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Sample records for erratum gravitational recoil

  1. Erratum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Page 1. ajor flaws ion of the from the nificance. ubstantial enefit was a finding. hy' to talk ess'. He is. Erratum. In the article 'Furosemide chronopharmacology' by B. H. Meyer er al., which appeared in the SAMJ of 18 December 1982, the histograms for Figs 8 and 9 on p. 977 should ha\\'e been transposed.

  2. Binary black holes: Spin dynamics and gravitational recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M.; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of spinning black hole binaries focusing on the spin dynamics of the individual black holes as well as on the gravitational recoil acquired by the black hole produced by the merger. We consider two series of initial spin orientations away from the binary orbital plane. In one of the series, the spins are antialigned; for the second series, one of the spins points away from the binary along the line separating the black holes. We find a remarkable agreement between the spin dynamics predicted at 2nd post-Newtonian order and those from numerical relativity. For each configuration, we compute the kick of the final black hole. We use the kick estimates from the series with antialigned spins to fit the parameters in the Kidder kick formula, and verify that the recoil in the direction of the orbital angular momentum is ∝sinθ and on the orbital plane ∝cosθ, with θ the angle between the spin directions and the orbital angular momentum. We also find that the black hole spins can be well estimated by evaluating the isolated horizon spin on spheres of constant coordinate radius

  3. Erratum: Erratum to: Thermodynamic implications of the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhajit; Mondal, Anindita

    2018-04-01

    We would like to rectify an error regarding the validity of the first law of thermodynamics (FLT) on the apparent horizon of a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe for the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario with constant specific entropy and an arbitrary particle creation rate (see Sect. 3.1 of original article)

  4. Gravitational-wave memory revisited: Memory from the merger and recoil of binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational-wave memory refers to the permanent displacement of the test masses in an idealized (freely-falling) gravitational-wave interferometer. Inspiraling binaries produce a particularly interesting form of memory-the Christodoulou memory. Although it originates from nonlinear interactions at 2.5 post-Newtonian order, the Christodoulou memory affects the gravitational-wave amplitude at leading (Newtonian) order. Previous calculations have computed this non-oscillatory amplitude correction during the inspiral phase of binary coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' description calibrated with the results of numerical relativity simulations, the evolution of the memory during the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases, as well as the memory's final saturation value, are calculated. Using this model for the memory, the prospects for its detection are examined, particularly for supermassive black hole binary coalescences that LISA will detect with high signal-to-noise ratios. Coalescing binary black holes also experience center-of-mass recoil due to the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation. These recoils can manifest themselves in the gravitational-wave signal in the form of a 'linear' memory and a Doppler shift of the quasi-normal-mode frequencies. The prospects for observing these effects are also discussed.

  5. Gravitational recoil from binary black hole mergers: The close-limit approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Yunes, Nicolas; Laguna, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary black hole system is one of the main sources of gravitational waves that present and future detectors will study. Apart from the energy and angular momentum that these waves carry, for unequal-mass binaries there is also a net flux of linear momentum that implies a recoil velocity of the resulting final black hole in the opposite direction. Due to the relevance of this phenomenon in astrophysics, in particular, for galaxy merger scenarios, there have been several attempts to estimate the magnitude of this velocity. Since the main contribution to the recoil comes from the last orbit and plunge, an approximation valid at the last stage of coalescence is well motivated for this type of calculation. In this paper, we present a computation of the recoil velocity based on the close-limit approximation scheme, which gives excellent results for head-on and grazing collisions of black holes when compared to full numerical relativistic calculations. We obtain a maximum recoil velocity of ∼57 km/s for a symmetric mass ratio η=M 1 M 2 /(M 1 +M 2 ) 2 ∼0.19 and an initial proper separation of 4M, where M is the total Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass of the system. This separation is the maximum at which the close-limit approximation is expected to provide accurate results. Therefore, it cannot account for the contributions due to inspiral and initial merger. If we supplement this estimate with post-Newtonian (PN) calculations up to the innermost stable circular orbit, we obtain a lower bound for the recoil velocity, with a maximum around 80 km/s. This is a lower bound because it neglects the initial merger phase. We can however obtain a rough estimate by using PN methods or the close-limit approximation. Since both methods are known to overestimate the amount of radiation, we obtain in this way an upper bound for the recoil with maxima in the range of 214-240 km/s. We also provide nonlinear fits to these estimated upper and lower bounds. These

  6. Gravitational-recoil effects on fermion propagation in space-time foam

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Volkov, G.

    2000-01-01

    Motivated by the possible experimental opportunities to test quantum gravity via its effects on high-energy neutrinos propagating through space-time foam, we discuss how to incorporate spin structures in our D-brane description of gravitational recoil effects in vacuo. We also point to an interesting analogous condensed-matter system. We use a suitable supersymmetrization of the Born-Infeld action for excited D-brane gravitational backgrounds to argue that energetic fermions may travel slower than the low-energy velocity of light: pulses of neutrinos at energies approaching 10^{19} eV: these would be observable only if M \\gsim 10^{27} GeV.

  7. The gravitational-wave recoil from the ringdown phase of coalescing black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tiec, Alexandre; Blanchet, Luc; Will, Clifford M

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational recoil or 'kick' of a black hole formed from the merger of two orbiting black holes, and caused by the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation, is an astrophysically important phenomenon. We combine (i) an earlier calculation, using post-Newtonian theory, of the kick velocity accumulated up to the merger of two non-spinning black holes, (ii) a 'close-limit approximation' calculation of the radiation emitted during the ringdown phase, and based on a solution of the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations using initial data accurate to second post-Newtonian order. We prove that ringdown radiation produces a significant 'anti-kick'. Adding the contributions due to inspiral, merger and ringdown phases, our results for the net kick velocity agree with those from numerical relativity to 10-15% over a wide range of mass ratios, with a maximum velocity of 180 km s -1 at a mass ratio of 0.38. (fast track communication)

  8. The Final Merger of Massive Black Holes: Recoils, Gravitational Waves, and Electromagnetic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.

  9. Recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The collision of a fast moving heavy ion with a neutral atomic target can produce very highly charged but slowly moving target ions. This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on the production and use of recoil ions beyond the second ionization state by beams with specific energies above 0.5 MeV/amu. A brief historical survey is followed by a discussion of theoretical approaches to the problem of the removal of many electrons from a neutral target by a rapid, multiply charged projectile. A discussion of experimental techniques and results for total and differential cross sections for multiple ionization of atomic and molecular targets is given. Measurements of recoil energy are discussed. The uses of recoil ions for in situ spectroscopy of multiply charged ions, for external beams of slow, highly charged ions and in ion traps are reviewed. Some possible future opportunities are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Misner, Charles W; Wheeler, John Archibald

    2017-01-01

    First published in 1973, Gravitation is a landmark graduate-level textbook that presents Einstein’s general theory of relativity and offers a rigorous, full-year course on the physics of gravitation. Upon publication, Science called it “a pedagogic masterpiece,” and it has since become a classic, considered essential reading for every serious student and researcher in the field of relativity. This authoritative text has shaped the research of generations of physicists and astronomers, and the book continues to influence the way experts think about the subject. With an emphasis on geometric interpretation, this masterful and comprehensive book introduces the theory of relativity; describes physical applications, from stars to black holes and gravitational waves; and portrays the field’s frontiers. The book also offers a unique, alternating, two-track pathway through the subject. Material focusing on basic physical ideas is designated as Track 1 and formulates an appropriate one-semester graduate-level...

  11. Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennelly, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of several problems of gravitation are discussed. The question of the existence of black holes is considered. While black holes like those in Einstein's theory may not exist in other gravity theories, trapped surfaces implying such black holes certainly do. The theories include those of Brans-Dicke, Lightman-Lee, Rosen, and Yang. A similar two-tensor theory of Yilmaz is investigated and found inconsistent and nonviable. The Newman-Penrose formalism for Riemannian geometries is adapted to general gravity theories and used to implement a search for twisting solutions of the gravity theories for empty and nonempty spaces. The method can be used to find the gravitational fields for all viable gravity theories. The rotating solutions are of particular importance for strong field interpretation of the Stanford/Marshall gyroscope experiment. Inhomogeneous cosmologies are examined in Einstein's theory as generalizations of homogeneous ones by raising the dimension of the invariance groups by one more parameter. The nine Bianchi classifications are extended to Rosen's theory of gravity for homogeneous cosmological models

  12. Erratum: Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In my paper [Qing-Quan Jiang, Yan Han, Xu Cai, Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy, JHEP 08 (2010) 049], there was an error in deriving the black hole spectroscopy. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  13. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  14. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  15. Recoil transporter devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2005-01-01

    The study of sparsely produced nuclear reaction products in the direction of intense primary beam is a challenging task, the pursuit of which has given rise to the advent or several types of selective devices. These range from a simple parallel plate electrostatic deflector to state-of-the-art electromagnetic separators. There is no single device which can satisfy all the requirements of an ideal recoil transporter, simultaneously. An overview of such devices and their building blocks is presented, which may help in the proper choice of the device as per the experimental requirements. (author)

  16. Recoiling D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method to describe a recoiling D-brane that is elastically scattered by closed strings in the nonrelativistic region. We utilize the low-energy effective field theory on the worldvolume of the D-brane, and the velocity of the D-brane is described by the time derivative of the expectation values of the massless scalar fields on the worldvolume. The effects of the closed strings are represented by a source term for the massless fields in this method. The momentum conservation condition between the closed strings and the D-brane is derived up to the relative sign of the momentum of the D-brane

  17. Erratum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 7 (adenylate cyclase-coupled). 3363. Hs.73739 ... 3034. Hs.190783. 5. response to chemical substance. 0.027 .... involving alteration of. RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation,.

  18. Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehata GA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shehata GA, Elserogy YM, Ahmad HEK, Abdel-Kareem MI, Al-kabeer AM, Rayan MM, Abd El-Baky MES. Multimodal neurophysiological and psychometric evaluation among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. International Journal of General Medicine. 2011;4:325–332.Dr Rayan and Dr Abd El-Baky are affiliated with the Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt.Original Article

  19. Erratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Boiger, M., Mesquita, B., Uchida, Y., & Barrett, L. F. (2013). Condoned or Condemned: The Situational Affordance of Anger and Shame in the United States and Japan. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(4), 540-553. doi: 10.1177/0146167213478201 This article contained the following errors that were introduced during the production process. Below is how these sentences should have appeared: On page 544, instead of "the relationship between of the actors involved," the sentence should read: "the relationship between the actors involved" On page 545, instead of "and the positive association between power and likelihood of occurrence was stronger for shame situations from Japan (b = .07, Z = 2.00, p = .04) than shame situations from Japan (b = -.02, Z = 0.71, p = .47) from the U.S., χ2(1) = 4.16, p = .04.," the sentence should read: "and the positive association between power and likelihood of occurrence was stronger for shame situations from Japan (b = .07, Z = 2.00, p = .04) than from the U.S. (b = -.02, Z = 0.71, p = .47), χ2(1) = 4.16, p = .04." On page 550, instead of "Americans perceived situations in which their personal flaws were revealed as more shameful, whereas Japanese perceived situations that implied a loss of public face as more shameful χ2(1) = 6.26, p = .01 Japanese and American students also differed substantially in terms of the source of agency eliciting shame: Americans perceived situations in which others' actions caused them to feel shame as more shameful, while Japanese perceived situations in which they themselves were responsible as more shameful χ2(1) = 51.33, p = .001.," the sentence should read: "Americans perceived situations in which their personal flaws were revealed as more shameful, whereas Japanese perceived situations that implied a loss of public face as more shameful, χ2(1) = 38.86, p personal autonomy within close relationships.," the sentence should read: "Thus, angering situations in the United States are promoted in line with the cultural tasks of an independent self that needs to negotiate personal autonomy within close relationships."

  20. Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aninwene G II

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aninwene II GE, Yao C, Webster TJ. Enhanced osteoblast adhesion to drug-coated anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces. Int J Nanomedicine. 2008;3(2:257–264.There is a mistake in the Drug coating section of the Materials and methods. In the paper it is written as follows:“For simple physical adsorption, 120 μL of either penicillin/streptomycin (Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA; 5 μg/mL or dexamethasone (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA; 5 μg/mL solutions were placed onto each unanodized or anodized titanium for 3 days at room temperature.”But the text should be written as:“For simple physical adsorption, 120 μL of either penicillin/streptomycin (Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA; 6.25 mg penicillin and 10 mg streptomycin per mL or dexamethasone (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA; 5 mg/mL solutions were placed onto each unanodized or anodized titanium for 3 days at room temperature.”Read the original article

  1. Erratum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zillikens, M Carola; Demissie, Serkalem; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this article.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this article....

  2. Erratum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Amstrup, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The authors regret that there are errors in Figs. 10 and 111 of the article referenced above. In subsequent experimentation, the results of the original study generated by J. Amstrup (GenBank: AY02676) could not be reproduced. In the laboratory of E.H. Larsen, this was discovered by Svend Erik...... Westh Hansen, who subsequently cloned and verified a significant piece of the gene as listed in GenBank: AY02676[1.2] (submitted by Westh Hansen, S.E. and Hviid Larsen, E.). The wrong data has been rectified in this corrigendum by replacing the original Figs. 10 and 11 by the revised versions given......RNA clones were isolated that span 1400 bp of CFTR, including the R-domain and the first nucleotide binding domain, NBD1. The cloned DNA was assembled into a consensus sequence of CFTR coding regions (3-1394) and listed in GenBank with accession number AY02676[1.2] (authors: Svend Erik Westh Hansen and Erik...

  3. Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada editorial team

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Correction to: Harland E, Griffith J, Lu H, Erickson T, Magsino K. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2016;36(8:149-62.

  4. Erratum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While considerable attention has been focussed on the efficacy of PPI- based dual therapy on HP eradication, it is unclear as to how long the. PPI should be used to ensure an acceptable speed of ulcer healing. We report on the ulcer healing and eradication efficacy of two dual therapy regimens, based on lansoprazole (Lz) ...

  5. Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gils PF

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available van Gils PF, Lambooij MS, Flanderijn MHW, van den Berg M, de Wit GA, Schuit AJ, Struijs JN. Willingness to participate in a lifestyle intervention program of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a conjoint analysis. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2011;5:537–546.Dr B van den Berg was mistakenly removed from the list of authors of this paper.Read the original article.

  6. Erratum

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Schuelert N, Russell FA, McDougall JJ. Topical diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Orthopedic Research and Reviews. 2011;3:1–8.An error in the indication for Solaraze Gel was published in this work. The sentence under the heading “The rationale for topical NSAIDs” that states “At present, four products containing diclofenac for topical application have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of OA&am...

  7. Erratum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Miatliuk, Konstantsin; Krüger, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest gripper quality metrics that indicate the performance of a gripper given an object CAD model and a task description. Those, we argue, can be used in the design and selection of an appropriate gripper when the task is known. We present three different gripper metrics that...

  8. Erratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In the article The use of gaming technology for rehabilitation in people with multiple sclerosis, DOI: 10.1177/1352458514563593, published in Multiple Sclerosis Volume 21 Issue 4, Table 1 was printed incorrectly. The corrected Table 1 is below:spmsj;22/12/NP9/TABLE11352458515585718T1table1-1352458515585718Table 1.Exergaming studies.Ref.PlatformParticipants and interventionOutcomesPlow and Finlayson 31 WiiPre-test vs. post-test repeated measures home-based Wii training. N=30, age 43.2 ± 9.3 years, 9 ± 6.8 years since diagnosis. 3 x per week programme consisting of yoga, balance, strength, and aerobic training in each session. Wii playing minutes ranged from 10-30 minutes based on participants' RPE when playing the "Basic Run" game. No therapist monitored training in the home. Participants were telephoned every other week (a total of four times) for the first seven weeks after receiving Wii-Fit to monitor adverse events and to encourage increases in the duration or frequency of using Wii-Fit. By the end of the seven weeks, all participants were encouraged to play Wii-Fit three to five times a week for 20 to 30 mins.TUG/TUG dual task; Maximum number of push-ups; timed number of sit-ups in 60s; Maximum number of steps in three mins onto a six-inch platform; Single/double leg balance with eyes open/closed on a soft/firm surface; Physical Activity and Disability Survey; SF-36; MFIS; The barrier self-efficacy scale.Improvements pre- vs. post-test: Number of steps and push-ups; Eyes/open closed, single leg balance on firm surface.Post-test vs. follow-up (14 weeks): measures returned to baseline.Kalron et al. 29 WiiPilot intervention. No control group. N=32, age 43.6 ± 1.9 years, 6.9 ± 0.8 years since diagnosis, EDSS 3.1 ± 0.2. Wii Tennis played for one session of 30 mins (3x10 mins).FRT and FSST taken pre- and post-intervention. FRT and FSST both significantly improved by 9.1% and 17.5% respectively.Prosperini et al. 28 WiiRandomized Crossover Trial - Home-Based. N=36, age 36.2 ± 8.6 years, 10.7 ± 5.8 years since diagnosis, and median EDSS of 3.5 (1.5-5.0). Wii group - 12-week duration, daily sessions (with the exception of the weekend) of home-based training with the Wii Balance Board, each lasting 30 mins. No intervention group - 12 weeks of no intervention. They then swapped to the Wii group after 12 weeks and the Wii group had no intervention for 12 weeks. Contact with physiotherapists every four weeks and phone contact once per week.CoP path, Four Square Step, 25-FWT, MSIS-29. Significant improvements for time × treatment interaction for all measures.Plow and Finlayson 35 WiiA repeated measures longitudinal design with a baseline control period. See Plow and Finlayson 31 Intervention: All participants were prescribed a three-times-a-week exercise programme - see Plow and Finalyson. 31 Semi-structured interviews conducted over the phone before and after the 14-week Wii-Fit programme. Examined the usability of Nintendo Wii-Fit and identified reasons for using or not using Wii-Fit on; a regular basis.Nilsagard et al. 25 WiiA multicentre RCT with random (1:1) allocation to exercise group or non-exercise group. Wii group: participants N=42, age 50.0 ± 11.5 years, 12.5 ± 8.0 years since. Individual physiotherapist-supervised sessions of 30 mins of balance exercise using Wii-Fit Plus twice a week for six to seven weeks, a total of 12 sessions. Non-exercise group: participants N=42, age 49.4 ± 11.1 years, 12.2 ± 9.2 years since diagnosis. This group was invited to start exercising using Wii-Fit Plus after the second data collection.TUG; TUG dual task; Four Square Step; Timed Chair Stands; 25-FWT; Dynamic Gait Index; ABC; MSWS-12. Improvements in Wii Group pre- vs. post-test: TUG dual task, Four Square Step, Timed Chair Stands, Dynamic Gait Index.Improvements in Non-exercise group pre- vs. post-test: Dynamic Gait Index.Wii vs. non-exercise at follow-up: No significant difference.Guidi et al. 27 WiiSingle-blind, RCT. Aged between 25-65 years, at least three years since diagnosis, EDSS score 0-3.5. Wii group (N=9) played Physiofun Balance Training - Physio Mode. Sessions 10x45-mins, twice a week for five weeks. Non-exercise group (N=8) received advice about strategies for behaviour and environment aimed at reducing falls.BBS significantly improved for Wii Group vs. Non-exercise group.Brichetto et al. 26 WiiRCT: Wii vs. traditional rehabilitation strategies. Twelve sessions (three 60-minute sessions/week) of intervention. Wii group: participants N=18, age 40.7 ± 11.5 years, years since diagnosis 11.2 ± 6.4 years, mean EDSS 3.9 ± 1.6. One hour of supervised Wii Balance Board sessions. participants N=18, age 43.2 ± 10.6 years, years since diagnosis 12.3 ± 7.2 years, mean EDSS 4.3 ± 1.6. Exercises consisted of static and dynamic exercises in both single leg and double leg stance, with or without an equilibrium board and half-kneeling exercises of increasing difficulty.BBS and MFIS. Postural assessment was quantified with a stabilometric platform (quiet standing, barefoot with open/closed eyes). No significant differences between the groups at baseline. Significant improvements in outcomes for both modes at post-test. A significant group × time interaction, revealing a more marked improvement for BBS score, open/closed-eye stabilometry in the Wii group compared to the control group.Ortiz-Gutiérrez, et al. 32 KinectXbox-group: participants N=24, age 39.7 ± 8.1 years, years since diagnosis 9.7 ± 6.8. 40 sessions - four sessions per week (20 mins per session) for 10 weeks. Individual Tele-Rehabilitation treatments using commercial games. Sessions were monitored via videoconference. participants N=23, age 42.8 ± 7.4 years, years since diagnosis 10.9 ± 5.4. Physiotherapy treatment twice a week (40 mins per session) at a clinic for 10 weeks. Low-load strength exercises, proprioception exercises on unstable surfaces, gait facilitation exercises, and muscle-tendon stretching.Computerized dynamic posturography and SOT. Improvement of general balance in both groups. Visual preference and the contribution of vestibular information, via SOT, yielded significant differences in the exercise group.Kramer et al. 34 WiiMatched controlled trial (3 groups). Three weeks, nine supervised training sessions lasting 30 mins each. N=23, age 42.8 ± 7.4 years, years since diagnosis 10.9 ± 5.4. Conventional balance training (control) group: Consisted of various exercises on the floor. Exergame training (playing exergames on an unstable platform) group: Wii Sports/Sports Resort/Fit games that require arm movements (tennis, table tennis, boxing, archery, and sword fight) or displacements of the whole body to control the game avatar (ski slalom, balance bubble, penguin picnic, soccer heading, tilt city, and perfect ten). Table tennis, tennis, and tilt city were the preferred games. Single task (ST) exercises on the unstable platform group.Pre- and post-testing. Combination of single and dual tasks. Six static balance tests: four balance tests on an unstable surface, and two gait analyses (normal and dual task). All groups significantly improved balance and gait measures. The exergame training group showed significantly higher improvements in the gait dual task condition compared to the single task condition. Adherence to home-based balance training was highest in the exergame group.Goble et al. 24 WiiCase study. N=1, 28 year old Male. Relapsing-remitting MS since age 11. EDSS 5.0. Six-week balance training, 3x30 mins per week. Wii-Fit games (yoga, table-tilt, penguin slide, ski jump and bubble balance).20s double leg standing. CoP path length (body sway). Participant relapsed after five weeks training. Follow-up measure taken post-relapse (two months). Over first two weeks 12% decrease in body sway from baseline. 22% increase in body sway over the next two weeks despite training. Relapse occurred week five. Balance impairment remained upon remittance (follow-up) when compared to week two.Forsberg et al. 33 WiiParticipants: N=15, median age 55 years, median time since diagnosis 13 years. See Nilsagard et al. 25 Qualitative research approach. Interviewed (15-45 mins) within two weeks after the end of the intervention period. Interview covered reflections on using Wii-Fit for exercising. Patients considered Wii-Fit exercises to be fun, challenging, and self-motivating.*Thomas et al. 24 WiiPublished trial methodology multicentre definitive RCT to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a home-based physiotherapist-supported Wii intervention. Immediate arm (N=15): Wii training for 12 months. Delayed arm (N=15): Wii training after six months. Comparison between first six months of immediate arm vs. six months of no training in delayed group, and then 12 months of Wii training in immediate group vs. six months Wii training in delayed group.Balance, gait and mobility: Two-minute walk test, Step test, Steady stance test, Instrumented TUG, Gait stride-time rhythmicity, Static posturography.Physical activity: GLTEQ, ActivPAL.Hand dexterity/coordination: Nine-hole peg test.Self-efficacy: SCI-ESES, MSSE.Psychological well-being and QoL: HADS, EQ-5D-5L, MSIS-29, FSI, SF-36v2. Adherence to training.*published trial methodology25-FWT: 25 Foot Walk Time; ABC: Activities-specific Balance Confidence; AI: Ambulation Index; BBS: Berg Balance Score; CoP: Centre of Pressure; EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale; EQ-5D-5L: EuroQual 5 Dimensions-5 Levels; FRT: Functional Reach Test; FSI: Fatigue Symptom Inventory; FSST: Four Square Step Test; GLTEQ: Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; MFIS: Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; MS: Multiple Sclerosis; MSIS-29: Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale; MSSE: Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale; MSWS-12: MS Walking Scale; QoL: Quality of Life; RCT: Randomized Control Trial; RPE: Ratings of Perceived Exertion; SCI-ESES: Spinal Cord Injury Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale; SF-36: Short-Form Health Survey; SOT: Sensory Organization Test; TUG: Timed-Up-and-Go. © The Author(s), 2015.

  9. Erratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the editorial by Cohen et al. , the incorrect affiliation was given for two of the co-authors. The correct affiliation for Dr Smita Pattanaik and Dr Praveen Kumar is the Department of Pharmacology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. The Journal apologises for this error. Reference Cohen A, Pattanaik S, Kumar P, Bies RR, de Boer A, Ferro A, et al. Organised crime against the academic peer review system. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2016; 81: 1012-7. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parizek M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Parizek M, Douglas TEL, Novotna K, Kromka A, Brady MA, Renzing A, Voss E, Jarosova M, Palatinus L, Tesarek P, Ryparova P, Lisa V, dos Santos AM, Bacakova L. Nanofibrous poly (lactide-co-glycolide membranes loaded with diamond nanoparticles as promising substrates for bone tissue engineering. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1931–1951. Dr PH Warnke was mistakenly removed from the list of authors of this paper. The correct citation is as follows:Parizek M, Douglas TEL, Novotna K, Kromka A, Brady MA, Renzing A, Voss E, Jarosova M, Palatinus L, Tesarek P, Ryparova P, Lisa V, dos Santos AM, Warnke PH, Bacakova L. Nanofibrous poly (lactide-co-glycolide membranes loaded with diamond nanoparticles as promising substrates for bone tissue engineering. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1931–1951. Dr Warnke’s affiliations are:Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Kiel, Germany; and Clem Jones Research Centre for Stem Cells and Tissue Regenerative Therapies, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

  11. Erratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Yara M, Hisham A, Mohammad HY, Oula Y. An Evaluation of GuttaFlow2 in Filling Artificial Internal Resorption Cavities: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract;17(6):445-450 should read as Mohammad Y, Alafif H, Hajeer MY, Yassin O. An Evaluation of GuttaFlow2 in Filling Artificial Internal Resorption Cavities: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract; 17(6):445-450.

  12. Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapidis A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapidis A, Sarlis N, Lefebvre J-L, et al. 2008. Docetaxel in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Ther Clin Risk Manag, 4:865–886Page 870, right column of text: TPF and PF were given for 3 cycles not 4 cycles.Page 871, Table 2 caption should read: TAX 323: select efficacy and safety results.Page 872, Table 3 caption should read: TAX 324: select efficacy and safety results.

  13. Erratum to : Methylome Evolution in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Erratum After publication of this article [1] we noticed that the centromere of Chromosome 3 was missing from Fig. 4a, and that the Fig. 4e y-axis should read ‘CG meth. Div. W-Acc.’. The y-axis of the barplot in Fig. 5a should read ‘Number of cytosines’. The corrected Figs. 4 and 5 are shown below.

  14. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  15. Erratum: Erratum to: "A higher-spin Chern-Simons theory of anyons"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, N.; Sundell, P.; Valenzuela, M.

    2017-09-01

    In the published version there is an error in the affiliation (the word "Andre's" with accent) of the author Per Sundell. The present form in this erratum is the correct (should be the word "Andres" without accent). The affiliation under the symbol " b" should read: Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile

  16. D0-brane recoil revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [California Institute of Technology 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakamura, Shin [Physics Department, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    One-loop string scattering amplitudes computed using the standard D0-brane conformal field theory (CFT) suffer from infrared divergences associated with recoil. A systematic framework to take recoil into account is the worldline formalism, where fixed boundary conditions are replaced by dynamical D0-brane worldlines. We show that, in the worldline formalism, the divergences that plague the CFT are automatically cancelled in a non-trivial way. The amplitudes derived in the worldline formalism can be reproduced by deforming the CFT with a specific 'recoil operator', which is bilocal and different from the ones previously suggested in the literature.

  17. Cage effect in recoil studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berei, K.

    1983-09-01

    The role of cage effect is one of the most discussed questions of hot atom chemistry in condensed organic systems. So far no direct evidence is available for assessing the exact contribution of thermal recombinations occurring in the liquid cage to the stabilization processes of recoil atoms. However, some conclusions can be drawn from experimental observations concerning the influence on product yield of hot atom recoil spectra, the effects of density, phase and long range order of the medium as well as from comparisons with systems providing cage walls of different chemical reactivities towards the recoil atom. Recent developments in this field are reviewed based primarily on the investigations of recoil halogen reactions in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and their haloderivatives. (author)

  18. RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN GAS-RICH GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric emission of gravitational waves produced during the coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary imparts a velocity 'kick' to the system that can displace the hole from the center of its host. Here, we study the trajectories and observability of MBHs recoiling in three (one major, two minor) gas-rich galaxy merger remnants that were previously simulated at high resolution, and in which the pairing of the MBHs had been shown to be successful. We run new simulations of MBHs recoiling in the major merger remnant with Mach numbers in the range 1≤M≤6 and use simulation data to construct a semi-analytical model for the orbital evolution of MBHs in gas-rich systems. We show the following. (1) In major merger remnants the energy deposited by the moving hole into the rotationally supported, turbulent medium makes a negligible contribution to the thermodynamics of the gas. This contribution becomes significant in minor merger remnants, potentially allowing for an electromagnetic signature of MBH recoil. (2) In major merger remnants, the combination of both deeper central potential well and drag from high-density gas confines even MBHs with kick velocities as high as 1200 km s -1 within 1 kpc from the host's center. (3) Kinematically offset nuclei may be observable for timescales of a few Myr in major merger remnants in the case of recoil velocities in the range 700-1000 km s -1 . (4) In minor merger remnants the effect of gas drag is weaker, and MBHs with recoil speeds in the range 300-600 km s -1 will wander through the host halo for longer timescales. When accounting for the probability distribution of kick velocities, however, we find that the likelihood of observing recoiling MBHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers is very low even in the best-case scenario.

  19. Chemical effects of fission recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisels, G.G.; Freeman, J.P.; Gregory, J.P.; Richardson, W.C.; Sroka, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The production of nitrogen from nitrous oxide at high density was employed to investigate the energy deposition efficiency of fission recoils produced from fission of U 235 in uranium-palladium foils clad with platinum. Nitrogen production varied linearly with fission recoil dose from 1.1 x 10 20 to 9.0 x 10 20 eV, and was independent of density between 12.5 and 127.5 g l -1 N 2 O. 16.2 +- 0.8% of the fission recoil energy was deposited external to the foil. Electron microprobe analysis showed some unevenness of new foil and polymer buildup on the surface after irradiation of ethylene-oxygen mixtures. Subsequent irradiation in the presence of nitrous oxide restored some of the original efficiency. This is ascribed to chemical oxidation of the polymer induced by reactive intermediates produced from nitrous oxide. (author)

  20. Dynamical Formation of Horizons in Recoiling D Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Ellis, John

    2000-01-01

    A toy calculation of string/D-particle interactions within a world-sheet approach indicates that quantum recoil effects - reflecting the gravitational back-reaction on space-time foam due to the propagation of energetic particles - induces the appearance of a microscopic event horizon, or `bubble', inside which stable matter can exist. The scattering event causes this horizon to expand, but we expect quantum effects to cause it to contract again, in a `bounce' solution. Within such `bubbles', massless matter propagates with an effective velocity that is less than the velocity of light in vacuo, which may lead to observable violations of Lorentz symmetry that may be tested experimentally. The conformal invariance conditions in the interior geometry of the bubbles select preferentially three for the number of the spatial dimensions, corresponding to a consistent formulation of the interaction of D3 branes with recoiling D particles, which are allowed to fluctuate independently only on the D3-brane hypersurface.

