WorldWideScience

Sample records for eristar earth resources

  1. Rare earths as a future resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The fourteen rare earth or lanthanide elements have recently emerged as an important natural resource because of the rapidly growing demand in the electronic, chemical and metallurgical industries. The Symposium on rare earth elements as a future resource presented a multidisciplinary review of rare earth chemistry, geology, beneficiation, industrial applications and marketing. Papers by experts in many fields were presented on the following topics: chemical properties of the rare earth elements; the analysis of rare earth elements and minerals; beneficiation and extraction of rare earth elements; economic geochemistry and mineralogy of rare earths; present industrial uses of rare earth elements; the role of rare earth elements in high-temperature superconductors; the technical application of high-temperature superconductors; supply and demand for rare earth products - now and in the future, and the geology of rare earth deposits

  2. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  3. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  4. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  5. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  6. Brand Awareness towards Sustaining Earth's Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seema

    2015-04-01

    entrepreneurship where we will be developing a business idea with the aim of solving an important social as well as environmental problem along with making reasonable profit from selling of the concerned product. Waste management and environmental pollution is a growing concern in the city. To drive a change in the minds of the people it is important to educate them on the issues to face the stark reality. To achieve this we do re-informing drives to bring a change - a. First and foremost people should depend on renewable energy. b. Limited use of natural resources by including recycling in our daily lives which helps in cutting down of natural resources. For example segregating dry waste from wet waste. c. Taking care and respecting the Nature. Being respectful of the environment goes hand in hand as environmental problems have impacted people on broad scale. As Mahatma Gandhi said, 'Be the change you want to see in the world' it is about making efforts to see a change in the society. It is essential to let people know that every individual's efforts do not go waste but add up to ensure an impactful change.

  7. The impact of earth resources exploration from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, W.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

  8. Resources for future generations – understanding earth and people

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J.; Eagle, L.; Bonham, O.

    2017-01-01

    Earth’s growing population requires resources for the basics of life and increasing standards of living. Energy from many sources, numerous minerals and water are critical for human existence, and are increasingly linked in the context of sustainability. For future generations, resources must be discovered and cleanly exploited, even as efforts to improve efficiency and increase recycling continue. To succeed, we must fully understand the earth, from the critical processes that concentrate r...

  9. World resources and the development of the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, A.; Ishihara, S.; Seki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This text is an examination of economic (or ore) geology, and engineering geology. Using case studies of Japan and continental North America, this work presents a geological and geochemical summary of ore-forming processes along with discussions of basic principles and approaches to modern engineering geology. Emphasizes the relationship between fossil fuel resources and the evolution of the Earth's crust. Contents - WORLD RESOURCES. The Geochemistry of Metallogenesis. The Geochemistry of Fossil Fuel Deposit. Global Evolution and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. The Development of Continents and Island Arcs and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Development of the Earth's Surface and Engineering Geology. Engineering Geology Methods. Features of the Ground and Bedrock in Japan. Engineering Geology - A Case Study. Geology and the Environment - Case Studies. INDEX. Principal World-Wide Metal Deposits (inside front cover). Principal World-Wide Coal, Petroleum and Uranium Deposits (inside back cover)

  10. The development of machine technology processing for earth resource survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The following technologies are considered for automatic processing of earth resources data: (1) registration of multispectral and multitemporal images, (2) digital image display systems, (3) data system parameter effects on satellite remote sensing systems, and (4) data compression techniques based on spectral redundancy. The importance of proper spectral band and compression algorithm selections is pointed out.

  11. Earth, Air, Fire, & Water: Resource Guide 6. The Arts and Learning, Interdisciplinary Resources for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald T., Ed.

    This resource guide is intended to aid practitioners in the design of new curriculum units or the enrichment of existing units by suggesting activities and resources in the topic areas of earth, air, fire, and water. Special projects and trips relating to these topic areas are proposed. A sample arts networking system used to integrate various…

  12. Energy resources for mankind considered from the earth evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shin-ich; Shimizu, Saburo

    2005-01-01

    The amount of energy resources contained in Earth and that we mankind can use in future can be estimated on the basis of the information given by astrophysical and geochemical considerations. The kind of resources includes geothermal, nuclear, solar, and fossil energy. We believe that the results of these considerations, especially the method of thinking, may be taken into curriculum in high schools or introductory courses of university education. In school education relating to energy and environmental problems we think that it is more important for the students to learn how to think or estimate and how to solve the problems than to be given any established knowledge itself from the teachers and reference books or journals. Students are easily discouraged by teachers who are talking that petroleum will be exhausted in 40 years or that uranium-235 will be also exhausted unless we develop the nuclear fuel system utilizing uranium-238 breading. They seem afraid of insufficient left when they grow old. In this report we call the readers attention that the amount of energy resources contained in Earth is such that the mankind can never exhaust them and that they are waiting to be exploited or for the time to come when the technology for their utilization is developed. We also pay attention that too much consumption of energy surely affect the earth environment (heat pollution) - the limit will be the consumption rate of about 0.1 W/m 2 of the earth surface which equals to the heat emission rate from the earth surface toward the space. (author)

  13. Definition of Earth Resources Policy and Management Problems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Social Sciences Group in solving earth resources management problems as related to social factors, are reported. Major efforts of the Group revolved around identifying potential users of ERTS data, ascertain the user's needs, and assay the organizational impacts of new and technologically advanced sources of information. Attempts were also made to develop a linear programming model to be used in decision making with respect to resources being observed by ERTS and other remote sensing vehicles. The cost effectiveness of solving these management problems is discussed.

  14. Illuminating the Darkness: Exploiting untapped data and information resources in Earth Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We contend that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or...

  15. Mission Adaptive UAS Platform for Earth Science Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.; Fladeland, M.; Ippolito, C.; Knudson, M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has led a number of important Earth science remote sensing missions including several directed at the assessment of natural resources. A key asset for accessing high risk airspace has been the 180 kg class SIERRA UAS platform, providing mission durations of up to 8 hrs at altitudes up to 3 km. Recent improvements to this mission capability are embodied in the incipient SIERRA-B variant. Two resource mapping problems having unusual mission characteristics requiring a mission adaptive capability are explored here. One example involves the requirement for careful control over solar angle geometry for passive reflectance measurements. This challenges the management of resources in the coastal ocean where solar angle combines with sea state to produce surface glint that can obscure the ocean color signal. Furthermore, as for all scanning imager applications, the primary flight control priority to fly the UAS directly to the next waypoint should compromise with the requirement to minimize roll and crab effects in the imagery. A second example involves the mapping of natural resources in the Earth's crust using precision magnetometry. In this case the vehicle flight path must be oriented to optimize magnetic flux gradients over a spatial domain having continually emerging features, while optimizing the efficiency of the spatial mapping task. These requirements were highlighted in several recent Earth Science missions including the October 2013 OCEANIA mission directed at improving the capability for hyperspectral reflectance measurements in the coastal ocean, and the Surprise Valley Mission directed at mapping sub-surface mineral composition and faults, using high-sensitivity magentometry. This paper reports the development of specific aircraft control approaches to incorporate the unusual and demanding requirements to manage solar angle, aircraft attitude and flight path orientation, and efficient (directly geo-rectified) surface and sub

  16. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  17. Earth observation for regional scale environmental and natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet

  18. Rare earth metals-primary resources and prospects of processing secondary resources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Rare earth metals (REMs) in modern technological applications is associated with their spectroscopic and magnetic properties. The occurrence of rare earths in mixed form is commonly reported and their separation to the individual metal is a challenging task because of the similar chemical properties. The economical processing of the primary ores of rare earths is limited to a few countries and their supply at the international level is currently dominated by China. Hence assessing the present scenario of the primary resources of rare earths vis-à-vis their applications and demand is crucial at this stage, besides looking at the alternate resources to ensure availability of REMs; such aspects are covered in the manuscript. In view of the environmental concerns in the processing of ores such as monazite, xenotime, bastnasite, etc, and increasing demand of REMs, corresponding increase in demand of the raw materials has been recorded. It is therefore, necessary to utilize the end-of the-life rare earth containing materials as a rich resource by developing an appropriate recycling technology, which is emerging as a high priority area. To recover the REMs, major secondary resources such as electronic wastes, industrial wastes, spent catalysts and magnets, and phosphors powder, etc, have been considered for now. This will not only open the prospects of utilizing the wastes containing REMs, but will also limit the imports while lowering the production cost and decreasing the load on the primary reserves. The paper also examines the efficient recycling methods to recover a fairly good amount of rare earths which are relevant to India in view of the limited exploitation of the ores. Recovery of REMs from secondary resources using mechanical treatment followed by hydrometallurgical methods is prevalent and the same is reviewed in some detail. The recent R and D work pursued at CSIR-NML to extract (leaching and metal separation using some phosphatic reagents

  19. Earth and water resources and hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Fary, R.W.; Guffanti, Marianne; Laura, Della; Lee, M.P.; Masters, C.D.; Miller, R.L.; Quinones-Marques, Ferdinand; Peebles, R.W.; Reinemund, J.A.; Russ, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Long-range economic development in Central America will depend in large part on production of indigenous mineral, energy, and water resources and on mitigation of the disastrous effects of geologic and hydrologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods. The region has six world-class metal mines at present as well as additional evidence of widespread mineralization. Systematic investigations using modern mineral exploration techniques should reveal more mineral deposits suitable for development. Widespread evidence of lignite and geothermal resources suggests that intensive studies could identify producible energy sources in most Central American countries. Water supply and water quality vary greatly from country to country. Local problems of ground- and surface-water availability and of contamination create a need for systematic programs to provide better hydrologic data, capital improvements, and management. Disastrous earthquakes have destroyed or severely damaged many cities in Central America. Volcanic eruptions, landslides, mudflows, and floods have devastated most of the Pacific side of Central America at one time or another. A regional approach to earthquake, volcano, and flood-risk analysis and monitoring, using modern technology and concepts, would provide the facilities and means for acquiring knowledge necessary to reduce future losses. All Central American countries need to strengthen institutions and programs dealing with earth and water resources and natural hazards. Some of these needs may be satisfied through existing or pending projects and technical and economic assistance from U.S. or other sources. The need for a comprehensive study of the natural resources of Central America and the requirements for their development is evident. The U.S. Caribbean Basin Initiative offers both an excellent opportunity for a regional approach to these pervasive problems and an opportunity for international cooperation.

  20. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  1. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: y.kanazawa@aist.go.jp; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  2. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Kamitani, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO 3 )F, monazite (Ce,La)PO 4 , xenotime YPO 4 , and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite and

  3. Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann

    2017-07-19

    The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.

  4. [Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.

  5. Why Reinvent the Wheel when Earth Science Resources Are Already Available? The GEOTREX and STEGO Resource Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    The "issue" of there being only limited time available to teachers for the development of teaching and learning resources has been with us a long time. This article outlines the rationale behind the development of online teaching resources that are freely available on the Earth Science Teachers' Association (ESTA) website and introduces readers to…

  6. Mother Lode: The Untapped Rare Earth Mineral Resources of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    to exert their monopolistic control of the market by artificially restricting supply in the interest of higher commodity prices, but were rather...linked. World markets for rare earth elements are at present a near-monopoly controlled by China, and it is becoming ever clearer that alternative... markets for rare earth elements are at present a near- monopoly controlled by China, and it is becoming ever clearer that alternative sources for these

  7. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography list 436 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System. Emphasis is placed on the use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation in spacecraft and aircraft to survey and inventory natural resources and urban areas. Subject matter is grouped according to agriculture and forestry, environmental changes and cultural resources, geodesy and cartography, geology and mineral resources, hydrology and water management, data processing and distribution sytems, instrumentation and sensors, and economic analysis.

  8. Definition of Earth Resource Policy and Management Problems in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, C. W.; Clark, I.

    1971-01-01

    Management planning for the California water survey considers the use of satellite and airplane remote sensing information on water-source, -center, and -sink geographies. A model is developed for estimating the social benefit of water resource information and to identify the most important types of resource information relevant to regulatory agencies and the private sector.

  9. AGI's Earth Science Week and Education Resources Network: Connecting Teachers to Geoscience Organizations and Classroom Resources that Support NGSS Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, E.; Camphire, G.; Brendan, S.; Celia, T.

    2016-12-01

    There exists a wide array of high quality resources to support K-12 teaching and motivate student interest in the geosciences. Yet, connecting teachers to those resources can be a challenge. Teachers working to implement the NGSS can benefit from accessing the wide range of existing geoscience resources, and from becoming part of supportive networks of geoscience educators, researchers, and advocates. Engaging teachers in such networks can be facilitated by providing them with information about organizations, resources, and opportunities. The American Geoscience Institute (AGI) has developed two key resources that have great value in supporting NGSS implement in these ways. Those are Earth Science Week, and the Education Resources Network in AGI's Center for Geoscience and Society. For almost twenty years, Earth Science Week, has been AGI's premier annual outreach program designed to celebrate the geosciences. Through its extensive web-based resources, as well as the physical kits of posters, DVDs, calendars and other printed materials, Earth Science Week offers an array of resources and opportunities to connect with the education-focused work of important geoscience organizations such as NASA, the National Park Service, HHMI, esri, and many others. Recently, AGI has initiated a process of tagging these and other resources to NGSS so as to facilitate their use as teachers develop their instruction. Organizing Earth Science Week around themes that are compatible with topics within NGSS contributes to the overall coherence of the diverse array of materials, while also suggesting potential foci for investigations and instructional units. More recently, AGI has launched its Center for Geoscience and Society, which is designed to engage the widest range of audiences in building geoscience awareness. As part of the Center's work, it has launched the Education Resources Network (ERN), which is an extensive searchable database of all manner of resources for geoscience

  10. Technical Information Resource on Rare Earth Elements Now Available to Public and Private Sector Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new EPA technical information resource, “Rare Earth Elements: A Review of Production, Processing, Recycling, and Associated Environmental Issues” has been produced as an introductory resource for those interested in learning more about REE mining and alternatives to meet demand...

  11. Evaluating Educational Resources for Inclusion in the Dig Texas Instructional Blueprints for Earth & Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, B. E.; Bohls-Graham, E.; Martinez, A. O.; Ellins, K. K.; Riggs, E. M.; Serpa, L. F.; Stocks, E.; Fox, S.; Kent, M.

    2014-12-01

    Today's instruction in Earth's systems requires thoughtful selection of curricula, and in turn, high quality learning activities that address modern Earth science. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which are intended to guide K-12 science instruction, further demand a discriminating selection process. The DIG (Diversity & Innovation in Geoscience) Texas Instructional Blueprints attempt to fulfill this practice by compiling vetted educational resources freely available online into units that are the building blocks of the blueprints. Each blueprint is composed of 9 three-week teaching units and serves as a scope and sequence for teaching a one-year Earth science course. In the earliest stages of the project, teams explored the Internet for classroom-worthy resources, including laboratory investigations, videos, visualizations, and readings, and submitted the educational resources deemed suitable for the project into the project's online review tool. Each team member evaluated the educational resources chosen by fellow team members according to a set of predetermined criteria that had been incorporated into the review tool. Resources rated as very good or excellent by all team members were submitted to the project PIs for approval. At this stage, approved resources became candidates for inclusion in the blueprint units. Team members tagged approved resources with descriptors for the type of resource and instructional strategy, and aligned these to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science and the Earth Science Literacy Principles. Each team then assembled and sequenced resources according to content strand, balancing the types of learning experiences within each unit. Once units were packaged, teams then considered how they addressed the NGSS and identified the relevant disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and science and engineering practices. In addition to providing a brief overview of the project, this

  12. Supporting Instruction By Defining Conceptual Relevance Of Materials: Alignment Of Resources To An Earth Systems Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, A. J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental, geological, and climatological sciences are important facets of physical science education. However, it is often difficult for educators to acquire the necessary resources to facilitate content explanations, and demonstration of the conceptual links between individual lessons. The Understanding Global Change (UGC) Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley is aligning new and existing Earth systems educational resources that are high-quality, interactive and inquiry based. Learning resources are organized by the UGC framework topics (Causes of Change, How the Earth System Works, and Measurable Changes), and focus on exploring topic relationships. Resources are currently aligned with both the UGC framework and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), facilitating broad utility among K-16 educators. The overarching goal of the UGC Project is to provide the necessary resources that guide the construction of coherent, interdisciplinary instructional units. These units can be reinforced through system models, providing visual learning scaffolds for assessments of student content knowledge. Utilizing the central framework of UGC alleviates the long-standing problem of creating coherent instructional units from multiple learning resources, each organized and categorized independently across multiple platforms that may not provide explicit connections among Earth science subjects UGC topic cross listing of learning modules establishes conceptual links. Each resource is linked across several Earth system components, facilitating exploration of relationships and feedbacks between processes. Cross listed topics are therefore useful for development of broad picture learning goals via targeted instructional units. We also anticipate cultivating summaries of the explicit conceptual links explored in each resource from both current teachers and content specialists. Insructional units currated and aligned under the UGC

  13. Linking earth science informatics resources into uninterrupted digital value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Robert; Angreani, Rini; Cox, Simon; Fraser, Ryan; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Rankine, Terry; Robertson, Jess; Vote, Josh

    2015-04-01

    The CSIRO Mineral Resources Flagship was established to tackle medium- to long-term challenges facing the Australian mineral industry across the value chain from exploration and mining through mineral processing within the framework of an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable minerals industry. This broad portfolio demands collaboration and data exchange with a broad range of participants and data providers across government, research and industry. It is an ideal environment to link geoscience informatics platforms to application across the resource extraction industry and to unlock the value of data integration between traditionally discrete parts of the minerals digital value chain. Despite the potential benefits, data integration remains an elusive goal within research and industry. Many projects use only a subset of available data types in an integrated manner, often maintaining the traditional discipline-based data 'silos'. Integrating data across the entire minerals digital value chain is an expensive proposition involving multiple disciplines and, significantly, multiple data sources both internal and external to any single organisation. Differing vocabularies and data formats, along with access regimes to appropriate analysis software and equipment all hamper the sharing and exchange of information. AuScope has addressed the challenge of data exchange across organisations nationally, and established a national geosciences information infrastructure using open standards-based web services. Federated across a wide variety of organisations, the resulting infrastructure contains a wide variety of live and updated data types. The community data standards and infrastructure platforms that underpin AuScope provide important new datasets and multi-agency links independent of software and hardware differences. AuScope has thus created an infrastructure, a platform of technologies and the opportunity for new ways of working with and integrating

  14. The NASA earth resources spectral information system: A data compilation, second supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    The NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System (ERSIS) and the information contained therein are described. It is intended for use as a second supplement to the NASA Earth Resources Spectral Information System: A Data Compilation, NASA CR-31650-24-T, May 1971. The current supplement includes approximately 100 rock and mineral, and 375 vegetation directional reflectance spectral curves in the optical region from 0.2 to 22.0 microns. The data were categorized by subject and each curve plotted on a single graph. Each graph is fully titled to indicate curve source and indexed by subject to facilitate user retrieval from ERSIS magnetic tape records.

  15. RESOURCESAT-2: a mission for Earth resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Rao, M.; Gupta, J. P.; Rattan, Ram; Thyagarajan, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has established an operational Remote sensing satellite system by launching its first satellite, IRS-1A in 1988, followed by a series of IRS spacecraft. The IRS-1C/1D satellites with their unique combination of Payloads have taken a lead position in the Global remote sensing scenario. Realising the growing User demands for the "Multi" level approach in terms of Spatial, Spectral, Temporal and Radiometric resolutions, ISRO identified the Resourcesat as a continuity as well as improved RS Satellite. The Resourcesat-1 (IRS-P6) was launched in October 2003 using PSLV launch vehicle and it is in operational service. Resourcesat-2 is its follow-on Mission scheduled for launch in 2008. Each Resourcesat satellite carries three Electro-optical cameras as its payload - LISS-3, LISS-4 and AWIFS. All the three are multi-spectral push-broom scanners with linear array CCDs as Detectors. LISS-3 and AWIFS operate in four identical spectral bands in the VIS-NIR-SWIR range while LISS-4 is a high resolution camera with three spectral bands in VIS-NIR range. In order to meet the stringent requirements of band-to-band registration and platform stability, several improvements have been incorporated in the mainframe Bus configuration like wide field Star trackers, precision Gyroscopes, on-board GPS receiver etc,. The Resourcesat data finds its application in several areas like agricultural crop discrimination and monitoring, crop acreage/yield estimation, precision farming, water resources, forest mapping, Rural infrastructure development, disaster management etc,. to name a few. A brief description of the Payload cameras, spacecraft bus elements and operational modes and few applications are presented.

  16. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  17. The Earth Gravitational Model 1996: The NCCS: Resource for Development, Resource for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For centuries, men have attempted to understand the climate system through observations obtained from Earth's surface. These observations yielded preliminary understanding of the ocean currents, tides, and prevailing winds using visual observation and simple mechanical tools as their instruments. Today's sensitive, downward-looking radar systems, called altimeters, onboard satellites can measure globally the precise height of the ocean surface. This surface is largely that of the equipotential gravity surface, called the geoid - the level surface to which the oceans would conform if there were no forces acting on them apart from gravity, as well as having a significant 1-2- meter-level signal arising from the motion of the ocean's currents.

  18. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  19. NGSS aligned Earth science resources and professional development programs from the Exploratorium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Exploratorium is a museum of science, art and human perception located in San Francisco, CA. The Exploratorium has been offering resources and professional development to primary and secondary teachers since 1972. We focus on inquiry based, hands-on learning, with an emphasis on Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) implementation. This brief, invited presentation will feature the programs and online resources developed by the Exploratorium's "Institute for Inquiry" and "Teacher Institute" that may help formal and informal educators engage, implement and promote three dimensional learning in the Earth Sciences.

  20. EarthCube as an information resource marketplace; the GEAR Project conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Zaslavsky, I.; Gupta, A.; Valentine, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience Architecture for Research (GEAR) is approaching EarthCube design as a complex and evolving socio-technical federation of systems. EarthCube is intended to support the science research enterprise, for which there is no centralized command and control, requirements are a moving target, the function and behavior of the system must evolve and adapt as new scientific paradigms emerge, and system participants are conducting research that inherently implies seeking new ways of doing things. EarthCube must address evolving user requirements and enable domain and project systems developed under different management and for different purposes to work together. The EC architecture must focus on creating a technical environment that enables new capabilities by combining existing and newly developed resources in various ways, and encourages development of new resource designs intended for re-use and interoperability. In a sense, instead of a single architecture design, GEAR provides a way to accommodate multiple designs tuned to different tasks. This agile, adaptive, evolutionary software development style is based on a continuously updated portfolio of compatible components that enable new sub-system architecture. System users make decisions about which components to use in this marketplace based on performance, satisfaction, and impact metrics collected continuously to evaluate components, determine priorities, and guide resource allocation decisions by the system governance agency. EC is designed as a federation of independent systems, and although the coordinator of the EC system may be named an enterprise architect, the focus of the role needs to be organizing resources, assessing their readiness for interoperability with the existing EC component inventory, managing dependencies between transient subsystems, mechanisms of stakeholder engagement and inclusion, and negotiation of standard interfaces, rather than actual specification of components. Composition of

  1. CINERGI: Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Bermudez, Luis; Grethe, Jeffrey; Gupta, Amarnath; Hsu, Leslie; Lehnert, Kerstin; Malik, Tanu; Richard, Stephen; Valentine, David; Whitenack, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Organizing geoscience data resources to support cross-disciplinary data discovery, interpretation, analysis and integration is challenging because of different information models, semantic frameworks, metadata profiles, catalogs, and services used in different geoscience domains, not to mention different research paradigms and methodologies. The central goal of CINERGI, a new project supported by the US National Science Foundation through its EarthCube Building Blocks program, is to create a methodology and assemble a large inventory of high-quality information resources capable of supporting data discovery needs of researchers in a wide range of geoscience domains. The key characteristics of the inventory are: 1) collaboration with and integration of metadata resources from a number of large data facilities; 2) reliance on international metadata and catalog service standards; 3) assessment of resource "interoperability-readiness"; 4) ability to cross-link and navigate data resources, projects, models, researcher directories, publications, usage information, etc.; 5) efficient inclusion of "long-tail" data, which are not appearing in existing domain repositories; 6) data registration at feature level where appropriate, in addition to common dataset-level registration, and 7) integration with parallel EarthCube efforts, in particular focused on EarthCube governance, information brokering, service-oriented architecture design and management of semantic information. We discuss challenges associated with accomplishing CINERGI goals, including defining the inventory scope; managing different granularity levels of resource registration; interaction with search systems of domain repositories; explicating domain semantics; metadata brokering, harvesting and pruning; managing provenance of the harvested metadata; and cross-linking resources based on the linked open data (LOD) approaches. At the higher level of the inventory, we register domain-wide resources such as domain

  2. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, M.

    2012-12-01

    From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the

  3. Global demand for rare earth resources and strategies for green mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Tanushree [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: kkim61@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Uchimiya, Minori [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Kwon, Eilhann E. [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byong-Hun [Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Deep, Akash [Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR-CSIO), Sector 30C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and KU-KIST Green School, Korea University, Seoul 02841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are essential raw materials for emerging renewable energy resources and ‘smart’ electronic devices. Global REE demand is slated to grow at an annual rate of 5% by 2020. This high growth rate will require a steady supply base of REEs in the long run. At present, China is responsible for 85% of global rare earth oxide (REO) production. To overcome this monopolistic supply situation, new strategies and investments are necessary to satisfy domestic supply demands. Concurrently, environmental, economic, and social problems arising from REE mining must be addressed. There is an urgent need to develop efficient REE recycling techniques from end-of-life products, technologies to minimize the amount of REEs required per unit device, and methods to recover them from fly ash or fossil fuel-burning wastes.

  4. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  5. Student Web Use, Columbia Earthscape, and Their Implications for Online Earth Science Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, J.; Luby, M.; Wittenberg, K.

    2002-12-01

    For three years, Columbia Earthscape, www.earthscape.org, has served as a test bed for the development and evaluation of Web-based geoscience education. Last fall (EOS Trans. AGU, 82(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract ED11A-11, 2001), we described how librarian, scientist, instructor, and student feedback led to sweeping changes in interface and acquisitions. Further assessment has looked at the value of a central online resource for Earth-system science education in light of patterns of study. Columbia Earthscape aimed to create an authoritative resource that reflects the interconnectedness of the Internet, of the disciplines of Earth-systems science, and of research, education, and public policy. Evaluation thus has three parts. The editors and editorial advisory board have evaluated projects for the site for accuracy and relevance to the project?s original context of Earth issues and topical mini-courses. Second, our research sought patterns of student use and library acquisition of Internet sources. Last, we asked if and how students benefit from Columbia Earthscape. We found, first, that while libraries are understandably reluctant to add online resources to strained budgets, almost all students work online; they vary almost solely in personal Web use. Second, Web use does not discourage use of print. Third, researchers often search Columbia Earthscape, but students, especially in schools, prefer browsing by topic of interest. Fourth, if they did not have this resource, most would surf, but many feel lost on the Web, and few say they can judge the quality of materials they used. Fifth, students found Columbia Earthscape helpful, relevant, and current, but most often for its research and policy materials. Many commented on issue-related collections original to Columbia Earthscape. While indeed we intended our Classroom Models and Sample Syllabi primarily as aids to instructor course design, we conclude, first, that students stick anyway to assigned materials and

  6. AGU Pathfinder: Career and Professional Development Resources for Earth and Space Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, D. E.; Asher, P. M.; Hankin, E. R.; Janick, N. G.; Marasco, L.

    2017-12-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is committed to inspiring and educating present and future generations of diverse, innovative, and creative Earth and space scientists. To meet our commitment, AGU provides career and educational resources, webinars, mentoring, and support for students and professionals at each level of development to reduce barriers to achievement and to promote professional advancement. AGU is also working with other organizations and educational institutions to collaborate on projects benefiting the greater geoscience community. The presentation will include an overview of current Pathfinder efforts, collaborative efforts, and an appeal for additional partnerships.

