WorldWideScience

Sample records for erika tanker shipwreck

  1. The Erika tanker shipwreck, one year later. synthesis; Naufrage du petrolier Erika, un an apres. synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In december 1999 the Erika tanker shipwreck broke along the Brittany coast leading to the most important sea pollution by hydrocarbons, since the Amoco-Cadiz. One year after this accident the Ministry of the territory management and of the environment takes stock on the actions carried on after the shipwreck: the management of the POLMAR fund, the shoreline cleaning, the land and water ecosystems restoration, the wastes storage and processing, the ecological consequences. A special part is devoted to the maritime transport regulations and safety and to the victims compensation. (A.L.B.)

  2. The mission of the French senate about the Erika shipwreck presents its conclusions; La mission du Senat sur l'Erika presente ses conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-01

    The conclusions of the information mission carried out by the French senate about the shipwreck of the Erika tanker ship were presented on June 27, 2000. The conclusions comprise two parts: 1 - the wreck and the management of the crisis: the hull cracks passed over in silence, the success of the rescue of the crew, the exploit of the Abeille-Flandre salvage tug, the partial success of the crude pumping from the wreckage; 2 - the proposals of the mission: sustain of the French flag, reinforcement of the maritime safety, reinforcement of pollution fighting means, limitation of unauthorized spills at sea, better mobilization of the government means, improvement of the victims compensation system. (J.S.)

  3. The big cleansing of Erika's wreckage; Le grand nettoyage de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-11-01

    The shipwreck of the Erika tanker ship in December 1999 along the Brittany coast (France) has led experts to realize technical achievements to stop the pollution and to pump out the heavy crude still trapped in the tanks. Short paper. (J.S.)

  4. Sanitary and ecological consequences of the black tide resulting from the Erika shipwreck; Consequences sanitaires et ecologiques de la maree noire consecutive au naufrage de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, A.

    2004-05-01

    Four years after the black tide resulting from the Erika shipwreck, a lot of studies have been carried out. The results of the consequences of this black tide are given: on the sanitary point of view at first, concerning the risks for the petroleum collectors, the riverine populations and the birds cleaners; then on an ecological point of view, by a following of the concerned biotopes. A consideration is done on the cleaning methods of the polluted sites and on the new measures taken or to be taken to avoid such events. (O.M.)

  5. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  6. Brezillon carried the Erika wastes through; Brezillon est venu a bout des dechets de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariet, C.

    2003-11-01

    In september 2000, Brezillon, has been chosen by Total to process the wastes resulting from the sand cleaning after the wreck of the Erika tanker. After three years of treatment, 270000 tons of wastes have been processed. The method is presented in three parts: the solid cleaning, the emulsion of cleaning and the polluted sludges processing by flotation, water de-oiling, flocculation, decantation and air biological treatment. Than the ''clean'' sands and granulates will be used for public works. (A.L.B.)

  7. Tanker ship safety. An overview of all interim reports on the FE project MTK 210. Tankersicherheit. Uebersicht ueber alle Zwischenberichte zum FE-Vorhaben MTK 210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This overview summarizes all interim reports on tanker ship safety with the most important problem formulations. Particular attention is paid to: measurements to determine the demands on large tanker ships; computer analyses of the behaviour of tanker ship designs during and after collisions; computer analyses of the mechanical reliability of tanker ship designs after a shipwreck, and analysis of the operative reliability of tanker ships in maritime transport in the Heligoland Bight, taking into account environmental damage. Apart from guidelines for tanker ships destined to carry oil, chemicals, and liquefied gas, some selected results of research in 'tanker ship safety' are summarized and briefly discussed. (HAG).

  8. The rapeseed and sunflower biodegradable oils to the Erika's pollution assistance; Les huiles biodegradables de colza et de tournesol au secours de la pollution de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This technical paper presents the practical use of vegetable oils methyl esters (EMHV) in the coasts cleaning, after a black tide. In the case of the Erika's shipwreck the EMHV allowed to fluidify the heavy fuel oil at 120 meters deep in order to realize the pumping. The characteristics of the product, the cleaning by thinner action and the example of the EMHV utilization at Belle-ile are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Coping behaviour after shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S; Bostock, T

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the coping behaviour of seven men who survived a shipwreck and were not rescued until 13 days later. The principal behaviours shown by the men were attachment ideation, drive to survive, modelling, prayer and hope. Particular attention is paid to the first of these, and consideration given to its likely origins in behavioural evolution. It is proposed as a hitherto inadequately recognized coping behaviour. A follow-up examination 12 to 24 months later showed that five of the seven men available had developed substantial psychiatric disorder, while by contrast one was not only well but claimed to have been enriched by the experience. Exposure to extreme adversity or disaster may have long-term effects on mental health. Further longitudinal studies of disaster victims are necessary for the design of informed after-care.