  1. Recoiling Black Holes: Electromagnetic Signatures, Candidates, and Astrophysical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Komossa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supermassive black holes (SMBHs may not always reside right at the centers of their host galaxies. This is a prediction of numerical relativity simulations, which imply that the newly formed single SMBH, after binary coalescence in a galaxy merger, can receive kick velocities up to several 1000 km/s due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. Long-lived oscillations of the SMBHs in galaxy cores, and in rare cases even SMBH ejections from their host galaxies, are the consequence. Observationally, accreting recoiling SMBHs would appear as quasars spatially and/or kinematically offset from their host galaxies. The presence of the “kicks” has a wide range of astrophysical implications which only now are beginning to be explored, including consequences for black hole and galaxy assembly at the epoch of structure formation, black hole feeding, and unified models of active galactic nuclei (AGN. Here, we review the observational signatures of recoiling SMBHs and the properties of the first candidates which have emerged, including follow-up studies of the candidate recoiling SMBH of SDSSJ092712.65+294344.0.

  2. Erratum: Back reaction, emission spectrum and entropy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In our paper [Qing-Quan Jiang and Xu Cai, Back reaction, emission spectrum and entropy spectroscopy, JHEP 11 (2010) 066], there was an error in using the first law of black hole thermodynamic and the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  3. Erratum to: Elastic and piezoelectric properties, sound velocity and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erratum to: Elastic and piezoelectric properties, sound velocity and Debye temperature of (B3) BBi compound under pressure. S DAOUD1,∗, N BIOUD2 and N LEBGAA2. 1Faculté des Sciences et de la Technologie, Université de Bordj Bou Arreridj, 34000, Algeria. 2Laboratoire d'Optoélectronique & Composants, Université ...

  4. Erratum to: Influence of boron doping on mechanical and tribological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Erratum to: Influence of boron doping on mechanical and tribological properties in multilayer CVD-diamond coating systems. SAJAD HUSSAIN DIN M A SHAH N A SHEIKH K A NAJAR K RAMASUBRAMANIAN S BALAJI M S RAMACHANDRA RAO. Volume 39 Issue 7 December 2016 pp 1763-1763 ...

  5. ERRATUM Study of microstructure in vanadium–palladium alloys by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    ERRATUM. Study of microstructure in vanadium–palladium alloys by X-ray diffraction technique. J Ghosh, S K Chattopadhyay, A K Meikap, S K Chatterjee and P Chatterjee 2007 Bull. Mater. Sci. 30 447–454. In page 448, under §2.1 Warren–Averbach method, after equation (1), the sentence starting with “Then the domain ...

  6. Erratum to: Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erratum to: Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced deformation of dielectric-coated mirror surface by. Michelson interferometer. A WAHID. ∗. , S KUNDU, J S B SINGH, A K SINGH, A KHATTAR,. S K MAURYA, J S DHUMAL and K DASGUPTA. Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Beam Technology Development ...

  7. Erratum to: Evaluating next-generation sequencing for direct clinical diagnostics in diarrhoeal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Engsbro, A. L. Ø.; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Erratum to: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. DOI 10.1007/s10096-017-2947-2 Originally published article contains error.......Erratum to: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. DOI 10.1007/s10096-017-2947-2 Originally published article contains error....

  8. Recoil momenta distributions in the double photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Liverts, E Z; Drukarev, E G; Mikhai, A I

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the distributions in recoil momenta for the high energy double photoionization of helium caused by quasifree mechanism. The distributions obtain local maxima at small values of the recoil momenta. This agrees with earlier predictions and recent experimental data. Angular correlations which reach the largest value for 'back-to-back' configuration of photoelectrons are also obtained.

  9. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying ion-beam modification of surfaces is the more basic subject of particle-surface interaction. The ideas can be grouped into forward and backward features, i.e. those affecting the interior of the target and those leading to particle expulsion. Forward effects include the stopping of the incident particles and the deposition of energy, both governed by integral equations which are easily set up but difficult to solve. Closely related is recoil implantation where emphasis is placed not on the stopping of the incident particles but on their interaction with target atoms with resulting implantation of these atoms. Backward effects, all of which are denoted as sputtering, are in general either of collisional, thermal, electronic, or exfoliational origin. (Auth.)

  10. Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) is a novel technique to determine the charge state and the complete final momentum vector P R of a recoiling target ion emerging from an ionising collision of an atom with any kind of radiation. It offers a unique combination of superior momentum resolution in all three spatial directions of ΔP R = 0.07 a.u. with a large detection solid angle of ΔΩ R /4π≥ 98%. Recently, low-energy electron analysers based on rigorously new concepts and reaching similar specifications were successfully integrated into RIM spectrometers yielding so-called ''reaction microscopes''. Exploiting these techniques, a large variety of atomic reactions for ion, electron, photon and antiproton impact have been explored in unprecedented detail and completeness. Among them first kinematically complete experiments on electron capture, single and double ionisation in ion-atom collisions at projectile energies between 5 keV and 1.4 GeV. Double photoionisation of He has been investigated at energies E γ close to the threshold (E γ = 80 eV) up to E γ = 58 keV. At E γ >8 keV the contributions to double ionisation after photoabsorption and Compton scattering were kinematically separated for the first time. These and many other results will be reviewed in this article. In addition, the experimental technique is described in some detail and emphasis is given to envisage the rich future potential of the method in various fields of atomic collision physics with atoms, molecules and clusters. (orig.)

  11. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  12. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  13. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathe, E

    2002-01-01

    A principal challenge faced by the U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC Benet Laboratories in the design of armaments for lightweight future fighting vehicles with lethality overmatch is mitigating the deleterious effects of large caliber cannon recoil...

  14. Best Practices for Using Lists as Design Web Patterns – ERRATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PAU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an erratum for the article [4]. The goal of this erratum is to present some corrections for each of the chapter from the original article and few comments which will reduce some confusions. The intent of writing this erratum comes from a regrettable error of the authors, the references have not been attached with the right paragraphs and figures. In this case, we have decided to publish an erratum in which we correct this mistakes. [4] Pau Valentin, Mihailescu Marius Iulian, Stanescu Octvian, Best Practices for Using Lists as Design Web Patterns, Journal of Applied Computer Science and Mathematics, issue 7, 2010, eISSN: 2066-3129, ISSN: 2066-4273.

  15. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  16. Hypercompact Stellar Systems Around Recoiling Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David; Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Komossa, S.

    2009-07-01

    A supermassive black hole ejected from the center of a galaxy by gravitational-wave recoil carries a retinue of bound stars—a "hypercompact stellar system" (HCSS). The numbers and properties of HCSSs contain information about the merger histories of galaxies, the late evolution of binary black holes, and the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks. We relate the structural properties (size, mass, density profile) of HCSSs to the properties of their host galaxies and to the size of the kick in two regimes: collisional (M BH lsim 107 M sun), i.e., short nuclear relaxation times, and collisionless (M BH gsim 107 M sun), i.e., long nuclear relaxation times. HCSSs are expected to be similar in size and luminosity to globular clusters, but in extreme cases (large galaxies, kicks just above escape velocity) their stellar mass can approach that of ultracompact dwarf galaxies. However, they differ from all other classes of compact stellar system in having very high internal velocities. We show that the kick velocity is encoded in the velocity dispersion of the bound stars. Given a large enough sample of HCSSs, the distribution of gravitational-wave kicks can therefore be empirically determined. We combine a hierarchical merger algorithm with stellar population models to compute the rate of production of HCSSs over time and the probability of observing HCSSs in the local universe as a function of their apparent magnitude, color, size, and velocity dispersion, under two different assumptions about the star formation history prior to the kick. We predict that ~102 HCSSs should be detectable within 2 Mpc of the center of the Virgo cluster, and that many of these should be bright enough that their kick velocities (i.e., velocity dispersions) could be measured with reasonable exposure times. We discuss other strategies for detecting HCSSs and speculate on some exotic manifestations.

  17. Hydrogen analysis by elastic recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirira, J.; Trocellier, P.

    1989-01-01

    An absolute, quantitative procedure was developed to determine the hydrogen content and to describe its concentration profile in the near-surface region of solids. The experimental technique used was the elastic recoil detection analysis of protons induced by 4 He beam bombardment in the energy range <=1.8 MeV. The hydrogen content was calculated using a new recoil cross section expression. The analyses were performed in silicon crystals implanted with hydrogen at 10 keV. The implantation dose was evaluated with an accuracy of 10% and the hydrogen depth profile with that of +-10 nm around 200 nm. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Recoil velocity at second post-Newtonian order for spinning black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Etienne; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kidder, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We compute the flux of linear momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes at second post-Newtonian (2PN) order for generic orbits. In particular we provide explicit expressions of three new types of terms, namely, next-to-leading order spin-orbit terms at 1.5 post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order, spin-orbit tail terms at 2PN order, and spin-spin terms at 2PN order. Restricting ourselves to quasicircular orbits, we integrate the linear-momentum flux over time to obtain the recoil velocity as function of orbital frequency. We find that in the so-called superkick configuration the higher-order spin corrections can increase the recoil velocity up to a factor ∼3 with respect to the leading-order PN prediction. Whereas the recoil velocity computed in PN theory within the adiabatic approximation can accurately describe the early inspiral phase, we find that its fast increase during the late inspiral and plunge, and the arbitrariness in determining until when it should be trusted, makes the PN predictions for the total recoil not very accurate and robust. Nevertheless, the linear-momentum flux at higher PN orders can be employed to build more reliable resummed expressions aimed at capturing the nonperturbative effects until merger. Furthermore, we provide expressions valid for generic orbits, and accurate at 2PN order, for the energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes. Specializing to quasicircular orbits we compute the spin-spin terms at 2PN order in the expression for the evolution of the orbital frequency and found agreement with Mikoczi, Vasuth, and Gergely. We also verified that in the limit of extreme mass ratio our expressions for the energy and angular momentum fluxes match the ones of Tagoshi, Shibata, Tanaka, and Sasaki obtained in the context of black hole perturbation theory.

  19. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  20. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  1. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  2. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  3. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  4. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Fryer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  5. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.

  6. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J., E-mail: jrenner@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.A.B.; Shuman, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Álvarez, V. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Borges, F.I.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Cárcel, S. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Castel, J.; Cebrián, S. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cervera, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Conde, C.A.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); and others

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope α-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  7. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.

  8. Gravitational Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, G.; Schutz, B.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity is truly universal. It is the force that pulls us to the Earth, that keeps the planets and moons in their orbits, and that causes the tides on the Earth to ebb and flow. It even keeps the Sun shining. Yet on a laboratory scale gravity is extremely weak. The Coulomb force between two protons is 1039 times stronger than the gravitational force between them. Moreover, Newton's gravitational constant is the least accurately known of the fundamental constants: it has been measured to 1 par...

  9. Self-triggering detectors for recoil nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.I.; Gasparyan, A.O.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid α-detectors consisting of wide gap spark chambers and signal α detectors are described. The investigations have been carried out with γ-beams of Yerevan Electron Synchrotron. The possibility of using such detectors in the experiments on particle photoproduction on gas helium with the determination of the interaction point, emission angle of the recoil nucleus and its energy by means of range measurement has been shown. It has been shown that self - triggering wide gap spark chamber allows to detect and measure the range of the recoil nuclei α-particles with energies Esub(α) > or approximately (1 - 2) Mev which correspond to momentum transfers apprxomation (10 -2 - 10 -3 ) (GeV/c) 2

  10. Commissioning of a proton-recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.C.; Faught, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of neutron fluence spectra in fields from bare and heavy-water-moderated 252 Cf were made with a commercially available proton-recoil spectrometer (PRS) that covers 50 keV to 4.5 MeV. Data obtained from these measurements were compared with data from Bonner sphere spectrometry, Monte Carlo simulation and the open literature. Alterations to the input data file used in unfolding recoil-proton pulse-height distributions were made. Understanding the reasons for these changes and considering the effects of some of the results in an appreciation of the significance of parameters used in the unfolding. An uncertainty of 10% is estimated for values of fluence and ambient dose equivalent for the energy region covered by this PRS. (author)

  11. Dama annual modulation from electron recoils

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma dark matter, which arises in dissipative dark matter models, can give rise to large annual modulation signals from keV electron recoils. Previous work has argued that the DAMA annual modulation signal might be explained in such a scenario. Detailed predictions are difficult due to the inherent complexities involved in modelling the halo plasma interactions with Earth bound dark matter. Here, we consider a simplified phenomenological model for the dark matter density and temperature nea...

  12. Experiments with recoil ions and other considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocke, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some opportunities in collisions physics with slow, multiply charged ions are addressed. A distinction between inner and outer shell collisions is drawn. The applicability of recoil ion sources to outer shell collision systems is discussed, with emphasis on the quality of the beam desired. An example of an inner shell collision is discussed, and the usefulness of not pushing the collision energy too low is pointed out. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Hydrogen depth profiling using elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Peercy, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis technique for H profiling in the near surface regions of solids is described. ERD is shown to have the capability of detecting H and its isotopes down to concentrations of approx. 0.01 at. % with a depth resolution of a few hundred angstroms. Is is demonstrated that 2.4-MeV He ions can be used successfully to profile 1 H and 2 D using this technique. 12 figures

  14. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    than would be deduced from the force levels defined by the pressure-time curve of the cartridge. Further and just like a large-caliber weapon mounted...force. If each of the force curves over the time interval were integrated, the result should be the same as that derived from a ballistic pendulum...Kathe, E.; Dillon, R. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun; Report ARCCB-TR-2001; U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center

  15. Atom location using recoil ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) using inert gas and alkali ions is widely used in studies of the surface atomic layer. The extreme surface sensitivity of this technique ensures that it yields both compositional and structural information on clean and adsorbate covered surfaces. Low Energy Negative recoil Spectroscopy (LENRS) has been applied to a study of oxygen on Ni(110) to gauge the sensitivity to coverage and site location

  16. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W.B.; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J.F. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W B; Johnston, P N; Walker, S R; Bubb, I F [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J F [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Gravitational decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Großardt, André; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    We discuss effects of loss of coherence in low energy quantum systems caused by or related to gravitation, referred to as gravitational decoherence. These effects, resulting from random metric fluctuations, for instance, promise to be accessible by relatively inexpensive table-top experiments, way before the scales where true quantum gravity effects become important. Therefore, they can provide a first experimental view on gravity in the quantum regime. We will survey models of decoherence induced both by classical and quantum gravitational fluctuations; it will be manifest that a clear understanding of gravitational decoherence is still lacking. Next we will review models where quantum theory is modified, under the assumption that gravity causes the collapse of the wave functions, when systems are large enough. These models challenge the quantum-gravity interplay, and can be tested experimentally. In the last part we have a look at the state of the art of experimental research. We will review efforts aiming at more and more accurate measurements of gravity ( G and g ) and ideas for measuring conventional and unconventional gravity effects on nonrelativistic quantum systems. (topical review)

  19. Gravitational Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we study the interaction of the electromagnetic wave (EW) from a distant quasar with the gravitational wave (GW) sourced by the binary stars. While in the regime of geometric optics, the light bending due to this interaction is negligible, we show that the phase shifting on the wavefront of an EW can produce the diffraction pattern on the observer plane. The diffraction of the light (with the wavelength of λe) by the gravitational wave playing the role of gravitational grating (with the wavelength of λg) has the diffraction angle of Δβ ˜ λe/λg. The relative motion of the observer, the source of gravitational wave and the quasar results in a relative motion of the observer through the interference pattern on the observer plane. The consequence of this fringe crossing is the modulation in the light curve of a quasar with the period of few hours in the microwave wavelength. The optical depth for the observation of this phenomenon for a Quasar with the multiple images strongly lensed by a galaxy where the light trajectory of some of the images crosses the lensing galaxy is τ ≃ 0.2. By shifting the time-delay of the light curves of the multiple images in a strong lensed quasar and removing the intrinsic variations of a quasar, our desired signals, as a new method for detection of GWs can be detected.

  20. Complementary scattered and recoiled ion data from TOF-E heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    The advantage of Time of Flight and Energy (ToF-E) Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) over Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis is its mass and energy dispersive capabilities. The mass resolution of ToF-E HIERDA deteriorates for very heavy elements. The limitation is related to the poor energy resolution of Si detectors for heavy ions. While the energy spectra from ToF-E HIERDA data are normally used to extract depth profiles, this work discusses the benefits of using the time spectra of both the recoiled and the scattered ions for depth profiling. The simulation of the complementary scattered and recoiled ion time spectra improves depth profiling and reduced current limitations when dealing with very heavy ions, such as Pt, Bi, Ta. (authors)

  1. LISA detection of massive black hole binaries: imprint of seed populations and extreme recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, A; Volonteri, M; Haardt, F

    2009-01-01

    All the physical processes involved in the formation, merging and accretion history of massive black holes along the hierarchical build-up of cosmic structures are likely to leave an imprint on the gravitational waves detectable by future space-borne missions, such as LISA. We report here the results of recent studies, carried out by means of dedicated simulations of black hole build-up, aiming at understanding the impact on LISA observations of two ingredients that are crucial in every massive black hole formation scenario, namely: (i) the nature and abundance of the first black hole seeds and (ii) the large gravitational recoils following the merger of highly spinning black holes. We predict LISA detection rates spanning two orders of magnitude, in the range 3-300 events per year, depending on the detail of the assumed massive black hole seed model. On the other hand, large recoil velocities do not dramatically compromise the efficiency of LISA observations. The number of detections may drop substantially (by ∼60%), in scenarios characterized by abundant light seeds, but if seeds are already massive and/or relatively rare, the detection rate is basically unaffected.

  2. SIMULATIONS OF RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN THE VIA LACTEA HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, J.; Madau, P.; Diemand, J.; Kuhlen, M.; Zemp, M.

    2009-01-01

    The coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary leads to the gravitational-wave recoil of the system and its ejection from the galaxy core. We have carried out N-body simulations of the motion of a M BH = 3.7 x 10 6 M sun MBH remnant in the 'Via Lactea I' simulation, a Milky Way-sized dark matter halo. The black hole receives a recoil velocity of V kick = 80, 120, 200, 300, and 400 km s -1 at redshift 1.5, and its orbit is followed for over 1 Gyr within a 'live' host halo, subject only to gravity and dynamical friction against the dark matter background. We show that, owing to asphericities in the dark matter potential, the orbit of the MBH is highly nonradial, resulting in a significantly increased decay timescale compared to a spherical halo. The simulations are used to construct a semi-analytic model of the motion of the MBH in a time-varying triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo plus a spherical stellar bulge, where the dynamical friction force is calculated directly from the velocity dispersion tensor. Such a model should offer a realistic picture of the dynamics of kicked MBHs in situations where gas drag, friction by disk stars, and the flattening of the central cusp by the returning black hole are all negligible effects. We find that MBHs ejected with initial recoil velocities V kick ∼> 500 km s -1 do not return to the host center within a Hubble time. In a Milky Way-sized galaxy, a recoiling hole carrying a gaseous disk of initial mass ∼M BH may shine as a quasar for a substantial fraction of its 'wandering' phase. The long decay timescales of kicked MBHs predicted by this study may thus be favorable to the detection of off-nuclear quasar activity.

  3. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  4. Gravitation relativiste

    CERN Document Server

    Hakim, Rémi

    1994-01-01

    Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.

  5. Recoil mixing in high-fluence ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littmark, U.; Hofer, W.O.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of recoil mixing on the collection and depth distribution of implanted projectiles during high-fluence irradiation of a random solid is investigated by model calculations based on a previously published transport theoretical approach to the general problem of recoil mixing. The most pronounced effects are observed in the maximum implantable amount of projectiles and in the critical fluence for saturation. Both values are significantly increased by recoil mixing. (Auth.)

  6. Heavy quark symmetry at large recoil: The case of baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, J.G.; Kroll, P.

    1992-02-01

    We analyze the large recoil behaviour of heavy baryon transition form factors in semi-leptonic decays. We use a generalized Brodsky-Lepage hard scattering formalism where diquarks are considered as quasi-elementary constituents of baryons. In the limit of infinitely heavy quark masses the large recoil form factors exhibit a new model-independent heavy quark symmetry which is reminiscent but not identical to the Isgur-Wise symmetry at low recoil. (orig.)

  7. Scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F; Badertscher, A; Benetti, P; Bernardini, E; Bettini, A; Borio di Tigliole, A A; Brunetti, R; Bueno, A G; Calligarich, E; Campanelli, M; Carpanese, C; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, Sandro; Cesana, A; Cline, D; De Mitri, I; Dolfini, R; Ferrari, A; Gigli-Berzolari, A; Matthey, C; Mauri, F; Mazza, D; Mazzone, L; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Nurzia, G; Otwinowski, S; Palamara, O; Pascoli, D; Pepato, Adriano; Petrera, S; Periale, L; Piano Mortari, G; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rico, J; Rossella, M; Rossi, C; Rubbia, André; Rubbia, Carlo; Sala, P; Scannicchio, D A; Sergiampietri, F; Suzuki, S; Terrani, M; Tian, W; Ventura, Sandro; Vignoli, C; Wang, H; Woo, J; Xu, Z

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a test done with a Liquid Xenon (LXe) detector for 'Dark Matter' search, exposed to a neutron beam to produce nuclear recoil events simulating those which would be generated by WIMP's elastic scattering. The aim of the experiment was to measure directly the scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil. The nuclear recoil considered in the test was in the tens of keV range. The ratio of measured visible energy over the true recoil energy was evaluated to be about 20%, in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  9. Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenholen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru

  10. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G En /G Mn , was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d((pol-e),e(prime)(pol-n)p) reaction at three values of Q 2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q 2 = 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2

  11. Erratum: Wise Detections of Known Qsos at Redshifts Greater than Six

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel K.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic J; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; hide

    2014-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, Roberto Assef was mistakenly affiliated with the Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of California, Los Angeles. This is incorrect. Dr. Assef's affiliation correctly appears in this erratum as the Nucleo de Astronomia de la Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile. IOP Publishing sincerely regrets this error.

  12. Erratum to: Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1083. Erratum to: Quadrupole moments of low-lying baryons with spin-. 1. 2. +. , spin-. 3. 2. +. , and spin-. 3. 2. +. → 1. 2. + transitions. NEETIKA SHARMA and HARLEEN DAHIYA. ∗. Department of Physics, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology,. Jalandhar 144 011, India. ∗. Corresponding author.

  13. Erratum: Report on the summit on the future ofacademic medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prescribed forms should be completed. 8. The ethical rules should be complied with at all times. 7. Die voorgeskrewe vorms moet voltooi word. 8. Die etiese reels moet te alle tye nagekom word. Erratum: Report on the summit on the future ofacademic medicine in SA. Please npte that this repon, which was published on ...

  14. Erratum: A Simple, Analytical Model of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Pair Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The following describes a list of errata in our paper, "A simple, analytical model of collisionless magnetic reconnection in a pair plasma." It supersedes an earlier erratum. We recently discovered an error in the derivation of the outflow-to-inflow density ratio.

  15. Erratum to: Nuclear triaxiality in the A ∼ 160–170 mass region: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erratum to: Nuclear triaxiality in the A ∼ 160–170 mass region: the story so far. S MUKHOPADHYAY1,∗ and W C MA2. 1Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Department of Physics, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, USA. ∗. Corresponding ...

  16. Erratum Associations of POU1F1 gene polymorphisms and protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associations of POU1F1 gene polymorphisms and protein structure changes with growth traits and blood metabolites in two Iranian sheep breeds. Mostafa Sadeghi, Ali Jalil-Sarghale and Mohammed Moradi-Shahrbabak. J. Genet. 93, 831–835. The erratum published in the March 2015 issue to this article did not point out ...

  17. ZZ RECOIL/B, Heavy Charged Particle Recoil Spectra Library for Radiation Damage Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Amburgey, J.D.; Greene, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Format: GAM-II group structure; Number of groups: 104 neutron and Recoil-energy groups; Nuclides: Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, B-10, Cu, B-11, Zr, N, Nb, Li-6, Mo, Li-7, Ta (Data for Ta-181,Ta-182), O, Origin: ENDF/B-IV cross-section data. A heavy charged-particle recoil data base (primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra) and an analysis program have been created to assist experimentalists in studying, evaluating, and correlating radiation-damage effects in different neutron environments. Since experimentally obtained controlled thermo-nuclear-reactor-type neutron spectra are not presently available, the data base can be extremely useful in relating currently obtainable radiation damage to that which is anticipated in future fusion devices. However, the usefulness of the data base is not restricted to just CTR needs. Most of the elements of interest to the radiation-damage community and all neutron reactions of any significance for these elements have been processed, using available ENDF/B-IV cross-section data, and are included in the data base. Calculated data such as primary recoil spectra, displacement rates, and gas-production rates, obtained with the data base, for different radiation environments are presented and compared with previous calculations. Primary neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV have been considered. The elements included in the data base are listed in Table I. All neutron reactions of significance for these elements (i.e., elastic, inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,sigma), (n,gamma), etc.,) which have cross sections available from ENDF/B-IV have been processed and placed in the data base. Table I - Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, 10 B, Cu, 11 B, Zr, N, Nb, 6 Li, Mo, 7 Li, Ta (Data for Ta 181 ,Ta 182 ), O. 2 - Method of solution: The neutron

  18. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500  km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  19. Recoil 18F-chemistry in fluoroalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, K.D. van der.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the study of the chemical reactions of recoil 18 F-atoms in gaseous fluoromethanes and fluoroethanes. A brief survey of the organic hot atom chemistry is given in Chapter I. Chapter II deals with the experimental procedures used in this investigation. The irradiation facilities, the vapour phase radio-chromatography and the identification, including the synthesis of some fluorocarbons, are described in detail. Chapter III consists of a study on the applicability of perfluoropropene, C 3 F 6 , as scavenger for thermal 18 F-atoms and radicals. Chapters IV, V, VI and VII deal with 18 F-recoil chemistry in gaseous fluoroethanes, using H 2 S as scavenger. Chapter VIII is a short discussion on the hot 18 F-atom based production of 18 F-labeled organic compounds via decay of the intermediate 18 Ne. A target system is proposed for production of this isotope in high energy and ultra high flux particle beams, which possibly would become available in fast breeders and fusion reactors. (Auth.)

  20. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Gravitational anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S

    1986-12-01

    The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.

  2. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  3. Gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies

  4. Detector for recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Mkrtchyan, G.G.; Pikhtelev, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    A detector consisting of the combination of a drift and a wide gap spark chambers and designed to detect recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas is described. It is shown, that by using an appropriate discrimination the detector allows to detect reliably the recoil nuclei in the presence of intensive electron and γ-quanta beams

  5. Nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Collatz, R; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Folger, H; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Blunt, D; Durell, JL; Varley, BJ; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; JONES, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Amzal, N; Meliani, Z; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Passoja, A; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    The main features of nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers used in nuclear spectroscopic investigations involving in-beam multi-e-gamma spectrometers are discussed. The relative importance of the F-ray background due to the accelerated ion-target and the recoil-ion-target

  6. Comparison of the Recoil of Conventional and Electromagnetic Cannon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The recoil from an electromagnetic (EM railgun is discussed and compared with that from conventional, propellant gas driven cannon. It is shown that, under similar launch conditions, the recoil of the EM gun is less than that of the powder gun; however, use of a muzzle brake on a powder gun can alter this relative behavior.

  7. Transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, S.C.; Borges, A.M.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet, is studied. It is used a technique aiming to put in the detection area (region of low background) the recoils, produced by nuclear reactions between target and particle beams, those produced with the help of cyclotron CV-28. (E.G.) [pt

  8. D-Brane Recoil Mislays Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the scattering of a light closed-string state off a $D$ brane, taking into account quantum recoil effects on the latter, which are described by a pair of logarithmic operators. The light-particle and $D$-brane subsystems may each be described by a world-sheet with an external source due to the interaction between them. This perturbs each subsystem away from criticality, which is compensated by dressing with a Liouville field whose zero mode we interpret as time. The resulting evolution equations for the $D$ brane and the closed string are of Fokker-Planck and modified quantum Liouville type, respectively. The apparent entropy of each subsystem increases as a result of the interaction between them, which we interpret as the loss of information resulting from non-observation of the other entangled subsystem. We speculate on the possible implications of these results for the propagation of closed strings through a dilute gas of virtual $D$ branes.

  9. Gravitational microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Aleksandr F [Russian Federation State Scientific Center ' A.I. Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Sazhin, Mikhail V [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-10-31

    The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Gravitational microlensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Aleksandr F; Sazhin, Mikhail V

    1998-01-01

    The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z C; Wang, J

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment. (paper)

  12. Erratum Haldane and the first estimates of the human mutation rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Published on the Web: 1 December 2008. Erratum. Haldane and the first estimates of the human mutation rate. (A commentary on J.B.S. Haldane 1935 J. Genet. 31, 317–326; reprinted in volume 83, 235–244 as a J. Genet. classic). Michael W. Nachman. J. Genet. 83, 231–233. Page 1, right column, para 1, line 6 from ...

  13. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  14. RITA, a promising Monte Carlo code for recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desalvo, A.; Rosa, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code previously set up to simulate ion penetration in amorphous solids has been extended to handle with recoil phenomena. Preliminary results are compared with existing experimental data. (author)

  15. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-01-01

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q ∼> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q min ≅ 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s –1 in the direction within an angle ∼< 40° relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  16. Recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-12-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  17. Recoil-proton fast-neutron-counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, G.; Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A proton-recoil neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time-of-flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV, presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  18. A recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV. (author)

  19. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E., E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  20. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  1. Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jiayin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Center for Future High Energy Physics; Li, Ying-Ying [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Physics

    2017-10-15

    It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process (e{sup +}e{sup -}→ν anti νh) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z (e{sup +}e{sup -}→hZ, Z→ν anti ν). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, m{sup p}{sub recoil}, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can better separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events than the original recoil mass variable m{sub recoil}. Consequently, the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies.

