. 46 CFR 182.410 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... where flexible hoses are permitted to be clamped: (1) Double hose clamping is required where practicable... hose clamp can be used if the pipe ends are expanded or beaded to provide a positive stop against hose...

  13. 14 CFR 65.79 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.79 Skill requirements. Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must pass an oral and a practical test on the rating he seeks. The tests...

  14. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  15. Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1996-09-26

    This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

  16. 78 FR 12623 - Insurer Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... submit accident claim information about physical damage, repair costs, and personal injury but that... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 544 Insurer Reporting Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6500 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Use of Recipient Employees (âforce Accountâ) Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6500 General.... Procurement Requirements Under a Cooperative Agreement ...

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

  19. Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menk, Peter

    2001-01-01

    ... nations and the United Nations. The purpose of the Post-Conflict Strategic Requirements Workshop was to examine the United States military ground forces role in the post-conflict phase of operations...

  20. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  1. Gas Test Loop Functional and Technical Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Soli T. Khericha; James L. Jones

    2004-09-01

    This document defines the technical and functional requirements for a gas test loop (GTL) to be constructed for the purpose of providing a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for developers of advanced concept nuclear reactors. This capability is needed to meet fuels and materials testing requirements of the designers of Generation IV (GEN IV) reactors and other programs within the purview of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Space nuclear power development programs may also benefit by the services the GTL will offer. The overall GTL technical objective is to provide developers with the means for investigating and qualifying fuels and materials needed for advanced reactor concepts. The testing environment includes a fast-flux neutron spectrum of sufficient intensity to perform accelerated irradiation testing. Appropriate irradiation temperature, gaseous environment, test volume, diagnostics, and access and handling features are also needed. This document serves to identify those requirements as well as generic requirements applicable to any system of this kind.

  2. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  3. Pulse source requirements for OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model for investigating the impact of incoherent crosstalk due to pulse tail overlapping is proposed. Requirements to pulse width and pulse tail extinction ratio introducing a maximum of 1 dB penalty is extracted....

  4. Requirements for beta gamma dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental requirements for dose measurement are discussed for designing a detector that is capable of measuring both beta and gamma dose at a desired depth. A detector that can measure a broad energy range of beta and gamma must, essentially, respond as tissue at the depth of interest. Tissue response requires that photon absorption and electron stopping power be the same or parallel to tissue over the energy range, that back scatter be similar, as well as, having the proper amount of back scatter material, and that the detector have the same angular and depth response as tissue. These requirements restrict both material and configuration selection or require knowledge of the incident spectrum. 10 refs., 6 figs

  5. 7 CFR 3403.3 - Eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... General Information § 3403.3 Eligibility requirements. (a) Eligibility of organization. (1) To receive... personnel leasing company must be considered employees of the awardee. This is consistent with SBA's size...

  6. 48 CFR 750.7108 - Contractual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7108 Contractual requirements. Every contract amended or... policy interests of the United States. ...

  7. 30 CFR 7.97 - Application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.97 Application...

  8. Seaway Information System Management and Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    This report examines in detail the control and information system requirements of the St. Lawrence Seaway development program in terms of the needs of the vessel traffic controllers and the management users. Structural control models of Seaway operat...

  9. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  10. 7 CFR 1806.3 - Coverage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value) all essential buildings. Essential buildings include the dwelling and any other buildings that... requirements is not available in a hurricane area, the County Supervisor may accept from the borrower or...

  11. Alternative vehicles and infrastructure requirements conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "A conference entitled Alternative Fuel / Advanced Vehicles Technologies & Infrastructure Requirements: Bringing Innovation to Our Streets was held in New York, NY at New York University on June 14, 2011. The conference addressed several of the...

  12. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details

  13. Grid code requirements for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made

  14. Radiation recommendation series: administratively required dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Administrative requirements for radiographs are found in many segments of the United States health care system. This document presents an FDA radiation recommendation on administratively required dental x-ray examinations. In general, such examinations are not requested to further the patient's dental health, but rather as a means of monitoring claims. However, the administrative use of radiographs that have been taken in the normal course of patient care is usually appropriate, as long as the patient's right to privacy is respected

  15. Deficiency tracking system, conceptual business process requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.L.

    1997-04-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the conceptual business process requirements of a single, site-wide, consolidated, automated, deficiency management tracking, trending, and reporting system. This description will be used as the basis for the determination of the automated system acquisition strategy including the further definition of specific requirements, a ''make or buy'' determination and the development of specific software design details.