  7. DLESE Teaching Boxes: Earth System Science Resources And Strategies For Using Data In The Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, S. E.; Weingroff, M.

    2005-12-01

    The DLESE Teaching Box project is both a professional development opportunity and an educational resource development project providing a pedagogic context that support teachers' use of data in the classroom. As a professional development opportunity, it is designed to augment teachers' science content knowledge, enhance their use of inquiry teaching strategies, and increase their confidence and facility with using digital libraries and online learning resources. Teams of educators, scientists, and instructional designers work together during a three part Teaching Box Development Workshop series to create Teaching Boxes on Earth system science topics. The resulting Teaching Boxes use Earth system science conceptual frameworks as their core and contain inquiry-based lessons which model scientific inquiry and process by focusing on the gathering and analysis of evidence. These lines of evidence employ an Earth systems approach to show how processes across multiple spheres, for example, how the biosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere interact in a complex Earth process. Each Teaching Box has interconnected lessons that provide 3-6 weeks of instruction, incorporate National and California science standards, and offer guidance on teaching pathways through the materials. They contain up-to-date digital materials including archived and real-time data sets, simulations, images, lesson plans, and other resources available through DLESE, NSDL, and the participating scientific institutions. Background information provided within the Box supports teacher learning and guides them to facilitate student access to the tools and techniques of authentic, modern science. In developing Teaching Boxes, DLESE adds value to existing educational resources by helping teachers more effectively interpret their use in a variety of standards-based classroom settings. In the past twelve months we have had over 100 requests for Teaching Box products from teachers and curriculum developers from

  8. Earth Resources: A continuing bibliography with indexes, issue 2. [remote sensors and data acquisition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Reports, articles, and other documents announced between April and June 1974 in Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR), and International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA) are cited. Documents related to the identification and evaluation by means of sensors in spacecraft and aircraft of vegetation, minerals, and other natural resources, and the techniques and potentialities of surveying and keeping up-to-date inventories of such riches are included along with studies of such natural phenomena as earthquakes, volcanoes, ocean currents, and magnetic fields; and such cultural phenomena as cities, transportation networks, and irrigation systems. The components and use of remote sensing and geophysical instrumentation, their subsystems, observational procedures, signature and analyses and interpretive techniques for gathering data are, described. All reports generated under NASA's Earth Resources Survey Program for the time period covered are included.

  9. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  10. Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Science, Resource Utilization, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Sanders, G. B.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Drake, B. G.; Friedensen, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. NEA Space-Based Survey and Robotic Precursor Missions: The most suitable targets for human missions are NEAs in Earth-like orbits with long synodic periods. However, these mission candidates are often not observable from Earth until the timeframe of their most favorable human mission opportunities, which does not provide an appropriate amount of time for mission development. A space-based survey telescope could more efficiently find these targets in a timely, affordable manner. Such a system is not only able to discover new objects, but also track and characterize objects of interest for human space flight consideration. Those objects with characteristic signatures representative of volatile-rich or metallic materials will be considered as top candidates for further investigation due to their potential for resource utilization and scientific discovery. Once suitable candidates have been identified, precursor spacecraft are required to perform basic reconnaissance of a few NEAs under consideration for the human-led mission. Robotic spacecraft will assess targets for potential hazards that may pose a risk to the deep space transportation vehicle, its deployable assets, and the crew. Additionally, the information obtained about the NEA's basic physical characteristics will be crucial for planning operational activities, designing in-depth scientific/engineering investigations, and identifying sites on the NEA for sample collection. Human Exploration

  11. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  12. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  13. Building Capacity to Use NASA Earth Observations in the Water Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program builds capacity to use and apply NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns around the globe. The DEVELOP model builds capacity in both participants (students, recent graduates, and early and transitioning career professionals) who conduct the projects and partners (decision and policy makers) who are recipients of project methodologies and results. Projects focus on a spectrum of thematic topics, including water resource management which made up 30% of the DEVELOP FY2017 portfolio. During this period, DEVELOP conducted water-focused feasibility studies in collaboration with 22 partners across 13 U.S. states and five countries. This presentation will provide an overview of needs identified, DEVELOP's response, data sources, challenges, and lessons learned.

  14. Development of Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1; FUYO-1) and it's operational results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Various aspects of development progress from the policy decision to the launch and early orbit phase operation of the JERS-l (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-l) are presented. The items presented are as follows: the fundamental development policy, related organizations, and the system for the development; the master schedule and the progress of the development; the outline of JERS-l including its missions, the structure and characteristics of the system, and the operation plan; satellite mission and the system design analyses; the system development, including that of subsystems and components, production and test of the system development model, the integration and test of the system PFM (Proto-Flight Model), and the modification and post-modification test of the PFM; interfaces with other programs; program control; satellite operation in the launch and early orbit operation phase and the analysis and evaluation of the operation results; and the initial examination on on-orbit failures.

  15. Let's Talk About Water: Film as a Resource to Engage Audiences Around Earth Science Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E.; Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2017-12-01

    Connecting a diverse audience to science can be challenging. Scientists generally publish their findings in ways that are not easily accessible to audiences outside of the science community and translating findings for wider consumption requires a mindful balance of generalization and accuracy. In response to these communication challenges, the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) developed the Let's Talk About Water (LTAW) program as a formula for hosting successful events for Earth Science education. The program uses film as a bridge to open a discussion between scientists and the audience. In this setting, films are powerful educational tools because they use storytelling to engage audiences emotionally, which creates relatable, teachable moments. Originally designed to bring awareness to water issues, the formula can easily be applied to increase literacy on climate change and other critical Earth Science issues facing society. This presentation will discuss the LTAW event formula and the resources that CUAHSI has available to support event organizers in the development of their own LTAW events.

  16. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  17. The Blueprint for Change: A National Strategy to Enhance Access to Earth and Space Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, E. E.; Barstow, D.

    2001-12-01

    Enhancing access to high quality science education resources for teachers, students, and the general public is a high priority for the earth and space science education communities. However, to significantly increase access to these resources and promote their effective use will require a coordinated effort between content developers, publishers, professional developers, policy makers, and users in both formal and informal education settings. Federal agencies, academic institutions, professional societies, informal science centers, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, and other National SMETE Digital Library Projects are anticipated to play key roles in this effort. As a first step to developing a coordinated, national strategy for developing and delivering high quality earth and space science education resources to students, teachers, and the general public, 65 science educators, scientists, teachers, administrators, policy makers, and business leaders met this June in Snowmass, Colorado to create "Earth and Space Science Education 2010: A Blueprint for Change". The Blueprint is a strategy document that will be used to guide Earth and space science education reform efforts in grades K-12 during the next decade. The Blueprint contains specific goals, recommendations, and strategies for coordinating action in the areas of: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development, Curriculum and Materials, Equity and Diversity, Assessment and Evaluation, Public Policy and Systemic Reform, Public and Informal Education, Partnerships and Collaborations, and Technology. If you develop, disseminate, or use exemplary earth and space science education resources, we invite you to review the Blueprint for Change, share it with your colleagues and local science educators, and join as we work to revolutionize earth and space science education in grades K-12.

  18. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

  19. A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

  20. The Earth Resources Observation Systems data center's training technical assistance, and applications research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDO, administered by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, provides remotely sensed data to the user community and offers a variety of professional services to further the understanding and use of remote sensing technology. EDC reproduces and sells photographic and electronic copies of satellite images of areas throughout the world. Other products include aerial photographs collected by 16 organizations, including the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Primary users of the remotely sensed data are Federal, State, and municipal government agencies, universities, foreign nations, and private industries. The professional services available at EDC are primarily directed at integrating satellite and aircraft remote sensing technology into the programs of the Department of the Interior and its cooperators. This is accomplished through formal training workshops, user assistance, cooperative demonstration projects, and access to equipment and capabilities in an advanced data analysis laboratory. In addition, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, and the general public can get assistance from the EDC Staff. Since 1973, EDC has contributed to the accelerating growth in development and operational use of remotely sensed data for land resource problems through its role as educator and by conducting basic and applied remote sensing applications research. As remote sensing technology continues to evolve, EDC will continue to respond to the increasing demand for timely information on remote sensing applications. Questions most often asked about EDC's research and training programs include: Who may attend an EDC remote sensing training course? Specifically, what is taught? Who may cooperate with EDC on remote sensing projects? Are interpretation services provided on a service basis? This report attempts to define the goals and

  1. Earth Science Community IT Resources through a Unified Data and Analysis Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Webb, F. H.; Kedar, S.; Pierce, M.; Scharber, M.; Argus, D. F.; Aydin, G.; Chang, R.; Dong, D.; Fang, P.; Granat, R. A.; Jamason, P.; Newport, B. J.; Owen, S. E.; Parker, J. W.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Vernon, F.; Wadsworth, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are in the process of merging the capabilities of three NASA-funded projects under the umbrella of the NASA Access Project, "Modeling and On-the-fly Solutions for Solid Earth Sciences (MOSES)" to facilitate data mining and modeling of rapidly expanding multi-disciplinary geoscience data sets. (1) The SCIGN- REASoN project is focused on the combination, validation, archive, and delivery of high-level data products and data mining capabilities from space geodetic measurements, in particular from over 600 CGPS stations in Western North America; (2) The QuakeSim project is developing linked Web service environments for supporting high performance models of crustal deformation from a variety of geophysical sensors, including GPS and seismic instruments; (3) The SENH-Applications GPS/Seismic integration project has developed a prototype real-time GPS/seismic displacement meter for seismic hazard mitigation and monitoring of critical infrastructure. The focus of the MOSES project is to enable direct interaction between modelers and data/data-product providers using Web services, within a unified portal architecture. Modeling applications include, for example, time series analysis of continuous and real-time data (e.g., RDAHMM and st_filter programs) and fault dislocation modeling (e.g., Simplex program). Community resources include access to extensive infrastructure and distributed data archive holdings, an on-line map server/client linked to a GIS database, a "GPS Explorer" data portal that is extensible to heterogeneous data sets, and "Geophysical Resource Web Services." We present the current capabilities of the unified data and analysis portal, and provide a few examples of combinations of independent geophysical measurements.

  2. Developing our resources doesn't have to cost us the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Century, J.R.; Wonfor, J.; Fuenning, P.; Hewitt, T. Jr.; Tenant, R.; Breiteneder, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Geology Division of the CSPG was organized in 1990 to promote the study, evaluation, and protection of the environment as it related to geology and the earth sciences. Since the problems range from local to global, a pragmatic approach to activities was adopted, matching professional strengths with our environmental concerns. The following standing committees were formed with specific priority projects underway: (1) scientific measurements of global change, (2) environmental protection solutions, (3) environmental effects of recent geological processes, (4) monitoring global changes by remote sensing, and (5) economic and environmental energy rationalization. Examples of the effects of man-made and naturally occurring events are best illustrated through remote sensing images. The Amoco Cadiz major oil spill of 1978 off the Brittany coast and a 1977 winter Chinook in the Calgary region are contrasts in change. Land reclamation of coal mines in the Grand Cache area of the Alberta Foothills illustrates a balanced approach to resource extraction and surface environmental values. A recent environmentally successful case history of a sour gas plant project will be presented also. The Hewitt Oil Golden Spike emission-free gas-processing plant was opened in 1987 after a small operating company and the affected public went from confrontation to cooperation. Illustrations from the geologic record of geosphere/biosphere green-house gas variations (CO 2 and CH 4 ) show current high rates of increase greater than any since 150,000 years B.P

  3. Boosting Scientific Exploitation of Sentinel Data: The Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Johannes; Stowasser, Rainer; Wotawa, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Christian; Federspiel, Christian; Nortarnicola, Claudia; Zebisch, Marc; Boresch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    an increasing trend towards more specialisation and cooperation. Also this strategy has already led to remarkable advances in the provision of high-quality scientific EO data sets. Nonetheless, many of these collaborative developments stand on shaky grounds given that the scientific and technical know-how and the data processing capabilities remain largely fragmented. This is because the cooperation between different EO teams is typically project-based and can end abruptly after the end of a project. In other words, few EO teams cooperate on a more strategic level that involves e.g. the sharing of software code or the joint use of common IT resources. In recognition of the problems discussed above, and with a view on the high potential of the upcoming Sentinel satellites for monitoring of global water resources (Wagner et al. 2011, Hornáček et al. 2012), we are proposing the foundation of an Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (EODC-Water). The EODC-Water will be a collaborative undertaking of research organisations, public agencies and private industry with the goal to foster the use of EO data for monitoring of global water resources. It will do so by proving a collaborative computer cloud that connects several data centres throughout Europe, thereby enabling the archiving, distributing, and processing of large EO data sets. The basic idea is to move the processing to the data instead of moving the data to where the software is. This sounds simple, but its realisation will overhaul the way of how EO data processing and distribution are organised. Another important element of EODC-Water will be its partner organisations which have agreed to participate in a collaborative software development process for establishing end-to-end EO data processing chains. EODC-Water will boost the scientific exploitation of EO data by allowing its scientific users to focus their efforts on scientific problems rather than having to deal with standard

  4. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  5. Rare earth element mineralogy, geochemistry, and preliminary resource assessment of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.

  6. Constructing a Cross-Domain Resource Inventory: Key Components and Results of the EarthCube CINERGI Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, I.; Richard, S. M.; Malik, T.; Hsu, L.; Gupta, A.; Grethe, J. S.; Valentine, D. W., Jr.; Lehnert, K. A.; Bermudez, L. E.; Ozyurt, I. B.; Whitenack, T.; Schachne, A.; Giliarini, A.

    2015-12-01

    While many geoscience-related repositories and data discovery portals exist, finding information about available resources remains a pervasive problem, especially when searching across multiple domains and catalogs. Inconsistent and incomplete metadata descriptions, disparate access protocols and semantic differences across domains, and troves of unstructured or poorly structured information which is hard to discover and use are major hindrances toward discovery, while metadata compilation and curation remain manual and time-consuming. We report on methodology, main results and lessons learned from an ongoing effort to develop a geoscience-wide catalog of information resources, with consistent metadata descriptions, traceable provenance, and automated metadata enhancement. Developing such a catalog is the central goal of CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geoscience Interoperability), an EarthCube building block project (earthcube.org/group/cinergi). The key novel technical contributions of the projects include: a) development of a metadata enhancement pipeline and a set of document enhancers to automatically improve various aspects of metadata descriptions, including keyword assignment and definition of spatial extents; b) Community Resource Viewers: online applications for crowdsourcing community resource registry development, curation and search, and channeling metadata to the unified CINERGI inventory, c) metadata provenance, validation and annotation services, d) user interfaces for advanced resource discovery; and e) geoscience-wide ontology and machine learning to support automated semantic tagging and faceted search across domains. We demonstrate these CINERGI components in three types of user scenarios: (1) improving existing metadata descriptions maintained by government and academic data facilities, (2) supporting work of several EarthCube Research Coordination Network projects in assembling information resources for their domains

  7. J-Earth: An Essential Resource for Terrestrial Remote Sensing and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S.; Rupp, J.; Cheeseman, S.; Christensen, P. R.; Prashad, L. C.; Dickenshied, S.; Anwar, S.; Noss, D.; Murray, K.

    2011-12-01

    There is a need for a software tool that has the ability to display and analyze various types of earth science and social data through a simple, user-friendly interface. The J-Earth software tool has been designed to be easily accessible for download and intuitive use, regardless of the technical background of the user base. This tool does not require courses or text books to learn to use, yet is powerful enough to allow a more general community of users to perform complex data analysis. Professions that will benefit from this tool range from geologists, geographers, and climatologists to sociologists, economists, and ecologists as well as policy makers. J-Earth was developed by the Arizona State University Mars Space Flight Facility as part of the JMARS (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) suite of open-source tools. The program is a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) application used for viewing and processing satellite and airborne remote sensing data. While the functionality of JMARS has historically focused on the research needs of the planetary science community, J-Earth has been designed for a much broader Earth-based user audience. NASA instrument products accessible within J-Earth include data from ASTER, GOES, Landsat, MODIS, and TIMS. While J-Earth contains exceptionally comprehensive and high resolution satellite-derived data and imagery, this tool also includes many socioeconomic data products from projects lead by international organizations and universities. Datasets used in J-Earth take the form of grids, rasters, remote sensor "stamps", maps, and shapefiles. Some highly demanded global datasets available within J-Earth include five levels of administrative/political boundaries, climate data for current conditions as well as models for future climates, population counts and densities, land cover/land use, and poverty indicators. While this application does share the same powerful functionality of JMARS, J-Earth's apperance is

  8. Comprehensive Modeling for Off-Earth Mining Optimization and Resource Processing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The multi-months duration and energy constraints of the Earth-Mars journey are forcing an evolution toward the self-sufficiency of human crews in their readiness to...

  9. ''Meteor'' radio/television satellites for study of earth's natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, A S; Tuchin, Yu M

    1981-01-01

    Two types of wide sweep multi-zonal scanning devices are included in the Meteor units, including radio-transmitting, and memory units. Data is transmitted within the wave range assigned to meteorologic earth satellites.

  10. Evaluating Career Development Resources: Lessons from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Retention of geoscientists throughout the professional pipeline is especially challenging in the case of groups that are already underrepresented in science, including racial minorities and women. The Earth Science Women’s Network (ESWN) is a professional network of early-career female geoscientists that provides its members with a variety of career resources, through both informal, online and in-person networking and formal career development workshops. The group’s members are of diverse nationalities and racial/ethnic backgrounds, of various age cohorts and career stages, but primarily graduate students, postdocs, and early-career researchers. With funding from an NSF ADVANCE grant to ESWN, we have conducted a detailed survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young geoscientists. The survey data provide information about members’ personal and professional situations, their professional development needs, and obstacles they face as young women scientists. ESWN members indicated a variety of areas of professional growth that would advance their scientific careers, but at all career stages, members chose expanding their professional networks as among their top career needs. Professional networking has established benefits for retention of people from groups underrepresented in science, including women: it introduces young scientists to career best practices and advancement opportunities, provides access to role models, and creates a sense of community. ESWN members strongly indicate that their professional networks benefited from their involvement with the Network. The community aspect of network-building is especially important for people from underrepresented groups, as they often feel alone due to the lack of role models. The intimate character of the ESWN discussion list greatly contributes to its members’ sense of community. Moreover, personal concerns and professional success are

  11. On inclusion of water resource management in Earth system models - Part 1: Problem definition and representation of water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have caused various changes to the Earth system, and hence the interconnections between human activities and the Earth system should be recognized and reflected in models that simulate Earth system processes. One key anthropogenic activity is water resource management, which determines the dynamics of human-water interactions in time and space and controls human livelihoods and economy, including energy and food production. There are immediate needs to include water resource management in Earth system models. First, the extent of human water requirements is increasing rapidly at the global scale and it is crucial to analyze the possible imbalance between water demands and supply under various scenarios of climate change and across various temporal and spatial scales. Second, recent observations show that human-water interactions, manifested through water resource management, can substantially alter the terrestrial water cycle, affect land-atmospheric feedbacks and may further interact with climate and contribute to sea-level change. Due to the importance of water resource management in determining the future of the global water and climate cycles, the World Climate Research Program's Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (WRCP-GEWEX) has recently identified gaps in describing human-water interactions as one of the grand challenges in Earth system modeling (GEWEX, 2012). Here, we divide water resource management into two interdependent elements, related firstly to water demand and secondly to water supply and allocation. In this paper, we survey the current literature on how various components of water demand have been included in large-scale models, in particular land surface and global hydrological models. Issues of water supply and allocation are addressed in a companion paper. The available algorithms to represent the dominant demands are classified based on the demand type, mode of simulation and underlying modeling assumptions. We discuss

  12. How to measure Europe's resource use. An analysis for Friends of the Earth Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giljum, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Lutter, S.; Polzin, C.

    2009-06-01

    The natural resource base, on which the quality-of-life of our societies is built, is in danger of overexploitation and collapse. Due to growth of world population and continued high levels of consumption in the developed world, combined with the rapid industrialisation of countries such as China, India and Brazil, worldwide demand on natural resources and related pressures on the environment are steadily increasing. Renewable resources, and the ecological services they provide, are at great risk of degradation and collapse. Extraction of many non-renewable resources is already reaching or near a peak. European environmental policy has focussed on solving problems related to specific pollutants, rather than those related to growing production and consumption. Europe has achieved significant improvement in environmental problems related to specific pollutants and harmful substances in the past 30 years, such as air pollutants, sewage effluents and hazardous wastes. However, environmental problems related to the overall scale of European production and consumption are getting worse: depleting fish stocks, shrinking water reserves, growing waste volumes, growing energy consumption and continued high level of per capita emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are part of these persistent environmental problems. Current EU policies addressing resource use do not have concrete reduction targets and are not coherent. In the EU, issues of resource productivity, environmental impacts of resource use and resource security have significantly gained in policy importance in the past ten years and a number of policy strategies have been launched. However, from a sustainable development perspective, key issues are not being adequately addressed. Concrete targets for increasing resource productivity and decreasing resource use and related environmental impacts are missing in all main EU policies. Furthermore, EU environmental policies focus on the impacts related to resource

  13. Indexing, screening, coding and cataloging of earth resources aircraft mission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Tasks completed are as follows: (1) preparation of large Area Crop Inventory experiment for data base entry;(2) preparation of Earth Observations Aircraft Flight summary reports for publication; (3) updating of the aircraft mission index coverage map and Ames aircraft flight map; (4) Prepared of Earth Observation Helicopter Flight reports for publication; and (5) indexing of LANDSAT imagery. (6) formulation of phase 3 biowindows 1, 2, 3, and 4 listings by country, footprint, and acqusition dates; (7) preparation of flight summary reports; and (8) preparation of an Alaska state index coverage map.

  14. Implementing earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders for water resource and climate modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E.; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses preliminary remote sensing (MODIS) based hydrological modelling results for the Danish island Sjælland (7330 km2) in relation to project objectives and methodologies of a new research project “Implementing Earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders....... For this purpose, a) internal catchment processes will be studied using a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system, b) Earth observations will be used to upscale from field to regional scales, and c) at the largest scale, satellite based atmospheric sounders and meso-scale climate modelling will be used...

  15. Prospecting and exploration of rare earth bearing mineral resources in India: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, R.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have a wide range of applications including nuclear and the REE bearing minerals occur in varied geological environments.The commercial rare earth bearing minerals are monazite ((Ce,La,Pr,Nd,Th,Y)PO 4 ), xenotime (YPO 4 ), bastnasite ((Ce,La,Y)CO 3 F) and pyrochlore ((Na,Ca) 2 Nb 2 O 6 (OH,F) which occur either as placer concentrations or in tracer quantities in rocks. While Monazite contains dominantly LREE, Xenotime and Bastnasite are richer in HREE. The exploration and evaluation of these two types of occurrences follow different methodologies

  16. Peru Water Resources: Integrating NASA Earth Observations into Water Resource Planning and Management in Perus La Libertad Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Steentofte, Catherine; Holbrook, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries often struggle with providing water security and sanitation services to their populations. An important aspect of improving security and sanitation is developing a comprehensive understanding of the country's water budget. Water For People, a non-profit organization dedicated to providing clean drinking water, is working with the Peruvian government to develop a water budget for the La Libertad region of Peru which includes the creation of an extensive watershed management plan. Currently, the data archive of the necessary variables to create the water management plan is extremely limited. Implementing NASA Earth observations has bolstered the dataset being used by Water For People, and the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) model has allowed for the estimation of the evapotranspiration values for the region. Landsat 8 imagery and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard Terra were used to derive the land cover information, and were used in conjunction with local weather data of Cascas from Peru's National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI). Python was used to combine input variables and METRIC model calculations to approximate the evapotranspiration values for the Ochape sub-basin of the Chicama River watershed. Once calculated, the evapotranspiration values and methodology were shared Water For People to help supplement their decision support tools in the La Libertad region of Peru and potentially apply the methodology in other areas of need.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-fiscal year 2010 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. The work of the Center is shaped by the earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management, and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote-sensing-based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet, and where possible exceed, the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2010. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by EROS staff or by visiting our web site at http://eros.usgs.gov. We welcome comments and follow-up questions on any aspect of this Annual Report and invite any of our customers or partners to contact us at their convenience. To

  18. TIGER-NET – enabling an Earth Observation capacity for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walli, A.; Tøttrup, C.; Naeimi, V.

    As part of the TIGER initiative [1] the TIGER-NET project aims to support the assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to transboundary basin level delivering indispensable information for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa through: 1. Development of an open......-source Water Observation and Information Systems (WOIS) for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner; 2. Capacity building and training of African water authorities and technical centers to fully exploit the increasing observation capacity offered by current...... and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions. Dedicated application case studies have been developed and demonstrated covering all EO products required by and developed with the participating African water authorities for their water resource management tasks, such as water reservoir...

  19. Earth's copper resources estimated from tectonic diffusion of porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Stephen E.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    2008-03-01

    Improved estimates of global mineral endowments are relevantto issues ranging from strategic planning to global geochemicalcycling. We have used a time-space model for the tectonic migrationof porphyry copper deposits vertically through the crust tocalculate Earth's endowment of copper in mineral deposits. Themodel relies only on knowledge of numbers and ages of porphyrycopper deposits, Earth's most widespread and important sourceof copper, in order to estimate numbers of eroded and preserveddeposits in the crust. Model results indicate that 125,895 porphyrycopper deposits were formed during Phanerozoic time, that only47,789 of these remain at various crustal depths, and that thesecontain 1.7 x 1011 tonnes (t) of copper. Assuming that othertypes of copper deposits behave similarly in the crust and haveabundances proportional to their current global production yieldsan estimate of 3 x 1011 t for total global copper resourcesat all levels in Earth's crust. Thus, 0.25% of the copper inthe crust has been concentrated into deposits through Phanerozoictime, and about two-thirds of this has been recycled by upliftand erosion. The amount of copper in deposits above 3.3 km,a likely limit of future mining, could supply current worldmine production for 5500 yr, thus quantifying the highly unusualand nonrenewable nature of mineral deposits.

  20. Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Asteroids: Implications for Exploration, Resource Utilization, Science, and Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Barbee, Brent; Landis, Rob; Johnson, Lindley; Yeomans, Don; Friedensen, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and planetary defence. Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. With respect to planetary defence, in 2005 the U.S. Congress directed NASA to implement a survey program to detect, track, and characterize NEAs equal or greater than 140 m in diameter in order to access the threat from such objects to the Earth. The current goal of this survey is to achieve 90% completion of objects equal or greater than 140 m in diameter by 2020.

  1. Teacher Resource Book for Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, Power Blocs in Eurasia. Man on the Earth Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Angus

    This teacher's resource book is a guide to three intermediate texts about Eurasia entitled Population Pressure in Indonesia, Problems of Industrialization in Eurasia, and Power Blocs in Eurasia. The texts are part of the series, Man on the Earth, which probes broad-based issues confronting mankind. The resource book distinguishes 18 major concepts…

  2. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use.

  3. Some results on the investigation of earth resources by aerial and polygon methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnichenko, N K; Tishchenko, A P

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on integrated aerial-satellite remote sensing systems, the resolution of TV scanning systems, the transfer of spectral contrasts in multispectral photography, and pseudocolor representation of multispectral aerial images. Consideration is also given to the use of spectral and physical-geographic characteristics of natural objects on the earth's surface for the interpretation of multispectral satellite photographs, the determination of the types and state of crops from multispectral aerial images, and the automated classification of agricultural objects from their multispectral aerial images.