  2. Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Li, Ying-Ying

    2018-02-01

    It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}{{h}}) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{hZ}},{{Z}}\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, {m}{{recoil}}p, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events better than the original recoil mass variable m recoil. Consequently, the {m}{{recoil}}p variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the {m}{{recoil}}p variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies. JG is Supported by an International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program between the Office of the National Administrative Committee of Postdoctoral Researchers of China (ONACPR) and DESY. YYL is Supported by Hong Kong PhD Fellowship (HKPFS) and the Collaborative Research Fund (CRF) (HUKST4/CRF/13G)

  3. Source modelling at the dawn of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide

    2016-09-01

    The age of gravitational-wave astronomy has begun. Gravitational waves are propagating spacetime perturbations ("ripples in the fabric of space-time") predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. These signals propagate at the speed of light and are generated by powerful astrophysical events, such as the merger of two black holes and supernova explosions. The first detection of gravitational waves was performed in 2015 with the LIGO interferometers. This constitutes a tremendous breakthrough in fundamental physics and astronomy: it is not only the first direct detection of such elusive signals, but also the first irrefutable observation of a black-hole binary system. The future of gravitational-wave astronomy is bright and loud: the LIGO experiments will soon be joined by a network of ground-based interferometers; the space mission eLISA has now been fully approved by the European Space Agency with a proof-of-concept mission called LISA Pathfinder launched in 2015. Gravitational-wave observations will provide unprecedented tests of gravity as well as a qualitatively new window on the Universe. Careful theoretical modelling of the astrophysical sources of gravitational-waves is crucial to maximize the scientific outcome of the detectors. In this Thesis, we present several advances on gravitational-wave source modelling, studying in particular: (i) the precessional dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries; (ii) the astrophysical consequences of black-hole recoils; and (iii) the formation of compact objects in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. All these phenomena are deeply characterized by a continuous interplay between General Relativity and astrophysics: despite being a truly relativistic messenger, gravitational waves encode details of the astrophysical formation and evolution processes of their sources. We work out signatures and predictions to extract such information from current and future observations. At the dawn of a revolutionary

  4. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  5. Underdevelopment’s gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy necessary to escape the gravitational pull of underdevelopment and to enter an evolutional trajectory dependent on the gravitational pull of development is unintelligible in economic terms.

  6. Gravitation in Material Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…

  7. Detection of gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van [ed.

    1994-12-31

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).

  8. Detection of gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1994-01-01

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)

  9. Relativity theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)

  10. Submillisecond elastic recoil reveals molecular origins of fibrin fiber mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O'Brien, E Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Falvo, Michael R

    2013-06-18

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin's elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin's mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Submillisecond Elastic Recoil Reveals Molecular Origins of Fibrin Fiber Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E.; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O’Brien, E. Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V.; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Falvo, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin’s elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin’s mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. PMID:23790375

  12. Shallow doping of gallium arsenide by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadana, D.K.; Souza, J.P. de; Rutz, R.F.; Cardone, F.; Norcott, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Si atoms were recoil-implanted into GaAs by bombarding neutral (As + ) or dopant (Si + ) ions through a thin Si cap. The bombarded samples were subsequently rapid thermally or furnace annealed at 815-1000 degree C in Ar or arsine ambient. The presence of the recoiled Si in GaAs and resulting n + -doping was confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and Hall measurements. It was found that sheet resistance of 19 cm 3 and the annealing temperature was > 850 degree C. The present electrical data show that the recoil implant method is a viable alternative to direct shallow implant for n + doping of GaAs. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Recoil effects of neutron-irradiated metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of sup(56)Mn and sup(38)Cl recoil species following radiative neutron capture permanganates, chlorates and perchlorates has been investigated by using ion-exchange chromatography method. The whole of the sup(56)Mn radioactivity in permanganates appeared in two valence states, the sup(38)Cl radioactivity in chlorates in two valence states and also the sup(38)Cl radioactivity in perchlorates in three valence states. Recoil energy was calculated. The internal conversion of sup(38m)Cl isomer transition affects the retention value. The greater the radii of the cation, the higher is the probability of the recoil atom breaking through the secondary cage. In ammonium salt, the ammonium ion behaves as a reducing agent. Crystal structures with their greater free space have shown by retention. (Author)

  14. Recoil release of fission products from nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical approximation is developed for calculating recoil release from nuclear fuel into gas filled interspaces. This expression is evaluated for a number of interspace geometries and shown to be generally accurate to within about 10% by comparison with numerical calculations. The results are applied to situations of physical interest and it is demonstrated that recoil can be important when modelling fission product release from low temperature CAGR pin failures. Furthermore, recoil can contribute significantly in experiments on low temperature fission product release, particularly where oxidation enhancement of this release is measured by exposing the fuel to CO 2 . The calculations presented here are one way of allowing for this, other methods are suggested. (orig.)

  15. Time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabalais, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Ion scattering and recoiling spectrometry consists of directing a collimated beam of monoenergetic ions towards a surface and measuring the flux of scattered and recoiled particles from this surface. When the neutral plus ion flux is velocity selected by measuring the flight times from the sample to the detector, the technique is called time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry (TOF-SARS). TOF-SARS is capable of (1) surface elemental analysis by applying classical mechanics to the velocities of the particles, (2) surface structural analysis by monitoring the angular anisotropies in the particle flux, and (3) ion-surface electron exchange probabilities by analysis of the ion/neutral fractions in the particle flux. Examples of these three areas are presented herein

  16. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...

  17. Erratum to: The JBEI quantitative metabolic modeling library (jQMM): a python library for modeling microbial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkel, Garrett W.; Ghosh, Amit; Kumar, Vinay S.

    2017-01-01

    Erratum: Following publication of this article, it has come to our attention that an incomplete version of Fig. 7 was included in this article. The complete figure is shown below with the missing text included to the left of the chart....

  18. Enhancing the sensitivity of recoil-beta tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J; Jenkins, D G; Davies, P J; Henry, T W; Joshi, P; Nichols, A J; Ruotsalainen, P; Scholey, C; Auranen, K; Grahn, T; Greenlees, P T; Herzáň, A; Jakobsson, U; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Konki, J; Leino, M; Pakarinen, J; Lotay, G; Obertelli, A

    2013-01-01

    Tagging with β-particles at the focal plane of a recoil separator has been shown to be an effective technique for the study of exotic proton-rich nuclei. This article describes three new pieces of apparatus used to greatly improve the sensitivity of the recoil-beta tagging technique. These include a highly-pixelated double-sided silicon strip detector, a plastic phoswich detector for discriminating high-energy β-particles, and a charged-particle veto box. The performance of these new detectors is described and characterised, and the resulting improvements are discussed.

  19. COMMENT ON THE BLACK HOLE RECOIL CANDIDATE QUASAR SDSS J092712.65+294344.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G. A.; Bonning, E. W.; Salviander, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar J092712.65+294344.0 has been proposed as a candidate for a supermassive black hole (∼10 8.8 M sun ) ejected at high speed from the host galactic nucleus by gravitational radiation recoil, or alternatively for a supermassive black hole binary. This is based on a blueshift of 2650 km s -1 of the broad emission lines ('b-system') relative to the narrow emission lines ('r-system') presumed to reflect the galaxy velocity. New observations with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) confirm the essential features of the spectrum. We note a third redshift system, characterized by weak, narrow emission lines of [O III] and [O II] at an intermediate velocity 900 km s -1 redward of the broad-line velocity ('i-system'). A composite spectrum of SDSS QSOs similar to J0927+2943 illustrates the feasibility of detecting the calcium K absorption line in spectra of sufficient quality. The i-system may represent the QSO host galaxy or a companion. Photoionization requires the black hole to be ∼3 kpc from the r-system emitting gas, implying that we are observing the system only 10 6 yr after the recoil event and contributing to the low probability of observing such a system. The HET observations give an upper limit of 10 km s -1 per year on the rate of change of the velocity difference between the r- and b-systems, constraining the orbital phase in the binary model. These considerations and the presence of a cluster of galaxies apparently containing J0927+2943 favor the idea that this system represents a superposition of two active galactic nuclei.

  20. Gravitational waves from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-01-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  1. Erratum to Surface‐wave green’s tensors in the near field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.; Hisashi Nakahara,

    2016-01-01

    Haney and Nakahara (2014) derived expressions for surface‐wave Green’s tensors that included near‐field behavior. Building on the result for a force source, Haney and Nakahara (2014) further derived expressions for a general point moment tensor source using the exact Green’s tensors. However, it has come to our attention that, although the Green’s tensors were correct, the resulting expressions for a general point moment tensor source were missing some terms. In this erratum, we provide updated expressions with these missing terms. The inclusion of the missing terms changes the example given in Haney and Nakahara (2014).

  2. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  3. Direct Measurement of Photon Recoil from a Levitated Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay; Gieseler, Jan; Moritz, Clemens; Dellago, Christoph; Quidant, Romain; Novotny, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    The momentum transfer between a photon and an object defines a fundamental limit for the precision with which the object can be measured. If the object oscillates at a frequency Ω0 , this measurement backaction adds quanta ℏΩ0 to the oscillator's energy at a rate Γrecoil, a process called photon recoil heating, and sets bounds to coherence times in cavity optomechanical systems. Here, we use an optically levitated nanoparticle in ultrahigh vacuum to directly measure Γrecoil. By means of a phase-sensitive feedback scheme, we cool the harmonic motion of the nanoparticle from ambient to microkelvin temperatures and measure its reheating rate under the influence of the radiation field. The recoil heating rate is measured for different particle sizes and for different excitation powers, without the need for cavity optics or cryogenic environments. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions and provide valuable guidance for the realization of quantum ground-state cooling protocols and the measurement of ultrasmall forces.

  4. Fabrication and testing of the recoil mass spectrometer at Bombay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) has been designed, fabricated and installed ... first order and only mass dispersion is obtained at the focal plane of the ... more details, like, the specifications and a typical beam profile through the ... Further experiments are now in progress to characterize the spectrometer, i.e., to measure.

  5. The Performance of the HRIBF Recoil Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginter, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is a mass separator located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes the RMS, its performance, its detector systems, and discusses some experiments to illustrate its capabilities

  6. Nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons on a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Khaydarov, A.; Barsukova, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons and of the detection possibility of the various chemical elements with the use of these secondary nucleus reactions were investigated. The recoil protons are produced on a nuclear reactor in the result of (n, p) inelastic and elastic scattering interaction of fast neutrons with nuclei of hydrogen. It is well known that the share of fast neutrons in energetic spectrum of reactor's neutrons in comparison with the share of thermal neutrons is small. . Consequently, the share of recoil protons produced in the result of fast neutron interaction with nuclei of light elements, capable to cause the nuclear reactions, is also small, des, due to Coulomb barrier of nuclei the recoil protons can cause the nuclear reactions only on nuclei of light and some middle elements. Our studies show that observable yields have radio nuclides excited in the result of nuclear reactions on Li, B, O, V and Cu. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proton activation analysis based on the application of secondary nuclear reactions is useful technique to determine large contents of various light and medium chemical elements. Detection limits for studied chemical elements are estimated better than 10 ppm

  7. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  8. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) with extremely heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.S.; Davies, J.A.; Siegele, R.; Wallace, S.G.; Zelenitsky, D.

    1996-01-01

    Extremely heavy-ion beams such as 209 Bi in elastic recoil detection (ERD) make ERD a uniquely valuable technique for thin-film analysis of elements with mass ≤100. We report ERD measurements of compositional analysis of dinosaur eggshells and bones. We also show the capability of the ERD technique on studies of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  9. Gravitational waves from the asymmetric-dark-matter generating phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason

    2017-02-01

    The baryon asymmetry, together with a dark matter asymmetry, may be produced during a first order phase transition in a generative sector. We study the possibility of a gravitational wave signal in a model realising such a scenario. We identify areas of parameter space with strong phase transitions which can be probed by future, space based, gravitational wave detectors. Other signals of this scenario include collider signatures of a Z"', DM self interactions, a contribution to ΔN_e_f_f and nuclear recoils at direct detection experiments.

  10. Gravitation Waves seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.

  11. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  12. Exclusive ρ0 production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-01

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  13. Gravitation in material media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.

  14. Gravitation and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, William F

    1964-01-01

    Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.

  15. Gravitational effects in field gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Vlasov, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities to describe various gravitation effects of field gravitation theory (FGT) are considered. Past-Newtonian approximation of the FGT has been constructed and on the basis of this approximation it has been shown that the field theory allows one to describe the whole set of experimental facts. The comparison of post-Newtonian parameters in FGT with those in the Einstein's theory makes it clear that these two; theories are undistinguishable from the viewpoint of any experiments, realized with post-Newtonian accuracy. Gravitational field of an island type source with spherically symmetrical distribution of matter and unstationary homogeneous model of Universe, which allows to describe the effect of cosmological red shift, are considered

  16. Optical-Gravitation Nonlinearity: A Change of Gravitational Coefficient G induced by Gravitation Field

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.

  17. Relativistic gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter

  18. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  19. Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.M., E-mail: ymcho7@konkuk.ac.kr [Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-10

    We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein–Weinberg–Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.

  20. A gravitational entropy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)

  1. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  2. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5–7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5

  3. Elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzell, T R.H.; Whitlow, H J [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bubb, I F; Short, R; Johnston, P N [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of hydrogen in thick polymeric films has been performed using 2.5 MeV He{sup 2+} ions from the tandem accelerator at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The technique enables the use of the same equipment as in Rutherford backscattering analysis, but instead of detecting the incident backscattered ion, the lighter recoiled ion is detected at a small forward angle. The purpose of this work is to investigate how selected polymers react when irradiated by helium ions. The polymers are to be evaluated for their suitability as reference standards for hydrogen depth profiling. Films investigated were Du Pont`s Kapton and Mylar, and polystyrene. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzell, T.R.H.; Whitlow, H.J. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bubb, I.F.; Short, R.; Johnston, P.N. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of hydrogen in thick polymeric films has been performed using 2.5 MeV He{sup 2+} ions from the tandem accelerator at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The technique enables the use of the same equipment as in Rutherford backscattering analysis, but instead of detecting the incident backscattered ion, the lighter recoiled ion is detected at a small forward angle. The purpose of this work is to investigate how selected polymers react when irradiated by helium ions. The polymers are to be evaluated for their suitability as reference standards for hydrogen depth profiling. Films investigated were Du Pont`s Kapton and Mylar, and polystyrene. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Recoil distance lifetime measurements in 122,124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.; Kumar, A.; Iyer, H.; Li, H.; Garg, U.; Ghugre, S. S.; Johnson, T.; Kaczarowski, R.; Kharraja, B.; Naguleswaran, S.; Walpe, J. C.

    1998-02-01

    Lifetimes of the lower-excited states in 122,124Xe are measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift technique. The reactions 110Pd(16O,4n)122Xe and 110Pd(18O,4n)124Xe at a beam energy of 66 MeV were used for this experiment. The lifetimes of the 2+, 4+, 6+, and 8+ states of the ground state band were extracted using the computer code LIFETIME including the corrections due to the side feeding and the nuclear deorientation effects. The lifetime of the 2+ state in 122Xe agrees with the recoil distance method (RDM) measurements but for the 124Xe it does not agree with the RDM measurements but agrees with the Coulomb-excitation experiment. The measured B(E2) values for both the nuclei are compared with the standard algebraic and the multishell models.

  6. Lifetime measurements using the recoil distance method - achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2001-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for measuring pico-second nuclear level lifetimes and its use in nuclear structure studies is reviewed and perspectives for the future are presented. High precision measurements in the mass-130 region, studies of multi-phonon states in rare earth nuclei, the investigation of shape coexistence and the recently discovered phenomenon of 'magnetic rotation' are reviewed. Prospects for lifetime measurements in exotic regions of nuclei such as the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei populated via spontaneous and heavy-ion induced fission are discussed. Other prospects include the use of the RDM technique in conjunction with recoil separators. The relevance of these techniques for experiments with radioactive ion beams will be discussed

  7. Superheated superconducting granule detector tested with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)

  8. High energy neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.S.; Needham, L.M.; Paoli, M.P.

    1987-10-01

    The neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4 He at 4.2 K and 1.6 K has been observed for a momentum transfer of 150 A -1 using the Electron Volt Spectrometer on the pulsed neutron source, ISIS. The experiment yielded mean atomic kinetic energy values = 14.8 +- 3 K at 4.2 K and = 14.6 +- 3.2 K at 1.6 K in good agreement with values obtained at lower momentum transfers. (author)

  9. Recoil corrected bag model calculations for semileptonic weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Oe.; Hoegaasen, H.

    1987-02-01

    Recoil corrections to various model results for strangeness changing weak decay amplitudes have been developed. It is shown that the spurious reference frame dependence of earlier calculations is reduced. The second class currents are generally less important than obtained by calculations in the static approximation. Theoretical results are compared to observations. The agreement is quite good, although the values for the Cabibbo angle obtained by fits to the decay rates are somewhat to large

  10. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    The self-scattering of alpha-active substances has long been recognized and is attributed to expulsion of aggregates of atoms from the surface of alpha-active materials by alpha emission recoil energy, and perhaps to further propulsion of these aggregates by subsequent alpha recoils. Workers at the University of Lowell recently predicted that this phenomenon might affect the retention of alpha-active particulate matter by HEPA filters, and found support in experiments with 212 Pb. Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter media, such as that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.9 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter were observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers by subsequent alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow

  11. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter

  12. New developments of the recoil distance doppler-shift method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransen, Christoph; Blazhev, Andrey; Braunroth, Thomas; Dewald, Alfred; Goldkuhle, Alina; Jolie, Jan; Litzinger, Julia; Mueller-Gatermann, Claus; Woelk, Dorothea; Zell, Karl-Oskar [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The recoil distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) method is a very valuable technique for measuring lifetimes of excited nuclear states in the picosecond range to deduce absolute transition strengths between nuclear excitations independent on the reaction mechanism. Dedicated plunger devices were built by our group for measurements with this method for a broad range of beam energies ranging from few MeV/u up to relativistic energies of the order of 100 MeV/u. Those were designed to match the constraints defined by state-of-the art γ-ray spectrometers like AGATA, Galileo, Gammasphere. Here we give an overview about recent experiments of our group to determine transition strengths from level lifetimes in exotic nuclei where also recoil separators or mass spectrographs were used for an identification of the recoiling reaction products. The aim is to learn about phenomena like shape phase coexistence in exotic regions and the evolution of the shell structure far from the valley of stability. We also review new plunger devices that are developed by our group for future experimental campaigns with stable and radioactive beams in different energy regimes, e.g., a plunger for HIE-ISOLDE.

  13. D-particle Recoil Space Times and "Glueball" Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the properties of matter in a D-dimensional anti-de-Sitter-type space time induced dynamically by the recoil of a very heavy D(irichlet)-particle defect embedded in it. The particular form of the recoil geometry, which from a world-sheet view point follows from logarithmic conformal field theory deformations of the pertinent sigma-models, results in the presence of both infrared and ultraviolet (spatial) cut-offs. These are crucial in ensuring the presence of mass gaps in scalar matter propagating in the D-particle recoil space time. The analogy of this problem with the Liouville-string approach to QCD, suggested earlier by John Ellis and one of the present authors, prompts us to identify the resulting scalar masses with those obtained in the supergravity approach based on the Maldacena's conjecture, but without the imposition of any supersymmetry in our case. Within reasonable numerical uncertainties, we observe that agreement is obtained between the two approaches for a particular value of the ra...

  14. A recoil detector of Koala experiment at HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Huagen [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The concept of the luminosity detector for the PANDA experiment is based on measuring antiproton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region by 4 planes of HV-MAPS tracking detectors. The absolute precision is limited by the lack of existing data of the physics quantities σ{sub tot}, ρ and b describing the differential cross section as a function of squared 4-momentum transfer t in the relevant beam momentum region. Therefore, the so-called Koala experiment has been proposed to measure antiproton-proton elastic scattering. The goal of Koala experiment is to measure a wide range of t-distribution to determine the parameters σ{sub tot}, ρ and b. The idea is to measure the scattered beam antiprotons at forward angles by tracking detectors and the recoil target protons near 90 {sup circle} by energy detectors. In order to validate this method a recoil detector has been designed and built. Commissioning of the recoil detector by measuring proton-proton elastic scattering has been performed at COSY. Preliminary results of the commissioning are presented.

  15. A new recoil filter for {gamma}-detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, J; Lahmer, W; Maier, K H [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Janicki, M; Meczynski, W; Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-08-01

    A considerable improvement of gamma spectra recorded in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation residues can be achieved when gamma rays are detected in coincidence with the recoiling evaporations residues. This coincidence suppresses gamma rays from fission processes, Coulombic excitation, and reactions with target contaminations, and therefore cleans gamma spectra and improves the peak to background ratio. A sturdy detector for evaporation residues has been designed as an additional detector for the OSIRIS spectrometer. The recoil filter consists of two rings of six and twelve detector elements. In each detector element, nuclei hitting a thin Mylar foil produce secondary electrons, which are electrostatically accelerated and focussed onto a thin plastic scintillator. Recoiling evaporation residues are discriminated from other reaction products and scattered beam by the pulse height of the scintillation signal and time of flight. The detector signal is fast enough to allow the detection of an evaporation residue even if the scattered beam hits the detector first. In-beam experiment were performed with the reactions {sup 40}Ar+{sup 124}Sn, {sup 40}Ar+{sup 152}Sm at 185 MeV beam energy, and {sup 36}Ar+{sup 154,156}Gd at 175 MeV. In the latter two cases, fission amount to 50-75% of the total fusion cross section. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. The recoil proton polarization in πp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for π + p and π - p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P 3 East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10 7 π - 's/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10 7 π + 's/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Gravitation and vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevikyan, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory

  18. Gravitational radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    We give a short personally-biased review on the recent progress in our understanding of gravitational radiation reaction acting on a point particle orbiting a black hole. The main motivation of this study is to obtain sufficiently precise gravitational waveforms from inspiraling binary compact starts with a large mass ratio. For this purpose, various new concepts and techniques have been developed to compute the orbital evolution taking into account the gravitational self-force. Combining these ideas with a few supplementary new ideas, we try to outline a path to our goal here. (author)

  19. Presenting Newtonian gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counihan, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The basic principles of the Newtonian theory of gravitation are presented in a way which students may find more logically coherent, mathematically accessible and physically interesting than other approaches. After giving relatively simple derivations of the circular hodograph and the elliptical orbit from the inverse-square law, the concept of gravitational energy is developed from vector calculus. It is argued that the energy density of a gravitational field may reasonably be regarded as -g 2 /8πG, and that the inverse-square law may be replaced by a Schwarzschild-like force law without the need to invoke non-Euclidean geometry

  20. Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Mahlstedt, J.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morâ, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Ramírez García, D.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vargas, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Xenon Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report on the response of liquid xenon to low energy electronic recoils below 15 keV from beta decays of tritium at drift fields of 92 V /cm , 154 V /cm and 366 V /cm using the XENON100 detector. A data-to-simulation fitting method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to extract the photon yields and recombination fluctuations from the experimental data. The photon yields measured at the two lower fields are in agreement with those from literature; additional measurements at a higher field of 366 V /cm are presented. The electronic and nuclear recoil discrimination as well as its dependence on the drift field and photon detection efficiency are investigated at these low energies. The results provide new measurements in the energy region of interest for dark matter searches using liquid xenon.

  1. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  2. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  3. Remote recoil: a new wave mean interaction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Oliver; McIntyre, Michael E.

    2003-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of a fundamentally new wave mean or wave vortex interaction effect able to force persistent, cumulative change in mean flows in the absence of wave breaking or other kinds of wave dissipation. It is associated with the refraction of non-dissipating waves by inhomogeneous mean (vortical) flows. The effect is studied in detail in the simplest relevant model, the two-dimensional compressible flow equations with a generic polytropic equation of state. This includes the usual shallow-water equations as a special case. The refraction of a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude gravity or sound waves obliquely incident on a single weak (low Froude or Mach number) vortex is studied in detail. It is shown that, concomitant with the changes in the waves' pseudomomentum due to the refraction, there is an equal and opposite recoil force that is felt, in effect, by the vortex core. This effective force is called a ‘remote recoil’ to stress that there is no need for the vortex core and wavetrain to overlap in physical space. There is an accompanying ‘far-field recoil’ that is still more remote, as in classical vortex-impulse problems. The remote-recoil effects are studied perturbatively using the wave amplitude and vortex weakness as small parameters. The nature of the remote recoil is demonstrated in various set-ups with wavetrains of finite or infinite length. The effective recoil force {bm R}_V on the vortex core is given by an expression resembling the classical Magnus force felt by moving cylinders with circulation. In the case of wavetrains of infinite length, an explicit formula for the scattering angle theta_* of waves passing a vortex at a distance is derived correct to second order in Froude or Mach number. To this order {bm R}_V {~} theta_*. The formula is cross-checked against numerical integrations of the ray-tracing equations. This work is part of an ongoing study of internal-gravity-wave dynamics in the

  4. Erratum to: The visual amplification of goal-oriented movements counteracts acquired non-use in hemiparetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Ballester, Belén; Nirme, Jens; Duarte, Esther; Cuxart, Ampar; Rodriguez, Susana; Verschure, Paul; Duff, Armin

    2015-11-27

    Unfortunately, in the original version of this article [1] the sentence "This project was supported through ERC project cDAC (FP7-IDEAS-ERC 341196), EC H2020 project socSMCs (H2020-EU.1.2.2. 641321) and MINECO project SANAR (Gobierno de España)" was missing from the acknowledgements.The acknowledgements have been correctly included in full in this erratum.

  5. Anti-CD30-targeted gold nanoparticles for photothermal therapy of L-428 Hodgkin’s cell [Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu X

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ErratumQu X, Yao C, Wang J, Li Z, Zhang Z. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2012;7:6095–6103. The caption for Figure 4 was incorrect in the published paper. The correct Figure 4 caption is as follows:Figure 4 Photothermal treatments of L-428 cells with gold-BerH2 conjugates. (A Without laser irradiation; (B with 532 nm laser irradiation with 50 mW, 5 pulses.Read the original article

  6. Erratum to 'Surface Modification of PBO Fibers for Composites by Coaxial Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge (PLA-PLA)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    There is a mistake in the funding number (National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10875146)) of article Surface Modification of PBO Fibers for Composites by Coaxial Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge (PLA-PLA), written by HU Qianqian, XU Jinzhou, ZHOU Zhenxing, ZHANG Jing, published in Plasma Science and Technology, 2013, Vol. 15, Issue 5, page number 429, it should be corrected as National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11075033). (erratum)

  7. An Evaluation of Magneto Rheological Dampers for Controlling Gun Recoil Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of magneto rheological dampers for controlling recoil dynamics is examined, using a recoil demonstrator that includes a single-shot 50 caliber BMG rifle action and a MR damper. The demonstrator is selected such that it can adequately represent the velocities that commonly occur in weapons with a recoil system, and can be used for collecting data for analyzing the effects of MR dampers on recoil dynamics. The MR damper is designed so that it can work effectively at the large velocities commonly occurring in gun recoil, and also be easily adjusted to reasonably optimize the damper performance for the recoil demonstrator. The test results show that it is indeed possible to design and use MR dampers for recoil applications, which subject the damper to relative velocities far larger than the applications that such dampers have commonly been used for (i.e., vehicle applications. Further, the results indicate that the recoil force increases and the recoil stroke decreases nonlinearly with an increase in the damping force. Also of significance is the fact that the adjustability of MR dampers can be used in a closed-loop system such that the large recoil forces that commonly occur upon firing the gun are avoided and, simultaneously, the recoil stroke is reduced. This study points to the need for several areas of research including establishing the performance capabilities for MR dampers for gun recoil applications in an exact manner, and the potential use of such dampers for a fire out of battery recoil system.

  8. Gravitation and source theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    1975-01-01

    Schwinger's source theory is applied to the problem of gravitation and its quantization. It is shown that within the framework of a flat-space the source theory implementation leads to a violation of probability. To avoid the difficulty one must introduce a curved space-time hence the source concept may be said to necessitate the transition to a curved-space theory of gravitation. It is further shown that the curved-space theory of gravitation implied by the source theory is not equivalent to the conventional Einstein theory. The source concept leads to a different theory where the gravitational field has a stress-energy tensor t/sup nu//sub mu/ which contributes to geometric curvatures

  9. Gravitational lensing of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrod, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...

  10. Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sturani, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.

  11. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  12. Listening music of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Achievements of precision experiments in Japan (TAMA project) and USA (LIGO Laboratory) in the field of registration of gravitation waves using interferometric gravitational wave detectors are described. Works of the GEO groups in Hannover (Germany) and Vigro (Italy) are noted. Interferometer operation in synchronization during 160 hours demonstrating viability of the technique and its reliability is recorded. Advances in the field of the data analysis with the aim of recording of cosmic signal from noise of the interferometer are noted [ru

  13. Bunge on gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Gustavo E.

    2017-01-01

    I discuss the recent claims made by Mario Bunge on the philosophical implications of the discovery of gravitational waves. I think that Bunge is right when he points out that the detection implies the materiality of spacetime, but I reject his identification of spacetime with the gravitational field. I show that Bunge's analysis of the spacetime inside a hollow sphere is defective, but this in no way affects his main claim.

  14. Gravitation and Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The equations of gravitation together with the equations of electromagnetism in terms of the General Theory of Relativity allow to conceive an interdependence between the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field. However the technical difficulties of the relevant problems have precluded from expressing clearly this interdependence. Even the simple problem related to the field generated by a charged spherical mass is not correctly solved. In the present paper we reexamine from the outset this problem and propose a new solution.

  15. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  16. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter

  17. Measurements of recoil and projectile momentum distributions for 19-MeV F9+ + Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohne, V.; Cheng, S.; Ali, R.M.; Raphaelian, M.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The collision system of 19-MeV F 9+ on Ne has been studied using recoil and projectile momentum spectroscopy. For each event, identified by final recoil and projectile charge state, the three-dimensional momentum vector of the recoil ion and the transverse momentum vector of the projectile ion were measured. The transverse momenta of the recoil and projectile ions were found to be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, indicating that the transverse momentum exchange is dominated by interactions between the two ion cores. The transverse momentum distributions are well described by nCTMC calculations. The longitudinal momentum distributions of the recoil ions show that a large fraction of the momentum transferred to the projectile is carried off by continuum electrons. The recoil ions are scattered slightly backward, in partial agreement with predictions of nCTMC calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Recoil effects in multiphoton electron-positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewska, K.; Kaminski, J. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Triply differential probability rates for electron-positron pair creation in laser-nucleus collisions, calculated within the S-matrix approach, are investigated as functions of the nuclear recoil. Pronounced enhancements of differential probability rates of multiphoton pair production are found for a nonzero momentum transfer from the colliding nucleus. The corresponding rates show a very dramatic dependence on the polarization of the laser field impinging on the nucleus; only for a linearly polarized light are the multiphoton rates for electron-positron pair production considerably large. We focus therefore on this case. Our numerical results for different geometries of the reaction particles demonstrate that, for the linearly polarized laser field of an infinite extent (which is a good approximation for femtosecond laser pulses), the pair creation is far more efficient if the nucleus is detected in the direction of the laser-field propagation. The corresponding angular distributions of the created particles show that the high-energy pairs are predominantly produced in the plane spanned by the polarization vector and the laser-field propagation direction, while the low-energy pairs are rather spread around the latter of the two directions. The enhancement of differential probability rates at each energy sector, defined by the four-momentum conservation relation, is observed with varying the energy of the produced particles. The total probability rates of pair production are also evaluated and compared with the corresponding results for the case when one disregards the recoil effect. A tremendous enhancement of the total probability rates of the electron-positron pair creation is observed if one takes into account the nuclear recoil.