  10. Proposal of law aiming at creating an unballasting certificate in order to prevent and repress the rejection of polluting effluents at sea; Proposition de loi visant a creer un certificat de deballastage afin de prevenir et de reprimer les rejets polluants en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This proposal of law was impulsed by the recent shipwrecks of the Prestige and Erika tanker ships. It proposes the implementation of an unballasting certificate delivered by an approved organization for all tanker ships entering the French territorial waters. The goal of this measure is to fight against the clandestine release of oil at sea. (J.S.)

  11. Rose Atoll 1993 Shipwreck Restoration Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summarizes efforts undertaken to remove grounded shipwreck at Rose Atoll and monitor impacts to community composition between 1993 and 2012.

  12. Verstrengelde Levens : De eeuwige ballingschap van Erika en Klaus Mann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paffen, A.H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the influence of exile (1933-1945) on the lives and work of Erika (1905-1969) and Klaus Mann (1906-1949), the eldest children of the German writer Thomas Mann. The Mann siblings seemed to have coped better with the hardship of exile than most of their German refugee colleagues.

  13. Target definition for shipwreck hunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paul Kirsner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or ‘mean’ just 2.7 NM (nautical miles from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor’s reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013. The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.

  14. Target definition for shipwreck hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The research described in the present article was implemented to define the locations of two World War II shipwrecks, the German raider Kormoran, and the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney. The paper describes the long and complex trail that led through inefficient oceanographic prediction to ambiguous historical prediction involving a single report and on to precise cognitive prediction based on nine reports from more than 70 survivors, a process that yielded a single target position or "mean" just 2.7 NM (nautical miles) from the wreck of Kormoran. Prediction for the position of the wreck of Sydney opened with wishful thinking that she had somehow reached the coast more than 100 NM away when cognitive analysis of the survivor's reports actually provided the basis for accurate prediction in a position near to the wreck of Kormoran. In the account provided below, the focus on cognitive procedures emerged from, first, a review of a sample of the shipwreck hunts, and, second, growing awareness of the extraordinarily rich database available for this search, and the extent to which it was open to cognitive analysis. This review touches on both the trans-disciplinary and the cognitive or intra-disciplinary issues that so challenged the political entities responsible for supervising of the search for the wrecks of Kormoran and Sydney. One of the theoretical questions that emerged from these debate concerns the model of expertise advanced by Collins (2013). The decomposability of alleged forms of expertise is revealed as a fundamental problem for research projects that might or might not benefit from trans-disciplinary research. Where expertise can be decomposed for operational purposes, the traditional dividing lines between experts and novices, and fools for that matter, are much harder to discern, and require advanced and scientifically informed review.

  15. Ecological relevance of shipwrecks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, W.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on observations made during wreck dive expeditions in 2010-2012, in order to investigate the ecological relevance of shipwrecks on the Dutch Continental Shelf (dcs). Shipwrecks are biodiversity hotspots. The number of species recorded on shipwrecks is similar to the number of

  16. Ecological relevance of shipwrecks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, W.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Schrieken, A.; Schrieken, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on observations made during wreck dive expeditions in 2010-2012, in order to investigate the ecological relevance of shipwrecks on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). Shipwrecks are biodiversity hotspots. The number of species recorded on shipwrecks is similar to the number of

  17. World tanker tonnage decline seen this year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-19

    According to a study by the International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (Intertanko), world tanker tonnage will probably decline in 1978 for the first time since World War II; there were about 3800 tankers and combined carriers afloat on 1/1/75, 1000 of which (totaling < 35 million dwt) had been scrapped by 5/1/78; the voyage market has nearly doubled in the past five years, although startup of North Slope oil production, increased North Sea production, and new pipelines in the Middle East have hurt the non-U.S. tanker market; by the early 1980's, new international rules against substandard shipping (tankers without inert-gas plants, crude-washing systems, etc.) may force much otherwise modern tonnage out of the tanker market; and ''an urgently needed temporary conversion of the world's shipbuilding capacity to scrapping is a prerequisite for the revival of the tanker industry''.

  18. The treatment of sands polluted by the wreck of Erika; Le traitement des sables pollues par le naufrage de l'Erika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedou, C. [Brezillon, Projets-Developpement, 60 - Noyon (France)

    2004-04-01

    December 12, 1999, the tanker 'Erika' sunk near the Atlantic Coast, discharging more than 20 000 tons of fuel. As this oil slick arrive to the shore, the coast has been soiled, creating a mass of around 270 000 tons of waste. Chosen during an international tender between more than 100 firms and groups of firm, BREZILLON propose a process able to treat heterogeneous material (sand to sludge passing by grass and others wastes getting caught in lime in a viscous fuel) at high rate of production. It is a physico-chemical washing installation able to clean and screen these materials at a rhythm of 100 tons per hour, whatever their relatives' proportions are. The concept is entirely turned to valorization and, more generally, to the environmental evaluation of the operation (see under). It is the first time that wastes consecutive to a maritime disaster will be definitely eliminate, contrary to earlier disasters where the wastes are still present and far to be totally treated. An Perfect Environmental Evaluation - Valorization of 100% of the treated material. - No dumping in the natural environment. - Low water consumption. - Low energy consumption (electricity: 5,2 kW per ton treated) - No industrial and pollution risk. - No neighbourhood problem (industrial environment). 100% of these materials are valorized, with more than 96% in material valorization and 4%, which are energetically valorized. The result obtained is passing the objectives of the specifications: a cleaning going pass the limits fixed by the by-law and permitting to produce today materials with specifications conform to the stricter reuse requirements. 20 to 40 controls are made each day by an independent laboratory on site and external independent laboratories to validate our daily work. Today, the workplace is over and 272 000 tons have been treated with success. The size of this workplace, his technical constraints and his innovating aspects are making of him a real challenge for