  4. IsoNose - Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - A new Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Bouman, Caludia; Kamber, Balz; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Gorbushina, Anna; James, Rachael; Oelkers, Eric; Tesmer, Maja; Ashton, John

    2015-04-01

    The Marie Curie Initial Training Network »Isotopic Tools as Novel Sensors of Earth Surfaces Resources - IsoNose« is an alliance of eight international partners and five associated partners from science and industry. The project is coordinated at the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and will run until February 2018. In the last 15 years advances in novel mass-spectrometric methods have opened opportunities to identify "isotopic fingerprints" of virtually all metals and to make use of the complete information contained in these fingerprints. The understanding developed with these new tools will ultimately guide the exploitation of Earth surface environments. However, progress in bringing these methods to end-users depends on a multi transfer of knowledge between (1) isotope Geochemistry and Microbiology, Environmental Sciences (2), Economic Geology and (3) instrument developers and users in the development of user-friendly and new mass spectrometric methods. IsoNose will focus on three major Earth surface resources: soil, water and metals. These resources are currently being exploited to an unprecedented extent and their efficient management is essential for future sustainable development. Novel stable isotope techniques will disclose the processes generating (e.g. weathering, mineral ore formation) and destroying (e.g. erosion, pollution) these resources. Within this field the following questions will be addressed and answered: - How do novel stable isotope signatures characterize weathering processes? - How do novel stable isotope signatures trace water transport? - How to use novel stable isotope as environmental tracers? - How to use novel stable isotope for detecting and exploring metal ores? - How to improve analytical capabilities and develop robust routine applications for novel stable isotopes? Starting from the central questions mentioned above the IsoNose activities are organized in five scientific work packages: 1

  5. Rare earth elements-critical resources for green energy and digital technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.

    2013-01-01

    High technology and environment applications of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past few decades. The REE forms largest economical coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specialty of the REE has given them a level of technological, environment and economical importance. As technological applications of REE have multiplied over the past several decades, the demand for them has increased dramatically. The green energy is the segment, which is largely contributed in its performance by the REE. The increasing concern about the impact of green house gases around the globe has made countries to explore clean energy technologies to reduce emissions. India has ambitious plans for generating solar power of 30,000 MW and wind energy of 50,000 MW by 2013. Critical component with respect to wind energy is the high strength rare earth permanent magnet, while in hybrid electrical motors REEs like lanthanum are used in LiMH battery pack

  6. Tapping the earth's geothermal resources: Hydrothermal today, magma tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1986-12-17

    The paper discusses geothermal resources, what it is, where it is, and how to extract energy from it. The materials research activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory related to geothermal energy extraction are discussed. These include high-temperature, light-weight polymer cements, elastomers, biochemical waste processing techniques, and non-metallic heat exchanger tubing. The economics of geothermal energy is also discussed. (ACR)

  7. Exploiting Dark Information Resources to Create New Value Added Services to Study Earth Science Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Li, Xiang; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two research applications exploiting unused metadata resources in novel ways to aid data discovery and exploration capabilities. The results based on the experiments are encouraging and each application has the potential to serve as a useful standalone component or service in a data system. There were also some interesting lessons learned while designing the two applications and these are presented next.

  8. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  9. Leveraging Earth Observations to Improve Data Resolution and Tracking of Sustainable Development Goals in Water Resources and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Nusrat, F.; Hasan, M. A.; Fallatah, O.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity affects more than 40 per cent of the world population and is projected to rise substantially, affecting safe water and sanitation access globally. The recently released WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2017 report on global water and sanitation access paints a grim picture across the planet; approximately 30% people worldwide, or 2.1 billion, still lack access to safe, readily available clean water, and 60% people worldwide, or 4.5 billion ppl, lack safely managed sanitation. Meanwhile, demand for water and competition for water resources are sharply rising amid growing uncertainty of climate change and its impacts on water resources. The United Nations Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for substantially increasing water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensuring sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, providing clean water and sanitation for all, increasing international cooperation over transboundary surface and groundwater resources (under Goal 6), as well as ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, and end the epidemics of neglected tropical and water-borne diseases (under Goal 3). Data availability in developing regions, especially at the appropriate resolution in both space and time, has been a recurring problem for various technological and institutional reasons. Earth observation techniques provide the most cost-effective and encompassing tool to monitor these regions, large transboundary river basins and aquifer systems, and water resources vulnerabilities to climate change around the globe. University of Rhode Island, with US and international collaborators, is using earth observations to develop tools to analyze, monitor and support decision-makers to track their progress towards SDGs with better data resolution and accuracy. Here, we provide case studies on 1) providing safe water and sanitation access South Asia through safe water

  10. Geothermal energy from the earth: Its potential impact as an environmentally sustainable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, J.E.; Tester, J.W.; Wright, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy technology is reviewed in terms of its current impact and future potential as an energy source. In general, the geothermal energy resource base is large and well distributed globally. Geothermal systems have a number of positive social characteristics (they are simple, safe, and adaptable systems with modular 1--50 MW [thermal (t) or electric (e)] plants capable of providing continuous baseload, load following, or peaking capacity) and benign environmental attributes (negligible emissions of CO 2 , SO x , NO x , and particulates, and modest land and water use). Because these features are compatible with sustainable growth of global energy supplies in both developed and developing countries, geothermal energy is an attractive option to replace fossil and fissile fuels. In 1997, about 7,000 MWe of base-load generating capacity and over 15,000 MWt of heating capacity from high-grade geothermal resources are in commercial use worldwide. 114 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. CIM-EARTH: Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, I.; Elliott, J.; Munson, T.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E. J.; Sanstad, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    We report here on the development of an open source software framework termed CIM-EARTH that is intended to aid decision-making in climate and energy policy. Numerical modeling in support of evaluating policies to address climate change is difficult not only because of inherent uncertainties but because of the differences in scale and modeling approach required for various subcomponents of the system. Economic and climate models are structured quite differently, and while climate forcing can be assumed to be roughly global, climate impacts and the human response to them occur on small spatial scales. Mitigation policies likewise can be applied on scales ranging from the better part of a continent (e.g. a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S.) to a few hundred km (e.g. statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes). Both spatial and time resolution requirements can be challenging for global economic models. CIM-EARTH is a modular framework based around dynamic general equilibrium models. It is designed as a community tool that will enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of both mitigation policies and unchecked climate change. Modularity enables both integration of highly resolved component sub-models for energy and other key systems and also user-directed choice of tradeoffs between e.g. spatial, sectoral, and time resolution. This poster describes the framework architecture, the current realized version, and plans for future releases. As with other open-source models familiar to the climate community (e.g. CCSM), deliverables will be made publicly available on a regular schedule, and community input is solicited for development of new features and modules.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. As part of the USGS Geography Discipline, EROS contributes to the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program, the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, and the National Geospatial Program (NGP), as well as our Federal partners and cooperators. The work of the Center is shaped by the Earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote sensing based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet and/or exceed the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2009. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by

  13. Assessing readiness of cyberinfrastructure resources for cross-domain interoperability: a view from an NSF EarthCube roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Ilya; Couch, Alva; Richard, Stephen; Valentine, David; Lehnert, Kerstin; Stocks, Karen; Murphy, Philip

    2013-04-01

    EarthCube is a new research initiative of the U.S. National Science Foundation, with the mission to develop community-guided cyberinfrastructure integrating data, models and other resources across geoscience disciplines. Analysis and modeling of physical processes that are not confined to disciplinary or jurisdictional boundaries, requires that data and models can be re-used outside the original context in which they are collected or developed. Infrastructure readiness for cross-domain interoperability encompasses the capabilities that need to be in place to enable such information re-use and ensure that it is both scientifically sound and technically feasible. In an ideal cross-domain information integration scenario, resources can be discovered via federated catalogs and linked nomenclatures from neighboring domains, while standard data services can be used to transparently compile composite data products and to integrate information using commonality in key data characteristics related to shared models of spatial features, time measurements, and observations. The main premise of the cross-domain readiness assessment is that when accessing domain resources from another domain, a user expects to be able to discover these resources, interpret them, retrieve the information, and integrate it with other data. Documentation of the resource must be sufficient for a user in a different context to determine fitness for use, and establish trust in scientific soundness. As part of an EarthCube roadmap focused on cross-domain interoperability, we explored a number of approaches to cyberinfrastructure readiness assessment, addressing both readiness of existing resources, and readiness of processes that enable cross-domain communication and information exchange across disciplinary boundaries. Our initial assessment considers basic infrastructure components required to enable cross-domain interoperability in the geosciences. These components, and the evaluation metrics

  14. The Brazilian wide field imaging camera (WFI) for the China/Brazil earth resources satellite: CBERS 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.

  15. Using Immersive Visualizations to Improve Decision Making and Enhancing Public Understanding of Earth Resource and Climate Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2008-12-01

    New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend

  16. Studying Earth's Environment From Space: Classroom and Laboratory Activities with Instructor Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Standard, text-book based learning for earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences has been limited by the unavailability of quantitative teaching materials. While a descriptive presentation, in a lecture format, of discrete satellite images is often adequate for high school classrooms, this is seldom the case at the undergraduate level. In order to address these concerns, a series of numerical exercises for the Macintosh was developed for use with satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature, pigment and sea ice concentration data. Using a modified version of NIH Image, to analyze actual satellite data, students are able to better understand ocean processes, such as circulation, upwelling, primary production, and ocean/atmosphere coupling. Graphical plots, image math, and numerical comparisons are utilized to substantiate temporal and spatial trends in sea surface temperature and ocean color. Particularly for institutions that do not offer a program in remote sensing, the subject matter is presented as modular units, each of which can be readily incorporated into existing curricula. These materials have been produced in both CD-ROM and WWW format, making them useful for classroom or lab setting. Depending upon the level of available computer support, graphics can be displayed directly from the CD-ROM, or as a series of color view graphs for standard overhead projection.

  17. Marine Phosphorites as Potential Resources for Heavy Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm and high heavy REY (HREY complements (mean 49%, while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm, and very high HREY complements (mean 60%. The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  18. Forecasting the impact of an 1859-caliber superstorm on geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellites: Transponder resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenwald, Sten F.; Green, James L.

    2007-06-01

    We calculate the economic impact on the existing geosynchronous Earth-orbiting satellite population of an 1859-caliber superstorm event were it to occur between 2008 and 2018 during the next solar activity cycle. From a detailed model for transponder capacity and leasing, we have investigated the total revenue loss over the entire solar cycle, as a function of superstorm onset year and intensity. Our Monte Carlo simulations of 1000 possible superstorms, of varying intensity and onset year, suggest that the minimum revenue loss could be of the order of 30 billion. The losses would be larger than this if more that 20 satellites are disabled, if future launch rates do not keep up with the expected rate of retirements, or if the number of spare transponders falls below ˜30%. Consequently, revenue losses can be significantly reduced below 30 billion if the current satellite population undergoes net growth beyond 300 units during Solar Cycle 24 and a larger margin of unused transponders is maintained.

  19. Teaching about Climate and Energy using NGSS-aligned resources from the CLEAN Collection and a new Earth System Investigation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Grogan, M.; Sullivan, S. M.; Lockwood, J.; Youngman, E.; Manning, C. L. B.; Holzer, M.; Niepold, F., III

    2016-12-01

    The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Collection of reviewed educational climate and energy science resources for grades 6­16 has been aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The CLEAN resources stand-alone and can thus be used by educators to supplement or build their existing curriculum. However, CLEAN has developed a template of how resources can also be organized into NGSS­aligned units that teachers can use to integrate climate and Earth science into their classes. In this presentation we will describe how to search the CLEAN Collection with an NGSS lens, and present the new framework of building Earth System Investigation units following the NGSS Practices. We will also showcase two examples of such NGSS-aligned Earth System Investigations, which use the new framework, and model the three­ dimensional learning advocated for in the NGSS.

  20. The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

  1. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, Radoslaw; Kass, Steve; Huber, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS) is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO) data. The WOIS has been developed by, among others, the authors of this paper under the TIGER......-NET project, which is a major component of the TIGER initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) and whose main goal is to support the African Earth Observation Capacity for Water Resource Monitoring. TIGER-NET aims to support the satellite-based assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed...... to cross-border basin levels through the provision of a free and powerful software package, with associated capacity building, to African authorities. More than 28 EO data processing solutions for water resource management tasks have been developed, in correspondence with the requirements...

  2. POTENTIAL FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT RESOURCE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MOTORS THROUGH AN EXTENSION OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR PRODUCT GROUP REGULATION UNDER THE EU ECODESIGN DIRECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Machacek, Erika; Dalhammar, Carl

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the EU Ecodesign Directive can promote resource efficiency through relevant ecodesign requirements. This paper examines the potential for rare earth element (REE) resource efficiency improvements in the event the current regulation for electric motors under the Ecodesign Directive is to be extended to comprise REE-based permanent magnet motors. The research is based on literature studies, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with representatives from industr...

  3. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using NASA Data Resources and Integrated Educational Strategies to Promote Authentic Research in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffi, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William; Willis, Kim; Runco, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Teachers in today s classrooms are bound by state required skills, education standards, and high stakes testing. How can they gain skills and confidence to replace units or individual activities with curriculum that incorporates project and inquiry-based learning and promotes authentic research in the classroom? The key to promoting classroom authentic research experiences lies in educator professional development that is structured around teacher needs. The Expedition Earth and Beyond Program is a new geosciences program based at the NASA Johnson Space Center designed to engage, inspire and educate teachers and students in grades 5-14. The program promotes authentic research experiences for classrooms and uses strategies that will help NASA reach its education goals while still allowing educators to teach required standards. Teachers will have access to experts in terrestrial and planetary remote sensing and geoscience; this will enhance their use of content, structure, and relevant experiences to gain the confidence and skills they need to actively engage students in authentic research experiences. Integrated and powerful educational strategies are used to build skills and confidence in teachers. The strategies are as follows: 1) creating Standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources as ready-to-use materials that can be modified by teachers to fit their unique classroom situation; 2) providing ongoing professional development opportunities that focus on active experiences using curricular materials, inquiry-based techniques and expanding content knowledge; 3) connecting science experts to classrooms to deepen content knowledge and provide relevance to classroom activities and real world applications; 4) facilitating students sharing research with their peers and scientists reinforcing their active participation and contributions to research. These components of the Expedition Earth and Beyond Education Program will be enhanced by providing exciting and

  4. Geo-Semantic Framework for Integrating Long-Tail Data and Model Resources for Advancing Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Often, scientists and small research groups collect data, which target to address issues and have limited geographic or temporal range. A large number of such collections together constitute a large database that is of immense value to Earth Science studies. Complexity of integrating these data include heterogeneity in dimensions, coordinate systems, scales, variables, providers, users and contexts. They have been defined as long-tail data. Similarly, we use "long-tail models" to characterize a heterogeneous collection of models and/or modules developed for targeted problems by individuals and small groups, which together provide a large valuable collection. Complexity of integrating across these models include differing variable names and units for the same concept, model runs at different time steps and spatial resolution, use of differing naming and reference conventions, etc. Ability to "integrate long-tail models and data" will provide an opportunity for the interoperability and reusability of communities' resources, where not only models can be combined in a workflow, but each model will be able to discover and (re)use data in application specific context of space, time and questions. This capability is essential to represent, understand, predict, and manage heterogeneous and interconnected processes and activities by harnessing the complex, heterogeneous, and extensive set of distributed resources. Because of the staggering production rate of long-tail models and data resulting from the advances in computational, sensing, and information technologies, an important challenge arises: how can geoinformatics bring together these resources seamlessly, given the inherent complexity among model and data resources that span across various domains. We will present a semantic-based framework to support integration of "long-tail" models and data. This builds on existing technologies including: (i) SEAD (Sustainable Environmental Actionable Data) which supports curation

  5. Remote sensing of earth resources: list of UK groups and individuals engaged in remote sensing, with a brief account of their activities and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This book gives details of some 250 organizations that use some means of remote sensing for earth surveys. It includes sections on water and marine resources, and appendices covering facilities for education and training and manufactures and suppliers of equipment and services.

  6. Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education: Activities in Support of Earth, Oceans and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF offers funding programs that support geoscience education spanning atmospheric, oceans, and Earth sciences, as well as environmental science, climate change and sustainability, and research on learning. The 'Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education' (RTUGeoEd) is an NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) Type 2 special project aimed at supporting college-level geoscience faculty at all types of institutions. The project's goals are to carry out activities and create digital resources that encourage the geoscience community to submit proposals that impact their courses and classroom infrastructure through innovative changes in instructional practice, and contribute to making transformative changes that impact student learning outcomes and lead to other educational benefits. In the past year information sessions were held during several national and regional professional meetings, including the GSA Southeastern and South-Central Section meetings. A three-day proposal-writing workshop for faculty planning to apply to the TUES program was held at the University of South Florida - Tampa. During the workshop, faculty learned about the program and key elements of a proposal, including: the need to demonstrate awareness of prior efforts within and outside the geosciences and how the proposed project builds upon this knowledge base; need to fully justify budget and role of members of the project team; project evaluation and what matters in selecting a project evaluator; and effective dissemination practices. Participants also spent time developing their proposal benefitting from advice and feedback from workshop facilitators. Survey data gathered from workshop participants point to a consistent set of challenges in seeking grant support for a desired educational innovation, including poor understanding of the educational literature, of available funding programs, and of learning assessment and project evaluation. Many also noted

  7. The complete phylogeny of pangolins: scaling up resources for the molecular tracing of the most trafficked mammals on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubert, Philippe; Antunes, Agostinho; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Peigné, Stéphane; Justy, Fabienne; Njiokou, Flobert; Dufour, Sylvain; Danquah, Emmanuel; Alahakoon, Jayanthi; Verheyen, Erik; Stanley, William T; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2017-11-13

    Pangolins, considered the most-trafficked mammals on Earth, are rapidly heading to extinction. Eight extant species of these African and Asian scale-bodied anteaters are commonly recognized, but their evolutionary relationships remain largely unexplored. Here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of pangolins, based on genetic variation of complete mitogenomes and nine nuclear genes. We confirm deep divergence among Asian and African pangolins occurring not later than the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ca. 23 million-years-ago (Ma) (95% HPD=18.7-27.2), limited fossil evidence suggesting dispersals from Europe. We recognize three genera including Manis (Asian pangolins), Smutsia (large African pangolins) and Phataginus (small African pangolins), which first diversified in the Middle-Upper Miocene (9.8-13.3 Ma) through a period of gradual cooling coinciding with a worldwide taxonomic diversification among mammals. Based on large mitogenomic distances among the three genera (18.3-22.8%) and numerous (18) morphological traits unique to Phataginus, we propose the subfamily Phatagininae subfam. nov. to designate small African pangolins. In contrast with the morphological-based literature, our results establish that the thick-tailed pangolin (M.crassicaudata) is sister-species of the Sunda (M. javanica) and Palawan (M. culionensis) pangolins. Mitogenomic phylogenetic delineations supported additional pangolin species subdivisions (n=13), including six African common pangolin (P. tricuspis) lineages, but these patterns were not fully supported by our multi-locus approach. Finally, we identified over 5,000 informative mitogenomic sites and diagnostic variation from five nuclear genes among all species and lineages of pangolins, providing an important resource for further research and for effectively tracing the worldwide pangolin trade. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  9. New Opportunities to Expand Information on Intense-Strained State of the Earth's Crust in the Areas of Development Mineral Resources During Monitoring Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that new safe and pollution-free technologies of development of Kuzbass coal deposits should be based on new knowledge of development geodynamic and technogenic processes in exploration of mineral resources. Such information is impossible without formation of new models of deformations of the earth crust blocks. Now in traditional technologies of geomechanical ensuring development of mineral resources the main characteristic is the information about the kinematics of these processes. A comprehensive approach which beginning is development of the theory for justification of scale of the explored territory and establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of blocks of crust. Justification of scale of the explored territory defines effectiveness of expenses. Establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of crustal blocks characterizes the new level of information exchange between sciences about Earth and geomechanics. Practical use of the specified theory consists of assessment of geodynamic danger at development of coal fields.

  10. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Guzinski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO data. The WOIS has been developed by, among others, the authors of this paper under the TIGER-NET project, which is a major component of the TIGER initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA and whose main goal is to support the African Earth Observation Capacity for Water Resource Monitoring. TIGER-NET aims to support the satellite-based assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to cross-border basin levels through the provision of a free and powerful software package, with associated capacity building, to African authorities. More than 28 EO data processing solutions for water resource management tasks have been developed, in correspondence with the requirements of the participating key African water authorities, and demonstrated with dedicated case studies utilizing the software in operational scenarios. They cover a wide range of themes and information products, including basin-wide characterization of land and water resources, lake water quality monitoring, hydrological modeling and flood forecasting and mapping. For each monitoring task, step-by-step workflows were developed, which can either be adjusted by the user or largely automatized to feed into existing data streams and reporting schemes. The WOIS enables African water authorities to fully exploit the increasing EO capacity offered by current and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions.

  11. Why Earth Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  12. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  13. Resource Handbook--Space Beyond the Earth. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; space. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into four units: 1) the sun, earth, and moon; 2) stars and planets; 3) exploring space; 4) man's existence in space. Each unit includes initiatory and developmental activities. There are also sections on evaluation, vocabulary,…

  14. Analysis of Interactivity and Autonomy of Existing Digital Educational Resources: The Case of Life and Earth Sciences in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2017-01-01

    The educational policy in Morocco is aimed at promoting the wide use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education and the adoption of interactive and autonomous digital resources for distance teaching and self-learning. The objective of this research is to evaluate the suitability of the existing digital educational resources for…

  15. Environmental and resources geochemistry of earth system mass transfer mechanism, geochemical cycle and the influence of human activity

    CERN Document Server

    Shikazono, Naotatsu

    2015-01-01

    The Earth system consists of subsystems that include the atmosphere, hydrosphere (water), geosphere (rocks, minerals), biosphere, and humans. In order to understand these subsystems and their interactions, it is essential to clarify the mass transfer mechanism, geochemical cycle, and influence of human activity on the natural environment. This book presents fundamental theories (thermodynamics, kinetics, mass balance model, coupling models such as the kinetics-fluid flow model, the box model, and others) concerning mechanisms in weathering, formation of hydrothermal ore deposits, hydrothermal alteration, formation of groundwater quality, and the seawater system. The interaction between fluids (atmosphere, water) and solid phases (rocks, minerals) occurs both in low-temperature and also in high-temperature systems. This book considers the complex low-temperature cycle with the high-temperature cycle, a combination that has not been dealt with in previous books concerning Earth systems. Humanity is a small part...

  16. Strategies Which Foster Broad Use and Deployment of Earth and Space Science Informal and Formal Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeson, Blanche W.; Gabrys, Robert; Ireton, M. Frank; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Education projects supported by federal agencies and carried out by a wide range of organizations foster learning about Earth and Space systems science in a wide array of venues. Across these agencies a range of strategies are employed to ensure that effective materials are created for these diverse venues. And that these materials are deployed broadly so that a large spectrum of the American Public, both adults and children alike, can learn and become excited by the Earth and space system science. This session will highlight some of those strategies and will cover representative examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the strategies. Invited speakers from selected formal and informal educational efforts will anchor this session. Speakers with representative examples are encouraged to submit abstracts for the session to showcase the strategies which they use.

  17. A bibliography of research conducted by the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Office, U.S. Geological Survey : 1975-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Helen L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program was established in 1967 by Secretarial order to plan and develop techniques for collecting and analyzing remotely sensed data, and to apply these techniques to the resource inventory and management responsibilities of the Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, realizing the potential benefits of synoptic views of the Earth, were among the first members of America's scientific community to press for the launch of civilian Earth-surface observation satellites. Under the leadership of Director William T. Pecora, U.S. Geological Survey initiatives greatly influenced the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) development of the Landsat program.As part of the Landsat program, an agreement between NASA and the Geological Survey was signed to provide Landsat archiving and data production capabilities at the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This partnership with NASA began in 1972 and continued until Presidential Directive 54 designated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce as the manager of U.S. civil operational land remote-sensing activities. NOAA has managed the Landsat program since Fiscal Year 1983, and EROS continues to process, archive, reproduce, and distribute Landsat data under a Memorandum of Understanding between NOAA and the Geological Survey. Archives at the EROS Data Center include over 2 million worldwide Landsat scenes and over 5 million aerial photographs, primarily of U.S. sites. Since the launch of Landsat 1, global imaging of the Earth's surface has become an operational tool for resource exploration and land management. As technology evolved, so did the EROS Program mission. Research and applications efforts began at the EROS Headquarters Office in the Washington metropolitan area in 1966; at the EROS Data Center in 1971; and at the EROS Field Office in Anchorage

  18. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  19. First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 describing research and development of earth resources observation systems; 1984 nendo shigen tansayo kansoku system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Japan's Outline of Space Development were renewed in February 1984. Under the new principles, the earth resources satellite (ERS-1) program is to be promoted and that research and development efforts for a launch in fiscal 1989 are to be started. Industrial, academic, and governmental organizations concerned making their utmost efforts have established a Technology Research Association for Resources Remote Sensing for the execution of the tasks. The contents of its business are the research and development of an observation system to be installed aboard ERS-1. That is, a synthetic aperture radar and other equipment such as optical sensors and data transmission systems will be developed, and technologies necessary for the development of a satellite borne observation system will be established through evaluation and verification by testing such systems for instance aboard aircraft. Carried out in fiscal 1984 are the studies of required specifications and the drafting of research and development programs for the next and the following fiscal years involving the research and development of the resources exploration system as a whole, sensor systems, and data transmission systems. (NEDO)

  1. The U.S. Geological Survey Flagstaff Science Campus—Providing expertise on planetary science, ecology, water resources, geologic processes, and human interactions with the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J.; Vaughan, R. Greg; McDougall, Kristin; Wojtowicz, Todd; Thenkenbail, Prasad

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Flagstaff Science Campus is focused on interdisciplinary study of the Earth and solar system, and has the scientific expertise to detect early environmental changes and provide strategies to minimize possible adverse effects on humanity. The Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) is located in Flagstaff, Arizona, which is situated in the northern part of the State, home to a wide variety of landscapes and natural resources, including (1) young volcanoes in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, (2) the seven ecological life zones of the San Francisco Peaks, (3) the extensive geologic record of the Colorado Plateau and Grand Canyon, (4) the Colorado River and its perennial, ephemeral, and intermittent tributaries, and (5) a multitude of canyons, mountains, arroyos, and plains. More than 200 scientists, technicians, and support staff provide research, monitoring, and technical advancements in planetary geology and mapping, biology and ecology, Earth-based geology, hydrology, and changing climate and landscapes. Scientists at the FSC work in collaboration with multiple State, Federal, Tribal, municipal, and academic partners to address regional, national, and global environmental issues, and provide scientific outreach to the general public.

  2. Use of Google Earth to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Calderon-Martinez, Joaquin; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Morris, Natashia; Coleman, Michael; Moore, Chester G; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google Earth) complement existing geographic information system (GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. The combination of Google Earth and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

  3. The Role of Interdisciplinary Earth Science in the Assessment of Regional Land Subsidence Hazards: Toward Sustainable Management of Global Land and Subsurface-Fluid Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Land-level lowering or land subsidence is a consequence of many local- and regional-scale physical, chemical or biologic processes affecting soils and geologic materials. The principal processes can be natural or anthropogenic, and include consolidation or compaction, karst or pseudokarst, hydrocompaction of collapsible soils, mining, oxidation of organic soils, erosive piping, tectonism, and volcanism. In terms of affected area, there are two principal regional-scale anthropogenic processes—compaction of compressible subsurface materials owing to the extraction of subsurface fluids (principally groundwater, oil and gas) and oxidation and compaction accompanying drainage of organic soils—which cause significant hazards related to flooding and infrastructure damage that are amenable to resource management measures. The importance of even small magnitude (analysis techniques, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which have advanced our capabilities to detect, measure and monitor land-surface motion at multiple scales. Improved means for simulating aquifer-system and hydrocarbon-reservoir deformation, and the oxidation and compaction of organic soils are leading to refined predictive capabilities. The role of interdisciplinary earth science in improving the characterization of land subsidence attributed to subsurface fluid withdrawals and the oxidation and compaction of organic soils is examined. How these improved capabilities are translating into improved sustainable management of regional land and water resources in a few select areas worldwide are presented. The importance of incorporating these improved capabilities in coherent resource management strategies to control the depletion of resources and attendant hazards also are discussed.