  19. Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET Using Recoil Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sahu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET, power conservation and utilization is an acute problem and has received significant attention from academics and industry in recent years. Nodes in MANET function on battery power, which is a rare and limited energy resource. Hence, its conservation and utilization should be done judiciously for the effective functioning of the network. In this paper, a novel protocol namely Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET using Recoil Technique (AOMDV-ER is proposed, which conserves the energy along with optimal network lifetime, routing overhead, packet delivery ratio and throughput. It performs better than any other AODV based algorithms, as in AOMDV-ER the nodes transmit packets to their destination smartly by using a varying recoil off time technique based on their geographical location. This concept reduces the number of transmissions, which results in the improvement of network lifetime. In addition, the local level route maintenance reduces the additional routing overhead. Lastly, the prediction based link lifetime of each node is estimated which helps in reducing the packet loss in the network. This protocol has three subparts: an optimal route discovery algorithm amalgamation with the residual energy and distance mechanism; a coordinated recoiled nodes algorithm which eliminates the number of transmissions in order to reduces the data redundancy, traffic redundant, routing overhead, end to end delay and enhance the network lifetime; and a last link reckoning and route maintenance algorithm to improve the packet delivery ratio and link stability in the network. The experimental results show that the AOMDV-ER protocol save at least 16% energy consumption, 12% reduction in routing overhead, significant achievement in network lifetime and packet delivery ratio than Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol (AOMDV, Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol life

  20. Nuclear-Recoil Energy Scale in CDMS II Silicon Dark-Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; et al.

    2018-03-07

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment aims to detect dark matter particles that elastically scatter from nuclei in semiconductor detectors. The resulting nuclear-recoil energy depositions are detected by ionization and phonon sensors. Neutrons produce a similar spectrum of low-energy nuclear recoils in such detectors, while most other backgrounds produce electron recoils. The absolute energy scale for nuclear recoils is necessary to interpret results correctly. The energy scale can be determined in CDMS II silicon detectors using neutrons incident from a broad-spectrum $^{252}$Cf source, taking advantage of a prominent resonance in the neutron elastic scattering cross section of silicon at a recoil (neutron) energy near 20 (182) keV. Results indicate that the phonon collection efficiency for nuclear recoils is $4.8^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$% lower than for electron recoils of the same energy. Comparisons of the ionization signals for nuclear recoils to those measured previously by other groups at higher electric fields indicate that the ionization collection efficiency for CDMS II silicon detectors operated at $\\sim$4 V/cm is consistent with 100% for nuclear recoils below 20 keV and gradually decreases for larger energies to $\\sim$75% at 100 keV. The impact of these measurements on previously published CDMS II silicon results is small.

  1. Precision lifetime measurements using the recoil distance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2000-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for the measurements of lifetimes of excited nuclear levels in the range from about 1 ps to 1,000 ps is reviewed. The New Yale Plunger Device for RDM experiments is introduced and the Differential Decay Curve Method for their analysis is reviewed. Results from recent RDM experiments on SD bands in the mass-190 region, shears bands in the neutron deficient lead isotopes, and ground state bands in the mass-130 region are presented. Perspectives for the use of RDM measurements in the study of neutron-rich nuclei are discussed

  2. Precision Lifetime Measurements Using the Recoil Distance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.

    2000-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for the measurements of lifetimes of excited nuclear levels in the range from about 1 ps to 1000 ps is reviewed. The New Yale Plunger Device for RDM experiments is introduced and the Differential Decay Curve Method for their analysis is reviewed. Results from recent RDM experiments on SD bands in the mass-190 region, shears bands in the neutron deficient lead isotopes, and ground state bands in the mass-130 region are presented. Perspectives for the use of RDM measurements in the study of neutron-rich nuclei are discussed. PMID:27551587

  3. Recoil generated radiotracers in studies of molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter summarizes many of the contributions that the recoil technique of generating excited radiotracer atoms in the presence of a thermal environment is making to the field of chemical dynamics. Specific topics discussed critically include characterization of the generation and behavior of excited molecules including fragmentation kinetics and energy transfer, measurement of thermal and hot kinetic parameters, and studies of reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry as a function of reaction energy. Distinctive features that provide unique approaches to dynamical problems are evaluated in detail and the complementarity with more conventional techniques is addressed. Prospects for future applications are also presented

  4. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S H; Suter, G F [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A; Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Multiple scattering problems in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    A number of groups use Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) to study materials science problems. Nevertheless, there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. To overcome this deficiency we have been establishing codes for 2-dimensional data analysis. A major problem involves the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (∼100 nm) layers of the very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering we have made comparisons between the small-angle model of Sigmund et al. and TRIM calculations. (authors)

  7. Gravitational waves and antennas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational waves and their detection represent today a hot topic, which promises to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology and theoretical physics. Technological developments have enabled the construction of such sensitive detectors that the detection of gravitational radiation and the start of a new astronomy could become a reality during the next few years. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of hiterto unseen phenomena such as coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big bang relics and the new and unexpected. In these lectures I give a brief overview of this challenging field of modern physics. Topics : Basic properties of gravitational radiation. Astrophysical sources. Principle of operation of detectors. Interferometers (both ground based and space-based), bars and spheres. Present status of the experiments, their recent results and their f...

  8. Gravitation and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ohanian, Hans C

    2013-01-01

    The third edition of this classic textbook is a quantitative introduction for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It gently guides students from Newton's gravitational theory to special relativity, and then to the relativistic theory of gravitation. General relativity is approached from several perspectives: as a theory constructed by analogy with Maxwell's electrodynamics, as a relativistic generalization of Newton's theory, and as a theory of curved spacetime. The authors provide a concise overview of the important concepts and formulas, coupled with the experimental results underpinning the latest research in the field. Numerous exercises in Newtonian gravitational theory and Maxwell's equations help students master essential concepts for advanced work in general relativity, while detailed spacetime diagrams encourage them to think in terms of four-dimensional geometry. Featuring comprehensive reviews of recent experimental and observational data, the text concludes with chapters on cosmology an...

  9. A Measurement of the Recoil Polarization of Electroproduced Λ(1116)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAleer, Simeon B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory was used to study the reaction e + p → e' + K+ + Λ(1116) for events where Λ(1116) subsequently decayed via the channel Λ(1116) → p + π-. Data were taken at incident electron beam energies of 2.5, 4.0, and 4.2 GeV during the 1999 E1C run period. They hyperon production spectra span the Q2 range from 0.5 to 2.8 GeV2 and nearly the entire range in the center of mass angles. The proton angular distribution in the Λ(1116) rest frame is used to deduce the recoil polarization of the hyperon, and the W and cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ dependence of the recoil polarization will be presented. The data show sizeable negative polarizations for the Λ(1116) as a function of both cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ and W.

  10. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Katsioulas, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Giomataris, I.; Papaevangellou, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present results for the detection of low energy nuclear recoils in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An 241Am-9Be fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the keV energy region was measured by observing the 5.9 keV line of a 55Fe X-ray source, with energy resolution of 10% (σ). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an 241Am-9Be source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF), the simulation results are compared with the measurements. The potential of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searches (via coherent elastic scattering).

  11. Kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Eremin, A.V.; Belozerov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Within the past twelve years, the recoil separator VASSILISSA has been used for investigation of evaporation residues produced in heavy-ion induced complete-fusion reactions. In the course of the experimental work in the region of the elements with 92 ≤ Z ≤ 94, fourteen new isotopes have been identified by the parent-daughter correlations. The study of the decay properties and formation cross sections of the isotopes of elements 110, 112, and 114 was performed with the use of the high intensity 48 Ca beams; 232 Th, 238 U and 242 Pu targets were used in the experiments. At the beam energies corresponding to the calculated cross-section maxima of the 3n evaporation channels, the isotopes 277 110, 283 112, and 287 114 were produced and identified. For further experiments aimed at the synthesis of the superheavy element isotopes (Z ≥ 110) with the intensive 48 Ca extracted beams, the improvements in the ion optical system of the separator and of the focal plane detector system have been made. As a result, for heavy recoiling nuclei with masses A ∼ 250, the mass resolution of about 2.5 % was achieved with a good energy and position resolutions of the focal plane detectors

  12. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  13. Supersymmetry and gravitational duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argurio, Riccardo; Dehouck, Francois; Houart, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We study how the supersymmetry algebra copes with gravitational duality. As a playground, we consider a charged Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino(NUT) solution of D=4, N=2 supergravity. We find explicitly its Killing spinors, and the projection they obey provides evidence that the dual magnetic momenta necessarily have to appear in the supersymmetry algebra. The existence of such a modification is further supported using an approach based on the Nester form. In the process, we find new expressions for the dual magnetic momenta, including the NUT charge. The same expressions are then rederived using gravitational duality.

  14. Einstein-Rosen gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Maftei, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of the gravitational waves in the approximation of the far matter fields, considering the indirect interaction between the matter sources and the gravitational field, in a cosmological model based on the Einstein-Rosen solution, Because the properties of the gravitational waves obtained as the solutions of Einstein fields equations (the gravitational field equations) are most obvious in the weak gravitational fields we consider here, the gravitational field in the linear approximation. Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, we calculate in the null-tetradic base (e a ), the spin coefficients, the directional derivates and the tetradic components of Ricci and Weyl tensors. From the Einstein field equations we obtained the solution for b(z, t) what described the behaviour of gravitational wave in Einstein-Rosen Universe and in the particular case, when t → ∞, p(z, t) leads us to the primordial gravitational waves in the Einstein-Rosen Universe. (authors)

  15. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  16. In-beam electron spectrometer used in conjunction with a gas-filled recoil separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Butler, P.A.; Greenlees, P.T.; Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Miettinen, L.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion-electron spectrometer SACRED has been redesigned for use in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The system allows in-beam recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) measurements of internal conversion electrons. The performance of the system using standard sources and in-beam is described

  17. Use of nuclear recoil for separating 228Ra, 224Ra, and 233Pa from colloidal thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beydon, J.; Gratot, I.

    1968-01-01

    By using α-recoil it is possible to separate by dialysis the α disintegration products (224 Ra; 228 Ra) of thorium from colloidal thorium hydroxide.The use of n, γ recoil allows the separation of 233 Pa produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium, on condition that the colloidal thorium hydroxide is irradiated in the presence of a dispersing. (author) [fr

  18. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harinder J; Wereley, Norman M

    2014-01-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events. (paper)

  19. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events.

  20. Calculations of Total and Differential Solid Angles for a Proton Recoil Solid State Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijn, J; Lauber, A; Tollander, B

    1963-08-15

    The solid angles have been computed for a proton recoil counter consisting of a circular hydrogenous foil viewed by an isotropic neutron point source at different distances from the target foil. Tables are given for the total subtended solid angle as well as the differential energy distribution function of the proton recoil spectrum. The influence of finite foil thickness has also been studied.

  1. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  2. Alternative equations of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Neto, N.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, trough a new formalism, that the quantum fluctuation effects of the gravitational field in Einstein's equations are analogs to the effects of a continuum medium in Maxwell's Electrodynamics. Following, a real example of the applications of these equations is studied. Qunatum fluctuations effects as perturbation sources in Minkowski and Friedmann Universes are examined. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Glitches and gravitational waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Srivastava

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing ... efficient source of energy loss during the cooling of the neutron star. ..... [3] U S Gupta, R K Mohapatra, A M Srivastava and V K. Tiwari, Phys. Rev. D 82 ...

  4. Extragalactic Gravitational Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Martin J.

    After some introductory "numerology", routes towards black hole formation are briefly reviewed; some properties of black holes relevant to theories for active galactic nuclei are then described. Applications are considered to specific models for energy generation and the production of relativistic beams. The paper concludes with a discussion of extragalactic sources of gravitational waves.

  5. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. General relativity; gravitational waves; astrophysics; interferometry. Author Affiliations. P Ajith1 K G Arun2. LIGO Laboratory and Theoretical Astrophysics California Institute of Technology MS 18-34, Pasadena CA 91125, USA. Chennai Mathematical Institute Plot H1, SIPCOT IT Park Siruseri, Padur Post Chennai ...

  6. Gauge theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Keiji; Nakanishi, Noboru; Nariai, Hidekazu

    1983-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named symposium. They deal with geometrical aspects of gauge theory and gravitation, special problems in gauge theories, quantum field theory in curved space-time, quantum gravity, supersymmetry including supergravity, and grand unification. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  7. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  8. The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength: erratum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Falk, Peter Andreas; Bang, Ole

    2007-01-01

    An erratum is presented explaining that the observation in the original paper (Optics Express, volume 13, issue 16, page 6181-6192, 2005), of a bright-bright soliton with one color in the anomalous dispersion region and the other color in the normal dispersion region was mistaken; both parts...

  9. Theoretical analysis and modeling of a photonic integrated circuit for frequency 8-tupled and 24-tupled millimeter wave signal generation: erratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Guemri, Rabiaa; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Lucarz, Frédéric; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis; Hall, Trevor

    2015-12-15

    A novel photonic circuit design for implementing frequency 8-tupling and 24-tupling was presented [Opt. Lett.39, 6950 (2014)10.1364/OL.39.006950OPLEDP0146-9592], and although its key message remains unaltered, there were typographical errors in the equations that are corrected in this erratum.

  10. Erratum to: The OECD validation program of the H295R steroidogenesis assay: Phase 3. Final inter-laboratory validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Cooper, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    Erratum to: Environ Sci Pollut Res (2011) 18: 503 https://doi-org.proxy.findit.dtu.dk/10.1007/s11356-010-0396-x In the original article wrong unites were quoted in Table 3 (page 508) and Table 4 (page 510) as well as in the paragraph 3.2 Core chemical exposure experiments on page 509. Also in par...

  11. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-01

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  12. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickert, N C

    2008-02-15

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  13. Fractional momentum transfer in incomplete fusion reaction: measurement of recoil range distributions in 20Ne + 159Tb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Singh, D.; Pachouri, Dipti; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The recoil range distribution (RRD) of several residues have been measured for the system 20 Ne + 159 Tb at 165 MeV beam energy by collecting the recoiling residues in the Al-catcher foils of varying thickness

  14. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huajie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  15. Investigation of fractional momentum transfer: measurement of forward recoil ranges in 16O + natTm collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Rakesh Kumar; Golda, K.S.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    For better understanding of complete fusion and incomplete fusion in heavy ion reactions a programme of precise measurements of excitation functions, recoil range distribution and angular distributions of recoils has been undertaken. In the present contribution the recoil range distribution for the residues have been measured at ≅ 6 MeV/nucleon, using recoil-catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-spectroscopy

  16. Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcidiacono, G.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation

  17. The ANTARES recoil time-of-flight spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J W; Russell, G J [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The Australian National Tandem for Applied Research (ANTARES), is a 8MV FN tandem particle accelerator at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Research on the accelerator is divided between two groups, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and lon Beam Analysis (IBA). The IBA group carries out a range of research projects from nuclear physics to materials characterisation. The major IBA project on the accelerator is a recoil time-of-flight spectrometer which consists of two electrostatic time pulse generators and an ion-implanted surface barrier detector. The spectrometer is ideally suited to the profiling of layered multi-element materials, and has been used to characterise materials such as metal-germanides, optoelectronics, superconductors and catalytic converters. This paper will describe the time-of-flight system as well as some recent materials characterisation results. 1 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The ANTARES recoil time-of-flight spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.W.; Russell, G.J. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Australian National Tandem for Applied Research (ANTARES), is a 8MV FN tandem particle accelerator at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. Research on the accelerator is divided between two groups, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and lon Beam Analysis (IBA). The IBA group carries out a range of research projects from nuclear physics to materials characterisation. The major IBA project on the accelerator is a recoil time-of-flight spectrometer which consists of two electrostatic time pulse generators and an ion-implanted surface barrier detector. The spectrometer is ideally suited to the profiling of layered multi-element materials, and has been used to characterise materials such as metal-germanides, optoelectronics, superconductors and catalytic converters. This paper will describe the time-of-flight system as well as some recent materials characterisation results. 1 refs., 3 figs.

  19. DSA lifetime measurements in 21Ne at high recoil velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, H.; Heidinger, F.; Kaendler, K.

    1977-01-01

    States in 21 Ne up to 5 MeV excitation energy have been populated using the inverted reaction 2 H( 20 Ne,pγ). The Doppler shift attenuation (DSA) analysis of the pγ coincidence spectra taken in a Ge(Li) detector at 45 0 and 135 0 and an annular silicon surface barrier detector near 0 0 yielded the lifetimes of 8 states in 21 Ne. Due to the large recoil of vi/c approximately equal to 4% three new lifetimes were determined for the short lived levels at 2.80, 4.68 and 4.73 MeV, namely 10 +- 4 fs, 16 +- 4 fs and 10 +- 4 fs, respectively. The results are compared with rotational and shell model calculations. (orig.) [de

  20. Design of magnetic analysis system for magnetic proton recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianmin; Jiang Shilun; Zhou Lin; Peng Taiping

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel diagnostic instrument with high performance for measurements of the neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power fusion devices. The design of the magnetic analysis system, which is a key part of the compact MPR-type spectrometer, has been completed through two-dimensional beam transport simulations and three-dimensional particle transport simulation. The analysis of the system's parameters and performances was performed, as well as system designs based on preferential principles of energy resolution, detection efficiency, and count rate, respectively. The results indicate that the magnetic analysis system can achieve a detection efficiency of 10 -5 ∼ 10 -4 level at the resolution range of 1.5% to 3.0% and fulfill the design goals of the compact MPR spectrometer. (authors)

  1. Production of highly ionized recoil ions in heavy ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Be, S.H.; Shibata, H.; Kase, M.; Kambara, T.; Kumagai, H.; Kohno, I.

    1985-01-01

    The production mechanisms of highly ionized recoil ions in energetic, highly charged heavy ion impact are compared with those in photon and electron impact. In addition to the innershell ionization processes which are important in photon and electron impact, the electron transfer processes are found to play a key role in heavy ion impact. In molecular targets are also observed highly ionized monoatomic ions which are believed to be produced through production of highly ionized molecular ions followed by prompt dissociation. The observed N 6+ ions produced in 1.05MeV/amu Ar 12+ ions on N 2 molecules are produced through, for example, N 2 12+ *→N 6+ +N 6+ process. (author)

  2. Proton-recoil proportional counter tests at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; Burrows, D.R.; DeVolpi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A methane filled proton-recoil proportional counter will be used as a fission neutron detector in the fast-neutron hodoscope. To provide meaningful fuel-motion information the proportional counter should have: a linear response over a wide range of reactor powers background ratio (the number of high energy neutrons detected must be maximized relative to low energy neutrons, and gamma ray sensitivity must be kept small); and a detector efficiency for fission neutrons above 1 MeV of approximately 1%. In addition, it is desirable that the detector and the associated amplifier/discriminator be capable of operating at counting rates in excess of 500 kHz. This paper reports on tests that were conducted on several proportional counters at the TREAT reactor

  3. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfu, E-mail: zhang_jianfu@163.com [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ruan, Jinlu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhang, Guoguang [Applied Institute of Nuclear Technology, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Qiu, Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  4. Dispersion in thermal plasma including arbitrary degeneracy and quantum recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, A.; Melrose, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    The longitudinal response function for a thermal electron gas was calculated including two quantum effects exactly, degeneracy and the quantum recoil. The Fermi-Dirac distribution was expanded in powers of a parameter that is small in the non-degenerate limit and the response function was evaluated in terms of the conventional plasma dispersion function to arbitrary order in this parameter. The infinite sum was performed in terms of poly logarithms in the long-wavelength and quasi-static limits, giving results that apply for arbitrary degeneracy. The results were applied to the dispersion relations for Langmuir waves and to screening, reproducing known results in the non-degenerate and completely degenerate limits], and generalizing them to arbitrary degeneracy. The occupation number for the completely degenerate limit is shown. The importance of the results regarding to semiconductor plasmas were highlighted. (orig./A.B.)

  5. Recent recoil ion momentum spectroscopy experiments at KSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, M.; Cocke, C.L.; Kravis, S.; Montenegro, E.C.; Moshammer, R.; Saleh, L.; Ullrich, J.; Varghese, S.L.; Wolff, W.; Wolf, H.

    1997-01-01

    Recoil momentum spectroscopy is used to study collisions involving both fast and slow projectiles on He targets. Experiments have been performed on electron capture and loss from fast ions from the KSU LINAC and slow ions from the KSU CRYEBIS using a supersonic jets with a momentum resolution below 0.5 au. Using fast ions, the final states populated in electron capture from He by 10 MeV F 8+ have been resolved with a Q-value resolution of 18 eV, sufficient to separate final channels in which the He + ion is left excited from those in which He + is left in its ground state. With slow ions, electron capture from He by slow bare Ne ions has been studied. A few recent results are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Chemical effects of /sup 32/P recoil atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, N [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1975-06-01

    Szilard-Chalmers' effect of /sup 32/P were reviewed. The concentration method using Szilard-Chalmers' effect in production of radioisotope, circumstances such as exposure time in an atomic pile, states of target substances and the yields by them were discussed. Many kinds of chemical effects, such as chemical effects of /sup 32/P recoil atom in phosphorated glass, studies of the effect of adducts, the threshold of ..gamma..-ray effect, the oxidation number of /sup 32/P in phosphorated glass by exposure time in the pile and the labelling position of /sup 32/P, are associated with caryotransformation (nuclear transformation) by environmental factors. The abovementioned articles were explained concerning /sup 32/P.

  7. Electric form factor of the proton through recoil polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, V.

    2000-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, G E and G M , describe the charge and current distribution inside the nucleon and thus are quite intimately related to its structure. Jefferson Lab experiment 93-027 measured P l and Pt, the longitudinal and transverse recoil proton polarization, respectively, for the 1 H(e-vector,e'p-vector) reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV 2 , using the Hall A facility with two high resolution spectrometers and a Focal Plane Polarimeter. The ratio G Ep /G Mp is directly proportional to the ratio P t /P l . These data have unprecedented precision, and show for the first time that the Q 2 dependence of G Ep and G Mp is very different. (author)

  8. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors)

  9. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Telecommunications and Industrial Physics; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, (Hungary)

    1998-06-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors). 19 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter medium, identical to that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.97 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter have been observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers, by the alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow. Dependence on the air flow velocity is slight. It appears that this phenomenon has not been observed in previous experiments with alpha-active aerosols because the tests did not continue for a sufficiently long time. A theoretical model of the process has been developed, amenable to computer handling, that should allow calculation of the rate constants associated with the transfer through and release of radioactive material from a filter system by this process

  11. Experiments with a magnetic separator for heavy recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosler, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using a triple-focusing (position and momentum), crescent-shaped separator for heavy recoil-ions different experiments were performed. The improvement consists in the enhancement of the transmission from 8% to 25% for 500 keV recoil ions from the reaction 238 U(α, 3n)sup(239m)Pu. For sup(237m)Pu the electromagnetic decay of the 1.1 μs shape isomer into the 82 ns shape isomer was searched for. The upper limit for gamma decay is 1.25 +- 1.25% for Esub(γ) = 200 keV and for electron decay 0.29 +- 0.29% in comparison to isomeric fission. The upper limit for interband transitions is 2.5% (2 delta), from which the upper limit of the partial half-life for the electromagnetic decay of the 1.1 μs isomer is calculated to 44 μs. Due to the performed interpretation the spin difference between both isomers extends at least to ΔI = 3. For sup(238m)U the back-decay into the 1. minimum by the EO-transition and the converted 2 + → 0 + transition in the first decay and the decay by alpha articles was looked for both in single measurements as in a coincidence measurement to L-X-ray quanta. The upper limits are GAMMAsub(EO) = 2.0, GAMMAsub(α)/GAMMAsub(F) = 0.4 and GAMMA(back-decay)/GAMMAsub(F) approx. equal to 100. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  13. Gravitational properties of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references

  14. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  15. Spacetime and gravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczyński, W.; Trautman, A.

    This book is a revised translation of the Polish original "Czasoprzestrzeń i grawitacja", Warszawa (Poland), Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1984. Ideas about space and time are at the root of one's understanding of nature, both at the intuitive level of everyday experience and in the framework of sophisticated physical theories. These ideas have led to the development of geometry and its applications to physics. The contemporary physical theory of space and time, including its extention to the phenomena of gravitation, is Einstein's theory of relativity. The book is a short introduction to this theory. A great deal of emphasis is given to the geometrical aspects of relativity theory and its comparison with the Newtonian view of the world. There are short chapters on the origins of Einstein's theory, gravitational waves, cosmology, spinors and the Einstein-Cartan theory.

  16. Neutrinos from gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Schramm, D.N.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed calculations are made of the neutrino spectra emitted during gravitational collapse events (Type II supernovae). Those aspects of the neutrino signal which are relatively independent of the collapse model and those aspects which are sensitive to model details are discussed. The easier-to-detect high energy tail of the emitted neutrinos has been calculated using the Boltzmann equation which is compared with the result of the traditional multi-group flux limited diffusion calculations. 8 figs., 28 refs

  17. Bimetric Machian gravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldoni, R

    1980-11-22

    A bimetric theory of gravitation within a Machian framework is developed on the basis of considerations which are completely divorced from Newton's theory. The theory is assumed to hold in any conceivable cosmos and possesses the Machian properties of being singular in the absence of matter and of explicitly incorporating the idea that properties of space-time are determined not only by local matter, but also by the average distribution of cosmological matter.

  18. Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jamie

    2001-04-01

    This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.

  19. Gravitational field mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author's definition for the mass-momentum/angular momentum surrounded by a spacelike 2-surface with S/sup 2/ topology is presented. This definition is motivated by some ideas from twistor theory in relation to linearized gravitational theory. The status of this definition is examined in relation to many examples which have been worked out. The reason for introducing a slight modification of the original definition is also presented

  20. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The General Theory of Relativity (GR), created by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, is a theory both of gravitation and of spacetime structure. It is based on the assumption that matter, via its energy-momentum, interacts with the metric of spacetime, which is considered (in contrast to Newtonian physics and SPECIAL RELATIVITY) as a dynamical field having degrees of freedom of its own (GRAVI...

  1. Fivebrane gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie

    2000-01-01

    Freed, Harvey, Minasian and Moore (FHMM) have proposed a mechanism to cancel the gravitational anomaly of the M-theory fivebrane coming from diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle. This procedure is based on a modification of the conventional M-theory Chern-Simons term. We apply the FHMM mechanism in the ten-dimensional type IIA theory. We then analyze the relation to the anomaly cancellation mechanism for the type IIA fivebrane proposed by Witten

  2. Nondissipative gravitational turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear stage of development of the Jeans instability in a cold nondissipative gravitating gas is considered. It is shown that for a time exceeding the Jeans time a nondissipative gravitational singularity (NGS) is formed in the vicinity of a local density maximum. The NGS is a stationary dynamic structure, the basis of which is the singularity. The density of the gas at the center of the NGS (for r → 0) tends to infinity, and the field potential and the mean velocity of the trapped gas, possess a power singularity. The turbulent state arises as the result of development of the instability in the case of an irregular initial density distribution. It is an hierarchic structure consisting of nested moving NGS of various sizes, the NGS of smaller dimensions being trapped in the field of a NGS of larger dimensions. The scaling relations for each given NGS in this case hold for both the gas density and density of smaller size trapped NGS. A brief comparison with the observational data shows that the real hierarchic structure of the Universe ranging from scales pertaining to spherical stellar clusters up to those of rich galaxy clusters is apparently a developed gravitational turbulence

  3. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  4. Thermal annealing of recoil 56Mn in strontium permanganate under (n,γ) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Vijaya

    2002-01-01

    Chemical stabilization of recoil 56 Mn in strontium permanganate (hydrous and anhydrous) has been investigated with a special reference to pre-and post-activation thermal annealing treatments. The retention of 56 Mn in neutron irradiated strontium permanganate showed significant variation on thermal annealing in both pre-and post-activation heated target. The recoil re-entry process obeys simple first order kinetics and the activation energy deduced for thermal annealing process is very low as computed by classical Arrhenius plots. The results observed are discussed in the light of existing ideas for understanding the recoil stabilization mechanism of parent reformation and the nature of precursors in permanganates. (author)

  5. Molecular frame and recoil frame angular distributions in dissociative photoionization of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, R R; Carey, R; Elkharrat, C; Houver, J C; Dowek, D

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectron angular distributions in the dipole approximation can be written with respect to several different reference frames. A brief review of the molecular frame and recoil frame are given. Experimentally, one approach for obtaining such angular distributions is through angle-resolved coincidence measurements of dissociative ionization. If the system dissociates into two heavy fragments, then the recoil frame angular distribution can be measured. Computed molecular frame and recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions are compared to experimental data for the Cl 2p ionization of CH 3 Cl.

  6. Limitations to depth resolution in high-energy, heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliman, R.G.; Palmer, G.R.; Ophel, T.R.; Timmers, H.

    1998-01-01

    The depth resolution of heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis was examined for Al and Co thin films ranging in thickness from 100 to 400 nm. Measurements were performed with 154 MeV Au ions as the incident beam, and recoils were detected using a gas ionisation detector. Energy spectra were extracted for the Al and Co recoils and the depth resolution determined as a function of film thickness from the width of the high- and low- energy edges. These results were compared with theoretical estimates calculated using the computer program DEPTH. (authors)

  7. On the M\\"ossbauer effect and the rigid recoil question

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Various theories for the M\\"ossbauer rigid-recoil effect, which enables a crystal to absorb momentum but not appreciable energy, are compared. These suggest that the recoil may not be instantaneous, and that the recoil time could be used to distinguish between them. An experiment is proposed to measure this time. The idea is to use a small sphere whose outer surface is coated with an electrically charged M\\"ossbauer-active element, and then to measure the amount of energy lost due to Bremmsst...

