WorldWideScience

Sample records for erosion control projects

  1. Categorization of erosion control matting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    Erosion control is a critical aspect of any Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) : construction project, with the extreme negative impacts of high sediment loads in natural : waterways having been well documented. A variety of erosion control ...

  2. Coastal Erosion Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal erosion is bad because the ecosystem there will be washed away and the animals could drown or be displaced and have to adapt to a new ecosystem that they are not prepared for. I'm interested in this problem because if there aren't beaches when I grow up I won't be able to do the things I would really like to do. I would like to be a marine biologist. Secondly, I don't want to see beach houses washed away. I would like to see people live in harmony with their environment. So, to study ways in which to preserve beaches I will make and use models that test different erosion controls. Two different ideas for erosion control I tested are using seaweed or a rock berm. I think the rock berm will work better than the model of seaweed because the seaweed is under water and the waves can carry the sand over the seaweed, and the rock berm will work better because the rocks will help break the waves up before they reach the shore and the waves can not carry the sand over the rocks that are above the water. To investigate this I got a container to use to model the Gulf of Mexico coastline. I performed several test runs using sand and water in the container to mimic the beach and waves from the Gulf of Mexico hitting the shoreline. I did three trials for the control (no erosion control), seaweed and a rock berm. Rock berms are a border of a raised area of rock. The model for seaweed that I used was plastic shopping bags cut into strips and glued to the bottom of my container to mimic seaweed. My results were that the control had the most erosion which ranged from 2.75 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The seaweed was a little better than the control but was very variable and ranged from 1.5 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The rock berm worked the best out of all at controlling erosion with erosion ranging from 1.5 - 2 inches. My hypothesis was correct because the rock berm did best to control erosion compared to the control which had no erosion control and the model with seaweed.

  3. Effectiveness of hydrological forest restoration projects on soil erosion control in Mediterranean catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, V. M.; Boix Fayos, C.; Vente, J. de; Martinez-Mena, M.; Barbera, G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive land use changes have occurred in many Mediterranean catchments as a result of reforestation and the abandonment of agricultural activities. Besides this, the establishment of check-dams has been promoted to reduce soil erosion and sediment transport. In this study a combination of field work, mapping and modelling was used to test influence of land use scenarios with and without sediment control structures on sediment yield at catchment scale. Model simulation shows that in a scenario without check-dams, the land used changes between 1956 and 1997 caused a progressive decrease in sediment yield of 54%. In a scenario without land use changes but with check-dams, about 77% of the sediment yield was retained behind the dams. Both land use changes and check-dams are effective measures decreasing sediment yield in catchment, however they act at very different temporal scales. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Categorization of erosion control matting for slope applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-25

    Erosion control is an important aspect of any Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) construction project, with the extreme negative impacts of high sediment loads in natural waterways having been well documented. Selection of a proper erosion c...

  5. Valuing Externalities of Watershed Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in Mediterranean Basins: A Comparative Analysis of the Contingent Valuation and Replacement Cost Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Maria Del Carmen Almansa; Calatrava-Requena, Javier

    2002-01-01

    The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of th...

  6. North Fork Feather River Erosion Control Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    1991-01-01

    PG and E, an investor owned gas and electric utility serving northern and central California, has been engaged since 1984 in the development and implementation of a regional erosion control program for the 954 square mile northern Sierra Nevada watersheed of the East Branch of the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County, California. PG and E entered into an agreement with 13 governmental agencies and a number of private landowners using Coordinated Resource Management and Planning: to cooperatively develop, fund and implement the program. The group has completed several field projects and has a number of additional projects in various stages of development. This paper reports that the program provides multiple environmental and economic benefits including reduction of soil erosion and sedimentation, improved fisheries, enhancement of riparian habitat, increased land values, improved recreation opportunities, and preservation of watershed resources

  7. Wind erosion processes and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion continues to threaten the sustainability of our nations' soil, air, and water resources. To effectively apply conservation systems to prevent wind driven soil loss, an understanding of the fundamental processes of wind erosion is necessary so that land managers can better recognize the ...

  8. Robotic weld overlay coatings for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The erosion of materials by the impact of solid particles has received increasing attention during the past twenty years. Recently, research has been initiated with the event of advanced coal conversion processes in which erosion plays an important role. The resulting damage, termed Solid Particle Erosion (SPE), is of concern primarily because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. Reduced power plant efficiency due to solid particle erosion of boiler tubes and waterfalls has led to various methods to combat SPE. One method is to apply coatings to the components subjected to erosive environments. Protective weld overlay coatings are particularly advantageous in terms of coating quality. The weld overlay coatings are essentially immune to spallation due to a strong metallurgical bond with the substrate material. By using powder mixtures, multiple alloys can be mixed in order to achieve the best performance in an erosive environment. However, a review of the literature revealed a lack of information on weld overlay coating performance in erosive environments which makes the selection of weld overlay alloys a difficult task. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of weld overlay coating composition and microstructure on erosion resistance. These results will lead to a better understanding of erosion mitigation in CFB's.

  9. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  10. Forest road erosion control using multiobjective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Thompson; John Sessions; Kevin Boston; Arne Skaugset; David Tomberlin

    2010-01-01

    Forest roads are associated with accelerated erosion and can be a major source of sediment delivery to streams, which can degrade aquatic habitat. Controlling road-related erosion therefore remains an important issue for forest stewardship. Managers are faced with the task to develop efficient road management strategies to achieve conflicting environmental and economic...

  11. Airphoto analysis of erosion control practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. In this study, airphoto analysis of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at a scale of 1:60,000 was used to determine the erosion control practice factor in the USLE. Information about contour tillage, contour strip cropping, and grass waterways was obtained from aerial photography for Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  12. Comparison of erosion and erosion control works in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Blinkov

    2013-12-01

    Natural conditions in the Balkan countries contribute to the appearance of various erosion forms and the intensity of the erosion processes. Over the history of these countries, people who settled this region used the available natural resources to fill their needs (tree cutting, incorrect plugging, overgrazing, which contributed to soil erosion. Organized erosion control works in the Balkans started in the beginning of the 20th century (1905 in Bulgaria. The highest intensity of erosion control works were carried out during the period 1945 – 1990. Various erosion control works were launched. Bulgaria had a large anti-erosion afforestation, almost 1 million ha. Bulgaria's ecological river restoration approach has been in use for almost 50 years. Serbia contributed significant erosion and torrent control works on hilly agricultural areas. Specific screen barrages and afforestation on extremely dry areas are characteristic in Macedonia. A common characteristic for all countries is a high decrease in erosion control works in the last 20 years.

  13. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Flanagan; J. R. Frankenberger; T. A. Cochrane; C. S. Renschler; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltration, runoff, ET) component, which subsequently impacts the rest of the...

  14. Projected climate change impacts in rainfall erosivity over Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change projections and historical analyses have shown alterations in global precipitation dynamics, and therefore, it is also expected that there will be associated changes to soil erosion rates. The impacts of climate change on soil erosion may bring serious economic, social, and environmen...

  15. The comparison of various approach to evaluation erosion risks and design control erosion measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Jiri

    2015-04-01

    In the present is in the Czech Republic one methodology how to compute and compare erosion risks. This methodology contain also method to design erosion control measures. The base of this methodology is Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and their result long-term average annual rate of erosion (G). This methodology is used for landscape planners. Data and statistics from database of erosion events in the Czech Republic shows that many troubles and damages are from local episodes of erosion events. An extent of these events and theirs impact are conditional to local precipitation events, current plant phase and soil conditions. These erosion events can do troubles and damages on agriculture land, municipally property and hydro components and even in a location is from point of view long-term average annual rate of erosion in good conditions. Other way how to compute and compare erosion risks is episodes approach. In this paper is presented the compare of various approach to compute erosion risks. The comparison was computed to locality from database of erosion events on agricultural land in the Czech Republic where have been records two erosion events. The study area is a simple agriculture land without any barriers that can have high influence to water flow and soil sediment transport. The computation of erosion risks (for all methodology) was based on laboratory analysis of soil samples which was sampled on study area. Results of the methodology USLE, MUSLE and results from mathematical model Erosion 3D have been compared. Variances of the results in space distribution of the places with highest soil erosion where compared and discussed. Other part presents variances of design control erosion measures where their design was done on based different methodology. The results shows variance of computed erosion risks which was done by different methodology. These variances can start discussion about different approach how compute and evaluate erosion risks in areas

  16. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddoway, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author)

  17. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Erosion and Sediment Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model ordinance in this section borrows language from the erosion and sediment control ordinance features that might help prevent erosion and sedimentation and protect natural resources more fully.

  18. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Flanagan; J. R. Frankenberger; T. A. Cochrane; C. S. Renschler; W. J. Elliot

    2013-01-01

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillslopes and channels can be created and simulated with this GUI. However,...

  19. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. Copyright

  20. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of the different soil conservation measure on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably - a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. (author)

  1. Tectonic controls of Holocene erosion in a glaciated orogen

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Byron A.; Ehlers, Todd A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted a strong, worldwide, glacial impact of orogen erosion rates over the last 2 Ma. While it may be assumed that glaciers increased erosion rates when active, the degree to which past glaciations influence Holocene erosion rates through the adjustment of topography is not known. In this study, we investigate the influence of long-term tectonic and post-glacial topographic controls on erosion in a glaciated orogen, the Olympic Mountains, USA. We present 14 new 10Be and ...

  2. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Hancock, G.; Nguyen, M.L.; Dornhofer, P.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Benmansour, M.; Bernard, C.; Froehlich, W.; Golosov, V.N.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Hai, P.S.; Klik, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002–2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on “Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides” (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably – a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. - Highlights:

  3. Evaluation of compost blankets for erosion control from disturbed lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta K; Yatsu, Shotaro; Howard, Heidi R; Svendsen, Niels G

    2011-03-01

    Soil erosion due to water and wind results in the loss of valuable top soil and causes land degradation and environmental quality problems. Site specific best management practices (BMP) are needed to curb erosion and sediment control and in turn, increase productivity of lands and sustain environmental quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three different types of biodegradable erosion control blankets- fine compost, mulch, and 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch, for soil erosion control under field and laboratory-scale experiments. Quantitative analysis was conducted by comparing the sediment load in the runoff collected from sloped and tilled plots in the field and in the laboratory with the erosion control blankets. The field plots had an average slope of 3.5% and experiments were conducted under natural rainfall conditions, while the laboratory experiments were conducted at 4, 8 and 16% slopes under simulated rainfall conditions. Results obtained from the field experiments indicated that the 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch provides the best erosion control measures as compared to using either the compost or the mulch blanket alone. Laboratory results under simulated rains indicated that both mulch cover and the 50-50 mixture of mulch and compost cover provided better erosion control measures compared to using the compost alone. Although these results indicate that the 50-50 mixtures and the mulch in laboratory experiments are the best measures among the three erosion control blankets, all three types of blankets provide very effective erosion control measures from bare-soil surface. Results of this study can be used in controlling erosion and sediment from disturbed lands with compost mulch application. Testing different mixture ratios and types of mulch and composts, and their efficiencies in retaining various soil nutrients may provide more quantitative data for developing erosion control plans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  4. [Research progress on wind erosion control with polyacrylamide (PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Soil wind erosion is one of the main reasons for soil degradation in the northwest region of China. Polyacrylamide (PAM), as an efficient soil amendment, has gained extensive attention in recent years since it is effective in improving the structure of surface soil due to its special physical and chemical properties. This paper introduced the physical and chemical properties of PAM, reviewed the effects of PAM on soil wind erosion amount and threshold wind velocity, as well as the effect differences of PAM in soil wind erosion control under conditions of various methods and doses. Its effect was proved by comparing with other materials in detail. Furthermore, we analyzed the mecha-nism of wind erosion control with PAM according to its influence on soil physical characteristics. Comprehensive analysis showed that, although some problems existed in wind erosion control with (PAM), PAM as a sand fixation agent, can not only enhance the capacity of the soil resis-tance to wind erosion, but also improve soil physical properties to form better soil conditions. Besides, we proposed that combination of PAM and plant growth would increase the survival rate of plants greatly, control soil wind erosion in wind-erosive areas, and improve the quality of the ecological environment construction. Thus, PAM has practically important significance and wide application prospect in controlling soil wind erosion.

  5. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  6. Cloud forest restoration for erosion control in a Kichwa community of the Ecuadorian central Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, L.; Giordanengo, J.; Sacatoro, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Denver Professional Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) has begun conducting erosion control projects in the Kichwa communities of Malingua Pamba in the Andes Mountains south of Quito, Ecuador. In many high elevation areas in this region, erosion of volcanic soils on steep hillsides (i.e., food crops. Following a 2011 investigation of over 75 erosion sites, the multidisciplinary Erosion Control team traveled to Malingua Pamba in October 2012 to conduct final design and project implementation at 5 sites. In partnership with the local communities, we installed woody cloud forest species, grass (sig-sig) contour hedges, erosion matting, and rock structures (toe walls, plunge pools, bank armoring, cross vanes, contour infiltration ditches, etc.) to reduce incision rates and risk of slump failures, facilitate aggradation, and hasten revegetation. In keeping with the EWB goal of project sustainability, we used primarily locally available resources. High school students of the community grew 5000 native trees and some naturalized shrubs in a nursery started by the school principal, hand weavers produced jute erosion mats, and rocks were provided by a nearby quarry. Where possible, local rock was harvested from landslide areas and other local erosion features. Based on follow up reports and photographs from the community and EWB travelers, the approach of using locally available materials installed by the community is successful; plants are growing well and erosion control structures have remained in place throughout the November to April rainy season. The community has continued planting native vegetation at several additional erosion sites. Formal monitoring will be conducted in October 2013, followed by analysis of data to determine if induced meandering and other low-maintenance erosion control techniques are working as planned. For comparison of techniques, we will consider installing check dams in comparable gullies. The October 2013 project will also

  7. Slope stability and erosion control: Ecotechnological solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book is designed to assist the civil and geotechnical engineer, geomorphologist, forester, landscape architect or ecologist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. Within this book, the 'engineer' is used

  8. Control of erosive tooth wear: possibilities and rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Campos Serra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a type of wear caused by non bacterial acids or chelation. There is evidence of a significant increase in the prevalence of dental wear in the deciduous and permanent teeth as a consequence of the frequent intake of acidic foods and drinks, or due to gastric acid which may reach the oral cavity following reflux or vomiting episodes. The presence of acids is a prerequisite for dental erosion, but the erosive wear is complex and depends on the interaction of biological, chemical and behavioral factors. Even though erosion may be defined or described as an isolated process, in clinical situations other wear phenomena are expected to occur concomitantly, such as abrasive wear (which occurs, e.g, due to tooth brushing or mastication. In order to control dental loss due to erosive wear it is crucial to take into account its multifactorial nature, which predisposes some individuals to the condition.

  9. profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land management (SLM) .... land under soil erosion control technologies, cost of labour and ..... and promotion of quality protein maize hybrids in Ghana.

  10. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, A.; Dodd, I. C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2015-09-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to soil functioning. The use of vegetation to control erosion has long been a topic for research. Much of this research has focused on the above-ground properties of plants, demonstrating the important role that canopy structure and cover plays in the reduction of water erosion processes. Less attention has been paid to plant roots. Plant roots are a crucial yet under-researched factor for reducing water erosion through their ability to alter soil properties, such as aggregate stability, hydraulic function and shear strength. However, there have been few attempts to specifically manipulate plant root system properties to reduce soil erosion. Therefore, this review aims to explore the effects that plant roots have on soil erosion and hydrological processes, and how plant root architecture might be manipulated to enhance its erosion control properties. We demonstrate the importance of root system architecture for the control of soil erosion. We also show that some plant species respond to nutrient-enriched patches by increasing lateral root proliferation. The erosional response to root proliferation will depend upon its location: at the soil surface dense mats of roots may reduce soil erodibility but block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff. Additionally, in nutrient-deprived regions, root hair development may be stimulated and larger amounts of root exudates released, thereby improving aggregate stability and decreasing erodibility. Utilizing nutrient placement at specific depths may represent a potentially new, easily implemented, management strategy on nutrient-poor agricultural land or constructed slopes to control erosion, and further research in this area is needed.

  11. Wind erosion control of soils using polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Movahedan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils is one of the most important problems in environment and agriculture which could affects several fields. Agricultural lands, water reservoires, irrigation canals, drains and etc. may be affected by wind erosion and suspended particles. As a result wind erosion control needs attention in arid and semi-arid regions. In recent years, some polymeric materials have been used for improvement of structural stability, increasing aggregate stability and soil stabilization, though kind of polymer, quantity of polymer, field efficiency and durability and environmental impacts are some important parameters which should be taken into consideration. In this study, a Polyvinil Acetate-based polymer was used to treat different soils. Then polymer-added soil samples were investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel to verify the effecte of polymer on wind erosion control of the soils and the results were compared with water treated soil samples. The results of wind tunnel experiments with a maximum 26 m/s wind velocity showed that there was a significat difference between the erosion of polymer treated and water treated soil samples. Application of 25g/m2 polymer to Aeolian sands reduced the erosion of Aeolian sands samples to zero related to water treated samples. For silty and calyey soils treated by polymer, the wind erosion reduced minimum 90% in relation to water treated samples.

  12. Soil erosion and its control in Chile - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellies, A.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerate erosion in Chile is a consequence from land use that degrade soil such as compaction, loss of organic matter and soil structure. The erosion is favored by the very hilly landscape of the country that increases erosivity index and the high erodibility given by an elevated annual rate of rainfall with irregular distribution. Several experiences have demonstrated that adequate crop management and crop rotations can minimize erosion. The most effective control is achieved conserving and improving soil structure with management systems that include regular use of soil-improving crops, return of crop residues and tillage practices, thus avoiding unnecessary breakdown soil or compacted soil structure. Conservation tillage increased organic matter levels improving stabile soil structure, aeration and infiltration. (author) [es

  13. Demonstration Erosion Control Project Monitoring Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biedenharn, David

    2000-01-01

    ...: stream gauging, data collection, hydraulic performance of structures, channel response, hydrology, upland watersheds, reservoir sedimentation, environmental aspects, bank stability, design tools...

  14. Adapting the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for forest applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhui Dun; Joan Q. Wu; William J. Elliot; Peter R. Robichaud; Dennis C. Flanagan; James R. Frankenberger; Robert E. Brown; Arthur C. Xu

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increasing public concern over forest stream pollution by excessive sedimentation due to natural or human disturbances. Adequate erosion simulation tools are needed for sound management of forest resources. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) watershed model has proved useful in forest applications where Hortonian flow is the major form of...

  15. Erosion control works and the intensity of soil erosion in the upper part of the river Toplica drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, S; Dragovic, N; Zlatic, M; Todosijevic, M

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the protection of the future storage 'Selova' against erosion and sediment, and also to protect the settlements and roads in the drainage basin against torrential floods, erosion control works in the upper part of the river Toplica basin, upstream of the storage 'Selova', started in 1947. The works included building-technical works (check dams) and biological works (afforestation and grassing of bare lands and other erosion risk areas). Within the period 1947-2006, the following erosion control works were executed: afforestation of bare lands on the slopes 2,257.00 ha, grassing of bare lands 1,520.00 ha, and altogether 54 dams were constructed in the river Toplica tributaries. This caused the decrease of sediment transport in the main flow of the river Toplica. This paper, based on the field research conducted in two time periods: 1988 and in the period 2004-2007, presents the state of erosion in the basin before erosion control works; type and scope of erosion control works and their effect on the intensity of erosion in the river Toplica basin upstream of the future storage 'Selova'.

  16. Plume Mitigation: Soil Erosion and Lunar Prospecting Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2014-01-01

    Demonstrate feasibility of the simplest, lowest-mass method of measuring density of a cloud of lunar soil ejected by rocket exhaust, using new math techniques with a small baseline laser/camera system. Focus is on exploring the erosion process that occurs when the exhaust plume of a lunar rocket impacts the regolith. Also, predicting the behavior of the lunar soil that would be blasted from a lunar landing/launch site shall assist in better design and protection of any future lunar settlement from scouring of structures and equipment. NASA is gathering experimental data to improve soil erosion models and understand how lunar particles enter the plume flow.

  17. The success of headwater rehabilitation towards gully erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The ill-management of headwaters has frequently shown to have adverse effects on both humans and the environment. Historical examples often refer to altered hydrological conditions and stream incision resulting from deforestation. Agricultural expansion and intensification - often accompanied with land reforms in the 20th century - also showed to severely impact the fluvial environment, with stream incision and gully erosion hazards increasingly affecting many headwater areas around the world. To counter this, many regions have adopted improved management schemes aiming at restoring the physical, biological and hydrological integrity of the soil- and landscape. In terms of hydrogeomorpology, the objective was to minimize dynamics to a lower level so that runoff, sediment and pollutant transfers do not cause danger to human life, environmental/natural resources deterioration or economic stress. Therefore, much attention was given to the rehabilitation and re-naturalization of headwater streams and gullies, which are the conduits of these transfers. This is done in both indirect and direct ways, i.e. reducing the delivery of runoff and sediment to the gullies and interventions in the incised channels. Although much has been published on gully erosion development and control, few studies assess the success of gully rehabilitation on the mid- to long term or confront results against the gully life-cycle. The latter refers to the rate law in fluvial geomorphology, whereby gully morphological changes (increases in length, area, volume) are initially rapid, followed by a much slower development towards a new equilibrium state. Here, we present a review of headwater rehabilitation measures and their success towards gully erosion control. By confronting this to the life-cycle of a gully, we also want to shed light on our understanding of when and where gully erosion control needs to be applied; making land management more efficient and effective. Keywords: land

  18. Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies in Context of the OECD/G20 Project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting as well as the EU Proposal for the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Peter Koerver

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the controlled foreign company (CFC) rules have gained increased attention; as such, rules play an important role in the ongoing efforts of the OECD/G20 and the European Commission with respect to addressing base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). In this context, the article revisits...... the CFC regimes of the Nordic countries in order to assess whether these regimes are in line with the recommendations from the OECD/G20 and to determine whether Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, as EU member states, will have to make amendments if the commission’s proposal for an Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive...

  19. Control of Eolian soil erosion from waste site surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1994-11-01

    Physical models were tested in a wind tunnel to determine optimum surface-ravel admixtures for protecting silt-loam soil from erosion by, wind and saltating, sand stresses. The tests were performed to support the development of a natural-material surface barrier for and waste sites. Plans call for a 2-m deep silt-loam soil reservoir to retain infiltrating water from rainfall and snowmelt. The objective of the study was to develop a gravel admixture that would produce an erosion-resistant surface layer during, periods of extended dry climatic stress. Thus, tests were performed using simulated surfaces representing dry, unvegetated conditions present just after construction, after a wildfire, or during an extended drought. Surfaces were prepared using silt-loam soil mixed with various grades of sand and Travel. Wind-induced surface shear stresses were controlled over the test surfaces, as were saltating, sand mass flow rates and intensities. Tests were performed at wind speeds that approximated and exceeded local 100-year peak gust intensities. Surface armors produced by pea gravel admixtures were shown to provide the best protection from wind and saltating sand stresses. Compared with unprotected silt-loam surfaces, armored surfaces reduced erosion rates by more than 96%. Based in part on wind tunnel results, a pea gravel admixture of 15% will be added to the top 1 in of soil in a prototype barrier under construction in 1994. Field tests are planned at the prototype site to provide data for comparison with wind tunnel results

  20. Taxation of Controlled Foreign Companies in Context of the OECD/G20 Project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting as well as the EU Proposal for the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive – An Interim Nordic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Peter Koerver

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the controlled foreign company (CFC rules have gained increased attention; as such, rules play an important role in the ongoing efforts of the OECD/G20 and the European Commission with respect to addressing base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS. In this context, the article revisits the CFC regimes of the Nordic countries in order to assess whether these regimes are in line with the recommendations from the OECD/G20 and to determine whether Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, as EU member states, will have to make amendments if the commission’s proposal for an Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive is adopted in its current form. It is concluded that the Nordic CFC regimes in many ways already are in line with the recommendations as well as the directive, but also that certain amendments have to be made.

  1. Modeling of technical soil-erosion control measures and its impact on soil erosion off-site effects within urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Tomas; Devaty, Jan

    2013-04-01

    soil-erosion control measures induced strong change in overall amount of eroded/deposited material as well as spatial erosion/deposition patterns within the settlement areas. Validation of modeled scenarios and effects on measured data was not possible as no real runoff event was recorded in the target area so the conclusions were made by comparing the different modeled scenarios. Advantages and disadvantages of used approach to simulate technical soil-erosion conservation measures are evaluated and discussed as well as the impact of use of high-resolution elevation data on the intensity and spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition. Model approved ability to show detailed distribution of damages over target urban area, which is very sensitive for off-site effects of surface runoff, soil erosion and sediment transport and also high sensitivity to input data, especially to DEM, which affects surface runoff pattern and therefore intensity of harmful effects. Acknowledgement: This paper has been supported by projects: Ministry of the interior of the CR VG 20122015092, and project NAZV QI91C008 TPEO.

  2. Bed erosion control at 60 degree river confluence using vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuppukondur, Ananth; Chandra, Venu

    2017-04-01

    Confluences are common occurrences along natural rivers. Hydrodynamics at the confluence is complex due to merging of main and lateral flows with different characteristics. Bed erosion occurs at the confluence due to turbulence and also secondary circulation induced by centrifugal action of the lateral flow. The eroded sediment poses various problems in the river ecosystem including river bank failure. Reservoirs are majorly affected due to sediment deposition which reduces storage capacity. The bed erosion also endangers stability of pipeline crossings and bridge piers. The aim of this experimental study is to check the performance of vanes in controlling bed erosion at the confluence. Experiments are performed in a 600 confluence mobile bed model with a non-uniform sediment of mean particle size d50 = 0.28mm. Discharge ratio (q=ratio of lateral flow discharge to main flow discharge) is maintained as 0.5 and 0.75 with a constant average main flow depth (h) of 5cm. Vanes of width 0.3h (1.5cm) and thickness of 1 mm are placed along the mixing layer at an angle of 150, 300 and 600(with respect to main flow) to perform the experiments. Also, two different spacing of 2h and 3h (10cm and 15cm) between the vanes are used for conducting the experiments. A digital point gauge with an accuracy of ±0.1mm is used to measure bed levels and flow depths at the confluence. An Acoustic Doppler Velocitimeter (ADV) with a frequency of 25Hz and accuracy of ±1mm/s is used to measure flow velocities. Maximum scour depth ratio Rmax, which is ratio between maximum scour depth (Ds) and flow depth (h), is used to present the experimental results.From the experiments without vanes, it is observed that the velocities are increasing along the mixing layer and Rmax=0.82 and 1.06, for q=0.5 and 0.75, respectively. The velocities reduce with vanes since roughness increases along the mixing layer. For q=0.5 and 0.75, Rmax reduces to 0.62 and 0.7 with vanes at 2h spacing, respectively. Similarly

  3. Evaluation of chemical stabilizers and windscreens for wind erosion control of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-08-01

    Potential wind erosion of uranium mill tailings is a concern for the surface disposal of tailings at uranium mills. Wind-blown tailings may subsequently be redeposited on areas outside the impoundment. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating techniques for fugitive dust control at uranium mill tailings piles. Laboratory tests, including wind tunnel studies, were conducted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 43 chemical stabilizers. Seventeen of the more promising stabilizers were applied to test plots on a uranium tailings pile at the American Nuclear Corporation-Gas Hills Project mill site in central Wyoming. The durabilities of these materials under actual site conditions were evaluated over time. In addition, field testing of commercially available windscreens was conducted. Test panels were constructed of eight different materials at the Wyoming test site to compare their durability. A second test site was established near PNL to evaluate the effectiveness of windscreens at reducing wind velocity, and thereby reduce the potential for wind erosion of mill tailings. Results of the laboratory land field tests of the chemical stabilizers and windscreens are presented, along with costs versus effectiveness of these techniques for control of wind erosion at mill tailings piles. 12 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  4. Use of gabions and vegetation in erosion-control works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vjačeslava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy winter and spring rainfall during the years 2005, -06, -07, and -08 brought about numerous torrential floods and landslides throughout the world and in Serbia. They endangered people, animals, settlements, fields, and roads. This reminded us of a readily available, cheap, and efficient material: stone in wire baskets of doubly galvanized wire of various sizes and forms - gabions - which are also long-lasting, flexible, and ecological. If made according to prescribed standards, they offer a permanent solution for many erosion-control problems. In addition, they can be used in urgent interventions to protect the lives of humans, animals, and plants and prevent of immense material losses. This paper calls attention to an unjustifiably neglected but important material, easily manipulated and with significant advantages compared to other structural materials, as well as to the possibility of its successful combination with vegetation, viz., willow (Salix sp. cuttings and grasses.

  5. Impact of Soil Conservation Measures on Erosion Control and Soil Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This publication summarises the lessons learnt from a FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality over a five-year period across a wide geographic area and range of environments. It demonstrates the new trends in the use of fallout radionuclide-based techniques as powerful tools to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures. As a comprehensive reference material it will support IAEA Member States in the use of these techniques to identify practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  6. Structural practices for controlling sediment transport from erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Donald; Verbist, Koen; Van de Linden, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Erosion on agricultural fields in the hilly regions of Flanders, Belgium has been recognized as an important economical and ecological problem that requires effective control measures. This has led to the implementation of on-site and off-site measures such as reduced tillage and the installation of grass buffers trips, and dams made of vegetative materials. Dams made out of coir (coconut) and wood chips were evaluated on three different levels of complexity. Under laboratory conditions, one meter long dams were submitted to two different discharges and three sediment concentrations under two different slopes, to assess the sediment delivery ratios under variable conditions. At the field scale, discharge and sediment concentrations were monitored under natural rainfall conditions on six 3 m wide plots, of which three were equipped with coir dams, while the other three served as control plots. The same plots were also used for rainfall simulations, which allowed controlling sediment delivery boundary conditions more precisely. Results show a clear advantage of these dams to reduce discharge by minimum 49% under both field and laboratory conditions. Sediment delivery ratios (SDR) were very small under laboratory and field rainfall simulations (4-9% and 2% respectively), while larger SDRs were observed under natural conditions (43%), probably due to the small sediment concentrations (1-5 g l-1) observed and as such a larger influence of boundary effects. Also a clear enrichment of larger sand particles (+167%) could be observed behind the dams, showing a significant selective filtering effect.

  7. 48 CFR 452.236-74 - Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Sedimentation, and Pollution. 452.236-74 Section 452.236-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....236-74 Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution. As prescribed in 436.574, insert the following clause: Control of Erosion, Sedimentation, and Pollution (NOV 1996) (a) Operations shall be...

  8. 48 CFR 436.574 - Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., sedimentation, and pollution. 436.574 Section 436.574 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 436.574 Control of erosion, sedimentation, and pollution. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-74, Control of Erosion, Sedimentation and Pollution, if there is a need for applying...

  9. Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.; Raats, P.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger G. Sterk, L. Stroosnijder, and P.A.C. Raats Abstract The objective of this paper is to present the main results and conclusions from three years of field research on wind erosion processes and control techniques in the

  10. Beach erosion control study at Pass Christian. [using remote sensors and satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The methods of measuring the existence of erosion and the effects of sand stabilization control systems are described. The mechanics of sand movement, the nature of sand erosion, and the use of satellite data to measure these factors and their surrogates are discussed using the locational and control aspects of aeolian and litoral erosion zones along the sand beach of the Mississippi coast. The aeolian erosion is highlighted due to the redeposition of the sand which causes high cleanup costs, property damage, and safety and health hazards. The areas of differential erosion and the patterns of beach sand movement are illustrated and the use of remote sensing methods to identify the areas of erosion are evaluated.

  11. Use of Low-Cost Methods of Soil Erosion Control In Kisii District, South Western kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nzabi, A.W; Makini, F; Onyango, M; Mureithi, J.G

    1999-01-01

    Kisii District has a topography of undulating hills and is prone to severe soil erosion. The average rainfall is 1900 mm and occurs in biomodal pattern. During a participatory appraisal survey in 1995, farmers indicated that soil erosion in the area had contributed to decline in soil fertility resulting in low crop yields. To address this problem, an on-farm trial was conducted in 1996 at Nyamonyo village to test the effectiveness of four low cost methods of controlling soil erosion. These included maize stover trash line, sweet potatoes,Penicum maximum var. Makarikari grass strip and vetiveria zizanioides (Vertiver) grass strip. A treatment without soil erosion control measure was included. The trial was planted in three farms which acted as replicates. The treatments were planted in runoff plots measuring 4 x 2 m in which had a maize crop were laid down in a randomized complete block design. Surface runoff and eroded soils were collected in 50-l buckets. The experimental site had a slope ranging from 16 to 35%. Preliminary results indicated that maize stover trash line and sweet potato strips were more effective in controlling soil erosion than the grass strips. As the season progressed the grass strips became increasingly more effective in erosion control. The trail is still continuing but results indicate that for short term soil erosion control, maize stover trash lines and sweet potatoes are more effective while Makarikari and Vertiver grass strips are promising as long term soil erosion control measure

  12. Wind erosion control with scattered vegetation in the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Sahelian zone ofAfricais the region that is globally most subjected to land degradation, with wind erosion being the most important soil degradation process. By using control measures, the negative effects of wind erosion can be reduced. At present, adoption of

  13. Tectonic control of erosion in the southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Pedro; Venerdini, Agostina L.; Ouimet, William; Alvarado, Patricia; Hoke, Gregory D.

    2018-01-01

    Landscape evolution modeling and global compilations of exhumation data indicate that a wetter climate, mainly through orographic rainfall, can govern the spatial distribution of erosion rates and crustal strain across an orogenic wedge. However, detecting this link is not straightforward since these relationships can be modulated by tectonic forcing and/or obscured by heavy-tailed frequencies of catchment discharge. This study combines new and published along-strike average rates of catchment erosion constrained by 10Be and river-gauge data in the Central Andes between 28°S and 36°S. These data reveal a nearly identical latitudinal pattern in erosion rates on both sides of the range, reaching a maximum of 0.27 mm/a near 34°S. Collectively, data on topographic and fluvial relief, variability of rainfall and discharge, and crustal seismicity suggest that the along-strike pattern of erosion rates in the southern Central Andes is largely independent of climate, but closely relates to the N-S distribution of shallow crustal seismicity and diachronous surface uplift. The consistently high erosion rates on either side of the orogen near 34°S imply that climate plays a secondary role in the mass flux through an orogenic wedge where the perturbation to base level is similar on both sides.

  14. Statistical Techniques for Project Control

    CERN Document Server

    Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    A project can be simple or complex. In each case, proven project management processes must be followed. In all cases of project management implementation, control must be exercised in order to assure that project objectives are achieved. Statistical Techniques for Project Control seamlessly integrates qualitative and quantitative tools and techniques for project control. It fills the void that exists in the application of statistical techniques to project control. The book begins by defining the fundamentals of project management then explores how to temper quantitative analysis with qualitati

  15. The contribution of mulches to control high soil erosion rates in vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena; José Marqués, María; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion take place in degraded ecosystem where the lack of vegetation, drought, erodible parent material and deforestation take place (Borelli et al., 2013; Haregeweyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). Agriculture management developed new landscapes (Ore and Bruins, 2012) and use to trigger non-sustainable soil erosion rates (Zema et al., 2012). High erosion rates were measured in agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009), but it is also possible to develop managements that will control the soil and water losses, such as organic amendments (Marqués et al., 2005), plant cover (Marqués et al., 2007) and geotextiles (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). The most successful management to restore the structural stability and the biological activity of the agriculture soil has been the organic mulches (García Orenes et al; 2009; 2010; 2012). The straw mulch is also very successful on bare fire affected soil (Robichaud et al., 2013a; 2013b), which also contributes to a more stable soil moisture content (García-Moreno et al., 2013). The objective of this research is to determine the impact of two mulches: wheat straw and chipped branches, on the soil erosion rates in a rainfed vineyard in Eastern Spain. The research site is located in the Les Alcusses Valley within the Moixent municipality. The Mean annual temperature is 13 ºC, and the mean annual rainfall 455 mm. Soil are sandy loam, and are developed at the foot-slope of a Cretaceous limestone range, the Serra Grossa range. The soils use to be ploughed and the features of soil erosion are found after each thunderstorm. Rills are removed by ploughing. Thirty rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in summer 2011 during the summer drought period. The simulated rainfall lasted during 1 hour at a 45 mmh-1 intensity on 1 m2 plots (Cerdà and Doerr, 2010; Cerdà and Jurgensen 2011). Ten experiments were carried out on the control plots (ploughed), 10 on straw mulch covered plots, and 10 on chipped branches covered

  16. Environmental Control Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the Environmental Control Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA), Piracicaba , Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. Such research comprises: determination of ions and metals in waters from different sources; survey of the mineralogical composition of Amazon Basin rivers; development of specific methodologies for the determination of minerals in studies of mineral nutrition of plants and animal nutrition; development of methodologies for the determination of wood sample density, a nuclear method being developed to be applied to field conditions; study of the water flux mouvement within wood. (M.A.) [pt

  17. Effectiveness of Plants and Vegetation in Erosion Control and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandercock, P.; Hooke, J.; De Baets, S.; Poesen, J.; Meerkerk, A.; van Wesemael, B.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Hooke, J.; Sandercock, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the approaches and methods used to measure plant effectiveness in reducing runoff and erosion are explained and results presented for each of the major land units, hillslopes and channels. Evaluations of the properties of plants required are made to inform plant selection for

  18. Dryland Degradation by wind erosion and its control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Riksen, M.; Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    Global population growth, is expected to impose an increasing pressure on agricultural production in the world's drylands, which cover approximately 41␘f the continental area. The land resources in drylands are severely threatened by soil degradation, with wind erosion being, one of the major

  19. Changes in the hydrological status of the basin due to the application of erosion control works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of land with vegetation is the primary factor in the fight against water erosion with necessary application of biotechnical, technical, administrative and planning measures. One of the first basins to be treated with works for the protection against erosion and torrent control is the Gradasnica River basin. The basic parameters to display the changes of the hydrological status of the land are the state of erosion, the change of erosion-coefficient, annual sediment yield, specific annual sediment discharge through the hydrographic network, the value of the runoff curve number and value of the maximal discharge. Works on protection from erosion and regulations of torrents have influenced the decrease in erosion coefficient values from strong erosion (Z=0.99 to the value of weak erosion (Z=0.40, as well as the reduction of the maximum discharge value from Qmax(1956=108,12m3/s to the value of Qmax(2014=87.2 m3/s.

  20. Evaluation of Mediterranean plants for controlling gully erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baets, S. de; Poesen, J.; Muys, B.

    2009-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments, gullies are responsible for large soil losses causing loss of fertile cropland soil, reservoir sedimentation and flooding. To limit soil loss and sediment export it is important to prevent the initiation or rills and to stabilise gullies. This can be done by establishing vegetation at vulnerable places in the landscape. Although in the past, the effects of vegetation on soil erosion rates were predicted using above-ground biomass characteristics only, plant roots also play an important role in protecting the soil against erosion by concentrated runoff. Especially in conditions where the above-ground biomass becomes very scarce (e.g. due to drought, harvest, overgrazing or fire) the effects of vegetation will be underestimated when only above-ground plant characteristics are taken into account. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Evaluation of Mediterranean plants for controlling gully erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baets, S. de; Poesen, J.; Muys, B.

    2009-07-01

    In Mediterranean environments, gullies are responsible for large soil losses causing loss of fertile cropland soil, reservoir sedimentation and flooding. To limit soil loss and sediment export it is important to prevent the initiation or rills and to stabilise gullies. This can be done by establishing vegetation at vulnerable places in the landscape. Although in the past, the effects of vegetation on soil erosion rates were predicted using above-ground biomass characteristics only, plant roots also play an important role in protecting the soil against erosion by concentrated runoff. Especially in conditions where the above-ground biomass becomes very scarce (e.g. due to drought, harvest, overgrazing or fire) the effects of vegetation will be underestimated when only above-ground plant characteristics are taken into account. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Application of the system of water erosion control measures in growths of special cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítězslav Hálek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to select an optimal variant of the system of water erosion control measures. The water erosion issue was observed and evaluated in 15 blocks of special cultivations-vineyards and orchards. These blocks are situated in the managed area of the join-stock company PATRIA Kobylí. At first the average long-term loss of soil with the influence of water erosion is calculated. The universal Wischmeier-Smith equation is used for this purpose. If the calculated loss of soil exceeds the permissible value, the erosion control measures have to be suggested. The optimal variant has been selected on the bases of the evaluation of several kinds of measures in each block. This variant follows first of all the erosion control efficiency, but also demands on production as well as slope accessibility for mechanization, expensiveness and some negative sides of suggested measures. The suggested system of water erosion control measures contributes to increasing of soil fertility and production ability with the respect to landscape management and environmental protection.

  3. Two case studies in river naturalization: planform migration and bank erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, J. D.; Guneralp, I.; Rhoads, B. L.; Garcia, M. H.

    2005-05-01

    A sound understanding of river planform evolution and bank erosion control, along with integration of expertise from several disciplines is required for the development of predictive models for river naturalization. Over the last few years, several methodologies have been presented for naturalization projects, from purely heuristic to more advanced methods. Since the time and space scales of concern in naturalization vary widely, there is a need for appropriate tools at a variety of time and space scales. This study presents two case studies at different scales. The first case study describes the prediction of river planform evolution for a remeandering project based on a simplified two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The second case study describes the applicability of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for evaluating the effectiveness of bank-erosion control structures in individual meander bends. Understanding the hydrodynamic influence of control structures on flow through bends allows accurate prediction of depositional and erosional distribution patterns, resulting in better assessment on river planform stability, especially for the case of natural complex systems. The first case study introduces a mathematical model for evolution of meandering rivers that can be used in remeandering projects. In United States in particular, several rivers have been channelized in the past causing environmental and ecological problems. Following Newton's third law, "for every action, there is a reaction", naturalization techniques evolve as natural reactive solutions to channelization. This model (herein referred as RVR Meander) can be used as a stand-alone Windows application or as module in a Geographic Information System. The model was applied to the Poplar Creek re-meanderization project and used to evaluate re-meandering alternatives for an approximately 800-meter long reach of Poplar Creek that was straightened in 1938. The second case study describes a

  4. A field experiment on the controls of sediment transport on bedrock erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A. R.; Turowski, J. M.; Fritschi, B.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Campana, L.; Lavé, J.

    2012-12-01

    The earth`s surface is naturally shaped by interactions of physical and chemical processes. In mountainous regions with steep topography river incision fundamentally controls the geomorphic evolution of the whole landscape. There, erosion of exposed bedrock sections by fluvial sediment transport is an important mechanism forming mountain river channels. The links between bedload transport and bedrock erosion has been firmly established using laboratory experiments. However, there are only few field datasets linking discharge, sediment transport, impact energy and erosion that can be used for process understanding and model evaluation. To fill this gap, a new measuring setup has been commissioned to raise an appropriate simultaneous dataset of hydraulics, sediment transport and bedrock erosion at high temporal and spatial resolution. Two natural stone slabs were installed flush with the streambed of the Erlenbach, a gauged stream in the Swiss Pre-Alps. They are mounted upon force sensors recording vertical pressure und downstream shear caused by passing sediment particles. The sediment transport rates can be assessed using geophone plates and an automated moving basket system taking short-term sediment samples. These devices are located directly downstream of the stone slabs. Bedrock erosion rates are measured continuously with erosion sensors at sub-millimeter accuracy at three points on each slab. In addition, the whole slab topography is surveyed with photogrammetry and a structured-light 3D scanner after individual flood events. Since the installation in 2011, slab bedrock erosion has been observed during several transport events. We discuss the relation between hydraulics, bedload transport, resulting pressure forces on the stone slabs and erosion rates. The aim of the study is the derivation of an empirical process law for fluvial bedrock erosion driven by moving sediment particles.

  5. Wind tunnel experimental study on the effect of PAM on soil wind erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji-Jun; Cai, Qiang-Guo; Tang, Ze-Jun

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, high-molecular-weight anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) have been widely tested on a variety of soils, primarily in water erosion control. However, little information is available regarding the effectiveness of PAM on preventing soil loss from wind erosion. The research adopted room wind tunnel experiment, two kinds of soils were used which were from the agro-pastoral area of Inner Mongolia, the northwest of China, the clay content of soils were 22.0 and 13.7%, respectively. For these tests, all the treatments were performed under the condition of wind velocity of 14 m s(-1) and a blown angle of 8.75%, according to the actual situation of experimented area. The study results indicated that using PAM on the soil surface could enhance the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, at the same time, the effect of controlling wind soil erosion with 4 g m(-2) PAM was better than 2 g m(-2) PAM's. Economically, the 2 g m(-2) PAM used in soil surface can control wind erosion effectively in this region. The prophase PAM accumulated in soil could not improve the capability of avoiding the wind erosion, owing to the degradation of PAM in the soil and the continual tillage year after year. The texture of soil is a main factor influencing the capability of soil avoiding wind erosion. Soil with higher clay content has the higher capability of preventing soil from wind erosion than one with the opposite one under the together action of PAM and water.