  16. Grand Gulf-prioritization of regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As cost pressures mount, Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) is relying increasingly on various prioritization approaches to implement, modify, eliminate, or defer regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements can be prioritized through the use of three measures: (1) safety (or risk) significance; (2) cost; and (3) public policy (or political) significance. This paper summarizes GGNS' efforts to implement solutions to regulatory issues using these three prioritization schemes to preserve a balance between cost and safety benefit

  17. 12 CFR 563g.9 - Escrow requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 563g.9 Section 563g.9 Banks... Escrow requirement. (a) Any funds received in an offering which is offered and sold on a best efforts all-or-none condition or with a minimum-maximum amount to be sold shall be held in an escrow or similar...

  18. Hanford analytical services quality assurance requirements documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, J.E.

    1997-09-25

    Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD) is issued by the Analytical Services, Program of the Waste Management Division, US Department of Energy (US DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The HASQARD establishes quality requirements in response to DOE Order 5700.6C (DOE 1991b). The HASQARD is designed to meet the needs of DOE-RL for maintaining a consistent level of quality for sampling and field and laboratory analytical services provided by contractor and commercial field and laboratory analytical operations. The HASQARD serves as the quality basis for all sampling and field/laboratory analytical services provided to DOE-RL through the Analytical Services Program of the Waste Management Division in support of Hanford Site environmental cleanup efforts. This includes work performed by contractor and commercial laboratories and covers radiological and nonradiological analyses. The HASQARD applies to field sampling, field analysis, and research and development activities that support work conducted under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement and regulatory permit applications and applicable permit requirements described in subsections of this volume. The HASQARD applies to work done to support process chemistry analysis (e.g., ongoing site waste treatment and characterization operations) and research and development projects related to Hanford Site environmental cleanup activities. This ensures a uniform quality umbrella to analytical site activities predicated on the concepts contained in the HASQARD. Using HASQARD will ensure data of known quality and technical defensibility of the methods used to obtain that data. The HASQARD is made up of four volumes: Volume 1, Administrative Requirements; Volume 2, Sampling Technical Requirements; Volume 3, Field Analytical Technical Requirements; and Volume 4, Laboratory Technical Requirements. Volume 1 describes the administrative requirements

  19. QA manpower requirement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.

    1980-01-01

    To ensure the quality of the plant, QA activities are to be performed by the owner, the main contractor, the subcontractors and the Licensing Authority. The responsibilities of the QA-personnel of these organizations comprise as a minimum the control of the quality assurance systems and the proof of the quality requirements. Numbers of the required QA-personnel, designated for different tasks and recommended educational levels and professional qualifications will be given. (orig./RW)

  20. International nuclear planning and manpower requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries one of the most pressing needs is the manpower requirements for the planning, construction, and operation of the nuclear power systems. The indigenous human resources of the respective countries must be educated and trained to a level commensurate with the demands of such an advanced and challenging technology. The issues to be addressed when discussing international nuclear planning and manpower requirements are summarized

  1. Front Loaded Accurate Requirements Engineering (FLARE): A Requirements Analysis Concept for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonard, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    This thesis focuses on ways to apply requirements engineering techniques and methods during the development and evolution of DoD software systems in an effort to reduce changes to system requirements...

  2. Nondestructive examination requirements for PWR vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanner, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the nondestructive examination of pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel internals in accordance with the requirements of the EPRI Material Reliability Program (MRP) inspection standard for PWR internals (MRP-228) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section XI In-service Inspection. The MRP vessel internals examinations have been performed at nuclear plants in the USA since 2009. The objective of the inspection standard is to provide the requirements for the nondestructive examination (NDE) methods implemented to support the inspection and evaluation of the internals. The inspection standard contains requirements specific to the inspection methodologies involved as well as requirements for qualification of the NDE procedures, equipment and personnel used to perform the vessel internals inspections. The qualification requirements for the NDE systems will be summarized. Six PWR plants in the USA have completed inspections of their internals using the Inspection and Evaluation Guideline (MRP-227) and the Inspection Standard (MRP-228). Examination results show few instances of service-induced degradation flaws, as expected. The few instances of degradation have mostly occurred in bolting

  3. WFIRST: Update on the Coronagraph Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Cahoy, Kerri; Carlton, Ashley; Macintosh, Bruce; Turnbull, Margaret; Kasdin, Jeremy; WFIRST Coronagraph Science Investigation Teams