  4. Wind energy prospecting: socio-economic value of a new wind resource assessment technique based on a NASA Earth science dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvyve, E.; Magontier, P.; Vandenberghe, F. C.; Delle Monache, L.; Dickinson, K.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is amongst the fastest growing sources of renewable energy in the U.S. and could supply up to 20 % of the U.S power production by 2030. An accurate and reliable wind resource assessment for prospective wind farm sites is a challenging task, yet is crucial for evaluating the long-term profitability and feasibility of a potential development. We have developed an accurate and computationally efficient wind resource assessment technique for prospective wind farm sites, which incorporates innovative statistical techniques and the new NASA Earth science dataset MERRA. This technique produces a wind resource estimate that is more accurate than that obtained by the wind energy industry's standard technique, while providing a reliable quantification of its uncertainty. The focus now is on evaluating the socio-economic value of this new technique upon using the industry's standard technique. Would it yield lower financing costs? Could it result in lower electricity prices? Are there further down-the-line positive consequences, e.g. job creation, time saved, greenhouse gas decrease? Ultimately, we expect our results will inform efforts to refine and disseminate the new technique to support the development of the U.S. renewable energy infrastructure. In order to address the above questions, we are carrying out a cost-benefit analysis based on the net present worth of the technique. We will describe this approach, including the cash-flow process of wind farm financing, how the wind resource assessment factors in, and will present current results for various hypothetical candidate wind farm sites.

  5. A global water resources ensemble of hydrological models: the eartH2Observe Tier-1 dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schellekens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented here consists of an ensemble of 10 global hydrological and land surface models for the period 1979–2012 using a reanalysis-based meteorological forcing dataset (0.5° resolution. The current dataset serves as a state of the art in current global hydrological modelling and as a benchmark for further improvements in the coming years. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis revealed low inter-model agreement over (i snow-dominated regions and (ii tropical rainforest and monsoon areas. The large uncertainty of precipitation in the tropics is not reflected in the ensemble runoff. Verification of the results against benchmark datasets for evapotranspiration, snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil moisture anomaly and total water storage anomaly using the tools from The International Land Model Benchmarking Project (ILAMB showed overall useful model performance, while the ensemble mean generally outperformed the single model estimates. The results also show that there is currently no single best model for all variables and that model performance is spatially variable. In our unconstrained model runs the ensemble mean of total runoff into the ocean was 46 268 km3 yr−1 (334 kg m−2 yr−1, while the ensemble mean of total evaporation was 537 kg m−2 yr−1. All data are made available openly through a Water Cycle Integrator portal (WCI, wci.earth2observe.eu, and via a direct http and ftp download. The portal follows the protocols of the open geospatial consortium such as OPeNDAP, WCS and WMS. The DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.1016/10.5281/zenodo.167070.

  6. A global water resources ensemble of hydrological models: the eartH2Observe Tier-1 dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Jaap; Dutra, Emanuel; Martínez-de la Torre, Alberto; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; van Dijk, Albert; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Minvielle, Marie; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Decharme, Bertrand; Eisner, Stephanie; Fink, Gabriel; Flörke, Martina; Peßenteiner, Stefanie; van Beek, Rens; Polcher, Jan; Beck, Hylke; Orth, René; Calton, Ben; Burke, Sophia; Dorigo, Wouter; Weedon, Graham P.

    2017-07-01

    The dataset presented here consists of an ensemble of 10 global hydrological and land surface models for the period 1979-2012 using a reanalysis-based meteorological forcing dataset (0.5° resolution). The current dataset serves as a state of the art in current global hydrological modelling and as a benchmark for further improvements in the coming years. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis revealed low inter-model agreement over (i) snow-dominated regions and (ii) tropical rainforest and monsoon areas. The large uncertainty of precipitation in the tropics is not reflected in the ensemble runoff. Verification of the results against benchmark datasets for evapotranspiration, snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil moisture anomaly and total water storage anomaly using the tools from The International Land Model Benchmarking Project (ILAMB) showed overall useful model performance, while the ensemble mean generally outperformed the single model estimates. The results also show that there is currently no single best model for all variables and that model performance is spatially variable. In our unconstrained model runs the ensemble mean of total runoff into the ocean was 46 268 km3 yr-1 (334 kg m-2 yr-1), while the ensemble mean of total evaporation was 537 kg m-2 yr-1. All data are made available openly through a Water Cycle Integrator portal (WCI, wci.earth2observe.eu), and via a direct http and ftp download. The portal follows the protocols of the open geospatial consortium such as OPeNDAP, WCS and WMS. The DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.1016/10.5281/zenodo.167070.

  7. Twenty-ninth day: accommodating human needs and numbers to the Earth's resources. [ecological impacts of overpopulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The global lily pond in which four billion of us live may already be half full. The author believes that UN projections showing world population continuing to grow until it reaches ten to sixteen billion is unrealistic. In this analysis of the four principal biological systems on which humanity depends - fisheries, forests, grasslands, and croplands - the author shows that the demands at current levels of population and per capita consumption often exceed the long-term carrying capacity. The effects of overfishing, deforestation, and overgrazing that are gradually undermining human life-support systems are documented. With energy shortages anticipated inthe early eighties and the projected downturn in world oil production in the early nineties, the world must quickly shift to renewable energy resources. These accommodations constitute an enormous challenge and suggest changes that will affect virtually every facet of human existence. The coming transformation will surely give rise to new social structures and to an economic system materially different from any we know today. Like other periods of convulsive change, it will put great stress on both individuals and institutions. 106 references, 17 figures, 18 tables.

  8. EarthScope's Transportable Array: Status of the Alaska Deployment and Guide to Resources for Lower48 Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.; Aderhold, K.; Frassetto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Transportable Array deployment is completely installed, totaling 280 stations, with 194 new stations and 86 existing stations, 28 of those upgraded with new sensor emplacement. We briefly summarize the deployment of this seismic network, describe the added meteorological instruments and soil temperature gauges, and review our expectations for operation and demobilization. Curation of data from the contiguous Lower-48 States deployment of Transportable Array (>1800 stations, 2004-2015) has continued with the few gaps in real-time data replaced by locally archived files as well as minor adjustments in metadata. We highlight station digests that provide more detail on the components and settings of individual stations, documentation of standard procedures used throughout the deployment and other resources available online. In cooperation with IRIS DMC, a copy of the complete TA archive for the Lower-48 period has been transferred to a local disk to experiment with data access and software workflows that utilize most or all of the seismic timeseries, in contrast to event segments. Assembling such large datasets reliably - from field stations to a well managed data archive to a user's workspace - is complex. Sharing a curated and defined data volume with researchers is a potentially straightforward way to make data intensive analyses less difficult. We note that data collection within the Lower-48 continues with 160 stations of the N4 network operating at increased sample rates (100 sps) as part of the CEUSN, as operational support transitions from NSF to USGS.

  9. DLESE Teaching Box Pilot Project: Developing a Replicable Model for Collaboratively Creating Innovative Instructional Sequences Using Exemplary Resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingroff, M.

    2004-12-01

    Before the advent of digital libraries, it was difficult for teachers to find suitable high-quality resources to use in their teaching. Digital libraries such as DLESE have eased the task by making high quality resources more easily accessible and providing search mechanisms that allow teachers to 'fine tune' the criteria over which they search. Searches tend to return lists of resources with some contextualizing information. However, teachers who are teaching 'out of discipline' or who have minimal training in science often need additional support to know how to use and sequence them. The Teaching Box Pilot Project was developed to address these concerns, bringing together educators, scientists, and instructional designers in a partnership to build an online framework to fully support innovative units of instruction about the Earth system. Each box integrates DLESE resources and activities, teaching tips, standards, concepts, teaching outcomes, reviews, and assessment information. Online templates and best practice guidelines are being developed that will enable teachers to create their own boxes or customize existing ones. Two boxes have been developed so far, one on weather for high school students, and one on the evidence for plate tectonics for middle schoolers. The project has met with significant enthusiasm and interest, and we hope to expand it by involving individual teachers, school systems, pre-service programs, and universities in the development and use of teaching boxes. A key ingredient in the project's success has been the close collaboration between the partners, each of whom has brought unique experiences, perspectives, knowledge, and skills to the project. This first effort involved teachers in the San Francisco Bay area, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, San Francisco State University, U.S. Geological Survey, and DLESE. This poster will allow participants to explore one of the teaching boxes. We will discuss how the boxes were

  10. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  11. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  12. Tools You Can Use! E/PO Resources for Scientists and Faculty to Use and Contribute To: EarthSpace and the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Shupla, C.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum has helped to create two tools that are designed to help scientists and higher-education science faculty make stronger connections with their audiences: EarthSpace, an education clearinghouse for the undergraduate classroom; and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to help bring science - and scientists - to the public. Are you looking for Earth and space science higher education resources and materials? Come explore EarthSpace, a searchable database of undergraduate classroom materials for faculty teaching Earth and space sciences at both the introductory and upper division levels! In addition to classroom materials, EarthSpace provides news and information about educational research, best practices, and funding opportunities. All materials submitted to EarthSpace are peer reviewed, ensuring that the quality of the EarthSpace materials is high and also providing important feedback to authors. Your submission is a reviewed publication! Learn more, search for resources, join the listserv, sign up to review materials, and submit your own at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace. Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker’s Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. The information input into the database will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All Earth and space scientists funded by NASA - and/or engaged in active research using NASA’s science - are invited to become part of the Scientist Speaker’s Bureau. Submit your information into the short form at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  13. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together.

  14. Rare Earth Plant in Malaysia: Governance, Green Politics, and Geopolitics Resources in Southeast Asia: Political and Social Dynamics of Foreign Investment Ventures>

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Lit Phua

    2016-01-01

    A rare earth elements (REE) extraction plant was built and began operating in Gebeng, Malaysia (near the city of Kuantan), from early December 2012. This plant, slated to be the world’s largest when it operates at full capacity, is very controversial in Malaysia. Various factors appear to have influenced the setting up of this foreign-owned REE extraction plant, although the source of its raw material is thousands of kilometers away in the desert of Western Australia. This article examines an...

  15. "Will a Black Hole Eventually Swallow the Earth?" Fifth Graders' Interest in Questions from a Textbook, an Open Educational Resource, and Other Students' Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2015-01-01

    Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER) websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students' interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics "space" and "nutrition" randomly selected from three different sources: a…

  16. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources: Agriculture. Part 1: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, A. L.; Wilson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Potential economic benefits obtainable from a state-of-the-art ERS system in the resource area of intensive use of living resources, agriculture, are studied. A spectrum of equal capability (cost saving), increased capability, and new capability benefits are quantified. These benefits are estimated via ECON developed models of the agricultural marketplace and include benefits of improved production and distribution of agricultural crops. It is shown that increased capability benefits and new capability benefits result from a reduction of losses due to disease and insect infestation given ERS's capability to distinguish crop vigor and from the improvement in world trade negotiations given ERS's worldwide surveying capability.

  17. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  18. Conical scan impact study. Volume 2: Small local user data processing facility. [multispectral band scanner design alternatives for earth resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D. H.; Chase, P. E.; Dye, J.; Fahline, W. C.; Johnson, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of a conical scan versus a linear scan multispectral scanner (MSS) instrument on a small local-user data processing facility was studied. User data requirements were examined to determine the unique system rquirements for a low cost ground system (LCGS) compatible with the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system. Candidate concepts were defined for the LCGS and preliminary designs were developed for selected concepts. The impact of a conical scan MSS versus a linear scan MSS was evaluated for the selected concepts. It was concluded that there are valid user requirements for the LCGS and, as a result of these requirements, the impact of the conical scanner is minimal, although some new hardware development for the LCGS is necessary to handle conical scan data.

  19. Will a Black Hole Eventually Swallow Earth?” Fifth Graders' Interest in Questions from a Textbook, an Open Educational Resource and Other Students' Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Swirski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Can questions sent to Open-Educational-Resource (OER websites such as Ask-An-Expert serve as indicators for students’ interest in science? This issue was examined using an online questionnaire which included an equal number of questions about the topics “space” and “nutrition” randomly selected from three different sources: a 5th-grade science textbook, the “Ask-An-Expert” website, and questions collected from other students in the same age group. A sample of 113 5th-graders from two elementary schools were asked to rate their interest level in finding out the answer to these questions without knowledge of their source. Significant differences in students’ interest level were found between questions: textbook questions were ranked lowest for both subjects, and questions from the open-resource were ranked high. This finding suggests that questions sent to an open-resource could be used as an indicator of students’ interest in science. In addition, the high correlation of interests expressed by students from the two schools may point to a potential generalization of the findings. This study contributes by highlighting OER as a new and promising indicator of student interest, which may help bring “student voices” into mainstream science teaching to increase student interest in science.

  20. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  1. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  2. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  3. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  4. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  5. Rare earths: occurrence, production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.K.S.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    The mining and processing of rare earth minerals, particularly of monazite, began in a modest way in 1880s for commercialized production of mantle for gas lighting. For all major applications up to mid-twentieth century- production of lighter flints, misch metal as a metallurgical alloying agent, colouring, decolourizing and polishing agents for glass, petroleum cracking catalysts and arc-carbons, unseparated or partially separated rare earths were adequate. These applications continue till today. With the development and industrial application of powerful techniques like ion exchange and solvent extraction for the separation of rare earths, the decades after 1960 saw increasing utilization of the specific properties of the individual rare earths. Some of these advanced technological applications include: special glass for optical systems including camera lenses, phosphors for colour television, cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lighting, X-ray intensification screens, high intensity permanent magnets, electro optical devices, lasers, hydrogen storage materials, hydride rechargeable batteries, photomagnetic data storage systems, autoexhaust catalysts, special ceramics of unusual toughness, artificial diamonds and nonpoisonous plastic colorants. The topics covered in the book include rare earths: their story identity, rare earth resources, processing of ores and recovery of mixed rare earths products, separation and purification of rare earths, nonmetallic applications of rare earths, rare earth metals: production and applications, rare earth alloys and their applications, analysis of rare earth, processing of rare earth resources in India by Indian Rare Earth Ltd. and availability and market conditions

  6. Teaching through Trade Books: Humans and the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2016-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. Elementary students are beginning to understand the Earth's natural processes and humans' impact on the Earth. Humans need the natural resources that the Earth produces, use these resources to develop civilizations, and make decisions to offset the damage they cause, as well as…

  7. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  8. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 3: Intensive use of living resources, agriculture. Part 3: The integrated impact of improved (ERS) information on US agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of information produced by an assumed operational version of an earth resources survey satellite of the ERTS class is assessed. The theoretical capability of an ERTS system to provide improved agricultural forecasts is analyzed and this analysis is used as a reasonable input to the econometric methods derived by ECON. An econometric investigation into the markets for agricultural commodities is summarized. An overview of the effort including the objectives, scopes, and architecture of the analysis, and the estimation strategy employed is presented. The results and conclusions focus on the economic importance of improved crop forecasts, U.S. exports, and government policy operations. Several promising avenues of further investigation are suggested.

  9. Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program delivers climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, T.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will include a series of visuals that discuss how hands-on learning activities and field investigations from the the Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Mission EARTH (GME) program deliver climate change science content, pedagogy, and data resources to K12 educators, future teachers, and professional development providers. The GME program poster presentation will also show how teachers strengthen student preparation for Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics (STEAM)-related careers while promoting diversity in the future STEM workforce. In addition to engaging students in scientific inquiry, the GME program poster will show how career exploration and preparation experiences is accomplished through direct connection to scientists and real science practices. The poster will show which hands-on learning activities that are being implemented in more than 30,000 schools worldwide, with over a million students, teachers, and scientists collecting environmental measurements using the GLOBE scientific protocols. This poster will also include how Next Generation Science Standards connect to GME learning progressions by grade strands. The poster will present the first year of results from the implementation of the GME program. Data is currently being agrigated by the east, midwest and westen regional operations.

  10. Are Earth Sciences lagging behind in data integration methodologies?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paasche, H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects discussions German and South African Earth scientists, statisticians and risk analysts had on occasion of two bilateral workshops on Data Integration Technologies for Earth System Modelling and Resource Management...

  11. Information processing of earth resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1982-01-01

    Current trends in the use of remotely sensed data include integration of multiple data sources of various formats and use of complex models. These trends have placed a strain on information processing systems because an enormous number of capabilities are needed to perform a single application. A solution to this problem is to create a general set of capabilities which can perform a wide variety of applications. General capabilities for the Image-Based Information System (IBIS) are outlined in this report. They are then cross-referenced for a set of applications performed at JPL.

  12. Earth Resources. A Continuing Bibliography with Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    in that region of Africa for more than a year, and the concommitant need to monitor the encroachment of desert and human population on arable and...global bioclimatology . For example, South America is shown to have a longer growing season with much A87-41434 earlier spring green-up than North America...stands with one models of human vision, and analyses of the unique constraints of each pair trenched and covered to prevent precipitation from put on

  13. Resources of Near-Earth Space: Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are by theory, experiment, and bench-level testing of small systems, to develop scientifically-sound engineering processes and facility specifications for producing propellants and fuels, construction and shielding materials, and life support substances from the lithospheres and atmospheres of lunar, planetary, and asteroidal bodies. Current emphasis is on the production of oxygen, other usefull gases, metallic, ceramic/composite, and related byproducts from lunar regolith, carbonaceous chrondritic asteroids, and the carbon dioxide rich Martian atmosphere.

  14. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  15. Physics of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Frank D.; Davis, Paul M.

    he fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521873628.

  16. Earth thermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, M

    1960-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the Earth are described, including terrestrial heat flow, internal temperatures and thermal history. The value of the geothermal gradient has been considered to be 3/sup 0/C/100 m but measured values are slightly different. The values of terrestrial heat flow are relatively constant and are calculated be about 2.3 x 10 to the minus 6 cal/cm/sup 2/ sec (2.3 HFU). The Earth's internal temperature can be calculated from the adiabatic temperature gradient of adiabatic expansion. Using Simon's equation No. 9, a value of 2100-2500/sup 0/C is obtained, this is much lower than it was previously thought to be. The value of 2.3 HFU can easily be obtained from this internal temperature figure.

  17. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  18. Rare earth industry in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Rare Earths (RE) comprises of 17 elements i.e. elements from atomic No. 57-71 (lanthanide series) along with yttrium (atomic No. 39) and scandium (atomic No. 21). They exhibit special electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties. The first 7 elements in the lanthanide series from atomic Nos. 57 to 63 (La to Eu) are called Light Rare Earths (LRE), while the remaining elements from atomic Nos. 64 to 71 (Gd to Lu) are grouped as Heavy Rare Earths (HRE). Scandium and Yttrium have properties similar to HRE. The concentration of the REs in the earth's crust is as high as some other elements including that of copper. The only difference is that REs do not occur as separate minerals amenable for easy exploration and mining and are widely distributed across the earth's surface, hence they are called as REs. Resources In India, monazite has been the principal source of RE. It occurs in association with other heavy minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon etc. in the beach sands and inland placer deposits. The monazite content in this assemblage varies from negligible quantity to as high as 5%. As per AMD resource estimation, the reported resource of monazite in India is about 11.93 million tons which corresponds with about 6.9 million tons of RE oxides. Although India possesses large deposits of monazite, the heavier RE are not present in sufficient quantities in this mineral. (author)

  19. Climate in Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  20. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  1. Studying the Earth from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Space age technology contains a key to increased knowledge about the Earth's resources; this key is remote sensing detecting the nature or condition of something without actually touching it. An early and still most useful form of remote sensing is photography which records the

  2. The Earth as a Polder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the resources of the earth as a whole will .... tion of land and underground water sources as a ... oil; the different visions and desires of old and .... the world, one showing its political hot spots, ... Guns, Germs, and Steel, and The Rise and.

  3. Refresher Course on Earth Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information and Announcements ... Introduction: Geoscience education in India is in the throes of a serious crisis and any paradigm ... considerations: geology needs to be taught as an earth system science, linked with cognate ... viable and employment-generating management of natural resources: the global trend of.

  4. Earth Charter, ESD and Chinese Philosophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Constable, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the Earth Charter and education for sustainable development (ESD), as part of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. The areas of shared interest between the two are assessed and the invaluable nature of the Earth Charter as a resource outlining global values and principles for a…

  5. Saving Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, J.; Blok, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the Anthropocene is relevant for philosophy of technology because it makes us sensitive to the ontological dimension of contemporary technology. In §1, we show how the Anthropocene has ontological status insofar as the Anthropocenic world appears as managerial resource

  6. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  7. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  8. A grid portal for Earth Observation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, G.; Cafaro, M.; Carteni, G.; Epicoco, I.; Quarta, G.

    2005-01-01

    Earth Observation techniques offer many powerful instruments far Earth planet study, urban development planning, military intelligence helping and so on. Tera bytes of EO and geo spatial data about lands, oceans, glaciers, cities, etc. are continuously downloaded through remote-sensing infrastructures and stored into heterogeneous, distributed repositories usually belonging to different virtual organizations. A problem-solving environment can be a viable solution to handle, coordinate and share heterogeneous and distributed resources. Moreover, grid computing is an emerging technology to salve large-scale problems in dynamic, multi-institutional Virtual Organizations coordinated by sharing resources such as high-performance computers, observation devices, data and databases aver high-speed networks, etc. In this paper we present the Italian Grid far Earth Observation (I-GEO) project, a pervasive environment based on grid technology to help the integration and processing of Earth Observation data, providing a tool to share and access data, applications and computational resources among several organizations

  9. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  10. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  11. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  12. Smarter Earth Science Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  13. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  14. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  15. 12 Ministries Control Rare Earth Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>"It is very natural to reserve rare earth as a strategic resource.Many countries do this,including China."On April 8,Sun Lihui,Vice Director of Metal Section of Chemicals Import & Export Commerce Chamber of China Minmetals Corporation told a reporter that as early as 2006,China has launched a strategic plan for rare earth,"but it was interrupted by the subsequent financial crisis."

  16. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  17. Rare earth industries: Upstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Evidently, many factors contribute to the rush to invest in the unprecedented revival of rare earths. One major reason has to do with the rapidly growing world demand. The other reason relates to the attractive price of rare earths which is projected to stay strong in the coming years. This is because supply is predicted to have difficulty keeping pace with demand. Experts believe a major driver of global rare earths demand is the forecasted expansion in the green economy. Climate change is a major driver of the green economy. With climate change, there is concern that the uncontrolled emission of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, can lead to catastrophic consequences for the world. This has been documented in countless studies and reports. Another important driver of the green economy is the growing shortfall in many resources. The world is now experiencing declines in key resources to meet a growing global demand. With more than 6 billion people now in the world and growing, the pressure exerted on global resources including energy, water and food is a major concern. Recent demand surge in China and India has dented the supply position of major world resources. The much quoted Stern Report from the UK has warned that, unless immediate steps are taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it may be a costly exercise to undertake the corrections later. Since energy use, especially fossil fuels, is a major contributor to climate change, greener options are being sought. Add to that the fact that the fossil energy resources of the world are declining, the need to seek alternatives becomes even more urgent. One option is to change to renewable energy sources. These include such potentials as solar, wind and biomass. Rare earths have somehow become a critical feature of the technologies in such renewable. Another option is to improve the efficient use of energy in transport, buildings and all the other energy intensive industries. Again the technologies in

  18. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  19. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  20. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  1. The industry of metallic rare earths (R.E.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, P.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed: rare earths resources (rare earths abondance and world reserves, main ores). Rare earths separation and purification (ionic exchange, solvent extraction). Metallic rare earths and their mixtures, metallothermic reduction of oxides or fluorides (Ca, Mg, Al, Si or rare earth metals), Co-reduction process for intermetallic compounds (SmCo 5 ). Industrial applications of metallic rare earths (traditional applications such as flints, nodular cast iron, steel refining, magnesium industrie, applications under development such as rare earths/cobalt magnets, LaNi 5 for hydrogen storage, special alloys (automotive post combustion), magnetostrictive alloys). Economical problems: rare earth are elements relatively abundant and often at easily accessible prices. However, this group of 15 elements are liable to certain economical restraints. It is difficult to crack ore for only one rare earth. Availability of one given rare earth must be associated with the other corresponding rare earths to absorb all the other rare earths in other applications. Rare-earth industry has a strong expanding rate. 20% per year average for 6 years with Rhone-Poulenc. Thanks to their exceptional, specific characteristics rare earths have a bright future particularly for their metals

  2. Report 1: International Cooperation to Development of Strategy and R&D Collaboration for Substitution of Rare Earth Resources and Report 2: Development of Magnetocaloric Alloys without Critical Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Ha [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States); Ott, Ryan [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-05-26

    A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Ames Laboratory and Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH) in April of 2011 to establish a close cooperative relationship of research on Rare Metals. The Ames Laboratory through its operating contractor, Iowa State University, and the KITECH, as one of the goals of a joint Memorandum of Understanding, made agreement on a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for a personnel exchange in April of 2012. Ames Laboratory and KITECH would be jointly performing collaboration work in this cooperation as the Parties. The individual backgrounds and capabilities of the Parties are ideally suited to the successful execution of this work. The Ames Laboratory has a history spanning more than 60 years of pioneering work in rare-earth (RE) research. With its team of internationally recognized rare-earth experts, the Ames Laboratory is uniquely positioned to provide the knowledge, expertise and training necessary to help ensure a global leadership position for the United States in rare-earth research, development and applications. The KITECH was founded to promote technological capability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Korea and has a mission of supporting research on materials science and engineering in Korea. In 2009, Korea Institute for Rare Metals (KIRAM) at KITECH was established. KIRAM makes selection and funding decisions for technology projects for strategic rare metals, and provides oversight of R&D programs. The KIRAM is focusing on the commercialization and recycling of particular rare metals. In addition KIRAM will be coordinating government, local universities, and small to medium enterprises to facilitate R&D support for core technologies. KIRAM will be carrying them through to commercialization, and establishing new industry.

  3. 78 FR 67418 - National Plan for Civil Earth Observations; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... weather; natural hazards; land-use change; ecosystem health; water; natural resources; and other characteristics of the Earth system. Taken together, Earth observations provide the indispensable foundation for... Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture and Forestry Biodiversity Climate Disasters Ecosystems...

  4. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  5. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 6: Land use. Part 1: Introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.; Stevenson, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The utility of an ERS system as an effective tool in land use management is analyzed. The potential new capabilities of a space based ERS system are qualitatively examined. A variety of resource management functions are postulated within which ERTS activities might occur and the present ERS investigations in these areas are outlined.

  6. Mapping Forage Resources Using Earth Observation Data: A Case Study to Assess the Relationship Between Herbaceous and Woody Cover Components as Determinants of Large Herbivore Distribution in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, N. P.; Kahiu, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Grazing systems are important for survival of humans, livestock and wildlife in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). They are mainly found in the arid and semi-arid regions and are characterized by naturally occurring tree-grass vegetation mixtures ("savannas"), low and erratic rainfall, low human populations, and scanty water resources. Due to the scarce population and perceived low resource base they have been marginalized for decades, if not centuries. However, their economic and environmental significance, particularly their role as foraging lands for livestock and wildlife cannot be underrated. SSA natural grazing systems comprise a significant source of livelihood, where millions of people depend on pastoralism as a source of food and income. Further, the African savannas support diverse flora and charismatic large herbivore and carnivore guilds. The above considerations motivate a more detailed study of the composition, temporal and spatial variability of foraging resources in SSA arid and semi-arid regions. We have therefore embarked on a research to map Africa foraging resources by partitioning MODIS total leaf area index (LAIA) time series into its woody (LAIW) and herbaceous (LAIH) constituents as proxies for grazing and browsing resources, respectively. Using the portioned LAI estimates we will develop a case study to assess how forage resources affect distribution and abundance of large herbivores in Africa. In our case study we explore two separate but related hypothesis: i) small and medium sized mammalian herbivore numbers will peak at intermediate biomass (LAIH for grazers and LAIW for browsers), since they optimize on forage quantity and quality. Conversely, large-body mammalian herbivores have the ability to process high quantity-low quality food, hence, we hypothesize that ii) larger herbivores will tend to be more common in high forage areas irrespective of forage quality. We will use LAIH and LAIW retrievals to compute annual average leaf area duration

  7. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  8. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzsis, S.