  8. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ≈ 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  9. On gravitational wave energy in Einstein gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folomeshkin, V.N.; Vlasov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    By the example of precise wave solutions for the Einstein equations it is shown that a standard commonly adopted formulation of energy-momentum problem with pseudotensors provides us either with a zero or sign-variable values for the energy of gravitational waves. It is shown that if in the Einstein gravitational theory a strict transition to the limits of weak fields is realised then the theory gives us an unambiguous zero result for weak gravitational waves. The well-known non-zero result arises due to incorrect transition to weak field approximation in the Einstein gravitation theory

  10. Irradiation of Methane by Recoiling Fission-Fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. R.; Galley, M. R. [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    Pure methane gas (containing <0.003% oxygen and <5 mg H{sub 2}O per m{sup 3}) has been irradiated at pressures ranging from 5 to 50 atmospheres pressure and at 30{sup o}C with recoiling fission - fragments. The gas is contained in a silica ampoule of volume about 9 cm{sup 3} and which also contains a platinum cylinder coated on the inside with 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} highly enriched uranium oxide. When the ampoule is irradiated in a nuclear reactor with thermal neutrons, about half the fission-fragments recoil from the uranium and dissipate their energy in the methane. In a typical irradiation, methane at 10 atm pressure receives a dose of 5 x 10{sup 21} eV at an integrated reactor flux of 5 x 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. Neutron flux i s measured by means of a gold-foil flux monitor. The activity of the Au{sup 198} is counted in a 4 {pi} proportional counter. The irradiation products have been detected by using beta-ionization detectors for gas-phase chromatography with suitable columns. The following products have been found: hydrogen, ethane, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, iso-pentane, neo-pentane, the seven hexanes. Traces of higher hydrocarbons are undoubtedly present but the analysis of these has not been attempted. Hydrogen is present in greatest yield and the yields of the hydrocarbons decrease in the order given above. Despite previously reported yields of ethylene (G-value-0.1) from gamma and fast - electron irradiations, no ethylene or other unsaturated products have been detected in this work. It would have been possible to detect 10 ppm in the products. This is to be expected as any double bonds which may be produced would almost immediately be hydrogenated by the hydrogen present. Yields for hydrogen, ethane and propane lie within the range of values that have been reported by other workers for gamma and fast electron irradiations. (author)

  11. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-07-14

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.

  12. Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2015-07-01

    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.

  13. Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2015-07-15

    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.

  14. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.

  15. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)

  16. Gravitational Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational physics research at ISPAE is connected with NASA's Relativity Mission (Gravity Probe B (GP-B)) which will perform a test of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. GP-B will measure the geodetic and motional effect predicted by General Relativity Theory with extremely stable and sensitive gyroscopes in an earth orbiting satellite. Both effects cause a very small precession of the gyroscope spin axis. The goal of the GP-B experiment is the measurement of the gyroscope precession with very high precision. GP-B is being developed by a team at Stanford University and is scheduled for launch in the year 2001. The related UAH research is a collaboration with Stanford University and MSFC. This research is focussed primarily on the error analysis and data reduction methods of the experiment but includes other topics concerned with experiment systems and their performance affecting the science measurements. The hydrogen maser is the most accurate and stable clock available. It will be used in future gravitational physics missions to measure relativistic effects such as the second order Doppler effect. The HMC experiment, currently under development at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), will test the performance and capability of the hydrogen maser clock for gravitational physics measurements. UAH in collaboration with the SAO science team will study methods to evaluate the behavior and performance of the HMC. The GP-B data analysis developed by the Stanford group involves complicated mathematical operations. This situation led to the idea to investigate alternate and possibly simpler mathematical procedures to extract the GP-B measurements form the data stream. Comparison of different methods would increase the confidence in the selected scheme.

  17. Gravitational radiation from dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.A.; Welling, J.S.; Winicour, J.

    1985-01-01

    A dust cloud is examined within the framework of the general relativistic characteristic initial value problem. Unique gravitational initial data are obtained by requiring that the space-time be quasi-Newtonian. Explicit calculations of metric and matter fields are presented, which include all post-Newtonian corrections necessary to discuss the major physical properties of null infinity. These results establish a curved space version of the Einstein quadrupole formula, in the form ''news function equals third time derivative of transverse quadrupole moment,'' for this system. However, these results imply that some weakened notion of asymptotic flatness is necessary for the description of quasi-Newtonian systems

  18. The earth's gravitational field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  19. Superstatistics and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Obregón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest to consider the spacetime as a non-equilibrium system with a long-term stationary state that possess as a spatio-temporally fluctuating quantity ß . These systems can be described by a superposition of several statistics, superstatistics. We propose a Gamma distribution for f(ß that depends on a parameter ρ1. By means of it the corresponding entropy is calculated, ρ1 is identified with the probability corresponding to this model. A generalized Newton’s law of gravitation is then obtained following the entropic force formulation. We discuss some of the difficulties to try to get an associated theory of gravity.

  20. Karakteristike trzanja elektromagnetskog topa / Recoil characteristics of an electromagnetic rail gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B. Ristić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu je razmatrano trzanje elektromagnetskog šinskog topa i upoređeno sa trzanjem konvencionalnog topa sa barutnim punjenjem. Zaključuje se da je kod elektromagnetskog topa trzanje manje nego kod topa sa barutnim punjenjem. Takođe, pokazano je da pri istim uslovima lansiranja upotreba gasne kočnice topa sa barutnim punjenjem može izmeniti karakteristike trzanja i više ih približiti ponašanju elektromagnetskog topa. / In this paper the electromagnetic rail gun recoil is discussed and compared with the recoil of a conventional, propellant gas driven gun. It is shown that, under similar launch conditions, the recoil of an electromagnetic gun is weaker than that of the powder-driven gun. The use of a muzzle brake on a powder-driven gun can alter its recoil characteristics and make its behavior closer to that of the electromagnetic rail gun.

  1. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Arq+ - Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar q+ -- Ar (8≤q≤16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar 8-16+ , recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar 10-16+ , there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy

  2. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxe, Michael P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pereverzev, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rebassoo, Finn O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sorensen, Peter F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  3. High-resolution elastic recoil detection utilizing Bayesian probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, P.; Dollinger, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Genchev, I.; Goergens, L.; Fischer, R.; Ronning, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2001-01-01

    Elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis is improved in view of depth resolution and the reliability of the measured spectra. Good statistics at even low ion fluences is obtained utilizing a large solid angle of 5 msr at the Munich Q3D magnetic spectrograph and using a 40 MeV 197 Au beam. In this way the elemental depth profiles are not essentially altered during analysis even if distributions with area densities below 1x10 14 atoms/cm 2 are measured. As the energy spread due to the angular acceptance is fully eliminated by ion-optical and numerical corrections, an accurate and reliable apparatus function is derived. It allows to deconvolute the measured spectra using the adaptive kernel method, a maximum entropy concept in the framework of Bayesian probability theory. In addition, the uncertainty of the reconstructed spectra is quantified. The concepts are demonstrated at 13 C depth profiles measured at ultra-thin films of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). Depth scales of those profiles are given with an accuracy of 1.4x10 15 atoms/cm 2

  4. Automation of experiments at Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approaches to solving the problems of automation of basic processes in long-term experiments in heavy ion beams of the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) facility are considered. Approaches in the field of spectrometry, both of rare α decays of superheavy nuclei and those for constructing monitoring systems to provide accident-free experiment running with highly radioactive targets and recording basic parameters of experiment, are described. The specific features of Double Side Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are considered, special attention is paid to the role of boundary effects of neighboring p-n transitions in the "active correlations" method. An example of an off-beam experiment attempting to observe Zeno effect is briefly considered. Basic examples for nuclear reactions of complete fusion at 48Ca ion beams of U-400 cyclotron (LNR, JINR) are given. A scenario of development of the "active correlations" method for the case of very high intensity beams of heavy ions at promising accelerators of LNR, JINR, is presented.

  5. Photofragment angular momentum distribution beyond the axial recoil approximation: Predissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladislav V.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2007-01-01

    We present the quantum mechanical expressions for the angular momentum distribution of the photofragments produced in slow predissociation. The paper is based on our recent theoretical treatment [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 034307 (2005)] of the recoil angle dependence of the photofragment multipole moments which explicitly treat the role of molecular axis rotation on the electronic angular momentum polarization of the fragments. The electronic wave function of the molecule was used in the adiabatic body frame representation. The rigorous expressions for the fragment state multipoles which have been explicitly derived from the scattering wave function formalism have been used for the case of slow predissociation where a molecule lives in the excited quasibound state much longer than a rotation period. Possible radial nonadiabatic interactions were taken into consideration. The optical excitation of a single rotational branch and the broadband incoherent excitation of all possible rotational branches have been analyzed in detail. The angular momentum polarization of the photofragments has been treated in the high-J limit. The polarization of the photofragment angular momenta predicted by the theory depends on photodissociation mechanism and can in many cases be significant

  6. Annealing behavior of alpha recoil tracks in phlogopite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shaokai; Yuan Wanming; Dong Jinquan; Bao Zengkuan

    2005-01-01

    Alpha recoil tracks (ARTs) formed during the a-decay of U, Th as well as their daughter nuclei are used as a new dating method which is to some extent a complementarity of fission track dating due to its ability to determine the age of young mineral. ARTs can be observable under phase-contrast interference microscope through chemical etching. In order to study the annealing behavior of ARTs in phlogopite, two methods of annealing experiments were executed. Samples were annealed in the electronic tube furnace at different temperatures ranging from 250 degree C to 450 degree C in steps of 50 degree C. For any given annealing temperature, different annealing times were used until total track fading were achieved. It is found that ARTs anneal much more easily than fission tracks, the annealing ratio increase non-linearly with annealing time and temperature. Using the Arrhenius plot, an activation energy of 0.68ev is finally found for 100% removal of ARTs, which is less than the corresponding value for fission tracks (FTs). Through extending the annealing time to geological time, a much lower temperature range of the sample's cooling history can be got.

  7. Some recoil corrections to the hydrogen hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Yennie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    We compute all of the recoil corrections to the ground-state hyperfine splitting in hydrogen, with the exception of the proton polarizability, that are required to achieve an accuracy of 1 ppm. Our approach includes a unified treatment of the corrections that would arise from a pointlike Dirac proton and the corrections that are due to the proton's non-QED structure. Our principal new results are a calculation of the relative order-α 2 (m/sub e//m/sub p/) contributions that arise from the proton's anomalous magnetic moment and a systematic treatment of the relative order-α(m/sub e//m/sub p/) contributions that arise from form-factor corrections. In the former calculation we introduce some new technical improvements and are able to evaluate all of the expressions analytically. In the latter calculation, which has been the subject of previous investigations by other authors, we express the form-factor corrections in terms of two-dimensional integrals that are convenient for numerical evaluation and present numerical results for the commonly used dipole parametrization of the form factors. Because we use a parametrization of the form factors that differs slightly from the ones used in previous work, our numerical results are shifted from older ones by a small amount

  8. Recoil effects in the hyperfine structure of QED bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Yennie, D.R.; Gregorio, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors give a general discussion of the derivation from field theory of a formalism for the perturbative solution of the relativistic two-body problem. The lowest-order expression for the four-point function is given in terms of a two-particle three-dimensional propagator in a static potential. It is obtained by fixing the loop energy in the four-dimensional formalism at a point which is independent of the loop momentum and is symmetric in the two particle variables. This method avoids awkward positive- and negative-energy projectors, with their attendant energy square roots, and allows one to recover the Dirac equation straightforwardly in the nonrecoil limit. The perturbations appear as a variety of four-dimensional kernels which are rearranged and regrouped into convenient sets. In particular, they are transformed from the Coulomb to the Feynman gauge, which greatly simplifies the expressions that must be evaluated. Although the approach is particularly convenient for the precision analysis of QED bound states, it is not limited to such applications. The authors use it to give the first unified treatment of all presently known recoil corrections to the muonium hyperfine structure and also to verify the corresponding contributions through order α 2 lnαE/sub F/ in positronium. The required integrals are evaluated analytically

  9. Moving towards first science with the St. George recoil separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary; Berg, G. P. A.; Gilardy, G.; Moran, M.; Schmitt, J.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Couder, M.

    2015-10-01

    The St. George recoil mass separator has recently been coupled to the 5MV St. Ana accelerator at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Lab. St. George is a unique tool designed to measure radiative alpha-capture reactions for nuclei up to A = 40 in inverse kinematics in order to directly obtain cross sections required for astrophysical models of stellar and explosive helium burning. Commissioning of St. George is presently taking place with primary beams of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. In this presentation, results will be shown for the measured energy acceptance of St. George, which compare favorably to COSY results when employing the calculated optimal ion-optical settings. Additionally, future plans will be discussed, such as assessing the angular acceptance of St. George and the re-integration of HiPPO at the separator target position to provide a dense, windowless helium gas-jet target. The material presented in this work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1419765.

  10. Szilard-Chalmers cation recoil studies in zeolites X and Y. Pt. 3. Recoils from locked to open sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, P P; Rees, L V.C. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK)

    1976-01-01

    The Szilard-Chalmers recoil of the cations Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, La/sup 3 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/ and Na/sup +/ from the sodalite cage and hexagonal prism sites into the supercage sites of zeolites X and Y has been studied. This study is complementary to that described in Lai et al, JCS Faraday I; 72:181 (1976). It has been found that these cations recoil from the sodalite cage sites into the supercage sites with a probability of approximately 90% whereas the corresponding probability for these cations in the hexagonal prism sites (site I) is between 40 and 50% depending on the cation. It is thus possible to determine the preferences shown by these cations for these 'locked-in' sites as a function of temperature of calcination, Tsub(c), concentration and type of other cations contained in these sites. In these studies the cations present in the supercage sites before irradiation were usually NH/sub 4//sup +/ but Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Na/sup +/ have also been used. When Tsub(c) > 400/sup 0/C, Rb/sup +/ and Cs/sup +/ began to populate site I. These ions populated this site in zeolite X at lower calcination temperatures than required for zeolite Y. When Tsub(c) was increased from 110 to 220/sup 0/C the occupancy of site I by Ba/sup 2 +/ was greatly enhanced and when Tsub(c) > 440/sup 0/C Ba/sup 2 +/ ions now occupied this site in preference to all other 'locked-in' sites. Barium exhibited a higher affinity for site I in zeolite X than in zeolite Y when Tsub(c) = 110/sup 0/C. If dehydrated La-Y was assumed to have 5 La/sup 3 +/ ions per u.c. in site I, the hydration of this material did not change the concentration of La/sup 3 +/ in site I. Co/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ ions all exhibited similar affinities for the 'locked-in' sites of zeolites X and Y.

  11. Multivariate techniques of analysis for ToF-E recoil spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H J; Bouanani, M E; Persson, L; Hult, M; Jonsson, P; Johnston, P N [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan, (Sweden), Department of Nuclear Physics; Andersson, M [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Ostling, M; Zaring, C [Royal institute of Technology, Electrum, Kista, (Sweden), Department of Electronics; Johnston, P N; Bubb, I F; Walker, B R; Stannard, W B [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Multivariate statistical methods are being developed by the Australian -Swedish Recoil Spectrometry Collaboration for quantitative analysis of the wealth of information in Time of Flight (ToF) and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry. An overview is presented of progress made in the use of multivariate techniques for energy calibration, separation of mass-overlapped signals and simulation of ToF-E data. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Multivariate techniques of analysis for ToF-E recoil spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H.J.; Bouanani, M.E.; Persson, L.; Hult, M.; Jonsson, P.; Johnston, P.N. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan, (Sweden), Department of Nuclear Physics; Andersson, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Ostling, M.; Zaring, C. [Royal institute of Technology, Electrum, Kista, (Sweden), Department of Electronics; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F.; Walker, B.R.; Stannard, W.B. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Multivariate statistical methods are being developed by the Australian -Swedish Recoil Spectrometry Collaboration for quantitative analysis of the wealth of information in Time of Flight (ToF) and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry. An overview is presented of progress made in the use of multivariate techniques for energy calibration, separation of mass-overlapped signals and simulation of ToF-E data. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.T.; Cabrera, B.; Dougherty, B.L.; Penn, M.J.; Pronko, J.G.; Tamura, S.

    1996-01-01

    We present measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in silicon at ∼380 mK. The detectors used for these experiments consist of a 300-μm-thick monocrystal of silicon instrumented with superconducting titanium transition-edge sensors. These sensors detect the initial wavefront of athermal phonons and give a pulse height that is sensitive to changes in surface-energy density resulting from the focusing of ballistic phonons. Nuclear recoils were generated by neutron bombardment of the detector. A Van de Graaff proton accelerator and a thick 7 Li target were used. Pulse-height spectra were compared for neutron, x-ray, and γ-ray events. A previous analysis of this data set found evidence for an increase in the ballistic-phonon component for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils at a 95% confidence level. An improved understanding of the detector response has led to a change in the result. In the present analysis, the data are consistent with no increase at the 68% confidence level. This change stems from an increase in the uncertainty of the result rather than a significant change in the central value. The increase in ballistic phonon energy for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils as a fraction of the total phonon energy (for equal total phonon energy events) was found to be 0.024 +0.041 -0.055 (68% confidence level). This result sets a limit of 11.6% (95% confidence level) on the ballistic phonon enhancement for nuclear recoils predicted by open-quote open-quote hot spot close-quote close-quote and electron-hole droplet models, which is the most stringent to date. To measure the ballistic-phonon component resulting from electron recoils, the pulse height as a function of event depth was compared to that of phonon simulations. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Proceedings of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters held at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University on January 27 in 1986. An energy resolution, wall effects of response functions, n · γ discrimination methods and other fundamental properties of recoil proton counters are discussed for a new development of an application of this counter. (author)

  15. The gravitational Schwinger effect and attenuation of gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick Guarneri

    This paper will discuss the possible production of photons from gravitational waves. This process is shown to be possible by examining Feynman diagrams, the Schwinger Effect, and Hawking Radiation. The end goal of this project is to find the decay length of a gravitational wave and assert that this decay is due to photons being created at the expense of the gravitational wave. To do this, we first find the state function using the Klein Gordon equation, then find the current due to this state function. We then take the current to be directly proportional to the production rate per volume. This is then used to find the decay length that this kind of production would produce, gives a prediction of how this effect will change the distance an event creating a gravitational wave will be located, and shows that this effect is small but can be significant near the source of a gravitational wave.

  16. Titan's Gravitational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.

  17. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  18. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  19. On geometrized gravitation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of the geometrized gravitation theories have been considered. Geometrization of the theory is realized only to the extent that by necessity follows from an experiment (geometrization of the density of the matter Lagrangian only). Aor a general case the gravitation field equations and the equations of motion for matter are formulated in the different Riemann spaces. A covariant formulation of the energy-momentum conservation laws is given in an arbitrary geometrized theory. The noncovariant notion of ''pseudotensor'' is not required in formulating the conservation laws. It is shown that in the general case (i.e., when there is an explicit dependence of the matter Lagrangian density on the covariant derivatives) a symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the matter is explicitly dependent on the curvature tensor. There are enlisted different geometrized theories that describe a known set of the experimental facts. The properties of one of the versions of the quasilinear geometrized theory that describes the experimental facts are considered. In such a theory the fundamental static spherically symmetrical solution has a singularity only in the coordinate origin. The theory permits to create a satisfactory model of the homogeneous nonstationary Universe

  20. Gravitating lepton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system

  1. Gravitational Waves - New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesiada, M.

    1999-01-01

    Laser interferometric experiments planned for 2002 will open up a new window onto the Universe. The first part of the paper gives a brief intuitive introduction to gravity waves, detection techniques and enumeration of main astrophysical sources and frequency bands to which they contribute. Then two more specific issues are discussed concerning cosmological perspectives of gravity waves detection. First one is the problem of gravitational lensing of the signal from inspiralling NS-NS binaries. The magnitude of the so called magnification bias is estimated and found non-negligible for some quite realistic lens models, but strongly model-dependent. The second problem is connected with estimates of galactic and extragalactic parts of the stochastic background. The main conclusion from these two examples is that in so far as the cosmological payoff of gravitational wave detection would be high, we should substantially deepen our understanding of basic astrophysical properties of galaxies and their clusters (in terms of mass distribution) in order to draw clear cosmological conclusions. (author)

  2. Numerical investigations of gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI, Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1121 (Hungary)

    2010-03-01

    Some properties of a new framework for simulating generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitating systems are discussed. The framework can be used to investigate spacetimes that undergo complete gravitational collapse. The analytic setup is chosen to ensure that our numerical method is capable to follow the time evolution everywhere, including the black hole region.

  3. On the gravitational radiation formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.; Dehnen, H.

    1980-01-01

    For electromagnetically as well as gravitationally bound quantum mechanical many-body systems the coefficients of absorption and induced emission of gravitational radiation are calculated in the first-order approximation. The results are extended subsequently to systems with arbitrary non-Coulomb-like two-particle interaction potentials;it is shown explicitly that in all cases the perturbation of the binding potentials of the bound systems by the incident gravitational wave field itself must be taken into account. With the help of the thermodynamic equilibrium of gravitational radiation and quantised matter, the coefficients for spontaneous emission of gravitational radiation are derived and the gravitational radiation formula for emission of gravitational quadrupole radiation by bound quantum mechanical many-body systems is given. According to the correspondence principle the present result is completely identical with the well known classical radiation formula, by which recent criticism against this formula is refuted. Finally the quantum mechanical absorption cross section for gravitational quadrupole radiation is deduced and compared with the corresponding classical expressions. As a special example the vibrating two-mass quadrupole is treated explicitly. (author)

  4. To theory of gravitational interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Minkevich, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Some principal problems of general relativity theory and attempts of their solution are discussed. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity as natural generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory is considered. The changes of gravitational interaction in the frame of this theory leading to the solution of principal problems of general relativity theory are analyzed.

  5. Gravitational Casimir–Polder effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction due to quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations between a gravitationally polarizable object modelled as a two-level system and a gravitational boundary is investigated. This quantum gravitational interaction is found to be position-dependent, which induces a force in close analogy to the Casimir–Polder force in the electromagnetic case. For a Dirichlet boundary, the quantum gravitational potential for the polarizable object in its ground-state is shown to behave like z−5 in the near zone, and z−6 in the far zone, where z is the distance to the boundary. For a concrete example, where a Bose–Einstein condensate is taken as a gravitationally polarizable object, the relative correction to the radius of the BEC caused by fluctuating quantum gravitational waves in vacuum is found to be of order 10−21. Although the correction is far too small to observe in comparison with its electromagnetic counterpart, it is nevertheless of the order of the gravitational strain caused by a recently detected black hole merger on the arms of the LIGO.

  6. Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.

    2011-01-01

    We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to

  7. Laboratory generation of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, I.M.; Rotoli, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have performed calculations on the basic type of gravitational wave electromagnetic laboratory generators. Their results show that laboratory generations of gravitational wave is at limit of state-of-the-art of present-day giant electromagnetic field generation

  8. The gravitational properties of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    It is argued that a determination of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter towards the earth is capable of imposing powerful constraints on modern quantum gravity theories. Theoretical reasons to expect non-Newtonian non-Einsteinian effects of gravitational strength and experimental suggestions of such effects are reviewed. 41 refs

  9. Interaction of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed

  10. Critical Effects in Gravitational Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmaj, T.

    2000-01-01

    The models of gravitational collapse of a dynamical system are investigated by means of the Einstein equations. Different types conjunctions to gravitational field are analyzed and it is shown that in the case of week scalar field (low energy density) the system evaluated to flat space while in the case of strong field (high energy density) to black hole

  11. Conservation laws and gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastall, P.

    1977-01-01

    A total stress-momentum is defined for gravitational fields and their sources. The Lagrangian density is slightly different from that in the previous version of the theory, and the field equations are considerably simplified. The post-Newtonian approximation of the theory is unchanged. The existence and nature of weak gravitational waves are discussed. (author)

  12. Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sriramkumar, L

    2012-01-01

    This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.

  13. Are the gravitational waves quantised?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Istvan

    1997-01-01

    If the gravitational waves are classical objects then the value of their correlation function is 1. If they are quantised, then there exist two possibilities: the gravitational waves are either completely coherent, then their correlation function is again 1, or they are only partially coherent, then their correlation function is expected to deviate from 1. Unfortunately such a deviation is not a sufficient proof for the quantised character of the gravitational waves. If the gravitational waves are quantised and generated by the change of the background metrical then they can be in a squeezed state. In a squeezed state there is a chance for the correlation between the phase of the wave and the quantum fluctuations. The observation of such a correlation would be a genuine proof of the quantised character of the gravitational wave

  14. Detection of exclusive reactions in the Hermes Recoil Fiber Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keri, Tibor

    2008-08-01

    (Recoil Detector) with an unpolarized target at this position. This detector consists of the Silicon Strip Detector, the SFT (Scintillating Fiber Tracker), the Photon Detector and is surrounded by a 1T superconducting magnet. It provides several space points for tracking and thus momentum reconstruction. The energy deposition in the various detectors is used to achieve particle identification. The main part of the thesis work was the implementation of the SFT and the RD readout system. Before the installation of the RD a series of test runs were carried out to proof the concept of the detector, to measure the internal alignment and to prepare the installation. These test runs for the SFT are described and major results are shown. Furthermore a preliminary analysis of the latest data 06d/06d0 was carried out to show the performance of the installed Recoil Detector in combination with the HERMES forward spectrometer. (orig.)

  15. Detection of exclusive reactions in the Hermes Recoil Fiber Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keri, Tibor

    2008-08-15

    the RD (Recoil Detector) with an unpolarized target at this position. This detector consists of the Silicon Strip Detector, the SFT (Scintillating Fiber Tracker), the Photon Detector and is surrounded by a 1T superconducting magnet. It provides several space points for tracking and thus momentum reconstruction. The energy deposition in the various detectors is used to achieve particle identification. The main part of the thesis work was the implementation of the SFT and the RD readout system. Before the installation of the RD a series of test runs were carried out to proof the concept of the detector, to measure the internal alignment and to prepare the installation. These test runs for the SFT are described and major results are shown. Furthermore a preliminary analysis of the latest data 06d/06d0 was carried out to show the performance of the installed Recoil Detector in combination with the HERMES forward spectrometer. (orig.)

  16. Erratum to

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Shuangyan; He, Mingxia; Fischer, Jürgen; Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Xianping; Sokoletsky, Leonid; Wei, Xiaodao; Shen, Fang; Zou, Juhong; Guo, Maohua; Cui, Songxue; Zhou, Wu; Gao, Dalu; Jin, Guangzhen; Lü, Xianqing; Qiu, Fuwen; Fang, Wendong; Pan, Aijun; Cha, Jing; Zhang, Shanwu; Huang, Jiang; Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua; Hou, Zhishuai; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Liu, Qun; Wang, Jinhuan; Guan, Biao; Wang, Qinglong; Shahjahan, Md; Kabir, Md Farajul; Sumon, Kizar Ahmed; Bhowmik, Lipi Rani; Rashid, Harunur; Li, Shu; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Chen, Tianran; Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Liu, Liming; Du, Rongbin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Shichun; Feng, Song; Lin, Jianing; Sun, Song; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Tang, Xuexi; Tang, Haitian; Song, Jingjing; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Qixiang; Qian, Kuimei; Liu, Xia; Chen, Yuwei; Sun, Chengjun; Jiang, Fenghua; Gao, Wei; Li, Xiaoyun; Yu, Yanzhen; Yin, Xiaofei; Wang, Yong; Ding, Haibing; Sun, Zhongmin; Wang, Yongqiang; Yan, Pengcheng; Guo, Hui; Yao, Jianting; Tanaka, Jiro; Kawai, Hiroshi; Song, Na; Chen, Muyan; Gao, Tianxiang; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Kong, Jie; Hu, Longyang; Mao, Yong; Zhong, Shengping; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Caiyan; Miao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Unfortunately for all articles of Vol. 35 No. 1 the future journal title “Journal of Oceanology and Limnology” was used instead of the current journal title “Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology”. All articles in the issue are aff ected. Please make sure to cite the articles with the

  17. Erratum to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Mette; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. One of the affiliations was incorrect for the author Mathias Lasgaard. The second affiliation should read as: “DEFACTUM, Central Denmark Region, Aarhus N, Denmark”....

  18. Erratum to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Klüver; Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Fedder, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained errors in the Discussion section as follows: 1) The whole paragraph starting “It is currently impossible to obtain a complete…” should be replaced with the below paragraph: It is difficult to obtain a complete picture of this procedure’...

  19. Erratum to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Broberg, Brian V; Ishøy, Pelle L

    2018-01-01

    "Treatment of antipsychotic-associated obesity with a GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA): The TAO trial" is the first clinical investigation of GLP-1RA treatment (exenatide 2 mg once-weekly or placebo) in antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia patients with obesity.1 Recently, we published the main...... results from the TAO trial as an original article in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2 We regret to report, that further analyses of the TAO dataset have revealed an error in our secondary analyses presented in the original publication....

  20. Gravitational wave experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, W O

    1993-01-01

    There were three oral sessions and one poster session for Workshop C1 on Gravitational Wave Experiments. There was also an informal experimental roundtable held one after- noon. The first two oral sessions were devoted mainly to progress reports from various interferometric and bar detector groups. A total of 15 papers were presented in these two sessions. The third session of Workshop C1 was devoted primarily to theoretical and experimental investigations associated with the proposed interferometric detectors. Ten papers were presented in this session. In addition, there were a total of 13 papers presented in the poster session. There was some overlap between the presentations in the third oral session and the posters since only two of the serious posters were devoted to technology not pertinent to interferometers. In general, the papers showed the increasing maturity of the experimental aspects of the field since most presented the results of completed investigations rather than making promises of wonderf...

  1. Relativistic gravitational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures

  2. Atomic and gravitational clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York; Goldman, I.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous-whose rates are related by a non-constant function βsub(a)-is demonstrated. The cosmological character of βsub(a) is also discussed. (author)

  3. Solar gravitational redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopresto, J.C.; Chapman, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Wavelengths of solar spectrum lines should be shifted toward the red by the Sun's gravitational field as predicted by metric theories of gravity according to the principle of equivalence. Photographic wavelengths of 738 solar Fe 1 lines and their corresponding laboratory wavelengths have been studied. The measured solar wavelength minus the laboratory wavelength (Δlambdasub(observed)) averaged for the strong lines agrees well with the theoretically predicted shift (Δlambdasub(theoretical)). Studies show that the departures depend on line strength. No dependence of the departures on wavelength was found within the existing data. By studying strong lines over a wide spectral range, velocity shifts caused by the complex motions in the solar atmosphere seem to affect the results in a minimal fashion. (orig.)