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST Coronagraph instrument (CGI) will enable direct imaging and low resolution spectroscopy of exoplanets in reflected light and imaging polarimetry of circumstellar disks. The CGI science investigation teams were tasked with developing a set of science requirements which advance our knowledge of exoplanet occurrence and atmospheric composition, as well as the composition and morphology of exozodiacal debris disks, cold Kuiper Belt analogs, and protoplanetary systems. We present the initial content, rationales, validation, and verification plans for the WFIRST CGI, informed by detailed and still-evolving instrument and observatory performance models. We also discuss our approach to the requirements development and management process, including the collection and organization of science inputs, open source approach to managing the requirements database, and the range of models used for requirements validation. These tools can be applied to requirements development processes for other astrophysical space missions, and may ease their management and maintenance. These WFIRST CGI science requirements allow the community to learn about and provide insights and feedback on the expected instrument performance and science return.

  4. Human Research Program Requirements Document (Revision C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define, document, and allocate the Human Research Program (HRP) requirements to the HRP Program Elements. It establishes the flow-down of requirements from Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) to the various Program Elements of the HRP to ensure that human research and technology countermeasure investments are made to insure the delivery of countermeasures and technologies that satisfy ESMD's and OCHMO's exploration mission requirements. Requirements driving the HRP work and deliverables are derived from the exploration architecture, as well as Agency standards regarding the maintenance of human health and performance. Agency human health and performance standards will define acceptable risk for each type and duration of exploration mission. It is critical to have the best available scientific and clinical evidence in setting and validating these standards. In addition, it is imperative that the best available evidence on preventing and mitigating human health and performance risks is incorporated into exploration mission and vehicle designs. These elements form the basis of the HRP research and technology development requirements and highlight the importance of HRP investments in enabling NASA's exploration missions. This PRD defines the requirements of the HRP which is comprised of the following major Program Elements: Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC), Human Health Countermeasures (HHC), ISS Medical Project (ISSMP), Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH), and Space Radiation (SR).

  5. Design control requirements for medical device development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsel, David

    2012-01-01

    Medical devices used in the United States must comply with federal regulations established to ensure that specified requirements have been met. The article will focus on 1 of 14 elements of the Quality System Regulation (QSR)-Design Controls. A high-level overview of these design control requirements is provided to increase awareness of the device development process and provide a basis for mutual understanding for continued dialogue with end users. Design control requirements were established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an element of the QSR in 1996. Device manufacturers are required to have a quality management system (QMS) to ensure their devices are safe and effective. The QMS is established by writing operating procedures to achieve consistent application of the methods used to control quality and comply with regulatory requirements. The FDA has the responsibility to audit device manufacturers for compliance with the regulation. The requirements of the QSR and the resulting device design control procedures lend themselves to what is commonly known as the waterfall development process. This iterative process results in documented evidence that is defined in the QSR as the Design History File. This record of development is essential for managing the product life cycle. The elements and purpose of the design control process will be presented to illuminate today's development environment. Collaboration between device developers and the practitioner is essential for improving clinical outcomes and reducing time to market of innovative devices.

  6. REQUIREMENTS PARTICLE NETWORKS: AN APPROACH TO FORMAL SOFTWARE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS MODELLING

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwat Vatanawood; Wanchai Rivepiboon

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to software functional requirements modelling using requirements particle networks is presented. In our approach, a set of requirements particles is defined as an essential tool to construct a visual model of software functional requirements specification during the software analysis phase and the relevant formal specification is systematically generated without the experience of writing formal specification. A number of algorithms are presented to perform these for...

  7. From requirements to Java in a snap model-driven requirements engineering in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Smialek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a coherent methodology for Model-Driven Requirements Engineering which stresses the systematic treatment of requirements within the realm of modelling and model transformations. The underlying basic assumption is that detailed requirements models are used as first-class artefacts playing a direct role in constructing software. To this end, the book presents the Requirements Specification Language (RSL) that allows precision and formality, which eventually permits automation of the process of turning requirements into a working system by applying model transformations and co

  8. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger

    2013-02-01

    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. NASA's future space power needs and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyer, A. D.; Sovie, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Policy of 1988 established the U.S.'s long-range civil space goals, and has served to guide NASA's recent planning for future space mission operations. One of the major goals was to extend the human presence beyond earth's boundaries and to advance the scientific knowledge of the solar system. A broad spectrum of potential civil space mission opportunities and interests are currently being investigated by NASA to meet the espoused goals. Participation in many of these missions requires power systems with capabilities far beyond what exists today. In other mission examples, advanced power systems technology could enhance mission performance significantly. Power system requirements and issues that need resolution to ensure eventual mission accomplishment are addressed, in conjunction with the ongoing NASA technology development efforts and the need for even greater innovative efforts to match the ambitious solar exploration mission goals. Particular attention is given to potential lunar surface operations and technology goals, based on investigations to date. It is suggested that the nuclear reactor power systems can best meet long-life requirements as well as dramatically reduce the earth-surface-to-lunar-surface transportation costs due to the lunar day/night cycle impact on the solar system's energy storage mass requirements. The state of the art of candidate power systems and elements for the lunar application and the respective exploration technology goals for mission life requirements from 10 to 25 years are examined.