    2014-04-01

    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  9. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  10. Quo vadimus - future prospects for the earth's population. Comments on the worldwide situation concerning available energy and food sources, the consequences of climatic change, and available water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partenscky, H.W. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Franzius Inst.

    2003-07-01

    The problems of our early future have already been critically examined in the years 1972 und 1974 in reports to the ''Club of Rome'' by D. Meadows in ''The Limits of Growth'' and by Eduard Pestel and M. Mesarovic in ''Mankind at the Turning Point'', and prognoses were given for the coming century. Nothing concerning those alarming results has changed substantially from then up to the present day. The frigthening increase in the population of our earth, our limited energy and food sources, the climatic changes with all their resultant symptoms, the limited availability of water and increasing environmental pollution still remain the problems and danger with which science and international politics must come to terms. This will be the case to an even greater extent in the future. (orig.)

  11. Utah's Mobile Earth Science Outreach Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessow, F. S.; Christian, L.

    2016-12-01

    Students at Utah State University's College of Natural Resources have engineered the first mobile Earth Science outreach platform capable of delivering high-tech and interactive solar-powered educational resources to the traditionally-underserved, remote communities of rural Utah. By retrofitting and modifying an industrial box-truck, this project effectively created a highly mobile and energy independent "school in a box" which seeks to help change the way that Earth science is communicated, eliminate traditional barriers, and increase science accessibility - both physically and conceptually. The project's education platform is focused on developing a more effective, sustainable, and engaging platform for presenting Earth science outreach curricula to community members of all ages in an engaging fashion. Furthermore, this project affords university students the opportunity to demonstrate innovative science communication techniques, translating vital university research into educational outreach operations aimed at doing real, measurable good for local communities.

  12. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.

  13. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 1 ... Results from time course experiments with both 15N and 13C tracers suggest ... Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, ...

  14. Measuring Earth's Radiation Budget from the Vicinity of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Lorentz, S. R.; Erlandson, R. E.; Cahalan, R. F.; Huang, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to measure Earth's radiation budget (integrated total and solar-reflected shortwave) using broadband radiometers and other technology demonstrated in space. The instrument is compact, autonomous, and has modest resource requirements.

  15. Proceedings of the Fourth meeting on earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document collects some scientific research works on earth sciences developed in Ecuador. The main topics are: geology and mineral resources, geophysics and vulcanology, geo techniques and natural risks, oil and environment

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 5 ... In the upper layer, themaximum shear stress is high in the Zhangjiakou area, whereas in the ... School of Resources and Geoscience, China University of Mining and ...

  17. Developing and Applying a Set of Earth Science Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.; LaDue, Nicole; Budd, David A.; Campbell, Karen; Conklin, Martha; Kappel, Ellen; Lewis, Gary; Raynolds, Robert; Ridky, Robert W.; Ross, Robert M.; Taber, John; Tewksbury, Barbara; Tuddenham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century will be defined by challenges such as understanding and preparing for climate change and ensuring the availability of resources such as water and energy, which are issues deeply rooted in Earth science. Understanding Earth science concepts is critical for humanity to successfully respond to these challenges and thrive in the…

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. A Geetha Selvarani. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 125 Issue 2 March 2016 pp 311-328. Groundwater resource exploration in Salem district, Tamil Nadu using GIS and remote sensing · G Maheswaran A Geetha Selvarani K Elangovan.

  19. A Google Earth Grand Tour of the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Declan; Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Google Earth is a powerful instructional resource for geoscience education. We have extended the virtual globe to include all terrestrial planets. Downloadable Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files (Google Earth's scripting language) associated with this paper include lessons about Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars. We created "grand…

  20. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahavir

    2014-01-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  1. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  2. PREFACE: The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumban Gaol, Ford; Soewito, Benfano

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Geological, Geographical, Aerospace and Earth Sciences 2014 (AeroEarth 2014), was held at Discovery Kartika Plaza Hotel, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia during 11 - 12 October 2014. The AeroEarth 2014 conference aims to bring together researchers and engineers from around the world. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. Earth provides resources and the exact conditions to make life possible. However, with the advent of technology and industrialization, the Earth's resources are being pushed to the brink of depletion. Non-sustainable industrial practices are not only endangering the supply of the Earth's natural resources, but are also putting burden on life itself by bringing about pollution and climate change. A major role of earth science scholars is to examine the delicate balance between the Earth's resources and the growing demands of industrialization. Through research and development, earth scientists have the power to preserve the planet's different resource domains by providing expert opinion and information about the forces which make life possible on Earth. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting Conference Program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 98 papers and after rigorous review, 17 papers were accepted. The participants come from eight countries. There are four Parallel Sessions and two invited Speakers. It is an honour to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES) and we deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. Finally, we would like to thank the conference chairmen, the members of the steering committee, the organizing committee

  3. The earth's gravitational field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  4. Geomagnetic field of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  5. Rare earth octacyanomolybdates(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pisak, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Optimal conditions for synthesis of rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) of the Ln 4 [Mo(CN) 8 ] 3 xnH 2 O composition (where Ln is a rare-earth element, other than Pr, Pm, Lu, Tb) have been worked out. The synthesis has been accomplished by neutralization with octacianomolybdic acid with rare-earth carbonates. The composition and structure of the compounds synthesized have been studied by infrared-spectroscopy. It has been established that rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) form three isostructural groups

  6. Our Sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2013-03-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as the upper levels of the ocean are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880. They can be associated with the use of coal ecause of the spread of the industrial revolution from Great Britain to the European continent and beyond. The climactic consequence of this human-dominated increase in atmospheric CO2 has been suggested to define a geologic epoch, termed the ``Anthropocene.'' This could be a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. U.S. emissions have declined sharply recently because of market conditions leading to the substitution of natural gas for coal for electricity generation. Whether this is the best use for this resource may be questioned, but it nevertheless reduces CO2 production by 67% from a coal-fired power plant, well on the way to the 80% reduction required for global temperature stabilization. Current methods for CO2 capture and storage are not cost effective, and have been slow (if not absent) to introduce at scale. This paper describes research into some potentially economically feasible approaches: cost-effective capture and storage of CO2 from injection of flue gas into subterranean methane-saturated aquifers at the surface; fuels from sunlight without CO2 production; and large-scale electrical energy storage for intermittent (and even constant) electricity generating sources.

  7. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  8. EARTH FROM SPACE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  9. Earth and Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosygin, Yu A

    1986-12-01

    Rocks, the age of which according to certain data exceeds considerably the recognized age of the Earth and approximates the age of the Universe, have been detected on the Earth. There is a necessity to coordinate the geological data with cosmological structures.

  10. Hands On Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  11. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  12. Earth System Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  13. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  14. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  15. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George

    2003-01-01

    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  16. The Journal of Earth System Science Education: Peer Review for Digital Earth and Digital Library Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource

  17. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  18. Sun-Earth Scientists and Native Americans Collaborate on Sun-Earth Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y.; Lopez, R. E.; Hawkins, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sun-Earth Connection scientists have established partnerships with several minority professional societies to reach out to the blacks, Hispanics and Native American students. Working with NSBP, SACNAS, AISES and NSHP, SEC scientists were able to speak in their board meetings and national conferences, to network with minority scientists, and to engage them in Sun-Earth Day. Through these opportunities and programs, scientists have introduced NASA research results as well indigenous views of science. They also serve as role models in various communities. Since the theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005 is Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge, scientists and education specialists are hopeful to excite many with diverse backgrounds. Sun-Earth Day is a highly visible annual program since 2001 that touches millions of students and the general public. Interviews, classroom activities and other education resources are available on the web at sunearthday.nasa.gov.

  19. Earth as art three

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  20. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  1. The Future of Our Tropical Rainforests. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social…

  2. Our Divided World: Poverty, Hunger & Overpopulation. Our Only Earth Series. A Curriculum for Global Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKisson, Micki; MacRae-Campbell, Linda

    Both humanity and nature have suffered greatly from human insensitivity. Not only are the natural resources of the earth being depleted and its air, land and water polluted, the financial resources of humanity are being wasted on destructive expenditures. The "Our Only Earth" series is an integrated science, language arts, and social studies…

  3. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  4. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  5. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  6. Earth before life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  7. Harvesting space for a greener earth

    CERN Document Server

    Matloff, Greg; Johnson, Les

    2014-01-01

    What was our planet like in years past? How has our civilization affected Earth and its ecology? Harvesting Space for a Greener Planet, the Second Edition of Paradise Regained: The Regreening of the Earth, begins by discussing these questions, and then generates a scenario for the restoration of Earth. It introduces new and innovative ideas on how we could use the Solar System and its resources for terrestrial benefit. The environmental challenges that face us today cannot be resolved by conservation and current technologies alone. Harvesting Space highlights the risk of humankind’s future extinction from environmental degradation. Population growth, global climate change, and maintaining sustainability of habitats for wildlife are all considered, among other issues. Rather than losing heart, we need to realize that the solutions to these problems lie in being good stewards of the planet and in the development of space. Not only will the solutions offered here avert a crisis, they will also provide the basi...

  8. The International Year of Planet Earth (2007-2009):Earth Sciences for Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo F.J.de Mulder; Ted Nield; Edward Derbyshire

    2006-01-01

    Natural disasters like the 2004 tsunami bear graphic testimony to the Earth's incredible power. More effective use of geoscientific knowledge can save lives and protect property. Such knowledge also enables us to satisfy, in a sustainable manner,the growing need for Earth's resources by an expanding human population. Such knowledge is readily available in the practical experience and publications of some half a million Earth scientists all over the world, a professional community that is ready and willing to contribute to a safer, healthier and wealthier society if called upon by politicians and decision makers. Professional guidance by Earth scientists is available in many aspects of everyday life including, for example, identification of the best areas for urban expansion, sites to avoid for waste disposal, the location of new underground fresh water resources, and where certain toxic agents implicated in Earth-related diseases may be located, etc.The International Year of Planet Earth (2007-2009) aims to build on existing knowledge and make it more available for the improvement of everyday life, especially in the less developed countries, as expressed in the Year's subtitle: Earth sciences for Society. Ambitious outreach and science programmes constitute the backbone of the International Year, now politically endorsed by all 191 member states of the United Nations Organisation which has proclaimed 2008, the central year of the triennium, as the UN Year of Planet Earth. This paper describes who is behind the initiative,how it will work, and how the political process leading to United Nations proclamation proceeded. It also describes the financial and organisational aspects of the International Year, sets out the commitments necessary for the realization of the Year's ambitions by all nations, and explains how the raising of US$ 20 million will be approached.

  9. 基于AHP的离子型稀土资源采选综合回收影响因素分析%AHP-based Analysis for Influencing Factors of Comprehensive Recovery of Ion-type Rare Earth Resources through Mining and Beneficiation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炯辉; 赵彬; 陈道贵; 张成学

    2016-01-01

    The in⁃situ leach mining process was adopted for the ion⁃type rare earth in South China. An influencing factor evaluation system for comprehensive recovery of rare earth resources through mining and beneficiation was established in respect of rare earth ions leaching, mother liquor collecting and recycling. The evaluation system included eight factors at criteria layer, which were subdivided into 27 factors as indicators. Based on the quantitative analysis with analytic hierarchy process ( AHP ) , it was found that key influencing factors included joint fracture features in rock mass of water⁃resisting floor, leach liquid injection sequence, relative relations between positions of floor and groundwater ( phreatic water) , the supply, runoff and drainage of ground water ( phreatic water) , liquid collection method, liquid collection floor project, and the permeability. Some targeted countermeasures were put forward, including intensifying productive prospecting, focusing on basic experimental research, optimizing mining method and process technique.%针对南方离子型稀土原地浸矿开采工艺流程,从稀土离子浸出、母液集液与母液处理回收3个环节入手,建立了稀土资源采选综合回收影响因素评价体系,列出了8个准则层因素,细化出27个指标层因素。采用层次分析法进行了定量化分析,得出主要影响因素为隔水底板岩体节理裂隙特征、浸矿注液顺序、底板与地下(潜)水相对位置关系、地下(潜)水补给径流和排泄、集液方式、集液底板工程与渗透性能。有针对性地提出了对策,包括加强生产勘探、注重基础试验研究及优化开采方法与工艺技术等。

  10. Earth's variable rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  11. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  12. Earth study from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  13. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  14. Near Earth Asteroid Scout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  15. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H

    2000-01-01

    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  16. Jupiter and planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of Jupiter and Earth are discussed along with their atmospheres, the radiation belts around both planets, natural satellites, the evolution of life, and the Pioneer 10. Educational study projects are also included

  17. Earth retaining structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  18. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D

    2010-01-01

    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  19. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  20. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  1. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  2. EarthScope Education and Outreach: Accomplishments and Emerging Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S.; Ellins, K. K.; Semken, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's Education and Outreach (E&O) program aims to increase public awareness of Earth science and enhance geoscience education at the K-12 and college level. The program is distinctive among major geoscience programs in two ways. First, planning for education and public engagement occurred in tandem with planning for the science mission. Second, the NSF EarthScope program includes funding support for education and outreach. In this presentation, we highlight key examples of the program's accomplishments and identify emerging E&O opportunities. E&O efforts have been collaboratively led by the EarthScope National Office (ESNO), IRIS, UNAVCO, the EarthScope Education and Outreach Subcommittee (EEOSC) and PI-driven EarthScope projects. Efforts by the EEOSC, guided by an EarthScope Education and Outreach Implementation Plan that is periodically updated, focus EarthScope E&O. EarthScope demonstrated early success in engaging undergraduate students (and teachers) in its mission through their involvement in siting USArray across the contiguous U.S. Funded E&O programs such as TOTLE, Illinois EarthScope, CEETEP (for K-12), InTeGrate and GETSI (for undergraduates) foster use of freely available EarthScope data and research findings. The Next Generation Science Standards, which stress science and engineering practices, offer an opportunity for alignment with existing EarthScope K-12 educational resources, and the EEOSC recommends focusing efforts on this task. The EEOSC recognizes the rapidly growing use of mobile smart devices by the public and in formal classrooms, which bring new opportunities to connect with the public and students. This will capitalize on EarthScope's already prominent social media presence, an effort that developed to accomplish one of the primary goals of the EarthScope E&O Implementation Plan to "Create a high-profile public identity for EarthScope" and to "Promote science literacy and understanding of EarthScope among all audiences through

  3. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  4. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  5. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  6. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  7. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  8. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  9. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  10. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  11. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  12. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshita, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  13. Moon Prospective Energy and Material Resources

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration.   In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon’s prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative optio...

  14. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  15. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  16. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  17. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  18. The Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  19. Rare earths and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coqblin, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  20. Earth's Trojan asteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Wiegert, Paul; Veillet, Christian

    2011-07-27

    It was realized in 1772 that small bodies can stably share the same orbit as a planet if they remain near 'triangular points' 60° ahead of or behind it in the orbit. Such 'Trojan asteroids' have been found co-orbiting with Jupiter, Mars and Neptune. They have not hitherto been found associated with Earth, where the viewing geometry poses difficulties for their detection, although other kinds of co-orbital asteroid (horseshoe orbiters and quasi-satellites) have been observed. Here we report an archival search of infrared data for possible Earth Trojans, producing the candidate 2010 TK(7). We subsequently made optical observations which established that 2010 TK(7) is a Trojan companion of Earth, librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L(4). Its orbit is stable over at least ten thousand years.

  1. Developing Earth and Space Scientists for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Cathryn A.; Cifuentes, Inés

    2007-09-01

    As the world's largest organization of Earth and space scientists, AGU safeguards the future of pioneering research by ensuring that ``the number and diversity of Earth and space scientists continue to grow through the flow of young talent into the field'' (AGU Strategic Plan 2008, Goal IV). Achieving this goal is the focus of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR), one of the Union's three outreach committees.

  2. Geosciences program annual report 1978. [LBL Earth Sciences Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a reprint of the Geosciences section of the LBL Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1978 (LBL-8648). It contains summary papers that describe fundamental studies addressing a variety of earth science problems of interest to the DOE. They have applications in such diverse areas as geothermal energy, oil recovery, in situ coal gasification, uranium resource evaluation and recovery, and earthquake prediction. Completed work has been reported or likely will be in the usual channels. (RWR)

  3. Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in the Dukuduku coastal forest Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) MA CHO, P DEBBA, R MATHIEU, A RAMOELO, L NAIDOO, H VAN DEVENTER, O MALAHLELA AND R MAIN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa PO Box 395... Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) programme is designed to enhance biodiversity assessment and conservation through the application of earth observation data, with particular focus on the African continent. MISSION To initiate and develop...

  4. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  5. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  6. Teaching earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  7. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  8. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  9. Rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  10. Remote sensing in agriculture. [using Earth Resources Technology Satellite photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Some examples are presented of the use of remote sensing in cultivated crops, forestry, and range management. Areas of concern include: the determination of crop areas and types, prediction of yield, and detection of disease; the determination of forest areas and types, timber volume estimation, detection of insect and disease attack, and forest fires; and the determination of range conditions and inventory, and livestock inventory. Articles in the literature are summarized and specific examples of work being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center are given. Primarily, aerial photographs and photo-like ERTS images are considered.

  11. Online Resource for Earth-Observing Satellite Sensor Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J.; Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Wenny, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada is being developed by the University of Arizona to enable improved accuracy and consistency for airborne and satellite sensor calibration. Primary instrumentation at the site consists of ground-viewing radiometers, a sun photometer, and a meteorological station. Measurements made by these instruments are used to calculate surface reflectance, atmospheric properties and a prediction for top-of-atmosphere reflectance and radiance. This work will leverage research for RadCaTS, and describe the requirements for an online database, associated data formats and quality control, and processing levels.

  12. High efficiency conical scanner for earth resources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. C.; Dumas, H. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a six-arm conical scanner which was selected to provide a continuous line-of-sight scan. Two versions of the instrument are considered. The two versions differ in their weight. The weight of the heavy version is 600 lbs. A light weight design which employs beryllium and aluminum optical components weighs only 350 lbs. A multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter are to be incorporated into the design. Questions of instrument performance are also discussed.

  13. National geoscience programme. The evolution of earth resource systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SACUGS

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available and deficiencies are highlighted. The available geological maps are reviewed and maps still required are identified. The research and exploration techniques currently being applied in South Africa are outlined and areas which require more research and development...

  14. The Earth's Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  15. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  16. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.

    2009-12-01

    -on activities and use significantly more multi-media and animation resources in the classroom. The “Discovering Plate Boundaries” jigsaw (Sawyer et al, this session) is a very useful example of how lessons were taught in Earth Science II. The USGS-developed “Tennis Ball Globe” or “Wegner Puzzle” can be used as appropriate Elicit/Engage activities. With only basic instructions, the students are first split into their specialty teams, then re-arranged into their specific plate teams. “Expert” explanation is limited to the very end of the lesson, and is most effective when tailored to the abilities of the class and particularly the interests the students had highlighted during their own discussions and presentations. Typical student comments as revealed on the daily evaluations were “It was very hard at first, but when I kept working with the maps, I found I really could figure it out myself,” “The coolest was where I figured out a new plate boundary might be forming,” and (in response to “How much did you learn today:”) “More than I wanted!”

  17. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  18. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  19. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  20. Earth System Science Education Interdisciplinary Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  1. Application of Ontologies for Big Earth Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Boening, C.

    2014-12-01

    Connected data is smarter data! Earth Science research infrastructure must do more than just being able to support temporal, geospatial discovery of satellite data. As the Earth Science data archives continue to expand across NASA data centers, the research communities are demanding smarter data services. A successful research infrastructure must be able to present researchers the complete picture, that is, datasets with linked citations, related interdisciplinary data, imageries, current events, social media discussions, and scientific data tools that are relevant to the particular dataset. The popular Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies is a collection of ontologies and concepts designed to improve discovery and application of Earth Science data. The SWEET ontologies collection was initially developed to capture the relationships between keywords in the NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). Over the years this popular ontologies collection has expanded to cover over 200 ontologies and 6000 concepts to enable scalable classification of Earth system science concepts and Space science. This presentation discusses the semantic web technologies as the enabling technology for data-intensive science. We will discuss the application of the SWEET ontologies as a critical component in knowledge-driven research infrastructure for some of the recent projects, which include the DARPA Ontological System for Context Artifact and Resources (OSCAR), 2013 NASA ACCESS Virtual Quality Screening Service (VQSS), and the 2013 NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) projects. The presentation will also discuss the benefits in using semantic web technologies in developing research infrastructure for Big Earth Science Data in an attempt to "accommodate all domains and provide the necessary glue for information to be cross-linked, correlated, and discovered in a semantically rich manner." [1] [1] Savas Parastatidis: A platform for all that we know

  2. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  3. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  4. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  5. Our bubbling Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In several places on earth large volumes of gas are seen to escape. These gases are usually dominated by CO2. The emissions are associated with volcanic activity, and are attributed to magma degassing. It will be shown that in the case of Milos this explanation is unacceptable for quantitative

  6. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  7. Earth as art 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-03-29

    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  8. Google Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  9. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  10. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  11. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  12. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  13. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  14. The radioactive earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  15. The Earth's Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  16. Probing Earth's State of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorey, A. A.; Maceira, M.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental physical property that controls both engineered and natural systems. Engineered environments including those for hydrocarbon, geothermal energy, and mineral extraction, as well those for storage of wastewater, carbon dioxide, and nuclear fuel are as important as ever to our economy and environment. Yet, it is at spatial scales relevant to these activities where stress is least understood. Additionally, in engineered environments the rate of change in the stress field can be much higher than that of natural systems. In order to use subsurface resources more safely and effectively, we need to understand stress at the relevant temporal and spatial scales. We will present our latest results characterizing the state of stress in the Earth at scales relevant to engineered environments. Two important components of the state of stress are the orientation and magnitude of the stress tensor, and a measure of how close faults are to failure. The stress tensor at any point in a reservoir or repository has contributions from both far-field tectonic stress and local density heterogeneity. We jointly invert seismic (body and surface waves) and gravity data for a self-consistent model of elastic moduli and density and use the model to calculate the contribution of local heterogeneity to the total stress field. We then combine local and plate-scale contributions, using local indicators for calibration and ground-truth. In addition, we will present results from an analysis of the quantity and pattern of microseismicity as an indicator of critically stressed faults. Faults are triggered by transient stresses only when critically stressed (near failure). We show that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes in both tectonic and reservoir environments and can reveal both stress and poroelastic conditions.

  17. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  18. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  19. Submarine geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (characteristics of these systems before they can be considered a viable resource. Until several of the most promising areas are carefully defined and drilled, the problem will remain unresolved. ?? 1976.

  20. a Walk Through Earth's Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, B. D.; Turrin, M.

    2012-12-01

    their textbook selecting events is Earth History that they find interesting. Using the textbook and online resources they then draw figures that represent these events. The drawing exercise reinforces the learning by having students visualize (imprinting an image) of these geologic events. Once the students have produced their drawings, the outdoor field exercise follows. Working collaboratively, the students measure and lay out a scaled linear model representing 4.56 billion years of geologic time. They then organize and place their drawings in the proper sequence on the temporal model that they have created. Once all the drawings are in place they are able to visualize the expanse of time in Earth's history. Through comparing results from a pre-test to those from a post-test we can show the gains in student understanding of Deep Time, a concept that is central to many of our geologic understandings.

  1. The Earth Information Exchange: A Portal for Earth Science From the ESIP Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, R.; Hutchinson, C.; Hardin, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners is a unique consortium of more than 90 organizations that collect, interpret and develop applications for remotely sensed Earth Observation Information. Included in the ESIP network are NASA, NOAA and USGS data centers, research universities, government research laboratories, supercomputer facilities, education resource providers, information technology innovators, nonprofit organizations and commercial enterprises. The consortium's work is dedicated to providing the most up-to-date, science-based information to researchers and decision-makers who are working to understand and address the environmental, economic and social challenges facing our planet. By increasing the use and usability of Earth observation data and linking it with decision-making tools, the Federation partners leverage the value of these important data resources for the betterment of society and our planet. To further the dissemination of Earth Science data, the Federation is developing the Earth Information Exchange (EIE). The EIE is a portal that will provide access to the vast information holdings of the members' organizations in one web-based location and will provides a robust marketplace in which the products and services needed to use and understand this information can be readily acquired. Since the Federation membership includes the federal government's Earth observing data centers, we believe that the impact of the EIE on Earth science research and education and environmental policy making will be profound. In the EIE, Earth observation data, products and services, are organized by the societal benefits categories defined by the international working group developing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The quality of the information is ensured in each of the Exchange's issue areas by maintaining working groups of issue area researchers and practitioners who serve as stewards for their respective communities. The

  2. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  3. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  4. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  5. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  7. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  8. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  9. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-01-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  10. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  11. NASA Center for Computational Sciences: History and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Nasa Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) has been a leading capacity computing facility, providing a production environment and support resources to address the challenges facing the Earth and space sciences research community.

  12. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  13. Creating a multi-national development platform: Thorium energy and rare earth value chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.; Kutsch, J.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earths and thorium are linked at the mineralogical level. Changes in thorium regulations and liabilities resulted in the development of excessive market concentrations in the rare earth value chain. High value monazite rare earth resources, a by-product of heavy mineral sands mining, constituted a significant portion of global rare earth supply (and nearly 100% of heavy rare earths) until legislative changes, interpretation and enforcement regarding “source materials” in the early 1980s eliminated these materials from the supply chain.

  14. International Conference and Advanced School Planet Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltsch, Rolf; Pinto, Alberto; Viana, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this volume is research carried out as part of the program Mathematics of Planet Earth, which provides a platform to showcase the essential role of mathematics in addressing planetary problems and creating a context for mathematicians and applied scientists to foster mathematical and interdisciplinary developments that will be necessary to tackle a myriad of issues and meet future global challenges. Earth is a planet with dynamic processes in its mantle, oceans and atmosphere creating climate, causing natural disasters, and influencing fundamental aspects of life and life-supporting systems. In addition to these natural processes, human activity has increased to the point where it influences the global climate, impacts the ability of the planet to feed itself and threatens the stability of these systems. Issues such as climate change, sustainability, man-made disasters, control of diseases and epidemics, management of resources, risk analysis, and global integration have come to the fore. Written...

  15. Discovering the Library with Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Brenner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries need to provide attractive and exciting discovery tools to draw patrons to the valuable resources in their catalogs. The authors conducted a pilot project to explore the free version of Google Earth as such a discover tool for Portland State Library’s digital collection of urban planning documents. They created eye-catching placemarks with links to parts of this collection, as well as to other pertinent materials like books, images, and historical background information. The detailed how-to-do part of this article is preceded by a discussion about discovery of library materials and followed by possible applications of this Google Earth project.

  16. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carolynne

    1990-01-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  17. International Conference and Advanced School Planet Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltsch, Rolf; Pinto, Alberto; Viana, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this volume is research carried out as part of the program Mathematics of Planet Earth, which provides a platform to showcase the essential role of mathematics in addressing problems of an economic and social nature and creating a context for mathematicians and applied scientists to foster mathematical and interdisciplinary developments that will be necessary to tackle a myriad of issues and meet future global economic and social challenges. Earth is a planet with dynamic processes in its mantle, oceans and atmosphere creating climate, causing natural disasters, and influencing fundamental aspects of life and life-supporting systems. In addition to these natural processes, human activity has developed highly complex systems, including economic and financial systems; the World Wide Web; frameworks for resource management, transportation, energy production and utilization; health care delivery, and social organizations. This development has increased to the point where it impacts the stability and ...