  4. Observations of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the last tow years a burst of results has come from radio and optical surveys of ''galaxy lenses'' (where the main deflector is a galaxy). These are reviewed. On the other hand, in September 1985 we pointed out a very strange blue ring-like structure on a Charge-Coupled Device image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 370. This turned out to be Einstein arcs discovery. Following this discovery, new observational results have shown that many rich clusters of galaxies can produce numerous arclets: tangentially distorted images of an extremely faint galaxy population probably located at redshift larger than 1. This new class of gravitational lenses proves to be an important observational topic and this will be discussed in the second part of the paper. (author)

  5. Feynman Lectures on Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherds, P

    2003-01-01

    In the early 1960s Feynman lectured to physics undergraduates and, with the assistance of his colleagues Leighton and Sands, produced the three-volume classic Feynman Lectures in Physics. These lectures were delivered in the mornings. In the afternoons Feynman was giving postgraduate lectures on gravitation. This book is based on notes compiled by two students on that course: Morinigo and Wagner. Their notes were checked and approved by Feynman and were available at Caltech. They have now been edited by Brian Hatfield and made more widely available. The book has a substantial preface by John Preskill and Kip Thorne, and an introduction entitled 'Quantum Gravity' by Brian Hatfield. You should read these before going on to the lectures themselves. Preskill and Thorne identify three categories of potential readers of this book. 1. Those with a postgraduate training in theoretical physics. 2. 'Readers with a solid undergraduate training in physics'. 3. 'Admirers of Feynman who do not have a strong physics background'. The title of the book is perhaps misleading: readers in category 2 who think that this book is an extension of the Feynman Lectures in Physics may be disappointed. It is not: it is a book aimed mainly at those in category 1. If you want to get to grips with gravitation (and general relativity) then you need to read an introductory text first e.g. General Relativity by I R Kenyon (Oxford: Oxford University Press) or A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics by Ian D Lawrie (Bristol: IoP). But there is no Royal Road. As pointed out in the preface and in the introduction, the book represents Feynman's thinking about gravitation some 40 years ago: the lecture course was part of his attempts to understand the subject himself, and for readers in all three categories it is this that makes the book one of interest: the opportunity to observe how a great physicist attempts to tackle some of the hardest challenges of physics. However, the book was written 40

  6. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix.

  7. Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix. (paper)

  8. Gravitation. [Book on general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.

  9. Gravitational effects of global textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzold, D.

    1990-03-01

    A solution for the dynamics of global textures is obtained. Their gravitational field during the collapse and the subsequent evolution is found to be given solely by a space-time dependent ''deficit solid angle.'' The frequency shift of photons traversing this gravitational field is calculated. The space-time dependent texture metric locally contracts the volume of three-space and thereby induces overdensities in homogeneous matter distributions. There are no gravitational forces unless matter has a nonzero angular momentum with respect to the texture origin which would be the case for moving textures

  10. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.

  11. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2018-02-15

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)

  12. Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Will, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones

  13. Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.

    2001-01-01

    We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  14. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  15. Highlights in gravitation and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, B.R.; Kembhavi, Ajit; Narlikar, J.V.; Vishveshwara, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book assesses research into gravitation and cosmology by examining the subject from various viewpoints: the classical and quantum pictures, along with the cosmological and astrophysical applications. There are 35 articles by experts of international standing. Each defines the state of the art and contains a concise summary of our present knowledge of a facet of gravitational physics. These edited papers are based on those first given at an international conference held in Goa, India at the end of 1987. The following broad areas are covered: classical relativity, quantum gravity, cosmology, black holes, compact objects, gravitational radiation and gravity experiments. In this volume there are also summaries of discussions on the following special topics: exact solutions of cosmological equations, mathematical aspects of general relativity, the early universe, and quantum gravity. For research workers in cosmology and gravitation this reference book provides a broad view of present achievements and current problems. (author)

  16. A new theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The author believes that the General Relativity Theory (GRT) suffers from a substantial deficiency since it ignors the fundamental laws of conservation of energy. Einstein neglected the classical concept of the field due to his belief in the truth of the principle of equivalence between forces of inertid gravitation. This equivalence leads, as the author says, to nonequivalence of these forces, making GRT logically contradictory from the physical point of view. The author considers GRT as a certain stage in the course of the study of space-time and gravitation, and suggests a new theory called the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which obeys the fundamental laws of conservation, and which is justified in some of its aspects by astronomical observations. RTG does not suffer from some deficiencies met in Einsteins theory. One is nonunique predictions of gravitation effects within the boundaries of the solar system. Also, RTG refuses some hypothesis as that of black holes. 7 refs

  17. Are the gravitational waves quantised?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.

    1998-01-01

    The question whether gravitational waves are quantised or not can be investigated by the help of correlation measurements. If the gravitational waves are classical objects then the value of their correlation function is 1. However, if they are quantised, then there exist two possibilities: the gravitational waves are either completely coherent, then the correlation function is again 1, or they are partially coherent, then the correlation function is expected to deviate from 1. If the gravitational waves are generated by the change of the background metrics then they can be in a squeezed state. In a squeezed state there is a chance for the correlation between the phase of the wave and the quantum fluctuations. (author)

  18. Heuristic introduction to gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rough and somewhat heuristic theoretical background and introduction to gravitational radiation, its generation, and its detection based on Einstein's general theory of relativity

  19. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...

  20. Shearfree cylindrical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Santos, N. O.

    2009-01-01

    We consider diagonal cylindrically symmetric metrics, with an interior representing a general nonrotating fluid with anisotropic pressures. An exterior vacuum Einstein-Rosen spacetime is matched to this using Darmois matching conditions. We show that the matching conditions can be explicitly solved for the boundary values of metric components and their derivatives, either for the interior or exterior. Specializing to shearfree interiors, a static exterior can only be matched to a static interior, and the evolution in the nonstatic case is found to be given in general by an elliptic function of time. For a collapsing shearfree isotropic fluid, only a Robertson-Walker dust interior is possible, and we show that all such cases were included in Cocke's discussion. For these metrics, Nolan and Nolan have shown that the matching breaks down before collapse is complete, and Tod and Mena have shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the sense of Berger, Chrusciel, and Moncrief. The issues about energy that then arise are revisited, and it is shown that the exterior is not in an intrinsic gravitational or superenergy radiative state at the boundary.

  1. Quantum biological gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopvillem, U.Kh.

    1985-01-01

    A possibility of producing biological detectors of gravitational waves is considered. High sensitivity of biological systems to outer effects can be ensured by existence of molecule subgroups in Dicke states. Existence of clusters in Dicke state-giant electric dipoles (GED) is supposed in the Froehlich theory. Comparison of biological and physical detectors shows that GED systems have unique properties for detection of gravitational waves if the reception range is narrow

  2. General relativity and gravitation, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, N.; Bartlett, D.F.; Wyss, W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume records the lectures and symposia of the 12th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation. Plenary lecturers reviewed the major advances since the previous conference in 1986. The reviews cover classical and quantum theory of gravity, colliding gravitational waves, gravitational lensing, relativistic effects on pulsars, tests of the inverse square law, numerical relativity, cosmic microwave background radiation, experimental tests of gravity theory, gravitational wave detectors, and cosmology. The plenary lectures are complemented by summaries of symposia, provided by the chairmen. Almost 700 contributed papers were presented at these and they cover an even wider range of topics than the plenary talks. The book provides a comprehensive guide to research activity in both experimental and theoretical gravitation and its applications in astrophysics and cosmology. It will be essential reading for research workers in these fields, as well as theoretical and experimental physicists, astronomers, and mathematicians who wish to be acquainted with modern developments in gravitational theory and general relativity. All the papers and summaries of the workshop sessions are indexed separately. (16 united talks, 20 workshop sessions). (author)

  3. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S R; Johnston, P N; Bubb, I F [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hult, M; Whitlow, H J [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Zaring, C; Oestling, M [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics

    1994-12-31

    Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions from ANTARES (FN Tandem) facility at Lucas Heights has been used to examine the isotopic composition of samples of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} grown at the Australian National University by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE). The recoiling target nuclei were analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained. Recoil spectrometry has shown the presence of oxygen in the Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} layer and has enabled the separate determination of energy spectra for individual elements. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  4. The HERMES recoil detector. Particle identification and determination of detector efficiency of the scintillating fiber tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xianguo

    2009-11-15

    HERMES is a fixed target experiment using the HERA 27.6 GeV polarized electron/positron beams. With the polarized beams and its gas targets, which can be highly polarized, HERMES is dedicated to study the nucleon spin structure. One of its current physics programs is to measure deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). In order to detect the recoiling proton the Recoil Detector was installed in the target region in the winter of 2005, taking data until the HERA-shutdown in the summer of 2007. The Recoil Detector measured energy loss of the traversing particles with its sub-detectors, including the silicon strip detector and the scintillating fiber tracker. This enables particle identification for protons and pions. In this work a systematic particle identification procedure is developed, whose performance is quantified. Another aspect of this work is the determination of the detector efficiency of the scintillating fiber tracker. (orig.)

  5. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.R.; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hult, M.; Whitlow, H.J. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Zaring, C.; Oestling, M. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics

    1993-12-31

    Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions from ANTARES (FN Tandem) facility at Lucas Heights has been used to examine the isotopic composition of samples of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} grown at the Australian National University by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE). The recoiling target nuclei were analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained. Recoil spectrometry has shown the presence of oxygen in the Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} layer and has enabled the separate determination of energy spectra for individual elements. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of SixGe1-x thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.R.; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Hult, M.; Whitlow, H.J.; Zaring, C.; Oestling, M.

    1993-01-01

    Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry employing 77 MeV 127 I ions from ANTARES (FN Tandem) facility at Lucas Heights has been used to examine the isotopic composition of samples of Si x Ge 1-x grown at the Australian National University by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE). The recoiling target nuclei were analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained. Recoil spectrometry has shown the presence of oxygen in the Si x Ge 1-x layer and has enabled the separate determination of energy spectra for individual elements. 9 refs., 3 figs

  7. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation - The Correct Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a clear, definitive Scientific explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and with distinct Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 certain, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are obviously Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli- Foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/

  8. On recoil energy dependent void swelling in pure copper: Theoretical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, S.I.; Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.

    2000-06-01

    Over the years, an enormous amount of experimental results have been reported on damage accumulation (e.g. void swelling) in metals and alloys irradiated under vastly different recoil energy conditions. Unfortunately, however, very little is known either experimentally or theoretically about the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation. Recently, dedicated irradiation experiments using 2.5 MeV electrons, 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons have been carried out to determine the effect of recoil energy on the damage accumulation behaviour in pure copper and the results have been reported in Part I of this paper (Singh, Eldrup, Horsewell, Ehrhart and Dworschak 2000). The present paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework within which the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation behaviour can be understood. The damage accumulation under Frenkel pair production (e.g. 2.5 MeV electron) has been treated in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) model whereas the evolution of the defect microstructure under cascade damage conditions (e.g. 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons) has been calculated within the framework of the production bias model (PBM). Theoretical results, in agreement with experimental results, show that the damage accumulation behaviour is very sensitive to recoil energy and under cascade damage conditions can be treated only within the framework of the PBM. The intracascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and the properties of SIA clusters such as one-dimensional diffusional transport and thermal stability are found to be the main reasons for the recoil energy dependent vacancy supersaturation. The vacancy supersaturation is the main driving force for the void nucleation and void swelling. In the case of Frenkel pair production, the experimental results are found to be consistent with the SRT model with a dislocation bias value of 2 %. (au)

  9. A new recoil distance technique using low energy coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rother, W., E-mail: wolfram.rother@googlemail.com [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Dewald, A.; Pascovici, G.; Fransen, C.; Friessner, G.; Hackstein, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Ilie, G. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Iwasaki, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Jolie, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Melon, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) I-50019 (Italy); Petkov, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); INRNE-BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Pfeiffer, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Pissulla, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, D - 53175 Bonn (Germany); Zell, K.-O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Jakobsson, U.; Julin, R.; Jones, P.; Ketelhut, S.; Nieminen, P.; Peura, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); and others

    2011-10-21

    We report on the first experiment combining the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift technique and multistep Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics at beam energies of 3-10 A MeV. The setup involves a standard plunger device equipped with a degrader foil instead of the normally used stopper foil. An array of particle detectors is positioned at forward angles to detect target-like recoil nuclei which are used as a trigger to discriminate against excitations in the degrader foil. The method has been successfully applied to measure lifetimes in {sup 128}Xe and is suited to be a useful tool for experiments with radioactive ion beams.

  10. Coincident Auger electron and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for low-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.; Tarisien, M.; Flechard, X.; Jardin, P.; Guillaume, L.; Sobocinski, P.; Adoui, L.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Lienard, E.; Maunoury, L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cassimi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) method combined with the detection of Auger electrons has been used successfully to analyse double electron capture following O 6+ + He collisions at low impact velocities. Although RIMS and Auger spectroscopies are known to be efficient tools to obtain details on the primary processes occurring during the collision, the conjunction of both techniques provides new insights on the electron capture process. In the present experiment, triple coincidence detection of the scattered projectile, the target recoil ion and the Auger electron allows for a precise identification of the doubly excited states O 4+ (1s 2 nln ' l ' ) populated after double electron-capture events

  11. Test of a superheated superconducting granule detector with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a Superheated Superconducting Granule (SSG) detector development for neutrinos and dark matter. An aluminum SSG detector was exposed to a 70MeV neutron beam to test the detector sensitivity to nuclear recoils. The neutron scattering angels were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The proved sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils above 10keV is encouraging for possible applications of SSG as a dark matter detector. (orig.)

  12. Radiation Recoil Effects on the Dynamical Evolution of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desiree

    The Yarkovsky effect is a radiation recoil force that results in a semimajor axis drift in the orbit that can cause Main Belt asteroids to be delivered to powerful resonances from which they could be transported to Earth-crossing orbits. This force depends on the spin state of the object, which is modified by the YORP effect, a variation of the Yarkovsky effect that results in a torque that changes the spin rate and the obliquity. Extensive analyses of the basic behavior of the YORP effect have been previously conducted in the context of the classical spin state evolution of rigid bodies (YORP cycle). However, the YORP effect has an extreme sensitivity to the topography of the asteroids and a minor change in the shape of an aggregate asteroid can stochastically change the YORP torques. Here we present the results of the first simulations that self-consistently model the YORP effect on the spin states of dynamically evolving aggregates. For these simulations we have developed several algorithms and combined them with two codes, TACO and pkdgrav. TACO is a thermophysical asteroid code that models the surface of an asteroid using a triangular facet representation and which can compute the YORP torques. The code pkdgrav is a cosmological N-body tree code modified to simulate the dynamical evolution of asteroids represented as aggregates of spheres using gravity and collisions. The continuous changes in the shape of an aggregate result in a different evolution of the YORP torques and therefore aggregates do not evolve through the YORP cycle as a rigid body would. Instead of having a spin evolution ruled by long periods of rotational acceleration and deceleration as predicted by the classical YORP cycle, the YORP effect is self-limiting and stochastic on aggregate asteroids. We provide a statistical description of the spin state evolution which lays out the foundation for new simulations of a coupled Yarkovsky/YORP evolution. Both self-limiting YORP and to a lesser

  13. Erratum: "Space Density of Optically Selected Type 2 Quasars" (2008, AJ, 136, 2373)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Strauss, Michael A.; Green, Joshua; Krolik, Julian H.; Shen, Yue; Richards, Gordon T.; Anderson, Scott F.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2010-03-01

    Figure 12 of the paper "Space Density of Optically Selected Type 2 Quasars" compares the obscured quasar fractions derived in our work with those of other studies. Unfortunately, some of the points from these other studies were shown incorrectly. Specifically, the results from X-ray data—Hasinger (2004; open circles) and Ueda et al. (2003; open squares)—which we had taken from Figure 16 of Hopkins et al. (2006), were affected by a luminosity conversion error, in the sense that the displayed luminosities for these data were too high by ~1 dex. With this erratum, we correct this problem and update the figure. The new version (Figure 12) shows more recent results from Hasinger (2008), in lieu of the Hasinger (2004) data points. These are based on data in the redshift range z = 0.2-3.2 (open circles) in that work. The best linear fit to these data (black dashed line) is consistent with that derived for the redshift slice z = 0.4-0.8, which overlaps with the highest redshift bin in our study, and is higher than that derived for redshifts smaller than 0.4 (corresponding to a shift of ~0.7 dex in luminosity). Figure 12 also shows estimates of the obscured quasar fraction derived from the ratio of IR to bolometric luminosities of an AGN sample at redshift z ~ 1 (Treister et al. 2008; filled triangles). Because the obscured quasar fractions derived from our analysis (colored arrows) are strict lower limits, there was already a hint in the previous version of Figure 12 that at high quasar luminosities, we find higher obscured quasar fractions than X-ray surveys. The correction and updates of Figure 12 strengthen this conclusion. At face value, our derived obscured quasar fractions are consistent with those from IR data (Treister et al. 2008; filled triangles). However, we find that they are significantly higher than those derived from X-ray surveys at L_[O\\,\\mathsc {iii]}\\gtrsim 10^{9.5}\\;L_{\\odot }, especially those from the recent analysis by Hasinger (2008). This

  14. A new geometrical gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, T.; Chiba, J.; Oshima, H.

    1981-01-01

    A geometrical gravitational theory is developed. The field equations are uniquely determined apart from one unknown dimensionless parameter ω 2 . It is based on an extension of the Weyl geometry, and by the extension the gravitational coupling constant and the gravitational mass are made to be dynamical and geometrical. The fundamental geometrical objects in the theory are a metric gsub(μν) and two gauge scalars phi and psi. The theory satisfies the weak equivalence principle, but breaks the strong one generally. u(phi, psi) = phi is found out on the assumption that the strong one keeps holding good at least for bosons of low spins. Thus there is the simple correspondence between the geometrical objects and the gravitational objects. Since the theory satisfies the weak one, the inertial mass is also dynamical and geometrical in the same way as is the gravitational mass. Moreover, the cosmological term in the theory is a coscalar of power -4 algebraically made of psi and u(phi, psi), so it is dynamical, too. Finally spherically symmetric exact solutions are given. The permissible range of the unknown parameter ω 2 is experimentally determined by applying the solutions to the solar system. (author)

  15. Modified entropic gravitation in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Clovis Jacinto de

    2012-01-01

    Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde’s derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor’s quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravitational force can be interpreted as a surface force. The experimental detection of this new repulsive gravitational-type force appears to be challenging.

  16. Gravitational waves from supernova matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidegger, S; Whitehouse, S C; Kaeppeli, R; Liebendoerfer, M

    2010-01-01

    We have performed a set of 11 three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) core-collapse supernova simulations in order to investigate the dependences of the gravitational wave signal on the progenitor's initial conditions. We study the effects of the initial central angular velocity and different variants of neutrino transport. Our models are started up from a 15M o-dot progenitor and incorporate an effective general relativistic gravitational potential and a finite temperature nuclear equation of state. Furthermore, the electron flavour neutrino transport is tracked by efficient algorithms for the radiative transfer of massless fermions. We find that non- and slowly rotating models show gravitational wave emission due to prompt- and lepton driven convection that reveals details about the hydrodynamical state of the fluid inside the protoneutron stars. Furthermore we show that protoneutron stars can become dynamically unstable to rotational instabilities at T/|W| values as low as ∼2% at core bounce. We point out that the inclusion of deleptonization during the postbounce phase is very important for the quantitative gravitational wave (GW) prediction, as it enhances the absolute values of the gravitational wave trains up to a factor of ten with respect to a lepton-conserving treatment.

  17. Relic gravitational waves and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, Leonid P

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins with a brief recollection of interactions of the author with Ya B Zeldovich in the context of the study of relic gravitational waves. The principles and early results on the quantum-mechanical generation of cosmological perturbations are then summarized. The expected amplitudes of relic gravitational waves differ in various frequency windows, and therefore the techniques and prospects of their detection are distinct. One section of the paper describes the present state of efforts in direct detection of relic gravitational waves. Another section is devoted to indirect detection via the anisotropy and polarization measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It is emphasized throughout the paper that the inference about the existence and expected amount of relic gravitational waves is based on a solid theoretical foundation and the best available cosmological observations. It is also explained in great detail what went wrong with the so-called 'inflationary gravitational waves', whose amount is predicted by inflationary theorists to be negligibly small, thus depriving them of any observational significance. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Probing the structure of unstable nuclei through the recoiled proton tagged knockout reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.; Cao, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recoiled proton tagged knockout reaction experiments were carried-out for 8 He at 82,5 MeV/u in RIKEN and for 6 He at 65 MeV/u in Lanzhou. The very preliminary results for the distinguish of the reaction mechanism are presented and compared to the kinematics calculation. (authors)

  19. Possibility of obtaining enriched americium-242g by the elution of recoil atoms from zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiev, A I; Vityutnev, V M; Ivanov, V M; Yakovlev, G N

    1974-12-31

    On the example of production the possibility of obtaining enriched actinide isotopes by the elution of recotl atoms with the use of a zeolite- americium-241 target was shown. The enrichment factor and the recoil atoms of / sup 242g/Am yield depend on preliminary target treatment and solution composition used for elution. (auth)

  20. A note on the random walk theory of recoil movement in prolonged ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, Ismo

    1994-01-01

    A characteristic function is derived for the probability distribution of final positions of recoil atoms in prolonged ion bombardment of dense matter. The derivation is done within the framework of Poissonian random walk theory using a jump distribution, which is somewhat more general than those studied previously. ((orig.))

  1. Mixing of phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.L.; Lam, Y.W.; Wong, S.P.; Poon, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mixing phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation were examined. The electrical properties after ion mixing were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained using other techniques. Different degrees of activation were also studied, by investigating the annealing behaviour. (U.K.)

  2. Recoil implantation of boron into silicon by high energy silicon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, L.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, X. M.; Rusakova, I.; Mount, G.; Zhang, L. H.; Liu, J. R.; Chu, Wei-Kan

    2001-07-01

    A recoil implantation technique for shallow junction formation was investigated. After e-gun deposition of a B layer onto Si, 10, 50, or 500 keV Si ion beams were used to introduce surface deposited B atoms into Si by knock-on. It has been shown that recoil implantation with high energy incident ions like 500 keV produces a shallower B profile than lower energy implantation such as 10 keV and 50 keV. This is due to the fact that recoil probability at a given angle is a strong function of the energy of the primary projectile. Boron diffusion was showed to be suppressed in high energy recoil implantation and such suppression became more obvious at higher Si doses. It was suggested that vacancy rich region due to defect imbalance plays the role to suppress B diffusion. Sub-100 nm junction can be formed by this technique with the advantage of high throughput of high energy implanters.

  3. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallows, Scott Mathew [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  4. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-15

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the {delta}{sup +} background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  5. Complete analytic results for radiative-recoil corrections to ground-state muonium hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.; Shelyuto, V.A.; Eides, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Analytic expressions are obtained for radiative corrections to the hyperfine splitting related to the muon line. The corresponding contribution amounts to (Z 2 a) (Za) (m/M) (9/2 ζ(3) - 3π 2 ln 2 + 39/8) in units of the Fermi hyperfine splitting energy. A complete analytic result for all radiative-recoil corrections is also presented

  6. The study of the ion-crystal interaction by using the blocking technique for scattered recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the orientation effects observed in the fast heavy ion irradiated diamond, Si and Ge crystals by recording recoil nuclei. The volume capture of medium-weight nuclei to channeling has first been revealed and studied. Ion damaging power is systematized and the anomalously low damaging power is Xe ions is established. 18 refs.; 9 figs

  7. Electrochemical etching amplification of low-let recoil particle tracks in polymers for fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1975-11-01

    An electrochemical etching method for the amplification of fast-neutron-induced recoil particle tracks in polymers was investigated. The technique gave superior results over those obtained by conventional etching methods especially when polycarbonate foils were used for recoil particle track amplification. Electrochemical etching systems capable of multi-foil processing were designed and constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the techniques for large-scale neutron dosimetry. Electrochemical etching parameters were studied including the nature or type of the polymer foil used, foil thickness and its effect on etching time, the applied voltage and its frequency, the chemical composition, concentration, and temperature of the etchant, distance and angle between the electrodes, and the type of particles such as recoil particles including protons. Recoil particle track density, mean track diameter, and optical density as functions of the mentioned parameters were determined. Each parameter was found to have a distinct effect on the etching results in terms of the measured responses. Several new characteristics of this fast neutron dosimetry method were studied especially for personnel dosimetry using various radiation sources such as nuclear reactors, medical cyclotrons, and isotopic neutron sources. The dose range, neutron energy dependence, directional response, fading characteristics, neutron threshold energy, etc. were investigated

  8. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-01

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the Δ + background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  9. Water droplet spreading and recoiling upon contact with thick-compact maltodextrin agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz-Torres, Lesvia Sofía; Quintanilla-Carvajal, María Ximena; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Alamilla-Beltrán, Liliana; Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F

    2011-11-01

    The food and pharmaceutical industries handle a number of compounds in the form of agglomerates which must be put into contact with water for rehydration purposes. In this work, liquid-solid interaction between water and maltodextrin thick-compact agglomerates was studied at different constituent particle sizes for two compression forces (75 and 225 MPa). Rapid droplet spreading was observed which was similar in radius to the expected one for ideal, flat surfaces. Contact angle determinations reported oscillations of this parameter throughout the experiments, being indicative of droplet recoiling on top of the agglomerate. Recoiling was more frequent in samples obtained at 225 MPa for agglomerate formation. Agglomerates obtained at 75 MPa exhibited more penetration of the water. Competition between dissolution of maltodextrin and penetration of the water was, probably, the main mechanism involved in droplet recoiling. Micrographs of the wetting marks were characterized by means of image analysis and the measurements suggested more symmetry of the wetting mark at higher compression force. Differences found in the evaluated parameters for agglomerates were mainly due to compaction force used. No significant effect of particle size in recoiling, penetration of water into the agglomerate, surface texture and symmetry was observed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Nuclear recoil scintillation and ionisation yields in liquid xenon from ZEPLIN-III data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M., E-mail: m.horn@imperial.ac.uk [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Belov, V.A.; Akimov, D.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Araujo, H.M. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Barnes, E.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Burenkov, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chepel, V. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Currie, A. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Edwards, B. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kalmus, G.E. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Kobyakin, A.S.; Kovalenko, A.G. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedenko, V.N. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lindote, A. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Lopes, M.I. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Luescher, R.; Majewski, P. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Murphy, A.StJ. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-24

    Scintillation and ionisation yields for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon above 10 keV{sub nr} (nuclear recoil energy) are deduced from data acquired using broadband Am-Be neutron sources. The nuclear recoil data from several exposures to two sources were compared to detailed simulations. Energy-dependent scintillation and ionisation yields giving acceptable fits to the data were derived. Efficiency and resolution effects are treated using a light collection Monte Carlo, measured photomultiplier response profiles and hardware trigger studies. A gradual fall in scintillation yield below {approx}40 keV{sub nr} is found, together with a rising ionisation yield; both are in agreement with the latest independent measurements. The analysis method is applied to the most recent ZEPLIN-III data, acquired with a significantly upgraded detector and a precision-calibrated Am-Be source, as well as to the earlier data from the first run in 2008. A new method for deriving the recoil scintillation yield, which includes sub-threshold S1 events, is also presented which confirms the main analysis.

  11. Controllability analysis and testing of a novel magnetorheological absorber for field gun recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qing; Zheng, Jiajia; Li, Zhaochun; Hu, Ming; Wang, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of combined working coils of magnetorheological (MR) absorber on the shock mitigation performance and verify the controllability of MR absorber as applied in the recoil system of a field gun. A physical scale model of the field gun is established and a long-stroke MR recoil absorber with four-stage parallel electromagnetic coils is designed to apply separate current to each stage and generate variable magnetic field distribution in the annular flow channel. Based on dynamic analysis and firing stability conditions of the field gun, ideal recoil force-stroke profiles of MR absorber at different limiting firing angles are obtained. The experimental studies are carried out on an impact test rig under different combinations of current loading: conventional unified control mode, separate control mode and timing control mode. The fullness degree index (FDI) is defined as the quantitative evaluation criterion of the controllability of MR absorber during the whole recoil motion. The results show that the force-stroke profile of the novel MR absorber can approach the ideal curve within 25 degrees of the limiting firing angle through judicious exploitation of the adjustable rheological properties of MR fluid.

  12. On the limitations introduced by energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2001-01-01

    Improvements in experimental techniques have led to monolayer depth resolution in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). Evaluation of the spectra, however, is not trivial. The spectra, using even the best experimental set-up, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. A proper account for energy spread is necessary to extract the correct depth profile from the measured spectra. With calculation of the correct energy (or depth) resolution of a given method, one can decide in advance whether or not the method will resolve details of interest in the depth profile. To achieve the best depth resolution, it is also possible to find optimum parameters for the experiments. The limitations introduced by the energy spread effects are discussed. An example for simulation is shown for high energy resolution HI-ERDA measurements. Satisfactory agreement between the simulated and the measured HI-ERDA spectra taken by 60 MeV 127 I 23+ ions on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite (HOPG) sample is found, in spite of the non-equilibrium charge state of the recoils and the difference in the stopping powers caused by the given charge state of the incident ion and the recoil, which are not taken into account. To achieve more precise data evaluation these effects should be included in simulation codes, or all the subspectra corresponding to different recoils charge states should be measured and summed

  13. On the limitations introduced by energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E. E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kfki.hu

    2001-07-01

    Improvements in experimental techniques have led to monolayer depth resolution in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). Evaluation of the spectra, however, is not trivial. The spectra, using even the best experimental set-up, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. A proper account for energy spread is necessary to extract the correct depth profile from the measured spectra. With calculation of the correct energy (or depth) resolution of a given method, one can decide in advance whether or not the method will resolve details of interest in the depth profile. To achieve the best depth resolution, it is also possible to find optimum parameters for the experiments. The limitations introduced by the energy spread effects are discussed. An example for simulation is shown for high energy resolution HI-ERDA measurements. Satisfactory agreement between the simulated and the measured HI-ERDA spectra taken by 60 MeV {sup 127}I{sup 23+} ions on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite (HOPG) sample is found, in spite of the non-equilibrium charge state of the recoils and the difference in the stopping powers caused by the given charge state of the incident ion and the recoil, which are not taken into account. To achieve more precise data evaluation these effects should be included in simulation codes, or all the subspectra corresponding to different recoils charge states should be measured and summed.

  14. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.; Will, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    We present formulae and numerical results for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies (''gravitational bremsstrahlung''). Our results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. We discuss in detail the gravitational waveform (transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation tensor), the toal luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy (antenna pattern), and the frequency spectrum. We also present a method of ''boosting'' the accuracy of these quantities to post-3/2-Newtonian order. A numerical comparison of our results with those of Peters and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post-Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1% at v=0.1c, to a few percent at v=0.35c, and to 10--20% at v=0.5c. We also compare our results with those of Smarr

  16. Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.

  17. Gravitational Waves and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Biermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that dark energy is gravitational waves may explain its strength and its time-evolution. A possible concept is that dark energy is the ensemble of coherent bursts (solitons of gravitational waves originally produced when the first generation of super-massive black holes was formed. These solitons get their initial energy as well as keep up their energy density throughout the evolution of the universe by stimulating emission from a background, a process which we model by working out this energy transfer in a Boltzmann equation approach. New Planck data suggest that dark energy has increased in strength over cosmic time, supporting the concept here. The transit of these gravitational wave solitons may be detectable. Key tests include pulsar timing, clock jitter and the radio background.

  18. Exclusive {rho}{sup 0} production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-15

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  19. Gravitational-wave mediated preheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Stephon [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cormack, Sam, E-mail: samuel.c.cormack.gr@dartmouth.edu [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Marcianò, Antonino [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics & Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Yunes, Nicolás [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-04-09

    We propose a new preheating mechanism through the coupling of the gravitational field to both the inflaton and matter fields, without direct inflaton–matter couplings. The inflaton transfers power to the matter fields through interactions with gravitational waves, which are exponentially enhanced due to an inflation–graviton coupling. One such coupling is the product of the inflaton to the Pontryagin density, as in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity. The energy scales involved are constrained by requiring that preheating happens fast during matter domination.