  6. Project control - the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorii, V.F.; McKinnon, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) second largest Major System Acquisition Project. We have developed an integrated planning and control system (called PACS) that we believe represents the 'Next Generation' in project control. PACS integrates technical scope, cost, and schedule information for over 50 participating organizations and produces performances measurement reports for science and engineering managers at all levels. Our 'Next Generation' project control too, PACS, has been found to be in compliance with the new DOE Project Control System Guidelines. Additionally, the nuclear utility oversight group of the Edison Electric Institute has suggested PACS be used as a model for other civilian radioactive waste management projects. A 'Next Generation' project control tool will be necessary to do science in the 21st century

  7. Application Of GIS Software For Erosion Control In The Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Setyawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation in form of soil erosion due to uncontrolled farming is occurred in many watersheds of Indonesia particularly in Java Island. Soil erosion is decreasing watershed function as a rainwater harvesting area. Good conservation practices need to be applied to prevent more degradation. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of land conservation practice for erosion control through land use modeling in the watershed scale. The modeling was applied in the Sempor watershed Indonesia. Three scenarios of land use were used for modeling. Soil erosion measurement and land use modeling were performed by using Universal Soil Loss Equation USLE method and Geographic Information System GIS software ArcGIS 10.1. Land use modeling was conducted by increasing permanent vegetation coverage from existing condition 4 to 10 20 and 30. The result showed that the modeling can reduce heavy class erosion about 15-37 of total area. GIS provides a good tool for erosion control modeling in the watershed scale.

  8. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    irrigated land, and this contributes to increase the soil losses due to the sloping terrain. Although citrus is a world wide food, and occupy a large surface little is being researched on their impact on soil erosion, land degradation and strategies to control the soil, water and nutrient losses. This paper review the research developed until now and the results show that there is a poor background on this topic. It is necessary to develop research projects to improve the knowledge on the impact of citrus plantations on soil degradation and soil erosion. Another key information from the literature review done, is that most of the research was done in two regions of China and one of the Mediterranean. Definitively, a poor understanding of a huge environmental problem that need more scientific research. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857 supported this research. References Bombino, G., Denisi, P., Fortugno, D., Tamburino, V., Zema, D.A., Zimbone, S.M. 2010. Land spreading of solar-dried citrus peel to control runoff and soil erosion. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 140, 145-154. Cerdà, A., Giménez Morera, A., Burguet, M., Arcenegui, V., González Peñaloza, F.A., García-Orenes, F., Pereira, P. 2012. The impact of the farming, abandonment and agricultural intensification on loss of water and soil. The example of the northern slopes of the Serra Grossa, Eastern Spain [El impacto del cultivo, el abandono y la intensificación de la agricultura en la pérdida de agua y suelo. el ejemplo de la vertiente norte de la serra grossa en el este peninsular] Cuadernos de Investigacion Geografica, 38 (1), 75-94. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008. The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in eastern Spain. Journal of Applied Entomology, 132 (4), 306-314. Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation

  9. Large-scale performance and design for construction activity erosion control best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucette, L B; Scholl, B; Beighley, R E; Governo, J

    2009-01-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II requires construction activities to have erosion and sediment control best management practices (BMPs) designed and installed for site storm water management. Although BMPs are specified on storm water pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) as part of the construction general permit (GP), there is little evidence in the research literature as to how BMPs perform or should be designed. The objectives of this study were to: (i) comparatively evaluate the performance of common construction activity erosion control BMPs under a standardized test method, (ii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blanket thickness, (iii) evaluate the performance of compost erosion control blankets (CECBs) on a variety of slope angles, and (iv) determine Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover management factors (C factors) for these BMPs to assist site designers and engineers. Twenty-three erosion control BMPs were evaluated using American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-6459, standard test method for determination of ECB performance in protecting hill slopes from rainfall induced erosion, on 4:1 (H:V), 3:1, and 2:1 slopes. Soil loss reduction for treatments exposed to 5 cm of rainfall on a 2:1 slope ranged from-7 to 99%. For rainfall exposure of 10 cm, treatment soil loss reduction ranged from 8 to 99%. The 2.5 and 5 cm CECBs significantly reduced erosion on slopes up to 2:1, while CECBs or= 4:1 when rainfall totals reach 5 cm. Based on the soil loss results, USLE C factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.9. These performance and design criteria should aid site planners and designers in decision-making processes.

  10. Evaluating water erosion prediction project model using Cesium-137-derived spatial soil redistribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of spatial soil erosion data has been a major constraint on the refinement and application of physically based erosion models. Spatially distributed models can only be thoroughly validated with distributed erosion data. The fallout cesium-137 has been widely used to generate spatial soil re...

  11. High-Z material erosion and its control in DIII-D carbon divertor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As High-Z materials will likely be used as plasma-facing components (PFCs in future fusion devices, the erosion of high-Z materials is a key issue for high-power, long pulse operation. High-Z material erosion and redeposition have been studied using tungsten and molybdenum coated samples exposed in well-diagnosed DIII-D divertor plasma discharges. By coupling dedicated experiments and modelling using the 3D Monte Carlo code ERO, the roles of sheath potential and background carbon impurities in determining high-Z material erosion are identified. Different methods suggested by modelling have been investigated to control high-Z material erosion in DIII-D experiments. The erosion of Mo and W is found to be strongly suppressed by local injection of methane and deuterium gases. The 13C deposition resulting from local 13CH4 injection also provides information on radial transport due to E ×B drifts and cross field diffusion. Finally, D2 gas puffing is found to cause local plasma perturbation, suppressing W erosion because of the lower effective sputtering yield of W at lower plasma temperature and for higher carbon concentration in the mixed surface layer.

  12. Bioengineering Technology to Control River Soil Erosion using Vetiver (Vetiveria Zizaniodes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwati, M.; Pallu, S.; Selintung, M.; Lopa, R.

    2018-04-01

    Erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that removes soil, rock or dissolved material from one location on the earth’s crust, and then transport it away to another location. Bioengineering is an attempt to maximise the use of vegetation components along riverbanks to cope with landslides and erosion of river cliffs and another riverbank damage. This study aims to analyze the bioengineering of Vetiver as a surface layer for soil erosion control using slope of 100, 200, and 300. This study is conducted with 3 variations of rain intensity (I), at 103 mm/hour, 107 mm/hour, and 130 mm/hour by using rainfall simulator tool. In addition, the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) method is used in order to measure the rate of soil erosion. In this study, there are few USLE model parameters were used such as rainfall erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, length-loss slope and stepness factor, cover management factor, and support practise factor. The results demonstrated that average of reduction of erosion rate using Vetiver, under 3 various rainfalls, namely rainfall intensity 103 mm/hr had reduced 84.971%, rainfall intensity 107 mm/hr had reduced 86.583 %, rainfall intensity 130 mm/hr had reduced 65.851%.

  13. Testing the control of mineral supply rates on chemical erosion in the Klamath Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N.; Ferrier, K.

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between rates of chemical erosion and mineral supply is central to many problems in Earth science, including the role of tectonics in the global carbon cycle, nutrient supply to soils and streams via soil production, and lithologic controls on landscape evolution. We aim to test the relationship between mineral supply rates and chemical erosion in the forested uplands of the Klamath mountains, along a latitudinal transect of granodioritic plutons that spans an expected gradient in mineral supply rates associated with the geodynamic response to the migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction. We present 10Be-derived erosion rates and Zr-derived chemical depletion factors, as well as bulk soil and rock geochemistry on 10 ridgetops along the transect to test hypotheses about supply-limited and kinetically-limited chemical erosion. Previous studies in this area, comparing basin-averaged erosion rates and modeled uplift rates, suggest this region may be adjusted to an approximate steady state. Our preliminary results suggest that chemical erosion at these sites is influenced by both mineral supply rates and dissolution kinetics.

  14. Effect of sugarcane waste in the control of interrill erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Cardoso Valim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane uses different cropping systems that result in varying quantities of crop waste, this may influence soil erosion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the loss of soil and water, the infiltration rate, and soil surface roughness in an area cultivated with sugarcane (Saccharum spp.. Six treatments with different levels of plant waste were evaluated: sugarcane without plant waste; sugarcane with 4.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 8.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 12.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; sugarcane with 16.0 Mg ha-1 of waste; and burned sugarcane. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with four replications, totalling 24 experimental plots. As soil depth increased, there is reduction in macroporosity, total soil porosity, organic carbon content, mean geometric diameter and weighted mean diameter of the soil aggregates, whereas the bulk density of the soil displays the opposite trend. The presence of sugarcane waste on the soil surface increases the time required for the initiation of surface runoff. Sugarcane waste does not alter soil surface roughness, and at the minimum amount of waste administered (4 Mg ha-1 reduces losses of soil and water and increases the infiltration rate. The lack of soil surface coverage after harvesting the sugarcane contributes to soil and water loss, and reduces the rate of stable infiltration of water into the soil.

  15. Estimating soil erosion risk and evaluating erosion control measures for soil conservation planning at Koga watershed in the highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tegegne; Sisheber, Biniam

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the major factors affecting sustainability of agricultural production in Ethiopia. The objective of this paper is to estimate soil erosion using the universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) model and to evaluate soil conservation practices in a data-scarce watershed region. For this purpose, soil data, rainfall, erosion control practices, satellite images and topographic maps were collected to determine the RUSLE factors. In addition, measurements of randomly selected soil and water conservation structures were done at three sub-watersheds (Asanat, Debreyakob and Rim). This study was conducted in Koga watershed at upper part of the Blue Nile basin which is affected by high soil erosion rates. The area is characterized by undulating topography caused by intensive agricultural practices with poor soil conservation practices. The soil loss rates were determined and conservation strategies have been evaluated under different slope classes and land uses. The results showed that the watershed is affected by high soil erosion rates (on average 42 t ha-1 yr-1), greater than the maximum tolerable soil loss (18 t ha-1 yr-1). The highest soil loss (456 t ha-1 yr-1) estimated from the upper watershed occurred on cultivated lands of steep slopes. As a result, soil erosion is mainly aggravated by land-use conflicts and topographic factors and the rugged topographic land forms of the area. The study also demonstrated that the contribution of existing soil conservation structures to erosion control is very small due to incorrect design and poor management. About 35 % out of the existing structures can reduce soil loss significantly since they were constructed correctly. Most of the existing structures were demolished due to the sediment overload, vulnerability to livestock damage and intense rainfall. Therefore, appropriate and standardized soil and water conservation measures for different erosion-prone land uses and land forms need to be implemented in Koga

  16. Watershed-scale evaluation of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model in the Lake Tahoe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin S. Brooks; Mariana Dobre; William J. Elliot; Joan Q. Wu; Jan Boll

    2016-01-01

    Forest managers need methods to evaluate the impacts of management at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has the ability to model disturbed forested hillslopes, but has difficulty addressing some of the critical processes that are important at a watershed scale, including baseflow and water yield. In order to apply WEPP to...

  17. Effects of polyacrylamide on soil erosion and nutrient losses from substrate material in steep rocky slope stabilization projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Chen, Wenlu; Li, Chengjun; Pu, Yanpin; Sun, Haifeng

    2016-06-01

    Erosion of denuded steep rocky slopes causes increasing losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, which is a severe problem in rocky slope protection. Thus, it is important to determine the appropriate materials that can reduce the erodibility and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus of the soil. In this paper, twenty-seven simulated rainfall events were carried out in a greenhouse, in which the substrate material was artificial soil; nine types of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) were studied, which consisted of three molecular weight (6, 12, and 18 Mg mol(-1)) and three charge density (10, 20, and 30%) formulations in a 3 by 3 factorial design. The results showed that: (1) Polyacrylamide application reduced total nitrogen losses by 35.3% to 50.0% and total phosphorus losses by 34.9% to 48.0% relative to the control group. (2) The losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus had significant correlation with the molecular weight. Besides, the losses of total phosphorus, particulate-bound phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen (NH4-N) were significantly correlated with their molecular weight and charge density. However, the losses of dissolved organic nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus (PO4-P) were non-significantly correlated with molecular weight and charge density. (3) Particulate-bound nitrogen and phosphorus were responsible for the losses of nitrogen and phosphorus during runoff events, where particulate-bound nitrogen made up 71.7% to 73.2% of total nitrogen losses, and particulate-bound phosphorus made up 82.3% to 85.2% of total phosphorus losses. (4) Polyacrylamide treatments increased water-stable aggregates content by 32.3% to 59.1%, total porosity by 11.3% to 49.0%, final infiltrative rate by 41.3% to 72.5%, and reduced soil erosion by 18.9% to 39.8% compared with the control group. Overall, the results of this study indicated that polyacrylamide application in the steep rocky slope stabilization projects could

  18. Erosion control and protection from torrential floods in Serbia-spatial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrential floods represent the most frequent phenomenon within the category of “natural risks” in Serbia. The representative examples are the torrential floods on the experimental watersheds of the rivers Manastirica (June 1996 and Kamišna (May 2007. Hystorical maximal discharges (Qmaxh were reconstructed by use of ″hydraulics flood traces″ method. Computations of maximal discharges (Qmaxc, under hydrological conditions after the restoration of the watersheds, were performed by use of a synthetic unit hydrograph theory and Soil Conservation Service methodology. Area sediment yields and intensity of erosion processes were estimated on the basis of the “Erosion Potential Method”. The actual state of erosion processes is represented by the coefficients of erosion Z=0.475 (Manastirica and Z=0.470 (Kamišna. Restoration works have been planned with a view to decreasing yields of erosive material, increasing water infiltration capacity and reducing flood runoff. The planned state of erosion processes is represented by the coefficients of erosion Z=0.343 (Manastirica and Z=0.385 (Kamišna. The effects of hydrological changes were estimated by the comparison of historical maximal discharges and computed maximal discharges (under the conditions after the planned restoration. The realisation of restoration works will help decrease annual yields of erosive material from Wа=24357 m3 to Wа=16198.0 m3 (Manastirica and from Wа=19974 m3 to Wа=14434 m3 (Kamišna. The values of historical maximal discharges (QmaxhMan=154.9 m3•s-1; QmaxhKam=76.3 m3•s-1 were significantly decreased after the restoration (QmaxcMan=84.5 m3 •s-1; QmaxcKam=43.7 m3•s-1, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of erosion and torrent control works. Integrated management involves biotechnical works on the watershed, technical works on the hydrographic network within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in

  19. Three procedures for estimating erosion from construction areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Ruff, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Erosion from many mining and construction sites can lead to serious environmental pollution problems. Therefore, erosion management plans must be developed in order that the engineer may implement measures to control or eliminate excessive soil losses. To properly implement a management program, it is necessary to estimate potential soil losses from the time the project begins to beyond project completion. Three methodologies are presented which project the estimated soil losses due to sheet or rill erosion of water and are applicable to mining and construction areas. Furthermore, the three methods described are intended as indicators of the state-of-the-art in water erosion prediction. The procedures herein do not account for gully erosion, snowmelt erosion, wind erosion, freeze-thaw erosion or extensive flooding

  20. Contour hedgerows and grass strips in erosion and runoff control in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinama, J.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Ong, C.K.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.; Gichuki, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    Most early alley cropping studies in semi-arid Kenya were on fairly flat land while there is an increase in cultivated sloping land. The effectiveness of aging contour hedgerows and grass strips for erosion control on an about 15% slope of an Alfisol was compared. The five treatments were Senna

  1. Wood strands as an alternative to agricultural straw for erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy B. Foltz; James H. Dooley

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural straw is used in forested areas of the United States for erosion control on burned areas, harvest landings, decommissioned road prisms, road cuts and fills, and other areas of disturbed soil. However, an increased agronomic and ecological value for straw; an increased utilization for energy production, fiber panels, and other higher value uses; a...

  2. The role of secondary minerals in the control of erosion processes under a Mediterranean mining landcape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penas, J. M.; Garcia, G.; Manteca, J. I.

    2009-01-01

    The result of mining activity is the presence of several slit ponds and mining tailings spread all over the Sierra Minera (Cartagena La Union Mountains, SE Spain). These ponds, joint to other wastes deposits constitute the main source of heavy metals to the environment. Besides, these metal sources areas act as dispersion focus towards the surrounding and subsidiary areas due to the erosion processes. Interaction between metal and salts present in these environments, provoke an secondary effect on the landscape modelling. The major o minor strength of the erosion processes is controlled by the presence of salts in soil and mining wastes (silt ponds and mining tailings). The aim of this work concerns the relation- between the salt-metal compounds and the erosion and landscape modeling processes. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Measurement of erosion: Is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    2005-01-01

    Reasons for erosion measurements are: (1) to determine the environmental impact of erosion and conservation practices, (2) scientific erosion research; (3) development and evaluation of erosion control technology; (4) development of erosion prediction technology and (5) allocation of conservation

  4. Bentonite erosion: effects on the long term performance of the engineered barrier and radionuclide transport - The BELBAR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, P.; Sundman, D.; Bailey, L.; Missana, T.; Schaefer, T.; Cervinka, R.; Koskinen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. BELBaR is a Collaborative Project within the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for nuclear research and training activities. The main aim of BELBaR is to increase knowledge of the processes that control clay colloid stability, generation and its ability to transport radionuclides. The overall purpose of the project is to come up with a new way of treating issues in long-term safety/performance assessment. The project started March 1, 2012 and has a duration of 48 months. The project has 14 partners from seven European countries. The main aim of BELBaR is to reduce the uncertainties in the description of the effect of clay colloids on the long term performance of the engineered barrier and on radionuclide transport as illustrated in Figure 1. This is done by: - Improving the understanding on when bentonite colloids are unstable. For a given site/site evolution, this is critical information, since it determines whether or not clay colloids need to be included in the long-term assessment. - Improving the quantitative models for erosion on the bentonite barrier for the cases when the colloids are stable - Improving the understanding of how radionuclides attach to clay colloids. This information will be used to formulate improved transport models for the assessment of radionuclide transport in the geosphere. To meet the main aim a number of experimental and modelling activities will be undertaken within the project. BELBaR consists of six RTD (research and technical development) work packages and one project management work package. WP1 will have the responsibility to ensure that that the type and values of the parameters selected for experimental and modelling work are those that represent as much as possible the full range of conditions and situations that can be expected in a repository. Drawing on the work undertaken in WP 2 to 5, the general objective of this work package

  5. India: Project Control. Annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. India is a country with a long history of nuclear power development, mostly based on indigenous technology and resources. The nuclear power programme has suffered considerable delays due to technical and financial. (author)

  6. Performance-based specifications for temporary erosion and sediment control during construction : a survey of state practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    During construction projects, surrounding soils can be disrupted, causing ecological damage through topsoil erosion and pollution of waterways with sediment. MnDOT currently has requirements and inspection procedures to ensure that contractors take m...

  7. Cleveland Dam East Abutment : seepage control project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, F.; Siu, D. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ahlfield, S.; Singh, N. [Klohn Crippen Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    North Vancouver's 91 meter high Cleveland Dam was built in the 1950s in a deep bedrock canyon to provide a reservoir for potable water to 18 municipalities. Flow in the concrete gravity dam is controlled by a gated spillway, 2 mid-level outlets and intakes and 2 low-level outlets. This paper describes the seepage control measures that were taken at the time of construction as well as the additional measures that were taken post construction to control piezometric levels, seepage and piping and slope instability in the East Abutment. At the time of construction, a till blanket was used to cover the upstream reservoir slope for 200 meters upstream of the dam. A single line grout curtain was used through the overburden from ground surface to bedrock for a distance of 166 meters from the dam to the East Abutment. Since construction, the safety of the dam has been compromised through changes in piezometric pressure, seepage and soil loss. Klohn Crippen Consultants designed a unique seepage control measure to address the instability risk. The project involved excavating 300,000 cubic meters of soil to form a stable slope and construction bench. A vertical wall was constructed to block seepage. The existing seepage control blanket was also extended by 260 meters. The social, environmental and technical issues that were encountered during the rehabilitation project are also discussed. The blanket extension construction has met design requirements and the abutment materials that are most susceptible to internal erosion have been covered by non-erodible blanket materials such as plastic and roller-compacted concrete (RCC). The project was completed on schedule and within budget and has greatly improved the long-term stability of the dam and public safety. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Erosion and Soil Contamination Control Using Coconut Flakes And Plantation Of Centella Asiatica And Chrysopogon Zizanioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Rasyikin; Che Omar, Rohayu; Nor Zuliana Baharuddin, Intan; Zulkarnain, M. S.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Land degradation in Malaysia due to water erosion and water logging cause of loss of organic matter, biodiversity and slope instability but also land are contaminated with heavy metals. Various alternative such as physical remediation are use but it not showing the sustainability in term of environmental sustainable. Due to that, erosion and soil contamination control using coconut flakes and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides are use as alternative approach for aid of sophisticated green technology known as phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Soil from cabonaceous phyllite located near to Equine Park, Sri Kembangan are use for monitoring the effect of phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control. Five laboratory scale prototypes were designed to monitor the effect of different proportion of coconut flakes i.e. 10%, 25%, 50% & 100% and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides to reduce the top soil from eroding and reduce the soil contamination. Prototype have been observe started from first week and ends after 12 weeks. Centella asiatica planted on 10% coconut flakes with 90% soil and Chrysopogon zizanioides planted on 25% coconut flakes with 75% soil are selected proportion to be used as phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control.

  9. Development of Biotechnical Methods to Control Shoreline Erosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mays, D

    1999-01-01

    .... Coconut fiber logs, straw bales wrapped in poultry netting, large round hay bales, and bundled logs anchored to the shoreline were all evaluated for their potential to control wave damage to the shoreline...

  10. Soil erosion and sediment control laws. A review of state laws and their natural resource data requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands enacted erosion and sediment control legislation during the past decade to provide for the implementation or the strengthening of statewide erosion and sediment control plans for rural and/or urban lands. That legislation and the state programs developed to implement these laws are quoted and reviewed. The natural resource data requirements of each program are also extracted. The legislation includes amendments to conservation district laws, water quality laws, and erosion and sediment control laws. Laws which provides for legislative review of administrative regulations and LANDSAT applications and/or information systems that were involved in implementing or gathering data for a specific soil erosion and sediment control program are summarized as well as principal concerns affecting erosion and sediment control laws.

  11. Development of MCESC software for selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd [Civil Engineering Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajan, Selangor (Malaysia); Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-07-01

    Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited into the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper aims to develop and apply Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) software called Multi Criteria Erosion and Sediment Control (MCESC) software in which it can be applied in selecting the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. Visual Basic 6 was adopted as a development tool. This software can help the engineers, contractors on site and decision makers to find the best stormwater control measure in any construction site in Malaysia. Users of the MCESC software are given the opportunity to select the best stormwater control measure via expert's judgments that are built in the system or via their own expertise. MCESC software has many benefits since the experts are not always available and the consultancy is a costly issue which add further financial allocations to the project.

  12. Agriculture and stream water quality: A biological evaluation of erosion control practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenat, David R.

    1984-07-01

    Agricultural runoff affects many streams in North Carolina. However, there is is little information about either its effect on stream biota or any potential mitigation by erosion control practices. In this study, benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in three different geographic areas of North Carolina, comparing control watersheds with well-managed and poorly managed watersheds. Agricultural streams were characterized by lower taxa richness (especially for intolerant groups) and low stability. These effects were most evident at the poorly managed sites. Sedimentation was the apparent major problem, but some changes at agricultural sites implied water quality problems. The groups most intolerant of agricultural runoff were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Tolerant species were usually filter-feeders or algal grazers, suggesting a modification of the food web by addition of particulate organic matter and nutrients. This study clearly indicates that agricultural runoff can severely impact stream biota. However, this impact can be greatly mitigated by currently recommended erosion control practices.

  13. Native Roadside Vegetation that Enhances Soil Erosion Control in Boreal Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika K. Jägerbrand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.

  14. Control of two-phase erosion corrosion with the amine 5-aminopentanol: rig and plant trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.G.; Greene, J.C.; Tyldesley, J.D.; Wetton, E.A.M.; Fountain, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Control of two-phase erosion corrosion in the once through mild steel boilers of the gas cooled nuclear power station at Wylfa was achieved by using the amine 2-amino, 2 methylpropan-1-ol (AMP). In a search to find a more cost effective amine, 5-aminopentanol (5-AP) emerged, from a laboratory based programme to determine basicity and volatility, as the most promising candidate. The effectiveness of 5-AP in controlling erosion corrosion was demonstrated in a rig test, carried out on a full scale replica of a Wylfa boiler tube. Following on from the rig test, a plant trial at Wylfa PS demonstrated 5-AP's superior thermal stability (compared to AMP). It also provided confirmation that the laboratory generated data on basicity and volatility was applicable to plant and hence also the accuracy of the figures for predicted amine usage. (orig.)

  15. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  16. Evaluation of different techniques for erosion control on different roadcuts in its first year of implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Rodríguez, Abraham; Viedma, Antonio; Contreras, Valentin; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Linear infrastructures, such as highways and railways, present a large environmental impact. Among this impact is the effect on landscape and the modification of the hydrological conditions of the area and an increase in erosive processes (Martin et al., 2011). The increase of erosive processes is specially significant in roadbanks, resulting in high maintenance costs as well as security risks for the use of the infrastructure if it is not properly controlled. Among roadbanks, roadcuts are specially challenging areas for erosion control and ecological restoration, due to their usually steep slope gradient and poor conditions for establishment of vegetation. There are several studies in Mediterranean conditions indicating how the combination of semiarid conditions with, sporadic, intense rainfall events makes a successful vegetation development and erosion control in motorway roadbanks extremely difficult (e.g. Andrés and Jorbat, 2000; Bochet and García-Fayos, 2004). This communication presents the results of the first year evaluation (hydrological year 2012-2013) of five different erosion control strategies on six different locations under different materials on roadcuts of motorways or railways in Andalusia during 2012-2013 using natural rainfall and simulated rainfall. The six sites were located on roadcuts between 10 and 20 m long on slope steepness ranging from 40 to 90%, in motorways and railways spread over different materials in Andalusia. Site 1, Huelva was located on consolidated sand material, sites 2, Osuna I, site 3, Osuna II and site 4, Mancha Real, on marls. Sites 5, Guadix, and 6, Fiñana, were located on phyllites, in comparison a harder material. At each site 12 plots (10 m long and 2 m wide) were installed using metal sheets buried 10 cm within the soil with their longest side in the direction of the roadcut maximum slope. Six different treatments were evaluated at each site, two replications each. These treatments were: 1- A control with bare

  17. Field studies of erosion-control technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.; Perkins, B.A.; Foster, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land-burial sites is described. Research performed for a portion of this task, the identification, evaluation, and modeling of erosion control technologies, is presented in detail. In a joint study with USDA-ARS, soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with data from undisturbed soil surfaces with natural plant cover. The distribution of soil particles in the runoff was measured for inclusion in CREAMS (a field scale model for Chemicals, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems). Neutron moisture gauge data collected beneath the erosion plots are presented to show the seasonal effects of the erosion control technologies on the subsurface component of water balance. 12 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  18. Microphonics control for Project X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schappert, W.; Barbanotti, S.; Branlard, J.; Cancelo, G.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Klebaner, A.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed multi-MW Project X facility at Fermilab will employ cavities with bandwidths as narrow as 20 Hz. This combination of high RF power with narrow bandwidths combined requires careful attention to detuning control if these cavities are to be operated successfully. Detuning control for Projects X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various machine subsystems. Considerable progress in this area has been made over the past year. Detuning levels in the Project X cavities, specifically the Low and High β 650 MHz elliptical types, can have a significant impact on the overall cost of the project. The narrow bandwidths, and the high RF Power requirements, and the large number of these cavities mean that careful attention to detuning control will be required if these cavities are to operate successfully. Limiting cavity detuning in Project X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various subsystems of the planned machine. Considerable progress towards this goal has been made by each of these groups over the past year.

  19. Microphonics control for Project X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, W.; Barbanotti, S.; Branlard, J.; Cancelo, G.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Klebaner, A.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The proposed multi-MW Project X facility at Fermilab will employ cavities with bandwidths as narrow as 20 Hz. This combination of high RF power with narrow bandwidths combined requires careful attention to detuning control if these cavities are to be operated successfully. Detuning control for Projects X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various machine subsystems. Considerable progress in this area has been made over the past year. Detuning levels in the Project X cavities, specifically the Low and High {beta} 650 MHz elliptical types, can have a significant impact on the overall cost of the project. The narrow bandwidths, and the high RF Power requirements, and the large number of these cavities mean that careful attention to detuning control will be required if these cavities are to operate successfully. Limiting cavity detuning in Project X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various subsystems of the planned machine. Considerable progress towards this goal has been made by each of these groups over the past year.

  20. [Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0

  1. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  2. The history and assessment of effectiveness of soil erosion control measures deployed in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Golosov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research activities aimed at design and application of soil conservation measures for reduction of soil losses from cultivated fields started in Russia in the last quarter of the 19th century. A network of "zonal agrofor-estry melioration experimental stations" was organized in the different landscape zones of Russia in the first half of the 20th century. The main task of the experiments was to develop effective soil conservation measures for Russian climatic,soil and land use conditions. The most widespread and large-scale introduction of coun-termeasures to cope with soil erosion by water and wind into agricultural practice supported by serious governmental investments took place during the Soviet Union period after the Second World War. After the Soviet Union collapse in 1991 ,general deterioration of the agricultural economy sector and the absence of investments resulted in cessation of organized soil conservation measures application at the nation-wide level. However, some of the long-term erosion control measures such as forest shelter belts, artificial slope terracing, water diversion dams above formerly active gully heads survived until the present. In the case study of sediment redistribution within the small cultivated catchment presented in this paper an attempt was made to evaluate average annual erosion rates on arable slopes with and without soil conservation measures for two time intervals. It has been found that application of conservation measures on cultivated slopes within the experimental part of the case study catchment has led to a decrease of average soil loss rates by at least 2. 5 2. 8 times. The figures obtained are in good agreement with previously published results of direct monitoring of snowmelt erosion rates, reporting approximately a 3 -fold decrease of average snowmelt erosion rates in the experimental sub-catchment compared to a traditionally cultivated control sub-catchment. A substantial decrease of soil

  3. Performance and efficiency of geotextile-supported erosion control measures during simulated rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, Michael; Rauch, Hans Peter; Florineth, Florin

    2013-04-01

    Erosion control systems consisting of technical and biological components are widely accepted and proven to work well if installed properly with regard to site-specific parameters. A wide range of implementation measures for this specific protection purpose is existent and new, in particular technical solutions are constantly introduced into the market. Nevertheless, especially vegetation aspects of erosion control measures are frequently disregarded and should be considered enhanced against the backdrop of the development and realization of adaptation strategies in an altering environment due to climate change associated effects. Technical auxiliaries such as geotextiles typically used for slope protection (nettings, blankets, turf reinforcement mats etc.) address specific features and due to structural and material diversity, differing effects on sediment yield, surface runoff and vegetational development seem evident. Nevertheless there is a knowledge gap concerning the mutual interaction processes between technical and biological components respectively specific comparable data on erosion-reducing effects of technical-biological erosion protection systems are insufficient. In this context, an experimental arrangement was set up to study the correlated influences of geotextiles and vegetation and determine its (combined) effects on surface runoff and soil loss during simulated heavy rainfall events. Sowing vessels serve as testing facilities which are filled with top soil under application of various organic and synthetic geotextiles and by using a reliable drought resistant seed mixture. Regular vegetational monitoring as well as two rainfall simulation runs with four repetitions of each variant were conducted. Therefore a portable rainfall simulator with standardized rainfall intensity of 240 mm h-1 and three minute rainfall duration was used to stress these systems on different stages of plant development at an inclination of 30 degrees. First results show

  4. Runoff erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Evelpidou, Niki (Ed.); Cordier, Stephane (Ed.); Merino, Agustin (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás de (Ed.); Centeri, Csaba (Ed.)

    2013-01-01

    Table of Contents PART I – THEORY OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 1 - RUNOFF EROSION – THE MECHANISMS CHAPTER 2 - LARGE SCALE APPROACHES OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 3 - MEASURING PRESENT RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 4 - MODELLING RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 5 - RUNOFF EROSION AND HUMAN SOCIETIES: THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL EROSION PART II - CASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES – INTRODUCTION: RUNOFF EROSION IN MEDITERRANEAN AREA CASE STUDY 1: Soil Erosion Risk...

  5. Autonomous watersheds: Reducing flooding and stream erosion through real-time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Wong, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce an analytical toolchain, based on dynamical system theory and feedback control, to determine how many control points (valves, gates, pumps, etc.) are needed to transform urban watersheds from static to adaptive. Advances and distributed sensing and control stand to fundamentally change how we manage urban watersheds. In lieu of new and costly infrastructure, the real-time control of stormwater systems will reduce flooding, mitigate stream erosion, and improve the treatment of polluted runoff. We discuss the how open source technologies, in the form of wireless sensor nodes and remotely-controllable valves (open-storm.org), have been deployed to build "smart" stormwater systems in the Midwestern US. Unlike "static" infrastructure, which cannot readily adapt to changing inputs and land uses, these distributed control assets allow entire watersheds to be reconfigured on a storm-by-storm basis. Our results show how the control of even just a few valves within urban catchments (1-10km^2) allows for the real-time "shaping" of hydrographs, which reduces downstream erosion and flooding. We also introduce an equivalence framework that can be used by decision-makers to objectively compare investments into "smart" system to more traditional solutions, such as gray and green stormwater infrastructure.

  6. Anthropogenic control on geomorphic process rates: can we slow down the erosion rates? (Geomorphology Outstanding Young Scientist Award & Penck Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, V.

    2012-04-01

    The surface of the Earth is changing rapidly, largely in response to anthropogenic perturbation. Direct anthropogenic disturbance of natural environments may be much larger in many places than the (projected) indirect effects of climate change. There is now large evidence that humans have significantly altered geomorphic process rates, mainly through changes in vegetation composition, density and cover. While much attention has been given to the impact of vegetation degradation on geomorphic process rates, I suggest that the pathway of restoration is equally important to investigate. First, vegetation recovery after crop abandonment has a rapid and drastic impact on geomorphic process rates. Our data from degraded catchments in the tropical Andes show that erosion rates can be reduced by up to 100 times when increasing the protective vegetation cover. During vegetation restoration, the combined effects of the reduction in surface runoff, sediment production and hydrological connectivity are stronger than the individual effects together. Therefore, changes in erosion and sedimentation during restoration are not simply the reverse of those observed during degradation. Second, anthropogenic perturbation causes a profound but often temporary change in geomorphic process rates. Reconstruction of soil erosion rates in Spain shows us that modern erosion rates in well-vegetated areas are similar to long-term rates, despite evidence of strong pulses in historical erosion rates after vegetation clearance and agriculture. The soil vegetation system might be resilient to short pulses of accelerated erosion (and deposition), as there might exist a dynamic coupling between soil erosion and production also in degraded environments.

  7. Protection from erosion following wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot

    2006-01-01

    Erosion in the first year after a wildfire can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than the erosion from undisturbed forests. To mitigate potential postfire erosion, various erosion control treatments are applied on highly erodible areas with downstream resources in need of protection. Because postfire erosion rates generally decline by an order of magnitude for...

  8. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  9. EPR project construction cost control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Dufour, A.; Kauffmann, G.

    2001-01-01

    The EPR project is now managed by EDF in cooperation with the German Utilities. The main engineering activities for this period are related to the preparation of construction project management, deepening of some safety issues, definition of the project technical reference. The EPR project concerns the so-called reference unit, that is an isolated first-off unit, with unit electrical power of about 1500 MW. The construction costs evaluated are those of the nuclear island, the conventional island, site facilities, installation work and the administrative buildings. The EPR project construction cost evaluation method applies to all the equipment installed and commissioned. It requires the availability of a preliminary project detailed enough to identify the bill of quantities. To these quantities are then assigned updated unit prices that are based either on cost bases for similar and recent facilities or taken from request for quotation for similar equipment or result from gains due to contractual conditions benefiting from simplifications in the functional and technical specifications. The input and output data are managed in a model that respects the breakdown on which the evaluation method is based. The structural organization of this method reflects a functional breakdown on the one hand (nuclear island, conventional island, common site elements) and on the other hand a breakdown according to equipment or activity (civil engineering, mechanics, electricity, instrumentation and control). This paper discusses the principle and the method of construction cost evaluation carried out, the cost data base and input and output parameters as well as results and oncoming cost analysis tasks. (author)

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel project interface control plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This implementation process philosophy is in keeping with the ongoing reengineering of the WHC Controlled Manuals to achieve interface control within the SNF Project. This plan applies to all SNF Project sub-project to sub-project, and sub-project to exteranl (both on and off the Hanford Site) interfaces

  11. Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management

  12. Erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghili, B.

    1999-05-01

    A literature study on erosion-corrosion of pipings in the nuclear industry was performed. Occurred incidents are reviewed, and the mechanism driving the erosion-corrosion is described. Factors that influence the effect in negative or positive direction are treated, as well as programs for control and inspection. Finally, examples of failures from databases on erosion-corrosion are given in an attachment

  13. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  14. Ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basin: climate change impact on water provisioning and erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab F; Passuello, Ana; Sanchez-Canales, María; Terrado, Marta; López, Alfredo; Elorza, F Javier; Ziv, Guy; Acuña, Vicenç; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-08-01

    The Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to human society. The predicted future scenarios for this region present an increased frequency of floods and extended droughts, especially at the Iberian Peninsula. This paper evaluates the impacts of climate change on the water provisioning and erosion control services in the densely populated Mediterranean Llobregat river basin of. The assessment of ecosystem services and their mapping at the basin scale identify the current pressures on the river basin including the source area in the Pyrenees Mountains. Drinking water provisioning is expected to decrease between 3 and 49%, while total hydropower production will decrease between 5 and 43%. Erosion control will be reduced by up to 23%, indicating that costs for dredging the reservoirs as well as for treating drinking water will also increase. Based on these data, the concept for an appropriate quantification and related spatial visualization of ecosystem service is elaborated and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Joint COntrols Project Framework

    CERN Document Server

    González-Berges, M

    2003-01-01

    The Framework is one of the subprojects of the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP), which is collaboration between the four LHC experiments and CERN. By sharing development, this will reduce the overall effort required to build and maintain the experiment control systems. As such, the main aim of the Framework is to deliver a common set of software components, tools and guidelines that can be used by the four LHC experiments to build their control systems. Although commercial components are used wherever possible, further added value is obtained by customisation for HEP-specific applications. The supervisory layer of the Framework is based on the SCADA tool PVSS, which was selected after a detailed evaluation. This is integrated with the front-end layer via both OPC (OLE for Process Control), an industrial standard, and the CERN-developed DIM (Distributed Information Management System) protocol. Several components are already in production and being used by running fixed-target experiments at CERN as well as for th...

  16. Simulation of dambreak flood with erosion effects (CEA R and D Project 718-G-641)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, P.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Most existing mathematical models applicable to dambreak analysis assume the river channel to be rigid. In reality, during the passage of dambreak waves, the banks and the bed of the valley will be eroded by the flood waves, affecting flood levels. A study was carried out to produce a numerical model suitable for use on a personal computer for the simulation of the dambreak wave along erosion-prone channels. The following features were determined to be essential: nonuniform and non-equilibrium transport of graded sediment should be considered; the user should be able to use the sediment transport function of choice; channel roughness should reflect the change of the river channel; armoring of the channel bed should be included; and bank erosion should be considered. Details are given of the mathematical analysis of dam failure, dynamic flood routing, and sediment routing. Preliminary testing showed that the model is usable to perform routing of a dambreak wave along an erodible river channel. Additional options may be added which include various hydraulic structures, description of debris flow, etc. With the inclusion of a width adjustment algorithm, it is able to estimate the vulnerability of river banks, which will be important for civil protection agencies in the preparation of emergency preparedness plans. 23 refs., 7 figs

  17. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    fuel for preparing the germination bed. Presently it is necessary a change concerning the concept of conservation practices and a new approach regarding the control of erosion. The real conservation of soil must be expanded beyond the traditional understanding of soil erosion. The real soil conservation is represented by carbon management. We need to focus to another level concerning conservation by focusing on of soil quality. Carbon management is necessary for a complex of matters including soil, water management, field productivity, biological fuel and climatic change. Profound research is necessary in order to establish the carbon sequestration practices and their implementation impact.

  18. The geomorphic legacy of water and erosion control structures in a semiarid rangeland watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary H.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Sayre, N.F.; Shaw, Jeremy R.

    2018-01-01

    Control over water supply and distribution is critical for agriculture in drylands where manipulating surface runoff often serves the dual purpose of erosion control. However, little is known of the geomorphic impacts and legacy effects of rangeland water manipulation infrastructure, especially if not maintained. This study investigated the geomorphic impacts of structures such as earthen berms, water control gates, and stock tanks, in a semiarid rangeland in the southwestern USA that is responding to both regional channel incision that was initiated over a century ago, and a more recent land use change that involved cattle removal and abandonment of structures. The functional condition of remnant structures was inventoried, mapped, and assessed using aerial imagery and lidar data. Headcut initiation, scour, and channel incision associated with compromised lateral channel berms, concrete water control structures, floodplain water spreader berms, and stock tanks were identified as threats to floodplains and associated habitat. Almost half of 27 identified lateral channel berms (48%) have been breached and 15% have experienced lateral scour; 18% of 218 shorter water spreader berms have been breached and 17% have experienced lateral scour. A relatively small number of 117 stock tanks (6%) are identified as structurally compromised based on analysis of aerial imagery, although many currently do not provide consistent water supplies. In some cases, the onset of localized disturbance is recent enough that opportunities for mitigation can be identified to alter the potentially damaging erosion trajectories that are ultimately driven by regional geomorphic instability. Understanding the effects of prior land use and remnant structures on channel and floodplain morphologic condition is critical because both current land management and future land use options are constrained by inherited land use legacy effects.

  19. Lithium-system corrosion/erosion studies for the FMIT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.

    1983-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment has been studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The liquid lithium test resources and the capabilities of several laboratories were used to study specific concerns associated with the overall objective. Testing conditions ranged from approx. 3700 hours to approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 C to 270 0 C and static lithium at temperatures from 200 0 C to 500 0 C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects of FMIT lithium system materials (largely Type 304 and Type 304L austenitic stainless steels) and candidate materials for major system components

  20. Lithium-system corrosion/erosion studies for the FMIT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G D [comp.

    1983-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment has been studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The liquid lithium test resources and the capabilities of several laboratories were used to study specific concerns associated with the overall objective. Testing conditions ranged from approx. 3700 hours to approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/C to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects of FMIT lithium system materials (largely Type 304 and Type 304L austenitic stainless steels) and candidate materials for major system components.

  1. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Project Qualification Propellant Throughput Milestone: Performance, Erosion, and Thruster Service Life Prediction After 450 kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 28,500 hr of operation and processed 466 kg of xenon throughput--more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  2. In Situ analysis of CO2 laser irradiation on controlling progression of erosive lesions on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci, Vivian; De Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate in situ the effect of CO2 laser irradiation to control the progression of enamel erosive lesions. Fifty-six slabs of bovine incisors enamel (5 × 3 × 2.5 mm(3) ) were divided in four distinct areas: (1) sound (reference area), (2) initial erosion, (3) treatment (irradiated or nonirradiated with CO2 laser), (4) final erosion (after in situ phase). The initial erosive challenge was performed with 1% citric acid (pH = 2.3), for 5 min, 2×/day, for 2 days. The slabs were divided in two groups according to surface treatment: irradiated with CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 µm; 0.5 W) and nonirradiate. After a 2-day lead-in period, 14 volunteers wore an intraoral palatal appliance containing two slabs (irradiated and nonirradiated), in two intraoral phases of 5 days each. Following a cross-over design during the first intraoral phase, half of the volunteers immersed the appliance in 100 mL of citric acid for 5 min, 3×/day, while other half of the volunteers used deionized water (control). The volunteers were crossed over in the second phase. Enamel wear was determined by an optical 3D profilometer. Three-way ANOVA for repeated measures revealed that there was no significant interaction between erosive challenge and CO2 laser irradiation (P = 0.419). Erosive challenge significantly increased enamel wear (P = 0.001), regardless whether or not CO2 laser irradiation was performed. There was no difference in enamel wear between specimens CO2 -laser irradiated and non-irradiated (P = 0.513). Under intraoral conditions, CO2 laser irradiation did not control the progression of erosive lesions in enamel caused by citric acid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Thermal load testing of erosion-monitoring beryllium marker tile for the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Likonen, J.; Lungu, C.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Philipps, V.; Wessel, E.