  18. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  19. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF SOIL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Along with specialty items used for the development and implementation of sustainable development, protection and conservation of the environment, legal protection component of soil resources play an essential role. Legal and institutional framework provides a much protection of soil resources. Soil is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. A soil pollutant is any factor which deteriorates the quality, texture and mineral content of the soil ...

  1. Earth before life

    OpenAIRE

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome i...

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio

    2001-01-01

    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  3. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.

    1976-01-01

    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  4. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  5. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  6. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  7. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  8. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  9. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  10. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  11. Moving Closer to EarthScope: A Major New Initiative for the Earth Sciences*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D.; Blewitt, G.; Ekstrom, G.; Henyey, T.; Hickman, S.; Prescott, W.; Zoback, M.

    2002-12-01

    science community. A broad sector of the university research community has joined with federal agencies to stimulate the development of facility plans and move EarthScope forward as a coordinated national initiative. With strong prospects for funding next year, the time is right for bold new ideas on how to maximize the use of these powerful new resources in the Earth scientist's toolkit. * On behalf of the EarthScope Working Group

  12. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  13. Earth System Science Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  14. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  15. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  16. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 3 .... Assessment of the regional water balance of the limestone subaquifers of Cyprus ... characterized by its small watersheds and the lack of ephemeral surface water resources. .... Optimization method for quantitative calculation of clay minerals in soil.

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Earth Sciences Department, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf 34003, Iraq. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China.

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marine and Water Resources Group, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad, 380 015, India. The sensor onboard the satellite views the earth as a plain surface and consequently the satellite obtained spectral radiances cannot represent true values over a mountainous terrain. The relative magnitudes of terrain slope and ...

  19. Rare Earth Polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Colette

    2017-09-19

    Longstanding and important applications make use of the chemical and physical properties of both rare earth metals and polyoxometalates of early transition metals. The catalytic, optical, and magnetic features of rare earth metal ions are well-known, as are the reversible multielectron redox and photoredox capabilities of polyoxomolybdates and polyoxotungstates. The combination of rare earth ions and polyoxometalates in discrete molecules and coordination polymers is of interest for the unique combination of chemical and physical properties that can arise. This Account surveys our efforts to synthesize and investigate compounds with rare earth ions and polyoxometalates (RE-POMs), sometimes with carboxylate-based organic coligands. Our general synthetic approach is "bottom-up", which affords well-defined nanoscale molecules, typically in crystalline form and amenable to single-crystal X-ray diffraction for structure determination. Our particular focus is on elucidation of the physical properties conferred by the different structural components with a view to ultimately being able to tune these properties chemically. For this purpose, we employ a variety of spectroscopic, magnetochemical, electrochemical, and scattering techniques in concert with theoretical modeling and computation. Studies of RE-POM single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have utilized magnetic susceptibility, inelastic neutron scattering, and ab initio calculations. These investigations have allowed characterization of the crystal field splitting of the rare earth(III) ions that is responsible for the SMM properties of slow magnetic relaxation and magnetization quantum tunneling. Such SMMs are promising for applications in quantum computing and molecular spintronics. Photophysical measurements of a family of hybrid RE-POMs with organic ligands have afforded insights into sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) emission through both organic and polyoxometalate chromophores in the same molecule. Detailed

  20. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  1. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  2. Making Connections: Where STEM Learning and Earth Science Data Services Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Kaylin; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Weigel, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) learning is most effective when students are encouraged to see the connections between science, technology and real world problems. Helping to make these connections has become an increasingly important aspect of Earth Science data research. The Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC), one of NASA's 12 EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data Information System) data centers, has developed a new type of documentation called the micro article to facilitate making connections between data and Earth science research problems.

  3. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  4. The Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, C. M. R.

    2005-02-01

    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org. First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  5. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...... of form, material and function, motivated by social values. To this essentially regional response, Utzon combines a fascination for the architectural legacies of foreign cultures. These influences include the architecture of the ancient Mayan civilisation, as well as the Islamic world, China and Japan...

  6. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  8. Analytical Frameworks for Addressing Physical, Social, and Institutional Changes in Water Resources Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    stability Presence of geologic hazards, e.g. landslides , site stability, distance to faults, and reservoir-induced seismicity BP9 Reservoir surface... Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council; National Academies Press. NRC–Panel on Adaptive Management for Resource Stewardship. 2004...Peer Review for Water Resources Project Planning, Water Science and Technology Board, Ocean Studies Board, Division on Earth and Life Studies

  9. Research for the physics and structure of earth's crust in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitulescu, T.P.; Popescu, M.N.

    1987-10-01

    Systematic research for the deciphering of the physic and structure of Earth's crust in our country by geophysical methods were performed in the frame of Romanian Geological Institute since 1925. We put into evidence the principle achievements obtained by the geological and geophysical research for the mineral resources existing in the Romanian earth's crust. (authors)

  10. Museum-Based Teacher Professional Development: Peabody Fellows in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Jane; Ague, Jay J.; Rath, Kenneth A.; Heiser, David M.; Sirch, James N.

    2012-01-01

    The Peabody Fellows in Earth Science program was a professional development opportunity for middle and high school teachers to enhance their knowledge of, and teaching skills in, the Earth sciences. It combined a summer institute and academic year workshops with the production of new curricular resources on the interpretation of landforms in…

  11. First results of the earth observation water cycle multi-mission observation strategy (WACMOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Fernadez-Prieto, D.; Timmermans, J.; Chen, Xuelong; Hungershoefer, K.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; Stammes, P.; Wang, Peng; Wolters, e.

    2014-01-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is

  12. Measuring Earth's Local Magnetic Field Using a Helmholtz Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I present a low-cost interactive experiment for measuring the strength of Earth's local magnetic field. This activity can be done in most high schools or two-year physics laboratories with limited resources, yet will have a tremendous learning impact. This experiment solidifies the three-dimensional nature of Earth's…

  13. Earth Sciences as a Vehicle for Gifted Education--The Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Phillip J.; Chan, Lung Sang; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The development and delivery of an Earth-science-focused short course designed to prepare Hong Kong students for university level study is described. Earth sciences provide an inspirational and challenging context for learning and teaching in Hong Kong's increasingly skills-based curriculum. (Contains 3 figures and 4 online resources.)

  14. Preparing the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: An Examination of Federal Education and Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Earth science, which in this context does not include oceanic, atmospheric, and space sciences, is vital to the wellbeing of the United States and many of its issues, such as water resources, are expected to grow in importance. An earth science workforce will be needed to deal with this issues and it's important that this workforce draw on the…

  15. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes exist.in order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  16. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  17. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  18. Is dying the earth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Garzon, Gustavo

    1994-01-01

    December 21 of 1968, on board the capsule Apollo 8, three astronauts, James A. Lovell, Frank Borman and William Anders, went toward what would be the first orbital flight around the moon. That experience like Lovell said, it makes us realize the insignificant that we are in comparison with the vastness of the universe. With the revolution lovelockiane, the life doesn't already consist on a group of organisms only adapted to its atmosphere by a certain action for external laws. The terrestrial environment, instead of being a physical world regulated by own autonomous laws, is part of an evolutionary system that contains the life and that it should to the phenomena vital part of its rules, its mechanisms and components. The alive beings connected to each other and to the atmosphere they manufacture and they maintain of continuous their atmosphere forming an everything at planetary level, according to Ricard Guerrero (1988). The theory of the earth then, he says, it has found their owner Darwin in James lovelock. The document treats topics like the science concept that it is the life, the earth and the contemporary environment

  19. Using EarthLabs to Enhance Earth Science Curriculum in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegwidden, D. M.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    As an educator in Texas, a state that values and supports an Earth Science curriculum, I find it essential to educate my students who are our future voting citizens and tax payers. It is important to equip them with tools to understand and solve the challenges of solving of climate change. As informed citizens, students can help to educate others in the community with basic knowledge of weather and climate. They can also help to dispose of the many misconceptions that surround the climate change, which is perceived as a controversial topic. As a participant in a NSF-sponsored Texas Earth and Space (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development program, I was selected to participate in a curriculum development project led by TERC to develop and test education resources for the EarthLabs climate literacy collection. I am involved in the multiple phases of the project, including reviewing labs that comprise the Climate, Weather and Biosphere module during the development phase, pilot teaching the module with my students, participating in research, and delivering professional development to other Texas teachers to expose them to the content found in the module and to encourage them to incorporate it into their teaching. The Climate, Weather and the Biosphere module emphasizes different forms of evidence and requires that learners apply different inquiry-based approaches to build the knowledge they need to develop as climate literate citizens. My involvement with the EarthLabs project has strengthened my overall knowledge and confidence to teach about Earth's climate system and climate change. In addition, the project has produced vigorous classroom discussion among my students as well as encouraged me to collaborate with other educators through our delivery of professional development to other teachers. In my poster, I will share my experiences, describe the impact the curriculum has made on my students, and report on challenges and valuable lessons gained by

  20. School, Earth and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  1. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Bugbee, K.; Christopher, S. A.; Miller, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates indicate that the world's information will grow by 800% in the next five years. In any given field, a single researcher or a team of researchers cannot keep up with this rate of knowledge expansion without the help of cognitive systems. Cognitive computing, defined as the use of information technology to augment human cognition, can help tackle large systemic problems. Knowledge graphs, one of the foundational components of cognitive systems, link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. Researchers could mine these graphs to make probabilistic recommendations and to infer new knowledge. At this point, however, there is a dearth of tools to generate scalable Knowledge graphs using existing corpus of scientific literature for Earth science research. Our project is currently developing an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge graphs for Earth Science. Semantic Entity Recognition (SER) is one of the key steps in this methodology. SER for Earth Science uses external resources (including metadata catalogs and controlled vocabulary) as references to guide entity extraction and recognition (i.e., labeling) from unstructured text, in order to build a large training set to seed the subsequent auto-learning component in our algorithm. Results from several SER experiments will be presented as well as lessons learned.

  2. Value of Earth Observation for Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, F.; Shapiro, C. D.; Grasso, M.; Pearlman, J.; Adkins, J. E.; Pindilli, E.; Geppi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Societal benefits flowing from Earth observation are intuitively obvious as we use the information to assess natural hazards (such as storm tracks), water resources (such as flooding and droughts in coastal and riverine systems), ecosystem vitality and other dynamics that impact the health and economic well being of our population. The most powerful confirmation of these benefits would come from quantifying the impact and showing direct quantitative links in the value chain from data to decisions. However, our ability to identify and quantify those benefits is challenging. The impact of geospatial data on these types of decisions is not well characterized and assigning a true value to the observations on a broad scale across disciplines still remains to be done in a systematic way. This presentation provides the outcomes of a workshop held in October 2017 as a side event of the GEO Plenary that addressed research on economic methodologies for quantification of impacts. To achieve practical outputs during the meeting, the workshop focused on the use and value of Earth observations in risk mitigation including: ecosystem impacts, weather events, and other natural and manmade hazards. Case studies on approaches were discussed and will be part of this presentation. The presentation will also include the exchange of lessons learned and a discussion of gaps in the current understanding of the use and value of earth observation information for risk mitigation.

  3. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  4. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  5. Rare Earths and Clean Energy: analyzing China's upper hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, J.

    2010-01-01

    An ominous but avoidable resource crunch in the so-called 'rare earth elements' is now threatening the development of a number of key industries from energy to defense to consumer electronics. As key components in the latest generation of technologies, including specialized magnets for windmills and hybrid cars, lasers for range finders and 'smart' munitions, and phosphors for LCD screens, demand for these rare metals is expected to grow rapidly in the years to come. But decades of under-investment in the mining and separation of these elements across the globe has left the industry ill-prepared to meet thi s growing demand. Over the years, only China has recognized the strategic significance of these resources and has succeeded in gaining a near monopoly on production, currently churning out 97% of the world' s rare earth oxides. Faced with problems of its own, and eager to use its resource advantage to master higher levels of value-added production of rare earth-dependent products, China has increasingly limited the rest of the world's access to these raw materials. This only complicates what was already projected to be a problematic resource shortage. This issue demands a higher quality of public debate. Rare earth consuming countries outside of China have only recently become aware of their dependence and started to take stock of the risks. Time is of the essence. Bringing new supplies online to meet growing demand is a long, complicated and risky process but is nevertheless necessary to ensure the development of high tech industries, notably clean energy. Accessible reserves of rare earths do exist outside of China and mitigating the effects of the looming shortage requires opening up these reserves to production. Yet, as the Chinese experience attests, there are substantial risks to the environment associated with mining and separating rare earths. Care must be taken to ensure responsible mining practices across the globe. Longer-term solutions, such as

  6. Teach and Touch the Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florina Tendea, Camelia

    2017-04-01

    supplemented attitudes and behaviors that care for their health, for the health of others and to the natural environment, interest and appreciation of logical argument; curiosity and concern about environmental phenomena, independent thinking, creativity. I think that is very important, like teacher, to combine the two parts of teaching: theoretical one and practical one. TEACH means setting a bag of theoretical aspects and also who can provide us support?(ideas, resources, scientific competitions etc.) and TOUCH means practical aspects for teachers & students. Resoults: Participating of teachers and students at workshops, round table, scientific debates provide knowledge about Space in context of STEM disciplines, Hands-on experiences; Find different situations of learning; Ideas, methods and techniques for design new lessons; Real scientific data from ESA/ESERO/ROSA sites; Chance to be part of international projects. Conclusions:Teach and Touch the Earth and Sky - could be a great chance to benefit from the proposed programs of ESA, through which space can be brought into the classroom and used as a tool for teaching and learning, moreover access to actual scientific data and experiences shared by the scientists, or other specialists offers a new prespective in the study of STEM subjects by students.

  7. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    is fraught with the risk of shifting the supply security problem from one type of non‐renewable resources (fossil fuels) to another type (metals), in particular the specialty metals such as rare earth elements e.g. neodymium and dysprosium. This PhD work presented an in‐depth analysis of potential resource...

  8. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  9. Rare earth superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of recent experiments on the magnetism of rare earth superlattices. Early experiments in this field were concerned mainly with systems formed by combining a magnetic and a non-magnetic element in a superlattice structure. From results gathered on a variety of systems it has been established that the propagation of magnetic order through the non-magnetic spacer can be understood mostly on the basis of an RKKY-like model, where the strength and range of the coupling depends on the details of the conduction electron susceptibility of the spacer. Recent experiments on more complex systems indicate that this model does not provide a complete description. Examples include superlattices where the constituents can either be both magnetic, adopt different crystal structures (Fermi surfaces), or where one of the constituents has a non-magnetic singlet ground state. The results from such systems are presented and discussed in the context of the currently accepted model. (au)

  10. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...... research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and space observations, and on state-of-the-art empirical models and physics-based simulations. Thus, it provides an in-depth overview over recent achievements, current limitations and challenges, and future opportunities in the field of geomagnetism and space sciences....

  11. Rare earth (3) pivalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Zoan An' Tu; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; Troyanov, S.I.; Rykov, A.N.; Korenev, Yu.M.

    1994-01-01

    Depending on synthesis conditions rare earth pivalates can be obtained in the form of either adducts NPiv·HPiv or hydrates MPiv 3 ·mH 2 O. Adducts are the most stable form of pivalates. Heating of adducts result in formation of corresponding MPiv 3 . MPiv 3 ·nHPiv compounds are characterized by IR-spectroscopy and thermal analysis data. Behaviour of MPiv 3 was studied in the regime of vacuum sublemation. Using mass spectroscopy of NdPiv 3 it was shown that gaseous phase above MPiv 3 had complex composition and contained ligomer fragments. X-ray structure analysis of [NdPiv 3 ·3HPiv] was conducted

  12. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See www.onedayonearth.org for details on how to participate.

  13. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  14. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  15. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  16. Theory of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is an isolated, cooling planet that obeys the 2nd law. Interior dynamics is driven from the top, by cold sinking slabs. High-resolution broad-band seismology and geodesy has confirmed that mantle flow is characterized by narrow downwellings and ~20 broad slowly rising updrafts. The low-velocity zone (LVZ) consists of a hot melange of sheared peridotite intruded with aligned melt-rich lamellae that are tapped by intraplate volcanoes. The high temperature is a simple consequence of the thermal overshoot common in large bodies of convecting fluids. The transition zone consists of ancient eclogite layers that are displaced upwards by slabs to become broad passive, and cool, ridge feeding updrafts of ambient mantle. The physics that is overlooked in canonical models of mantle dynamics and geochemistry includes; the 2nd law, convective overshoots, subadiabaticity, wave-melt interactions, Archimedes' principle, and kinetics (rapid transitions allow stress-waves to interact with melting and phase changes, creating LVZs; sluggish transitions in cold slabs keep eclogite in the TZ where it warms up by extracting heat from mantle below 650 km, creating the appearance of slab penetration). Canonical chemical geodynamic models are the exact opposite of physics and thermodynamic based models and of the real Earth. A model that results from inverting the assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions (hot origin, secular cooling, no external power sources, cooling internal boundaries, broad passive upwellings, adiabaticity and whole-mantle convection not imposed, layering and self-organization allowed) results in a thick refractory-yet-fertile surface layer, with ancient xenoliths and cratons at the top and a hot overshoot at the base, and a thin mobile D" layer that is an unlikely plume generation zone. Accounting for the physics that is overlooked, or violated (2nd law), in canonical models, plus modern seismology, undermines the assumptions and conclusions of these

  17. Introduction to Space Resource Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

  18. Earth Science Mining Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long; Lynnes, Christopher; Hegde, Mahabaleshwa; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Keiser, Ken

    2008-01-01

    To allow scientists further capabilities in the area of data mining and web services, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) have developed a system to mine data at the source without the need of network transfers. The system has been constructed by linking together several pre-existing technologies: the Simple Scalable Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM), a processing engine at he GES DISC; the Algorithm Development and Mining (ADaM) system, a data mining toolkit from UAH that can be configured in a variety of ways to create customized mining processes; ActiveBPEL, a workflow execution engine based on BPEL (Business Process Execution Language); XBaya, a graphical workflow composer; and the EOS Clearinghouse (ECHO). XBaya is used to construct an analysis workflow at UAH using ADam components, which are also installed remotely at the GES DISC, wrapped as Web Services. The S4PM processing engine searches ECHO for data using space-time criteria, staging them to cache, allowing the ActiveBPEL engine to remotely orchestras the processing workflow within S4PM. As mining is completed, the output is placed in an FTP holding area for the end user. The goals are to give users control over the data they want to process, while mining data at the data source using the server's resources rather than transferring the full volume over the internet. These diverse technologies have been infused into a functioning, distributed system with only minor changes to the underlying technologies. The key to the infusion is the loosely coupled, Web-Services based architecture: All of the participating components are accessible (one way or another) through (Simple Object Access Protocol) SOAP-based Web Services.

  19. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  20. JEOS. The JANUS earth observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molette, P.; Jouan, J.

    The JANUS multimission platform has been designed to minimize the cost of the satellite (by a maximum reuse of equipment from other proprogrammes) and of its associated launch by Aŕiane (by a piggy-back configuration optimized for Ariane 4). The paper describes the application of the JANUS platform to an Earth observation mission with the objective to provide a given country with a permanent monitoring of its earth resources by exploitation of spaceborne imagery. According to this objective, and to minimize the overall system and operational cost, the JANUS Earth Observation Satellite (JEOS) will provide a limited coverage with real time transmission of image data, thus avoiding need for on-board storage and simplifying operations. The JEOS operates on a low earth, near polar sun synchronous orbit. Launched in a piggy-back configuration on Ariane 4, with a SPOT or ERS spacecraft, it reaches its operational orbit after a drift orbit of a few weeks maximum. In its operational mode, the JEOS is 3-axis stabilised, earth pointed. After presentation of the platform, the paper describes the solid state push-broom camera which is composed of four optical lenses mounted on a highly stable optical bench. Each lens includes an optics system, reused from an on-going development, and two CCD linear arrays of detectors. The camera provides four registered channels in visible and near IR bands. The whole optical bench is supported by a rotating mechanism which allows rotation of the optical axis in the across-track direction. The JEOS typical performance for a 700 km altitude is then summarized: spatial resolution 30 m, swath width 120 km, off-track capability 325 km,… The payload data handling and transmission electronics, derived from the French SPOT satellite, realizes the processing, formatting, and transmission to the ground; this allows reuse of the standard SPOT receiving stations. The camera is only operated when the spacecraft is within the visibility of the ground

  1. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. E.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA’s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA’s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO’s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO’s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA’s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for

  2. Virtual Collections: An Earth Science Data Curation Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, Kaylin; Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The role of Earth science data centers has traditionally been to maintain central archives that serve openly available Earth observation data. However, in order to ensure data are as useful as possible to a diverse user community, Earth science data centers must move beyond simply serving as an archive to offering innovative data services to user communities. A virtual collection, the end product of a curation activity that searches, selects, and synthesizes diffuse data and information resources around a specific topic or event, is a data curation service that improves the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of Earth science data and also supports the needs of unanticipated users. Virtual collections minimize the amount of the time and effort needed to begin research by maximizing certainty of reward and by providing a trustworthy source of data for unanticipated users. This presentation will define a virtual collection in the context of an Earth science data center and will highlight a virtual collection case study created at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center.

  3. Earth Science Data Education through Cooking Up Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Maskey, M.; Smith, T.; Conover, H.

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges in Earth science research and applications is understanding and applying the proper methods, tools, and software for using scientific data. These techniques are often difficult and time consuming to identify, requiring novel users to conduct extensive research, take classes, and reach out for assistance, thus hindering scientific discovery and real-world applications. To address these challenges, the Global Hydrology Resource Center (GHRC) DAAC has developed a series of data recipes that novel users such as students, decision makers, and general Earth scientists can leverage to learn how to use Earth science datasets. Once the data recipe content had been finalized, GHRC computer and Earth scientists collaborated with a web and graphic designer to ensure the content is both attractively presented to data users, and clearly communicated to promote the education and use of Earth science data. The completed data recipes include, but are not limited to, tutorials, iPython Notebooks, resources, and tools necessary for addressing key difficulties in data use across a broad user base. These recipes enable non-traditional users to learn how to use data, but also curates and communicates common methods and approaches that may be difficult and time consuming for these users to identify.

  4. Virtual Collections: An Earth Science Data Curation Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, K.; Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.

    2016-12-01

    The role of Earth science data centers has traditionally been to maintain central archives that serve openly available Earth observation data. However, in order to ensure data are as useful as possible to a diverse user community, Earth science data centers must move beyond simply serving as an archive to offering innovative data services to user communities. A virtual collection, the end product of a curation activity that searches, selects, and synthesizes diffuse data and information resources around a specific topic or event, is a data curation service that improves the discoverability, accessibility and usability of Earth science data and also supports the needs of unanticipated users. Virtual collections minimize the amount of time and effort needed to begin research by maximizing certainty of reward and by providing a trustworthy source of data for unanticipated users. This presentation will define a virtual collection in the context of an Earth science data center and will highlight a virtual collection case study created at the Global Hydrology Resource Center data center.

  5. C3: A Collaborative Web Framework for NASA Earth Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughty, E.; Fattarsi, C.; Hardoyo, C.; Kluck, D.; Wang, L.; Matthews, B.; Das, K.; Srivastava, A.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a new collaboration platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing. NEX combines NASA advanced supercomputing resources, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data archives, and a collaborative communication platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. NEX is designed primarily for use by the NASA Earth science community to address scientific grand challenges. The NEX web portal component provides an on-line collaborative environment for sharing of Eearth science models, data, analysis tools and scientific results by researchers. In addition, the NEX portal also serves as a knowledge network that allows researchers to connect and collaborate based on the research they are involved in, specific geographic area of interest, field of study, etc. Features of the NEX web portal include: Member profiles, resource sharing (data sets, algorithms, models, publications), communication tools (commenting, messaging, social tagging), project tools (wikis, blogs) and more. The NEX web portal is built on the proven technologies and policies of DASHlink.arc.nasa.gov, (one of NASA's first science social media websites). The core component of the web portal is a C3 framework, which was built using Django and which is being deployed as a common framework for a number of collaborative sites throughout NASA.

  6. Macroecology Meets Macroeconomics: Resource Scarcity and Global Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James H; Burger, Joseph R; Burnside, William R; Chang, Michael; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Hammond, Sean T; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G

    2014-04-01

    The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to scarcity of critical resources. Our macroecological studies highlight the role in the economy of energy and natural resources: oil, gas, water, arable land, metals, rare earths, fertilizers, fisheries, and wood. As the modern industrial technological-informational economy expanded in recent decades, it grew by consuming the Earth's natural resources at unsustainable rates. Correlations between per capita GDP and per capita consumption of energy and other resources across nations and over time demonstrate how economic growth and development depend on "nature's capital". Decades-long trends of decreasing per capita consumption of multiple important commodities indicate that overexploitation has created an unsustainable bubble of population and economy.

  7. China's rare-earth industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  8. Rare earths 1998 market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The rare earth industry has always been a world of rapid change with the emergence of new markets, new ores and new players, as well as the disappearance of old applications. Rare earth based products are used in a great diversity of applications such as hard disk drives, CD drives, batteries, capacitors, pigments, ceramics, polishing powders, fuel cells, flints, catalyst converter, fluid cracking catalysts, etc. South East Asia holds the largest share of the known reserve of rare earth ores and is one of the major markets for rare earth compounds; in the last ten years, China has become the largest producer of rare earth intermediates as well as an important exporter of separated rare earth elements. Today, China has approximately 150 factories producing rare earth compounds, most of which are experiencing financial difficulties due to the lack of knowledge of true market needs, lack of control of their distribution channels and production over-capacity. Recently the Chinese rare earth producers have recognized the situation and efforts are underway to rationalize rare earth production. Japan has dominated many of the major application markets, and is by far the largest market for metal and alloy products. This will remain the case for the next five years; however, new countries are emerging as significant users of rare earth products such as Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. During the last ten years rare earth producers adjusted to several radical changes that affected the raw materials, the application mix and the price structure. New producers have emerged, especially from China; some have subsequently stopped their activities while others have focused their efforts in a specific market segment

  9. Next-generation digital earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodchild, M.F.; Guo, H.; Annoni, A.; Bian, L.; Bie, de K.; Campbell, F.; Craglia, M.; Ehlers, M.; Genderen, van J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, C.; Woodgate, P.

    2012-01-01

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google

  10. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  11. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  12. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  13. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2009-01-01

    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  14. Teaching Waves with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves. (Contains 9 figures.)

  15. Power of Doubling: Population Growth and Resource Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sarika Bahadure

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability starts with conserving resources for future generations. Since human’s existence on this earth, he has been consuming natural resources. The resource consumption pace in the past was very slow, but industrialization in 18th century brought a change in the human lifestyle. New inventions and discoveries upgraded the human workforce to machines. The mass manufacture of goods provided easy access to products. In the last few decades, the globalization and change in technologies br...

  16. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, Frank D

    2010-01-01

    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 x 10 12 W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>10 4 : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical approach to

  17. HRM-Earth.dk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Holt Larsen, Henrik; Znaider, Ruth

    Undersøgelsen tager temperaturen på Human Resource Management i Danmark. Der ses på brugen af HRM-redskaber og virkemidler, som generelt bliver bredere. HRM bliver i stigende grad et strategisk indsatsområde for virksomhederne. Undersøgelsen kortlægger endvidere faktorer omkring outsourcing af HR......-funktionen, incitamenter og personalegoder, etik, performance samt kønsproblematikker i HR-arbejdet. Cranet er en internationalt koordineret analyse, som afvikles parallelt i 40 lande....