  20. Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests

  1. Linear interaction of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the linearized Einstein equations written in the same form as Maxwell equations, a damping term is found in the wave equation. The analogy with the propagation of the electromagnetic wave in ohmic media is obvious if we introduce an 'ohmic relation' for gravitational interaction. The possibility of the amplification of gravitational waves by a suitable choice of the velocity field of a dust ('dust with negative viscosity'), for example by the use of the free-electron laser principle, is indicated. (Author)

  2. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, G. E-mail: losurdo@galileo.pi.infn.it

    2000-05-01

    The interferometric detectors of gravitational waves (GW) (such as VIRGO and LIGO) will search for events in a frequency band within a few Hz and a few kHz, where several sources are expected to emit. In this talk we outline briefly the current theoretical knowledge on the emission of GW in events such as the coalescence of compact binaries, the gravitational collapse, the spinning of a neutron stars. Expected amplitudes are compared with the target sensitivity of the VIRGO/LIGO interferometric detectors.

  3. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  4. General relativity and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johanna

    1961-01-01

    An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta

  5. Constraints on the Nature of CID-42: Recoil Kick or Supermassive Black Hole Pair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsecscale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity approximately greater than 1300 km s(exp -1). Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk approximately greater than 2000 km s(exp -1)). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton-thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad and narrow line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  6. The 'gravitating' tensor in the dualistic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanta, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    The exact microscopic system of Einstein-type field equations of the dualistic gravitation theory is investigated as well as an analysis of the modified energy-momentum tensor or so called 'gravitating' tensor is presented

  7. The Theory of Vortical Gravitational Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats of vortical gravitational fields, a tensor of which is the rotor of the general covariant gravitational inertial force. The field equations for a vortical gravitational field (the Lorentz condition, the Maxwell-like equations, and the continuity equation are deduced in an analogous fashion to electrodynamics. From the equations it is concluded that the main kind of vortical gravitational fields is “electric”, determined by the non-stationarity of the acting gravitational inertial force. Such a field is a medium for traveling waves of the force (they are different to the weak deformation waves of the space metric considered in the theory of gravitational waves. Standing waves of the gravitational inertial force and their medium, a vortical gravitational field of the “magnetic” kind, are exotic, since a non-stationary rotation of a space body (the source of such a field is a very rare phenomenon in the Universe.

  8. Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.

  9. Discovery of two new gravitation lens systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of new quasar and radio galaxy double images produced by the gravitation lens effect is reported. The light deflecting galaxies acting as gravitational lenses could be made visible by means of image processing procedures

  10. Parametric mechanisms for detecting gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovoit, V.I.; Chernozatonskii, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    An intense electromagnetic wave and a gravitational wave can interact to effectively generate electromagnetic waves at sum and difference frequencies. The self-effect of a monochromatic electromagnetic wave through a gravitational field leads to third-harmonic generation

  11. Resonant-bar gravitational radiation antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of gravitational radiation, and describes the worldwide research programme for the development of high-sensitivity resonant-bar antennas which are aimed at detecting gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources. (author)

  12. Gravitational states of antihydrogen near material surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronin, Alexei Yu., E-mail: dr.a.voronin@gmail.com [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Froelich, Piotr [Uppsala University, Department of Quantum Chemistry (Sweden); Nesvizhevsky, Valery V. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) (France)

    2012-12-15

    We present a theoretical study of the motion of antihydrogen atoms in the Earth's gravitational field near a material surface. We predict the existence of long-living quasistationary states of antihydrogen in a superposition of the gravitational and Casimir-van der Waals potentials of the surface. We suggest an interferometric method of measuring the energy difference between such gravitational states, hence the gravitational mass of antihydrogen.

  13. Gravitational wave reception by a sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, N.; Dreitlein, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reception of gravitational waves by an elastic self-gravitating spherical detector is studied in detail. The equations of motion of a detector driven by a gravitational wave are presented in the intuitively convenient coordinate system of Fermi. An exact analytic solution is given for the homogeneous isotropic sphere. Nonlinear effects of a massive self-gravitating system are computed for a body of mass equal to that of the earth, and are shown to be numerically important

  14. Vector-tensor interaction of gravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuan-zhong; Guo han-ying

    1982-11-01

    In the paper, by using the equation of motion a particle, we show that the antigravity exist in the vector-tensor model of gravitation. Thus the motion of a particle deviates from the geodesic equation. In Newtonian approximation and weak gravitational field, acceleration of a particle in a spherically symmetric and astatic gravitation field is zero. The result is obviously not in agreement with gravitational phenomena.

  15. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna; DECIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Ikkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...

  16. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Iklkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...

  17. Effect of the Earth's gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves in theories of gravitation based on a pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We analyze the effects due to the Earth's gravitational field on the propagation velocities of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in these theories. Experiments to test the predictions of this class of theories are discussed

  18. Plausibility Arguments and Universal Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ricardo F. F.; Tort, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Newton's law of universal gravitation underpins our understanding of the dynamics of the Solar System and of a good portion of the observable universe. Generally, in the classroom or in textbooks, the law is presented initially in a qualitative way and at some point during the exposition its mathematical formulation is written on the blackboard…

  19. Scientific visualization of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallon, M.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts related to gravitational lenses are discussed and applied to develop an interactive visualization tool that allow us to investigate them. Optimization strategies were performed to elaborate the tool. Some results obtained from the application of the tool are shown [es

  20. Wilson loops in Kerr gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.

    1981-01-01

    The ordered integrals for several paths in Kerr gravitation is computed in a compact form. When the path is closed its relation with the angular parallel displacement is discussed and the corresponding Wilson loop is calculated. The validity of Mandelstam relations for gauge fields is also explicitly verified. (Author) [pt

  1. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  2. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...

  3. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  4. Detailed Characterization of Nuclear Recoil Pulse Shape Discrimination in the Darkside-50 Direct Dark Matter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludert, Erin Edkins

    While evidence of non-baryonic dark matter has been accumulating for decades, its exact nature continues to remain a mystery. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a well motivated candidate which appear in certain extensions of the Standard Model, independently of dark matter theory. If such particles exist, they should occasionally interact with particles of normal matter, producing a signal which may be detected. The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter experiment aims to detect the energy of recoiling argon atoms due to the elastic scattering of postulated WIMPs. In order to make such a discovery, a clear understanding of both the background and signal region is essential. This understanding requires a careful study of the detector's response to radioactive sources, which in turn requires such sources may be safely introduced into or near the detector volume and reliably removed. The CALibration Insertaion System (CALIS) was designed and built for this purpose in a joint effort between Fermi National Laboratory and the University of Hawaii. This work describes the design and testing of CALIS, its installation and commissioning at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and the multiple calibration campaigns which have successfully employed it. As nuclear recoils produced by WIMPs are indistinguishable from those produced by neutrons, radiogenic neutrons are both the most dangerous class of background and a vital calibration source for the study of the potential WIMP signal. Prior to the calibration of DarkSide-50 with radioactive neutron sources, the acceptance region was determined by the extrapolation of nuclear recoil data from a separate, dedicated experiment, ScENE, which measured the distribution of the pulse shape discrimination parameter, f 90, for nuclear recoils of known energies. This work demonstrates the validity of the extrapolation of ScENE values to DarkSide-50, by direct comparison of the f90 distribution of nuclear recoils from Sc

  5. Spinor approach to gravitational motion and precession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, D.

    1986-01-01

    The translational and rotational equations of motion for a small rigid body in a gravitational field are combined in a single spinor equation. Besides its computational advantages, this unifies the description of gravitational interaction in classical and quantum theory. Explicit expressions for gravitational precession rates are derived. (author)

  6. On black holes and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loinger, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.

  7. Detecting gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational waves emitted by neutron stars carry unique information about their structure and composition. Direct detection of these gravitational waves, however, is a formidable technical challenge. In a recent study we quantified the hurdles facing searches for gravitational waves from the

  8. Recoil-proton polarization in πp elastic scattering at 547 and 625 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.; Adrian, S.D.; Briscoe, W.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Taragin, M.F.; Sadler, M.E.; Barlow, D.B.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Pillai, C.

    1989-01-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton in π + p and π - p elastic scattering using a liquid-hydrogen target has been measured for backward angles at 547 and 625 MeV/c. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the large-acceptance spectrometer to detect and analyze the momentum of the pions and the JANUS polarimeter to identify and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment agree with other measurements of the recoil polarization, with analyzing-power data previously taken by this group, and with predictions of partial-wave analyses

  9. Photoproduction of pions on nuclear in chiral bag model with account of motion effects of recoil nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kanokov, Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.; Rakhimov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Pion production on a nucleon is studied in the chiral bag model (CBM). A CBM version is investigated in which the pions get into the bag and interact with quarks in a pseudovector way in the entire volume. Charged pion photoproduction amplitudes are found taking into account the recoil nucleon motion effects. Angular and energy distributions of charged pions, polarization of the recoil nucleon, multipoles are calculated. The recoil effects are shon to give an additional contribution to the static approximation of order of 10-20%. At bag radius value R=1 in the calculations are consistent with the experimental data

  10. Modeling and Measurement of 39Ar Recoil Loss From Biotite as a Function of Grain Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, J. H.; Nomade, S.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The call for age measurements with less than 1 per mil error puts a demand upon geochronologists to be aware of and quantify a number of problems which were previously negligible. One such factor is 39Ar recoil loss during sample irradiation, a phenomenon which is widely assumed to affect only unusually small crystals having exceptionally high surface/volume ratios. This phenomenon has important implications for thermochronologic studies seeking to exploit a range of closure temperatures arising from variable diffusion radii. Our study focuses on biotite, in which spatial isotope distributions cannot be reliably recovered by stepwise heating and which therefore lack recoil-diagnostic age spectrum behavior. Previous work by Renne et al. [Application of a deuteron-deuteron (D-D) neutron generator to 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, in press] used the SRIM code to calculate a ˜20% 39Ar recoil loss from the outermost 0.25 μ m of an infinite slab of phyllosillicate. This result is applied to measured grains of the biotite standard GA1550, a hypabyssal granite from the Mount Dromedary Complex, Australia. We measure the thickness and surface area of 166 grains and approximate the shape of each grain as a cylinder. Grain thickness ranges from 3 to 210 μ m, with an average grain radius of 350 μ m. We predict the amount of 39Ar recoil loss from each grain, finding an expected age error >0.1 % for grains thinner than 150 μ m, a >1% error for grain less than 10 μ m thick, and up to a 3% error for grains less than 3 μ m thick. These modeling results will be tested by analysis of the measured grains after irradiation in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. It is important to either account for 39Ar loss in thin biotite grains, or use sufficiently thick ones so that recoil loss is negligible. Our results indicate that only biotite grains thicker than 150 μ m should be used for neutron fluence monitoring in order to avoid bias greater than the

  11. Gravitational wave signals and cosmological consequences of gravitational reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artymowski, Michał; Czerwińska, Olga; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2018-04-01

    Reheating after inflation can proceed even if the inflaton couples to Standard Model (SM) particles only gravitationally. However, particle production during the transition between de-Sitter expansion and a decelerating Universe is rather inefficient and the necessity to recover the visible Universe leads to a non-standard cosmological evolution initially dominated by remnants of the inflaton field. We remain agnostic to the specific dynamics of the inflaton field and discuss a generic scenario in which its remnants behave as a perfect fluid with a general barotropic parameter w. Using CMB and BBN constraints we derive the allowed range of inflationary scales. We also show that this scenario results in a characteristic primordial Gravitational Wave (GW) spectrum which gives hope for observation in upcoming runs of LIGO as well as in other planned experiments.

  12. Measurement of gravitational acceleration of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S.

    1989-12-01

    The minute yet effective impact of gravitational potential in the central region of a long tube magnetic container of non-neutral plasmas can be utilized for the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter particles. The slight change in distribution of plasma particles along the gravitational field affects the internal electric field of the plasma, which in turn affects the frequency of the magnetron motion of its particles. Thus, a rather straightforward relation is established between the gravitational acceleration of the particles and their magnetron frequencies, which is measurable directly, determining the value of the gravitational acceleration. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  13. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, S; Seto, N; Sato, S; Arai, K; Ando, M; Tsubono, K; Agatsuma, K; Akutsu, T; Akutsu, T; Arase, Y; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Funaki, I; Takashima, T; Numata, K; Ioka, K; Kanda, N; Aoyanagi, Koh-Suke; Araya, A; Asada, H

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO pathfinder first to demonstrate the technologies required to realize DECIGO and, if possible, to detect gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies

  14. Development of a digital trigger system to identify recoil protons at COMPASS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The GANDALF framework has been developed to deliver a high precision, high performance detector readout and trigger system for particle physics experiments such as the COMPASS-II experiment at CERN. Combining the high performance pulse digitization and feature extraction capabilities of twelve GANDALF modules, each comprising a Virtex-5 SX95T, with the strong computation power of a Virtex-6 SX315T FGPA operated on the TIGER module, we present a digital trigger system for a recoil proton detector. The trigger system was setup and commissioned successfully during a data taking period in 2012. It was mainly used for the calibration of the recoil proton detector and in tagging mode to identify proton tracks online.

  15. Boiling crisis as inhibition of bubble detachment by the vapor recoil force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, V.S.; Beysens, D.; Garrabos, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. In this communication we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Our numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth at high heat fluxes show how the bubble begins to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes the vapor spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further bubble spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. Under such conditions, we observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble, thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis. (authors)

  16. Direct mass measurements of light neutron-rich nuclei using fast recoil spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive new mass measurement capabilities have evolved with the development of recoil spectrometers. In the Z = 3 to 9 neutron-rich region alone, 12 neutron-rich nuclei have been determined for the first time by the fast-recoil direct mass measurement method. A recent experiment using the TOFI spectrometer illustrates this technique. A systematic investigation of nuclei that lie along or near the neutron-drip line has provided a valuable first glimpse into the nuclear structure of such nuclei. No evidence for a large single-particle energy gap at N = 14 is observed; however, a change in the two-neutron separation model calculations, and is interpreted in terms of the smaller 1s/sub 1/2/ - 1s/sub 1/2/ interaction compared to that of the 0d/sub 5/2/ - 0d/sub 5/2/ neutron-neutron interaction. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Optimizing recoil-isomer tagging with the Argonne fragment mass analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnsworthy, A.B.; Lister, C.J.; Regan, P.H.; Blank, B.B.; Cullen, I.J.; Gros, S.; Henderson, D.J.; Jones, G.A.; Liu, Z.; Seweryniak, D.; Shumard, B.R.; Thompson, N.J.; Williams, S.J.; Zhu, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new focal plane detector arrangement for the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) has been built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. This set-up is particularly sensitive for performing Recoil-Isomer Tagging on nuclei with isomeric states with lifetimes in the microsecond range. Recoiling nuclei from fusion-evaporation reactions at the target position are dispersed by their ratio of mass to charge (A/q) by the FMA and stopped in low pressure gas (air) at the focal plane. Subsequent gamma decays from isomeric states in the reaction products are observed using Ge detectors. A constant gas flow through the focal plane chamber efficiently removes longer-lived beta-decaying species from sight of the detectors. This set-up has been commissioned successfully with the microsecond isomer in 80 Rb, populated via the 52 Cr( 32 S, 3pn) reaction at 135 MeV

  18. Lifetime measurements using the recoil distance method—achievements and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.

    2001-07-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for measuring pico-second nuclear level lifetimes and its use in nuclear structure studies is reviewed and perspectives for the future are presented. High precision measurements in the mass-130 region, studies of multi-phonon states in rare earth nuclei, the investigation of shape coexistence and the recently discovered phenomenon of "magnetic rotation" are reviewed. Prospects for lifetime measurements in exotic regions of nuclei such as the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei populated via spontaneous and heavy-ion induced fission are discussed. Other prospects include the use of the RDM technique in conjunction with recoil separators. The relevance of these techniques for experiments with radioactive ion beams will be discussed.

  19. The morphology of collision cascades as a function of recoil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.

    1989-09-01

    An analytical method based on defect densities has been devised to determine the threshold energies for subcascade formation in computer simulated collision cascades. Cascades generated with the binary collision code MARLOWE in Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Fe, Mo and W were analyzed to determine the threshold energy for subcascade formation, the number of subcascades per recoil per unit energy and the average spacing of subcascades. Compared on the basis of reduced damage energy, metals of the same crystal structure have subcascade thresholds at the same reduced energy. The number of subcascades per unit reduced damage energy is about the same for metals of the same crystal structure, and the average spacing of subcascades is about the same in units of lattice parameters. Comparisons between subcascade threshold energies and average recoil energies in fission and fusion neutron environments show the spectral sensitivity of the formation of subcascades

  20. Coincident Auger electron and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for low-energy ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, G. E-mail: glaurent@ganil.fr; Tarisien, M.; Flechard, X.; Jardin, P.; Guillaume, L.; Sobocinski, P.; Adoui, L.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Lienard, E.; Maunoury, L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cassimi, A

    2003-05-01

    The recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) method combined with the detection of Auger electrons has been used successfully to analyse double electron capture following O{sup 6+} + He collisions at low impact velocities. Although RIMS and Auger spectroscopies are known to be efficient tools to obtain details on the primary processes occurring during the collision, the conjunction of both techniques provides new insights on the electron capture process. In the present experiment, triple coincidence detection of the scattered projectile, the target recoil ion and the Auger electron allows for a precise identification of the doubly excited states O{sup 4+} (1s{sup 2}nln{sup '}l{sup '}) populated after double electron-capture events.

  1. Implantation of 111In in NTDSi by heavy ion recoil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakare, S.V.; Tomar, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy ion recoil implantation technique has been used to implant 111 In in n-type silicon using medium energy heavy ion accelerator Pelletron, at TIFR, Colaba, Mumbai. The nuclear reaction used for this purpose was 109 Ag( 7 Li,p4n) 111 In. The beam energy was optimised to be 50 MeV for maximum concentration of the implanted probe atoms. The gamma-ray spectrum of the implanted sample after 24 hours was found to contain only 171 and 245 keV gamma rays of 111 In. The penetration depth of ion is increased to 1.6 μm by heavy ion recoil implantation technique as compared to 0.16 μm with the conventional ion implantation technique. (author)

  2. Multivariate analysis method for energy calibration and improved mass assignment in recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bouanani, Mohamed; Hult, Mikael; Persson, Leif; Swietlicki, Erik; Andersson, Margaretha; Oestling, Mikael; Lundberg, Nils; Zaring, Carina; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, Nick; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F.; Whitlow, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion recoil spectrometry is rapidly becoming a well established analysis method, but the associated data analysis processing is still not well developed. The pronounced nonlinear response of silicon detectors for heavy ions leads to serious limitation and complication in mass gating, which is the principal factor in obtaining energy spectra with minimal cross talk between elements. To overcome the above limitation, a simple empirical formula with an associated multiple regression method is proposed for the absolute energy calibration of the time of flight-energy dispersive detector telescope used in recoil spectrometry. A radical improvement in mass assignment was realized, which allows a more accurate and improved depth profiling with the important feature of making the data processing much easier. ((orig.))

  3. A new sliding joint to accommodate recoil of a free-piston-driven expansion tube facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildfind, D. E.; Morgan, R. G.

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes a new device to decouple free-piston driver recoil and its associated mechanical vibration from the acceleration tube and test section of The University of Queensland's X3 expansion tube. A sliding joint is introduced to the acceleration tube which axially decouples the facility at this station. When the facility is fired, the upstream section of the facility, which includes the free-piston driver, can recoil upstream freely. The downstream acceleration tube remains stationary. This arrangement provides two important benefits. Firstly, it eliminates nozzle movement relative to the test section before and during the experiment. This has benefits in terms of experimental setup and alignment. Secondly, it prevents transmission of mechanical disturbances from the free-piston driver to the acceleration tube, thereby eliminating mechanically-induced transducer noise in the sensitive pressure transducers installed in this low-pressure tube. This paper details the new design, and presents experimental confirmation of its performance.

  4. Chemical reactions of recoil atoms and thermal atoms of tritium with haloid benzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simirskij, Yu.N.; Firsova, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiochemical yields have been determined for the products of substitution of hydrogen atoms and halides in Cl-, Br-, and I-benzenes with tritium atoms obtained during thermal dissociation of T 2 and with recoil atoms T arising in nuclear reaction 6 Li(n, P)T. It is shown that in the series of Cl-, Br-, and I-benzenes yields of the products of substitution of halides atoms with tritium grow, whereas those of hydrogen atom substitution change only little. The correlation nature of the yields of substitution products of halide atoms with tritium remains constant in a wide range of the initial kinetic energies of T atoms for the recoil atoms with E 0 =2.7 MeV and for the completely thermolized atoms during thermal dissociation of T 2

  5. Thin film analysis by instrumental heavy ion activation analysis using distributed recoil ranges of isotopic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thin foils (0.1 to 10 μm), metallic or polymeric, are frequently used in nuclear physics and chemistry experiments using ion beams from an accelerator. Very often it is important to know the major, minor and trace element composition of the foil. Several nuclear analytical techniques, namely RBS, ERDA, etc. are available for the near surface analysis. We have applied heavy ion activation analysis (HIAA) to explore the bulk composition of thin films. One of the difficulties in this method of thin film analysis is that the product nuclides from nuclear reaction come out of the sample surface due to high recoil energy. In thick sample, the recoiled nuclides are absorbed in the sample itself. This effect has been used to employ heavy ion activation for the analysis of thin films

  6. Recoil halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, L.J.; Blotcky, A.J.; Firouzbakht, M.L.; Rack, E.P.; Nebraska Univ., Omaha

    1982-01-01

    Reactions of recoil 38 Cl, 80 Br and 128 I have been studied in crystalline systems of 5-halouracil, 5-halo-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-halouridine as well as liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of these halogenated biomolecules. In all systems expect crystalline 5-iuodouracil the major product was the radio-labelled halide ion. There was no evidence for other halogen inorganic species. The major labelled organic product was the parent molecule. A recoil atom tracer technique was developed to acquire site information of the biomolecule solutes in the liquid and frozen aqueous systems. For all liquid and frozen aqueous systems, the halogenated biomolecules tended to aggregate. For liquid systems, the tendency for aggregation diminished as the solute concentration approached zero, where the probable state of the solute approached a monomolecular dispersion. Unlike the liquid state, the frozen ice lattice demonstated a ''caging effect'' for the solute aggregates which resulted in constant product yields over the whole concentration range. (orig.)

  7. Velocity dependence of enhanced dynamic hyperfine field for Pd ions swiftly recoiling in magnetized Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, G.C.; Bolotin, H.H.; Sie, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity-dependence of the magnitude of the enchanced dynamic hyperfine magnetic field (EDF) manifest at nuclei of 108 Pd ions swiftly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe has been investigated at ion velocities higher than have heretofore been examined for the heavier nuclides (i.e., at initial recoil velocities (v/Zv 0 )=0.090 and 0.160, v 0 =c/137). These results for 108 Pd, when taken in conjunction with those of prior similar measurements for 106 Pd at lower velocities, and fitted to a velocity dependence for the EDF, give for the Pd isotopes over the extended velocity range 1.74 0 )<=7.02, p=0.41+-0.15; a result incompatible with previous attributions of a linear velocity dependence for the field

  8. Segmented detector for recoil neutrons in the p(γ, n)π+ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, E.; O'Rielly, G.V.; Hutcheon, D.A.; Feldman, G.; Jordan, D.; Kolb, N.R.; Pywell, R.E.; Retzlaff, G.A.; Sawatzky, B.D.; Skopik, D.M.; Vogt, J.M.; Cairns, E.; Giesen, U.; Holm, L.; Opper, A.K.; Rozon, F.M.; Soukup, J.

    1999-01-01

    A segmented neutron detector has been constructed and used for recoil neutron (6-13 MeV) measurements of the reaction γp→nπ + very close to threshold. BC-505 liquid scintillator was used to allow pulse shape discrimination between neutrons and photons. A measurement of the absolute efficiency of the detector was performed using stopped pions in the reaction π - p→nγ. Results of the efficiency calibration are compared to a Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  9. Analysis of a Compressible Fluid Soft Recoil (CFSR) Concept Applied to a 155 MM Howitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    Nitrile or Buna-N ( NBR ) rubber with ’ backup rings of nylotron. HITRILE NVLOTRON Piston seals An unresolved problem is that the coefficient of...fluid at atmospheric pressure Poisson’s ratio for Nitrile rubber dynamic coefficient of friction for rubber mass of recoiling parts weight of...Greene, tweed 5 Co. Palmetto catalog.) 43 [i^ - 0.50 = coefficient of friction (An approximate figure for rubber supplied by RIA Rubber

  10. Recoil detector test for the day-one experiment at HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, 730000 Lanzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Xu, Huagen; Ritman, James [Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The proposed day-one experiment at HESR is a dedicated measurement of antiproton-proton elastic scattering. The aim of the day-one experiment is to determine the elastic differential parameters (total cross section σ{sub T}, the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude ρ, and the slope parameter B) by measuring a large range of 4-momentum transfer squared t (0.0008-0.1 GeV{sup 2}). The conceptual design of the day-one experiment is to measure the elastic scattered antiproton and recoil proton, by a tracking detector in the small polar angle range and by an energy detector near 90 , respectively. The recoil arm covers a maximum polar angle range from 71 to 90 and consists of two silicon strip detectors (76.8(length) x 50.0(width) x 1.0(thickness) mm{sup 3}) and two germanium detectors (80.4(length) x 50.0(width) x 5.0 (11.0) (thickness) mm{sup 3}). All detectors are single sided structure with 1.2 mm pitch. The silicon detectors will be used to detect recoil protons with energy up to about 12 MeV and the germanium detectors will be used to detect protons with energy from 12 MeV to 60 MeV. At present, one recoil arm is being constructed and the test for the detectors with radioactive sources is on-going. Preliminary test results indicate that all detectors are operational and work properly. The latest test results of these detectors are presented.

  11. Automation of the helium jet transport system for nuclear recoil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, Luis F.; Pedrosa, Paulo S.

    1996-09-01

    A computer code and an interface hardware to automate the acquisition data and the sample changer in a helium jet transport system of recoil nucleus was developed for an IBM or compatible personal microcomputer. The software works with a Spectrum-ACE/ADCAM ORTEC's multichannel analysers and the interface card uses the 03EFh port to command the sample changer. This system allows to measure, by gamma spectrometry, radionuclides with half-lives of order of seconds produced from nuclear reactions. (author)

  12. Some aspects of the use of proton recoil proportional counters for fast neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, T.J.; Bennett, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-filled proton recoil proportional counters have been used extensively for the measurement of neutron spectra in degraded fission-spectrum environments. Some considerations relating to the use of these counters for personnel dosimetry are here described. High sensitivity and good accuracy in the determination of dose-equivalent can be obtained if relatively high pressure hydrogen-filled proportional counters are used as the active element in a dosimeter system

  13. Effect of pressure on the radiation annealing of recoil atoms in chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamouli, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the annealing of recoil atoms by gamma radiation in neutron irradiated potassium chromate, ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate was studied. In potassium chromate the pressure applied before the gamma-irradiation was found to retard the radiation annealing process. In ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate the radiation annealing was found to be enhanced in the compressed samples in comparison to the noncompressed ones. (author)

  14. Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: application to ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blieck, J.

    2008-10-01

    87 Rb atoms have been cooled, trapped and prepared as targets for collision studies with 2 and 5 keV Na + projectiles. The physics studied deals with charge exchange processes. The active electron, which is generally the most peripheral electron of the atomic target, is transferred from the target onto the ionic projectile. The ionized target is called recoil ion. The technique used to study this physics is the MOTRIMS (Magneto Optical Trap Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique, which combines a magneto optical trap and a recoil ion momentum spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for the measurement of the recoil ions momentum, which gives access to all the information of the collision: the Q-value (which is the potential energy difference of the active electron on each particle) and the scattering angle of the projectile. The trap provides extremely cold targets to optimize the measurement of the momentum, and to release the latter from thermal motion. Through cinematically complete experiments, the MOTRIMS technique gives access to better resolutions on momentum measurements. Measurements of differential cross sections in initial and final capture states and in scattering angle have been done. Results obtained for differential cross sections in initial and final states show globally a good agreement with theory and an other experiment. Nevertheless, discrepancies with theory and this other experiment are shown for the measurements of doubly differential cross sections. These discrepancies are not understood yet. The particularity of the experimental setup designed and tested in this work, namely a low background noise, allows a great sensitivity to weak capture channels, and brings a technical and scientific gain compared with previous works. (author)

  15. Taking account of the recoil effect under a light particle scattering on two heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresypkin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding from the Faddeev equations the derivation of the Bruekner formula describing a light particle scattering by a system of two fixed force centers is presented. Using the zero-range two-particle potential and assuming the ratio of the incident particle mass to the heavy particle mass to be a small perturbation parameter the correction to the Bruekner formula is obtained taking into account the heavy particle recoil

  16. Generalized equations of gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanyukovich, K.P.; Borisova, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Equations for gravitational fields are obtained on the basis of a generalized Lagrangian Z=f(R) (R is the scalar curvature). Such an approach permits to take into account the evolution of a gravitation ''constant''. An expression for the force Fsub(i) versus the field variability is obtained. Conservation laws are formulated differing from the standard ones by the fact that in the right part of new equations the value Fsub(i) is present that goes to zero at an ultimate passage to the standard Einstein theory. An equation of state is derived for cosmological metrics for a particular case, f=bRsup(1+α) (b=const, α=const)

  17. Gravitational lensing and extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X-G.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC; Joshi, G.C.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1999-08-01

    We study gravitational tensing and the bending of light in low energy scale (M s ) gravity theories with extra space-time dimensions 'n'. We find that due to the presence of spin-2 Kaluza-Klein states from compactification, a correction to the deflection angle with a strong quadratic dependence on the photon energy is introduced. No deviation from the Einstein General Relativity prediction for the deflection angle for photons grazing the Sun in the visible band with 15% accuracy (90% c.l.) implies that the scale M s has to be larger than 1.4(2/(n-2)) 1/4 TeV and approximately 4 TeV for n=2. This lower bound is comparable with that from collider physics constraints. Gravitational tensing experiments with higher energy photons can provide stronger constraints. (authors)

  18. New case of gravitational lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Magain, P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-10-22

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10/sup 11/ M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to ..delta..t approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO.

  19. Gravitating multidefects from higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Warped configurations admitting pairs of gravitating defects are analyzed. After devising a general method for the construction of multidefects, specific examples are presented in the case of higher-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The obtained profiles describe diverse physical situations such as (topological) kink-antikink systems, pairs of non-topological solitons and bound configurations of a kink and of a non-topological soliton. In all the mentioned cases the geometry is always well behaved (all relevant curvature invariants are regular) and tends to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time for large asymptotic values of the bulk coordinate. Particular classes of solutions can be generalized to the framework where the gravity part of the action includes, as a correction, the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet combination. After scrutinizing the structure of the zero modes, the obtained results are compared with conventional gravitating configurations containing a single topological defect.