    2008-01-01

    ITER-Like Wall Project has been launched at JET in order to perform a fully integrated test of plasma-facing materials. During the next major shutdown a full metal wall will be installed: tungsten in the divertor and beryllium in the main chamber. Beryllium erosion is one of key issues to be addressed. Special marker tiles have been designed for this purpose. Test coupons of such markers have been manufactured and examined. The performance test under high power deposition was carried in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The results of material characterization before and after high heat flux loads are presented. The samples survived, without macroscopic damage, power loads of up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (surface temperature ∼650 deg. C) and 50 cyclic loads at 3.5 MW/m 2 lasting 10 s each (surface temperature ∼600 deg. C)

  4. Controlled erosion in asbestos-cement pipe used in drinking water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos, P.

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of asbestos-cement pipe used for drinking water conveyance, were submerged in distilled water, and subjected to two controlled erosive treatments, namely agitation (300 rpm for 60 min and ultrasound (47 kHz for 30 min. SEM was used to observe and compare the morphology of the new pipe with and without erosive treatment, and of samples taken from asbestos-cement pipes used in the distribution system of drinking water in Santiago city for 10 and 40-years of service. TEM was used to determine the concentration of asbestos fibers in the test water: 365 MFL and 1690 MFL (millions of fibers per litre as an agitation and result ultrasound, respectively. The erosive treatments by means of agitation or ultrasound applied to new asbestos-cement pipes used in the drinking water distribution system were evaluated as being equivalent to 4 and 10 years of service, respectively.

    Se sometió a dos tratamientos erosivos controlados uno por agitación (300 rpm, 60 min. y otro por ultrasonido (47 kHz, 30 min. a muestras de tubos de asbesto cemento, sumergidas en agua destilada, usados para el trasporte de agua potable. Con SEM se observó la morfología de muestras de tubos sin uso, con y sin tratamiento erosivo y la de muestras extraídas de tubos de asbesto cemento de la red de distribución de agua potable de ía ciudad de Santiago con 10 y 14 años de servicio. Con TEM se determinó la concentración de fibras de asbesto en el agua de ensayo: 365 MFL y 1690 MFL (millones de fibras por litro en agitación y ultrasonido, respectivamente. Se estimó en 4 y 10 años de servicio equivalente los tratamientos erosivos de agitación y ultrasonido, respectivamente en tubos de asbesto cemento empleados en la red de agua potable.

  5. Wind erosion in the Sahelian zone of Niger : processes, models, and control techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the Sahelian zone of Niger, severe wind erosion occurs mainly in the first half of the rainy season (May - July), when violent winds preceding thunderstorms result in intense sediment transport. Quantification of this wind erosion is difficult due to a high degree of temporal and spatial

  6. Projecting Soil Feedbacks to Atmospheric CO2 Following Erosion and Deposition on Centennial Timescales in Two Contrasting Forests: A Study of Critical Zone-Atmosphere Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, S. A.; Richter, D., Jr.; Ziegler, S. E.; Prestegaard, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    For almost 20 y there has been a growing recognition that erosion and associated lateral movement of SOC does not necessarily result in a net CO2 source from terrestrial sources to the atmosphere. Eroded SOC may undergo mineralization to CO2 at a more rapid pace than it would have in situ, but the eroding ecosystem continues to generate SOC at a potentially modified rate, and the eroding profile may also experience changing SOC mineralization rates. No one knows how these process rates may change upon erosion. Years ago, we introduced a model that computes the influence of erosion on biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange for any profile of interest. The model permits the user to test how assumptions of changing SOC production and mineralization can influence the degree to which erosion induces a net CO2 sink or source. Here we present an analogous model depicting how deposition of eroded SOC also can result in altered biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange. We employ both models to investigate how erosion and deposition in two contrasting forested regions may influence regional C budgets. Runoff-induced erosion in a boreal forest occurs at low rates, but removes C-rich, organic material; anthropogenically-enhanced erosion in a warm temperate forest removed both O- and mineral-rich A-horizons. Model runs (100 y) suggest that even though the great volume of mineral soil eroded from the temperate forest was relatively low-SOC, high erosion rates prompted greater potential for erosion to serve as a net CO2 sink compared to the boreal forest where C-rich material was lost but erosion rates remained low. The models further suggest that changes in SOC production and mineralization at eroding sites in both forest types are a greater influence on CO2 source or sink strength than analogous changes at depositional sites. The fate of eroded material and the influence of erosion and deposition on SOC dynamics remain knowledge gaps critical for projecting atmospheric CO2.

  7. Erosion control technology: a user's guide to the use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation at waste burial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Lane, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) enables the operators of shallow land burial sites to predict the average rate of soil erosion for each feasible alternative combination of plant cover and land management practices in association with a specified soil type, rainfall pattern, and topography. The equation groups the numerous parameters that influence erosion rate under six major factors, whose site-specific values can be expressed numerically. Over a half century of erosion research in the agricultural community has supplied information from which approximate USLE factor values can be obtained for shallow land burial sites throughout the United States. Tables and charts presented in this report make this information readily available for field use. Extensions and limitations of the USLE to shallow land burial systems in the West are discussed, followed by a detailed description of the erosion plot research performed by the nuclear waste management community at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Example applications of the USLE at shallow land burial sites are described, and recommendations for applications of these erosion control technologies are discussed

  8. Impacts of terracing on soil erosion control and crop yield in two agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebuka, Jules; Ryken, Nick; Uwimanzi, Aline; Nkundwakazi, Olive; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion remains a serious limiting factor to the agricultural production in Rwanda. Terracing has been widely adopted in many parts of the country in the past years, but its effectiveness is not yet known. Besides the standard radical (bench) terraces promoted by the government, also progressive terraces (with living hedges) become adopted mainly by the farmers. The aim of this study was to measure short-term (two consecutive rainy seasons 2016A and 2016B) run-off and soil losses for existing radical (RT) and progressive (PT) terraces versus non-protected (NP) fields using erosion plots installed in two agro-ecological zones, i.e. Buberuka highlands (site Tangata) and Eastern plateau (site Murehe) and determine their impacts on soil fertility and crop production. The erosion plot experiment started with a topsoil fertility assessment and during the experiment, maize was grown as farmer's cropping preference in the area. Runoff data were captured after each rainfall event and the collected water samples were dried to determine soil loss. Both erosion control measures reduced soil losses in Tangata, with effectiveness indices ranging from 43 to 100% when compared to the NP plots. RT showed the highest effectiveness, especially in season A. In Murehe, RT minimized runoff and soil losses in both seasons. Yet, the PT were largely inefficient, leading to soil losses exceeding those on the NP plots (ineffectiveness index of -78% and -65% in season A and B, respectively). Though topsoil fertility assessment in the erosion plots showed that the soil quality parameters were significantly higher in RT and NP plots compared to the PT plots on both sites, maize grain yield was not correlated with the physical effectiveness of the erosion control measures. Finally, the effectiveness of soil erosion control measures as well as their positive impacts on soil fertility and production differ not only by terracing type but also by agro-ecological zone and the management or

  9. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 12: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; David Hall

    2005-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Fuel Management (FuMe) tool was developed to estimate sediment generated by fuel management activities. WEPP FuMe estimates sediment generated for 12 fuel-related conditions from a single input. This fact sheet identifies the intended users and uses, required inputs, what the model does, and tells the user how to obtain the...

  10. Use of hold-gro erosion control fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A D; Ludeke, K L

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine, Kayenta, Arizona in 1977 and 1978 to study the effectiveness of Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric (a product from the Gulf States Paper Corporation, Tuscaloosa, Alabama) in the establishment of plants on coal mine soil following the surface mining of coal. Four plant species were planted: (1) spring barley (Horduem vulgare L.), an annual grass (2) crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.), a perennial grass (3) alfalfa (lucerne) (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial legume and (4) fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens Pursh.), a perennial shrub. Seeds of each plant species were planted in reclaimed coal mine soil in the spring of the year by both broadcast seeding (conventional culture) and the incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. Average numbers of seedlings established and percent ground cover for all species studied were higher in areas where conventional culture was used than they were in areas where seeds were incorporated in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. The incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil was not an effective cultural practice in the southwestern United States.

  11. Use of Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Ludeke, K.L.

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine, Kayenta, Arizona in 1977 and 1978 to study the effectiveness of Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric (a product from the Gulf States Paper Corporation, Tuscaloosa, Alabama) in the establishment of plants on coal mine soil following the surface mining of coal. Four plant species were planted: spring barley (Horduem vulgare L.), an annual grass; crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.), a perennial grass; alfalfa (lucerne) (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial legume; and fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens Pursh.), a perennial shrub. Seeds of each plant species were planted in reclaimed coal mine soil in the spring of the year by both broadcast seeding (conventional culture) and the incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. Average numbers of seedlings established and percent ground cover for all species studied were higher in areas where conventional culture was used than they were in areas where seeds were incorporated in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric. The incorporation of seeds in Hold-Gro Erosion Control Fabric in the establishment of plant species on coal mine soil was not an effective cultural practice in the southwestern United States. 11 refs.

  12. Erosion and erosion-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomoto, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    It is very difficult to interpret the technical term of erosion-corrosion' which is sometimes encountered in piping systems of power plants, because of complicated mechanisms and several confusing definitions of erosion-corrosion phenomena. 'FAC (flow accelerated corrosion)' is recently introduced as wall thinning of materials in power plant systems, as a representative of 'erosion-corrosion'. FAC is, however, not necessarily well understood and compared with erosion-corrosion. This paper describes firstly the origin, definition and fundamental understandings of erosion and erosion-corrosion, in order to reconsider and reconfirm the phenomena of erosion, erosion-corrosion and FAC. Next, typical mapping of erosion, corrosion, erosion-corrosion and FAC are introduced in flow velocity and environmental corrosiveness axes. The concept of damage rate in erosion-corrosion is finally discussed, connecting dissolution rate, mass transfer of metal ions in a metal oxide film and film growth. (author)

  13. Canada: Darlington NPP. Project Control. Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieckowski, G.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The just slowed down and delayed. Senior engineering, construction and procurement staff stayed with the project. Documentation was preserved though normal functioning of the records department project was completed and put into service with a few years' delay. (author)

  14. 233S Decommissioning Project Environmental Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This Environmental Control Plan is for the 233S Decommissioning activities conducted under the removal action report for the 233S Decontamination and Demolition Project. The purpose of this ECP is to identify environmental requirements for the 233S project. The ECP is a compilation of existing environmental permit conditions, regulatory requirements, and environmental requirements applicable to the specific project or functional activity

  15. The control of divertor carbon erosion/redeposition in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak has demonstrated an operational scenario where the graphite-covered divertor is free of net erosion. Reduction of divertor carbon erosion is accomplished using a low temperature (detached) divertor plasma that eliminates physical sputtering. Likewise, the carbon source rate arising from chemical erosion is found to be very low in the detached divertor. Near strikepoint regions, the rate of carbon deposition is ∼3 cm/burn-year, with a corresponding hydrogenic codeposition rate >1kg/m 2 /burn-year; rates both problematic for steady-state fusion reactors. The carbon net deposition rate in the divertor is consistent with carbon arriving from the core plasma region. Carbon influx from the main wall is measured to be relatively large in the high-density detached regime and is of sufficient magnitude to account for the deposition rate in the divertor. Divertor redeposition is therefore determined by non-divertor erosion and transport. Despite the success in reducing divertor erosion on DIII-D with detachment, no significant reduction is found in the core plasma carbon density, illustrating the importance of non-divertor erosion and the complex coupling between erosion/redeposition and impurity plasma transport. (author)

  16. TILLAGE EROSION: THE PRINCIPLES, CONTROLLING FACTORS AND MAIN IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wysocka-Czubaszek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage erosion is one of the major contributors to landscape evolution in hummocky agricultural landscapes. This paper summarizes the available data describing tillage erosion caused by hand-held or other simple tillage implements as well as tools used in typical conventional agriculture in Europe and North America. Variations in equipment, tillage speed, depth and direction result in a wide range of soil translocation rates observed all over the world. The variety of tracers both physical and chemical gives a challenge to introduce the reliable model predicting tillage erosion, considering the number and type of tillage operation in the whole tillage sequence.

  17. [Anti-erosion effect of hedgerows in hillside croplands of Danjiangkou based on the evaluation with water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qin-xue; Liu, Zhang-yong; Yao, Gui-zhi; Li, Ben-zhou

    2010-09-01

    Based on the data of field experiments on the hillside croplands of Danjiangkou, Hubei Province of China, the input files of crop characters, management measures, slope gradient and length, and soil properties for running WEPP model (Hillslope version) were established. Combining with the local weather data, a simulation study with the model was made on the runoff and soil loss of the croplands protected by four kinds of hedgerows (Amorpha fruticosa, Lonicera japonica, Hemerocallis fulva, and Poa sphondylodes) in Danjiangkou area. The resulted showed that WEPP model could accurately simulate the anti-erosion effect of hedgerows in hillside farmlands in the study area. Using this model not only reduced test number, but also saved time and effort, being able to provide scientific basis for the popularization and application of hedgerows. Among the four hedgerows, Amorpha fruticosa had the best anti-erosion effect. According to the simulation, the optimal planting density of A. fruticosa hedgerows in the farmlands was 1 m x 15 m at slope gradient 5 degrees, 1 m x 10 m at slope gradient 15 degrees, and 1 m x 3 m at slope gradient 25 degrees.

  18. Buhne Point Shoreline Erosion Demonstration Project. Volume 1. Appendices A-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    discussion, ;rojected costs are based on S.C rcr hour for latrers an’ S17 per hour for supervisors. These firures arc assumed to cover on!y waces and...in Phase Two, and simple " " economies of scale for the larger planting. The average dune grass planting labor in the Phase One project was 38 to 64...attributed to economies of scale, but may be attributed to greater crew efficiency. Other planting-related activities such as orientation, tool and

  19. Reconciling water harvesting and soil erosion control by thoughtful implementation of SWC measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, N.; Vanacker, V.; van Wesemael, B.

    2012-04-01

    -agricultural catchments have been found only partially filled with sediments. Extensive reforestation programs, recovery of natural vegetation (dense matorral) and abandonment of agricultural fields in the Sierras led to a strong reduction of the sediment transport towards the river system. Although the effect of the check dams on the transport of sediment has not been important, the check dams have played a major role in flood control in the area. Our data indicate that thoughtful design of SWC schemes is necessary to reconcile water harvesting, erosion mitigation and flood control. Currently, the erosion hotspots are clearly localized in the agricultural fields, and not in the marginal lands in the Sierras. The combination of on-site and off-site SWC measures in the agricultural areas is highly efficient to reduce fluxes of sediment and surface water.

  20. Influence of Gully Erosion Control on Amphibian and Reptile Communities within Riparian Zones of Channelized Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian zones of streams in northwestern Mississippi have been impacted by agriculture, channelization, channel incision, and gully erosion. Riparian gully formation has resulted in the fragmentation of remnant riparian zones within agricultural watersheds. One widely used conservation practice for...

  1. 1 Indigenous Approach to the Control of Soil Erosion among Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.1 No.1 March. 2008. * Department of ... KEY WORDS- Indigenous knowledge, Soil erosion, Asa, Kwara. Introduction rosion is ... recipients of these innovations. Local farmers.

  2. Testing the Control of Mineral Supply Rates on Chemical Erosion Rates in the Klamath Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N.; Ferrier, K.

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between rates of chemical erosion and mineral supply is central to many problems in Earth science, including how tightly Earth's climate should be coupled to tectonics, how strongly nutrient supply to soils and streams depends on soil production, and how much lithology affects landscape evolution. Despite widespread interest in this relationship, there remains no consensus on how closely coupled chemical erosion rates should be to mineral supply rates. To address this, we have established a network of field sites in the Klamath Mountains along a latitudinal transect that spans an expected gradient in mineral supply rates associated with the geodynamic response to the migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Here, we present new measurements of regolith geochemistry and topographic analyses that will be compared with cosmogenic 10Be measurements to test hypotheses about supply-limited and kinetically-limited chemical erosion on granodioritic ridgetops. Previous studies in this area suggest a balance between rock uplift rates and basin wide erosion rates, implying the study ridgetops may have adjusted to an approximate steady state. Preliminary data are consistent with a decrease in chemical depletion fraction (CDF) with increasing ridgetop curvature. To the extent that ridgetop curvature reflects ridgetop erosion rates, this implies that chemical erosion rates at these sites are influenced by both mineral supply rates and dissolution kinetics.

  3. Alginate controls heartburn in patients with erosive and nonerosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Edoardo; de Bortoli, Nicola; Zentilin, Patrizia; Martinucci, Irene; Bruzzone, Luca; Furnari, Manuele; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2012-08-28

    To evaluate the effect of a novel alginate-based compound, Faringel, in modifying reflux characteristics and controlling symptoms. In this prospective, open-label study, 40 patients reporting heartburn and regurgitation with proven reflux disease (i.e., positive impedance-pH test/evidence of erosive esophagitis at upper endoscopy) underwent 2 h impedance-pH testing after eating a refluxogenic meal. They were studied for 1 h under basal conditions and 1 h after taking 10 mL Faringel. In both sessions, measurements were obtained in right lateral and supine decubitus positions. Patients also completed a validated questionnaire consisting of a 2-item 5-point (0-4) Likert scale and a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) in order to evaluate the efficacy of Faringel in symptom relief. Tolerability of the treatment was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale ranging from very good (1) to very poor (6). Faringel decreased significantly (P heartburn, based on both the Likert scale [3.1 (range 1-4) vs 0.9 (0-2); P heartburn by modifying esophageal acid exposure time, number of acid refluxes and their proximal migration.

  4. Project control of WENDELSTEIN 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Gottschewsky, M.; Heinrich, S.

    2001-01-01

    WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is an experimental stellarator presently under construction at the new branch of IPP Garching at Greifswald. Since its beginning in 1996, the project W7-X Construction has been incorporating a comprehensive project control activity to assure the plant is constructed according to schedule and budget. The working fields of the project control--organization, planning and controlling--are described together with the relevant boundary conditions of the project. The activities in these fields are highlighted and an overview of the status of the project is given with emphasis on the components on the time-critical path. As conclusions some important issues for the future of the project are specified

  5. INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Yudenkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation and technics of the account of expenses, efficiency, financial result should enter into the list of regular checks from service of internal control that demands corresponding vocational training of internal controlers which should own methods of an estimation of expediency of acquisition of long-term actives.

  6. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  7. Bulgaria: Belene NPP. Project Control. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatov, N.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The Belene project has been suspended for 7 years after approx. 50% of money had been spent. Equipment, structures and documentation have been well protected, but majority of qualified personnel have been lost. Resumption of work awaits government decision and provision of funds. (author)

  8. Cuba: Juragua NPP. Project Control. Annex 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradet, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. The long suspension of Juragua NPP has affected personnel, equipment and site structures. Efforts are being made to revive the plant and to protect existing resources (assets). An action plan has been prepared. (author)

  9. Barrier erosion control test plan: Gravel mulch, vegetation, and soil water interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Link, S.O. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Soil erosion could reduce the water storage capacity of barriers that have been proposed for the disposal of near-surface waste at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Gravel mixed into the top soil surface may create a self-healing veneer that greatly retards soil loss. However, gravel admixtures may also enhance infiltration of rainwater, suppress plant growth and water extraction, and lead to the leaching of underlying waste. This report describes plans for two experiments that were designed to test hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of surface gravel admixtures, revegetation, and enhanced precipitation on soil water balance and plant abundance. The first experiment is a factorial field plot set up on the site selected as a soil borrow area for the eventual construction of barriers. The treatments, arranged in a a split-split-plot design structure, include two densities of gravel admix, a mixture of native and introduced grasses, and irrigation to simulate a wetter climate. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover are monitored with neutron moisture probes and point intercept sampling, respectively. The second experiment consists of an array of 80 lysimeters containing several different barrier prototypes. Surface treatments are similar to the field-plot experiment. Drainage is collected from a valve at the base of each lysimeter tube, and evapotranspiration is estimated by subtraction. The lysimeters are also designed to be coupled to a whole-plant gas exchange system that will be used to conduct controlled experiments on evapotranspiration for modeling purposes. 56 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance retain terraces on soil erosion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The GAEC standard retain terraces of cross compliance prohibits farmers the elimination of existing terraces, with the aim to ensure the protection of soil from erosion. In the Italian literature there are not field studies to quantify the effects of the elimination or degradation of terraces on soil erosion. Therefore, the modeling approach was chosen and applied in a scenario analysis to evaluate increasing levels of degradation of stone wall terraces. The study was conducted on two sample areas: Lamole (700.8 ha, Tuscany and Costaviola (764.73 ha, Calabria with contrasting landscapes. The Universal Soil Loss Equation model (USLE was applied in the comparative assessment of the soil erosion risk (Mg . ha-1 . yr-1, by simulating five increasing intensity of terrace degradation, respectively: conserved partially damaged, very damaged, partially removed, removed, each of which corresponding to different values of the indexes of verification in case of infringement to GAEC standard provided for by the AGEA rules which have come into force since December 2009 (Agency for Agricultural Payments. To growing intensity of degradation, a progressive loss of efficacy of terraces was attributed by increasing the values of the LS factor (length and slope of USLE in relation with the local modification of the length and steepness of the slope between adjacent terraces. Basically, it was simulated the gradual return to the natural morphology of the slope. The results of the analysis showed a significant increase in erosion in relationship with increasing degradation of terraces. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that the GAEC standard retain terraces is very effective with regard to the primary objective of reducing erosion. A further statistical analysis was performed to test the protective value of terraces against soil erosion in areas where agriculture was abandoned. The analysis was carried out by comparing the specific risk of erosion (Mg . ha-1

  11. Natural and anthropogenic controls on soil erosion in the internal betic Cordillera (southeast Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellin, N.; VanAcker, V.; Wesemael, van B.; Solé-Benet, A.; Bakker, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soil erosion in southeast Spain is a complex process due to strong interactions between biophysical and human components. Significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of soil hydrological behavior, despite the fact that most investigations were focused on the experimental plot scale.

  12. Soil erosion and sediment production on watershed landscapes: Processes and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Kenneth N. Brooks; Daniel G. Neary; Roberto Pizarro Tapia; Pablo Garcia-Chevesich

    2013-01-01

    Losses of the soil resources from otherwise productive and well functioning watersheds is often a recurring problem confronting hydrologists and watershed managers. These losses of soil have both on-site and off-site effects on the watershed impacted. In addition to the loss of inherent soil resources through erosion processes, on-site effects can include the breakdown...

  13. The effectiveness of aerial hydromulch as an erosion control treatment in burned chaparral watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Wohlgemuth; Jan Beyers; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    High severity wildfire can make watersheds susceptible to accelerated erosion, which impedes resource recovery and threatens life, property, and infrastructure in downstream human communities. Land managers often use mitigation measures on the burned hillside slopes to reduce postfire sediment fluxes. Hydromulch, a slurry of paper or wood fiber that dries to a...

  14. The role of forest stand density in controlling soil erosion: implications to sediment-related disasters in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindrabe, Bam H N; He, Bin; Inoue, Shoji; Ezaki, Tsugio; Shaw, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    The role of forest stand density in controlling soil erosion was investigated in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. The main objective was to compare soil erosion under different forest conditions including forest type, species composition, and stand density as influenced by thinning operations. Relative yield index (Ry) was used as an indicator of stand density to reflect the degree of management operations in the watershed. Eleven treatments were established based on the above forest conditions. Soil loss was collected in each of the 11 treatments after each rainfall event for a period of 1 year. The paper presents summary data on soil loss as affected by forest conditions and rainfall patterns. Findings showed that an appropriate forest management operation, which can be insured by stand density control, is needed to reduce soil loss. The present study plays an important role in clarifying technical processes related to soil erosion, while it helps linking these elements to current Japanese forestry issues and bringing new inputs to reducing sediment-related disasters in Japan.

  15. Nourishment of perched sand dunes and the issue of erosion control in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, William M.

    1990-09-01

    Although limited in coverage, perched sand dunes situated on high coastal bluffs are considered the most prized of Great Lakes dunes. Grand Sable Dunes on Lake Superior and Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan are featured attractions of national lakeshores under National Park Service management. The source of sand for perched dunes is the high bluff along their lakeward edge. As onshore wind crosses the bluff, flow is accelerated upslope, resulting in greatly elevated levels of wind stress over the slope brow. On barren, sandy bluffs, wind erosion is concentrated in the brow zone, and for the Grand Sable Bluff, it averaged 1 m3/yr per linear meter along the highest sections for the period 1973 1983. This mechanism accounts for about 6,500 m3 of sand nourishment to the dunefield annually and clearly has been the predominant mechanism for the long-term development of the dunefield. However, wind erosion and dune nourishment are possible only where the bluff is denuded of plant cover by mass movements and related processes induced by wave erosion. In the Great Lakes, wave erosion and bluff retreat vary with lake levels; the nourishment of perched dunes is favored by high levels. Lake levels have been relatively high for the past 50 years, and shore erosion has become a major environmental issue leading property owners and politicians to support lake-level regulation. Trimming high water levels could reduce geomorphic activity on high bluffs and affect dune nourishment rates. Locally, nourishment also may be influenced by sediment accumulation associated with harbor protection facilities and by planting programs aimed at stabilizing dunes.

  16. The relative importance of different grass components in controlling runoff and erosion on a hillslope under simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changjia; Pan, Chengzhong

    2018-03-01

    The effects of vegetation cover on overland flow and erosion processes on hillslopes vary with vegetation type and spatial distribution and the different vegetation components, including the above- and below-ground biomass. However, few attempts have been made to quantify how these factors affect erosion processes. Field experimental plots (5 m × 2 m) with a slope of approximately 25° were constructed and simulated rainfall (60 mm hr-1) (Rainfall) and simulated rainfall combined with upslope overland flow (20 L min-1) (Rainfall + Flow) were applied. Three grass species were planted, specifically Astragalus adsurgens (A. adsurgens), Medicago sativa (M. sativa) and Cosmos bipinnatus (C. bipinnatus). To isolate and quantify the relative contributions of the above-ground grass parts (stems, litter cover and leaves) and the roots to reducing surface runoff and erosion, each of the three grass species was subjected to three treatments: intact grass control (IG), no litter or leaves (only the grass stems and roots were reserved) (NLL), and only roots remaining (OR). The results showed that planting grass significantly reduced overland flow rate and velocity and sediment yield, and the mean reductions were 21.8%, 29.1% and 67.1%, respectively. M. sativa performed the best in controlling water and soil losses due to its thick canopy and dense, fine roots. Grasses reduced soil erosion mainly during the early stage of overland flow generation. The above-ground grass parts primarily contributed to reducing overland flow rate and velocity, with mean relative contributions of 64% and 86%, respectively. The roots played a predominant role in reducing soil erosion, with mean contribution of 84%. Due to the impact of upslope inflow, overland flow rate and velocity and sediment yield increased under the Rainfall + Flow conditions. The results suggest that grass species on downslope parts of semi-arid hillslopes performed better in reducing water and soil losses. This study is

  17. Erosion Control and Recultivation Measures at a Headrace Channel of a Hydroelectric Power Plant using Different Combined Soil Bioengineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obriejetan, M.; Florineth, F.; Rauch, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of land use change resulting in an increased number of slope protection constructions and with respect to effects associated with climate change like extremes in temperatures and temperature variations or increased frequency of heavy precipitation, adaptation strategies for sustainable erosion protection systems are needed which meet ecological compatibility and economical requirements. Therefore a wide range of different technical solutions respectively geotextiles and geotextile-related products (blankets, nettings, grids etc.) are available on the market differing considerably in function, material, durability and pricing. Manufacturers usually provide product-specific information pertaining to application field, functional range or (technical) installation features whereas vegetational aspects are frequently neglected while vegetation can contribute substantially to increased near-surface erosion protection respectively slope stability. Though, the success of sustainable erosion control is directly dependent on several vegetational aspects. Adequate development of a functional vegetation layer in combination with geotextiles is closely associated to application aspects such as seeding technique, sowing date and intensity, seed-soil contact or maintenance measures as well as to qualitative aspects like seed quality, germination rates, area of origin, production method or certification. As a general guideline, erosion control within an initial phase is directly related to restoration techniques whereas vegetation specifics with regard to species richness or species composition play a key role in medium to long-term development and slope protection. In this context one of the fundamental objectives of our study is the identification and subsequently the determination of the main interaction processes between technical and biological components of combined slope protection systems. The influence of different geotextile characteristics on specific

  18. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard Short-term measures for runoff water control on sloping land (temporary ditches and grass strips in controlling soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The agronomic measures made obligatory by the cross-compliance Standard Temporary measures for runoff water control on sloping land included in the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF decree on cross compliance until 2008, and by Standard 1.1 Creation of temporary ditches for the prevention of soil erosion in the 2009 decree, certainly appear to be useful for the control of soil erosion and runoff. The efficacy of temporary drainage ditches and of grass strips in controlling runoff and erosion has been demonstrated in trials conducted in field test plots in Italy. When level temporary drainage ditches are correctly built, namely with an inclination of not more than 2.5% in relation to the maximum hillslope gradient, they allow the suspended sediment eroded upstream to settle in the ditches, retaining the material carried away on the slope and, as a result, reducing the quantity of sediment delivered to the hydrographic network. In particular, among all the results, the erosion and runoff data in a trial conducted in Guiglia (Modena showed that in corn plots, temporary drainage ditches reduced soil erosion by 94%, from 14.4 Mg ha-1 year-1 (above the limit established by the NRCS-USDA of 11.2 Mg ha-1 year-1 to 0.8 Mg ha-1 year-1 (within the NRCS limit and also within the more restrictive limit established by the OECD of 6.0 Mg ha-1 year-1. With respect to the grass buffer strips the most significant research was carried out in Volterra. This research demonstrated their efficacy in reducing erosion from 8.15 Mg ha-1 to 1.6 Mg ha-1, which is approximately 5 times less than the erosion observed on bare soil. The effectiveness of temporary drainage ditches was also assessed through the application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE erosion model to 60 areas under the control of the Agency for Agricultural Payments (AGEA in 2009, comparing the risk of erosion in these sample areas by simulating the presence and

  19. History of bioengineering techniques for erosion control in rivers in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evette, Andre; Labonne, Sophie; Rey, Freddy; Liebault, Frederic; Jancke, Oliver; Girel, Jacky

    2009-06-01

    Living plants have been used for a very long time throughout the world in structures against soil erosion, as traces have been found dating back to the first century BC. Widely practiced in Western Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, bioengineering was somewhat abandoned in the middle of the twentieth century, before seeing a resurgence in recent times. Based on an extensive bibliography, this article examines the different forms of bioengineering techniques used in the past to manage rivers and riverbanks, mainly in Europe. We compare techniques using living material according to their strength of protection against erosion. Many techniques are described, both singly and in combination, ranging from tree planting or sowing seeds on riverbanks to dams made of fascine or wattle fences. The recent appearance of new materials has led to the development of new techniques, associated with an evolution in the perception of riverbanks.

  20. An investigation of bergmounds as analogs to erosion control factors on protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    Included in several of the final disposal strategies proposed in the Interim Hanford Waste Management Plan (DOE-RL 1986a) is design of a protective barrier to isolate the underlying waste sites from the environment. The conceptual protective barrier design requires a fine-grained sediment to retain precipitation near the top of the barrier where evapotranspiration can recycle the moisture back into the atmosphere. The design incorporates gravel into the topsoil as one way to reduce its erosion. Information is needed to determine the optimal ratio of gravel to topsoil needed to reduce erosion without significantly reducing evapotranspiration, and its effect on erosion. Bergmounds are mounds with a gravelly surface that were formed about 13,000 years ago and represent natural analogs to the topsoil portion of the protective barrier. The primary goal of this study was to identify characteristics of bergmounds and the effects of these characteristics, especially the gravelly surface, on the amount and rate of erosion. A secondary goal was to apply a technique normally used to estimate vegetation cover to measure percent gravel cover, and to compare this technique with particle size distribution based on weight percent. Four bergmounds were investigated for this study, two in a windy site and two in a more sheltered site. Each bergmound was sampled in eight locations. Two methods were used to estimate the amount of surface gravel: the ocular point-intercept method which estimates the percent gravel cover, and sieved samples of the surface sediments which measure the percent gravel by weight. Holes were dug at each bergmound's eight sampling sites to examine and sample the subsurface sediments

  1. [Influence of three types of riparian vegetation on fluvial erosion control in Pantanos de Centla, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Geissen, Violette; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Jarquín-Sánchez, Aarón; de la Cruz, Simón Hernández; Capetillo, Edward; Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe

    2009-12-01

    Wetlands constitute very important ecological areas. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil losses due to fluvial erosion from 2006 to 2008 in two riverbanks under three types of vegetal coverage dominated by Haematoxylum campechianum, Dalbergia brownei and Brachiaria mutica, in the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve, SE Mexico. The relationship between the texture, organic matter and pH of soils and soil losses was evaluated. We used erosion sticks to estimate soil losses in 18 plots (three plots per type, three vegetation types, two riverbanks). Soil loss decreased in this order: H. campechianum>B. mutica>D. brownei indicating that D. brownei scrubland has the most potential to retain soil. The higher erosive impact within H. campechianum sites can be related with the low density of these trees in the study areas, as well as the lack of association with other types of vegetation that could reinforce the rooting of the soil profile. Furthermore, soil losses in H. campechianum sites were dependent on soil texture. The soils under this type of vegetal coverage were mainly sandy, which are more vulnerable to the erosive action in comparison with fine textured soils or soils with higher clay content, like the ones found in D. brownei and B. mutica sites. Soil losses of 100 % in the second year (B. mutica plots) can be attributed to the distribution of roots in the upper soil layer and also to livestock management along riverbanks. This study recognizes the importance of D. brownei scrublands in riverbank soil retention. Nevertheless it is necessary to consider the role of an entire vegetal community in future research.

  2. Shoreline Erosion and Proposed Control at Experimental Facility 15-Spesutie Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction Coastal erosion is the wearing away of land and the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action...the land , air, and water defines the wetted perimeter where land use and clearing practices have taken on an adversarial role with regard to the...stand with approximately 30–40 ft of manicured lawn to the shoreline. There are no trees on the range proper, with only a smattering of indigenous

  3. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  4. Effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on cassava yield, soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Titiek; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Utomo, Wani

    2016-04-01

    Three years field experiments were conducted to study the effect of chemical and mechanical weed control on soil quality and erosion under cassava cropping system. The experiment were conducted at University Brawijaya field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The experiments were carried out from 2011 - 2014. The treatments consist of three cropping system (cassava mono culture; cassava + maize intercropping and cassava + peanut intercropping), and two weed control method (chemical and mechanical methods). The experimental result showed that the yield of cassava first year and second year did not influenced by weed control method and cropping system. However, the third year yield of cassava was influence by weed control method and cropping system. The cassava yield planted in cassava + maize intercropping system with chemical weed control methods was only 24 t/ha, which lower compared to other treatments, even with that of the same cropping system used mechanical weed control. The highest cassava yield in third year was obtained by cassava + peanuts cropping system with mechanical weed control method. After three years experiment, the soil of cassava monoculture system with chemical weed control method possessed the lowest soil organic matter, and soil aggregate stability. During three years of cropping soil erosion in chemical weed control method, especially on cassava monoculture, was higher compared to mechanical weed control method. The soil loss from chemical control method were 40 t/ha, 44 t/ha and 54 t/ha for the first, second and third year crop. The soil loss from mechanical weed control method for the same years was: 36 t/ha, 36 t/ha and 38 t/ha. Key words: herbicide, intercropping, soil organic matter, aggregate stability.

  5. The JET PCU project: An international plasma control project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, F.; Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Toigo, V.; Hay, J.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Shaw, S.R.; Luchetta, A.; Sousa, J.; Portone, A.; Bonicelli, T.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bigi, M.; Card, P.; Cavinato, M.; De Tommasi, G.; Gaio, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the new JET enhancement project 'Plasma Control Upgrade' (PCU). Initially aimed at an overhaul of JET plasma control capabilities it was eventually focused on improving the vertical stabilisation (VS) system ability to recover from large ELM (edge localised mode) perturbations. The paper describes the results of the first two years where the activity was aimed principally at researching a solution that could be implemented within the timing and budget constraints. A very important task was that of improving the modelling of JET plasma, iron core and passive structures. Using dedicated experiments, the models were progressively refined until it was possible not just to explain the experimental data but predict the VS system behaviour. At the same time the project team studied the best options for power supply (PS) and control system upgrades and evaluated whether a change of turns in the stabilisation coil was desirable and possible. A new fast radial field power supply is now being ordered and the VS control system is being upgraded

  6. Erosive gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, S.H.; Conrad, C.; Kjoergaad, J.

    1982-01-01

    Erosive gastritis is a well-defined radiologic and endoscopic entity. It is one of the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet it is seldom diagnosed and often confused with a number of other diseases. This communication re-emphasizes the characteristic endoscopic and radiologic features of erosive gastritis and its differential diagnosis. Two representative cases are reported. (orig.)

  7. Erosive gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, S.H.; Conrad, C.; Kjoergaad, J.

    1982-08-01

    Erosive gastritis is a well-defined radiologic and endoscopic entity. It is one of the common causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, yet it is seldom diagnosed and often confused with a number of other diseases. This communication re-emphasizes the characteristic endoscopic and radiologic features of erosive gastritis and its differential diagnosis. Two representative cases are reported.

  8. Slovakia: Mochovce NPP. Project control. Annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodorik, K.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. Mochovce NPP suffered considerable delay primarily due to lack of money. This situation was corrected and construction resumed in 1996. Throughout the 'dormant' period the plant received considerable support from the major contractors, who maintained skeleton staff at site. Significant safety and managerial improvements are being introduced and a strategic plan for the plant has been developed. (author)

  9. Spain: Project control. Annex 11B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Rodriguez, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. This annex outlines the method of accounting and coding of expenses during the various phases of transition from construction to long-term suspension. In this way costs can be accurately traced and assigned appropriately. This is an essential part of managing during the suspension phase. (author)

  10. CONTROL OF EROSION PROCESSES RESULTING FROM DISRUPTION OF ADDUCTOR IN THE SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA, SP, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admilson Clayton Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the southern escarpment of the Serra da Mantiqueira, northeast geographic divider between the State of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, there was an environmental accident caused by the disruption of an adductor whose purpose is to lead the water from a reservoir located at an altitude of 1820 m to the machine house where there is an electric generator located at 750 m.  This accident resulted in the formation of a scar on the hillside forest, with removal of soil and vegetation. To reverse the erosion processes, a methodology was developed consisting of the use of four barriers (numbered I to IV formed by seedlings of Bambusa mutiplex (Lour., whose purpose was to divert the water runoff in order to provide the regeneration of native vegetation. Stalks of bamboo intercropped with Bambusa multiplex were used to contain debris in two gullies formed by erosion. The development of vegetation was monitored for 18 months and evaluated by the application of a Leopold Matrix composed of 5 points, which are: erosion, regeneration of vegetation, success of bamboo planting, installed conservation structures and functionality. The purpose of the matrix was to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions using bamboo. The result of the classification matrix enabled the quantitative and qualitative classification of the interventions, resulting in five levels, where the barriers I, II and IV were considered to be of very high efficiency, and barrier III was considered to be of high efficiency. The contention of the gully was considered to be of medium to very high efficiency.

  11. Strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmeter, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The book on strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects covers the following issues: frame of project management and project controlling, classification of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities as resource intensive projects, research design for case studies, results of the study of project management specific characteristics of decommissioning, reference model for the project management of nuclear facility decommissioning.

  12. The LHC experiments' joint controls project (JCOP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayne Salter

    2001-01-01

    The development and maintenance of the control systems of the four Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments will require a non-negligible amount of resources and effort. In order to minimise the overall effort required the Joint Controls Project (JCOP) was set-up as a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for the control of the LHC experiments. It is one of the few examples of such a wide collaboration and therefore the existence of the JCOP project is extremely significant. The author will give a brief overview of the project, its structure and its history. It will go on to summarise the various sub-projects that have been initiated under the auspices of JCOP together will their current status. It will highlight that the JCOP general principle is to promote the use of industrial solutions wherever possible. However, this does not rule out the provision of custom solutions when non-standard devices or very large numbers of devices have to be controlled. The author will also discuss the architecture foreseen by JCOP and where in this architecture the various types of solutions are expected to be used. Finally, although the selection of common industrial and custom solutions is a necessary condition for JCOP to succeed, the use of these solutions in themselves would not necessarily lead to the production of homogeneous control systems. Therefore, the author will finish with a description of the JCOP Framework, which is being developed to promote the use of these common solutions, to reduce the development effort required by the various experiment development teams and to help to build and integrate control systems which can be more easily maintained

  13. Effects of erosion control structures along a portion of the northern Chesapeake Bay shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabawa, C.F.; Kerhin, R.T.; Bayley, S.

    1981-01-01

    A 6.500-meter reach of western Chesapeake Bay shoreline (lower Mayo Peninsula) lost about 1.1??106 cubic meters of sediment (equivalent to 170 cubic meters lost per meter of shoreline) between 1846 and 1932, when the first aerial photographs show the shoreline already substantially protected by a system of groins and intermittent bulkheading. These structures have eliminated the fastland as a source of erodable material, and have starved the supply of sand for littoral drift, thus limiting the extent of the beaches to the remaining groin fields. Volumes of sediment involved in these impacts are small in the overall sediment budget. Bulkheads produce no deficit in the budget since scouring of the beaches on their seaward sides makes up for the decreased erosion of protected fastland. Groins trap little of the potential littoral drift (computed to be about 104 cubic meters per meter of shoreline per year). The sand supply in the remaining beaches is nearly equivalent to the annual loss of sediment from the entire shoreline system due to the long-term rate of erosion of the shoreline and nearshore between 1846 and 1932. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, M.J.; Gentcheva-Kostadinova, S.; Zheleva, E.

    1995-01-01

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm 3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. A PERMEABLE ACTIVE AMENDMENT CONCRETE (PAAC) FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION AND EROSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Dixon, K.

    2012-06-29

    The final project report for SEED SERDP ER - 2134 describes the development of permeable active amendment concrete (PAAC), which was evaluated through four tasks: 1) development of PAAC; 2) assessment of PAAC for contaminant removal; 3) evaluation of promising PAAC formulations for potential environmental impacts; and 4) assessment of the hydraulic, physical, and structural properties of PAAC. Conventional permeable concrete (often referred to as pervious concrete) is concrete with high porosity as a result of an extensive and interconnected void content. It is made from carefully controlled amounts of water and cementitious materials used to create a paste that forms a coating around aggregate particles. The mixture has a substantial void content (e.g., 15% - 25%) that results in a highly permeable structure that drains quickly. In PAAC, the aggregate material is partly replaced by chemically-active amendments that precipitate or adsorb contaminants in water that flows through the concrete interstices. PAAC combines the relatively high structural strength, ample void space, and water permeability of pervious concrete with the contaminant sequestration ability of chemically-active amendments to produce a new material with superior durability and ability to control contaminant mobility. The high surface area provided by the concrete interstices in PAAC provides significant opportunity for contaminants to react with the amendments incorporated into the concrete matrix. PAAC has the potential to immobilize a large variety of organic and inorganic contaminants by incorporating different active sequestering agents including phosphate materials (rock phosphate), organoclays, zeolite, and lime individually or in combinations.