  18. Preparing rare earth-silicon-iron-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, J.D.; Morrice, E.; Herve, B.P.; Wong, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    As part of its mission to assure the maximum recovery and use of the Nation's mineral resources, the Bureau of Mines, investigated an improved procedure for producing rare earth-silicon alloys. For example, a charge consisting of 681 grams of mixed rare-earth oxides, 309 grams of ferrosilicon (75 wt-pct Si), and 182 grams of aluminum metal along with a flux consisting of 681 grams of CaO and 45 grams of MgO was reacted at 1500 0 C in an induction furnace. Good slag-metal separation was achieved. The alloy product contained, in weight-percent, 53 RE, 28 Si, 11 Fe, and 4 Al with a rare earth recovery of 80 pct. In current industrial practice rare earth recoveries are usually about 60 pct in alloy products that contain approximately 30 wt-pct each of rare earths and silicon. Metallurgical evaluations showed the alloys prepared in this investigation to be as effective in controlling the detrimental effect of sulfur in steel and cast iron as the commercial rare earth-silicon-iron alloys presently used in the steel industry

  19. Building A Collaborative And Distributed E&O Program For EarthScope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Wallace, M. K.; Boyd, T.; Richard, G.; Ellins, K.; Meertens, C.; Semken, S.; Taber, J.; Benthien, M.; Wald, L.; Marvinney, R.

    2003-12-01

    EarthScope's education and outreach (E&O) mission is to ensure that the EarthScope experiment creates as its legacy a public more knowledgeable and understanding of the scientific and societal contributions made by the EarthScope experiment and Earth science. It will fulfill this commitment by developing and disseminating programs and products that utilize the data, models, technology and discoveries of EarthScope. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network (EON), consisting of local EON alliances, the EarthScope facilities, partner organizations and a coordinating office, will facilitate this E&O mission. The local EON alliances, which will vary in size and purpose to respond quickly and to meet the specific needs in a region, will carry out the bulk of the effort. Thus, EarthScope EON can provide customized services that engage culturally, economically and geographically diverse audiences at the national and local scales. The EarthScope facilities and research community will provide access to data, models, and visualization tools for educational purposes. Partnerships with other national and local science education and outreach programs at colleges, universities, research facilities and professional societies within the EarthScope community as well as relevant programs at museums and parks, state geologic surveys and emergency management agencies, and K-12 schools are critical to EON's success. These partnerships will allow EON to use existing resources, networks and expertise to gear up quickly and efficiently. As EON develops, it will reciprocate by contributing new resources and expertise to the partnerships that help improve public understanding of Earth systems overall and promote effective application of EarthScope discoveries. In this presentation, we will outline major programs and products envisioned for EarthScope, plans for evaluating those programs locally and nationally, and mechanisms for collaborating with existing E&O programs.

  20. China’s Rare Earths Production Forecasting and Sustainable Development Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibo Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique physical and chemical properties, Rare earth elements (REEs perform important functions in our everyday lives, with use in a range of products. Recently, the study of China’s rare earth elements production has become a hot topic of worldwide interest, because of its dominant position in global rare earth elements supply, and an increasing demand for rare earth elements due to the constant use of rare earth elements in high-tech manufacturing industries. At the same time, as an exhaustible resource, the sustainable development of rare earth elements has received extensive attention. However, most of the study results are based on a qualitative analysis of rare earth elements distribution and production capacity, with few studies using quantitative modeling. To achieve reliable results with more factors being taken into consideration, this paper applies the generic multivariant system dynamics model to forecast China’s rare earth elements production trend and Hubbert peak, using Vensim software based on the Hubbert model. The results show that the peak of China’s rare earth elements production will appear by 2040, and that production will slowly decline afterwards. Based on the results, the paper proposes some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of China’s—and the world’s—rare earth elements market and rare earth-related industries.

  1. Rotation of a Moonless Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  2. Earth2Class: Bringing the Earth to the Classroom-Innovative Connections between Research Scientists, Teachers, and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    "Earth2Class" (E2C) is a unique program offered through the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. It connects research scientists, classroom teachers, middle and high school students, and others in ways that foster broader outreach of cutting-edge discoveries. One key component are Saturday workshops offered during the school year. These provide investigators with a tested format for sharing research methods and results. Teachers and students learn more about "real"science than what is found in textbooks. They discover that Science is exciting, uncertain, and done by people not very different from themselves. Since 1998, we have offered more than 170 workshops, partnering with more than 90 LDEO scientists. E2C teachers establishe links with scientists that have led to participation in research projects, the LDEO Open House, and other programs. Connections developed between high school students and scientists resulted in authentic science research experiences. A second key component of the project is the E2C website, https://earth2class.org/site/. We provide archived versions of monthly workshops. The website hosts a vast array of resources geared to support learning Earth Science and other subjects. Resources created through an NSF grant to explore strategies which enhance Spatial Thinking in the NYS Regents Earth Science curriculum are found at https://earth2class.org/site/?page_id=2957. The site is well-used by K-12 Earth Science educators, averaging nearly 70k hits per month. A third component of the E2C program are week-long summer institutes offering opportunities to enhance content knowledge in weather and climate; minerals, rocks, and resources; and astronomy. These include exploration of strategies to implement NGSS-based approaches within the school curriculum. Participants can visit LDEO lab facilities and interact with scientists to learn about their research. In the past year, we have begun to create a "satellite" E2C program at UFVJM

  3. Changes in earth's dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2006-11-01

    The dipole moment of Earth's magnetic field has decreased by nearly 9% over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core-mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of the present episode of dipole moment decrease originates in the southern hemisphere. Weakening and equatorward advection of normal polarity magnetic field by the core flow, combined with proliferation and growth of regions where the magnetic polarity is reversed, are reducing the dipole moment on the core-mantle boundary. Growth of these reversed flux regions has occurred over the past century or longer and is associated with the expansion of the South Atlantic Anomaly, a low-intensity region in the geomagnetic field that presents a radiation hazard at satellite altitudes. We address the speculation that the present episode of dipole moment decrease is a precursor to the next geomagnetic polarity reversal. The paleomagnetic record contains a broad spectrum of dipole moment fluctuations with polarity reversals typically occurring during dipole moment lows. However, the dipole moment is stronger today than its long time average, indicating that polarity reversal is not likely unless the current episode of moment decrease continues for a thousand years or more.

  4. When the earth shudders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltese, G.

    The enormous damage that can be caused by earthquakes (500,000 deaths in Tangshan, China, 1976) makes the art and science of earthquake predicting one of the principal objectives of modern geophysics. In this review of the state-of-the-art in earthquake predicting, brief notes are given on several topics: plate tectonics theory, geographic distribution of earthquakes, elastic potential energy storage of rocks, seismic wave typology, comparison of Mercalli and Richter scales, pre-warning signs in nature (strange behaviour of animals, preliminary reduction of seismic wave velocity, variations in local micro-seismicity and physical properties of rocks, etc.), comparison of earthquake energy release models, historical origin of the science of earthquake predicting, implication of fault slip rates and earthquake recurrence models to probabilistic seismic hazard estimates, the time element in prediction making, analysis of examples of correct predictions, pattern recognition instrumentation, earthquake intensity control through fluid injection, correlations between water reservoir level and seismicity, the creation of government programs for the monitoring of the earth's crust and seismic data acquisition, comparison of earthquake prediction and preparedness approaches in Japan and the USA.

  5. Our sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, Raymond L

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as oceans are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880, and can be associated with the industrial revolution. The climactic consequences of this human dominated increase in atmospheric CO 2 define a geologic epoch that has been termed the 'Anthropocene.' The issue is whether this is a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. Eight 'myths' that posit the former are examined in light of known data. The analysis strongly suggests the latter. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO 2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. Two examples of economically sustainable CO 2 emission reduction demonstrate that technological innovation has the potential to maintain our standard of living while stabilizing global temperatures.

  6. Space sickness on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooij, S. A. E.; Bos, J. E.; Groen, E. L.; Bles, W.; Ockels, W. J.

    2007-09-01

    During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they experienced after a 1 hour centrifuge run on Earth, i.e., after a transition from 3G to 1G (denoted by Sickness Induced by Centrifugation, SIC). During several space missions, we related susceptibility to SAS and to SIC in 11 astronauts and found 4 of them being susceptible to both SIC and SAS, and 7 being not susceptible to SIC nor to SAS. This correspondence in susceptibility suggests that SIC and SAS share the same underlying mechanism. To further study this mechanism, several vestibular parameters have been investigated (e.g. postural stability, vestibularly driven eye movements, subjective vertical). We found some striking changes in individual cases that are possibly due to the centrifuge run. However, the variability between subjects generally is very large, making physiological links to SIC and SAS still hard to find.

  7. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and...

  8. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  9. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  10. Software Reuse Within the Earth Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James J.; Olding, Steve; Wolfe, Robert E.; Delnore, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific missions in the Earth sciences frequently require cost-effective, highly reliable, and easy-to-use software, which can be a challenge for software developers to provide. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) spends a significant amount of resources developing software components and other software development artifacts that may also be of value if reused in other projects requiring similar functionality. In general, software reuse is often defined as utilizing existing software artifacts. Software reuse can improve productivity and quality while decreasing the cost of software development, as documented by case studies in the literature. Since large software systems are often the results of the integration of many smaller and sometimes reusable components, ensuring reusability of such software components becomes a necessity. Indeed, designing software components with reusability as a requirement can increase the software reuse potential within a community such as the NASA ESE community. The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group is chartered to oversee the development of a process that will maximize the reuse potential of existing software components while recommending strategies for maximizing the reusability potential of yet-to-be-designed components. As part of this work, two surveys of the Earth science community were conducted. The first was performed in 2004 and distributed among government employees and contractors. A follow-up survey was performed in 2005 and distributed among a wider community, to include members of industry and academia. The surveys were designed to collect information on subjects such as the current software reuse practices of Earth science software developers, why they choose to reuse software, and what perceived barriers prevent them from reusing software. In this paper, we compare the results of these surveys, summarize the observed trends, and discuss the findings. The results are very

  11. The Earth in energy troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.; Carroue, L.; Goodchild, M.F.; Charvet, J.P.; Simon, A.; Ane, J.M.; Auburtin, E.; Barre, B.; Bonin, S.; Fumey, G.; Daviet, S.; Goupil, Ph.; Helfer, M.; Raison, J.; Velut, S.; Vidal, D.; Radvanyi, J.; Tapia, St. de; Pourtier, R.; Sebille-Lopez, Ph.; Clairet, S.; Poirson, A.C.; Guillaume, J.; Collignon, B.; Bauquis, P.R.; Brunel, S.; Guillaume, J.; Hourcade, B.; Marchand-Vaguet, Y.; Pitte, J.R.; Marchand-Vaguet, Y.; Laherrere, J.; Letourneau, M.; Lemarchand, N.; Beltran, A.; Bret, B.; Feckoua, L.; Helfer, M.; Lacoste, R.; Manzagol, C.; Tessier, F.; Vanneph, A.; Claessens, M.; Berdevet, M.; Tabeaud, M.; Laherrere, J.; Arnould, P.; Berque, A.; Brucher, W.; Deshaies, M.; Douguedroit, A.; Husson, J.P.; Lemartinel, J.; Mancebo, F.; Baron-Yelles, N.; Pitte, J.R.; Sede Marceau, J.H. de; Vigneau, J.P.; Tabeaud, M.; Fremont, A.; Crozet, Y.; Maupu, J.L.; Orfeuil, J.P.; Savy, M.; Viel, D.; Hammer, A.; Sanjuan, Th.; Lagarec, D.; Raillon, F.; Koninck, R. de; Bailly, A.; Bruneau, M.; Boulanger, Ph.; Bret, B.; Fournet-Guerin, C.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Pitte, J.R.; Sanjuan, Th.; Verdeil, E.; Butler, S. de; Saint Germain, F.; Bouette, N.; Detot, A.; Caracchioli, Ph.; Bouette, N.; Smaghue, N.; Pousin, J.; Buysse, Ph.; Riallant, Y.; Durand, H.; Genter, A.; Dieulin, C.; Pronier, O.; Badea, A.; Tetart, F.; Genevois, S.; Leobet, M.; Angsthelm, B.; Calugaru, C.; Domergue, Ph.; Iacu, C.; Muntele, L.; Goodchild, M.F.; Costa, P.

    2007-01-01

    This document gathers the available presentations (articles and transparencies) given at this annual meeting, the 2007 topic of which was the technological, geopolitical, economical, environmental, societal and development stakes of energy. 1 - technological stakes - which energies for the future: new energies, illusion or solution of the future; the Lorraine region, an energy land: strategies and stakes for a sustainable development; from China to Brazil: understanding the nuclear energy revival; hydroelectric power: renewable and sustainable energy; renewable energies and environment protection: the contribution of biofuels; wind power in Germany between success and contestation; 2 - geopolitical stakes - energy levier of power: the Gulf of Guinea hydrocarbons: between development and geopolitics; the complex evaluation of resources and reserves between technology, market and geopolitics; the new Bakou-Tbilissi-Ceyhan pipeline: what impacts for Turkey and the European Union; 3 - economical stakes - are public energy policies possible: the pro-alcohol program in Brazil; the surprising development of coal in the 21. century; natural gas: geo-economical and geopolitical stakes; exploitation of offshore platforms in Newfoundland: the new future of codfish island; tar sands of Alberta: promises and stakes of a 'Northern Arabia'; 4 - environmental stakes - energies responsible for the global warming: energy transformation and work in human societies; lessons learnt from the pre-industrial era: the limits of modern renewable energy sources; the energy policies in Europe: environmental constraints and geopolitical risks; reducing our energy consumption: a stake of the future; global warming and energy troubles; a territorial approach of energy, an answer to the 21. century challenges; the climate in an energy consuming world, debate and precautions; the Kyoto protocol through the geographical critics; 5 - society stakes - what energies for tomorrow's city: global design

  12. Radiation environment of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The radiation environment of the earth consists of natural and artificial radiation. This paper explains the distribution and some exposure examples of natural radiation and the relation between life and natural radiation. The earth was born before about 46 hundreds of millions of years. In the present earth, there are some natural radiations with long half-life originated by the earth. They are 232 Th (141 hundreds of millions of years of half-life), 238 U (45 hundreds of millions of years of half-life) and 40 K (13 hundreds of millions of years of half-life). Natural radiation (α-, β-, and γ-ray) from natural radionuclides exists everywhere in the earth. Natural radio nuclides are heat source of the earth, which is about 0.035 μcal/g/y. γ-ray from them is called as ''the earth's crust γ-ray'', which is about 55 nGy/h average of the world and about 50 nGy/h in Japan. The distribution of γ-ray is depended on the kinds of soil and rock. 222 Rn and 230 Rn are rare gases and the concentration of them in a room is larger than outside. Natural radiations originated from the cosmos are proton, ionizing components, neutron component with muon and electron, 3 H, 14 C and 10 Be. Effect of cosmic rays on birth of life, change of temperature, amount of cloud and ultra resistant cell are stated. (S.Y.)

  13. Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.

  14. Caring for the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, D A; Holdgate, M W [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The text has three parts. The first is the principles for sustainable living which include: respect and care for the community of life, improve the quality of life; conservation; minimize the depletion of non-renewable resources; provide a national framework for integrating development and conservation; and forge a global alliance. The second is additional actions for sustainable living and it deals with: energy; business, industry and commerce; settlement; farms; forest lands; fresh waters and oceans. The third part, implementation and follow-up, proposes guidelines to aid adaptation of the strategy so it can be implemented. It contains a list of recommended priority actions and suggested targets. 176 refs., 7 figs., 31 boxes.

  15. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  16. World resources: engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.

  17. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan

    2016-05-01

    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  18. EarthN: A new Earth System Nitrogen Model

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Benjamin W.; Goldblatt, Colin

    2018-01-01

    The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere, oceans, crust, and mantle have important ramifications for Earth's biologic and geologic history. Despite this importance, the history and cycling of nitrogen in the Earth system is poorly constrained over time. For example, various models and proxies contrastingly support atmospheric mass stasis, net outgassing, or net ingassing over time. In addition, the amount available to and processing of nitrogen by organisms is intricately linked with and prov...

  19. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  20. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  1. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. New risks from raw materials for the future? Case study and scenarios for China and rare earths (Report 3.4); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Risikoreiche Zukunftsrohstoffe? Fallstudie und Szenarien zu China und seltene Erden (Teilbericht 3.4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    ''Rare earths are to China what oil is to the Middle East,'' stated Deng Xiaoping in 1992 (Wang 2007). China accounts for 97 percent of global rare earth production, and as such the world is more dependent on it than it is on oil from the Middle East. That situation is significant because rare earths, although usually used only in small amounts, are of great strategic relevance. They are not only key components of many military technologies, including guided missiles and radar; they are also to be found in many high-tech products which we use in our daily lives - primarily electronic devices such as computer hard disks, plasma screens and MP3 players. They also make alloys harder, and are used to grind precision lenses. Rare earths are of particular importance in the field of environmental technology however. They are key components of catalytic converters, wind turbines, energy-saving bulbs and electric motors - and new applications in the environmental field are emerging all the time. These technologies are increasing the importance of, and the demand for, rare earths. As rare earths become ever more important, however, the question also arises as to the risks and opportunities they bring for consumers and producers. Consequently, this report (3.4) investigates those risks and opportunities, with a particular focus on China. Its analysis follows on from reports 1 and 2, illustrating and expanding upon their results. Likewise, this empirical case study will feed into the proposed solutions and recommended action to be set out in reports 4 and 5. This report is divided into a case study and four scenarios. The case study serves as an analysis of the status quo. It sets out potential conflict risks and opportunities arising from the situation as it exists in 2010. The subsequent four scenarios depicted were devised in the course of a Scenario Workshop in conjunction with a group of experts. They make use of the case study to set forth a range of

  2. The Mission Accessibility of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Abell, P. A.; Adamo, D. R.; Mazanek, D. D.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Chamberlin, A. B.; Benner, L. A. M.; Taylor, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The population of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) that may be accessible for human space flight missions is defined by the Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). The NHATS is an automated system designed to monitor the accessibility of, and particular mission opportunities offered by, the NEA population. This is analogous to systems that automatically monitor the impact risk posed to Earth by the NEA population. The NHATS system identifies NEAs that are potentially accessible for future round-trip human space flight missions and provides rapid notification to asteroid observers so that crucial follow-up observations can be obtained following discovery of accessible NEAs. The NHATS was developed in 2010 and was automated by early 2012. NHATS data are provided via an interactive web-site, and daily NHATS notification emails are transmitted to a mailing list; both resources are available to the public.

  3. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  4. Sustainable Biomass Resources for Biogas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup

    The aim of this thesis was to identify and map sustainable biomass resources, which can be utilised for biogas production with minimal negative impacts on the environment, nature and climate. Furthermore, the aim of this thesis was to assess the resource potential and feasibility of utilising...... such biomasses in the biogas sector. Sustainability in the use of biomass feedstock for energy production is of key importance for a stable future food and energy supply, and for the functionality of the Earths ecosystems. A range of biomass resources were assessed in respect to sustainability, availability...... from 39.3-66.9 Mtoe, depending on the availability of the residues. Grass from roadside verges and meadow habitats in Denmark represent two currently unutilised sources. If utilised in the Danish biogas sector, the results showed that the resources represent a net energy potential of 60,000 -122,000 GJ...

  5. Remote Assessment of Lunar Resource Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the resource potential of the lunar surface requires a well-planned program to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Moon's surface at a range of scales. The exploration program must include remote sensing measurements (from both Earth's surface and lunar orbit), robotic in situ analysis of specific places, and eventually, human field work by trained geologists. Remote sensing data is discussed. Resource assessment requires some idea of what resources will be needed. Studies thus far have concentrated on oxygen and hydrogen production for propellant and life support, He-3 for export as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors, and use of bulk regolith for shielding and construction materials. The measurement requirements for assessing these resources are given and discussed briefly.

  6. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  7. Integrating EarthScope Research and Education on a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Wallace, M. K.; Boyd, T.; Richard, G.; Ellins, K.; Meertens, C.; Semken, S.; Taber, J.; Benthien, M.; Wald, L.; Marvinney, R.

    2002-12-01

    EarthScope's education and outreach mission is to ensure the EarthScope experiment creates as its legacy a public more knowledgeable and understanding of the scientific and societal contributions made by the EarthScope experiment and Earth science. It will fulfill this commitment by developing and disseminating products that utilize the data, models, technology and discoveries of EarthScope and that support existing education and outreach programs. EarthScope EON will carry out educational activities ranging from research experiences for students in grades K-16 to professional development for technical professionals and educators in both formal (e.g. K-20 classrooms) and informal (e.g. museums and parks) venues. It will also provide a wide range of outreach activities from organizing town halls or other local meetings in advance of an instrument deployment, to developing radio, print and video materials that inform the public about the EarthScope experiment and discoveries. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network (EON) will be facilitated and coordinated through a national center; however, the bulk of the effort will be distributed among local EON alliances of various sizes designed to respond quickly and to meet the specific needs in a region. This allows EarthScope EON to provide customized services that engage culturally, economically and geographically diverse audiences at the national and local scales. The network will be built through national and local partnerships with existing science education and outreach programs at colleges, universities, research facilities and professional societies within the EarthScope community as well as relevant programs at museums and parks, state geologic surveys and emergency management agencies, and K-12 schools. These partnerships will allow EON to use existing resources, networks and expertise to gear up quickly and efficiently. As EON develops, it will reciprocate by contributing new resources and expertise to the

  8. Safety aspects in rare earths recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of rare earths involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain rare earth composites. The composites are then subjected to further chemical treatment to obtain individual rare earths. Although the separated out rare earths are not radioactive, the process for recovery of rare earths involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlights the safety aspects in the mining, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite to obtain rare earths

  9. Rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.

    1980-01-01

    The review deals with pure rare earth materials such as rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films. Several preparation techniques, control methods, and nature of possible contaminations of thin films are described. These films can now be produced in an extremely well-known state concerning chemical composition, structure and texture. Structural, electric, magnetic, and optical properties of thin films are studied and discussed in comparison with the bulk state. The greatest contamination of metallic rare earth thin films is caused by reaction with hydrogen or with water vapour. The compound with an f.c.c. structure is the dihydride LnH 2 (Ln = lanthanides). The oxygen contamination takes place after annealing at higher temperatures. Then there appears a compound with a b.c.c. structure which is the C-type sesquioxide C-Ln 2 O 3 . At room atmosphere dihydride light rare earth thin films are converted to hydroxide Ln(OH) 3 . For heavy rare earth thin films the oxinitride LnNsub(x)Osub(y) is observed. The LnO-type compound was never seen. The present review tries to set the stage anew for the investigations to be undertaken in the future especially through the new generations of electron microscopes

  10. Syndication of the earth system: the future of geoscience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Scott M.; Hanson, Howard P.

    2003-01-01

    Current global change policy debate reverberates around the polarized extremes of civilization-level cooperation through treaties as a mitigation tactic, on the one hand, and a wait-and-see approach that may lead to a climatic tragedy of the commons, on the other. Meanwhile, energy technology research is rapidly generating a perception that it will be possible to tune the earth system via carbon sequestration and other types of biogeochemical engineering. The consequences of this potential for planetary management, based on provincial self-interest, include the transition of the earth sciences into a security industry involving proprietary scientific knowledge bases of biogeochemical cycling and the evolution of a climate-design brokerage dominated by military/industrial interests. As the dominant political powers perceive the potential for planetary engineering and consider implementation, the global economy will adjust to exploit new opportunities, perceptions of which will be determined by the quality of system simulations. The growth of a viable international climate-design community will profoundly influence the trajectory of the earth system by providing either the illusion or the reality of predictability. Although this process will be chaotic at first, the probability of stabilization will ultimately be enhanced because the vast resources of the military/industrial sector will become involved. These concepts are disturbingly familiar in that they acknowledge the pervasion of competition and conflict in human technological affairs. However, they are consistent with approaches used in thermodynamics, ecological energetics, behavioral evolution, economics, and interdisciplinary climate science to describe collectively the evolution of the earth system. This paper argues that the perception that the climate can be regulated inexpensively will create an economic driving force for international cartel-style management of the total earth system. That is, the earth

  11. Games and Simulations for Climate, Weather and Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. M.; Clark, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will demonstrate several interactive, computer-based simulations, games, and other interactive multimedia. These resources were developed for weather, climate, atmospheric science, and related Earth system science education. The materials were created by the UCAR Center for Science Education. These materials have been disseminated via our web site (SciEd.ucar.edu), webinars, online courses, teacher workshops, and large touchscreen displays in weather and Sun-Earth connections exhibits in NCAR's Mesa Lab facility in Boulder, Colorado. Our group has also assembled a web-based list of similar resources, especially simulations and games, from other sources that touch upon weather, climate, and atmospheric science topics. We'll briefly demonstrate this directory.

  12. [Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, James (Technical Monitor); Merkey, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    This grant supported the effort to characterize the problem domain of the Earth Science Technology Office's Computational Technologies Project, to engage the Beowulf Cluster Computing Community as well as the High Performance Computing Research Community so that we can predict the applicability of said technologies to the scientific community represented by the CT project and formulate long term strategies to provide the computational resources necessary to attain the anticipated scientific objectives of the CT project. Specifically, the goal of the evaluation effort is to use the information gathered over the course of the Round-3 investigations to quantify the trends in scientific expectations, the algorithmic requirements and capabilities of high-performance computers to satisfy this anticipated need.

  13. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  14. Moon. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania). Candida Oancea Inst.

    2012-07-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources. Further development of the humanity will require going beyond our planet for mining and use of extraterrestrial mineral resources and search of power sources. The exploitation of the natural resources of the Moon is a first natural step on this direction. Lunar materials may contribute to the betterment of conditions of people on Earth but they also may be used to establish permanent settlements on the Moon. This will allow developing new technologies, systems and flight operation techniques to continue space exploration. In fact, a new branch of human civilization could be established permanently on Moon in the next century. But, meantime, an inventory and proper social assessment of Moon's prospective energy and material resources is required. This book investigates the possibilities and limitations of various systems supplying manned bases on Moon with energy and other vital resources. The book collects together recent proposals and innovative options and solutions. It is a useful source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending Moon-related activities and a good starting point for young researchers. (orig.)

  15. Children's knowledge of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2011-03-01

    Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

  16. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron

    1992-01-01

    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  17. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  18. Earth Science Education in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdelli, Mohamed

    1999-05-01

    The earth sciences are taught in twelve universities in Morocco and in three other institutions. In addition there are three more earth science research institutions. Earth science teaching has been taking place since 1957. The degree system is a four-year degree, split into two two-year blocks and geology is taught within the geology-biology programme for the first part of the degree. 'Classical' geology is taught in most universities, although applied geology degrees are also on offer in some universities. Recently-formed technical universities offer a more innovative approach to Earth Science Education. Teaching is in French, although school education is in Arabic. There is a need for a reform of the curriculum, although a lead is being taken by the technical universities. A new geological mapping programme promises new geological and mining discoveries in the country and prospects of employment for geology graduates.

  19. The Search for Another Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    /fulltext/reso/021/07/0641-0652. Keywords. Stars, planets, planetary systems, detection. Abstract. Is there life anywhere else in the vast cosmos?Are there planets similar to the Earth? For centuries,these questions baffled ...