  10. EUROPEAN REQUIREMENTS REGARDING THE AUDIT REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, reporting requirements on the statutory audit have been revised and amended to increase the audit report’s communication value. In addition to the stipulations of the International Auditing Standards Package on reporting, revised and enforceable on 15 December 2016, the European Union issued the Directive 2014/56 / EU amending Directive 2006/43 / EC on statutory audits of annual financial statements and consolidated financial statements and EU Regulation no. 537/2014 on specific requirements for the statutory audit of public interest entities, both of which were published on the same date, June 17, 2014 and with the same application deadline, June 17, 2016. These normative acts foresee increased requirements for the reporting procedure in the statutory audit. Thus, the Directive provides for additional content requirements for the audit report, and the regulation requires additional information in the report but also the issuance and provision of other reports by the auditor: report to the audit committee of the public interest entity; In some cases, a report to the public-interest entity's supervisory authority or to the auditor's supervisory authority, and a transparency report published annually on the auditor's website. Our article details this information with direct reference to the content of these European official documents.

  11. P and Ca requirements for Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, C B L; Silva, J H V; Filho, J J; Lima, M R; Costa, F G P

    2017-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to estimate the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain in Japanese quails during their growth phase from 16 to 36 days. Japanese quails aged 16 days were used for estimating the phosphorous and calcium requirements for weight maintenance or weight gain, with these quails composing each reference slaughter group and the others distributed in a completely randomized design, housed in cages of galvanized wire (33 × 33 × 16 cm) that were stored in acclimatized chambers with specific environmental temperatures. The light programme used during the 20-day experimental period was 24 h of artificial light. Analysis of the data showed that the prediction equations for estimating the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain of Japanese quails between 16 and 36 days of age were P (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(9.3695 + 7.7397*T) + 9.70*WG, in which P is the phosphorus requirement, and Ca (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(363.99 - 8.0262*T) + 28.15*WG, in which Ca is the calcium requirement, P is BW (kg), T is temperature (°C) and WG (g/quail/day). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  13. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, James; Head, Martin; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-08-01

    New and emerging policies that aim to set standards for protection and sustainable use of soil are likely to require identification of geographical risk/priority areas. Soil degradation can be seen as the change or disturbance in soil quality and it is therefore crucial that soil and soil quality are well understood to protect soils and to meet legislative requirements. To increase this understanding a review of the soil quality definition evaluated its development, with a formal scientific approach to assessment beginning in the 1970s, followed by a period of discussion and refinement. A number of reservations about soil quality assessment expressed in the literature are summarised. Taking concerns into account, a definition of soil quality incorporating soil's ability to meet multifunctional requirements, to provide ecosystem services, and the potential for soils to affect other environmental media is described. Assessment using this definition requires a large number of soil function dependent indicators that can be expensive, laborious, prone to error, and problematic in comparison. Findings demonstrate the need for a method that is not function dependent, but uses a number of cross-functional indicators instead. This method to systematically prioritise areas where detailed investigation is required, using a ranking based against a desired level of action, could be relatively quick, easy and cost effective. As such this has potential to fill in gaps and compliment existing monitoring programs and assist in development and implementation of current and future soil protection legislation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety requirements applicable to the SMART design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Wee Kyong; Kim, Hho Jung

    1999-01-01

    The 330 MW thermal power of integral reactor, named SMART (System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), is under development at KAERI for seawater desalination application and electricity generation. The final product of nuclear desalination plant (NDP) is electricity and fresh water. Thus, in addition to the protection of the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the fresh water should be prevented from radioactivity contamination. In this study, to ensure the safety of SMART reactor in the early stage of design development, the safety requirements applicable to the SMART design were investigated, based on the current regulatory requirements for the existing NPPs and the advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs. The interface requirements related to the desalination facility were also investigated, based on the recent IAEA research activities pertaining to the NDP. As a result, it was found that the current regulatory requirements and guidance for the existing NPPs and advanced LWR designs are applicable to the SMART design and its safety evaluation. However, the safety requirements related to the SMART-specific design and the desalination plant are needed to develop in the future to assure the safety of the SMART reactor