  16. Orbital controls on paleo erosion rates in the Western Escarpment of the Andes at 13° latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Bekaddour, Toufik; Delunel, Romain; Norton, Kevin; Akçar, Naki; Vogel, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    The formation of fluvial terrace sequences in mountainous areas requires that two boundary conditions have to be fulfilled. First, hilllslope material available for erosion needs to be sufficiently thick and abundant. Second stripping off of this regolith cover has to occur fast and within a short time period. Contrariwise, if hillslope erosion operates at a pace concordant with the fluvial regime and in equilibrium to the prevailing climate, then no terrace sequence will form. Here, we present a 10Be-based sediment budget from the cut-and-fill terrace sequences in the Pisco valley, and particularly the Minchin terrace sequence deposited between 48-36 ka, to illustrate how the erosional regime and the precipitation pattern has changed in response to orbitally-driven climate cycles. We find that the Minchin period was characterized by an erosional pulse along the Pacific coast during which denudation rates reached values as high as 600 mm/ka (provided that the lateral valley flanks have been the major sediment source) for a relatively short time span lasting a few thousands of years. This contrasts to the younger orbitally-controlled pluvial periods and the modern situation when 10Be-based sediment budgets yield nearly zero erosion at the Pacific coast. We interpret these contrasts to indicated different erosional conditions between the modern and the Minchin time. First, the sediment budget infers a precipitation pattern that is similar to the modern climate ca. 1000 km farther north near the boundary between Peru and Ecuador, where highly erratic and extreme El Niño-related precipitation are associated with landsliding and flooding along the coast. Second, the formation of a thick terrace sequence requires the supply of sufficient material through erosion on the catchment's hillslopes. It is likely that a relatively thick regolith sequence had accumulated before the start of the Minchin period, because this erosional epoch was preceded by a >50 ka-long time span

  17. Multi criteria analysis in environmental management: Selecting the best stormwater erosion and sediment control measure in Malaysian construction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadu, Ibrahiem Abdul Razak; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Desa, Mohamed Nor Mohamed [Civil Engineering, Universiti Tenga Nasional, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad [Civil and Structural Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malyasia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia located in a tropical region which is interested with a heavy rainfall through the whole seasons of the year. Construction stages usually associated with soil disturbing due to land clearing and grading activities, this combined with the tropical climate in Malaysia, will generate an enormous amount of soil to be eroded and then deposited in the adjacent water bodies. There are many kinds of mitigation measures used so as to reduce the impact of erosion and sedimentation that are generated due to the stormwater in construction sites. This paper presents the application of Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) tool in choosing the best stormwater control measure by depending on specified criteria and criterion weight. The results obtained from the application of MCA in stormwater pollution control have many benefits to the contractors, consultants and decision makers by making them able to select the best control measure for every stage of construction.

  18. Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.D.; Halverson, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan is to provide requirements and responsibilities for document control for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project and the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Project

  19. Field evaluation of support practice (P-factor) for stone walls to control soil erosion in an arid area (Northern Jordan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Mamoun; Albalasmeh, Ammar

    2017-04-01

    Stone walls have been adopted for long time to control water erosion in many Mediterranean countries. In soil erosion equations, the support practice factor (P-factor) for stone walls has not been fully studied or rarely taken into account especially in semi-arid and arid regions. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of traditional stone walls and to quantify soil erosion in six sites in north and northeastern Jordan. Initial estimates using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) showed that rainfall erosion was reduced by 65% in areas where stone walls are present. Annual soil loss ranged from 5 to 15 t yr-1. The mean annual soil loss in the absence of stone walls ranged from 10-60 t ha-1 with an average value of 35 t ha-1. Interpolating the slope of thickness of A horizon provided an average initial estimate of 0.3 for P value.

  20. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-01

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage

  1. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook and others

    2005-08-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the sub-projects from the various fields. It has been tried to make the sub-projects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, Strategic management procedures including TRM(Technology Road Map), economic evaluation on PEFP, preliminary evaluation on company-involved R and D and TRESIS(Technology, Resources, Economic Evaluation System) are made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  2. Integrated Project Control and Technical Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Joo, Po Kook; Kim, Gye Ryung (and others)

    2003-06-15

    First, Since PEFP puts it's aim on technology innovation through collaboration and technological fusion among the subprojects from the various fields, It has been tried to make the subprojects consist with the goal of the whole project through building and running the integrated project control system. Also, adopting CPM(Critical Process Management), intensive process management framework has been founded. Secondly, for the every procedure, including purchase, building, installation and a trial running, license, quality control, etc., could be efficiently executed, every related task has been carried out. And, the tasks involved in international cooperative relationship and host site selection are carried out as well, so that PEFP could be firmly supported. Finally, TRM(Technology Road Map) is made up not only for the purpose of managing efficiency and effectiveness on the investment, but also for the purpose of life cycle management from developing stage to commercializing stage.

  3. Suitability of vegetation for erosion control on uranium mill tailings: a regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.

    1983-11-01

    Inactive uranium mill tailings (UMTRAP sites) in the West were grouped into three major climatic regions to evaluate the adequacy of vegetation for long-term stabilization: the Colorado Plateau, the West Slope of the Rocky Mountains, and the Northern Great Plains. Four general vegetation types were found at western sites: grasslands, shrub-steppe, and saltshrub and woodland. Soil-loss rates, calculated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation, were variable within regions and vegetation types, but trends were apparent. Calculations indicated that vegetation or vegetation plus a layer of surface rock provided adequate stabilization against long-term average soil loss for slopes less than 10% at the UMTRAP sites evaluated. However, detailed analyses of erosion due to severe storm events, gully formation and channel cutting is necessary for designing protective covers at each site. 11 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  4. The suitability of vegetation for erosion control on uranium mill tailings: A regional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Inactive uranium mill tailings (UMTRAP sites) in the West were grouped into three major climatic regions to evaluate the suitability of vegetation for long-term stabilization: the Colorado Plateau, the West Slope of the Rocky Mountains, and the Northern Great Plains. Four general vegetation types were found at western sites: grassland, shrub, salt shrub and woodland. Soil-loss rates, calculated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation, were variable within regions and vegetation types, but trends were apparent. Calculations indicated that vegetation or vegetation plus a layer of surface rock provided adequate stabilization against long-term average soil loss on slopes of less than 10%. However, at each site, detailed analyses of erosion caused by severe storm events, gully formation and channel cutting is necessary for designing protective covers

  5. The influence of rolled erosion control systems on soil temperature and surface albedo: part I. A greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.A.; Menard, T.; Perry, J.L.; Penn, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    A greenhouse study examined the influences of various surface covers (a bare control soil and seven rolled erosion control systems—RECS) on surface radiative properties, and soil temperature. In our companion paper we examine relationships with soil moisture, biomass production, and nutrient assimilation. Randomization and replication were key components to our study of microclimate under tropical radiation conditions. The bare Oxisol control soil exhibited the most extreme microclimatic conditions with the lowest albedo (not significantly different from that of P300© North American Green, a dark green polypropylene system), and the highest mean and maximum hourly temperatures recorded at depths of 5 and 8 cm. This hostile climatic environment was not conducive to biomass production or moisture storage and it is likely that the observed soil surface crusts impeded plant emergence. Rolled erosion control systems, on the other hand, generally moderated soil temperatures by reflecting more shortwave radiation, implying less heat energy at the surface for conduction to the soil. The result was that RECS exhibited lower mean soil temperatures, higher minimum temperatures and lower maximum soil temperatures. An aspen excelsior system (Curlex I© Excelsior) had the highest albedo and the soil beneath this system exhibited the greatest temperature modulation. Open-weave systems composed of jute (Geojute© Price & Pictures) and coconut fibers (BioD-Mat 70© RoLanka) were the RECS most similar in temperature response to the bare control soil. Other systems examined were intermediate in their temperature response and surface albedo (i.e., SC150BN© North American Green, C125© North American Green and Futerra© Conwed Fibers). (author)

  6. Framework for virtual control desk projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.; Espieito Santos, Andre Cotelli do; Aghina, Mauricio A. da C. e, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b, E-mail: vgoncalves@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mag@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Through the recent advances of the Brazilian nuclear program, the creation of virtual control desks allows an ergonomic evaluation and technique of the same, even before its physical implementation, reducing costs and time in addition to allow the virtual training of operators. This project intends to develop a 'framework' where the components of a real control desk are available for creating a virtual desk, continuing the project control desk developed at the Laboratorio de Interface Homem Sistema do IEN (LABHIS/IEN). Through the C++ programming language integrated with the OPENGL graphics library was possible to create the desk and it's components, allowing a graphical modeling in 3D (stereo) of a virtual control desk where the operator, with the aid of GLUI user interface library, can choose what and where the components are positioned on the bench, and select the type of desk wanted from the pre-defined templates. Finally, with the control desk mounted and configured, enabling a virtual interaction with operators, making possible to reproduce its functionalities. (author)

  7. Framework for virtual control desk projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.; Espieito Santos, Andre Cotelli do; Aghina, Mauricio A. da C. e

    2011-01-01

    Through the recent advances of the Brazilian nuclear program, the creation of virtual control desks allows an ergonomic evaluation and technique of the same, even before its physical implementation, reducing costs and time in addition to allow the virtual training of operators. This project intends to develop a 'framework' where the components of a real control desk are available for creating a virtual desk, continuing the project control desk developed at the Laboratorio de Interface Homem Sistema do IEN (LABHIS/IEN). Through the C++ programming language integrated with the OPENGL graphics library was possible to create the desk and it's components, allowing a graphical modeling in 3D (stereo) of a virtual control desk where the operator, with the aid of GLUI user interface library, can choose what and where the components are positioned on the bench, and select the type of desk wanted from the pre-defined templates. Finally, with the control desk mounted and configured, enabling a virtual interaction with operators, making possible to reproduce its functionalities. (author)

  8. Control panel and indicators for production control in building projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orihuela Pablo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, every project should have indicators that monitor compliance with established goals. In con­struction projects, there are a large number of indicators proposed by many researchers; however, an analysis of the state of the art shows a frequent confusion between Result, Process and Leading Indicators. This paper, which is an extended version of the paper sub­mitted by the same authors at the Creative Construction Conference 2017 and published in Procedia Engineering (DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.07.230, presents a proposal of these three types of indicators for the design, supply and assembly phases of housing projects. Thus, all project stakeholders can have a control panel that will monitor if an indicator exceeds the limits, thereby allowing taking corrective actions in a timely and effective manner.

  9. Magnitude of Annual Soil Loss from a Hilly Cultivated Slope in Northern Vietnam and Evaluation of Factors Controlling Water Erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, K.; Hai Do, N.; Nguyen, T.C.; Egashira, K.

    2010-01-01

    A soil erosion experiment was conducted in northern Vietnam over three rainy seasons to clarify the magnitude of soil loss and factors controlling water erosion. The plot had a low (8%) or medium (14.5%) slope with land-cover of cassava or morning glory or being bare. Annual soil loss (177 to 2,361 g/m 2 ) was a tolerable level in all low-slope plots but was not in some medium-slope plots. The effects of slope gradient and seasonal rainfall on the mean daily soil loss of the season were confirmed, but the effect of land-cover was not, owing to the small canopy cover ratio or leaf area index during the season. The very high annual soil loss (>2,200 g/m 2 ) observed in the first year of some medium-slope plots was the site-specific effect from initial land preparation. Since the site-specific effect was large, the preparation must be done carefully on the slope

  10. Escoamento superficial na interação: cobertura vegetal e práticas de controle de erosão Erosion losses from runoff: interaction of soil cover and erosion control practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. R. de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O escoamento da água oriunda das terras agricultadas é o principal fator poluente dos mananciais hídricos nas áreas rurais. Devido a esse fato, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de tecnologias que venham a reduzir descargas de resíduos indesejáveis. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se um experimento na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba - SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes condições de solo, (feijão, gramínea e solo nu e diferentes práticas de controle de erosão (sulco de infiltração, terraço de infiltração e sem práticas de controle de erosão, buscando-se estimar o escoamento superficial. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o em blocos aleatorizados, em esquema fatorial 3x3, perfazendo 9 tratamentos com 3 repetições. O período de coleta de dados pluviométricos foi de 06 de dezembro de 2007 a 11 de abril de 2008; para isto, utilizou-se de um pluviômetro, com 21,1 cm de diâmetro, instalado na área experimental. Observando-se as perdas de água, em relação às estruturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Terraço, Sulco e Rampa; e com relação às coberturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Feijão, Capim e Solo Nu.The flow of sediment from cropped land is the main pollutant of water sources in rural areas. Due to this fact, it is necessary to develop and implement technologies that will reduce water and sediment discharges. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Biosystems Engineering - ESALQ / USP, Piracicaba - SP with the objective to evaluate the effect of different soil cover (bean, grass and bare ground and erosion control practices (wide base terraces and infiltration furrows in slopes (no practices to control erosion while measuring water losses in runoff. The statistical design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3x3 factorial scheme resulting in 9 treatments with 3 replicates (blocks. The

  11. Nuclear outages: an approach to project controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, R.

    1985-01-01

    The annual budget for maintaining and operating a nuclear power plant has risen dramatically over the past 5 years. NRC-mandated plant improvements and outage related expenses are often cited to be the main contributors to these escalating budgets. Nuclear utilities have responded by developing programs to improve plant availability and outage costs through improved outage performance. Utilities recognize that for capital improvements the program to control costs does no begin with outage planning, but rather more appropriately up front during the engineering phase. To support their management objectives, utilities have been developing comprehensive project control systems for concurrently reducing capital expenditures, outage-related costs, and time. This paper provides an approach to project controls that, rather than using one all inclusive comprehensive system, requires five separate monitoring systems - one for each phase of an activity's life cycle. Through the integration of these discrete but interrelated systems, utility management acquires the necessary tools for comprehensive planning and control of their modification program and effective detailed monitoring for all outage-related activities

  12. Project Aquarius. Control of radioisotopes and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Roy G [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Arizona (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The potential application of nuclear explosives to the development of water resources provides real hope for substantial increases in the availability of water from our natural water supplies. A wide range, exploratory project sponsored by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission, and The University of Arizona was conducted by the Hydrology and Water Resources Office, the Department of Nuclear Engineering, and various state and federal governmental agencies in exploring the potential applications of nuclear explosives for developing water resources in the State of Arizona. The primary objective of the project was of a scouting nature, a reconnaissance effort to assess the potential for Arizona. This work, Project Aquarius, is at an early state and any significant conclusions are certainly premature. Since this is a survey, detailed analyses are not justified. Our purpose is to define limiting problems and estimate our ability to solve them. We do not seek to formulate a detailed solution until the project has been defined better. In all of the plowshare activities the primary responsibility of the Atomic Energy Commission for safety and control of not only radiological but all hazards has been well defined and documented. Thus, the work here does not reflect any opinion or voice of the Atomic Energy Commission but is based on my own views and conclusions. I have referred to the work of the various laboratories, offices, and contractors of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  13. Project Aquarius. Control of radioisotopes and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, Roy G.

    1970-01-01

    The potential application of nuclear explosives to the development of water resources provides real hope for substantial increases in the availability of water from our natural water supplies. A wide range, exploratory project sponsored by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Arizona Atomic Energy Commission, and The University of Arizona was conducted by the Hydrology and Water Resources Office, the Department of Nuclear Engineering, and various state and federal governmental agencies in exploring the potential applications of nuclear explosives for developing water resources in the State of Arizona. The primary objective of the project was of a scouting nature, a reconnaissance effort to assess the potential for Arizona. This work, Project Aquarius, is at an early state and any significant conclusions are certainly premature. Since this is a survey, detailed analyses are not justified. Our purpose is to define limiting problems and estimate our ability to solve them. We do not seek to formulate a detailed solution until the project has been defined better. In all of the plowshare activities the primary responsibility of the Atomic Energy Commission for safety and control of not only radiological but all hazards has been well defined and documented. Thus, the work here does not reflect any opinion or voice of the Atomic Energy Commission but is based on my own views and conclusions. I have referred to the work of the various laboratories, offices, and contractors of the Atomic Energy Commission

  14. Measurement of the fluorescence of crop residues: A tool for controlling soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.; Hunter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Management of crop residues, the portion of a crop left in the field after harvest, is an important conservation practice for minimizing soil erosion and for improving water quality. Quantification of crop residue cover is required to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation tillage practices. Methods are needed to quantify residue cover that are rapid, accurate, and objective. The fluorescence of crop residue was found to be a broadband phenomenon with emission maxima at 420 to 495 nm for excitations of 350 to 420 nm. Soils had low intensity broadband emissions over the 400 to 690 nm region for excitations of 300 to 600 nm. The range of relative fluorescence intensities for the crop residues was much greater than the fluorescence observed of the soils. As the crop residues decompose their blue fluorescence values approach the fluorescence of the soil. Fluorescence techniques are concluded to be less ambiguous and better suited for discriminating crop residues and soils than reflectance methods. If properly implemented, fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify, not only crop residue cover, but also photosynthetic efficiency in the field.

  15. Methodology for oversizing marginal quality riprap for erosion control at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Abt, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Properly selected and oversized local sources of riprap may provide superior erosion protection compared with revegetation at a number of uranium mill tailings sites in arid regions of the United States. Whereas highly durable rock is appropriate for protecting diversion channels to the height of the 5-year flood, marginal quality rock may be adequate for protecting infrequently flooded side slopes of diversion channels, tailings embankments and caps. Marginal quality rock may require oversizing to guarantee that design size specifications are met at the end of the performance period (200 to 1000 years). This paper discusses a methodology for oversizing marginal quality rock. Results of cyclic freezing and thawing tests are used to determine oversizing requirements as functions of the performance period and environment. Test results show that marginal quality rock may be used in frequently saturated areas but in some cases oversizing will be substantial and in other cases marginal quality rock may be disqualified. Oversizing of marginal quality rock appears to be a practical reality in occasionally saturated areas (between the 5-year and 100-year floods). Furthermore, oversizing will not generally be required on slopes from the 100-year flood. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Daniel

    2008-10-18

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including

  17. Optimal Land Use Management for Soil Erosion Control by Using an Interval-Parameter Fuzzy Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guo-He; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and public health problems, and such land degradation can be effectively mitigated through performing land use transitions across a watershed. Optimal land use management can thus provide a way to reduce soil erosion while achieving the maximum net benefit. However, optimized land use allocation schemes are not always successful since uncertainties pertaining to soil erosion control are not well presented. This study applied an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach to generate optimal land use planning strategies for soil erosion control based on an inexact optimization framework, in which various uncertainties were reflected. The modeling approach can incorporate predefined soil erosion control policies, and address inherent system uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals, fuzzy sets, and probability distributions. The developed model was demonstrated through a case study in the Xiangxi River watershed, China's Three Gorges Reservoir region. Land use transformations were employed as decision variables, and based on these, the land use change dynamics were yielded for a 15-year planning horizon. Finally, the maximum net economic benefit with an interval value of [1.197, 6.311] × 109 was obtained as well as corresponding land use allocations in the three planning periods. Also, the resulting soil erosion amount was found to be decreased and controlled at a tolerable level over the watershed. Thus, results confirm that the developed model is a useful tool for implementing land use management as not only does it allow local decision makers to optimize land use allocation, but can also help to answer how to accomplish land use changes.

  18. Optimal land use management for soil erosion control by using an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Cheng; Huang, Guo-He; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental and public health problems, and such land degradation can be effectively mitigated through performing land use transitions across a watershed. Optimal land use management can thus provide a way to reduce soil erosion while achieving the maximum net benefit. However, optimized land use allocation schemes are not always successful since uncertainties pertaining to soil erosion control are not well presented. This study applied an interval-parameter fuzzy two-stage stochastic programming approach to generate optimal land use planning strategies for soil erosion control based on an inexact optimization framework, in which various uncertainties were reflected. The modeling approach can incorporate predefined soil erosion control policies, and address inherent system uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals, fuzzy sets, and probability distributions. The developed model was demonstrated through a case study in the Xiangxi River watershed, China's Three Gorges Reservoir region. Land use transformations were employed as decision variables, and based on these, the land use change dynamics were yielded for a 15-year planning horizon. Finally, the maximum net economic benefit with an interval value of [1.197, 6.311] × 10(9) $ was obtained as well as corresponding land use allocations in the three planning periods. Also, the resulting soil erosion amount was found to be decreased and controlled at a tolerable level over the watershed. Thus, results confirm that the developed model is a useful tool for implementing land use management as not only does it allow local decision makers to optimize land use allocation, but can also help to answer how to accomplish land use changes.

  19. Project Management Effectiveness: the choice - formal or informal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heales

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Development failures and runaway projects in the information systems (IS area can result in substantial losses to organizations, either financially or to a company’s reputation. One important strategy in mitigating risk is the use of effective controls over IS projects. This research investigates the effectiveness of control mechanisms in IS projects, i.e., how they have been established, applied, and how they have evolved throughout the project. We conducted an in-depth study of six information systems projects with six different project managers. We found that formal controls were adopted on project elements with clearly defined project outcomes and informal controls were adopted mainly on project elements that were unclear and often related to people. Furthermore, formal controls were dominant at project initiation and in most cases these controls became less dominant over the project duration. These formal controls were more rigorously applied in external IS projects while informal controls increased in importance throughout the project duration in internally developed projects. We found the existence of informal controls to be very important in helping ensure successful project outcomes.

  20. A Statistical Project Control Tool for Engineering Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of a Statistical Project Control Tool (SPCT) for managing engineering projects. A literature review pointed to a definition of project success, (i.e., A project is successful when the cost, schedule, technical performance, and quality satisfy the customer.) The literature review also pointed to project success factors, and traditional project control tools, and performance measures that are detailed in the report. The essential problem is that with resources becoming more limited, and an increasing number or projects, project failure is increasing, there is a limitation of existing methods and systematic methods are required. The objective of the work is to provide a new statistical project control tool for project managers. Graphs using the SPCT method plotting results of 3 successful projects and 3 failed projects are reviewed, with success and failure being defined by the owner.

  1. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  2. Project W-058 monitor and control system logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROBERTS, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console

  3. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP): configuration control system and project activity controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The SSDP has been using a Configuration Control system as a significant element in the management plan for the safe and effective performance of the project. The objective of the Configuration Control system is to control the physical plant configuration, system status, work schedules, status tracking, and day-to-day problem resolution. Prior to the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC) assuming operational responsibility for the Shippingport Plant, an assessment was made of the status of the configuration of the systems and related documentation. Action was taken as required to match the operating procedures and system documentation with the actual physical condition of the plant. During the first stage of the project, planning was put in place for subsequent decommissioning activities. This planning included defining organizational responsibilities, completing the necessary project instructions and procedures, and doing the planning and scheduling for the subsequent decommissioning phase activities. Detailed instructions for the performance of the various decommissioning tasks were prepared. Prior to the start of any work on a given Activity Package, a Work Authorization is required. The Work Authorization form provides a complete checklist to ensure that all necessary prerequisites are completed. A computerized Communications Configuration Control Information system monitors status including information on system status, tag-outs, radiological work permits, etc. An ongoing effort is being directed toward maintaining operating instructions and system schematics, etc. current as the Plant configuration changes. The experience with the Configuration Control System to date has been favorable

  4. Erhversbetinget erosion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Gjørup, Hans; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Baggrund – I forbindelse med dental erosion er en grundig udredning af patienten vigtig, således at årsagen til erosionernes opståen findes, og der kan iværksættes adækvat forebyggende indsats. En sådan udredning er ikke mindst vigtig, når arbejdsmiljøet mistænkes. Patienttilfælde – En 30-årig...... arbejdsskade, men ikke anerkendt, da erosioner ikke er optaget på Arbejdsskadestyrelsens liste over erhvervssygdomme. En systematisk registrering af lignende tilfælde kunne imidlertid på sigt ændre retspraksis for fremtidige patienter med arbejdsbetinget erosion....... patient, der arbejder som pladesmed, blev henvist til Landsdels- og Videnscenter, Århus Sygehus, med henblik på udredning af patientens kraftige slid. Patienten udviste ikke-alderssvarende tandslid af emalje og dentin svarende til erosion forårsaget af syredampe i arbejdsmiljøet, muligvis forstærket af...

  5. Dust and Erosion Control Methods for US Army Construction Projects in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    sano TomT&S *15 14t Ar,,&Ws A.1 141 SanS5 Ivotor 1"M aLa IA. ,.. s-. 8t YOU LA~, Coo O / A 17 I1 (a de Guana~aISLAS SAWrANILLA 30,I i3 2 5...parte del ano; prornedlo de ’H nori above 18’C, temperatura del mes nias fresco, arriba de .ainf c ilTROPICAL WET AND DRY CLIMATE-Dis. CLIMA TROPICAL...temperature del mes mas te :3 tefresco arriba do 18~’C. b1 abH mo [4 WARM TEMPERATE CLIMATE-Winter dry; CL ’MA TEMPLADO HUMEDO-Invierno seco; at least

  6. Factors controlling the spatial distribution of soil piping erosion on loess-derived soils: A case study from central Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verachtert, E.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2010-06-01

    Collapsible loess-derived soils are prone to soil piping erosion, where enlargement of macropores may lead to a subsurface pipe network and eventually to soil collapse and gully development. This study aims at understanding the main factors controlling spatial patterns of piping in loess-derived soils under a temperate climate. To map the spatial distribution of piping and identify the environmental controls on its distribution, a regional survey was carried out in a 236 km 2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). Orthophotos taken at optimal field conditions (winter) were analyzed to detect piping in open landscapes and ground thruthing was systematically done through field surveys. In total, 137 parcels having 560 collapsed pipes were mapped. Dimensions of the sinkholes and local slope gradient were measured in the field and topographical variables were derived from LiDAR data. Land use plays an important role as 97% of the sites with piping are found under pasture. The probability of piping increases rapidly on hillslopes with gradients exceeding 8% and with a concave profile and plan curvature, enhancing subsurface flow concentration. The zones with soil profiles on shallow loess over a relatively thin layer of homogeneous blue massive clays (Aalbeke Member) are most prone to piping. Soil characteristics are of less importance to explain piping occurrence. Furthermore, the topographical threshold line indicating the critical slope gradient for a given contributing drainage area was determined. This threshold line (negative power relation) is similar to the threshold line for shallow gully initiation.

  7. Effectiveness of the GAEC standard of cross compliance Prohibition of performing unauthorized land levelling on soil erosion control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The GAEC standard land levelling under authorization of cross compliance prohibits farmers from levelling land through bulldozing without a specific permission issued by the proper territorial authority. The aim of the standard is to ensure the protection of soil from accelerated erosion that almost always occurs when land is levelled without conservative criteria. Land levelling prior to planting or replanting specialized crops, especially orchards, is indicated by agronomists as essential to the full mechanization of cultivation and harvesting operations and the success of economic investment. Land levelling leads to a deep modification of the hill slopes, so it may produce serious damage to the environment if carried out in the absence of a carefully planned design. In other words, a design that takes the aspects of soil conservation into account, especially for steep hill slopes where the insite and offsite environmental impacts of soil erosion may be more pronounced. With regard to the areas involved, land levelling plays a key role on a national scale, one only needs to think of the vineyards planted on the country’s hill slopes, which in 1970 covered an area of 793,000 hectares. Moreover, despite the continued reduction in areas planted with vines, from 1990 to 2002 the area devoted to DOC and DOCG wines increased by about 29% and the average size of vineyards has also increased. This is a clear sign of the current trend, with the transition from the family model to the industrial model of orchard management, with extensive use of machinery and thus the use of bulldozers for levelling. The authorization topic, on which the standard of compliance is based, is analysed in detail. In summary we can say that, according to law, the permit required by the GAEC standard is currently mandatory only for those areas subject to the Hydrogeological constraint (Royal decree 30 December 1923 No. 3267 and for parks or other areas for which the

  8. Soil Erosion and Nutrient Losses control by Plant Covers: Environmental Implications for a Subtropical Agroecosystem (SE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Duran-Zuazo, V. H.; Martin-Peinado, F. J.; Franco-Tarifa, D.; Martinez-Raya, A.; Francia-Martinez, J. R.; Carceles-Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo-Panadero, L.; Casado, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion, in addition to causing on-site loss of topsoil and reducing the productivity of the land, brings about major off-site environmental effects such as water body pollution and eutrophication. In the Mediterranean area, this fact is especially relevant where precipitation is characterized by scarcity, torrent storms and extreme variability in space and time. To study the effects of soil erosion runoff potential pollution we installed six erosion plots on the taluses of orchard terraces where an intensive irrigated agriculture based on subtropical crops has been established. (Author)

  9. A Review Of Road‒Related Soil Erosion: An Assessment Of Causes, Evaluation Techniques And Available Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoboso Elizabeth Seutloali

    2015-01-01

    La construcción de carreteras se ha incrementado ampliamente en todo el mundo durante las últimas décadas para cumplir con las demandas de la creciente población humana, lo que ha llevado a serios problemas de erosión de suelos, muchos de los cuales no se previeron, especialmente, en los países en desarrollo. Sobre las decisiones y supervisión de estrategias de un manejo completo del terreno se realizó una revisión al crítico trabajo que se ha hecho para medir la erosión en suelos causados por las carreteras. Por esta razón, este artículo revisa las causas de la erosion relacionada con la construcción de rutas y evalúa los métodos y medidas de control disponibles. Específicamente, este trabajo ofrece una revisión de (a las relaciones entre las carreteras y la erosión de los suelos; (b la medida y la predicción de la erosión vinculada a las carreteras, y (c las técnicas de control de erosión y rehabilitación. La literature muestra que la construcción de carreteras produce modificaciones en el perfil inclinación, remueve la vegetación superficial y aumenta la inclinación en pendientes propensas a erosión severa. Además, existen varias medidas para controlar la erosión causada por la construcción de carreteras, a pesar de que ningún estudio ha demostrado el método que sea más eficiente y operacional para diferentes paisajes. Este estudio guía futuras investigaciones en la erosion causada por la construcción de caminos en los países en desarrollo donde las técnicas de supervisión sofísticas para la evaluación de grandes áreas son limitadas debido a la escasez de recursos.

  10. Project management with dynamic scheduling baseline scheduling, risk analysis and project control

    CERN Document Server

    Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is known as dynamic scheduling, and is used to refer to three dimensions of project management and scheduling: the construction of a baseline schedule and the analysis of a project schedule's risk as preparation of the project control phase during project progress. This dynamic scheduling point of view implicitly assumes that the usability of a project's baseline schedule is rather limited and only acts as a point of reference in the project life cycle.

  11. Engineering schedule control of nuclear power project planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power design is the important part of project management of nuclear power project, it is the way to control the project organization, design schedule, design progress, design quality and cost control. The good schedule system and control is the key to the success for the project. It is also analyzed the problem during the project, by using some theory and analyze the project structure, design schedule management, IED and document management and interface management propose some new idea for better improve the design management to finally better improve the management quality and efficiency. (author)

  12. The Study on quality control of nuclear power installation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jie

    2008-01-01

    The quality planning, quality assurance and quality control are discussed by applying the quality control (QC) theory and combining the real situation of the Qinshan II project. This paper is practical and plays an active role in instruction of project quality control by applying the above QC theory and control techniques. (authors)

  13. Erosion of stereochemical control with increasing nucleophilicity: O-glycosylation at the diffusion limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Matthew G; Woerpel, K A

    2010-02-19

    Nucleophilic substitution reactions of 2-deoxyglycosyl donors indicated that the reactivity of the oxygen nucleophile has a significant impact on stereoselectivity. Employing ethanol as the nucleophile resulted in a 1:1 (alpha:beta) ratio of diastereomers under S(N)1-like reaction conditions. Stereoselective formation of the 2-deoxy-alpha-O-glycoside was only observed when weaker nucleophiles, such as trifluoroethanol, were employed. The lack of stereoselectivity observed in reactions of common oxygen nucleophiles can be attributed to reaction rates of the stereochemistry-determining step that approach the diffusion limit. In this scenario, both faces of the prochiral oxocarbenium ion are subject to nucleophilic addition to afford a statistical mixture of diastereomeric products. Control experiments confirmed that all nucleophilic substitution reactions were performed under kinetic control.

  14. Control of eolic erosion in a coal Port, by means of re-vegetation of arid areas and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Pilar

    1992-01-01

    To the phenomenon of haulage of floor particles for the wind is known as erosion by deflation, and one in the ways of eolic erosion existent, although many authors constitutes they refer to her as eolic erosion. The eolic erosion includes the movement processes, transport, separation and deposition, it can present in any area that presents the following conditions: 1) Soil dry and loose until certain finely divided degree, 2) flat surface with little or any vegetable cover, 3) quite extensive land 4) sufficiently strong wind to transport the earth particles. It is considered that to begin the movement of particles 0.1 mm of diameter winds they are needed to 30 cm of height of 4,4m/s (FAO, 1961). All these conditions are presented in Port Bolivar in more or smaller measure. In port Bolivar two main groups of areas have been identified in process of material movement

  15. Characterization and Erosion Modeling of a Nozzle-Based Inflow-Control Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Juul; Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Bergmann, Line

    2017-01-01

    In the petroleum industry, water-and-gas breakthrough in hydrocarbon reservoirs is a common issue that eventually leads to uneconomic production. To extend the economic production lifetime, inflow-control devices (ICDs) are designed to delay the water-and-gas breakthrough. Because the lifetime...... of a hydrocarbon reservoir commonly exceeds 20 years and it is a harsh environment, the reliability of the ICDs is vital....

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Sediment Transport In a Lowland Watershed System: Controlling Processes and Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Aamery, N. M. H.; Mahoney, D. T.; Fox, J.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change projections suggest extreme impacts on watershed hydrologic systems for some regions of the world including pronounced increases in surface runoff and instream flows. Yet, there remains a lack of research focused on how future changes in hydrologic extremes, as well as relative hydrologic mean changes, impact sediment redistribution within a watershed and sediment flux from a watershed. The authors hypothesized that variations in mean and extreme changes in turn may impact sediments in depositional and erosional dominance in a manner that may not be obvious to the watershed manager. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the inner processes connecting the combined effect of extreme climate change projections on the vegetation, upland erosion, and instream processes to produce changes in sediment redistribution within watersheds. To do so, research methods were carried out by the authors including simulating sediment processes in forecast and hindcast periods for a lowland watershed system. Publically available climate realizations from several climate factors and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were used to predict hydrologic conditions for the South Elkhorn Watershed in central Kentucky, USA to 2050. The results of the simulated extreme and mean hydrological components were used in simulating upland erosion with the connectivity processes consideration and thereafter used in building and simulating the instream erosion and deposition of sediment processes with the consideration of surface fine grain lamina (SFGL) layer controlling the benthic ecosystem. Results are used to suggest the dominance of erosional and depositional redistribution of sediments under different scenarios associated with extreme and mean hydrologic forecasting. The results are discussed in reference to the benthic ecology of the stream system providing insight on how water managers might consider sediment redistribution in a changing climate.

  17. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

  18. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F

    2014-09-06

    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  20. Systems approach for design control at Monitored Retrievable Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.N.; Williams, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the systems approach in establishing design control for the Monitored Retrievable Storage Project design development. Key elements in design control are enumerated and systems engineering aspects are detailed. Application of lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project experience is addressed. An integrated approach combining quality assurance and systems engineering requirements is suggested to practice effective design control

  1. Analysis and control of erosion by solid particles in the elements of the flow system of steam turbines; Analisis y control de erosion por particulas solidas en los elementos del sistema de flujo de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Campos Amezcua, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of erosion by solid particles is presented of different elements of the flow channel of the steam turbines that operate in Mexico: nozzles, stop valves, blade bosses, labyrinth seals and rotor disc; using tools of of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In these main elements of turbines a strong problem of erosion was registered that threatens the reliable operation of the turbines, its availability and its optimal yield. With base on the results of the numerical analyses, the design modifications of the different elements were developed from the flow channel of the steam turbines, in order to reduce the erosion and thus diminishing the energy losses and increasing the steam turbine efficiency. This work presents the main benefits that the Thermoelectric Power Plants obtain with the reduction of the erosion by solid particles that affect the critical components of steam turbines: extension of the period between maintenance, replacement of components, reduction of operation and maintenance costs of the turbines, and extension of the useful life of the main components. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis de erosion por particulas solidas de diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor que operan en Mexico: toberas, valvula de paro, tetones de los alabes, sellos de laberinto y disco del rotor; utilizando herramientas de Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC). En estos elementos principales de turbinas se registro un fuerte problema de erosion que amenaza la operacion confiable de las turbinas, su disponibilidad y su rendimiento optimo. Con base en los resultados de los analisis numericos, se desarrollaron las modificaciones de diseno de los diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor, con el proposito de reducir la erosion y asi, disminuir las perdidas de energia e incrementar el rendimiento de las turbinas de vapor. Este trabajo presenta los principales beneficios que obtienen las Centrales Termoelectricas con la

  2. Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin

    2016-01-01

    Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding these complexities is key to predicting landscape behavior in drylands and has important scientific and management implications, including for studies related to paleoclimatology, landscape ecology evolution, and archaeological site context and preservation. Here we use multi-temporal LiDAR surveys, local weather data, and geomorphological observations to identify trends in site change throughout the 446-km-long semi-arid Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, where archaeological site degradation related to the effects of upstream dam operation is a concern. Using several site case studies, we show the range of landscape responses that might be expected from concomitant occurrence of dam-controlled fluvial sand bar deposition, aeolian sand transport, and rainfall-induced erosion. Empirical rainfall-erosion threshold analyses coupled with a numerical rainfall–runoff–soil erosion model indicate that infiltration-excess overland flow and gullying govern large-scale (centimeter- to decimeter-scale) landscape changes, but that aeolian deposition can in some cases mitigate gully erosion. Whereas threshold analyses identify the normalized rainfall intensity (defined as the ratio of rainfall intensity to hydraulic conductivity) as the primary factor governing hydrologic-driven erosion, assessment of false positives and false negatives in the dataset highlight topographic slope as the next most important parameter governing site response. Analysis of 4+ years of high resolution (four-minute) weather data and 75+ years of low resolution (daily) climate records indicates that dryland erosion is dependent on short

  3. Validation of a probabilistic post-fire erosion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Robichaud; William J. Elliot; Sarah A. Lewis; Mary Ellen Miller

    2016-01-01

    Post-fire increases of runoff and erosion often occur and land managers need tools to be able to project the increased risk. The Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) uses the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model as the underlying processor. ERMiT predicts the probability of a given amount of hillslope sediment delivery from a single rainfall or...

  4. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose-Hajra, M.; McCorquodale, A.; Mattson, G.; Jerolleman, D.; Filostrat, J.

    2015-03-01

    Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana's coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana's disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  5. Effects of salinity and particle concentration on sediment hydrodynamics and critical bed-shear-stress for erosion of fine grained sediments used in wetland restoration projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghose-Hajra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise, the increasing number and intensity of storms, oil and groundwater extraction, and coastal land subsidence are putting people and property at risk along Louisiana’s coast, with major implications for human safety and economic health of coastal areas. A major goal towards re-establishing a healthy and sustainable coastal ecosystem has been to rebuild Louisiana’s disappearing wetlands with fine grained sediments that are dredged or diverted from nearby rivers, channels and lakes to build land in open water areas. A thorough geo-hydrodynamic characterization of the deposited sediments is important in the correct design and a more realistic outcome assessment of the long-term performance measures for ongoing coastal restoration projects. This paper evaluates the effects of salinity and solid particle concentration on the re-suspension characteristics of fine-grained dredged sediments obtained from multiple geographic locations along the Gulf coast. The critical bed-shear-stress for erosion has been evaluated as a function of sedimentation time. The sediment hydrodynamic properties obtained from the laboratory testing were used in a numerical coastal sediment distribution model to aid in evaluating sediment diversions from the Mississippi River into Breton Sound and Barataria Bay.

  6. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement

  7. The management, control and implementation of SCADA projects

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. The dissertation covers the establishment of a project from the point of view of a project manager. The document refers to examples where possible to illustrate the actual process through which a project goes during the life-cycle of the project. The first chapter provides an introduction to the context of the project and informs the reader of the type of project which the dissertation discusses. An overview of SCAD A (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems is discussed f...

  8. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  9. A comparison of three erosion control mulches on decommissioned forest road corridors in the northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Foltz

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the erosion mitigation effectiveness of agricultural straw and two wood-based mulches for four years on decommissioned forest roads. Plots were installed on the loosely consolidated, bare soil to measure sediment production, mulch cover, and plant regrowth. The experimental design was a repeated measures, randomized block on two soil types common in...

  10. Successful Control of Major Project Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Lichtenberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper differs from scientific papers describing current research. In line with the theme of this special issue, it challenges conventional risk management practice against the background of former research results successfully finished decades ago. It is well-known that conventional practice frequently results in budget overruns of large projects. International reviews document that. Severe delays of schedules are also well-known. This paper describes successful research results from almost three decades ago, which successfully challenges this severe problem and has led to new practices. The research involved is an unusual mix: Scandinavian researchers from psychology, statistical theory and engineering economy. The resulting procedure has been widely used since around 1990 and challenges conventional procedures. The procedure is documented to be able to yield statistically correct prognoses, when the “rules of the game” have been correctly followed. After a short summary of the basic situation, this paper summarizes the research, followed by some resulting experiences, focusing on two recent studies each of 40 infrastructures and other major projects. In both sets, the actual final cost largely equaled the expected project cost. This result is a marked change from international past and present experience. Finally, the need for further research and progress is discussed.

  11. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 1: Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the planning documents from the GCS project. Volume 1 contains five appendices: A. Plan for Software Aspects of Certification for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Development Standards for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Software Verification Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; and E. Software Quality Assurance Activities.

  12. Systemic therapy for vulval Erosive Lichen Planus (the 'hELP' trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rosalind C; Murphy, Ruth; Bratton, Daniel J; Sydes, Matthew R; Wilkes, Sally; Nankervis, Helen; Dowey, Shelley; Thomas, Kim S

    2016-01-04

    Erosive lichen planus affecting the vulva (ELPV) is a relatively rare, chronic condition causing painful raw areas in the vulvovaginal region. Symptoms are pain and burning, which impact upon daily living. There is paucity of evidence regarding therapy. A 2012 Cochrane systematic review found no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this field. Topically administered corticosteroids are the accepted first-line therapy: however, there is uncertainty as to which second-line treatments to use. Several systemic agents have been clinically noted to show promise for ELPV refractory to topically administered corticosteroids but there is no RCT evidence to support these. The 'hELP' study is a RCT with an internal pilot phase designed to provide high-quality evidence. The objective is to test whether systemic therapy in addition to standard topical therapy is a beneficial second-line treatment for ELPV. Adjunctive systemic therapies used are hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Topical therapy plus a short course of prednisolone given orally is considered the comparator intervention. The trial is a four-armed, open-label, pragmatic RCT which uses a blinded independent clinical assessor. To provide 80 % power for each comparison, 96 participants are required in total. The pilot phase aims to recruit 40 participants. The primary clinical outcome is the proportion of patients achieving treatment success at 6 months. 'Success' is defined by a composite measure of Patient Global Assessment score of 0 or 1 on a 4-point scale plus improvement from baseline on clinical photographs scored by a clinician blinded to treatment allocation. Secondary clinical outcomes include 6-month assessment of: (1) Reduction in pain/soreness; (2) Global assessment of disease; (3) Response at other affected mucosal sites; (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores; (5) Sexual function; (6) Health-related quality of life using 'Short Form 36' and 'Skindex

  13. Dynamic Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk Using Landsat TM and HJ Satellite Data in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Han

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Danjiangkou reservoir area is the main water source and the submerged area of the Middle Route South-to-North Water Transfer Project of China. Soil erosion is a factor that significantly influences the quality and transfer of water from the Danjiangkou reservoir. The objective of this study is to assess the water erosion (rill and sheet erosion risk and dynamic change trend of spatial distribution in erosion status and intensity between 2004 and 2010 in the Danjiangkou reservoir area using a multicriteria evaluation method.The multicriteria evaluation method synthesizes the vegetation fraction cover, slope gradient, and land use. Based on the rules and erosion risk assessment results of the study area in 2004 and 2010, the research obtained the conservation priority map. This study result shows an improvement in erosion status of the study area, the eroded area decreased from 32.1% in 2004 to 25.43% in 2010. The unchanged regions dominated the study area and that the total area of improvement grade erosion was larger than that of deterioration grade erosion. The severe, more severe, and extremely severe areas decreased by 4.71%, 2.28%, and 0.61% of the total study area, respectively. The percentages of regions where erosion grade transformed from extremely severe to slight, light and moderate were 0.18%, 0.02%, and 0.30%, respectively. However, a deteriorated region with a 2,897.60 km2 area was still observed. This area cannot be ignored in the determination of a general governance scheme. The top two conservation priority levels cover almost all regions with severe erosion and prominent increase in erosion risk, accounting for 7.31% of the study area. The study results can assist government agencies in decision making for determining erosion control areas, starting regulation projects, and making soil conservation measures.

  14. Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2017-01-01

    Project Management is the bestselling text for students and professionals, presenting a streamlined approach to project management functions in full alignment with PMI(r)'s latest Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK(r)). This new 12th edition has been updated to reflect the latest changes found in the PMBOK(r) Guide--Sixth Edition, and features new coverage of emerging topics including global stakeholder management, causes of failure, agile project management, project governance failure, customer approval milestones, classifying project metrics, and more. Supplementary materials are available for students, working professionals, and instructors. * Understand organizational structures and project management functions * Learn how to control costs, manage risk, and analyze trade-offs * Examine different methods used for planning, scheduling, QA, and more * Work effectively with customers and stakeholders from around the globe Project Management is the comprehensive reference to keep within arm's reach. ...