  20. Earth Charter and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The chapter presents Earth Charter, where are listed the principles in 4 sections: 1) respect and take care of the life community; 2) environmental integrity; social and economic welfare; 4) democracy, no-violence and peace

  1. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  2. Bringing the environment down to earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, F L

    1999-01-01

    The debate on business and the environment has typically been framed in simple yes-or-no terms: "Does it pay to be green?" But the environment, like other business issues, requires a more complex approach--one that demands more than such all-or-nothing thinking. Managers need to ask instead, "Under what circumstances do particular kinds of environmental investments deliver returns to shareholders?" This article presents five approaches that managers can take to identify those circumstances and integrate the environment into their business thinking. These approaches will enable companies with the right industry structure, competitive position, and managerial skills to reconcile their responsibility to shareholders with the pressure to be faithful stewards of the earth's resources. Some companies can distance themselves from competitors by differentiating their products and commanding higher prices for them. Others may be able to "manage" their competitors by imposing a set of private regulations or by helping to shape the rules written by government officials. Still others may be able to cut costs and help the environment simultaneously. Almost all can learn to improve their management of risk and thus reduce the outlays associated with accidents, lawsuits, and boycotts. And some companies may even be able to make systemic changes that will redefine competition in their markets. All five approaches can help managers bring the environment down to earth. And that means bringing the environment back into the fold of business problems and determining when it really pays to be green.

  3. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  4. Earth Science Week 2009, "Understanding Climate", Highlights and News Clippings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, Edward C. [American Geological Inst., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2010-01-05

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) proposes to expand its influential Earth Science Week Program in 2009, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, to disseminate DOE's key messages, information, and resources on climate education and to include new program components. These components, ranging from online resources to live events and professional networks, would significantly increase the reach and impact of AGI's already successful geoscience education and public awareness effort in the United States and abroad in 2009, when the campaign's theme will be "Understanding Climate."

  5. A umbrella for the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzig, R.

    2009-01-01

    In front of the global warming threat, the 'geo-engineers' foresee some solutions to change the climate of the Earth, like for instance, by hiding part of the solar radiation. Among the solutions one can notice: the injection of sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere, the artificial generation of clouds using sea fog generators, or the putting into orbit of disc-shape screens creating a 100000 km x 12000 km elliptical 'umbrella' between the sun and the Earth. (J.S.)

  6. Rare earth industries: Downstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The value chain of the rare earths business involves mining, extraction, processing, refining and the manufacture of an extensive range of downstream products which find wide applications in such industries including aerospace, consumer electronics, medical, military, automotive, renewable wind and solar energy and telecommunications. In fact the entire gamut of the high-tech industries depends on a sustainable supply of rare earths elements. The explosive demand in mobile phones is an excellent illustration of the massive potential that the rare earths business offers. In a matter of less than 20 years, the number of cell phones worldwide has reached a staggering 5 billion. Soon, going by the report of their growth in sales, the world demand for cell phones may even exceed the global population. Admittedly, the rare earths business does pose certain risks. Top among the risks are the health and safety risks. The mining, extraction and refining of rare earths produce residues and wastes which carry health and safety risks. The residues from the extraction and refining are radioactive, while their effluent waste streams do pose pollution risks to the receiving rivers and waterways. But, as clearly elaborated in a recent report by IAEA experts, there are technologies and systems available to efficiently mitigate such risks. The risks are Rare Earth manageable. However, it is crucial that the risk and waste management procedures are strictly followed and adhered to. This is where effective monitoring and surveillance throughout the life of all such rare earths facilities is crucial. Fortunately, Malaysia's regulatory standards on rare earths follow international standards. In some areas, Malaysia's regulatory regime is even more stringent than the international guidelines. (author)

  7. Rare earth metal alloy magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, I.R.; Evans, J.M.; Nyholm, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth metal alloy magnets and to methods for their production. The technique is based on the fact that rare earth metal alloys (for e.g. cerium or yttrium) which have been crumbled to form a powder by hydride formation and decomposition can be used for the fabrication of magnets without the disadvantages inherent in alloy particle size reduction by mechanical milling. (UK)

  8. Google Earth Engine: a new cloud-computing platform for global-scale earth observation data and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. T.; Hansen, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Google Earth Engine is a new technology platform that enables monitoring and measurement of changes in the earth's environment, at planetary scale, on a large catalog of earth observation data. The platform offers intrinsically-parallel computational access to thousands of computers in Google's data centers. Initial efforts have focused primarily on global forest monitoring and measurement, in support of REDD+ activities in the developing world. The intent is to put this platform into the hands of scientists and developing world nations, in order to advance the broader operational deployment of existing scientific methods, and strengthen the ability for public institutions and civil society to better understand, manage and report on the state of their natural resources. Earth Engine currently hosts online nearly the complete historical Landsat archive of L5 and L7 data collected over more than twenty-five years. Newly-collected Landsat imagery is downloaded from USGS EROS Center into Earth Engine on a daily basis. Earth Engine also includes a set of historical and current MODIS data products. The platform supports generation, on-demand, of spatial and temporal mosaics, "best-pixel" composites (for example to remove clouds and gaps in satellite imagery), as well as a variety of spectral indices. Supervised learning methods are available over the Landsat data catalog. The platform also includes a new application programming framework, or "API", that allows scientists access to these computational and data resources, to scale their current algorithms or develop new ones. Under the covers of the Google Earth Engine API is an intrinsically-parallel image-processing system. Several forest monitoring applications powered by this API are currently in development and expected to be operational in 2011. Combining science with massive data and technology resources in a cloud-computing framework can offer advantages of computational speed, ease-of-use and collaboration, as

  9. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  10. Next-generation Digital Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-07-10

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  11. World uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffeyes, K.S.; MacGregor, I.D.

    1980-01-01

    To estimate the total resource availability of uranium, the authors' approach has been to ask whether the distribution of uranium in the earth's crust can be reasonably approximated by a bell-shaped log-normal curve. In addition they have asked whether the uranium deposits actually mined appear to be a portion of the high-grade tail, or ascending slope, of the distribution. This approach preserves what they feel are the two most important guiding principles of Hubbert's work, for petroleum, namely recognizing the geological framework that contains the deposits of interest and examining the industry's historical record of discovering those deposits. Their findings, published recently in the form of a book-length report prepared for the US Department of Energy, suggest that for uranium the crustal-distribution model and the mining-history model can be brought together in a consistent picture. In brief, they conclude that both sets of data can be described by a single log-normal curve, the smoothly ascending slope of which indicates approximately a 300-fold increase in the amount of uranium recoverable for each tenfold decrease in ore grade. This conclusion has important implications for the future availability of uranium. They hasten to add, however, that this is only an approximative argument; no rigorous statistical basis exists for expecting a log-normal distribution. They continue, pointing out the enormously complex range of geochemical behavior of uranium - and its wide variety of different binds of economic deposit. Their case study, supported by US mining records, indicates that the supply of uranium will not be a limiting factor in the development of nuclear power

  12. Moving Towards a Science-Driven Workbench for Earth Science Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Law, E.; Yang, C. P.; Keiser, K.

    2017-12-01

    The NSF-funded EarthCube Integration and Test Environment (ECITE) prototype was proposed as a 2015 Integrated Activities project and resulted in the prototyping of an EarthCube federated cloud environment and the Integration and Testing Framework. The ECITE team has worked with EarthCube science and technology governance committees to define the types of integration, testing and evaluation necessary to achieve and demonstrate interoperability and functionality that benefit and support the objectives of the EarthCube cyber-infrastructure. The scope of ECITE also includes reaching beyond NSF and EarthCube to work with the broader Earth science community, such as the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) to incorporate lessons learned from other testbed activities, and ultimately provide broader community benefits. This presentation will discuss evolving ECITE ideas for a science-driven workbench that will start with documented science use cases, map the use cases to solution scenarios that identify the available technology and data resources that match the use case, the generation of solution workflows and test plans, the testing and evaluation of the solutions in a cloud environment, and finally the documentation of identified technology and data gaps that will assist with driving the development of additional EarthCube resources.

  13. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  14. Incorporating Earth Science into Other High School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. L. B.; Holzer, M.; Colson, M.; Courtier, A. M. B.; Jacobs, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    As states begin to review their standards, some adopt or adapt the NGSS and others write their own, many basing these on the Framework for K-12 Science Education. Both the NGSS and the Frameworks have an increased emphasis on Earth Science but many high school teachers are being asked to teach these standards in traditional Biology, Chemistry and Physics courses. At the Earth Educators Rendezvous, teachers, scientists, and science education researchers worked together to find the interconnections between the sciences using the NGSS and identified ways to reference the role of Earth Sciences in the other sciences during lectures, activities and laboratory assignments. Weaving Earth and Space sciences into the other curricular areas, the teams developed relevant problems for students to solve by focusing on using current issues, media stories, and community issues. These and other lessons and units of study will be presented along with other resources used by teachers to ensure students are gaining exposure and a deeper understanding of Earth and Space Science concepts.

  15. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  16. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; rare-earth oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W.D.; Christiansen, Grey

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite, monazite, and xenotime are currently the most important rare-earth minerals. Bastnaesite occurs as a primary mineral in carbonatites. Monazite and xenotime also can be found in primary deposits but are recovered principally from heavy-mineral placers that are mined for titanium or tin. Each of these minerals has a different composition of the 15 rare-earth elements. World resources of economically exploitable rare-earth oxides (REO) are estimated at 93.4 million metric tons in place, composed of 93 percent in primary deposits and 7 percent in placers. The average mineral composition is 83 percent bastnaesite, 13 percent monazite, and 4 percent of 10 other minerals. Annual global production is about 67,000 metric tons of which 41 percent is from placers and 59 percent is from primary deposits; mining methods consist of open pits (94 percent) and dredging (6 percent). This output could be doubled if the operations that do not currently recover rare earths would do so. Resources are more than sufficient to meet the demand for the predictable future. About 52 percent of the world's REO resources are located in China. Ranking of other countries is as follows: Namibia (22 percent), the United States (15 percent), Australia (6 percent), and India (3 percent); the remainder is in several other countries. Conversely, 38 percent of the production is in China, 33 percent in the United States, 12 percent in Australia, and 5 percent each in Malaysia and India. Several other countries, including Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, make up the remainder. Markets for rare earths are mainly in the metallurgical, magnet, ceramic, electronic, chemical, and optical industries. Rare earths improve the physical and rolling properties of iron and steel and add corrosion resistance and strength to structural members at high temperatures. Samarium and neodymium are used in lightweight, powerful magnets for electric motors. Cerium and yttrium increase the

  17. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  18. Network resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,

  19. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  20. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  1. New Center Links Earth, Space, and Information Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2004-05-01

    Broad-based geoscience instruction melding the Earth, space, and information technology sciences has been identified as an effective way to take advantage of the new jobs created by technological innovations in natural resources management. Based on this paradigm, the University of Hyderabad in India is developing a Centre of Earth and Space Sciences that will be linked to the university's super-computing facility. The proposed center will provide the basic science underpinnings for the Earth, space, and information technology sciences; develop new methodologies for the utilization of natural resources such as water, soils, sediments, minerals, and biota; mitigate the adverse consequences of natural hazards; and design innovative ways of incorporating scientific information into the legislative and administrative processes. For these reasons, the ethos and the innovatively designed management structure of the center would be of particular relevance to the developing countries. India holds 17% of the world's human population, and 30% of its farm animals, but only about 2% of the planet's water resources. Water will hence constitute the core concern of the center, because ecologically sustainable, socially equitable, and economically viable management of water resources of the country holds the key to the quality of life (drinking water, sanitation, and health), food security, and industrial development of the country. The center will be focused on interdisciplinary basic and pure applied research that is relevant to the practical needs of India as a developing country. These include, for example, climate prediction, since India is heavily dependent on the monsoon system, and satellite remote sensing of soil moisture, since agriculture is still a principal source of livelihood in India. The center will perform research and development in areas such as data assimilation and validation, and identification of new sensors to be mounted on the Indian meteorological

  2. The Digital Library for Earth System Education: A Community Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlino, M. R.; Pandya, R. E.

    2003-12-01

    The rapid changes in the geoscience research environment have prompted educators to request support for their efforts to reform geoscience educational practices. DLESE, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, responds to this request by providing a single point of access to high-quality educational resources for teaching about the Earth as a system. DLESE is supported by the National Science Foundation and is an operational library used by tens of thousands of educators every month. DLESE resources include a variety of media formats, from text-based lesson plans to highly-sophisticated tools for interactive three-dimensional visualization of authentic scientific data. The DLESE community is particularly interested in partnering with scientific researchers to ensure that the tools of practicing scientists become widely available to geoscience educators. Two emerging large-scale scientific efforts, the GEON project and EarthScope, provide compelling illustrations of the potential of these partnerships. Both are cutting-edge, cross-disciplinary projects that use digital tools in a distributed environment to support scientific investigation. Both have also made a deep commitment to use these same tools to support geoscience education, and both are including DLESE as part of that commitment. Our interactive presentation will allow users to discover a variety of educational resources and communication services within the library. We will highlight those library resources and services that take particular advantage of the digital media to support new modes of learning and teaching. For example, annotation tools allow educators to add tips on the most effective way to use a specific resource. Data services will help educators find and use real-time data to illustrate geoscience phenomena. Multi-dimensional visualization tools allow students to interact with authentic student data in inquiry-based learning environment. DLESE will continue to actively collaborate

  3. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  4. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  5. Spaceborne observations of a changing Earth - Contribution from ESÁ s operating and approved satellite missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    The overall vision for ESÁs Earth Observation activities is to play a central role in developing the global capability to understand planet Earth, predict changes, and mitigate negative effects of global change on its populations. Since Earth observation from space first became possible more than forty years ago, it has become central to monitoring and understanding how the dynamics of the Earth System work. The greatest progress has been in meteorology, where space-based observations have become indispensable, but it is now also progressively penetrating many of the fields making up Earth sciences. Exploiting Earth observation from space presents major multidisciplinary challenges to the researches working in the Earth sciences, to the technologists who build the state-of-the-art sensors, and to the scientists interpreting measurements made of processes occurring on or within the Earth's surface and in its atmosphere. The scientific community has shown considerable imagination in rising to these challenges, and in exploiting the latest technological developments to measure from space the complex processes and interactions that occur in the Earth System. In parallel, there has been significant progress in developing computer models that represent the many processes that make up the Earth System, and the interactions and feedback between them. Success in developing this holistic view is inextricably linked to the data provided by Earth Observation systems. Satellites provide the fundamental, consistent, regular and global measurements needed to drive, parameterise, test and improve those Earth System models. These developments, together with changes in society's awareness of the need for information on a changing world, have repetitively supported the decisions on how ESA can best focus its resources, and those of the European community that it serves, in order to address critical issues in Earth System science. Moreover, it is a fact that many operational

  6. Educating the Public about Deep-Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.

    2010-12-01

    , earthquakes, resource concentrations, oceans, atmospheric composition and flow, possibly even life), is made possible by the specific characteristics of Earth's interior. Accepting that knowledge of Earth’s interior is important, the next task is to let the public know what we have learned about the deep Earth, and how we have developed that scientific knowledge. How do we incorporate uncertainty in this work? How do we test hypotheses? What are the current open questions about the deep Earth that we seek to address through ongoing or future scientific research? The cognitive distance between research experts and the public must be bridged -- an interpretive task that requires substantial expertise and collaboration. Reaching the ultimate audience (the general public) requires the education and active involvement of K-12+ teachers, education boards, textbook publishers and mass-media producers. Information must be packaged to suit each intended audience, at the appropriate cognitive level. The effectiveness of the education-and-outreach element of any research enterprise largely determines whether the processes and results of science are transferred successfully to the public consciousness.

  7. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  8. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  9. Free oscillation of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abedini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available   This work is a study of the Earths free oscillations considering a merge of solid and liquid model. At the turn of 19th century Geophysicists presented the theory of the free oscillations for a self-gravitating, isotropic and compressible sphere. Assuming a steel structure for an Earth size sphere, they predicted a period of oscillation of about 1 hour. About 50 years later, the free oscillations of stars was studied by Cowling and others. They classified the oscillation modes of the stars into acoustic and gravity modes on the basis of their driving forces. These are pressure and buoyancy forces respectively. The earliest measurements for the period of the free oscillations of the Earth was made by Benyove from a study of Kamchathca earthquake. Since then, the Geophysicists have been trying to provide a theoretical basis for these measurements. Recently, the theory concerning oscillations of celestial fluids is extended by Sobouti to include the possible oscillations of the Earthlike bodies. Using the same technique, we study the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and elastic model for the Earth.   We used the actual data of the Earths interior structure in our numerical calculations. Numerical results show that there exist three distinct oscillation modes namely acoustic, gravity and toroidal modes. These modes are driven by pressure, buoyancy and shear forces respectively. The shear force is due to the elastic properties of the solid part of the Earth. Our numerical results are consistent with the seismic data recorded from earthquake measurements.

  10. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  11. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  12. Brokering Capabilities for EarthCube - supporting Multi-disciplinary Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano; Browdy, Steve; Parsons, Mark; Duerr, Ruth; Pearlman, Francoise

    2013-04-01

    The goal of NSF's EarthCube is to create a sustainable infrastructure that enables the sharing of all geosciences data, information, and knowledge in an open, transparent and inclusive manner. Brokering of data and improvements in discovery and access are a key to data exchange and promotion of collaboration across the geosciences. In this presentation we describe an evolutionary process of infrastructure and interoperability development focused on participation of existing science research infrastructures and augmenting them for improved access. All geosciences communities already have, to a greater or lesser degree, elements of an information infrastructure in place. These elements include resources such as data archives, catalogs, and portals as well as vocabularies, data models, protocols, best practices and other community conventions. What is necessary now is a process for levering these diverse infrastructure elements into an overall infrastructure that provides easy discovery, access and utilization of resources across disciplinary boundaries. Brokers connect disparate systems with only minimal burdens upon those systems, and enable the infrastructure to adjust to new technical developments and scientific requirements as they emerge. Robust cyberinfrastructure will arise only when social, organizational, and cultural issues are resolved in tandem with the creation of technology-based services. This is a governance issue, but is facilitated by infrastructure capabilities that can impact the uptake of new interdisciplinary collaborations and exchange. Thus brokering must address both the cyberinfrastructure and computer technology requirements and also the social issues to allow improved cross-domain collaborations. This is best done through use-case-driven requirements and agile, iterative development methods. It is important to start by solving real (not hypothetical) information access and use problems via small pilot projects that develop capabilities

  13. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  14. Setting to earth for computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego V, Luis Eduardo; Montana Ch, Johny Hernan; Tovar P, Andres Fernando; Amortegui, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The program GMT allows the analysis of setting to earth for tensions DC and AC (of low frequency) of diverse configurations composed by cylindrical electrodes interconnected, in a homogeneous land or stratified (two layers). This analysis understands among other aspects: calculation of the setting resistance to earth, elevation of potential of the system (GPR), calculation of current densities in the conductors, potentials calculation in which point on the land surface (profile and surfaces), tensions calculation in passing and of contact, also, it carries out the interpretation of resistivity measures for Wenner and Schlumberger methods, finding a model of two layers

  15. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  16. Rare earths and rare earth alloys electrolytic preparation process and device for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, F.; Barthole, G.

    1986-01-01

    Electrolysis of a molten salt of rare earth or rare earth alloy for preparation of the metal or alloy is described. The molten salt bath comprises at least a rare earth chloride, at least an alkaline or alkaline earth chloride and at least an alkaline or alkaline earth fluoride [fr

  17. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  18. 2006 Maryland Department of Natural Resources Lidar: Caroline, Kent and Queen Anne Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maryland Department of Natural Resources requested the collection of LIDAR data over Kent, Queen Anne and Caroline Counties, MD. In response, EarthData acquired the...

  19. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  20. Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.

    1975-01-01

    The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

  1. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  2. A Community Assessment Tool for Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C. Y.; Soyka, H.; Hutchison, V.; Budden, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    In order to facilitate and enhance better understanding of how to conserve life on earth and the environment that sustains it, Data Observation Network for Earth (DataONE) develops, implements, and shares educational activities and materials as part of its commitment to the education of its community, including scientific researchers, educators, and the public. Creating and maintaining educational materials that remain responsive to community needs is reliant on careful evaluations in order to enhance current and future resources. DataONE's extensive collaboration with individuals and organizations has informed the development of its educational resources and through these interactions, the need for a comprehensive, customizable education evaluation instrument became apparent. In this presentation, the authors will briefly describe the design requirements and research behind a prototype instrument that is intended to be used by the community for evaluation of its educational activities and resources. We will then demonstrate the functionality of a web based platform that enables users to identify the type of educational activity across multiple axes. This results in a set of structured evaluation questions that can be included in a survey instrument. Users can also access supporting documentation describing the types of question included in the output or simply download a full editable instrument. Our aim is that by providing the community with access to a structured evaluation instrument, Earth/Geoscience educators will be able to gather feedback easily and efficiently in order to help maintain the quality, currency/relevancy, and value of their resources, and ultimately, support a more data literate community.

  3. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  4. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  5. The Greatest Show on Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: life on earth had evolved ... over long epochs, the pace of change was infinitesimal. ... Thanks to the work of the Japanese theoreti- cian Motoo ... pleasure-minus-expenditure balance is posi- tive. This way of ...

  6. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  7. Earth Day 2012: Greening Government

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-19

    This podcast describes sustainability efforts at CDC in relation to Earth Day celebrations and details agency greenhouse gas reduction strategies and successes.  Created: 4/19/2012 by Office of the Chief Operating Officer (OCOO)/ Chief Sustainability Office (CSO).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  8. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  9. A journey through Earth climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Brunet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The author proposes a history of climates all along Earth's history, describes how cold and warm periods have been alternating during these billions of years. He also tries to highlight lessons learned from this long evolution of climate in order to better understand the current global warming. He discusses whether this disruption is unique in Earth's history, and how it threatens our environment and therefore our survival. The chapters describe how Earth could escape a global glaciation, the thermal regulation by greenhouse effect gases in a world without oxygen, the empowerment of oxygen and the first thermal accident, a new oxygenated and warm world, the second accident or how Earth entered and escaped from periods of total glaciation, the possible stabilisation, the succession of deregulations, crisis and extinctions, the slow way down to the cold, the various paleo-indicators during the Quaternary, the high frequency oscillations of climate during the last million of years, and the uncertain projections

  10. Solar Flare Aimed at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  11. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  12. Lessons from Earth's Deep Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    Earth is a repository of data on climatic changes from its deep-time history. Article discusses the collection and study of these data to predict future climatic changes, the need to create national study centers for the purpose, and the necessary cooperation between different branches of science in climatic research.

  13. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2016), 1467-1469 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Paleoseismology * Colluvial wedge * White Creek Fault _ * Greendale Fault * San Andreas Fault * Paganica Fault Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  14. The two earths of Eratosthenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Christián Carlos; Evans, James

    2015-03-01

    In the third century B.C.E., Eratosthenes of Cyrene made a famous measurement of the circumference of the Earth. This was not the first such measurement, but it is the earliest for which significant details are preserved. Cleomedes gives a short account of Eratosthenes' method, his numerical assumptions, and the final result of 250,000 stades. However, many ancient sources attribute to Eratosthenes a result of 252,000 stades. Historians have attempted to explain the second result by supposing that Eratosthenes later made better measurements and revised his estimate or that the original result was simply rounded to 252,000 to have a number conveniently divisible by 60 or by 360. These explanations are speculative and untestable. However, Eratosthenes' estimates of the distances of the Sun and Moon from the Earth are preserved in the doxographical literature. This essay shows that Eratosthenes' result of 252,000 stades for the Earth's circumference follows from a solar distance that is attributed to him. Thus it appears that Eratosthenes computed not only a lower limit for the size of the Earth, based on the assumption that the Sun is at infinity, but also an upper limit, based on the assumption that the Sun is at a finite distance. The essay discusses the consequences for our understanding of his program.

  15. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  16. Development of an earth pressure model for design of earth retaining structures in piedmont soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate...

  17. Earth Science Outreach: A Move in the Right Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty Halfkenny, B.; Schröder Adams, C.

    2009-05-01

    There is concern within the Geoscience Community about the public's limited understanding of Earth Science and its fundamental contribution to society. Earth Science plays only a minor role in public school education in Ontario leaving many students to stumble upon this field of study in post-secondary institutions. As the Earth Sciences offer relevant advice for political decisions and provide excellent career opportunities, outreach is an increasingly important component of our work. Recruitment of post-secondary students after they have chosen their discipline cannot remain the sole opportunity. Outreach must be directed to potential students at an early stage of their education. High school teachers are influential, directing students towards professional careers. Therefore we are first committed to reach these teachers. We provide professional development, resources and continued support, building an enthusiastic community of educators. Specific initiatives include: a three day workshop supported by a grant from EdGEO introducing earth science exercises and local field destinations; a resource kit with minerals, rocks, fossils, mineral identification tools and manuals; a CD with prepared classroom exercises; and in-class demonstrations and field trip guiding on request. Maintaining a growing network with teachers has proven highly effective. Direct public school student engagement is also given priority. We inspire students through interaction with researchers and graduate students, hand-on exercises, and by providing opportunities to visit our department and work with our collections. Successful projects include our week-long course "School of Rock" for the Enrichment Mini-Course Program, classroom visits and presentations on the exciting and rewarding career paths in geology during Carleton University open houses. Outreach to the general public allows us to educate the wider community about the Geoheritage of our region, and initiate discussions about

  18. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth

    2017-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are classified in the refractory group, which means that they have a high temperature condensation and their volatility-controlled fractionation is limited to high-temperature processes. Anomalies have been measured for Eu, Yb and Sm, which are the REE with the lowest condensation temperatures in CAIs and chondrules (e.g. [1]). REE are particularly abundant in the sulfides of enstatite chondrites, 100 to 1000 times the CI value [e.g. 2,3], proving that these elements are not strictly lithophile under extremely reducing conditions. However by investigating experimentally the impact of Earth's core formation on the behavior of Sm and Nd, we have shown the absence of fractionation between Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phase [4]. Recently, Wohlers and Wood [5] proposed that Nd and Sm could be fractionated in presence of a S-rich alloy phase. However, their results were obtained at pressure and temperature conditions below the plausible conditions of the Earth's core formation. Clearly, large pressure range needs to be covered before well-constrained model can be expected. Furthermore, our preliminary metal-silicate partitioning results show that Ce and Eu have higher metal/silicate partition coefficients than their neighboring elements, and that the presence of sulphur enhances the relative difference between partition coefficients. In this presentation, we will present and discuss new metal-silicate partition coefficients of all REE at a deep magma ocean at pressures ranging from those of the uppermost upper mantle ( 5 GPa) to a maximum pressure expected in the range of 20 GPa, temperatures ranging from 2500 to about 3000 K, and oxygen fugacities within IW-1 to IW-5 (1 to 5 orders of magnitude lower than the iron-wüstite buffer). We will discuss the effect of S, as well as the effect of H2O on the behaviour of REE during the Earth's core formation: recent models suggest that contrary to currently accepted beliefs, the

  19. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  20. University of Rhode Island Regional Earth Systems Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, Lewis [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Cornillon, P. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The primary objective of this program was to establish the URI Regional Earth System Center (“Center”) that would enhance overall societal wellbeing (health, financial, environmental) by utilizing the best scientific information and technology to achieve optimal policy decisions with maximum stakeholder commitment for energy development, coastal environmental management, water resources protection and human health protection, while accelerating regional economic growth. The Center was to serve to integrate existing URI institutional strengths in energy, coastal environmental management, water resources, and human wellbeing. This integrated research, educational and public/private sector outreach Center was to focus on local, state and regional resources. The centerpiece activity of the Center was in the development and implementation of integrated assessment models (IAMs) that both ‘downscaled’ global observations and interpolated/extrapolated regional observations for analyzing the complexity of interactions among humans and the natural climate system to further our understanding and, ultimately, to predict the future state of our regional earth system. The Center was to begin by first ‘downscaling’ existing global earth systems management tools for studying the causes of local, state and regional climate change and potential social and environmental consequences, with a focus on the regional resources identified above. The Center would ultimately need to address the full feedbacks inherent in the nonlinear earth systems by quantifying the “upscaled” impacts of those regional changes on the global earth system. Through an interacting suite of computer simulations that are informed by observations from the nation’s evolving climate observatories, the Center activities integrates climate science, technology, economics, and social policy into forecasts that will inform solutions to pressing issues in regional climate change science,