  15. Requirements of titanium alloys for aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiban, Brânduşa; Bran, Dragoş-Teodor; Elefterie, Cornelia Florina

    2018-02-01

    The project presents the requirements imposed for aeronatical components made from Titanium based alloys. Asignificant portion of the aircraft pylons are manufactured from Titanium alloys. Strength, weight, and reliability are the primary factors to consider in aircraft structures. These factors determine the requirements to be met by any material used to construct or repair the aircraft. Many forces and structural stresses act on an aircraft when it is flying and when it is static and this thesis describes environmental factors, conditions of external aggression, mechanical characteristics and loadings that must be satisfied simultaneously by a Ti-based alloy, compared to other classes of aviation alloys (as egg. Inconel super alloys, Aluminum alloys). For this alloy class, the requirements are regarding strength to weight ratio, reliability, corrosion resistance, thermal expansion and so on. These characteristics additionally continue to provide new opportunities for advanced manufacturing methods.

  16. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  17. Functional Foods Baseline and Requirements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Bermudez-Aguirre, L. D.; Douglas, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight foods were evaluated to determine if their nutrient profile supports positioning as a functional food and if the stability of the bioactive compound within the food matrix over an extended shelf-life correlated with the expected storage duration during the mission. Specifically, the research aims were: Aim A. To determine the amount of each nutrient in representative spaceflight foods immediately after processing and at predetermined storage time to establish the current nutritional state. Aim B. To identify the requirements to develop foods that stabilize these nutrients such that required concentrations are maintained in the space food system throughout long duration missions (up to five years). Aim C. To coordinate collaborations with health and performance groups that may require functional foods as a countermeasure.

  18. HEP Science Network Requirements--Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Barczyk, Artur; Blatecky, Alan; Boehnlein, Amber; Carlson, Rich; Chekanov, Sergei; Cotter, Steve; Cottrell, Les; Crawford, Glen; Crawford, Matt; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Ernst, Michael; Fisk, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Johnston, Bill; Kent, Steve; Lammel, Stephan; Loken, Stewart; Metzger, Joe; Mount, Richard; Ndousse-Fetter, Thomas; Newman, Harvey; Schopf, Jennifer; Sekine, Yukiko; Stone, Alan; Tierney, Brian; Tull, Craig; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-04-27

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2009 ESnet and the Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by HEP. The International HEP community has been a leader in data intensive science from the beginning. HEP data sets have historically been the largest of all scientific data sets, and the communty of interest the most distributed. The HEP community was also the first to embrace Grid technologies. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized below, and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section: (1) There will be more LHC Tier-3 sites than orginally thought, and likely more Tier-2 to Tier-2 traffic than was envisioned. It it not yet known what the impact of this will be on ESnet, but we will need to keep an eye on this traffic. (2) The LHC Tier-1 sites (BNL and FNAL) predict the need for 40-50 Gbps of data movement capacity in 2-5 years, and 100-200 Gbps in 5-10 years for HEP program related traffic. Other key HEP sites include LHC Tier-2 and Tier-3 sites, many of which are located at universities. To support the LHC, ESnet must continue its collaborations with university and international networks. (3) While in all cases the deployed 'raw' network bandwidth must exceed the user requirements in order to meet the data transfer and reliability requirements, network engineering for trans

  19. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage....... These cases show the existence of four key issues in the development of this kind of information systems: digitisation, requirements engineering, standardisation and interoperability. The proposed framework addresses these issues focusing on the user requirements and the cultural object representation....... Dynamic content exchange requires the use of a prescriptive framework for the development of cultural heritage websites. This chapter provides such a framework using observation from concrete applications and knowledge of information systems development methodologies....

  20. Refining System Requirements to Program Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Ruediger; Ravn, Anders P.; Skakkebæk, Jens Ulrik

    1996-01-01

    A coherent and mathematically well-founded approach to the design ofreal-time and hybrid systems is presented.It covers requirementsanalysis and specification, design of controlling automatasatisfying the requirements, and derivation ofoccam-like communicating programs from these automata.......The generalized railroad crossing due to Heitmeyer and Lynchillustrates the approach.Requirements are analyzed within aconventional dynamic systems model of a plant, where states arefunctions of the reals, representing time. The requirements arespecified in an assumption-commitment style using Duration Calculus...... to component descriptions in asystems design language that uses timed trace assertions over statetransition events to constrain control flow.Components can under certain conditions be transformed tooccam-like communicating programs....