  15. MILA Antenna Control Unit Replacement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresette, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The Air to Ground Subsystem (AGS) Antenna Control Units at the MILA Ground Network Tracking Station are at end-of-life and are being replaced. AGS consists of two antennas at MILA (Quad-Helix and Teltrac). Software was taken from the existing Subsystem Controller and modified for the Antenna Control Unit (ACU). The software is capable of receiving and sending commands to and from the ACU. Moving the azimuth clockwise, counterclockwise, moving the elevation up or down, turning servo power on and off, and inputting azimuth and elevation angles are commands that the antenna can receive.

  16. Soil erosion in a man-made landscape: the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are characterised by a seasonally contrasted distribution of precipitation, by the coincidence of the driest and hottest season in summer, by an often-mountainous terrain, and by a long history of intense human occupation, especially around the Mediterranean Sea. The history of the Mediterranean lands is the history of human impacts on the soil system, and soil erosion is the most intense and widespread impact on this land where high intensity and uneven rainfall is found. A review of the soil erosion rates measured in the Mediterranean basin will be shown. The measurements done by means of erosion pins, topographical measurements, rainfall simulators, Gerlach collectors in open or close plots, watershed/basin measurements, reservoirs siltation and historical data will be shown. A review of the soil erosion models applied in the Mediterranean will be shown. The tentative approach done until October 2011 show that the soil erosion rates on Mediterranean type ecosystems are not as high as was supposed by the pioneers in the 70's. And this is probably due to the fact that the soils are very shallow and sediments are not available after millennia of high erosion rates. This is related to the large amount of rock fragments are covering the soil, and the rock outcrops that are found in the upper slope trams and the summits. Soil erosion in the Mediterranean is seasonal due to the rainfall concentration in winter, and highly variable within years as the high intensity rainfall events control the sediment production. Natural vegetation is adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions, and they are efficient to control the soil losses. An example are the forest fire that increase the soil losses but this is a temporal change as after 2-4 years the soil erosion rates are similar to the pre-fire period. Agriculture lands are the source of sediments although the highest erosion rates are found in badland areas that cover a small part of

  17. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 2: Development Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the development documents from the GCS project. Volume 2 contains three appendices: A. Guidance and Control Software Development Specification; B. Design Description for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and C. Source Code for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software

  18. Cavitation erosion - scale effect and model investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, F.; Rutschmann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The experimental works presented in here contribute to the clarification of erosive effects of hydrodynamic cavitation. Comprehensive cavitation erosion test series were conducted for transient cloud cavitation in the shear layer of prismatic bodies. The erosion pattern and erosion rates were determined with a mineral based volume loss technique and with a metal based pit count system competitively. The results clarified the underlying scale effects and revealed a strong non-linear material dependency, which indicated significantly different damage processes for both material types. Furthermore, the size and dynamics of the cavitation clouds have been assessed by optical detection. The fluctuations of the cloud sizes showed a maximum value for those cavitation numbers related to maximum erosive aggressiveness. The finding suggests the suitability of a model approach which relates the erosion process to cavitation cloud dynamics. An enhanced experimental setup is projected to further clarify these issues.

  19. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  20. Dust control at Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissell, F.; Jurani, R.; Dresel, R.; Reaux, C.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes actions taken to control silica dust at the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility, a tunnel located in Southern Nevada that is part of a scientific program to determine site suitability for a potential nuclear waste repository. The rock is a volcanic tuff containing significant percentages of both quartz and cristobalite. Water use for dust control was limited because of scientific test requirements, and this limitation made dust control a difficult task. Results are reported for two drifts, called the Main Loop Drift and the Cross Drift. In the Main Loop Drift, dust surveys and tracer gas tests indicated that air leakage from the TBM head, the primary ventilation duct, and movement of the conveyor belt were all significant sources of dust. Conventional dust control approaches yielded no significant reductions in dust levels. A novel alternative was to install an air cleaning station on a rear deck of the TBM trailing gear. It filtered dust from the contaminated intake air and discharged clean air towards the front of the TBM. The practical effect was to produce dust levels below the exposure limit for all TBM locations except close to the head. In the Cross Drift, better ventilation and an extra set of dust seals on the TBM served to cut down the leakage of dust from the TBM cutter head. However, the conveyor belt was much dustier than the belt in the main loop drift. The problem originated with dirt on the bottom of the belt return side and much spillage from the belt top side. Achieving lower dust levels in hard rock tunneling operations will require new approaches as well as a more meticulous application of existing technology. Planning for dust control will require specific means to deal with dust that leaks from the TBM head, dust that originates with leaky ventilation systems, and dust that comes from conveyor belts. Also, the application of water could be more efficient if automatic controls were used to adjust the water flow

  1. First-of-A-Kind Control Room Modernization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This project plan describes a comprehensive approach to the design of an end-state concept for a modernized control room for Palo Verde. It describes the collaboration arrangement between the DOE LWRS Program Control Room Modernization Project and the APS Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. It further describes the role of other collaborators, including the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It combines advanced tools, methodologies, and facilities to enable a science-based approach to the validation of applicable engineering and human factors principles for nuclear plant control rooms. It addresses the required project results and documentation to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. It describes the project tasks that will be conducted in the project, and the deliverable reports that will be developed through these tasks. This project plan will be updated as new tasks are added and as project milestones are completed. It will serve as an ongoing description on the project both for project participants and for industry stakeholders.

  2. Statistical Process Control. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M.; Clark, I.

    A project was conducted to develop a curriculum and training materials to be used in training industrial operatives in statistical process control (SPC) techniques. During the first phase of the project, questionnaires were sent to 685 companies (215 of which responded) to determine where SPC was being used, what type of SPC firms needed, and how…

  3. Metrics-based control in outsourced software development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, Laura; van Eck, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Measurements have been recognised as vital instruments to improve control in outsourced software development projects. However, project managers are still struggling with the design and implementation of effective measurement programs. One reason for this is that although there is a large body of

  4. Controls and automation in the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothner, U.; Boulot, A.; Maherault, J.; Martial, L.

    1999-01-01

    The control and automation team of the R and D of Accelerator-Exotic Beam Department has had in the framework of SPIRAL collaboration the following tasks: 1. automation of the resonator high frequency equipment of the CIME cyclotron; 2. automation of the vacuum equipment, i.e. the low energy line (TBE), the CIME cyclotron, the low energy line (BE); 3. automation of load safety for power supply; 4. for each of these tasks a circuitry file based on the SCHEMA software has been worked out. The programs required in the automation of load safety for power supply (STEP5, PROTOOL, DESIGNER 4.1) were developed and implemented for PC

  5. Projection Operator: A Step Towards Certification of Adaptive Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchev, Gregory V.; Campbell, Stefan F.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major barriers to wider use of adaptive controllers in commercial aviation is the lack of appropriate certification procedures. In order to be certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), an aircraft controller is expected to meet a set of guidelines on functionality and reliability while not negatively impacting other systems or safety of aircraft operations. Due to their inherent time-variant and non-linear behavior, adaptive controllers cannot be certified via the metrics used for linear conventional controllers, such as gain and phase margin. Projection Operator is a robustness augmentation technique that bounds the output of a non-linear adaptive controller while conforming to the Lyapunov stability rules. It can also be used to limit the control authority of the adaptive component so that the said control authority can be arbitrarily close to that of a linear controller. In this paper we will present the results of applying the Projection Operator to a Model-Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC), varying the amount of control authority, and comparing controller s performance and stability characteristics with those of a linear controller. We will also show how adjusting Projection Operator parameters can make it easier for the controller to satisfy the certification guidelines by enabling a tradeoff between controller s performance and robustness.

  6. Steam side corrosion-erosion monitoring and control improvements performed at the Kalinin NPP in the frame of the CEC Tacis'92 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The TACIS program (Technical Assistance to the Community of Independent States), funded by the CEC, is aimed at improving the reliability and safety of the VVER NPPs operation. The program consists of the following two phases: upgrading the on-line water chemistry monitoring and laboratory analytical equipment; implementation of generic studies to assess the corrosion risks in the steam side sensitive areas and to set-up the most appropriate strategy to monitor and to control the corrosion-erosion phenomena in the secondary side. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 3: Verification Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the verification documents from the GCS project. Volume 3 contains four appendices: A. Software Verification Cases and Procedures for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Verification Results for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; C. Review Records for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and D. Test Results Logs for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software.

  8. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris [Morrisville State College, NY (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  9. Establishment of control site baseline data for erosion studies using radionuclides: a case study in East Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, Lionel, E-mail: L.Mabit@iaea.or [Soil Science Unit, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Martin, Paul [Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jankong, Patcharin; Toloza, Arsenio [Soil Science Unit, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Padilla-Alvarez, Roman [Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, PO Box 100, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Zupanc, Vesna [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to establish a reference site and its soil characteristics for use of fallout radionuclides in erosion studies in Slovenia. Prior to this study, no reference site and baseline data existed for Slovenia for this purpose. In the agricultural area of Goricko in East Slovenia, an undisturbed forest situated in Salamenci (46{sup o}44'N, 16{sup o}7'E), was selected to establish the inventory value of fallout {sup 137}Cs and to establish a baseline level of multi-elemental fingerprint (major, minor, trace elements including heavy metals) and naturally occurring radionuclides in soils. A total of 20 soil profiles were collected at four 10 cm depth increments for evaluation of baseline level of {sup 137}Cs inventory. An exponential distribution for {sup 137}Cs was found and the baseline level inventory was established at 7300 {+-} 2500 Bq m{sup -2} with a coefficient of variation of 34%. Of this mean present-day inventory, approximately 45% is due to the Chernobyl contribution. The physical degradation of soils through erosion is linked with biochemical degradation. This study introduces an approach to establishment of the naturally occurring radionuclide and elemental fingerprints baseline levels at a reference site which can provide comparative data to those from neighbouring agricultural fields for assessment of soil redistribution magnitude using fallout radionuclides. In addition, this information will be used to determine the impact of soil erosion processes and agricultural practices on soil quality and redistribution within agricultural landscapes in Slovenia.

  10. A Projection of Automated Book Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barisic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates on the recommendation of systematic introducing of XML technologies as a standard and integral factor in publishing and graphic business activities and as a further improvement of the existing PostScript graphic production platform. Procedures are proposed for applying norm setting in respect to production processes through related connections organized databases under XML technology in a hierarchical way, as well as a book production norm setting system. The proposal for work processes automation in the domain of printing business control is elaborated under the CIP4-JDF automating system. Operation results are used as guidelines for setting the elements of automated business operations in the book production domain, with integrated elements of new technologies, compatible with global trends.

  11. Landform design conditions Runoff and erosion control on reclaimed areas; Diseno de la Morfologia y Red de Drenaje en la Restaurationes Mineras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Landform construction in Utrillas coal field, where the MFUSA Company is operating, is based on the runoff sharing out, making up different hydrological catchment. Artificial slopes, flat platforms, and the dram age network, with channels and small ponds, compose reclaimed cathments, which are connected to the natural drainage network. The goal of the project is to set up some tools for Landform design, i. e. hydrological and erosion models. The models give a quantitative base for predicting the long-term stability of reclaimed catchments. Empirical values of the parameters have been obtained by measuring runoff and sediments rates at the slope and catchments level. Runoff is predicted by applying the Curve Number Method. RUSLE 1.06, Rusle for Mined Lands, Construction Sites and Reclaimed Lands, is applied for soil erosion prediction at slope scale and MUSLE at catchment scale. It is explained the methodology for applying these models in others coal fields. Finally rules for conservation and management of the reclaimed catchments are given, emphasizing the influence of the Mediterranean-Continental climate. (Author)

  12. ANG coal gasification project management control system report. [Great Plains project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Much time, money and effort has been spent in the forefront of this project for project controls. The work breakdown structure for the systems has been custom designed. The systems, both manual and computerized, have been well scrutinized and chosen by ANG to represent the most cost effective and efficient way of controlling a project the magnitude of $1.5 billion. These systems have been developed in a manner so that information can be gathered as detailed or as summarized as necessary, and in the most timely and expeditious ways.

  13. Control system of the MACSE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gournay, J.F.; Gougnaud, F.; Matichard, G.; Azoulay, R.; Bouillac, A.

    1991-01-01

    With the goal of investigating all the technological aspects of superconducting RF acceleration, the so-called MACSE facility was put in operation at the end of 1990. The control system is built with several VME crates linked together with a dedicated Ethernet network. VxWorks is the real-time operating system used. A set of software services was built on top of VxWorks (high level communication tools, a data-base management system, a library of VME boards drivers and a limited man-machine interface). A complete range of application programs have been developed with these tools in order to fulfill the requirements of such a facility (settings of the parameters, surveillance, archive facility, closed loops...). The TCP-IP protocols family is extensively used for communications between the components of the system (UDP, RPC, rcmd, NFS). The development environment is based on the host-target approach through the use of a network of Sun 3/80 workstations. After 1 1/2 year of experience, this system has proven to be powerful and flexible [fr

  14. Rainfall Erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the Rfactor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national...... and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based...

  15. MRI of the wrist in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: erosions or normal variants? A prospective case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ording Muller, Lil-Sofie; Boavida, Peter; Avenarius, Derk; Eldevik, Odd Petter; Damasio, Beatrice; Malattia, Clara; Lambot-Juhan, Karen; Tanturri, Laura; Owens, Catherine M.; Rosendahl, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Bony depressions at the wrist resembling erosions are frequently seen on MRI in healthy children. The accuracy of MRI in detecting early bony destruction is therefore questionable. We compared findings on MRI of the wrist in healthy children and those with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to investigate markers for true disease. We compared the number and localisation of bony depressions at the wrist in 85 healthy children and 68 children with JIA, ages 5-15 years. The size of the wrist was assessed from a radiograph of the wrist performed on the same day as the MRI. No significant difference in the number of bony depressions in the carpal bones was seen between healthy children and children with JIA at any age. Depressions are found in similar locations in the two groups, except for a few sites, where bony depressions were seen exclusively in the JIA group, particularly at the CMC joints. The wrist was significantly smaller in children with JIA (P < 0.001). Using adult scoring systems and standard MR sequences in the assessment of bone destruction in children may lead to overstaging or understaging of disease. At present, standard MRI sequences cannot easily be used for assessment of early signs of erosions in children. (orig.)

  16. MRI of the wrist in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: erosions or normal variants? A prospective case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ording Muller, Lil-Sofie [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Boavida, Peter [Homerton University Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Avenarius, Derk; Eldevik, Odd Petter [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Damasio, Beatrice [Ospedale Pediatrico Gaslini, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Malattia, Clara [Ospedale Pediatrico Gaslini, Department of Rhematology, Genoa (Italy); Lambot-Juhan, Karen [Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Tanturri, Laura [Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Rosendahl, Karen [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL, Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway)

    2013-07-15

    Bony depressions at the wrist resembling erosions are frequently seen on MRI in healthy children. The accuracy of MRI in detecting early bony destruction is therefore questionable. We compared findings on MRI of the wrist in healthy children and those with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to investigate markers for true disease. We compared the number and localisation of bony depressions at the wrist in 85 healthy children and 68 children with JIA, ages 5-15 years. The size of the wrist was assessed from a radiograph of the wrist performed on the same day as the MRI. No significant difference in the number of bony depressions in the carpal bones was seen between healthy children and children with JIA at any age. Depressions are found in similar locations in the two groups, except for a few sites, where bony depressions were seen exclusively in the JIA group, particularly at the CMC joints. The wrist was significantly smaller in children with JIA (P < 0.001). Using adult scoring systems and standard MR sequences in the assessment of bone destruction in children may lead to overstaging or understaging of disease. At present, standard MRI sequences cannot easily be used for assessment of early signs of erosions in children. (orig.)

  17. Extending the GANIL control system for the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecorche, E.

    1997-01-01

    The SPIRAL project under construction at GANIL aims to deliver radioactive ion beams to the physicists by the end of 1998. In 1996, it has been proposed to achieve most of the SPIRAL control system as an extension of the system currently in use at GANIL. Therefore the main features of the GANIL control system design are first recalled. Then the paper shows how the GANIL control system should have been upgraded and extended to integrate the SPIRAL project. This evolution had to cope with the specific needs brought by the new machine and to consider the size of the project which is around one third of the GANIL control system volume. Lastly current status of the system is given. (author)

  18. Extending the GANIL control system for the SPIRAL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecorche, E

    1997-12-31

    The SPIRAL project under construction at GANIL aims to deliver radioactive ion beams to the physicists by the end of 1998. In 1996, it has been proposed to achieve most of the SPIRAL control system as an extension of the system currently in use at GANIL. Therefore the main features of the GANIL control system design are first recalled. Then the paper shows how the GANIL control system should have been upgraded and extended to integrate the SPIRAL project. This evolution had to cope with the specific needs brought by the new machine and to consider the size of the project which is around one third of the GANIL control system volume. Lastly current status of the system is given. (author) 5 refs.

  19. Analysis and control of issues that delay pharmaceutical projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallam Sai Nandeswara Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Every project will have certain objectives and service levels to be achieved. The success of a project depends on several dimensions like time, cost/budget, quality, etc. and managing a project involves completing the project within time, within budget and with quality to satisfy the users. Because of the significance of health, pharmaceutical companies realized the importance of project management methods and techniques to make available the life saving drugs in time to the needy patients and hospitals. In literature, there is meager information about pharmaceutical project management oriented towards analysis of issues and factors that contribute to the failure or success of projects. This study attempts to analyse different issues that contribute to time delays in pharmaceutical product-based projects, group them under a finite set of prominent factors and identify remedial measures to control those delays. The feedback of project people of some big pharmaceutical firms of Indian sub-continent was collected for this purpose. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA has been used to reduce the reasons for time delays to a limited number of prominent factors and the EFA model has been further examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA for its validation. Remedial measures under each factor of time delays have been gathered and a framework designed to mitigate the time delays in pharmaceutical projects. The derived factors that delay the pharmaceutical projects include resource, monitoring & control, scheduling and planning problems. Important remedial measures like blended resource approach, estimation and forecast of shortage of labour and skills, regular quality training, etc. have been recommended.

  20. Reduction of surface erosion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossing, T.D.; Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the major processes leading to surface erosion in fusion reactors are reviewed briefly, including blistering by implanted gas, sputtering by ions, atoms, and neutrons, and vaporization by local heating. Surface erosion affects the structural integrity and limits the lifetime of reactor components exposed to plasma radiation. In addition, some of the processes leading to surface erosion also cause the release of plasma contaminants. Methods proposed to reduce surface erosion have included control of surface temperature, selection of materials with a favorable microstructure, chemical and mechanical treatment of surfaces, and employment of protective surface coatings, wall liners, and divertors. The advantages and disadvantages of some of these methods are discussed

  1. Schedule control in Ling Ao nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2007-01-01

    Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LANP) is first one built up by self-reliance in China with power capacity 990x2 MWe. The results of quality control, schedule control and cost control are satisfactory. The commercial operation days of Unit 1 and Unit 2 were 28th May 2002 and 8th Jan. 2003 respectively, which were 48 days and 66 days in advance of the project schedule. This paper presents the practices of self-reliance schedule control system in LANP. The paper includes 10 sections: schedule control system; targets of schedule control; schedule control at early stage of project; construction schedule; scheduling practice; Point curves; schedule control of design and procurement; a good practice of construction schedule control on site; commissioning and startup schedule; schedule control culture. Three figures are attached. The main contents of the self-reliance schedule control system are as follows: to draw up reasonable schedules and targets; to setup management mechanism and procedures; to organize powerful project management team; to establish close monitoring system; to provide timely progress reports and statistics information. Five kinds of schedule control targets are introduced, i.e. bar-chart schedule; milesones; Point curves; interface management; hydraulic test schedule of auxiliary piping loops; EMR/EMC/EESR issuance schedules. Six levels of bar-chart schedules were adopted in LANP, but the bar-chart schedules were not satisfactory for complicated erection condition on site, even using six levels of schedules. So a kind of Point curves was developed and their advantages are explained. Scheduling method of three elements: activity, duration, logic, which was adopted in LANP, is introduced. The duration of each piping activities in LANP level 2 project schedule was calculated based on the relevant working Point quantities. The analysis and adjustment of Point curves are illustrated, i.e. balance of monthly quantities; possible production in the peakload

  2. F-15 837 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) for the F-15. The goals of the project are: (1) Demonstrate Revolutionary Control Approaches that can Efficiently Optimize Aircraft Performance in both Normal and Failure Conditions (2) Advance Neural Network-Based Flight Control Technology for New Aerospace Systems Designs. The motivation for the development are to reduce the chance and skill required for survival.

  3. Mapping erosion from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.

    2007-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is the most important land degradation problem worldwide. Spatial information on erosion is required for defining effective soil and water conservation strategies. Satellite remote sensing can provide relevant input to regional erosion assessment. This thesis comprises a review

  4. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  5. Project-Based Learning in Programmable Logic Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke, F. R.; Sumilat, J. M.; Kembuan, D. R. E.; Kewas, J. C.; Muchtar, H.; Ibrahim, N.

    2018-02-01

    Project-based learning is a learning method that uses project activities as the core of learning and requires student creativity in completing the project. The aims of this study is to investigate the influence of project-based learning methods on students with a high level of creativity in learning the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). This study used experimental methods with experimental class and control class consisting of 24 students, with 12 students of high creativity and 12 students of low creativity. The application of project-based learning methods into the PLC courses combined with the level of student creativity enables the students to be directly involved in the work of the PLC project which gives them experience in utilizing PLCs for the benefit of the industry. Therefore, it’s concluded that project-based learning method is one of the superior learning methods to apply on highly creative students to PLC courses. This method can be used as an effort to improve student learning outcomes and student creativity as well as to educate prospective teachers to become reliable educators in theory and practice which will be tasked to create qualified human resources candidates in order to meet future industry needs.

  6. Wind erosion modelling in a Sahelian environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faye-Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.; Karssenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahel field observations of wind-blown mass transport often show considerable spatial variation related to the spatial variation of the wind erosion controlling parameters, e.g. soil crust and vegetation cover. A model, used to predict spatial variation in wind erosion and deposition is a

  7. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  8. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) theory principles and applying them to the human element of project management and control is not a new concept. As both the literature on the subject and the real-world applications are neither readily available nor comprehensive with regard to how such principles might be applied, this paper has been written to educate the project manager on the "laws of physics" of his or her project (not to teach a GN&C engineer how to become a project manager) and to provide an intuitive, mathematical explanation as to the control and behavior of projects. This paper will also address how the fundamental principles of modern GN&C were applied to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) space suit project, ensuring the project was managed within cost, schedule, and budget. A project that is akin to a physical system can be modeled and managed using the same over arching principles of GN&C that would be used if that project were a complex vehicle, a complex system(s), or complex software with time-varying processes (at times nonlinear) containing multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. The classic GN&C theory approach could thus be applied to small, well-defined projects; yet when working with larger, multiyear projects necessitating multiple organizational structures, numerous external influences, and a multitude of diverse resources, modern GN&C principles are required to model and manage the project. The fundamental principles of a GN&C system incorporate these basic concepts: State, Behavior, Feedback Control, Navigation, Guidance and Planning Logic systems. The State of a system defines the aspects of the system that can change over time; e.g., position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, and temperature, etc. The Behavior of the system focuses more on what changes are possible within the system; this is denoted in the state

  9. Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic systems via adaptive learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Ping, Sun; Jun-Min, Li; Hui-Lin, Wang; Jiang-An, Wang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a learning control approach is applied to the generalized projective synchronisation (GPS) of different chaotic systems with unknown periodically time-varying parameters. Using the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional stability theory, a differential-difference mixed parametric learning law and an adaptive learning control law are constructed to make the states of two different chaotic systems asymptotically synchronised. The scheme is successfully applied to the generalized projective synchronisation between the Lorenz system and Chen system. Moreover, numerical simulations results are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. (general)

  10. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  11. Managing dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Donald A; Jayanetti, Jay; Chu, Raymond; Staninec, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The clinical signs of dental erosion are initially subtle, yet often progress because the patient remains asymptomatic, unaware and uninformed. Erosion typically works synergistically with abrasion and attrition to cause loss of tooth structure, making diagnosis and management complex. The purpose of this article is to outline clinical examples of patients with dental erosion that highlight the strategy of early identification, patient education and conservative restorative management. Dental erosion is defined as the pathologic chronic loss of dental hard tissues as a result of the chemical influence of exogenous or endogenous acids without bacterial involvement. Like caries or periodontal disease, erosion has a multifactorial etiology and requires a thorough history and examination for diagnosis. It also requires patient understanding and compliance for improved outcomes. Erosion can affect the loss of tooth structure in isolation of other cofactors, but most often works in synergy with abrasion and attrition in the loss of tooth structure (Table 1). Although erosion is thought to be an underlying etiology of dentin sensitivity, erosion and loss of tooth structure often occurs with few symptoms. The purpose of this article is threefold: first, to outline existing barriers that may limit early management of dental erosion. Second, to review the clinical assessment required to establish a diagnosis of erosion. And third, to outline clinical examples that review options to restore lost tooth structure. The authors have included illustrations they hope will be used to improve patient understanding and motivation in the early management of dental erosion.

  12. [Case control trial on putative factors antagonising the successful project course of MD thesis projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenberg, J; Schaper, K; Krummenauer, F

    2015-05-01

    Award of the degree MD has special relevance in Germany since the underlying research project can be started during the qualification for admission to doctoral training. This leads to a large number of thesis projects with a not always sufficiently pronounced enthusiasm and thus poor chances of success. Accordingly a case control study was undertaken in the Department of Human Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University to investigate reported drop-outs of thesis projects. In autumn 2012 all students in the clinical phases of human medicine education were surveyed using a self-conceived questionnaire on previously initiated or terminated thesis projects, "terminated" is defined as the unsuccessful ending of a project after working for at least 3 months. Individually reported thesis terminations were evaluated using defined items in a 4-stage Likert scale regarding thesis plan and project, subsequently, graduate students who successfully completed a project received the same questionnaire. The items possibly corresponding to process determinants were averaged to a total of 7 dimensions prior to the analysis; the resulting scores were normalised in value ranges 0.0 to 1.0 (1.0 = optimal project situation) whereby individual items could be included in several scores. By means of 5 items a primary endpoint from the faculty's perspective on "compliance with formal procedures" was aggregated; by means of a two-sided Wilcoxon test at the 5 % level students with unsuccessful and successful courses were compared along the corresponding scores. 181 of 276 students from 7 study semesters participated in the screening; details of 17 terminations and 23 currently successful courses could be evaluated in the case control study. For significant differences (p thesis projects to the responsible committees. A weakness is the low number of evaluable self-reported drop-outs as well as the overall moderate response rate. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Halden Reactor Project Workshop: Understanding Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1991-01-01

    A Halden Reactor Project Workshop on 'Understanding Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Issues' was held in Halden, Norway, during June 17-18, 1991. The objectives of the workshop were to (1) identify and prioritize the types of technical information that the Halden Project can produce to facilitate the development of man-machine interface guidelines and (2) to identify methods to effectively integrate and disseminate this information to signatory organizations. As a member of the Halden Reactor Project, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested the workshop. This request resulted from the NRC's need for human factors guidelines for the evaluation of advanced instrumentation and controls. The Halden Reactor Project is a cooperative agreement among several countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The US began its association with the Halden Project in 1958 through the Atomic Energy Commission. The project's activities are centered at the Halden heavy-water reactor and its associated man-machine laboratory in Halden, Norway. The research program conducted at Halden consists of studies on fuel performance and computer-based man-machine interfaces

  14. Estimating surface soil erosion losses and mapping erosion risk for Yusufeli micro-catchment (Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tüfekçioğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet erosion, one of the most important types of water erosion, takes place on the top soil as tiny soil layer movement that affects lake and stream ecosystem. This type of erosion is very important because the productive soil layer on the top soil can be lost in a very short period of time. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of surface (sheet and rill soil erosion, and to identify areas under high erosion risk within the study area at Yusufeli province in Artvin by using RUSLE erosion methodology. As a result of the study it was found that the average annual potential soil loss by surface erosion was 3.6 ton ha-1yr-1. Additionally, the maps produced and conclusions reached by the study revealed that the areas of high erosion risk were identified spatially and measures to control erosion on some of these high risk areas can be possible with appropriate erosion control techniques.

  15. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  16. Dynamic control of low-Z material deposition and tungsten erosion by strike point sweeping on DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guterl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon deposition on tungsten between ELMs was investigated in DIII-D in semi-attached/detached H-mode plasma conditions using fixed outer strike point (OSP positions. Carbon deposition during plasma exposure of tungsten was monitored in-situ by measuring the reflectivity of the tungsten sample surface. No significant carbon deposition, i.e., without strong variations of the reflectivity, was observed during these experiments including discharges at high densities. In contrast, ERO modeling predicts a significant carbon deposition on the tungsten surface for those high density plasma conditions. The surface reflectivity decreases with methane injection, consistent with increased carbon coverage, as expected. The sweeping of OSP leads to a pronounced increase of the surface reflectivity, suggesting that the strike point sweeping may provide an effective means to remove carbon coating from tungsten surface. The ERO modeling however predicts again a regime of carbon deposition for these experiments. The discrepancies between carbon deposition regime predicted by the ERO model and the experimental observations suggest that carbon erosion during ELMs may significantly affect carbon deposition on tungsten.

  17. Controlling general projective synchronization of fractional order Rossler systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Shiquan

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to achieve general projective synchronization of two fractional order Rossler systems. First, we construct the fractional order Rossler system's corresponding approximation integer order system. Then, a control method based on a partially linear decomposition and negative feedback of state errors was utilized on the integer order system. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Erosion and corrosion of nuclear power plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This conference is composed of 23 papers, grouped in 3 sessions which main themes are: analysis of corrosion and erosion damages of nuclear power plant equipment and influence of water chemistry, temperature, irradiations, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, flow assisted cracking, stress cracking; monitoring and control of erosion and corrosion in nuclear power plants; susceptibility of structural materials to erosion and corrosion and ways to improve the resistance of materials, steels, coatings, etc. to erosion, corrosion and cracking

  19. Construction project investment control model based on instant information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-tong

    2006-01-01

    Change of construction conditions always influences project investment by causing the loss of construction work time and extending the duration. To resolve such problem as difficult dynamic control in work construction plan, this article presents a concept of instant optimization by ways of adjustment operation time of each working procedure to minimize investment change. Based on this concept, its mathematical model is established and a strict mathematical justification is performed. An instant optimization model takes advantage of instant information in the construction process to duly complete adjustment of construction; thus we maximize cost efficiency of project investment.

  20. The step from the project control to long-distance control; Von der Projekt- zur Fernkontrolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaelin, W. [Ingenieurbuero Werner Kaelin, Schwyz (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 8 of the anthology about building control the extension from project control to long-distance control is described. The following aspects are discussed: guidelines (operating concept, task anthology), project (implementation, control, documentation), realisation (initiation, example), operation (regional co-operation, characteristic numbers). (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 8 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist dem Ausbau von der Projekt- zur Fernkontrolle gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themen angesprochen: Vorgaben (Betriebskonzept, Pflichtenheft), Projekt (Umsetzung, Kontrolle, Dokumentation), Ausfuehrung (Inbetriebsetzung, Beispiel); Betrieb (regionaler Zusammenschluss, Kennzahlen). (BWI)

  1. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  2. QA lessons learned for parameter control from the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of lessons learned from experiences on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WJPP) Project in implementation of quality assurance controls surrounding inputs for performance assessment analysis. Since the performance assessment (PA) process is inherent in compliance determination for any waste repository, these lessons-learned are intended to be useful to investigators, analysts, and Quality Assurance (QA) practitioners working on high level waste disposal projects. On the WIPP Project, PA analyses for regulatory-compliance determination utilized several inter-related computer programs (codes) that mathematically modeled phenomena such as radionuclide release, retardation, and transport. The input information for those codes are the parameters that are the subject of this paper. Parameters were maintained in a computer database, which was then queried electronically by the PA codes whenever input was needed as the analyses were run

  3. Experiential learning in control systems laboratories and engineering project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Rebecca Marie

    2015, a panel of 40 control systems faculty members, from a variety of institutions, completed a multi-round Delphi survey in order to bring them toward consensus on the common aspects of their laboratories. The following winter, 45 additional faculty members and practitioners from the control systems community completed a follow-up survey to gather feedback on the results of the Delphi survey. During the Delphi study, the panelists identified 15 laboratory objectives, 26 concepts, and 15 components that were common in their laboratories. Then in both the Delphi survey and follow-up survey each participant rated the importance of each of these items. While the average ratings differed slightly between the two groups, the order of each set of items was compared with two different tests and the order was found to be similar. Some of the common and important learning objectives include connecting theory to what is implemented and observed in the laboratory, designing controllers, and modeling and simulating systems. The most common component in both groups was Math-Works software. Some of the common concepts include block diagrams, stability, and PID control. Defining common aspects of undergraduate control systems laboratories enables common development, detailed comparisons, and simplified adaptation of equipment and experiments between campuses and programs. Throughout an undergraduate program in engineering, there are multiple opportunities for hands-on laboratory experiences that are related to course content. However, a similarly immersive experience for project management graduate students is harder to incorporate for all students in a course at once. This study explores an experiential learning opportunity for graduate students in engineering management or project management programs. The project management students enroll in a project management course. Undergraduate students interested in working on a project with a real customer enroll in a different projects

  4. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Project summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    . The two case studies (Madeira, Portugal and Co. Donegal, Ireland) revealed that sometimes theleast cost and most attractive option is change in the operating strategy of the power system. This allowed that further wind energy can be integrated at competitive cost in the Madeira power system. In Co....... Donegal the options for pumped storage are goodcombined with good wind resources. Unfortunately the grid is weak. The least cost option for the feeder studied is either grid reinforcement or a power control system based on pumped storage if rather large amounts of wind energy are to be absorbed...... by thepower system. The cost estimates for the two options are in the same range. The current report is a summary of the work done in the project 'Power Control for Wind Turbines in Weak Grids'. The project has been partly funded by EU under contractJOR3-CT95-0067....

  5. Islamic Republic of Iran: Bushehr NPP. Project control. Annex 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboury

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with project control. After almost 17 years of delay due to revolution and war, the work on BNPP-1 resumed. The new plant will be a combination of German and Russian designs and as such will present many unique technical and managerial problems. These will be accentuated by the fact that Iranian nuclear personnel are relatively young and inexperienced. In spite of hostile environmental conditions at the site, the equipment, structures and documentation have been relatively well presented. (author)

  6. Quality control of radioactive waste disposal container for borehole project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Azhar Azmi; Ilham Mukhriz Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explained quality control of radioactive disposal container for the borehole project. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) is one of the quality tool used for evaluating the product. The disposal container is made of 316L stainless steel. The suitable NDT method for this object is radiography, ultrasonic, penetrant and eddy current testing. This container will be filled with radioactive capsules and cement mortar is grouted to fill the gap. The results of NDT measurements are explained and discussed. (author)

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  8. The Halden Reactor Project workshop meeting on control room development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miberg, Ann Britt; Green, Marie; Haukenes, Hanne; Larsen, Marit; Seim, Lars Aage; Veland, Oeystein

    1999-03-01

    The 'Control Room Development' workshop was organised in. Halden, November 5-6, 1998. The purpose of the workshop was to bring forward recommendations for the future use of HAMMLAB with respect to control room development. The workshop comprised thirteen presentations summarising current issues and status in control room development projects and related projects. Following the presentations, five working groups were formed. The purpose of the working groups was to establish a set of recommendations for the future use of HAMMLAB. Each working group developed a set of recommendations. The outcomes of the working groups' discussions were summarised in plenum by the working group chairs. During the workshop, all participants excluding the Halden Project staff were asked to fill in a questionnaire indicating which research topics they found most interesting to pursue in future HAMMLAB research. The purpose of this report is to summarise the workshop participants' presentations, the working groups' discussions, and the recommendations given by the workshop participants concerning the future use of HAMMLAB (author) (ml)

  9. Wind Erosion Induced Soil Degradation in Northern China: Status, Measures and Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongling Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is one of the most serious ecological problems in the world. In arid and semi-arid northern China, soil degradation predominantly arises from wind erosion. Trends in soil degradation caused by wind erosion in northern China frequently change with human activities and climatic change. To decrease soil loss by wind erosion and enhance local ecosystems, the Chinese government has been encouraging residents to reduce wind-induced soil degradation through a series of national policies and several ecological projects, such as the Natural Forest Protection Program, the National Action Program to Combat Desertification, the “Three Norths” Shelter Forest System, the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Control Engineering Project, and the Grain for Green Project. All these were implemented a number of decades ago, and have thus created many land management practices and control techniques across different landscapes. These measures include conservation tillage, windbreak networks, checkerboard barriers, the Non-Watering and Tube-Protecting Planting Technique, afforestation, grassland enclosures, etc. As a result, the aeolian degradation of land has been controlled in many regions of arid and semiarid northern China. However, the challenge of mitigating and further reversing soil degradation caused by wind erosion still remains.

  10. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishler, B

    2011-03-18

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  11. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  12. Composition of enamel pellicle from dental erosion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, G; Cotroneo, E; Moazzez, R; Rojas-Serrano, M; Donaldson, N; Austin, R; Zaidel, L; Bartlett, D; Proctor, G

    2014-01-01

    Oral health is dependent upon a thin mobile film of saliva on soft and hard tissues. Salivary proteins adhere to teeth to form the acquired enamel pellicle which is believed to protect teeth from acid erosion. This study investigated whether patients suffering diet-induced dental erosion had altered enamel pellicles. Thirty patients suffering erosion were compared to healthy age-matched controls. Subjects wore a maxillary splint holding hydroxyapatite and human enamel blocks for 1 h. The acquired enamel pellicle was removed from the blocks and compared to the natural incisor pellicle. Basic Erosive Wear Examination scores confirmed that dental erosion was present in erosion patients and absent from healthy age-matched controls. Erosion patients had half the amount of proteins (BCA assay) within the acquired pellicle forming on splint blocks compared to normal controls (p erosion patients (p erosion patients and healthy controls. In summary, the formation of new acquired pellicles on surfaces was reduced in erosion patients, which may explain their greater susceptibility to acid erosion of teeth. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Saliva and dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective: This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods: A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results: Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions: Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  14. Scales and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop scale explicit understanding of erosion to overcome existing conceptual and methodological flaws in our modelling methods currently applied to understand the process of erosion, transport and deposition at the catchment scale. These models need to be based on a sound under...

  15. Saliva and dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Hannas, Angélicas Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. A search was undertaken on MeDLINe website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects.

  16. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patternsin Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simon; Alewell, Christine; Panagos, Panos; Meusburger, Katrin

    2016-10-01

    One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30). Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM) and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression-kriging). As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD), and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM). Topographic parameters (elevation, slope) were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A proportion of 62 % of

  17. 23 CFR 751.23 - Concurrent junkyard control and right-of-way projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-way projects. The State is encouraged to coordinate junkyard control and highway right-of-way projects. Expenses incurred in furtherance of concurrent projects shall be prorated between projects. ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concurrent junkyard control and right-of-way projects...

  18. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Daniel P

    2009-01-12

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm

  19. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 (micro)m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  20. Impact of water control projects on fisheries resources in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Monirul Qader; Ericksen, Neil J.

    1996-07-01

    Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15 20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

  1. Mine subsidence control projects associated with solid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pennsylvania environmental regulations require applicant's for solid waste disposal permits to provide information regarding the extent of deep mining under the proposed site, evaluations of the maximum subsidence potential, and designs of measures to mitigate potential subsidence impact on the facility. This paper presents three case histories of deep mine subsidence control projects at solid waste disposal facilities. Each case history presents site specific mine grouting project data summaries which include evaluations of the subsurface conditions from drilling, mine void volume calculations, grout mix designs, grouting procedures and techniques, as well as grout coverage and extent of mine void filling evaluations. The case studies described utilized basic gravity grouting techniques to fill the mine voids and fractured strata over the collapsed portions of the deep mines. Grout mixtures were designed to achieve compressive strengths suitable for preventing future mine subsidence while maintaining high flow characteristics to penetrate fractured strata. Verification drilling and coring was performed in the grouted areas to determine the extent of grout coverage and obtain samples of the in-place grout for compression testing. The case histories presented in this report demonstrate an efficient and cost effective technique for mine subsidence control projects

  2. The project manager's desk reference: project planning, schedulding, evaluation, control, systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, James P

    2007-01-01

    In this Third Edition of The Project Manager's Desk Reference, top project management consultant James Lewis arms you with today's most comprehensive and understandable project management resources...

  3. Lessons learned in process control at the Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.G.

    1989-12-01

    This report provides a list of those findings particularly relevant to regulatory authorities that can be derived from the research and development activities in computerized process control conducted at the Halden Reactor Project. The report was prepared by a staff member of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission working at Halden. It identifies those results that may be of use to regulatory organizations in three main areas: as support for new requirements, as part of regulatory evaluations of the acceptability of new methods and techniques, and in exploratory research and development of new approaches to improve operator performance. More than 200 findings arranged in nine major categories are presented. The findings were culled from Halden Reactor Project documents, which are listed in the report

  4. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; proper operation of all display data on the operator's console; proper operation of all required alarms; and proper operation of all required interlocks. The MICON A/S control system is configured to replace all the control, indication, and alarm panels now located in the Power Control Room. Nine systems are covered by this control configuration, 2736-ZB HVAC, 234-5Z HVAC, Process Vacuum, Dry Air, 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling, Building Accelerometer, Evacuation Siren, Stack CAMs, and Fire. The 2736-ZB HVAC system consists of the ventilation controls for 2736-ZB and 2736-Z as well as alarms for the emergency generators and 232-Z. The 234-5Z HVAC system is the ventilation controls for 235-5Z and 236-Z buildings. Process Vacuum covers the controls for the 26 inch vacuum system. Dry Air covers the controls for the steam and electric air dryers. The 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling system consists of the status indications and alarms for the 291-Z compressor and vacuum pump closed loop cooling system. The rest of closed loop cooling was tested earlier. The Building Accelerometer system consists of the status indications for the two seismic system accelerometers. The Evacuation Siren system includes the controls for the evacuation and take cover sirens. Stack CAMs cover the alarms for the various building ventilation stack continuous air monitors. Finally, the Fire system covers the various fire alarms now located in Room 321-A

  5. A regional protocol for evaluating the effectiveness of forestry best management practices at controlling erosion and sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Ryder; Pamela Edwards; Pamela Edwards

    2006-01-01

    Forestry operations do not have permitting requirements under the Clean Water Act because there is a ccsilvicultural exemption" given in that law, as long as best management practices (BMPs) are used to help control non-point source pollution. However, states' monitoring of BMP effectiveness often has been sporadic and anecdotal, and the procedures used have...

  6. Erosion corrosion in wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavast, J.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of different remedies against erosion corrosion in wet steam has been studied in Barsebaeck 1. Accessible steam systems were inspected in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The effect of hydrogen peroxide injection of the transport of corrosion products in the condensate and feed water systems has also been followed through chemical analyses. The most important results of the project are: - Low alloy chromium steels with a chromium content of 1-2% have shown excellent resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. - A thermally sprayed coating has shown good resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. In a few areas with restricted accessibility minor attacks have been found. A thermally sprayed aluminium oxide coating has given poor results. - Large areas in the moisture separator/reheater and in steam extraction no. 3 have been passivated by injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide to the high pressure steam. In other inspected systems no significant effect was found. Measurements of the wall thickness in steam extraction no. 3 showed a reduced rate of attack. - The injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide has not resulted in any significant reduction of the iron level result is contrary to that of earlier tests. An increase to 40 ppb resulted in a slight decrease of the iron level. - None of the feared disadvantages with hydrogen peroxide injection has been observed. The chromium and cobalt levels did not increase during the injection. Neither did the lifetime of the precoat condensate filters decrease. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, N; Mehdipour, M; Najafi, Sh; Bahramian, A; Garjani, Sh; Khoeini Poorfar, H

    2014-06-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immunologic-based disease involving skin and mucosa. This disease is generally divided into two categories: erosive and non-erosive. Many etiologic factors are deliberated regarding the disease; however, the disorders of immune system and the role of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and monocytes are more highlighted. Zinc is an imperative element for the growth of epithelium and its deficiency induces the cytotoxic activity of T-helper2 cells, which seems to be associated with lichen planus. This study was aimed to evaluate the levels of serum zinc in erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus (OLP) and to compare it with the healthy control group to find out any feasible inference. A total of 22 patients with erosive oral lichen planus, 22 patients with non erosive OLP and 44 healthy individuals as the control group were recruited in this descriptive-comparative study. All the participants were selected from the referees to the department of oral medicine, school of dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Serum zinc level was examined for all the individuals with liquid-stat kit (Beckman Instruments Inc.; Carlsbad, CA). Data were analyzed by adopting the ANOVA and Tukey tests, using SPSS 16 statistical software. The mean age of patients with erosive and non-erosive LP was 41.7 and 41.3 years, respectively. The mean age of the healthy control group was 34.4 years .The mean serum zinc levels in the erosive and non erosive lichen planus groups and control groups were 8.3 (1.15), 11.15 (0.92) and 15.74 (1.75) μg/dl respectively. The difference was statistically significant (poral lichen planus. This finding may probably indicate the promising role of zinc in development of oral lichen planus.