  20. Magnetic tension and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsagas, Christos G

    2006-01-01

    The gravitational collapse of a magnetized medium is investigated by studying qualitatively the convergence of a timelike family of non-geodesic worldlines in the presence of a magnetic field. Focusing on the field's tension, we illustrate how the winding of the magnetic forcelines due to the fluid's rotation assists the collapse, while shear-like distortions in the distribution of the field's gradients resist contraction. We also show that the relativistic coupling between magnetism and geometry, together with the tension properties of the field, lead to a magneto-curvature stress that opposes the collapse. This tension stress grows stronger with increasing curvature distortion, which means that it could potentially dominate over the gravitational pull of the matter. If this happens, a converging family of non-geodesic worldlines can be prevented from focusing without violating the standard energy conditions

  1. Bayesian Inference on Gravitational Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bayesian approach is increasingly becoming popular among the astrophysics data analysis communities. However, the Pakistan statistics communities are unaware of this fertile interaction between the two disciplines. Bayesian methods have been in use to address astronomical problems since the very birth of the Bayes probability in eighteenth century. Today the Bayesian methods for the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves have solid theoretical grounds with a strong promise for the realistic applications. This article aims to introduce the Pakistan statistics communities to the applications of Bayesian Monte Carlo methods in the analysis of gravitational wave data with an  overview of the Bayesian signal detection and estimation methods and demonstration by a couple of simplified examples.

  2. Topological quantization of gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, Leonardo; Quevedo, Hernando

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the method of topological quantization for gravitational fields in a systematic manner. First we show that any vacuum solution of Einstein's equations can be represented in a principal fiber bundle with a connection that takes values in the Lie algebra of the Lorentz group. This result is generalized to include the case of gauge matter fields in multiple principal fiber bundles. We present several examples of gravitational configurations that include a gravitomagnetic monopole in linearized gravity, the C-energy of cylindrically symmetric fields, the Reissner-Nordstroem and the Kerr-Newman black holes. As a result of the application of the topological quantization procedure, in all the analyzed examples we obtain conditions implying that the parameters entering the metric in each case satisfy certain discretization relationships

  3. Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.; Will, C.M.

    1977-07-01

    Formulae and numerical results are presented for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies. Results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. The gravitational waveform, the total luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy, and the frequency spectrum are discussed in detail. A method boosting the accuracy of these quantities to post Newtonian order is also presented. A numerical comparison of results with those of Peters, and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1 percent at v = 0.1 c, to a few percent at v = 0.35 c, and to 10 to 20 percent at v = 0.5 c

  4. Gravitational waves and dragging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bičák, Jiří; Katz, Joseph; Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2008-08-01

    Linear and rotational dragging effects of gravitational waves on local inertial frames are studied in purely vacuum spacetimes. First, the linear dragging caused by a simple cylindrical pulse is investigated. Surprisingly strong transverse effects of the pulse are exhibited. The angular momentum in cylindrically symmetric spacetimes is then defined and confronted with some results in the literature. In the main part, a general procedure is developed for studying weak gravitational waves with translational but not axial symmetry which can carry angular momentum. After a suitable averaging the rotation of local inertial frames due to such rotating waves can be calculated explicitly and illustrated graphically. This is done in detail in the accompanying paper. Finally, the rotational dragging is given for strong cylindrical waves interacting with a rotating cosmic string with a small angular momentum.

  5. DVCS at HERMES. The recoil detector and transverse target spin asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.J.

    2008-02-15

    The HERMES experiment is a large forward angle spectrometer located at the HERA accelerator ring at DESY, Hamburg. One of the most exciting topics studied at HERMES is Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) which is the simplest interaction that provides a gateway for access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). GPDs are a theoretical framework which can be used to calculate the total angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon. As such, they provide one piece of the puzzle of nucleonic spin structure. In 2005, HERMES was upgraded in the target region with a Recoil Detector that allows it to make truly exclusive measurements of the DVCS interaction for the first time. The design and construction of the Recoil Detector is discussed herein, in addition to a complete analysis of the Transverse Target Spin Asymmetry (TTSA) in DVCS. Experimental facilities that enable measurement of this asymmetry are rare. The importance of the information on the TTSA from HERMES is made yet greater as the transversely polarised target that allows the asymmetry to be measured has been replaced by an unpolarised target. This was to allow the Recoil Detector to be installed. The final stage of this thesis shows a model-dependent method for constraining the angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon and speculates as to the other pieces of the spin puzzle. (orig.)

  6. DVCS at HERMES. The recoil detector and transverse target spin asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.J.

    2008-02-01

    The HERMES experiment is a large forward angle spectrometer located at the HERA accelerator ring at DESY, Hamburg. One of the most exciting topics studied at HERMES is Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) which is the simplest interaction that provides a gateway for access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). GPDs are a theoretical framework which can be used to calculate the total angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon. As such, they provide one piece of the puzzle of nucleonic spin structure. In 2005, HERMES was upgraded in the target region with a Recoil Detector that allows it to make truly exclusive measurements of the DVCS interaction for the first time. The design and construction of the Recoil Detector is discussed herein, in addition to a complete analysis of the Transverse Target Spin Asymmetry (TTSA) in DVCS. Experimental facilities that enable measurement of this asymmetry are rare. The importance of the information on the TTSA from HERMES is made yet greater as the transversely polarised target that allows the asymmetry to be measured has been replaced by an unpolarised target. This was to allow the Recoil Detector to be installed. The final stage of this thesis shows a model-dependent method for constraining the angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon and speculates as to the other pieces of the spin puzzle. (orig.)

  7. Role of the recoil effect in two-center interference in X-ray photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Liu, X.-J.; Pruemper, G.; Lischke, T.; Tanaka, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Minkov, I.; Kimberg, V.; Gel'mukhanov, F.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectra of the N 2 molecule are studied both experimentally and theoretically in the extended energy region up to 1 keV. The ratio of the photoionization cross sections for the gerade and ungerade core levels displays a modulation in the high energy region caused by the two-center interference, as predicted by Cohen and Fano (CF) in 1966. The physical background of this CF effect is the same as in Young's double-slit experiment. We have found that the interference pattern deviates significantly from the CF prediction. The origin of such a breakdown of the CF formula is the scattering of the photoelectron inside the molecule and the momentum transfer from the emitted fast photoelectron to the nuclei. Usually the recoil effect is small. We show that the electron recoil strongly affects the two-center interference pattern. Both stationary and dynamical aspects of the recoil effect shed light on the role of the momentum exchange in the two-center interference

  8. Accurate measurements of E2 lifetimes using the coincidence recoil-distance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, R. K.; Poletti, A. R.

    1984-05-01

    Mean lives of four E2 transitions in the (2s, 1d) shell have been measured using the recoil-distance method (RDM), γ-rays de-exciting the level of interest were detected in coincidence with particles detected in an annular detector at a backward angle thereby reducing the background and producing a beam of recoiling nuclei of well-defined energy and recoil direction. Lifetimes measured were: 22Ne, 1.275 MeV level (2 + → 0 +), 5.16±0.13 ps; 26Mg, 3.588 MeV level (0 + → 2 +), 9.29±0.23 ps; 30Si, 3.788 MeV level (0 +→ 2 +), 12.00±0.70 ps; 38Ar, 3.377 MeV level (0 + → 2 +), 34.5±1.5 ps. The present measurements are compared to those of previous investigators. For the 22Ne level, averaged results from four different measurement techniques are compared and found to be in good agreement. The experimental results are compared to shell-model calculations.

  9. Accurate measurements of E2 lifetimes using the coincidence recoil-distance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, R.K.; Poletti, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mean lives of four E2 transitions in the (2s, 1d) shell have been measured using the recoil-distance method (RDM). γ-rays de-exciting the level of interest were detected in coincidence with particles detected in an annular detector at a backward angle thereby reducing the background and producing a beam of recoiling nuclei of well-defined energy and recoil direction. Lifetimes measured were: 22 Ne, 1.275 MeV level (2 + -> 0 + ), 5.16 +- 0.13 ps; 26 Mg, 3.588 MeV level (0 + -> 2 + ), 9.29 +- 0.23 ps; 30 Si, 3.788 MeV level (0 + -> 2 + ), 12.00 +- 0.70 ps; 38 Ar, 3.377 MeV level (0 + -> 2 + ), 34.5 +- 1.5 ps. The present measurements are compared to those of previous investigators. For the 22 Ne level, averaged results from four different measurement techniques are compared and found to be in good agreement. The experimental results are compared to shell-model calculations. (orig.)

  10. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  11. Primary processes and ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.; Garmestani, K.; Boo, B.H.; Stewart, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry has permitted the elucidation of the chemistry of free atoms, and these include the polyvalent atoms of refractory group 14 elements, that is, carbon, silicon and germanium. Since no more than two bonds are formed normally in a single reactive collision of free atoms, the study on the chemistry of atoms like C, Si and Ge that require the formation of more than two bonds to saturate their chemical valence necessarily involves the study of reactive intermediates. By the studies on the chemistry of recoiling 31 Si atoms, the mechanistic conclusions reached are reported. The most important unanswered questions concerning the reaction of recoiling 31 Si atoms in the systems are shown, and progress has been made toward the answering. By using tetramethyl silane as a trapping agent for silicon ions, it has been established that the reaction of 31 Si ions contributes significantly to the formation of products in recoil systems. The studies by various researchers on this theme are reported. (K.I.)

  12. The HERMES recoil photon detector and the study of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, Charlotte van

    2011-03-15

    The study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) gives information about the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton. DVCS has been studied at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Here 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons were scattered off a gaseous proton target. For the analysis of DVCS the recoiling proton could not be detected, but was reconstructed via its missing mass. This method suffers, however, from a 14% background contribution, mainly originating from associated DVCS. In this process the proton does not stay in its ground state but is excited to a {delta}{sup +} resonance. In order to reduce the background contribution down to less than 1%, a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment beginning of 2006. This detector consists of three subcomponents, of which one is the photon detector. The main function of the photon detector is the detection of {delta}{sup +} decay photons. The photon detector was started up and commissioned for the analysis of (associated) DVCS. Subsequently DVCS and associated DVCS were analyzed using the recoil detector. (orig.)

  13. Properties enhancement and recoil loop characteristics for hot deformed nanocrystalline NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Hu, S. L.; Zhong, X. C.; Yu, H. Y.; Gao, X. X.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS followed by HD using melt spun ribbons as the starting materials. The microstructure of SPSed and HDed magnets were analyzed. The effects of process including temperature and compression ratio on the microstructure and properties were investigated. High magnetic properties were obtained in anisotropic HDed magnets. The combination of Zn and Dy additions was successfully employed to improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the SPSed magnets. Open recoil loops were found in these magnets with Nd-rich composition and without soft magnetic phase for the first time. The relationship between the recoil loops and microstructure for SPS and HD NdFeB magnets were investigated. The investigations showed that the magnetic properties of SPS+HDed magnets are related to the extent of the aggregation of Nd-rich phase, which was formed during HD due to existence of porosity in SPSed precursor. Large local demagnetization fields induced by the Nd-rich phase aggregation leads to the open loops and significantly reduced the coercivity. By reducing the recoil loop openness, the magnetic properties of HDed NdFeB magnets were successfully improved. (author)

  14. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis of optoelectronic and semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N; Cohen, D D [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Johnston, P; Walker, S [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Whitlow, H; Hult, M [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Oestling, M; Zaring, C [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil spectrometry (HIERDA) has been applied to analyse multi-phase, thin layer devices used in optoelectronics, semiconductors and solar power generation. HIERDA gives simultaneously, mass resolved elemental concentration vs depth profiles of the matrix constituents, and is particularly suited to the determination of light elements in a heavy matrix. The beam/target interaction process is similar to RBS, but has the difference that the recoiling target atoms are detected instead of the scattered projectile. High energy, heavy ions beams bombard the sample, ejecting recoil atoms which are detected at a forward angle of 45 deg. A time-of-flight and total energy detection system enables the ejected particle`s mass to be identified, and allows energy spectra to be obtained and interpreted in an analogous way to RBS, but with the important difference that the elemental spectra are separated, and not superimposed on a background as in RBS. Some of the measurements made with a HIERDA system on the ANTARES Tandem Accelerator at ANSTO are described. 1 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Velocity dependence of transient hyperfine field at Pt ions rapidly recoiling through magnetized Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, C.G.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The velocity-dependence of the transient hyperfine magnetic field acting at nuclei of 196 Pt ions rapidly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe was investigated at a number of recoil velocities. The state of interest (2 1 + ) was populated by Coulomb excitation using beams of 80- and 120-MeV 32 S and 150- and 220-MeV 58 Ni ions. The 2 1 + →0 1 + γ-ray angular distribution precession measurements were carried out in coincidence with backscattered projectiles. From these results, the strength of the transient field acting on Pt ions recoiling through magnetized Fe with average velocities in the extended range 2.14<=v/vsub(o)<=4.82 (vsub(o) = c/137) was found to be consistent with a linear velocity dependence and to be incompatible with the specific vsup(0.45+-0.18) dependence which has been previously reported to account well for all ions in the mass range from oxygen through samarium. This seemingly singular behaviour for Pt and other ions in the Pt mass vicinity is discussed

  16. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis of optoelectronic and semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Cohen, D.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Johnston, P.; Walker, S. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Whitlow, H.; Hult, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Oestling, M.; Zaring, C. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    In recent years, the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil spectrometry (HIERDA) has been applied to analyse multi-phase, thin layer devices used in optoelectronics, semiconductors and solar power generation. HIERDA gives simultaneously, mass resolved elemental concentration vs depth profiles of the matrix constituents, and is particularly suited to the determination of light elements in a heavy matrix. The beam/target interaction process is similar to RBS, but has the difference that the recoiling target atoms are detected instead of the scattered projectile. High energy, heavy ions beams bombard the sample, ejecting recoil atoms which are detected at a forward angle of 45 deg. A time-of-flight and total energy detection system enables the ejected particle`s mass to be identified, and allows energy spectra to be obtained and interpreted in an analogous way to RBS, but with the important difference that the elemental spectra are separated, and not superimposed on a background as in RBS. Some of the measurements made with a HIERDA system on the ANTARES Tandem Accelerator at ANSTO are described. 1 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-05-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)

  18. Recent results from the chemistry of recoiling carbon and silicon atoms: The interplay between hot atom chemistry and gas kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.; Garmestani, K.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Wolf, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results from the chemistry of recoiling carbon and silicon atoms illustrate the power of an experimental approach to the solution of complex mechanistic problems that combines the study of the reactions of recoiling atoms with conventional gas kinetic techniques. Included will be the reactions of 11 C atoms with anisole, addressing the question whether an aromatic pi-electron system can compete as a reactive site with carbon-hydrogen bonds

  19. On the gravitational constant change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukov, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    The nowadays viewpoint on the problem of G gravitational constant invariability is presented in brief. The methods and results of checking of the G dependence on the nature of substance (checking of the equivalence principle), G dependepce on distance (checking of Newton gravity law) and time (cosmological experiments) are presented. It is pointed out that all performed experiments don't give any reasons to have doubts in G constancy in space and time and G independence on the nature of the substance

  20. Galactic Structures from Gravitational Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the existence of a Noether symmetry in f ( R theories of gravity gives rise to an additional gravitational radius, besides the standard Schwarzschild one, determining the dynamics at galactic scales. By this feature, it is possible to explain the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and the rotation curve of gas-rich galaxies without the dark matter hypothesis. Furthermore, under the same standard, the Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies can be addressed.

  1. On neutron stars and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    From the variational principle for the total internal energy of a neutron star and some restrictions of the form of the metric coefficients, equations of structure which are valid for every metric theory of gravitation have been found. Some simple solutions of the structure equations to find the maximum mass of a neutron star are also presented. Finally it is studied this problem using a post post-Newtonian parametrization

  2. Cylindrical collapse and gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, L [Escuela de FIsica, Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela (Venezuela); Santos, N O [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/FRE 2460 LERMA/ERGA, Tour 22-12, 4eme etage, BoIte 142, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, 25651-070 Petropolis RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2005-06-21

    We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non-zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time-dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation-though non-gravitational-in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.

  3. Field theory approach to gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    1978-01-01

    A number of authors considered the possibility of formulating a field-theory approach to gravitation with the claim that such an approach would uniquely lead to Einstein's theory of general relativity. In this article it is shown that the field theory approach is more generally applicable and uniqueness cannot be claimed. Theoretical and experimental reasons are given showing that the Einsteinian limit appears to be unviable

  4. Generalized field theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that if, on empirical grounds, one rules out the existence of cosmic fields of Dicke-Brans (scalar) and Will Nordvedt (vector, tensor) type, then the most general experimentally viable and theoretically reasonable theory of gravitation seems to be a LAMBDA-dependent generalization of Einstein and Yilmez theories, which reduces to the former for LAMBDA=0 and to the latter for LAMBDA=1

  5. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  6. On the linear conformal gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chik, M.Ya.; Fradkin, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Conformal gravitation is analyzed under the assumption that its solution possesses the property of conformal symmetry. This assumption has sense in the case of small distances and only for definite types of matter fields, namely: at special choice of matter fields and their interactions, providing a lack of conformal anomalies; or at definite magnitudes of binding constants, coinciding with the zeroes of the Gell-Mann-Low function. The field equations, of the group-theoretical natura are obtained

  7. Gravitation and bilocal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollendorf, F.

    1975-01-01

    The starting point is the conjecture that a field theory of elementary particles can be constructed only in a bilocal version. Thus the 4-dimensional space time has to be replaced by the 8-dimensional manifold R 8 of all ordered pairs of space time events. With special reference to the Schwarzschild metric it is shown that the embedding of the time space into the manifold R 8 yields a description of the gravitational field. (orig.) [de

  8. Gravitation, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    During the past 30 years, research in general relativity has brought to light strong hints of a very deep and fundamental relationship between gravitation, thermodynamics, and quantum theory. The most striking indication of such a relationship comes from black hole thermodynamics, where it appears that certain laws of black hole mechanics are, in fact, simply the ordinary laws of thermodynamics applied to a system containing a black hole. This article will review the present status of black h...

  9. Accelerating Photons with Gravitational Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Graham M

    2001-01-01

    The nature of superluminal photon propagation in the gravitational field describing radiation from a time-dependent, isolated source (the Bondi-Sachs metric) is considered in an effective theory which includes interactions which violate the strong equivalence principle. Such interactions are, for example, generated by vacuum polarisation in conventional QED in curved spacetime. The relation of the resulting light-cone modifications to the Peeling Theorem for the Bondi-Sachs spacetime is explained.

  10. Radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.I., E-mail: pymcdonald@swansea.ac.uk; Shore, G.M., E-mail: g.m.shore@swansea.ac.uk

    2015-12-17

    We demonstrate how loop effects in gravitational backgrounds lead to a difference in the propagation of matter and antimatter, and show this is forbidden in flat space due to CPT and translation invariance. This mechanism, which is naturally present in beyond the standard model (BSM) theories exhibiting C and CP violation, generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons in the low-energy effective Lagrangian, allowing a matter–antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermodynamic equilibrium, below the BSM scale.

  11. Looking towards gravitational wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Lisa

    2009-05-01

    It is an exciting time in gravitational wave research. The first generation ground detectors, which aim to detect gravitational waves in the audio-frequency region, have been successfully operated at their design sensitivity. One integrated year of coincident data from the three LIGO interferometers in United States has been collected between 2005 and 2007, in partial coincidence with the two European detectors, VIRGO and GEO. All the detectors are currently being upgraded, and they will come back on-line in the next few months with a factor 2 better sensitivity. A major upgrade of LIGO and VIRGO, scheduled to happen immediately after their upcoming science runs, will bring on-line second generation detectors 4 years from now. Their sensitivity is designed to be 10 times better than the first generation detectors, resulting in an expected event rate of at least a few per year. Looking farther into the future, space-based detectors such as LISA propose to cover a lower range of frequencies which are inaccessible on Earth, enhancing the opportunity of understanding our Universe trough gravitational waves.

  12. Thermal duality and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Thermal duality is a relationship between the behaviour of heterotic string models of the E(8)×E(8) or SO(32) types at inversely related temperatures, a variant of T duality in the Euclidean regime. This duality would have consequences for the nature of the Hagedorn transition in these string models. We propose that the vacuum admits a family of deformations in situations where there are closed surfaces of constant area but high radial acceleration (a string regularized version of a Penrose trapped surface), such as would be formed in situations of extreme gravitational collapse. This would allow a radical resolution of the firewall paradox by allowing quantum effects to significantly modify the spacetime geometry around a collapsed object. A string bremsstrahlung process would convert the kinetic energy of infalling matter in extreme gravitational collapse to form a region of the deformed vacuum, which would be equivalent to forming a high temperature string phase. A heuristic criterion for the conversion process is presented, relating Newtonian gravity to the string tension, suggesting an upper limit to the strength of the gravitational interaction. This conversion process might have observable consequences for charged particles falling into a rotating collapsed object by producing high energy particles via a variant of the Penrose process. (paper)

  13. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  14. Gravitational radiation from electromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the spectrum of gravitational radiation of a charge e with mass m, undergoing finite motion in an electromagnetic field, smoothly varying in the neighborhood of the orbit over a region of the order of the radius of curvature, differs in the ultrarelativistic limit from the spectrum of the charge's electromagnetic radiation. The difference consists of the frequency-independent coefficient 4πGm 2 Λ 2 /e 2 , where Λ is of the order of the Lorentz factor of the charge and depends on the direction of the wave vector and on the behavior of the field in the above-indicated region. For a plane-wave external field the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra are strictly proportional to each other for arbitrary velocities of the charge. Localization of the external forces near the orbit violates this proportionality of the spectra and weakens the gravitational radiation by an amount of the order of the square of the Lorentz factor

  15. Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves: a statistical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Sheng; Mao, Shude; Zhao, Yuetong; Lu, Youjun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves (GWs) from a statistical perspective, with particular focus on the high frequency GWs from stellar binary black hole coalescences. These are most promising targets for ground-based detectors such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (aLIGO) and the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and can be safely treated under the geometrical optics limit for GW propagation. We perform a thorough calculation of the lensing rate, by taking account of effects caused by the ellipticity of lensing galaxies, lens environments, and magnification bias. We find that in certain GW source rate scenarios, we should be able to observe strongly lensed GW events once per year (˜1 yr-1) in the aLIGO survey at its design sensitivity; for the proposed ET survey, the rate could be as high as ˜80 yr-1. These results depend on the estimate of GW source abundance, and hence can be correspondingly modified with an improvement in our understanding of the merger rate of stellar binary black holes. We also compute the fraction of four-image lens systems in each survey, predicting it to be ˜30 per cent for the aLIGO survey and ˜6 per cent for the ET survey. Finally, we evaluate the possibility of missing some images due to the finite survey duration, by presenting the probability distribution of lensing time delays. We predict that this selection bias will be insignificant in future GW surveys, as most of the lens systems ({˜ } 90{per cent}) will have time delays less than ˜1 month, which will be far shorter than survey durations.

  16. Hydrodynamics, fields and constants in gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanyukovich, K.P.; Mel'nikov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Results of original inveatigations into problems of standard gravitation theory and its generalizations are presented. The main attention is paid to the application of methods of continuous media techniques in the gravitation theory; to the specification of the gravitation role in phenomena of macro- and microworld, accurate solutions in the case, when the medium is the matter, assigned by hydrodynamic energy-momentum tensor; and to accurate solutions for the case when the medium is the field. GRT generalizations are analyzed, such as the new cosmologic hypothesis which is based on the gravitation vacuum theory. Investigations are performed into the quantization of cosmological models, effects of spontaneous symmetry violation and particle production in cosmology. Graeity theory with fundamental Higgs field is suggested in the framework of which in the atomic unit number one can explain possible variations of the effective gravitational bonds, and in the gravitation bond, variations of masses of all particles

  17. Gravitational waves from instabilities in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Nils

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of stellar instabilities as sources of gravitational waves. The aim is to put recent work on secular and dynamical instabilities in compact stars in context, and to summarize the current thinking about the detectability of gravitational waves from various scenarios. As a new generation of kilometre length interferometric detectors is now coming online this is a highly topical theme. The review is motivated by two key questions for future gravitational-wave astronomy: are the gravitational waves from various instabilities detectable? If so, what can these gravitational-wave signals teach us about neutron star physics? Even though we may not have clear answers to these questions, recent studies of the dynamical bar-mode instability and the secular r-mode instability have provided new insights into many of the difficult issues involved in modelling unstable stars as gravitational-wave sources. (topical review)

  18. Production of Purely Gravitational Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ema, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    In the purely gravitational dark matter scenario, the dark matter particle does not have any interaction except for gravitational one. We study the gravitational particle production of dark matter particle in such a minimal setup and show that correct amount of dark matter can be produced depending on the inflation model and the dark matter mass. In particular, we carefully evaluate the particle production rate from the transition epoch to the inflaton oscillation epoch in a realistic inflati...

  19. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  20. Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo

    2017-01-01

    The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.

  1. A radiometer for stochastic gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballmer, Stefan W

    2006-01-01

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration recently reported a new upper limit on an isotropic stochastic background of gravitational waves obtained based on the data from the third LIGO science run (S3). Here I present a new method for obtaining directional upper limits on stochastic gravitational waves that essentially implements a gravitational wave radiometer. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration intends to use this method for future LIGO science runs

  2. Progress in gravitational wave detection: Interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    A gravitational wave (GW) is a physical entity of space-time derived from Einstein's theory of general relativity. Challenging projects to observe gravitational waves are being conducted throughout the world. A Japanese project involving a 300 m baseline laser interferometer, TAMA, achieved 1000 hr of continuous observation with the best sensitivity in the world during the summer of 2001. After achieving promising results, the realization of LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope) will become possible in the near future

  3. Feasibility analysis of gravitational experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, C. W. F.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on gravitation and general relativity suggested by different workers in the past ten or more years are reviewed, their feasibility examined, and the advantages of performing them in space were studied. The experiments include: (1) the gyro relativity experiment; (2) experiments to test the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass; (3) an experiment to look for nongeodesic motion of spinning bodies in orbit around the earth; (4) experiments to look for changes of the gravitational constant G with time; (5) a variety of suggestions; laboratory tests of experimental gravity; and (6) gravitational wave experiments.

  4. Possible role of torsion in gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieh, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    Torsion is of interest in an indirect way, in that it has the potential of being an important ingredient in a future successful quantum theory of gravitation. Einstein's theory of gravitation, despite its simplicity and elegance, and its successes in large-scale gravitational phenomena, can only be regarded as a macroscopic classical theory. It is a non-renormalizable quantum field theory, and, therefore, lacks the status of a good microscopic theory. It is the search for a successful quantum field theory of gravitation that poses as one of the great challenges to theoretical physics today. (Auth.)

  5. Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyaprakash B. S.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers, and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  6. Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F

    2000-01-01

    ... formation of several observables. All are independent of lasers and frequency standard phase fluctuations, but have different couplings to gravitational waves and to the various LISA instrumental noises...

  7. Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyaprakash, B S; Schutz, Bernard F

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.

  8. Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.

  9. Actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Problems of actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation are lightened. The great Einstein theory of gravitation is shown to remain a reliable base of understanding of modern physical world pattern and its inevitable further inexhaustible precising. The main GRT difficulties are enumirated: determination of reference systems, presence of singularities in the theory, absence of consistent determination of the gravity energy, impossibility of accounting the relations between atomic, gravitational and cosmological characteristics. The attention is paid to gauge, twistor problems and to unified interaction theory. The great contribution of the soviet science in the theory of gravitation is stressed

  10. Astrophysical Gravitational Wave Sources Literature Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...

  11. Effect of Earth gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves from the view point of gravitation theories formulated on the basis of pseudoeuclidean space-time are calculated. Peculiarities due to different effects of the Earth gravitational field on the rates of gravitational and electromagnetic wave propagation in these theories are analysed. Experiments on check of predictions of the given class of theories are suggested

  12. The Scales of Gravitational Lensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Paolis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After exactly a century since the formulation of the general theory of relativity, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing is still an extremely powerful method for investigating in astrophysics and cosmology. Indeed, it is adopted to study the distribution of the stellar component in the Milky Way, to study dark matter and dark energy on very large scales and even to discover exoplanets. Moreover, thanks to technological developments, it will allow the measure of the physical parameters (mass, angular momentum and electric charge of supermassive black holes in the center of ours and nearby galaxies.

  13. Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2013-10-15

    General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.

  14. Moduli destabilization via gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Pedro, Francisco G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-06-15

    We examine the interplay between gravitational collapse and moduli stability in the context of black hole formation. We perform numerical simulations of the collapse using the double null formalism and show that the very dense regions one expects to find in the process of black hole formation are able to destabilize the volume modulus. We establish that the effects of the destabilization will be visible to an observer at infinity, opening up a window to a region in spacetime where standard model's couplings and masses can differ significantly from their background values.

  15. General definition of gravitational tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmark, T.; Obers, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this note we give a general definition of the gravitational tension in a given asymptotically translationally-invariant spatial direction of a space-time. The tension is defined via the extrinsic curvature in analogy with the Hawking-Horowitz definition of energy. We show the consistency with the ADM tension formulas for asymptotically-flat space-times, in particular for Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions. Moreover, we apply the general tension formula to near-extremal branes, constituting a check for non-asymptotically flat space-times. (author)

  16. Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M; Dodelson, Scott; Meyer, Stephan

    2010-05-21

    The observation of primordial gravitational waves could provide a new and unique window on the earliest moments in the history of the universe and on possible new physics at energies many orders of magnitude beyond those accessible at particle accelerators. Such waves might be detectable soon, in current or planned satellite experiments that will probe for characteristic imprints in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or later with direct space-based interferometers. A positive detection could provide definitive evidence for inflation in the early universe and would constrain new physics from the grand unification scale to the Planck scale.

  17. Gravitational field of relativistic gyratons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri P [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2J1 (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    A gyraton is an object moving with the speed of light and having finite energy and internal angular momentum (spin). First we derive the gravitational field of a gyraton in the linear approximation. After this we study solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations for gyratons. We demonstrate that these solutions in 4 and higher dimensions reduce to two linear problems in a Euclidean space. A similar reduction is also valid for gyraton solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity and in supergravity. Namely, we demonstrate that in the both cases the solutions in 4 and higher dimensions reduce to linear problems in a Euclidean space.

  18. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  19. Radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. McDonald

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate how loop effects in gravitational backgrounds lead to a difference in the propagation of matter and antimatter, and show this is forbidden in flat space due to CPT and translation invariance. This mechanism, which is naturally present in beyond the standard model (BSM theories exhibiting C and CP violation, generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons in the low-energy effective Lagrangian, allowing a matter–antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermodynamic equilibrium, below the BSM scale.

  20. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Xavier E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)