  8. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvan, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: (1) proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; (2) proper operation of all display data on the operators' console; (3) proper operation of all required alarms; and (4) proper operation of all required interlocks. This test only verifies the proper operation of the Westinghouse control configuration (or program). It will not be responsible for verifying proper operation of the MICON hardware or operating software. Neither does it test any of the B610 instrument. The MICON hardware and software has been tested as part of the equipment procurement. Instrumentation and wiring installed under project B620 will be tested under a separate functional test. In some cases, precise transmitter ranges, alarm setpoints, and controller tuning parameters are not available at this time. Therefore, approximate values are used during the test. This should not affect the proper operation of the configuration or the validity of this test. Final values will be assigned during operability testing

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion vulnerability across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Segura; G. Sun; S. McNulty; Y. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall runoff erosivity (R) is one key climate factor that controls water erosion. Quantifying the effects of climate change-induced erosivity change is important for identifying critical regions prone to soil erosion under a changing environment. In this study we first evaluate the changes of R from 1970 to 2090 across the United States under nine climate conditions...

  10. Innovative In-Situ Remediation of Contaminated Sediments for Simultaneous Control of Contamination and Erosion. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Mn3+ in the oxide crystal lattice, and (3) replacement of Mn3+ or Mn4+ by Co3 +. Generally, the sorption of Co by Mn oxides increases greatly with pH...four treatments: two control treatments consisting of uncapped sediments (i.e., no amendments added); two caps composed of a single six inch layer of 50...organoclays and biopolymer coated sand for various hydrophobic organic compounds. Point ( single concentration) partition coefficient measurements

  11. Restorations in abrasion/erosion cervical lesions: 8-year results of a triple blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Orologio, Giovanni Dondi; Lorenzi, Roberta

    2014-10-01

    An equivalence randomized controlled trial within the subject was organized to evaluate the clinical long-term success of a new 2-step etch & rinse adhesive and a new nano-filled ormocer. 50 subjects, 21 males and 29 females aged between 21 and 65, were randomized to receive 150 restorations, 100 with the new restorative material, 50 with the composite as control, placed in non-carious cervical lesions with the same bonding system. The main outcome measure was the cause of failure at 8 years. Randomization was number table-generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed and stapled envelopes. Subjects, examiner, and analyst were blinded to group assignment. Two interim analyses were performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Cox test (P failures in the experimental group and four failures in the control group. The cumulative loss rate was 7% for both restorative materials, with the annual failure lower than 1%, without any statistically significant difference. There were two key elements of failure: the presence of sclerotic dentin and the relationship between lesion and gingival margin.

  12. Simulation of slag control for the Plasma Hearth Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, M.A.; Carney, K.P.; Peters. G.G.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the Plasma Hearth Project is to stabilize alpha-emitting radionuclides in a vitreous slag and to reduce the effective storage volume of actinide-containing waste for long-term burial. The actinides have been shown to partition into the vitreous slag phase of the melt. The slag composition may be changed by adding glass-former elements to ensure that this removable slag has the most desired physical and chemical properties for long-term burial. A data acquisition and control system has been designed to regulate the composition of five elements in the slag

  13. Secure digital communication using controlled projective synchronisation of chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C.Y.; Xu Daolin

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to chaos communication is proposed to encrypt digital information using controlled projective synchronisation. The scheme encrypts a binary sequence by manipulating the scaling feature of synchronisation from the coupled system. The transmitted signal therefore embeds only a single set of statistical properties. This prevents cryptanalysts from breaking the chaotic encryption scheme by using characteristic cryptanalysis that aims to detect switching of statistical properties in the intercepted information carrier signal. Pseudo-random switching key is incorporated into the scheme to masked out the deterministic nature of the underlying coupled system

  14. Environmental Impact of Introducing Aromatic-Shrub Strips in Almond Orchards under Semiarid Climate (SE Spain): implications for Erosion and Agricultural Runoff Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran-Zuazo, V. H.; Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Francia-Martinez, J. R.; Martinez-Raya, A.; Carceles-Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo-Panadero, L.; Casado, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Erosion degrades soil quality in natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems, thereby reducing the productivity of the land. Semi-natural vegetation and diverse cropping systems have been converted into monocultures with low tree densities, leaving the soil unprotected. Soil loss, runoff, and nutrient loss over a four-year period were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different soil-management systems. (Author)

  15. Environmental Impact of Introducing Aromatic-Shrub Strips in Almond Orchards under Semiarid Climate (SE Spain): implications for Erosion and Agricultural Runoff Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran-Zuazo, V. H.; Rodriguez-Pleguezuelo, C. R.; Francia-Martinez, J. R.; Martinez-Raya, A.; Carceles-Rodriguez, B.; Arroyo-Panadero, L.; Casado, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion degrades soil quality in natural, agricultural, and forest ecosystems, thereby reducing the productivity of the land. Semi-natural vegetation and diverse cropping systems have been converted into monocultures with low tree densities, leaving the soil unprotected. Soil loss, runoff, and nutrient loss over a four-year period were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different soil-management systems. (Author)

  16. Cost control and risk mitigation of major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caddy, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper and presentation, the four major types of estimates will be discussed, i.e., capacity factored, equipment factored, semi-detailed and detailed. Key relationships between particular portions of estimates will be discussed such as the relationship between direct field labor and indirect field costs. Having set the basis for developing a project's cost through estimating, the paper will then list and discuss the fifteen key steps which must be followed to control the costs of a project. Next, the subject of allowances and contingency will be discussed and defined and the differences between the two will be highlighted. Having established exactly what contingency is, the subject of risk analysis through RANGE estimating will be discussed. The methods used to establish a precise contingency and probability of an over/under run will be discussed. Finally, the paper will discuss the methods by which a project manager, owner or contractor can mitigate risks; that is to eliminate, transfer or minimize their effect

  17. Optimal control of quantum systems: a projection approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-J.; Hwang, C.-C.; Liao, T.-L.; Chou, G.-L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal control of quantum systems. The controlled quantum systems are described by the probability-density-matrix-based Liouville-von Neumann equation. Using projection operators, the states of the quantum system are decomposed into two sub-spaces, namely the 'main state' space and the 'remaining state' space. Since the control energy is limited, a solution for optimizing the external control force is proposed in which the main state is brought to the desired main state at a certain target time, while the population of the remaining state is simultaneously suppressed in order to diminish its effects on the final population of the main state. The optimization problem is formulated by maximizing a general cost functional of states and control force. An efficient algorithm is developed to solve the optimization problem. Finally, using the hydrogen fluoride (HF) molecular population transfer problem as an illustrative example, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for a quantum system initially in a mixed state or in a pure state is investigated through numerical simulations

  18. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  19. Buffer erosion: An overview of concepts and potential safety consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Michael J.; Arthur, Randy; Bennett, David; Savage, David; Saellfors, Goeran; Wennerstroem, Haakan

    2010-11-01

    In its safety analysis SR-Can, SKB reported preliminary results and conclusions on the mechanisms of bentonite colloid formation and stability, with a rough estimate of the consequences of loss of bentonite buffer by erosion. With the review of SR-Can the authorities (SKI and SSI) commented that erosion of the buffer had the greatest safety significance, that the understanding of the mechanisms of buffer erosion was inadequate, and that more work would be required to arrive at robust estimates of the extent and impacts of buffer erosion. After the SR-Can report, SKB started a two-year research project on buffer erosion. The results from this two-year project have been reported in several SKB technical reports. SSM started this project to build up its own competence in the related scientific areas by a preliminary evaluation of SKB's research results

  20. Buffer erosion: An overview of concepts and potential safety consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apted, Michael J.; Arthur, Randy (INTERA Incorporated, Denver, CO (United States)); Bennett, David (TerraSalus Limited, Rutland (United Kingdom)); Savage, David (Savage Earth Associates Limited, Bournemouth (United Kingdom)); Saellfors, Goeran (GeoForce AB, Billdal (Sweden)); Wennerstroem, Haakan (Dept. of Chemistry, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    In its safety analysis SR-Can, SKB reported preliminary results and conclusions on the mechanisms of bentonite colloid formation and stability, with a rough estimate of the consequences of loss of bentonite buffer by erosion. With the review of SR-Can the authorities (SKI and SSI) commented that erosion of the buffer had the greatest safety significance, that the understanding of the mechanisms of buffer erosion was inadequate, and that more work would be required to arrive at robust estimates of the extent and impacts of buffer erosion. After the SR-Can report, SKB started a two-year research project on buffer erosion. The results from this two-year project have been reported in several SKB technical reports. SSM started this project to build up its own competence in the related scientific areas by a preliminary evaluation of SKB's research results

  1. Non-Fluvial Controls of Erosion, Sediment Transport and Fluvial Morphology in a mid-Atlantic Piedmont Watershed, White Clay Creek, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Affinito, R. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Stotts, S.; Henry, T.; Krauthauser, M.; O'Neal, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying contemporary sediment budgets is essential for restoration and ecosystem management of mid-Atlantic watersheds, but relevant processes and controls are poorly understood. In the 153 km2 White Clay Creek watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania, longitudinal profiles reflect migration of knickpoints though bedrock over Quaternary timescales. In bank exposures along stream valleys, saprolite, bedrock, and matrix-supported cobbly and bouldery diamicton (likely colluvial) commonly underlie finer-grained clay, silt, sand, and gravel deposits of valley floor depositional environments. Overbank sedimentation rates were quantified by measuring the thickness of sediment deposited over the roots of floodplain trees. The sampled trees range in age from 25-270 years with median sediment accumulation rates of approximately 2 mm/yr (range 0-10 mm/yr). Rates of bank retreat (measured from historical aerial imagery or root-exposure dendrochronology) vary from 6-36 cm/yr, with median rates of 10 cm/yr. While bank erosion rates are subject to a variety of controls, including channel curvature, the density of riparian trees, and freeze-thaw processes, the strongest influence appears to be the grain size and thickness of bouldery diamicton exposed along the toes of retreating banks. Cobbles and boulders supplied by eroding diamicton also mantle the bed of the channel, such that 33- 80% of the bed material remains immobile at bankfull stage. A conceptual model of fluvial processes and sediment budgets for these channels must account for the watershed's history of changing climate, tectonics, and land use, requiring mapping of bedrock, colluvium, former mill dam sediments, and other non-alluvial deposits and controls. Efforts to apply hydraulic geometry principles (requiring a precise adjustment to contemporary hydraulic and sediment regime) or to treat these channels as traditional "threshold" rivers are unlikely to be successful.

  2. PROJECT PLANNING AND CONTROLLING GEDUNG RUSUNAWA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA DENGAN MS.PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu proyek konstruksi selalu dimulai dengan proses perencanaan proyek (Project planning hingga pengendalian proyek (Project controlling Apabila terjadi perencanaan yang tidak matang dan pengendalian proyek yang kurang efektif, maka akan mengakibatkan penyimpangan dalam proyek tersebut seperti proyek selesai lebih cepat ataupun keterlambatan proyek.. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perencanaan dan pengendalian proyek gedung Rusunawa Universitas Indonesia (asrama UI Jakarta Selatan dengan menggunakan bantuan program Microsoft Project. Berdasarkan kontrak, proyek ini dimulai pada tanggal 4 Desember 2014 s/d 10 Juli 2015. Dilihat dari hasil analisa kurva S Rencana dan kurva S aktual sampai dengan tanggal 31 Mei 2015, kurva S Aktual berada dibawah kurva S Rencana, dimana pada minggu ke-9 s/d minggu ke -35 proyek mengalami keterlambatan sebesar 18%, yaitu terlambat 10 hari dari rencana. Namun, dengan dilakukannya percepatan jadwal pada proyek ini dengan memperpendek durasi dan menambah tenaga kerja, maka penyelesaian proyek Rusunawa UI Jakarta Selatan ini masih dapat diselesaikan tepat waktu dan sesuai dengan jadwal yang telah ditentukan.

  3. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor dismantling project. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomii, Hiroyuki; Seiki, Yoshihiro

    1996-01-01

    In the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) dismantling project, radiation control was performed properly with routine and special monitoring to keep the occupational safety and to collect data necessary for future dismantling of nuclear facilities. This report describes a summary of radiation control in the dismantling activities and some results of parametric analysis on dose equivalent evaluation, and introduces the following knowledge on radiological protection effectiveness of the dismantling systems applied in the project. a) Use of remote dismantling systems was effective in reducing equivalent workplace exposure. b) Utilization of existing facilities as radiation shield or radioactivity containment was effective in reducing workplace exposure, and also in increasing work efficiency. c) Use of underwater cutting systems was useful to minimize air contamination, and to reduce the dose equivalent rate in the working area. d) In the planning of dismantling, it is necessary to optimize the radiation protection by analyzing dismantling work procedures and evaluating radiological features of the dismantling systems applied, including additional work which the systems require brought from such activities. (author)

  4. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  5. Numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion during Hole Erosion Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, F.; Bonelli, S.; Golay, F.; Anselmet, F.; Philippe, P.; Borghi, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the numerical modelling of concentrated leak erosion of a cohesive soil by a turbulent flow in axisymmetrical geometry, with application to the Hole Erosion Test (HET). The numerical model is based on adaptive remeshing of the water/soil interface to ensure accurate description of the mechanical phenomena occurring near the soil/water interface. The erosion law governing the interface motion is based on two erosion parameters: the critical shear stress and the erosion co...

  6. Can conservation trump impacts of climate change on soil erosion? An assessment from winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen D. Garbrecht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the need to increase crop production to meet the needs of a growing population, protecting the productivity of our soil resource is essential. However, conservationists are concerned that conservation practices that were effective in the past may no longer be effective in the future under projected climate change. In winter wheat cropland in the Southern Great Plains of the U.S., increased precipitation intensity and increased aridity associated with warmer temperatures may pose increased risks of soil erosion from vulnerable soils and landscapes. This investigation was undertaken to determine which conservation practices would be necessary and sufficient to hold annual soil erosion by water under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario at or below the present soil erosion levels. Advances in and benefits of agricultural soil and water conservation over the last century in the United States are briefly reviewed, and challenges and climate uncertainties confronting resource conservation in this century are addressed. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP computer model was used to estimate future soil erosion by water from winter wheat cropland in Central Oklahoma and for 10 projected climates and 7 alternative conservation practices. A comparison with soil erosion values under current climate conditions and conventional tillage operations showed that, on average, a switch from conventional to conservation tillage would be sufficient to offset the average increase in soil erosion by water under most projected climates. More effective conservation practices, such as conservation tillage with a summer cover crop would be required to control soil erosion associated with the most severe climate projections. It was concluded that a broad range of conservation tools are available to agriculture to offset projected future increases in soil erosion by water even under assumed worst case climate change scenarios in Central Oklahoma. The problem

  7. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA's Implementation of the Display System Replacement Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...) implementation of the Display System Replacement (DSR) project. DSR, which replaces the controllers' workstations and other equipment in the nation's en route centers, is one of FAA's major projects under the air traffic control modernization program...

  8. Rainfall erosivity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Klik, Andreas; Rousseva, Svetla; Tadić, Melita Perčec; Michaelides, Silas; Hrabalíková, Michaela; Olsen, Preben; Aalto, Juha; Lakatos, Mónika; Rymszewicz, Anna; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Beguería, Santiago; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the R-factor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based on the best available datasets. Data have been collected from 1541 precipitation stations in all European Union (EU) Member States and Switzerland, with temporal resolutions of 5 to 60 min. The R-factor values calculated from precipitation data of different temporal resolutions were normalised to R-factor values with temporal resolutions of 30 min using linear regression functions. Precipitation time series ranged from a minimum of 5 years to a maximum of 40 years. The average time series per precipitation station is around 17.1 years, the most datasets including the first decade of the 21st century. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) has been used to interpolate the R-factor station values to a European rainfall erosivity map at 1 km resolution. The covariates used for the R-factor interpolation were climatic data (total precipitation, seasonal precipitation, precipitation of driest/wettest months, average temperature), elevation and latitude/longitude. The mean R-factor for the EU plus Switzerland is 722 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1), with the highest values (>1000 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Mediterranean and alpine regions and the lowest (<500 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) yr(-1)) in the Nordic countries. The erosivity density (erosivity normalised to annual precipitation amounts) was also the highest in Mediterranean regions which implies high risk for erosive events and floods

  9. Erosion Assessment Modeling Using the Sateec Gis Model on the Prislop Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gheorghe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sediment Assessment Tool for Effective Erosion Control (SATEEC acts as an extension for ArcView GIS 3, with easy to use commands. The erosion assessment is divided into two modules that consist of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for sheet/rill erosion and the nLS/USPED modeling for gully head erosion. The SATEEC erosion modules can be successfully implemented for areas where sheet, rill and gully erosion occurs, such as the Prislop Catchment. The enhanced SATEEC system does not require experienced GIS users to operate the system therefore it is suitable for local authorities and/or students not so familiar with erosion modeling.

  10. Regulatory Framework for Controlling the Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melani, Ai; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Decommissioning is one of important stages in construction and operation of research reactors. Currently, there are three research reactors operating in Indonesia. These reactors are operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). The age of the three research reactors varies from 22 to 45 years since the reactors reached their first criticality. Regulatory control of the three reactors is conducted by the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN). Controlling the reactors is carried out based on the Act No. 10/1997 on Nuclear Energy, Government Regulations and BAPETEN Chairman Decrees concerning the nuclear safety, security and safeguards. Nevertheless, BAPETEN still lack of the regulation, especially for controlling the decommissioning project. Therefore, in the near future BAPETEN has to prepare the regulations for decommissioning, particularly to anticipate the decommissioning of the oldest research reactors, which probably will be done in the next ten years. In this papers author give a list of regulations should be prepared by BAPETEN for the decommissioning stage of research reactor in Indonesia based on the international regulatory practice

  11. Integrated project scheduling and staff assignment with controllable processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Viagas, Victor; Framinan, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  12. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez-Viagas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times.

  13. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field

  14. Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling project management text for students andprofessionals-now updated and expanded This Eleventh Edition of the bestselling "bible" ofproject management maintains the streamlined approach of the prioreditions and moves the content even closer to PMI's ProjectManagement Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). New content has been added tothis edition on measuring project management ROI, value to theorganization and to customers, and much more. The capstone "super"case on the "Iridium Project" has been maintained, covering allaspects of project management. Increased use of sidebars throughoutthe book helps further align it with the PMBOK and the ProjectManagement Professional (PMP) Certification Exam. This new edition features significant expansion, including morethan three dozen entirely new sections and updates on processsupporting; types of project closure; project sponsorship; andculture, teamwork, and trust. This comprehensive guide to theprinciples and practices of project management: Offers new sections...

  15. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindson, Nicola; Richards-Doran, Dan; Heath, Laura; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for tobacco cessation and prevention interventions. In 2016 TAG conducted a priority-setting, stakeholder engagement project to identify where further research is needed in the areas of tobacco control and smoking cessation. The project comprised two surveys and a workshop. A range of stakeholders participated, including members of the public (smokers and ex-smokers), clinicians, researchers, research funders, health-care commissioners and public health organizations. The first survey phase identified unanswered research questions in the field of tobacco control. The second phase asked participants to rank these, with overall rankings calculated by combining scores across participants. The workshop allowed attendees to discuss prioritization of topics and questions in more depth. Workshop discussions were transcribed and analysed thematically, and a final voting activity at the close of the workshop allowed participants to choose topics to prioritize and to de-prioritize. A total of 304 stakeholders (researchers, health professionals, smokers and ex-smokers, guideline developers, research funders and policymakers, representing 28 countries) identified 183 unanswered research questions. These were categorized into 15 research categories. A total of 175 participants prioritized categories and questions in the second survey phase, with 'electronic cigarettes'; 'addressing inequalities'; and 'mental health and other substance abuse' prioritized as the top three categories. Forty-three stakeholders attended the workshop and discussed reasons for and against category prioritization. Prioritized research categories largely mirrored those in the survey stage, although 'treatment delivery' also emerged as a key category. Five cross-cutting themes emerged: efficacy; relative efficacy; cost effectiveness; addressing inequalities; and different types of evidence. There are many unanswered

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux is not associated with dental erosion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Yvette K; Heyman, Melvin B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dalal, Deepal H; Wojcicki, Janet M; Clark, Ann L; Rechmann, Beate; Rechmann, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Dental erosion is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adults; in children, it is not clear if GER has a role in dental pathologic conditions. Dietary intake, oral hygiene, high bacterial load, and decreased salivary flow might contribute independently to GER development or dental erosion, but their potential involvement in dental erosion from GER is not understood. We investigated the prevalence of dental erosion among children with and without GER symptoms, and whether salivary flow rate or bacterial load contribute to location-specific dental erosion. We performed a cross-sectional study of 59 children (ages, 9-17 y) with symptoms of GER and 20 asymptomatic children (controls); all completed a questionnaire on dietary exposure. Permanent teeth were examined for erosion into dentin, erosion locations, and affected surfaces. The dentist was not aware of GER status, and the gastroenterologist was not aware of dental status. Stimulated salivary flow was measured and salivary bacterial load was calculated for total bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacilli. Controlling for age, dietary intake, and oral hygiene, there was no association between GER symptoms and dental erosion by tooth location or affected surface. Salivary flow did not correlate with GER symptoms or erosion. Erosion location and surface were independent of total bacteria and levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Location-specific dental erosion is not associated with GER, salivary flow, or bacterial load. Prospective studies are required to determine the pathogenesis of GER-associated dental erosion and the relationship between dental caries to GER and dental erosion. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecological site-based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explore how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass-succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 Ha). We identify vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area can be effectively controlled when bare ground cover is 100 cm in length is less than ~35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the development of

  19. Ecological site‐based assessments of wind and water erosion: informing accelerated soil erosion management in rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P; Herrick, Jeffrey E; Duniway, Michael C

    Accelerated soil erosion occurs when anthropogenic processes modify soil, vegetation, or climatic conditions causing erosion rates at a location to exceed their natural variability. Identifying where and when accelerated erosion occurs is a critical first step toward its effective management. Here we explored how erosion assessments structured in the context of ecological sites (a land classification based on soils, landscape setting, and ecological potential) and their vegetation states (plant assemblages that may change due to management) can inform systems for reducing accelerated soil erosion in rangelands. We evaluated aeolian horizontal sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion rates for five ecological sites in southern New Mexico, USA, using monitoring data and rangeland-specific wind and water erosion models. Across the ecological sites, plots in shrub-encroached and shrub-dominated vegetation states were consistently susceptible to aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion. Both processes were found to be highly variable for grassland and grass–succulent states across the ecological sites at the plot scale (0.25 ha). We identified vegetation thresholds that define cover levels below which rapid (exponential) increases in aeolian sediment flux and fluvial sediment erosion occur across the ecological sites and vegetation states. Aeolian sediment flux and fluvial erosion in the study area could be effectively controlled when bare ground cover was 100 cm in length was less than ∼35%. Land use and management activities that alter cover levels such that they cross thresholds, and/or drive vegetation state changes, may increase the susceptibility of areas to erosion. Land use impacts that are constrained within the range of natural variability should not result in accelerated soil erosion. Evaluating land condition against the erosion thresholds identified here will enable identification of areas susceptible to accelerated soil erosion and the

  20. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  1. Erosive Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskar, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous condition with a myriad of clinical manifestations. There are 3 forms of lichen planus that effect the vulva: papulosquamous, hypertrophic, and erosive. Erosive lichen planus can progress to vulvar scaring, vaginal stenosis, and squamous cell carcinoma; these long-term sequelae cause sexual distress, depression, and decreased quality of life for patients. Diagnosis is often delayed because of patient embarrassment or clinician misdiagnosis. Early recognition and treatment is essential to decreasing the morbidity of this condition. Multimodal treatment, along with a multidisciplinary approach, will improve outcomes and further clinical advances in studying this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The environmental handling in the Japan: Project of conservation of lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascon Carvajal, R.

    1993-01-01

    The politics and the techniques are described continued by the Japan to conserve the fertility of the soils, avoiding their erosion, by means of projects of conservation of lands. The basic steps are indicated to continue and the alternatives to use to diminish the erosion of the soil caused by the water. The plan begins with the identification of the area to protect of the erosion, then it proceeds to its characterization by means of the investigation of the natural and socioeconomic elements that they affect the erosive processes, that which is achieved through a recognition of the area; later on the erosion degree is determined for areas using the universal equation of the erosion and its proceeds to analyze the measures to control it of agreement with the available technological packages; the selected package is analyzed in all its components and a socioeconomic evaluation is made before of the same. Once outlined in all their details it is carried out their execution

  3. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  4. Assessment of wind erosion threat for soils in cadastral area of Hajske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchova, Z.; Stredanska, A.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution illustrates the application of methods of erosion threat assessment in lan adaptation projects. Calculations of the soil erosion index of particular soil blocks are demonstrated for the cadastral area of Hajske. Two methods for assessment of erosion threat have been applied. First the assessment based on the ecological soil-quality units (ESQU) has been performed. Next, the Pasak method for a detailed analysis of the soil erosion threat was applied. Both of the mentioned approaches are recommended for the land adaption projects. Based on the results, the soil blocks have been ranked by their soil erosion threat. (authors)

  5. Mesh erosion after abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, N; Walsh, P M; Roat, T W; Karram, M M

    1998-12-01

    To report our experience with erosion of permanent suture or mesh material after abdominal sacrocolpopexy. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who underwent sacrocolpopexy by the same surgeon over 8 years. Demographic data, operative notes, hospital records, and office charts were reviewed after sacrocolpopexy. Patients with erosion of either suture or mesh were treated initially with conservative therapy followed by surgical intervention as required. Fifty-seven patients underwent sacrocolpopexy using synthetic mesh during the study period. The mean (range) postoperative follow-up was 19.9 (1.3-50) months. Seven patients (12%) had erosions after abdominal sacrocolpopexy with two suture erosions and five mesh erosions. Patients with suture erosion were asymptomatic compared with patients with mesh erosion, who presented with vaginal bleeding or discharge. The mean (+/-standard deviation) time to erosion was 14.0+/-7.7 (range 4-24) months. Both patients with suture erosion were treated conservatively with estrogen cream. All five patients with mesh erosion required transvaginal removal of the mesh. Mesh erosion can follow abdominal sacrocolpopexy over a long time, and usually presents as vaginal bleeding or discharge. Although patients with suture erosion can be managed successfully with conservative treatment, patients with mesh erosion require surgical intervention. Transvaginal removal of the mesh with vaginal advancement appears to be an effective treatment in patients failing conservative management.

  6. Soil erosion assessment in the core area of the Loss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Quanjiu

    2017-11-01

    In order to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of erosion and sediment yield before and after Grain for Green Project in the Loss Plateau. The soil loss of Yulin is estimated by Chinese Water Erosion on Hill Slope Prediction Model. The result shows that the spatiotemporal variations of soil erosion are largely related to rainfall erosion distribution, slope, and land use type. The overall soil erosion categories in the south region are higher than that of the northwest. Mid slopes and valleys are the major topographical contributors to soil erosion. With the growth of slope gradient, soil erosion significantly increased. The soil loss has a decreasing tendency after Grain for Green Project. The results indicate that the vegetation restoration as part of the Grain for Green Project on the Loess Plateau is effective.

  7. Project W-320 SAR and process control thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of thermal hydraulic computer modeling supporting Project W-320 for process control and SAR documentation. Parametric analyses were performed for the maximum steady state waste temperature. The parameters included heat load distribution, tank heat load, fluffing factor and thermal conductivity. Uncertainties in the fluffing factor and heat load distribution had the largest effect on maximum waste temperature. Safety analyses were performed for off normal events including loss of ventilation, loss of evaporation and loss of secondary chiller. The loss of both the primary and secondary ventilation was found to be the most limiting event with saturation temperature in the bottom waste reaching in just over 30 days. An evaluation was performed for the potential lowering of the supernatant level in tank 241-AY-102. The evaluation included a loss of ventilation and steam bump analysis. The reduced supernatant level decreased the time to reach saturation temperature in the waste for the loss of ventilation by about one week. However, the consequence of a steam bump were dramatically reduced

  8. Legal control of technical large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1981-01-01

    The principle derived from experience that large projects require approval by the courts may not longer be valid. On the contrary, the courts are only entitled to real legal control according to the principle of the division of powers. If not accurately defined legal terms cannot be waived, the administration has to set the frame for review by courts by technical standards to be given in statutory ordinances, administrative provisions and administrative instructions. The average term of administrative proceedings has to be shortened considerably. The plaintiff as well as the beneficiaries of the act of licensing have a right to a prompt decision. The immediate execution of a decision can, on principle, also not be waived in future. More than up to now, the careful consideration of the interests and not an anticipated judgement on the main issue has to be the subject of legal examination according to section 80, subsection 5 of the German code of administrative procedure (Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung). (orig./HP) [de

  9. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple

  10. Hydrology and soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard J. Lane; Mary R. Kidwell

    2003-01-01

    We review research on surface water hydrology and soil erosion at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER). Almost all of the research was associated with eight small experimental watersheds established from 1974 to 1975 and operated until the present. Analysis of climatic features of the SRER supports extending research findings from the SRER to broad areas of the...

  11. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  12. Erosion scenarios for Wellenberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemenz, W.

    1993-09-01

    The proposed Wellenberg site for a radioactive waste repository is located between Altzellen in the Engelberger valley and the Oberrickenbach valley, in a thick Valanginian marl series. The marl is generally overlaid with unconsolidated rocks but reaches to the surface in some places. In contrast to the situation in the Oberbauenstock region this marl complex is not protected by an overlying erosion resistant series and exhibits a marked relief. The question therefore arises with respect to the Wellenberg site, to what extent will the marl (i.e. the repository host rock formation) be removed by erosion processes during the 100,000 years interval under consideration and what overburden will remain at the end of this period. This report presents the results of an investigation of the longterm behaviour of the proposed site in respect of those processes of erosion and deposition which can lead to changes in the terrain surface and its location relative to the repository. A wide range of possible scenarios encompassing different developments of climatic conditions during the 100,000 year period of interest, was investigated. In addition to the continuation of the present climate and the occurrence of a new ice age on the scale of the Wuerm glaciation the consequences of altered climatic conditions on erosion removal of the repository overburden were considered. Within the 100,000 year period of interest none of the scenarios considered leads to the exposure of the repository. (author) figs., tabs, refs

  13. Dune erosion above revetments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In a situation with a narrow dune, the dune base can be protected with a revetment to reduce dune erosion during extreme events. To quantify the effects of a revetment on storm impact, the functionality of the numerical storm impact model XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009) is extended to account for the

  14. Bentonite erosion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, Martin; Boergesson, Lennart; Hedstroem, Magnus; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf

    2009-12-01

    Low saline water may reach KBS-3 repository depth, e.g. during periods of glaciation. Under such aqueous conditions, the montmorillonite part of the bentonite buffer might transform into a sol and thereby be transported away with flowing water in fractures. The primary aim with this report is to improve the understanding of the basic principles for this possible montmorillonite particle release. The report includes experimental and theoretical work performed at Clay Technology. Natural bentonite and ion-exchanged purified montmorillonite from three different geographical origins, Wyoming (U.S.), Milos (Greece) and Kutch (India) have been studied. Experimental and/or theoretical investigations have been performed with respect to: - Free swelling ability; - Rheological properties; - Rate of bentonite loss into fractures; - Filtering; - Ion exchange; - Sol formation ability; - Ion diffusion; - Mass loss due to erosion. The performed erosion experiments show that erosion does not occur in a mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite with at least 20% calcium in exchange positions, when the external solution contains above 4 mM charge equivalents. This result is in agreement with the presented conceptual view of sol formation and measured equilibrium properties in mixed calcium/sodium montmorillonite. The findings imply that the buffer will be stable for non-glacial conditions. However, erosion due to sol formation cannot be ruled out for glacial conditions.

  15. Immunohistochemical Study of p53 Expression in Patients with Erosive and Non-Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Atena; Zamanian, Ali; Arab, Shahin; Boloki, Mahsa

    2018-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Oral lichen planus is a common mucocutaneous lesion with a chronic inflammatory process mediated by immune factors while a few cases of the disease become malignant. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the frequency of p53 marker as a tumor suppressor in patients with erosive and non-erosive oral lichen planus (OLP) by using immunohistochemical methods. Materials and Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study investigated the p53 expression in 16 erosive OLP, 16 non-erosive OLP samples, and 8 samples of normal oral mucosa through immunohistochemistry. The percentage of stained cells in basal and suprabasal layers, and inflammatory infiltrate were graded according to the degree of staining; if 0%, 50% of the cells were stained, they were considered as (-), (+), (++), (+++) and (++++), respectively. The obtained data was statistically analyzed and compared by using Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. Results: The mean percentage of p53 positive cells in erosive OLP (34.5±14.2) was considerably higher than that in non-erosive OLP (23.8±10.4) and normal mucosa (17.5±17). There was a significant difference among the three groups of erosive, non-erosive and control in terms of staining intensity. No significant difference existed between the patients’ age and sex in the two OLP groups. Conclusion: The increased incidence of p53 from normal mucosa to erosive OLP indicated the difference between biological behavior of erosive and non-erosive OLP. It can be claimed that the erosive OLP has great premalignant potential compared with the non-erosive one.

  16. IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF BEDROCK EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are – if at all available – based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest

  17. In Situ Measurement of Bedrock Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, D. H.; Beer, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Campana, L.

    2012-07-01

    While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are - if at all available - based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ) and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest generation of compact

  18. Soil erodibility mapping using the RUSLE model to prioritize erosion control in the Wadi Sahouat basin, North-West of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubal, Abderrezak Kamel; Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain; Dehni, Abdelatif

    2018-03-12

    Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km 2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P). The average annual soil loss rate in the Wadi Sahouat basin ranges from 0 to 255 t ha -1  year -1 , maximum values being observed over steep slopes of more than 25% and between 600 and 1000 m elevations. 3.4% of the basin is classified as highly susceptible to erosion, 4.9% with a medium risk, and 91.6% at a low risk. Google Earth reveals a clear conformity with the degree of zones to erosion sensitivity. Based on the soil loss map, 32 sub-basins were classified into three categories by priority of intervention: high, moderate, and low. This priority is available to sustain a management plan against sediment filling of the Ouizert dam at the basin outlet. The method enhancing the RUSLE model and confrontation with Google Earth can be easily adapted to other watersheds.

  19. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of regions, vegetation types and forest stand density in controlling soil erosion were investigated in Beijing mountain forest, China. The main objective was to develop some models to estimate soil erosion under different forest conditions including regions, vegetation type, and stand density as influenced by artificial ...

  20. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  1. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  2. Interlaboratory control among INCO-DEV MYCOTOX PROJECT LABORATORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Vargas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Work Package 1 “ Development and standardization of effective analytical tools for mycotoxin (aflatoxins B1, B2  G1, G2  ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin B1, B2  and tricothecenes determination in wheat and maize”  aim to implement the interlaboratory control between the partners laboratories from Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and Argentina as part of the objectives of INCO-DEV MYCOTOX PROJECT 2003-2005  “The Development of a Food Quality Management System for the Control of Mycotoxins in cereal Production and Processing Chains in Latin America South Cone Countries”.  The ojectives of the interlaboratory control were: evaluate the performance of the laboratories and the main difficulties encountered in performing the analytical procedure for mycotoxins  determination in maize and wheat; contribute to the harmonization of analytical procedures of the partners laboratories and contribute to the laboratory’s proficiency in mycotoxin analysis.  Maize reference materials for aflatoxins and zearealenone were prepared and used to the implementation of the interlaboratory control.  In summary, the preparation of these samples involved: milling (<20 mesh, homogeneization, analysis to verify the homogeneity of the bulk material and packing (labelled vacuum “sachets” or plastic bottles and mycotoxin analysis.  The homogeneity of the material was investigated by the analysis of variance – ANOVA- according to International Harmonized Protocol for the Proficiency testing of (ChemicalAnalytical Laboratories as established by ISO 43-1 – Annex at 95% of confidence level by calculating an F-statistic ans Ss/ÿ (ÿ =15%. All batches of test material were stored under – 18ºC and protected from light prior to and after packaging.  Aflatoxins in the test materials were determinated by immunoaffinity with liquid chromatography (LC with pos-column derivatization and thin layer chromatography (TLC.  Zearalenone in the test materials

  3. Illuminating wildfire erosion and deposition patterns with repeat terrestrial lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengers, Francis K.; Tucker, G.E.; Moody, J.A.; Ebel, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Erosion following a wildfire is much greater than background erosion in forests because of wildfire-induced changes to soil erodibility and water infiltration. While many previous studies have documented post-wildfire erosion with point and small plot-scale measurements, the spatial distribution of post-fire erosion patterns at the watershed scale remains largely unexplored. In this study lidar surveys were collected periodically in a small, first-order drainage basin over a period of 2 years following a wildfire. The study site was relatively steep with slopes ranging from 17° to > 30°. During the study period, several different types of rain storms occurred on the site including low-intensity frontal storms (2.4 mm h−1) and high-intensity convective thunderstorms (79 mm h−1). These storms were the dominant drivers of erosion. Erosion resulting from dry ravel and debris flows was notably absent at the site. Successive lidar surveys were subtracted from one another to obtain digital maps of topographic change between surveys. The results show an evolution in geomorphic response, such that the erosional response after rain storms was strongly influenced by the previous erosional events and pre-fire site morphology. Hillslope and channel roughness increased over time, and the watershed armored as coarse cobbles and boulders were exposed. The erosional response was spatially nonuniform; shallow erosion from hillslopes (87% of the study area) contributed 3 times more sediment volume than erosion from convergent areas (13% of the study area). However, the total normalized erosion depth (volume/area) was highest in convergent areas. From a detailed understanding of the spatial locations of erosion, we made inferences regarding the processes driving erosion. It appears that hillslope erosion is controlled by rain splash (for detachment) and overland flow (for transport and quasi-channelized erosion), with the sites of highest erosion corresponding to locations

  4. Strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects; Strategieorientiertes Management und Controlling ressourcenintensiver Projekte. Fallstudienanalyse und Konzeption eines Referenzmodells zum Projektmanagement der Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemmeter, Sascha

    2015-07-01

    The book on strategically oriented management and controlling of resource intensive projects covers the following issues: frame of project management and project controlling, classification of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities as resource intensive projects, research design for case studies, results of the study of project management specific characteristics of decommissioning, reference model for the project management of nuclear facility decommissioning.

  5. Reflux disease as an etiological factor of dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux is a frequent disease which has a significant influence on the development of dental erosions. Objective The aim of this research was to determine the frequency of dental erosions among the patients with gastroesophageal reflux, as well as to verify the most common symptoms of gastroesophageal disease. Methods The research comprised of two groups, each consisting of 30 patients aged 18-80 years. The experimental group comprised of patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, while the control group was composed of patients who were not diagnosed with GERD. Based on the illness history data, all patients of the experimental group were registered to have gastroesophageal and extraesophageal symptoms. Dental erosions were diagnosed during a stomatological inspection by using index system according to Eccles and Jenkins. Data processing was accomplished by the Statgraphics Centurion software package. Results Dental erosions were found in 76.7% of experimental group patients, and in 53.3% of control group patients. Fortynine percent of teeth of the experimental group patients and 31.1% of the control group patients showed erosive changes. On average, the number of teeth with erosions in the experimental group was 15.7 per person and in the control group 10 per person. The teeth of the front region of the upper jaw, as well as the lower first molars had the highest average value of dental erosion index. In the experimental group 12.8% of teeth and 24% of teeth in the control group were diagnosed to have dental erosion index value 1. Furthermore, 23.4% of teeth in the experimental group and 7.1% of teeth in the control group were registered to have dental erosion index value 2. Finally, the dental erosion index value 3 was found in 13.0% of teeth in the experimental group only. The highest average value of regional erosion index in the experimental group was found in the region 13-23 equalling 1

  6. Otter Brook Lake, New Hampshire Connecticut River Basin, Flood Control Project, Solid Waste Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This plan provides guidance to establish policies, and responsibilities, procedures, and instructions for proper handling, storage, disposal and recycling of solid waste generated at the flood control project...

  7. EPro Non-contact erosion profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Palle

    Pro is a profiling program build to measure the same surface or work piece multiple times and track changes due to erosion. It was developed during 2001 - 2002 at Aalborg University and was part of a Master of Science project dealing with stability of rubble mound breakwaters. The goal was to aut......Pro is a profiling program build to measure the same surface or work piece multiple times and track changes due to erosion. It was developed during 2001 - 2002 at Aalborg University and was part of a Master of Science project dealing with stability of rubble mound breakwaters. The goal...... was to automate the measuring of profiles in order to save manpower and to increase the number of possible measure points. Additional requirement was that measurements should be done in a non-contact way and that the measuring should not be hindered by the presence of water....

  8. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  9. Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oduro Afriyie, K.

    1995-10-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over a period of more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p 2 /P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the annual rainfall amount. Values of the rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 24.5 mm at Sunyani in the mid-portion of Ghana to 180.9 mm at Axim in the south western coastal portion. The indices were used to construct a rainfall erosivity map for the country. The map revealed that Ghana may be broadly divided into five major erosion risk zones. The middle sector of Ghana is generally in the low erosion risk zone; the northern sector is in the moderate to severe erosion risk zone, while the coastal sector is in the severe to extreme severe erosion risk zone. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 4: Configuration Management and Quality Assurance Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes configuration management and quality assurance documents from the GCS project. Volume 4 contains six appendices: A. Software Accomplishment Summary for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Configuration Index for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Configuration Management Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Quality Assurance Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; E. Problem Report for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software Project; and F. Support Documentation Change Reports for the Guidance and Control Software Project.

  11. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  12. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats (Div. of Nuclear Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden), School of Chemical Science and Engineering)

    2009-11-15

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain

  13. Bentonite erosion - Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite clay is proposed as buffer material in the KBS-3 concept of storing spent nuclear fuel. Since the clay is plastic it will protect the canisters containing the spent fuel from movements in the rock. Furthermore, the clay will expand when taking up water, become very compact and hence limit the transport of solutes to and from the canister to only diffusion. The chemical stability of the bentonite barrier is of vital importance. If much material would be lost the barrier will lose its functions. As a side effect, lots of colloids will be released which may facilitate radionuclide transport in case of a breach in the canister. There are scenarios where during an ice age fresh melt water may penetrate down to repository depths with relatively high flow rates and not mix with older waters of high salinity. Under such conditions bentonite colloids will be more stable and there is a possibility that the bentonite buffer would start to disperse and bentonite colloids be carried away by the passing water. This work is a part of a larger project called Bentonite Erosion, initiated and supported by SKB. In this work several minor experiments have been performed in order to investigate the influence of for instance di-valent cations, gravity, etc. on the dispersion behaviour of bentonite and/or montmorillonite. A bigger experiment where the real situation was simulated using an artificial fracture was conducted. Two Plexiglas slabs were placed on top of each other, separated by plastic spacers. Bentonite was placed in a container in contact with a fracture. The bentonite was water saturated before deionized water was pumped through the fracture. The evolution of the bentonite profile in the fracture was followed visually. The eluate was collected in five different slots at the outlet side and analyzed for colloid concentration employing Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) and a Single Particle Counter (SPC). Some

  14. The development of U. S. soil erosion prediction and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Laflen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion prediction technology began over 70 years ago when Austin Zingg published a relationship between soil erosion (by water and land slope and length, followed shortly by a relationship by Dwight Smith that expanded this equation to include conservation practices. But, it was nearly 20 years before this work's expansion resulted in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, perhaps the foremost achievement in soil erosion prediction in the last century. The USLE has increased in application and complexity, and its usefulness and limitations have led to the development of additional technologies and new science in soil erosion research and prediction. Main among these new technologies is the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP model, which has helped to overcome many of the shortcomings of the USLE, and increased the scale over which erosion by water can be predicted. Areas of application of erosion prediction include almost all land types: urban, rural, cropland, forests, rangeland, and construction sites. Specialty applications of WEPP include prediction of radioactive material movement with soils at a superfund cleanup site, and near real-time daily estimation of soil erosion for the entire state of Iowa.

  15. Fiber-enriched diet helps to control symptoms and improves esophageal motility in patients with non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Sergey; Isakov, Vasily; Konovalova, Mariya

    2018-06-07

    To investigate the effect of dietary fiber on symptoms and esophageal function testing parameters in non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (NERD) patients. Thirty-six NERD patients with low (gastroesophageal refluxes (GER) decreased from 67.9 ± 17.7 to 42.4 ± 13.5 ( P reflux time decreased from 10.6 ± 12.0 min to 5.3 ± 3.7 min ( P gastroesophageal refluxes, and a decrease of heartburn frequency per week in NERD.

  16. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot

  17. Erosion-corrosion synergistics in the low erosion regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, R.G.; Sethi, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Many engineering alloys display good high temperature corrosion resistance. However, when they are used in corrosive environments where they are subjected to erosion also, the corrosion resistance has been adversely affected. The phenomenon known as erosion-corrosion is complex and requires detailed investigation of how the erosion and corrosion kinetics interact and compete. At the Kentucky Center for Energy Research Laboratory, an erosion-corrosion tester was used to perform erosion-oxidation tests on 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel at 500-600 0 C using alumina abrasive at low velocities. The erosion-oxidation rate data and morphology of exposed surfaces are consistent with oxide chipping and fracturing being the mode of material loss

  18. Ultrasound-detected bone erosion is a relapse risk factor after discontinuation of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose ultrasound power Doppler synovitis activity and clinical disease activity are well controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Fujikawa, Keita; Nishino, Ayako; Okada, Akitomo; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshimasa; Umeda, Masataka; Fukui, Shoichi; Suzuki, Takahisa; Koga, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Mizokami, Akinari; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-05-25

    In the present study, we explored the risk factors for relapse after discontinuation of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) whose ultrasound power Doppler (PD) synovitis activity and clinical disease activity were well controlled. In this observational study in clinical practice, the inclusion criteria were based on ultrasound disease activity and clinical disease activity, set as low or remission (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate Ultrasound was performed in 22 joints of bilateral hands at discontinuation for evaluating synovitis severity and presence of bone erosion. Patients with a maximum PD score ≤1 in each joint were enrolled. Forty patients with RA were consecutively recruited (November 2010-March 2015) and discontinued bDMARD therapy. Variables at the initiation and discontinuation of bDMARD therapy that were predictive of relapse during the 12 months after discontinuation were assessed. The median patient age was 54.5 years, and the median disease duration was 3.5 years. Nineteen (47.5%) patients relapsed during the 12 months after the discontinuation of bDMARD therapy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only the presence of bone erosion detected by ultrasound at discontinuation was predictive of relapse (OR 8.35, 95% CI 1.78-53.2, p = 0.006). No clinical characteristics or serologic biomarkers were significantly different between the relapse and nonrelapse patients. The ultrasound synovitis scores did not differ significantly between the groups. Our findings are the first evidence that ultrasound bone erosion may be a relapse risk factor after the discontinuation of bDMARD therapy in patients with RA whose PD synovitis activity and clinical disease activity are well controlled.

  19. Dental Erosion in Children with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Patricia Alves Drummond; Paiva, Saul Martins; De Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Auad, Sheyla Márcia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on dental erosion (DE) in children and analyze the association between dental erosion and diet, oral hygiene, and sociodemographic characteristics. This case-control study encompassed 43 two- to 14-year-olds diagnosed positive for GERD by the 24-hour pH monitoring, paired by age group with 136 healthy controls, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. DE was assessed by one calibrated examiner using the O'Sullivan index. A questionnaire was self-administered by parents collecting information regarding sociodemographics, oral hygiene, and dietary habits. Dental erosion experience was compared between the groups, and a stratified analysis was performed (PDental erosion was diagnosed in 10.6 percent (N equals 19) of all the children; 25.6 percent (N equals 11) of GERD children and 5.9 percent (N equals eight) of children without GERD, P=0.001). Dental erosion was not associated with dietary consumption or sociodemographic characteristics in both groups (P≥0.05). Children who used adult toothpaste had a 5.79 higher chance of having dental erosion in the group with GERD. Children diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease were at an increased risk of having dental erosion when compared to healthy subjects; among the GERD children, dental erosion was associated with the use of adult toothpaste.

  20. Adaptive Control and Function Projective Synchronization in 2D Discrete-Time Chaotic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yin; Chen Yong; Li Biao

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptive control and function projective synchronization problems between 2D Rulkov discrete-time system and Network discrete-time system. Based on backstepping design with three controllers, a systematic, concrete and automatic scheme is developed to investigate the function projective synchronization of discrete-time chaotic systems. In addition, the adaptive control function is applied to achieve the state synchronization of two discrete-time systems. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  1. A hierachical method for soil erosion assessment and spatial risk modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoth, P.F.

    2003-01-01

      Though a lot has been done and achieved in erosion research and control in Kenya, most of the erosion research methods have in the past put emphasis more on quantifying soil loss or measuring soil erosion, rather than pinpointing to

  2. Soil Erosion: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the last of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil erosion. Upon completion of the two day lesson, the student will be able to: (1) define conservation, (2) understand how erosion takes place, and (3) list ways of controlling wind and water erosion.…

  3. Coordination and Control of Globally Distributed Software Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. van Fenema (Paul)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRecently, software development and implementation projects have globalized at a rapid pace. Companies in North America, Europe, and the Far East are beginning to integrate international Information Technology (IT) resources to support operations across the globe. Offshore IT services

  4. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation project includes reduction of the risk associated with the integration of new, beneficial software techniques. Demonstrations of this software to baseline engineering and test personnel will show the benefits of these techniques. The advanced software will be integrated into ground testing and ground support facilities, familiarizing its usage by key personnel.

  5. An ex ante control chart for project monitoring using earned duration management observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaji, Seyed Taha Hossein; Noori, Siamak; Noorossana, Rassoul; Bagherpour, Morteza

    2017-12-01

    In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in developing project control systems. The primary purpose of such systems is to indicate whether the actual performance is consistent with the baseline and to produce a signal in the case of non-compliance. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in monitoring project's performance indicators, by plotting them on the Shewhart-type control charts over time. However, these control charts are fundamentally designed for processes and ignore project-specific dynamics, which can lead to weak results and misleading interpretations. By paying close attention to the project baseline schedule and using statistical foundations, this paper proposes a new ex ante control chart which discriminates between acceptable (as-planned) and non-acceptable (not-as-planned) variations of the project's schedule performance. Such control chart enables project managers to set more realistic thresholds leading to a better decision making for taking corrective and/or preventive actions. For the sake of clarity, an illustrative example has been presented to show how the ex ante control chart is constructed in practice. Furthermore, an experimental investigation has been set up to analyze the performance of the proposed control chart. As expected, the results confirm that, when a project starts to deflect significantly from the project's baseline schedule, the ex ante control chart shows a respectable ability to detect and report right signals while avoiding false alarms.

  6. A terminological matter: paragenesis, antigravitative erosion or antigravitational erosion ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasini G.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the speleological literature three terms are utilized to designate the “ascending erosion”: paragenesis (= paragénésis, coined in1968, antigravitative erosion (= erosione antigravitativa, coined in 1966 and antigravitational erosion (wrong English translation ofthe Italian term erosione antigravitativa, utilized later on. The term paragenesis should be abandoned because of the priority of theterm erosione antigravitativa - on the ground of the “law of priority” – and because of its ambiguous etimology. On the other hand,the term antigravitational erosion should be forsaken in favour of the term antigravitative erosion, given the meaning that the termsgravitation and gravity have in Physics. Therefore, to designate the phenomenon of the “ascending erosion” there would be nothingleft but the term antigravitative erosion.The antigravitative erosion process and its recognizability are illustrated.Examples of caves with evident antigravitative erosion phenomena, developed in different karstifiable rocks and in several partsof the world, are given.It is recalled that the antigravitative erosion is a phenomenon well-known since 1942 and widely proven and supported, and that it isrelatively easy – in many cases - to recognize the antigravitative origin of karstic passages.It is stressed that the antigravitative erosion is an important phenomenon, exclusive of the karstic caves and unique in nature.

  7. Risk control in energy saving projects; Control de riesgo en los proyectos de ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Since one of the restrictive problems when investing in energy saving is the uncertainty of obtaining the planed savings, a technique in the risk handling for energy efficiency projects, called Insurance for the Energy Saving (IES) is presented. IES economically stimulates those who implement projects for energy saving so they go beyond the normal measures and really obtain significant saving levels, thus contributing to the fulfillment of national objectives in energy saving. In order to reduce the risk of low performance in energy caused by saving projects there exist the international performance measurement and the protocol of investment (IMPVP) as well as diagnoses and starting processes, whereas in order to transfer the financial risk that a saving project represents, mechanisms such as FDIC insurance, conversion of the debt in values, Saving's Guarantees, Performance Bonuses or Guarantee Bonuses and Insurances for Energy Saving can be of great help. This article deals on the IES insurance policies, their loss control management, successful cases, benefits, particular advantages, place in the market and refers argued insurance exceptions and perception surveys. [Spanish] Dado que uno de los problemas restrictivos a la hora de invertir en el ahorro de energia es la incertidumbre de obtener los ahorros proyectados, se presenta una tecnica en el manejo del riesgo para proyectos de eficiencia energetica llamada Seguro para el Ahorro de Energia (SAE). SAE estimula financieramente a quienes implementan proyectos para el ahorro de energia con el fin de que vayan mas alla de las medidas normales y consigan niveles significativos de ahorro, contribuyendo asi al cumplimiento de objetivos nacionales de ahorro energetico. Para reducir el riesgo de bajo desempeno de energia provocados por proyectos de ahorro existe la medicion del desempeno internacional y el protocolo de inversion (IMPVP) asi como diagnosticos y procesos de arranque, mientras que para transferir el

  8. How does slope form affect erosion in CATFLOW-SED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelmann, Petra; Wienhöfer, Jan; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Erosion is a severe environmental problem in agro-ecosystems with highly erodible loess soils. It is controlled by various factors, e.g. rainfall intensity, initial wetness conditions, soil type, land use and tillage practice. Furthermore slope form and gradient have been shown to influence erosion amounts to a large extent. Within the last fifty years, various erosion models have been developed to describe the erosion process, estimate erosion amounts and identify erosion-prone areas. These models differ in terms of complexity, the processes which are considered, and the data required for model calibration and they can be categorised into empirical or statistical, conceptual, and physically-based models. CATFLOW-SED is a process-based hydrology and erosion model that can operate on catchment and hillslope scales. Soil water dynamics are described by the Richards equation including effective approaches for preferential flow. Evapotranspiration is simulated using an approach based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The model simulates overland flow using the diffusion wave equation. Soil detachment is related to the attacking forces of rainfall and overland flow, and the erosion resistance of soil. Sediment transport capacity and sediment deposition are related to overland flow velocity using the equation of Engelund and Hansen and the sinking velocity of grain sizes respectively. We performed a study to analyse the erosion process on different virtual hillslopes, with varying slope gradient and slope form, using the CATFLOW-SED model. We explored the role of landform on erosion and sedimentation, particularly we look for forms that either maximise or minimise erosion. Results indicate the importance to performing the process implementation within physically meaningful limits and choose appropriate model parameters respectively.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project document control and Records Management Program Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTIN, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project document control and records management program, as defined within this document, is based on a broad spectrum of regulatory requirements, Department of Energy (DOE) and Project Hanford and SNF Project-specific direction and guidance. The SNF Project Execution Plan, HNF-3552, requires the control of documents and management of records under the auspices of configuration control, conduct of operations, training, quality assurance, work control, records management, data management, engineering and design control, operational readiness review, and project management and turnover. Implementation of the controls, systems, and processes necessary to ensure compliance with applicable requirements is facilitated through plans, directives, and procedures within the Project Hanford Management System (PHMS) and the SNF Project internal technical and administrative procedures systems. The documents cited within this document are those which directly establish or define the SNF Project document control and records management program. There are many peripheral documents that establish requirements and provide direction pertinent to managing specific types of documents that, for the sake of brevity and clarity, are not cited within this document

  10. Instrumentation and methods evaluations for shallow land burial of waste materials: water erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, D.D.; Murphy, E.M.; Childs, S.W.

    1981-08-01

    The erosion of geologic materials by water at shallow-land hazardous waste disposal sites can compromise waste containment. Erosion of protective soil from these sites may enhance waste transport to the biosphere through water, air, and biologic pathways. The purpose of this study was to review current methods of evaluating soil erosion and to recommend methods for use at shallow-land, hazardous waste burial sites. The basic principles of erosion control are: minimize raindrop impact on the soil surface; minimize runoff quantity; minimize runoff velocity; and maximize the soil's resistance to erosion. Generally soil erosion can be controlled when these principles are successfully applied at waste disposal sites. However, these erosion control practices may jeopardize waste containment. Typical erosion control practices may enhance waste transport by increasing subsurface moisture movement and biologic uptake of hazardous wastes. A two part monitoring program is recommended for US Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous waste disposal sites. The monitoring programs and associated measurement methods are designed to provide baseline data permitting analysis and prediction of long term erosion hazards at disposal sites. These two monitoring programs are: (1) site reconnaissance and tracking; and (2) site instrumentation. Some potential waste transport problems arising from erosion control practices are identified. This report summarizes current literature regarding water erosion prediction and control

  11. Tijuana River Flood Control Project, San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-20

    presence of historical and archeological resoureces in the proposed project area. His letter of August 1, 1973 (see appendix) indicated that no state... human misery among those directly affected. Those impacts will be pert of the permanent and disastrous legacy of the "Recommended Plan" (Alternative Ill...of citizens; and general human misery among those directly affected. Those impacts will be part of the permanent and disastrous legacy of the

  12. Multi-model-based Access Control in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hilbert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the execution of large scale construction projects performed by Virtual Organizations (VO, relatively complex technical models have to be exchanged between the VO members. For linking the trade and transfer of these models, a so-called multi-model container format was developed. Considering the different skills and tasks of the involved partners, it is not necessary for them to know all the models in every technical detailing. Furthermore, the model size can lead to a delay in communication. In this paper an approach is presented for defining model cut-outs according to the current project context. Dynamic dependencies to the project context as well as static dependencies on the organizational structure are mapped in a context-sensitive rule. As a result, an approach for dynamic filtering of multi-models is obtained which ensures, together with a filtering service, that the involved VO members get a simplified view of complex multi-models as well as sufficient permissions depending on their tasks.

  13. Torrent classification - Base of rational management of erosive regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovic, Zoran; Stefanovic, Milutin; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena; Milojevic, Mileta

    2008-01-01

    A complex methodology for torrents and erosion and the associated calculations was developed during the second half of the twentieth century in Serbia. It was the 'Erosion Potential Method'. One of the modules of that complex method was focused on torrent classification. The module enables the identification of hydro graphic, climate and erosion characteristics. The method makes it possible for each torrent, regardless of its magnitude, to be simply and recognizably described by the 'Formula of torrentially'. The above torrent classification is the base on which a set of optimisation calculations is developed for the required scope of erosion-control works and measures, the application of which enables the management of significantly larger erosion and torrential regions compared to the previous period. This paper will present the procedure and the method of torrent classification.

  14. Torrent classification - Base of rational management of erosive regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilovic, Zoran; Stefanovic, Milutin; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena; Milojevic, Mileta [Institute for the Development of Water Resources ' Jaroslav Cerni' , 11226 Beograd (Pinosava), Jaroslava Cernog 80 (Serbia)], E-mail: gavrilovicz@sbb.rs

    2008-11-01

    A complex methodology for torrents and erosion and the associated calculations was developed during the second half of the twentieth century in Serbia. It was the 'Erosion Potential Method'. One of the modules of that complex method was focused on torrent classification. The module enables the identification of hydro graphic, climate and erosion characteristics. The method makes it possible for each torrent, regardless of its magnitude, to be simply and recognizably described by the 'Formula of torrentially'. The above torrent classification is the base on which a set of optimisation calculations is developed for the required scope of erosion-control works and measures, the application of which enables the management of significantly larger erosion and torrential regions compared to the previous period. This paper will present the procedure and the method of torrent classification.

  15. Controlling the Instructional Development Process. Training Development and Research Center Project Number Fifteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Swanson, Richard A.

    Process control is a way of training managers in business and industry to plan, monitor, and communicate the instructional development process of training projects. Two simple and useful tools that managers use in controlling the process of instructional development are the Process Control Planning Sheet and the Process Control Record. The Process…

  16. The Significance of Land Cover Delineation on Soil Erosion Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Nikolaos; Psomiadis, Emmanouil

    2018-04-25

    The study aims to evaluate the significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment. To that end, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was implemented at the Upper Acheloos River catchment, Western Central Greece, annually and multi-annually for the period 1965-92. The model estimates soil erosion as the linear product of six factors (R, K, LS, C, and P) considering the catchment's climatic, pedological, topographic, land cover, and anthropogenic characteristics, respectively. The C factor was estimated using six alternative land use delineations of different resolution, namely the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) project (2000, 2012 versions) (1:100,000), a land use map conducted by the Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation (NAGREF) (1:20,000), a land use map conducted by the Greek Payment and Control Agency for Guidance and Guarantee Community Aid (PCAGGCA) (1:5,000), and the Landsat 8 16-day Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset (30 m/pixel) (two approximations) based on remote sensing data (satellite image acquired on 07/09/2016) (1:40,000). Since all other factors remain unchanged per each RUSLE application, the differences among the yielded results are attributed to the C factor (thus the land cover pattern) variations. Validation was made considering the convergence between simulated (modeled) and observed sediment yield. The latter was estimated based on field measurements conducted by the Greek PPC (Public Power Corporation). The model performed best at both time scales using the Landsat 8 (Eq. 13) dataset, characterized by a detailed resolution and a satisfactory categorization, allowing the identification of the most susceptible to erosion areas.

  17. Project Planning and Control in a Developing Economy: Implementation and Realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul-Rahman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive and uncertain environment of the construction industry, the ability to deliver end products with the required quality, schedule and budget is vital to the survival of any construction-related firm. Before embarking on any project, realistic planning and, consequently, a control procedure must be in place to enable the parties to manage the project with sufficient degree of authority and certainty. This paper addresses issues associated with the implementation of project planning and control, identificati on of impacts in the implementation of project planning and the critical success factors of project planning. A questionnaire survey was conducted on construction professionals and contractors involved in the running of construction projects. The survey results showed that common problems associated with the project planning and control are the lack of experienced staff and poor coordination by the contractor. During site operation, a delay in decision making aggravates the effect of poor planning and control and much of the effect of project planning rests on the pro-activeness of experienced staff. The positive impact associated with proper planning and control is the high probability of finishing the project on time while the negative impact is that it is a time-consuming and costly process. The critical success factors identified from the survey are Excellent Teamwork and Experienced Team.

  18. Erosion in extruder flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Fodor, Petru S.

    A detailed analysis of the fluid flow in Tadmor's unwound channel model of the single screw extruder is performed by combining numerical and analytical methods. Using the analytical solution for the longitudinal velocity field (in the limit of zero Reynolds number) allows us to devote all the computational resources solely for a detailed numerical solution of the transversal velocity field. This high resolution 3D model of the fluid flow in a single-screw extruder allows us to identify the position and extent of Moffatt eddies that impede mixing. We further consider the erosion of particles (e.g. carbon-black agglomerates) advected by the polymeric flow. We assume a particle to be made of primary fragments bound together. In the erosion process a primary fragment breaks out of a given particle. Particles are advected by the laminar flow and they disperse because of the shear stresses imparted by the fluid. The time evolution of the numbers of particles of different sizes is described by the Bateman coupled differential equations used to model radioactivity. Using the particle size distribution we compute an entropic fragmentation index which varies from 0 for a monodisperse system to 1 for an extreme poly-disperse system.

  19. Potential impacts of climate change on rainfall erosivity and water availability in China in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer Moore; Corey Bunch; Jian Ni

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion and water shortages threaten China’s social and economic development in the 21st century. This paper examines how projected climate change could affect soil erosion and water availability across China. We used both historical climate data (1961-1980) and the UKMO Hadley3 climate scenario (1960-2099) to drive regional hydrology and soil erosivity models....

  20. Comparison of WEPP and APEX runoff and erosion prediction at field scale in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) are process-based models that can predict spatial and temporal distributions of erosion for hillslopes and watersheds. This study applies the WEPP model to predict runoff and erosion for a 35-ha fie...

  1. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  2. Soil erosion under multiple time-varying rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, B. C. Peter; Barry, D. Andrew; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Sander, Graham C.

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion is a function of many factors and process interactions. An erosion event produces changes in surface soil properties such as texture and hydraulic conductivity. These changes in turn alter the erosion response to subsequent events. Laboratory-scale soil erosion studies have typically focused on single independent rainfall events with constant rainfall intensities. This study investigates the effect of multiple time-varying rainfall events on soil erosion using the EPFL erosion flume. The rainfall simulator comprises ten Veejet nozzles mounted on oscillating bars 3 m above a 6 m × 2 m flume. Spray from the nozzles is applied onto the soil surface in sweeps; rainfall intensity is thus controlled by varying the sweeping frequency. Freshly-prepared soil with a uniform slope was subjected to five rainfall events at daily intervals. In each 3-h event, rainfall intensity was ramped up linearly to a maximum of 60 mm/h and then stepped down to zero. Runoff samples were collected and analysed for particle size distribution (PSD) as well as total sediment concentration. We investigate whether there is a hysteretic relationship between sediment concentration and discharge within each event and how this relationship changes from event to event. Trends in the PSD of the eroded sediment are discussed and correlated with changes in sediment concentration. Close-up imagery of the soil surface following each event highlight changes in surface soil structure with time. This study enhances our understanding of erosion processes in the field, with corresponding implications for soil erosion modelling.

  3. Towards estimates of future rainfall erosivity in Europe based on REDES and WorldClim datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Meusburger, Katrin; Spinoni, Jonathan; Alewell, Christine; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2017-05-01

    The policy requests to develop trends in soil erosion changes can be responded developing modelling scenarios of the two most dynamic factors in soil erosion, i.e. rainfall erosivity and land cover change. The recently developed Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and a statistical approach used to spatially interpolate rainfall erosivity data have the potential to become useful knowledge to predict future rainfall erosivity based on climate scenarios. The use of a thorough statistical modelling approach (Gaussian Process Regression), with the selection of the most appropriate covariates (monthly precipitation, temperature datasets and bioclimatic layers), allowed to predict the rainfall erosivity based on climate change scenarios. The mean rainfall erosivity for the European Union and Switzerland is projected to be 857 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 till 2050 showing a relative increase of 18% compared to baseline data (2010). The changes are heterogeneous in the European continent depending on the future projections of most erosive months (hot period: April-September). The output results report a pan-European projection of future rainfall erosivity taking into account the uncertainties of the climatic models.

  4. Towards estimates of future rainfall erosivity in Europe based on REDES and WorldClim datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Meusburger, Katrin; Spinoni, Jonathan; Alewell, Christine; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2017-05-01

    The policy requests to develop trends in soil erosion changes can be responded developing modelling scenarios of the two most dynamic factors in soil erosion, i.e. rainfall erosivity and land cover change. The recently developed Rainfall Erosivity Database at European Scale (REDES) and a statistical approach used to spatially interpolate rainfall erosivity data have the potential to become useful knowledge to predict future rainfall erosivity based on climate scenarios. The use of a thorough statistical modelling approach (Gaussian Process Regression), with the selection of the most appropriate covariates (monthly precipitation, temperature datasets and bioclimatic layers), allowed to predict the rainfall erosivity based on climate change scenarios. The mean rainfall erosivity for the European Union and Switzerland is projected to be 857 MJ mm ha -1  h -1  yr -1 till 2050 showing a relative increase of 18% compared to baseline data (2010). The changes are heterogeneous in the European continent depending on the future projections of most erosive months (hot period: April-September). The output results report a pan-European projection of future rainfall erosivity taking into account the uncertainties of the climatic models.

  5. The Monitoring Erosion of Agricultural Land and spatial database of erosion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapicka, Jiri; Zizala, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    In 2011 originated in The Czech Republic The Monitoring Erosion of Agricultural Land as joint project of State Land Office (SLO) and Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation (RISWC). The aim of the project is collecting and record keeping information about erosion events on agricultural land and their evaluation. The main idea is a creation of a spatial database that will be source of data and information for evaluation and modeling erosion process, for proposal of preventive measures and measures to reduce negative impacts of erosion events. A subject of monitoring is the manifestations of water erosion, wind erosion and slope deformation in which cause damaged agriculture land. A website, available on http://me.vumop.cz, is used as a tool for keeping and browsing information about monitored events. SLO employees carry out record keeping. RISWC is specialist institute in the Monitoring Erosion of Agricultural Land that performs keeping the spatial database, running the website, managing the record keeping of events, analysis the cause of origins events and statistical evaluations of keeping events and proposed measures. Records are inserted into the database using the user interface of the website which has map server as a component. Website is based on database technology PostgreSQL with superstructure PostGIS and MapServer UMN. Each record is in the database spatial localized by a drawing and it contains description information about character of event (data, situation description etc.) then there are recorded information about land cover and about grown crops. A part of database is photodocumentation which is taken in field reconnaissance which is performed within two days after notify of event. Another part of database are information about precipitations from accessible precipitation gauges. Website allows to do simple spatial analysis as are area calculation, slope calculation, percentage representation of GAEC etc.. Database structure was designed

  6. Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.

    1997-01-01

    Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control design...... examples is used to indicate the computational efficiency of the method. These results indicate that the proposed alternating projections are effective in obtaining low-order controllers for small and medium order problems...

  7. Overview and status of the prototype project for Wendelstein 7-X control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: joerg.schacht@ipp.mpg.de; Bluhm, Torsten; Herbst, Uwe; Hennig, Christine; Heinrich, Stefan; Kuehner, Georg; Koester, Erik; Laqua, Heike; Lewerentz, Marc; Marquardt, Mirco; Meyer, Christiane; Mueller, Ina; Pingel, Steffen; Sachtleben, Juergen; Spring, Anett; Werner, Andreas; Woelk, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This contribution gives an overview of the project 'Prototype W7-X control system'. The objective of this prototype project is to demonstrate the applicability of the segment orientated control system at a running fusion experiment including steady-state operation, interaction of all relevant components, real time control, data acquisition and on-line data analysis. Furthermore, the W7-X safety concept will be implemented at WEGA and tested.

  8. Hoxb1 controls anteroposterior identity of vestibular projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiju; Takano-Maruyama, Masumi; Fritzsch, Bernd; Gaufo, Gary O

    2012-01-01

    The vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) consists of a collection of sensory relay nuclei that integrates and relays information essential for coordination of eye movements, balance, and posture. Spanning the majority of the hindbrain alar plate, the rhombomere (r) origin and projection pattern of the VNC have been characterized in descriptive works using neuroanatomical tracing. However, neither the molecular identity nor developmental regulation of individual nucleus of the VNC has been determined. To begin to address this issue, we found that Hoxb1 is required for the anterior-posterior (AP) identity of precursors that contribute to the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Using a gene-targeted Hoxb1-GFP reporter in the mouse, we show that the LVN precursors originate exclusively from r4 and project to the spinal cord in the stereotypic pattern of the lateral vestibulospinal tract that provides input into spinal motoneurons driving extensor muscles of the limb. The r4-derived LVN precursors express the transcription factors Phox2a and Lbx1, and the glutamatergic marker Vglut2, which together defines them as dB2 neurons. Loss of Hoxb1 function does not alter the glutamatergic phenotype of dB2 neurons, but alters their stereotyped spinal cord projection. Moreover, at the expense of Phox2a, the glutamatergic determinants Lmx1b and Tlx3 were ectopically expressed by dB2 neurons. Our study suggests that the Hox genes determine the AP identity and diversity of vestibular precursors, including their output target, by coordinating the expression of neurotransmitter determinant and target selection properties along the AP axis.

  9. Hoxb1 controls anteroposterior identity of vestibular projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiju Chen

    Full Text Available The vestibular nuclear complex (VNC consists of a collection of sensory relay nuclei that integrates and relays information essential for coordination of eye movements, balance, and posture. Spanning the majority of the hindbrain alar plate, the rhombomere (r origin and projection pattern of the VNC have been characterized in descriptive works using neuroanatomical tracing. However, neither the molecular identity nor developmental regulation of individual nucleus of the VNC has been determined. To begin to address this issue, we found that Hoxb1 is required for the anterior-posterior (AP identity of precursors that contribute to the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN. Using a gene-targeted Hoxb1-GFP reporter in the mouse, we show that the LVN precursors originate exclusively from r4 and project to the spinal cord in the stereotypic pattern of the lateral vestibulospinal tract that provides input into spinal motoneurons driving extensor muscles of the limb. The r4-derived LVN precursors express the transcription factors Phox2a and Lbx1, and the glutamatergic marker Vglut2, which together defines them as dB2 neurons. Loss of Hoxb1 function does not alter the glutamatergic phenotype of dB2 neurons, but alters their stereotyped spinal cord projection. Moreover, at the expense of Phox2a, the glutamatergic determinants Lmx1b and Tlx3 were ectopically expressed by dB2 neurons. Our study suggests that the Hox genes determine the AP identity and diversity of vestibular precursors, including their output target, by coordinating the expression of neurotransmitter determinant and target selection properties along the AP axis.

  10. Extreme coastal erosion enhanced by anomalous extratropical storm wave direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Mitchell D; Turner, Ian L; Kinsela, Michael A; Middleton, Jason H; Mumford, Peter J; Splinter, Kristen D; Phillips, Matthew S; Simmons, Joshua A; Hanslow, David J; Short, Andrew D

    2017-07-20

    Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) are the primary driver of large-scale episodic beach erosion along coastlines in temperate regions. However, key drivers of the magnitude and regional variability in rapid morphological changes caused by ETCs at the coast remain poorly understood. Here we analyze an unprecedented dataset of high-resolution regional-scale morphological response to an ETC that impacted southeast Australia, and evaluate the new observations within the context of an existing long-term coastal monitoring program. This ETC was characterized by moderate intensity (for this regional setting) deepwater wave heights, but an anomalous wave direction approximately 45 degrees more counter-clockwise than average. The magnitude of measured beach volume change was the largest in four decades at the long-term monitoring site and, at the regional scale, commensurate with that observed due to extreme North Atlantic hurricanes. Spatial variability in morphological response across the study region was predominantly controlled by alongshore gradients in storm wave energy flux and local coastline alignment relative to storm wave direction. We attribute the severity of coastal erosion observed due to this ETC primarily to its anomalous wave direction, and call for greater research on the impacts of changing storm wave directionality in addition to projected future changes in wave heights.

  11. Methodology update for determination of the erosion coefficient(Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Radislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion that have begun with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović during the mid-twentieth century last, by various intensity, until the present time. A many decades work on the research of these issues pointed to some shortcomings of the existing methodology, and thus the need for its innovation. In this sense, R. Lazarević made certain adjustments of the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović by changing the tables for determination of the coefficients Φ, X and Y, that is, the tables for determining the mean erosion coefficient (Z. The main objective of this paper is to update the existing methodology for determining the erosion coefficient (Z with the empirical methodology of S. Gavrilović and amendments made by R. Lazarević (1985, but also with better adjustments to the information technologies and the needs of modern society. The proposed procedure, that is, the model to determine the erosion coefficient (Z in this paper is the result of ten years of scientific research and project work in mapping the intensity of mechanical water erosion and its modeling using various models of erosion in the Republic of Srpska and Serbia. By analyzing the correlation of results obtained by regression models and results obtained during the mapping of erosion on the territory of the Republic of Srpska, a high degree of correlation (R² = 0.9963 was established, which is essentially a good assessment of the proposed models.

  12. In situ erosion of cohesive sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.J.; Ockenden, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in tidal power schemes and the effect of a tidal energy barrage on the environment. A large man-made environmental change, such as a barrage, would be expected to have significant effects on the sediment distribution and stability of an estuary and these effects need to be assessed when considering a tidal barrage project. This report describes the development of apparatus for in-situ measurements of cohesive sediment erosion on inter-tidal mudflats. Development of the prototype field erosion bell and field testing was commissioned on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry by the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU). This later work commenced in August 1991 and was completed in September 1992. (Author)

  13. An application of mathematical models to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control (Chaco Area - Salta Province - Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, J. B.; Antón, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Colombo, F.; de Los Ríos, L.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behaviour. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion), human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and five alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three multicriteria decision methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are fully described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, algorithms used for PROMETHEE, and the Graph of

  14. Rill erosion rates in burned forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires often produce large increases in runoff and erosion rates (e.g., Moody and Martin, 2009), and land managers need to predict the frequency and magnitude of postfire erosion to determine the needs for hazard response and possible erosion mitigation to reduce the impacts of increased erosion on public safety and valued resources. The Water Erosion...

  15. Radiation control in the core shroud replacement project of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Yasunori; Haraguchi, Kazuyuki; Yoshizawa, Yuji; Yamada, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    In Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2, the core shroud replacement was made following that of Unit no.3. This project involves replacement of wide-ranging equipment, with the project extending over a long period of time. This was expected to increase the dose equivalent of workers. Accordingly, various measures to lower the dose equivalent were planned and implemented. We outline radiation controls implemented during the project period. The shroud replacement project was a preventive maintenance project which consisted of replacing the core shroud and other internals with those less susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Problems related to radiation control during the replacement project of Unit no.3 the year before last were summarized. We studied, planned, and implemented measures to be reflected in the project for Unit no.2. This was done to lower the dose equivalent as much as possible while paying due attention to safety and economy. For radiation control during the project for Unit no.2, experiments with Unit no.3 were fully exploited and any effective measures taken at that time were adopted in this project. Problems pointed out after that project with Unit no.3 resulted in new or improved measures being taken with Unit no.2. Measures taken over from the project with Unit no.3; a. Daily analysis of difference between expected and actual dose equivalents b. Dose reduction measures, chemical decontamination, temporary shield, flushing, etc.; New or improved measures; a. Dose reduction measures: Mechanical removal of radiation sources, strengthening of shield, etc.; b. Automatic remote control system; c. Use of new protective devices. With measures implemented as described above, the dose equivalent during shroud replacement of Unit no.2 was reduced by about 30% when compared with that (11.5 persons · Sv) in the case of Unit no.3. Implemented radiation controls will be checked and reviewed in future for reflection in projects with other units. (author)

  16. The environmental handling in the Japan: Project of conservation of lands; El manejo ambiental en el Japon: Proyecto de conservacion de tierras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tascon Carvajal, R

    1993-12-01

    The politics and the techniques are described continued by the Japan to conserve the fertility of the soils, avoiding their erosion, by means of projects of conservation of lands. The basic steps are indicated to continue and the alternatives to use to diminish the erosion of the soil caused by the water. The plan begins with the identification of the area to protect of the erosion, then it proceeds to its characterization by means of the investigation of the natural and socioeconomic elements that they affect the erosive processes, that which is achieved through a recognition of the area; later on the erosion degree is determined for areas using the universal equation of the erosion and its proceeds to analyze the measures to control it of agreement with the available technological packages; the selected package is analyzed in all its components and a socioeconomic evaluation is made before of the same. Once outlined in all their details it is carried out their execution.

  17. Development of a statistical model for the determination of the probability of riverbank erosion in a Meditteranean river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Kourgialas, Nektarios; Karatzas, George; Giannakis, Georgios; Lilli, Maria; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    the independent variables tested (Atkinson et al. 2003). The developed statistical model is applied to the Koiliaris River Basin in the island of Crete, Greece. The aim is to determine the probability of erosion along the Koiliaris' riverbanks considering a series of independent geomorphological and/or hydrological variables. Data for the river bank slope and for the river cross section width are available at ten locations along the river. The riverbank has indications of erosion at six of the ten locations while four has remained stable. Based on a recent work, measurements for the two independent variables and data regarding bank stability are available at eight different locations along the river. These locations were used as validation points for the proposed statistical model. The results show a very close agreement between the observed erosion indications and the statistical model as the probability of erosion was accurately predicted at seven out of the eight locations. The next step is to apply the model at more locations along the riverbanks. In November 2013, stakes were inserted at selected locations in order to be able to identify the presence or absence of erosion after the winter period. In April 2014 the presence or absence of erosion will be identified and the model results will be compared to the field data. Our intent is to extend the model by increasing the number of independent variables in order to indentify the key factors favouring erosion along the Koiliaris River. We aim at developing an easy to use statistical tool that will provide a quantified measure of the erosion probability along the riverbanks, which could consequently be used to prevent erosion and flooding events. Atkinson, P. M., German, S. E., Sear, D. A. and Clark, M. J. 2003. Exploring the relations between riverbank erosion and geomorphological controls using geographically weighted logistic regression. Geographical Analysis, 35 (1), 58-82. Luppi, L., Rinaldi, M., Teruggi, L. B

  18. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: the Lawa project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F; Smith, John F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programmes in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the northeastern provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A programme has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control programme, named "Lawa model," is now recognised nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighbouring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control programme using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements and controls implementation for the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Raju; Bhandarkar, Manisha; Moreau, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the diagnostics implemented on WEST and gives more details on the infra-red system which is one of the main systems used to analyze the heat loads and ensure the machine protection. The modification of the CODAC and communications networks is also discussed. The new functionalities and architecture of the WEST PCS are detailed; especially it ensures the orchestration of many subsystems such as diagnostics, actuators and allows handling asynchronous off-normal events during the plasma discharge. In correlation the plasma discharge is now seen as a set of elementary pieces (called segments) joints together. Development of new plasma controllers will be addressed. An overview of the first wall monitoring activity and development is provided. Finally preparing the plasma restart requires control oriented modelling and simulations devoted to the control of the plasma shape will be presented

  20. Financial auditing at enterprises for control of projects realized with credit fund-raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukmanova, Inessa

    2017-10-01

    The article analyzes methods of conducting financial audit under the construction control of projects implemented with raising credit funds in modern conditions. This work aims to improve the methodological toolkit of construction control when lending projects of the construction of transport infrastructure. The paper considers correlations of various procedures of construction control, financial audit and organizational and technical factors affecting investment and construction projects. The authors presented the logical scheme of the process of lending to legal entities and developed an algorithm of the procedure for conducting a financial audit, allowing to make possible adjustments and the right decision.

  1. Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Reinhard

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

  2. The erosive potential of lollipops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; Paap, A.; Bulthuis, M.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the erosive potential of several commercially available lollipops and the protective effect of saliva. Methods: The erosive potential of lollipops was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. Subsequently, 10 healthy volunteers tested different types of

  3. Erosion--corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, B.

    1978-01-01

    The deterioration of materials by corrosion or erosion by itself presents a formidable problem and for this reason investigators have studied these two phenomena independently. In fact, there are very few systematic studies on E-C and the majority of references mention it only in passing. In most real systems, however, the two destructive processes take place simultaneously, hence the purpose of this review is to present the various interactions between the chemical and mechanical agents leading to accelerated degradation of the material. The papers cited in the review are those that lead to a better understanding of the process involved in the accelerated rate of material loss under E-C conditions

  4. Impacts of Climate Change on Soil Erosion in the Great Lakes Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in potential soil erosion under projections of changing climate is important for the sustainable management of land resources, as soil loss estimates will be helpful in identifying areas susceptible to erosion, targeting future erosion control efforts, and/or conservation funding. Therefore, the macro-scale Variable Infiltration Capacity—Water Erosion Prediction Project (VIC-WEPP soil erosion model was utilized to quantify soil losses under three climate change scenarios (A2, A1B, B1 using projections from three general circulation models (GFDL, PCM, HadCM3 for the Great Lakes region from 2000 to 2100. Soil loss was predicted to decrease throughout three future periods (2030s, 2060s, and 2090s by 0.4–0.7 ton ha−1 year−1 (4.99–23.2% relative to the historical period (2000s with predicted air temperature increases of 0.68–4.34 °C and precipitation increases of 1.74–63.7 mm year−1 (0.23–8.6%. In the forested northern study domain erosion kept increasing by 0.01–0.18 ton ha−1 year−1 over three future periods due to increased precipitation of 9.7–68.3 mm year−1. The southern study domain covered by cropland and grassland had predicted soil loss decreases of 0.01–1.43 ton ha−1 year−1 due to air temperature increases of 1.75–4.79 °C and reduced precipitation in the summer. Fall and winter had greater risks of increased soil loss based on predictions for these two seasons under the A2 scenario, with the greatest cropland soil loss increase due to increased fall precipitation, and combined effects of increases in both precipitation and air temperature in the winter. Fall was identified with higher risks under the A1B scenario, while spring and summer were identified with the greatest risk of increased soil losses under the B1 scenario due to the increases in both precipitation and air temperature.

  5. Quality Control and Due Diligence in Project Management: Getting Decisions Right by Taking the Outside View

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Flyvbjerg

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how theories of the planning fallacy and the outside view may be used to conduct quality control and due diligence in project management. First, a much-neglected issue in project management is identified, namely that the front-end estimates of costs and benefits--used in the business cases, cost-benefit analyses, and social and environmental impact assessments that typically support decisions on projects--are typically significantly different from actual ex post costs and ...

  6. Process for planning and control of software projects using XedroGESPRO

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Marín-Sánchez; José Alejandro Lugo-García; Pedro Yobanis Piñero-Pérez; Alena María Santiesteban-García; Félix Noel Abelardo-Santana; Javier Menéndez-Rizo

    2014-01-01

    The software project management in Cuba has become a key area for improving production processes and decisionmaking in organizations. Several models and standards for process improvement, related with project management, proposed best practices on issues of planning and control of projects. However, they are generic guidelines that describe only those activities to execute, leaving the responsibility for implementing to organizations, using sometimes , expensive proprietary infor...

  7. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  8. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  9. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  10. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  11. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  12. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  13. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  14. Programmable logic controllers in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Bhaskar, R.; Maiti, A.; Venkatesu, G.; Satish, P.; Goel, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Enhancement to plant operational flexibility has been achieved in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru by installing programmable logic controllers for its control equipment. The earlier sulfide based Heavy Water Plant, Kota is using relay logic and diode based program-matrix for binary controls. Performance improvement and advantages of PLC and experience in its operation are described. (author). 3 refs

  15. Physical modeling and monitoring of the process of thermal-erosion of an ice-wedge during a partially-controlled field experiment (Bylot Island, NU, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, E.; Fortier, D.

    2013-12-01

    Syngenetic ice-wedges polygons are widespread periglacial features of the Arctic. On Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, numerous thermo-erosion gullies up to several 100's m in length developed in polygonal wetlands during the last decades. These gullies contributed to drainage of these wetlands and changed dramatically local ecological conditions. Concentrated and repeated snowmelt surface runoff infiltrated frost cracks, where convective heat transfer between flowing water and ice initiated piping in ice wedges leading to the rapid development of tunnels and gullies in the permafrost (Fortier D. et al., 2007). We conducted field experiments to quantify the convection process and speed of ice wedges ablation. The experiments were accomplished between the 23/06/2013 and the 05/07/2013 over A; an exposed sub-horizontal ice-wedge surface and B; a tunnel in an ice-wedge crack. The ice was instrumented with graduated sticks to calculate the ice ablation following the flow of a defined amount of water. A fixed quantity of water obtained from a nearby waterfall was diverted over the ice through a PVC pipe. Water temperature Wt (K), quantity Wq (L s-1 or m3 s-1), ice ablation rate Iar (m s-1) and convective heat transfer coefficient α (W m-2 K) were obtained during the 5 experiments. The objective of this paper is to quantify the heat transfer process from field measurements from an ice wedge under ablation and to compare with coefficients from previous researches and in the literature. For each experiment with the ice-surface scenario, water temperature varied between 280 K and 284 K. Discharge varied between 0.0001 and 0.0003 m3 s-1. Ablation rate varied between 1.8 * 10-5 and 0.0004 m s-1. Heat transfer coefficient varied between 706 and 11 655 W m-2 K and between 54 and 4802 W of heat was transferred to ice. For each experiment with the tunnel scenario, water temperature was 284 K × 1 K. Discharge was 0.0002 m3 s-1. Ablation rate varied between 0.0001 and 0.0003 m s-1

  16. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  17. A Multidisciplinary PBL Robot Control Project in Automation and Electronic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Houcine; Domínguez, Carlos; Martínez, Juan-Miguel; Perles, Angel; Capella, Juan-Vicente; Albaladejo, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) project consisting of the development of a robot arm prototype and the implementation of its control system. The project is carried out as part of Industrial Informatics (II), a compulsory third-year course in the Automation and Electronic Engineering (AEE) degree program at the…

  18. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  19. An application of mathematical models to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control (Chaco Area – Salta Province – Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Grau

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behaviour. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion, human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and five alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three multicriteria decision methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are fully described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, algorithms used

  20. Mathematical model to select the optimal alternative for an integral plan to desertification and erosion control for the Chaco Area in Salta Province (Argentine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, J. B.; Anton, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Colombo, F.; de Los Rios, L.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. These decisions are difficult because the complexity of the system or because of determining the optimal situation or behavior. This work will illustrate how MCDA is applied in practice to a complex problem to resolve such us soil erosion and degradation. Desertification is a global problem and recently it has been studied in several forums as ONU that literally says: "Desertification has a very high incidence in the environmental and food security, socioeconomic stability and world sustained development". Desertification is the soil quality loss and one of FAO's most important preoccupations as hunger in the world is increasing. Multiple factors are involved of diverse nature related to: natural phenomena (water and wind erosion), human activities linked to soil and water management, and others not related to the former. In the whole world this problem exists, but its effects and solutions are different. It is necessary to take into account economical, environmental, cultural and sociological criteria. A multi-criteria model to select among different alternatives to prepare an integral plan to ameliorate or/and solve this problem in each area has been elaborated taking in account eight criteria and six alternatives. Six sub zones have been established following previous studies and in each one the initial matrix and weights have been defined to apply on different criteria. Three Multicriteria Decision Methods have been used for the different sub zones: ELECTRE, PROMETHEE and AHP. The results show a high level of consistency among the three different multicriteria methods despite the complexity of the system studied. The methods are described for La Estrella sub zone, indicating election of weights, Initial Matrixes, the MATHCAD8 algorithms used for PROMETHEE, and the

  1. Using REE tracers to measure sheet erosion changing to rill erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Puling; Xue Yazhou; Song Wei; Wang Mingyi; Ju Tongjun

    2004-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) tracer method was used to study sheet erosion changing to rill erosion on slope land. By placing different rare earth elements of different soil depth across a slope in an indoor plot, two simulated rainfalls were applied to study the change of erosion type and the rill erosion process. The results indicate that the main erosion type is sheet erosion at the beginning of the rainfalls, and serious erosion happens after rill erosion appears. Accumulated sheet and rill erosion amounts increase with the rainfalls time. The percentage of sheet erosion amount decreases and rill erosion percentage increases with time. At the end of the rainfalls, the total rill erosion amounts are 4-5 times more than sheet erosion. In this paper, a new REE tracer method was used to quantitatively distinguish sheet and rill erosion amounts. The new REE tracer method should be useful to future studying of erosion processes on slope lands. (authors)

  2. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-01-01

    Fabrication of laser fusion targets requires a number of special techniques. We have developed both laser and spark erosion machining to produce minute parts of complex targets. A high repetition rate YAG laser at double frequency is used to etch various materials. For example, marks or patterns are often necessary on structured or advanced targets. The laser is also used to thin down plastic coated stalks. A spark erosion system has proved to be a versatile tool and we describe current fabrication processes like cutting, drilling, and ultra precise machining. Spark erosion has interesting features for target fabrication: it is a highly controllable and reproducible technique as well as relatively inexpensive

  3. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    et al., 2007; González-Pelayo et al., 2010b). The knowledge achieved on post-fire erosion must very valuable for new insights and new strategies for landscape management. This research will review the State-of-the-Art of the contribution of the research on soil erosion as a consequence of forest fires in the Valencia Region. The review will show the contribution of the pioneers in the 80's when the USLE and mapping was the main too, the use of plots under simulated and natural rainfall, and also the strategies to control the soil erosion. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Abad, N., Bautista, S., Blade, C., Caturla, R.N. 2000. Seeding and mulching as erosion control techniques after wildfires in the Valencia region. En P. Balabanis, D. Peter, A. Ghazi y M. Tsogas (Eds.), Mediterranean Desertification Research Results and Policy Implications. Directorate-General Research, vol. 2. European Commission, Brussels, 419-429. Andreu, V., Imeson, A.C., Rubio, J.L. 2001. Temporal changes in soil aggregates and water erosion after a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine forest. Catena. 44, 69-84. Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mataix-Beneyto, J., García-Orenes, F., 2008. Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Catena 74, 219-226. Bautista, S., Bellot, J., Vallejo, R. 1996. Mulching treatment for postfire soil conservation in a semiarid ecosystem. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10, 235-242. Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Stefan H. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. 2012. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Boix-Fayos, C. 1997. The roles of texture and structure in the water retention capacity of burnt Mediterranean soils with varying rainfall. Catena

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide according to Helicobacter pylori status in patients with chronic erosive gastritis: a randomized sucralfate-controlled multicenter trial in China-STARS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiqi; Li, Zhaoshen; Zhan, Xianbao; Chen, Jie; Gao, Jun; Gong, Yanfang; Ren, Jianlin; He, Liping; Zhang, Zhijian; Guo, Xiaozhong; Wu, Jianshen; Tian, Zibin; Shi, Ruihua; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Dianchun; Li, Youming

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rebamipide on symptom, histology, endogenous prostaglandin, and mucosal oxygen free radicals in chronic erosive gastritis (CEG) patients by using sucralfate as a control. The trial also examined whether Helicobacter pylori infection would affect rebamipide-induced protection. A total of 453 endoscopy-confirmed CEG patients from 11 hospitals in China were enrolled in the study. They randomly received either rebamipide (100 mg t.i.d) or sucralfate (1.0 t.i.d) for 8 weeks with a ratio of 3:1. Per-protocol analysis (n = 415) showed the accumulated symptom score in the rebamipide group dropped from 5.54 +/- 0.97 to 0.80 +/- 0.47 after 8 weeks (P < 0.001 versus control). The endoscopic inflammation score in rebamipide group also decreased from 2.65 +/- 0.09 to 0.60 +/- 0.10, which showed better effects than sucralfate. It was shown a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) contents in rebamipide-treated subjects mucosa (225.4 +/- 18.3 pg/g versus 266.7 +/- 14.7 pg/g) compared with that in sucralfate group after 8 weeks of treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly depressed both in the trial and control group. When Helicobacter pylori infection was considered, no statistically difference was found in the effect of rebamipide on either symptom or inflammation scores. In conclusion, Rebamipide demonstrated a stronger suppressive effect on the mucosal inflammation in chronic erosive gastritis than sucralfate. The gastroprotection induced by rebamipide is not influenced by H. pylori infection, which indicates its usage in the treatment of H. pylori-associated CEG.

  5. [Project summarize of "reestablishing disease prevention and control system of China"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Mo; Yu, Jingjin; Yu, Mingzhu; Duan, Yong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the project of "reestablishing the disease control and prevention system of China" in brief, including background, objectives, funding resources, researching objects and sampling methods. This project which funded by National Outstanding Younger Fund and the research fund of MOH aimed at nailing down the key problem existed in disease control and prevention system of China, demonstrating the reasons and mechanism of key problem, developing feasible policy idea and strategy. This paper also introduced some issues concerning the reestablishing of the disease control and prevention system of China: the definition of public function, the standard of human resource allocation and the standard of financing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 8 provinces, 80 cities and 80 counties have been sampled to provide information that project needed. In addition, this project also cited some data which come from the early study, in which 3 provinces, 12 counties, 49 towns, 179 villages and 9781 rural families have been sampled and investigated.

  6. Modeling soil erosion in a watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuza, R.

    1999-01-01

    Most erosion models have been developed based on a plot scale and have limited application to a watershed due to the differences in aerial scale. In order to address this limitation, a GIS-assisted methodology for modeling soil erosion was developed using PCRaster to predict the rate of soil erosion at watershed level; identify the location of erosion prone areas; and analyze the impact of landuse changes on soil erosion. The general methodology of desktop modeling or soil erosion at watershe...

  7. Hexapartite safeguards project team 3: material accounting and control questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Information provided in this report reflects the current design and operating procedures for the GCEP. However, since the installation is currently under construction, facility design and operating procedures discussed in this report are subject to change. Where applicable, the responses are based on material control and accounting practices of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's (GDP) operating contractor (Goodyear Atomic Corporation). These practices meet US Department of Energy (DOE) standards and are assumed to be the reference practices for the GCEP. This report covers data collection and record keeping actions of the operator

  8. Tritium effluent control project progress report, July--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershner, C.J.; Bixel, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the Tritiated Liquid Waste Decontamination (Molecular Excitation) program, it was found that a 1/4'' Nd:YAG amplifier and a Faraday rotator isolator must be added to the oscillator to obtain the required power for the laser excitation experiments. The isotopic selectivity of the two-photon dissociation process was examined in more detail. The selectivity or ratio of HTO to H 2 O molecules that are photodissociated was found to be on the order of 25, which is inadequate for application to large-scale detritiation projects, e.g., nuclear fuel reprocessing plant waste. The selectivity is such that most of the laser energy is wasted in photodissociation of H 2 O. This obstacle may be overcome by pumping more vibrational energy into the HTO molecules. Various schemes towards this end are being considered. Extensive ab initio calculations on the potential surface for the hydrogen atom-water exchange reaction have been carried out. The energy barrier is calculated to be 38 1/2 kcal/mole, which implies that the exchange reaction T + H 2 O → HTO + H is at least 10 9 times slower than the exchange reaction T + H 2 → HT + H. Calculations were also performed on the analogous hydrogen atom-hydrogen fluoride exchange reaction. In lieu of other disposal methods a system using a General Electric UCT-1 regenerative cell has been assembled and tested. This system should be capable of decomposing pure water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The tritium from this process can be purified and reused instead of buried. A preliminary economic evaluation was made of the HT/H 2 O catalytic exchange detritiation stripping process as it might apply to a 5 metric ton/day nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A tritiated water shipping container has been designed and developed for use with the ERDA--DOT approved AL--MI secondary container

  9. Complex Projective Synchronization in Drive-Response Stochastic Complex Networks by Impulsive Pinning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex projective synchronization in drive-response stochastic coupled networks with complex-variable systems is considered. The impulsive pinning control scheme is adopted to achieve complex projective synchronization and several simple and practical sufficient conditions are obtained in a general drive-response network. In addition, the adaptive feedback algorithms are proposed to adjust the control strength. Several numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  10. Athens automation and control experiment project review meeting, Knoxville, Tennessee, December 3-5, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braithwait, S.D.; Broadaway, E.R.; Fortson, N.D.; Gellings, C.W.; Hu, P.S.; Lawler, J.S.; Markel, L.C.; McKinley, K.F.; Monteen, L.D.; Newton, B.K.

    1986-08-01

    The AACE is an electric power distribution automation project involving research and development of both hardware and software. Equipment for the project is being installed on the electric distribution system in Athens, Tennessee. Purposes of the AACE are to develop and test load control, volt/var control, and system reconfiguration capabilities on an electric distribution system and to transfer what is learned to the electric utility industry. Expected benefits include deferral of costly power generation plants and increased electric service reliability.

  11. Change Analysis on Soil Erosion of Fujian Province from 1990 TO 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Q.; Zeng, S. J.; Chen, X. G.; Lin, J. L.; Chen, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Soil erosion is one of major environment problems in the world, and China is one of the most serious soil erosion country. In this paper, Fujian province was used as a study area for its typical red soil region. Based on USLE model, the soil erosion modulus in 1990 and 2015 were calculated and turned to soil erosion intensity. The soil erosion distribution trend in Fujian province was decrease from south-east coastal zone to north-west inland region. In soil erosion areas, the main erosion type was light level with about 80 %, and the soil erosion levels above serious type were mainly sporadic distribution with less than 10 %. The soil erosion improved for the past 25 years. The areas of different erosion types all decreased, and the total erosion area reduced by 26.59 %. The improvement area mainly located in north-east, south and west region. The aggravation area mainly located in the north and some middle hilly regions. The impact of human activities is more significant for erosion control.

  12. Multicontroller: an object programming approach to introduce advanced control algorithms for the GCS large scale project

    CERN Document Server

    Cabaret, S; Coppier, H; Rachid, A; Barillère, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2007-01-01

    The GCS (Gas Control System) project team at CERN uses a Model Driven Approach with a Framework - UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) - based on PLC (Programming Language Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) technologies. The first' UNICOS versions were able to provide a PID (Proportional Integrative Derivative) controller whereas the Gas Systems required more advanced control strategies. The MultiController is a new UNICOS object which provides the following advanced control algorithms: Smith Predictor, PFC (Predictive Function Control), RST* and GPC (Global Predictive Control). Its design is based on a monolithic entity with a global structure definition which is able to capture the desired set of parameters of any specific control algorithm supported by the object. The SCADA system -- PVSS - supervises the MultiController operation. The PVSS interface provides users with supervision faceplate, in particular it links any MultiController with recipes: the GCS experts are ab...

  13. Laser processing of cast iron for enhanced erosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.H.; Altstetter, C.J.; Rigsbee, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The surfaces of nodular and gray cast iron have been modified by CO 2 laser processing for enhanced hardness and erosion resistance. Control of the near-surface microstructure was achieved primarily by controlling resolidification of the laser melted layer through variations in laser beam/target interaction time and beam power density. Typical interaction times and power densities used were 5 msec and 500 kW/cm 2 . Two basic kinds of microstructure can be produced-a feathery microstructure with high hardness (up to 1245 HV) and a dendritic microstructure with a metastable, fully austenitic matrix and lower hardness (600 to 800 HV). Erosion testing was done using slurries of SiO 2 or SiC in water. Weight loss and crater profile measurements were used to evaluate the erosion characteristics of the various microstructures. Both ductile and gray cast iron showed marked improvement in erosion resistance after laser processing

  14. Does vegetation prevent wave erosion of salt marsh edges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, R A; Lozada-Bernard, S M; Ravens, T M; Möller, I; Yeager, K M; Baird, A H

    2009-06-23

    This study challenges the paradigm that salt marsh plants prevent lateral wave-induced erosion along wetland edges by binding soil with live roots and clarifies the role of vegetation in protecting the coast. In both laboratory flume studies and controlled field experiments, we show that common salt marsh plants do not significantly mitigate the total amount of erosion along a wetland edge. We found that the soil type is the primary variable that influences the lateral erosion rate and although plants do not directly reduce wetland edge erosion, they may do so indirectly via modification of soil parameters. We conclude that coastal vegetation is best-suited to modify and control sedimentary dynamics in response to gradual phenomena like sea-level rise or tidal forces, but is less well-suited to resist punctuated disturbances at the seaward margin of salt marshes, specifically breaking waves.

  15. Results Without Authority Controlling a Project When the Team Doesn't Report to You

    CERN Document Server

    KENDRICK, Tom

    2012-01-01

    It's tricky enough to spearhead a big project when you're the boss. But when you're the leader of a team of people who don't report to you, the obstacles are even greater. Results Without Authority is the definitive book for project managers looking to establish credibility and control. A groundbreaker in the field, it supplies a start-to-finish system for getting successful project results from cross-functional, outsourced, and other types of teams. The completely updated second edition includes new information on: * Agile methods and evolving project management tools * Strategies for working

  16. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    foster environmental sustainability or further sustainable alternative erosion control techniques may be applied, such as applying Vetiver Eco-engineering Technology due to its economical soil erosion control and stabilization of steep slopes and the construction of erosion control dams to absorb and break down excess runoff from unusually intense storms in various parts of the watersheds.

  17. Studies of some phenomena in control engineering projects - With application to precipitation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoele-Hansen, Kjell

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the life-cycle of a control engineering project and some phenomena encountered in such projects. Different types of control strategies are discussed and an attempt is made to classify them into categories. Some case projects are presented and forms the basis for discussing the individual`s role in a change project. Further conditions for successful implementation of new control strategies are discussed in general, but also conditions for successful implementation of new control strategies at a process section of a nickel work. Procedures for implementing new control strategies are treated and some remarks are made about operation of control strategies. An introduction is given to the modelling of precipitation in pH systems and different model formulations are discused. The modelling of pH controlled precipitations is discussed in general. A variety of dynamic models, ranging from complex to simple, are proposed and discussed. A rigorous dynamic nonlinear mechanistic model of a precipitation reactor is developed. It is based on the theory of reaction invariants and variants. The model is verified against real process data. The dynamics and characteristics of the precipitation reactor are analysed and some remarks are made with respect to controllability. A new strategy for pH control is proposed. A new model based strategy for controlling the precipitation reactions is also proposed. 93 refs., 63 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Management information system for cost-schedule integration control for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Wang Yongqing; Tian Li

    2001-01-01

    Based on the project management experience abroad and at home, a cost-schedule integration control model was developed to improve nuclear power project management. The model integrates cost data with the scheduling data by unity coding to efficiently implement cost-schedule integration control on line. The software system architecture and database is designed and implemented. The system functions include estimating and forecasting dynamically cash flow, scheduling and evaluating deviation from the cost-schedule plan, etc. The research and development of the system should improve the architecture of computer integrated management information systems for nuclear power projects in China

  19. Projective Synchronization in Modulated Time-Delayed Chaotic Systems Using an Active Control Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cun-Fang; Wang Ying-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems is studied by applying an active control method. Based on the Lyapunov asymptotical stability theorem, the controller and sufficient condition for projective synchronization are calculated analytically. We give a general method with which we can achieve projective synchronization in modulated time-delayed chaotic systems. This method allows us to adjust the desired scaling factor arbitrarily. The effectiveness of our method is confirmed by using the famous delay-differential equations related to optical bistable or hybrid optical bistable devices. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (general)

  20. Projective Synchronization of Chaotic Discrete Dynamical Systems via Linear State Error Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baogui Xin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A projective synchronization scheme for a kind of n-dimensional discrete dynamical system is proposed by means of a linear feedback control technique. The scheme consists of master and slave discrete dynamical systems coupled by linear state error variables. A kind of novel 3-D chaotic discrete system is constructed, to which the test for chaos is applied. By using the stability principles of an upper or lower triangular matrix, two controllers for achieving projective synchronization are designed and illustrated with the novel systems. Lastly some numerical simulations are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed projective synchronization scheme.

  1. Final Technical Report of the project "Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Davide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The report describes hypotheses, aims, methods and results of the project 20170675PRD2, “Controlling Quantum Information by Quantum Correlations”, which has been run from July 31, 2017 to January 7, 2018. The technical work has been performed by Director’s Fellow Davide Girolami of the T-4 Division, Physics of Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, under the supervision of Wojciech Zurek (T-4), Lukasz Cincio (T-4), and Marcus Daniels (CCS-7). The project ended as Davide Girolami has been converted to J. R. Oppenheimer Fellow to work on the project 20180702PRD1, “Optimal Control of Quantum Machines”, started on January 8, 2018.

  2. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  3. Is splash erosion potential species specific? Measuring of splash erosion potential under forest in different succession stages along a biodiversity gradient in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, C.; Kühn, P.; Scholten, T.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that (forest) vegetation is a key control for the type and intensity of soil erosion. The current paradigm is that natural or quasi-natural vegetation protects the soil from erosion and that agricultural vegetation or land use generally enhances erosion. The latter was in focus of most research during the last decades and less interest was paid on natural systems, which are more difficult to study. Nevertheless, afforestation is widely used as a measure of soil protection against soil erosion. Rainfall can be highly erosive particularly in the humid subtropics. Regarding climate change, also precipitation regime may change in direction to even more severe storms and higher rainfall intensities; it is a research field of growing importance. Key mechanisms of a vegetation cover in reducing or enhancing erosion are modifications of drop-size distribution, retention of raindrop impact on the soil and changes in amount and spatial distribution of rainfall at the ground surface. Controlling determinants are rainfall intensity, drop size distribution, drop fall velocity, height of the canopy as well as density of the canopy, crown and leaf traits, LAI and coverage by a litter layer. Large drops are supposed to be significant sources of splash detachment in forests (Brandt 1989; Vis 1986). However, the mechanisms of reducing (or enhancing?) splash detachment under forest in relation to species richness and species composition are not well understood. Some studies indicate that raindrop impact is species specific (Calder 2001; Nanko et al. 2006) and some neglect the effects of species specific impacts (Foot & Morgan 2005). Our research uses different methods of rainfall characterization (splash cups, tipping-bucket rain gauge, laser distrometer) to reveal the described mechanisms from the canopy through different vegetation layers to the ground. First results of splash cup measurements (revised after Ellison 1947) show that sand loss under vegetation

  4. Anthropogenic Increase Of Soil Erosion In The Gangetic Plain Revealed By Geochemical Budget Of Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, V.; France-Lanord, C.; Galy, A.; Gaillardet, J.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic and climatic factors are the key natural variables controlling the erosion through complex interactions. Nonetheless, over the last few hundred years, human activity also exerts a dominant control in response to extensive land use. The geochemical budget of erosion allows the balance between the different erosion processes to be quantified. The chemical composition of river sediment results from the chemical composition of the source rock modified by (1) weathering reactions occurring during erosion and (2) physical segregation during transport. If erosion is at steady state, the difference between the chemical composition of source rocks and that of river sediments must therefore be counterbalanced by the dissolved flux. However, climatic variations or anthropic impact can induce changes in the erosion distribution in a given basin resulting in non steady state erosion. Using a mass balance approach, the comparison of detailed geochemical data on river sediments with the current flux of dissolved elements allows the steady state hypothesis to be tested. In this study, we present a geochemical budget of weathering for the Ganga basin, one of the most densely populated basin in the world, based on detailed sampling of Himalayan rivers and of the Ganga in the delta. Sampling includes depth profile in the river, to assess the variability generated by transport processes. Himalayan river sediments are described by the dilution of an aluminous component (micas + clays + feldspars) by quartz. Ganga sediments on the other hand correspond to the mixing of bedload, similar to coarse Himalayan sediments, with an aluminous component highly depleted in alkaline elements. Compared with the dissolved flux, the depletion of alkaline elements in Ganga sediments shows that the alkaline weathering budget is imbalanced. This imbalance results from an overabundance of fine soil material in the Ganga sediment relative to other less weathered material directly derived from

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of dental erosion in American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Mariam; Hottel, Timothy L; Hong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of dental erosion in children aged 2-4 years old and 12 years old. 243 subjects were recruited from daycare centers, preschools, and grade schools; they received dental examinations assessing their condition of dental erosion, including both depth and area of tooth surface loss on four maxillary incisors. Questionnaires were given to the subjects to obtain socio-demographic, oral health behaviors at home, and access to dental care. Dental erosion was analyzed and risk factors were assessed using Chi-Square and logistic regression analysis. The subjects were 60% Caucasians, 31% Black, 7% Hispanic and others were 2%. 34% of children could not get the dental care they needed within the past 12 months and 61% of all children brushed their teeth twice or more daily. Overall, 12% of study children had dental erosion with 13% for 2-4 years old and 10% for 12 years old, with the majority of erosive lesions within enamel. Family income (OR 3.98, p = 0.021) and acidic fruit juice consumption (OR 2.38, p = 0.038) were significant risk factors for dental erosion, even after controlling for other factors, such as source of drinking water and oral hygiene using logistic regression analysis. Dental erosion is a relatively common problem among the children in this study and it is seen as a multi-factorial process.

  6. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  7. Application for Underground Injection Control Permit for the PUNA Geothermal Venture Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-01

    Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) plans to construct and operate the 25 MW Puna Geothermal Venture Project in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The project will drill geothermal wells within a dedicated 500-acre project area, use the produced geothermal fluid to generate electricity for sale to the Hawaii Electric Light Company for use on the Island of Hawaii, and inject all the produced geothermal fluids back into the geothermal reservoir. Since the project will use injection wells, it will require an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit from the Drinking Water Section of the State of Hawaii Department of Health. The PGV Project is consistent with the State and County of Hawaii's stated objectives of providing energy self-sufficiency and diversifying Hawaii's economic base. The project will develop a new alternate energy source as well as provide additional information about the nature of the geothermal resource.

  8. Simplified analytical modeling of the normal hole erosion test; Modelado analitico simplificado del ensayo normal de ersoion de tubo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlichi, A.; Bezzazi, M.; El Bakkali, L.; Jabbouri, A.; Kissi, B.; Yakhlef, F.; Parron Vera, M. A.; Rubio Cintas, M. D.; Castillo Lopez, O.

    2009-07-01

    The role erosion test was developed in order to study erosion phenomenon which occurs in cracks appearing in hydraulic infrastructures such as dams. This test enables describing experimentally the erosive characteristics of soils by means of an index which is called erosion rate and a critical tension which indicates the threshold of surface erosion initiation. The objective of this work is to five modelling of this experiment by means of a simplified analytical approach. The erosion law is derived by taking into account the flow regime. This law shows that the erosion occurring in the tube is controlled by a first order dynamics where only two parameters are involved: the characteristic's time linked to the erosion rate and the stress shear threshold for which erosion begins to develop. (Author) 5 refs.

  9. Critical Source Area Delineation: The representation of hydrology in effective erosion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.; Boylan, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Despite decades of conservation and millions of conservation dollars, nonpoint source sediment loading associated with agricultural disturbance continues to be a significant problem in many parts of the world. Local and national conservation organizations are interested in targeting critical source areas for control strategy implementation. Currently, conservation practices are selected and located based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) hillslope erosion modeling, and the National Resource Conservation Service will soon be transiting to the Watershed Erosion Predict Project (WEPP) model for the same purpose. We present an assessment of critical source areas targeted with RUSLE, WEPP and a regionally validated hydrology model, the Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model, to compare the location of critical areas for sediment loading and the effectiveness of control strategies. The three models are compared for the Palouse dryland cropping region of the inland northwest, with un-calibrated analyses of the Kamiache watershed using publicly available soils, land-use and long-term simulated climate data. Critical source areas were mapped and the side-by-side comparison exposes the differences in the location and timing of runoff and erosion predictions. RUSLE results appear most sensitive to slope driving processes associated with infiltration excess. SMR captured saturation excess driven runoff events located at the toe slope position, while WEPP was able to capture both infiltration excess and saturation excess processes depending on soil type and management. A methodology is presented for down-scaling basin level screening to the hillslope management scale for local control strategies. Information on the location of runoff and erosion, driven by the runoff mechanism, is critical for effective treatment and conservation.

  10. Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estríngana, Pablo; Dunkerley, David; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art Arid and semiarid regions occupy two-fifth of the continents (Reynolds et al., 2007). These regions are characterized by dry climatic conditions, recurrent droughts and a scant rainfall pattern with a marked seasonality and a high inter-annual variability which makes water to be a scant resource and vegetation to follow a high variability spatial distribution pattern (Breshears et al., 1998; Cecchi et al., 2006; Dunkerley, 2008). These conditions make these areas more sensitive to climate change (Rowell, 2005) and to land use change as a consequence of land abandonment (Poyatos et al., 2003; Delgado et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010), increasing the risk of desertification (Puigdefábregas and Mendizabal, 1998; Geeson et al., 2002), in such a way that 65-70% of arid and semiarid areas are vulnerable to this degradation process (UNEP, 1991). Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensity or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant cover is the main factor that controls the soil erosion, controlling the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012; Haregeweyn, 2013). Soil erosion show non-sustainable rates under these regions, such as under Mediterranean conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010) and on agriculture land (Cerdà et al; 2007; 2009) due to climatic conditions, to parent material and to the roughed terrain (Romero Díaz et al., 2010). The traditional impact of grazing, of extremely intense fires, of ploughing and the widespread use of herbicides on agriculture, the increase of the road and railway embankments and the agricultural land abandonment cause vegetation removal. Canopy cover partitions rainfall reducing the amount of water reaching the soil and the kinetic energy of rainfall drops, protecting the soil against the impact of rainfall drops. Vegetation

  11. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Tooth Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbin Ranjitkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in children and adults, and of “silent refluxers” in particular, increases the responsibility of dentists to be alert to this potentially severe condition when observing unexplained instances of tooth erosion. Although gastroesophageal reflux is a normal physiologic occurrence, excessive gastric and duodenal regurgitation combined with a decrease in normal protective mechanisms, including an adequate production of saliva, may result in many esophageal and extraesophageal adverse conditions. Sleep-related GERD is particularly insidious as the supine position enhances the proximal migration of gastric contents, and normal saliva production is much reduced. Gastric acid will displace saliva easily from tooth surfaces, and proteolytic pepsin will remove protective dental pellicle. Though increasing evidence of associations between GERD and tooth erosion has been shown in both animal and human studies, relatively few clinical studies have been carried out under controlled trial conditions. Suspicion of an endogenous source of acid being associated with observed tooth erosion requires medical referral and management of the patient as the primary method for its prevention and control.

  12. Combating dephasing decoherence by periodically performing tracking control and projective measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Dai Hongyi; Xi Zairong; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to overcome phase damping decoherence by periodically performing open loop tracking control and projective measurement. Although it is impossible to stabilize a qubit subject to Markovian dynamics only by open loop coherent control, one can attain a 'softened' control goal with the help of periodical projective measurement. The 'softened' control objective in our scheme is to keep the state of the controlled qubit to stay near a reference pure state with a high probability for a sufficiently long time. Two suboptimal control problems are given in the sense of trace distance and fidelity, respectively, and they are eventually reduced to the design of a period T. In our scheme, one can choose the period T as long as possible if the 'softened' control goal is attained. This is in contrast to the observation that quantum Zeno effect takes place only if measurements are performed in a very frequent manner, i.e., the period T must be extremely small

  13. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  14. Erosive tooth wear in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; Lussi, A.; Jaeggi, T.; Gambon, D.L.; Lussi, A.; Ganss, C.

    2014-01-01

    Erosive tooth wear in children is a common condition. Besides the anatomical differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, additional histological differences may influence their susceptibility to dissolution. Considering laboratory studies alone, it is not clear whether deciduous teeth are

  15. Erosion-resistant composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C.B.; Tennery, V.J.; Curlee, R.M.

    A highly erosion-resistant composite material is formed of chemical vapor-deposited titanium diboride on a sintered titanium diboride-nickel substrate. This material may be suitable for use in cutting tools, coal liquefaction systems, etc.

  16. Allocation of control rights in the PPP Project: a cooperative game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Feng, Jingchun; Yang, Shengtao

    2017-06-01

    Reasonable allocation of control rights is the key to the success of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. PPP are services or ventures which are financed and operated through cooperation between governmental and private sector actors and which involve reasonable control rights sharing between these two partners. After professional firm with capital and technology as a shareholder participating in PPP project firms, the PPP project is diversified in participants and input resources. Meanwhile the allocation of control rights of PPP project tends to be complicated. According to the diversification of participants and input resources of PPP projects, the key participants are divided into professional firms and pure investors. Based on the cost of repurchase of different input resources in markets, the cooperative game relationship between these two parties is analyzed, on the basis of which the allocation model of the cooperative game for control rights is constructed to ensure optimum allocation ration of control rights and verify the share of control rights in proportion to the cost of repurchase.

  17. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting... Disease or Treated by Assisted Reproductive Technology, SIP11-048, Panel F,'' initial review In accordance...

  18. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  19. Some principles of automated control systems construction with project organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, Ihor I.; Puhachenko, Kateryna S.

    2013-01-01

    The main principles of automated control systems construction with project organizational structures have been considered and the process flow sheet  for organizational systems control has been proposed. The architectural elements of the organizational system have been introduced and described. The instrumental tools of the graphodynamic systems theory have been used for the simulation modeling of hierarchical structures.

  20. Sand erosion at the toe of a gabion-protected dune face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to study the manner in which erosion takes place the the toe of a dune slope protected by gabions, and to examine the response of the gabions to this erosion. A sand slope overlaid by model gabions was subjected to wave attack in a hydraulic flume, and

  1. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  2. Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control. Demonstration project with 49 apartments in Soenderborg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The aim of the project is to demonstrate how the overall energy consumption in apartment buildings can be reduced through a combination of: 1) Energy efficient ventilation based on demand humidity control; 2) Energy efficient design of the building shell including passive solar and seasonally flexible sunspaces; 3) Use of low temperature heating system. The 3 blocks in the project, each with 16 apartments, are furnished with 3 different ventilation systems: 1) Standard exhaust system according to building codes; 2) Ventilation system with humidity control. Each room is furnished with an air inlet valve controlled by a processor, which monitors the humidity; 3) Standard ventilation system with heat recovery. (au)

  3. Controlling engineering project changes for multi-unit, multi-site standardized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, E.; Boddeker, G.; McGugin, H.; Strother, E.; Waggoner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Multibillioin dollar multiple nuclear power plant projects have numerous potential sources of engineering changes. The majority of these are internally generated changes, client generated changes, and changes from construction, procurement, other engineering organizations, and regulatory organizations. For multiunit, multisite projects, the use of a standardized design is cost effective. Engineering changes can then be controlled for a single standardized design, and the unit or site unique changes can be treated as deviations. Once an effective change procedure is established for change control of the standardized design, the same procedures can be used for control of unit or site unique changes

  4. Status of Pantex Plant Waste Management Project/program control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Wesley J.; Matthews, William L.

    1992-01-01

    During a December 1990 Waste Management Program Review held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Waste Management and Operational Surety Division (WMOSD) introduced the project control system to be used for the Waste Management (WM) Operations Program. The system was entitled 'TRAC-WM' (Tracking and Control for Waste Management). The stated objective for this system was to establish a frame work for planning, managing, and controlling work within the WM program. As a result Mason and Hanger (the operating contractor at the Pantex Plant) initiated the development of a computerized waste management project tracking system. (author)

  5. Erosion properties of unipolar arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekalin, Eh.K.

    1982-01-01

    Processes modelling the formation of unipolar arcs on the elements of the first wall in limiters of the vacuum chamber and on active elements of tokamak divertor, are experimentally investigated. Erosion, processes that take place at two types of non-stationary cathode spots are considered. Experimental data prove the possibility of reducing erosion intensity by coating the surface of electrodes by oxide films, reduction of the temperature of electrode and discharge current

  6. Implementing the theories: A fully integrated project control system that's implemented and works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Using the theories presented in DOE Orders 4700.1, 1332.1A, and Notice 4700.5 as the basis for system design, the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) has developed and implemented a Project Control System (PCS) that complies with requirements and provides DOE and FERMCO management with timely performance measurement information. To this extent, the FERMCO PCS probably is similar to the systems of the majority of the contractors in the DOE complex. In fact. this facet of the FERMCO PCS generally mirrors those used on projects around the world by FERMCO's parent company, Fluor Daniel. Starting with this open-quotes platformclose quotes, the vision and challenge of creating a fully integrated system commenced. An open-architecture systems approach is the factor that most greatly influenced and enabled the successful development and implementation of the Project Control System for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. All aspects of a fully integrated system were considered during the design phase. The architecture of the FERMCO system enables seamless, near real-time, transfer of data both from and to the Project Control System with all other related systems. The primary systems that provide and share data with the Project Control System include those used by the Payroll, Accounting, Procurement, and Human Resources organizations. To enable data linking with these organizations, the resource codes were designed to map many-to-one from their detailed codes to the summarized codes used in the PCS

  7. [Gastric band erosion: Alternative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaverry-Navarrete, Denis José; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Cabrera-Jardines, Ricardo; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo; Castillo-González, Federico Armando

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem, for which the prevalence has increased worldwide at an alarming rate, affecting 1.7 billion people in the world. To describe the technique employed in incomplete penetration of gastric band where endoscopic management and/or primary closure is not feasible. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band was performed in five patients with incomplete penetrance using Foley catheterization in the perforation site that could lead to the development of a gastro-cutaneous fistula. The cases presented include a leak that required surgical lavage with satisfactory outcome, and one patient developed stenosis 3 years after surgical management, which was resolved endoscopically. In all cases, the penetration site closed spontaneously. Gastric band erosion has been reported in 3.4% of cases. The reason for inserting a catheter is to create a controlled gastro-cutaneous fistula, allowing spontaneous closure. Various techniques have been described: the totally endoscopic, hybrid techniques (endoscopic/laparoscopic) and completely laparoscopic. A technique is described here that is useful and successful in cases where the above-described treatments are not viable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  8. Lithosphere erosion atop mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusta, R.; Arcay, D.; Tommasi, A.

    2012-12-01

    rejuvenation of the lithosphere. The onset time and the vigor of SSC and, hence, the new equilibrium thermal state of the lithosphere atop the plume wake depends on the Rayleigh number (Ra) in the unstable layer at the base of the lithosphere, which is controlled by the temperature anomaly and rheology in the plume-fed layer. For vigorous, hot plumes, SSC onset times do not depend on plate velocity. For more sluggish plumes, SSC onset times decrease with increasing plate velocity. This behavior is explained by differences in the thermal structure of the lithosphere, due to variations in the spreading behavior of the plume material at the lithosphere base. Reduction of the viscosity in partial molten areas and decrease in density of the depleted residuum enhance the vigor of small-scale convection in the plume-fed low-viscosity layer at the lithosphere base, leading to more effective erosion of the base of the lithosphere.

  9. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  10. Recent progress in flow control for practical flows results of the STADYWICO and IMESCON projects

    CERN Document Server

    Barakos, George; Luczak, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    This book explores the outcomes on flow control research activities carried out within the framework of two EU-funded projects focused on training-through-research of Marie Sklodowska-Curie doctoral students. The main goal of the projects described in this monograph is to assess the potential of the passive- and active-flow control methods for reduction of fuel consumption by a helicopter. The research scope encompasses the fields of structural dynamics, fluid flow dynamics, and actuators with control. Research featured in this volume demonstrates an experimental and numerical approach with a strong emphasis on the verification and validation of numerical models. The book is ideal for engineers, students, and researchers interested in the multidisciplinary field of flow control. Provides highly relevant and up-to-date information on the topic of flow control; Includes assessments of a wide range of flow-control technologies and application examples for fixed and rotary-wing configurations; Reinforces reader u...

  11. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Xiangjiaba site (mean 640.1 t ha-1 a-1) the maximum soil erosion of 1,115.4 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is negligible lower. Compared to these erosion rates the mean soil loss under current land use is considerably lower (Xiangxi Catchment: mean 161.5 t ha-1 a-1; Backwater area: mean 166.3 t ha-1 a-1; Quyuan: mean 211.2 t ha-1 a-1; Xiangjiaba: mean 158.6 t ha-1 a-1). However, soil loss of maximum 2,662.2 t ha-1 a-1 for Xiangxi Catchment, 2,397.9 t ha-1 a-1 for the backwater area, 1,689.9 t ha-1 a-1 for Quyuan site, and 957.1 t ha-1 a-1 for Xiangjiaba site are also potentially possible. According to the Chinese Soil Erosion Rate Standard (cf. Xu et al., 2008) almost 44 % of the area of the Xiangxi Catchment show extreme (> 80 t ha-1 a-1) soil erosion which mainly occur in the backwater area. Our results show that the Xiangxi Catchment is already highly prone to soil erosion under natural conditions. In places, the current land use in the mountainous relief of the Xiangxi Catchment still increases the potential soil erosion to an extreme high level. However, mean potential soil loss rates under current land use lie under those due to the natural disposition. This is due to the fact that the natural disposition to soil erosion does not consider the complete topography factor (LS factor), that effects the potential soil loss (R² = 0.77) by the human-influenced erosive slope length through farmland terraces. Moreover, our results indicate an urgent need of proper management and conservation decisions in order to reduce soil erosion against the background of a high land use dynamic in a region with low carrying capacity (Beattie, 2002). Literature Beattie, J. (2002): Dam Building, Dissent, And Development: The Emergence Of The Three Gorges Project. New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 4(1): 138-158. Behrens, T., Schmidt, K. and Scholten, T. (2008). An approach to remove uncertainties in nominal environmental covariates and soil class maps. In: Hartemink, A. E., Mc

  12. Mechanics of interrill erosion with wind-driven rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vector physics of wind-driven rain (WDR) differs from that of wind-free rain, and the interrill soil detachment equations in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model were not originally developed to deal with this phenomenon. This article provides an evaluation of the performance of the...

  13. Mechanics of Interrill Erosion with Wind-Driven Rain (WDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides an evaluation analysis for the performance of the interrill component of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for Wind-Driven Rain (WDR) events. The interrill delivery rates (Di) were collected in the wind tunnel rainfall simulator facility of the International Cen...

  14. Sandstone landforms shaped by negative feedback between stress and erosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruthans, J.; Soukup, J.; Vaculíková, J.; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillová, Jana; Mayo, A. L.; Mašín, D.; Kletetschka, Günther; Řihošek, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2014), s. 597-601 ISSN 1752-0894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : sandstone * sandstone landsforms * stress * erosion Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 11.740, year: 2014

  15. Simulation of erosion in drilling tools for oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefi, B.; Settari, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Angman, P. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Erosion in oil well drilling tools is a form of wear which occurs when fluid containing solid particles impacts a solid surface. The intensity of erosion is generally measured as the rate of material removal from the surface, and is expressed as E{sub r}, the weight of material removed by unit weight of impacting particles. Erosion can also be reduced by tool improvement and modification, thereby extending the life of drilling tools. To date, no attempt has been made to model the erosion phenomenon in drilling tools. This paper presents a newly developed erosion simulator which is the first design tool for the drilling industry. This work demonstrates that erosion can be simulated. A model was developed to calibrate the erosion coefficients for drilling tool conditions. The mechanism of erosion can be controlled by the impact velocity and angle. Algorithms were developed for transient simulation of the erosion of any surface in 2-dimensional geometry. The Erosion Simulator has been validated and calibrated against data provided by TESCO Corporation's casing drilling tools. The model has been shown to successfully predict and minimize erosion by modifying the tool geometry and metallurgy. 21 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  16. Implementation of quality control systems in laboratories in Paraguay by the participants of ARCAL LXXVI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Z.

    2004-12-01

    In the Project ARCAL LXXVII, was realized the National Course of Control of Quality of Analytic Laboratories, from 12 to 16 of April in the CNEA, Paraguay, as a result of the one mentioned course was elaborated this project whose purpose is to elaborate the necessary documentation to fulfill the requirements of administration in the Analytic Laboratories to be adapted to the system of quality according to the ISO 17025 [es

  17. Control of the formation of projective synchronisation in lower-dimensional discrete-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, C.Y.; Xu Daolin

    2003-01-01

    Projective synchronisation was recently observed in partially linear discrete-time systems. The scaling factor that characterises the behaviour of projective synchronisation is however unpredictable. In order to manipulate the ultimate state of the synchronisation, a control algorithm based on Schur-Chon stability criteria is proposed to direct the scaling factor onto any predestined value. In the numerical experiment, we illustrate the application on two chaotic discrete-time systems

  18. Seasonal variation and climate change impact in Rainfall Erosivity across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine; Ballabio, Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    residues, reduced tillage) in regions with high erosivity. Besides soil erosion mapping, the intra-annual analysis of rainfall erosivity is an important step towards flood prevention, hazard mitigation, ecosystem services, land use change and agricultural production. The application of REDES in combination with moderate climate change scenarios scenario (HadGEM RCP 4.5) resulted in predictions of erosivity in 2050. The overall increase of rainfall erosivity in Europe by 18% until 2050 are in line with projected increases of 17% for the U.S.A. The predicted mean rise of erosivity is also expected to increase the threat of soil erosion in Europe. The most noticeable increase of erosivity is projected for North-Central Europe, the English Channel, The Netherlands and Northern France. On the contrary, the Mediterranean basin show mixed trends. The success story with the compilation of REDES and first rainfall erosivity map of Europe was a driver to implement a Global Rainfall Erosivity Database (GloREDa). During the last 3 years, JRC was leading an effort to collect high temporal resolution rainfall data worldwide. In collaboration with 50 scientists worldwide and 100+ Meteorological and environmental Organisations, we have developed a Global Erosivity Database. In this database, we managed to include calculated erosivity values for 3,625 stations covering 63 countries worldwide.

  19. Science You Can Use Bulletin: From watersheds to the web: Online tools for modeling forest soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Bill Elliot; Pete Robichaud; Randy Foltz; Dennis Flanagan; Erin Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Forest erosion can lead to topsoil loss, and also to damaging deposits of sediment in aquatic ecosystems. For this reason, forest managers must be able to estimate the erosion potential of both planned management activities and catastrophic events, in order to decide where to use limited funds to focus erosion control efforts. To meet this need, scientists from RMRS (...

  20. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The Soil Erosion and Degradation Reseach Group (SEDER) is developing a research program since 2002 to assess the soil erosion and degradation processes at the Canyoles River watershed in Eastern Spain. The research study site was selected as representative of the environmental changes that take place in the Mediterranean: abandonment of the agriculture land in the mountains, forest fire expansion, intensification of the agriculture, impact of the infraesturctures such as rail and road embankments, and soil sealing due to the urban expansion. The research is based on the continuous measurements in the Montesa and El Teularet research stations and the sampling of the soils, topographical measurements and the use of rainfall simulators, minidisk infiltrometers, ring infiltrometers and Water Drop Penetration Time tests. The research is moving from a pure scientific approach to a more socio-economic view, and the stakeholders are being researched from a perception point of view. SEDER is also moving from pure to applied science, with the objective to design new managements that will satisfy the stakeholders and will achieve the sustainability. The research is being carried out in vineyards and orchards as they show extremely high erosion rates. But also we are interested in the impact of forest fires and the road embankments. In all three research topics, SEDER wish to find the sustainable managements. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Bodí, M. B., Martin, D. A., Balfour, V. N., Santín, C., Doerr, S. H., Pereira, P., . . . Mataix-Solera, J. (2014). Corrigendum to "wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects", earth sci. rev. 130 (2014) [103-127]. Earth-Science Reviews, 138, 503. doi:10