  19. Interview of Erika Lazarova with Borislav Toshev [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 a book entitled “Golden Book of Bulgarian Science” was published (Lazarova, 2011. Many eminent Bulgarian scientists were interviewed about the course of their life and scientific achievements. The editor of “Venets”, Prof. Dr. B.V. Toshev, DSc, University of Sofia, was amongst them. The full text of his interview, where he shares with Doc. Dr. Erika Lazarova his opinion and reflections about science, research and education, is presented in this journal because the role of family, teachers and Belogradchik for creating the future scientist is specially emphasized.

  20. Induction of CYP1A1 in rat liver after ingestion of mussels contaminated by Erika fuel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaty, Sylvie; Rodius, Francois; Vasseur, Paule [Universite de Metz: CNRS UMR 7146, Lab., Interactions Ecotoxicite, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, Metz (France); Lanhers, Marie-Claire; Burnel, Daniel [Universite de Nancy I, Faculte de Medecine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2008-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known to be specific inducers of CYP1A1 expression in vertebrates. CYP1A1 induction has been widely studied in mammal cell cultures or in vivo, in conditions of exposure to single PAH chemicals. Here, we studied the possible transfer of PAH to rats via the food chain in environmentally-relevant conditions. Rats were fed for 2 days with PAH-contaminated mussels sampled on coasts polluted by the Erika oil-tanker wreck. CYP1A1 expression was investigated by measuring mRNA levels and EROD enzymatic activity over the 84 h following the last ingestion. CYP1A1 expression in treated rats was compared to controls fed with mussels free from PAH contamination. The results showed that ingestion of PAH-contaminated mussels induced CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD activity. Increase of transcriptional level and of EROD activity was transient with a peak within 12 h and a return to basal levels within 36 h. (orig.)

  1. Recording, Publishing, and Reconstructing Wooden Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, F.; Bendig, C.; Bérubé, M.; Borrero, R.; Budsberg, N.; Dostal, C.; Monteiro, A.; Smith, C.; Torres, R.; Yamafune, K.

    2017-11-01

    Almost three decades ago J. Richard Steffy (in: Tzalas (ed) Tropis II, proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on ship construction in antiquity. Athens, pp 315-320, 1990, in: Tzalas (ed) Tropis III, proceedings of the 3rd international symposium on ship construction in antiquity. Athens, pp 417-428, 1995) voiced the need to standardize the recording and publication of shipwrecks. Cluster analysis of construction features is difficult if archaeologists record different and non-overlapping features. This paper discusses the necessity to standardize the recording and publishing of a set of consistent and compatible basic construction features when archaeologists assess, survey, or excavate wooden shipwrecks and proposes a methodology for the recording of wooden hulls. It also emphasizes the urgency of a wide and complete sharing of archaeological information in maritime archaeology.

  2. THE NEW CARISSA SHIPWRECK: AESTHETIC IMPACT ON COASTAL RECREATION

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Miranda; Dunford, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a combination of techniques, including a stated-preference survey, random utility model, visitor count study, and benefits transfer, to estimate the aesthetic impact of the New Carissa shipwreck on coastal recreation. To our knowledge, this is the first study ever conducted on the recreation impacts of a shipwreck.

  3. Tanker avionics and aircrew complement evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R W; Barbato, G J

    1982-11-01

    This paper describes an effort to determine control and display criteria for operating SAC's KC-135 tanker with a reduced crew complement. The Tanker Avionics and Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE) Program was a four-phase effort addressing the control and display design issues associated with operating the tanker without the navigator position. Discussed are: the mission analysis phase, during which the tanker's operational responsibilities were defined and documented; the design phase, during which alternative crew station design concepts were developed; the mockup evaluation phase, which accomplished initial SAC crew member assessment of cockpit designs; and the simulation phase, which validated the useability of the crew system redesign. The paper also describes a recommended crew station configuration and discusses some of the philosophy underlying the selection of cockpit hardware and systems.

  4. Detecting the Ma‘agan Mikhael B shipwreck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvikel, Deborah; Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    A shipwreck, designated as Ma‘agan Mikhael B, was discovered in 2005 by divers about 70 m from the shoreline and at a depth of 1 m, embedded in sandy seafloor sediments. Soon after, the shipwreck was lost in the sand. In May 2015, it was located in a survey with a chirp sub-bottom profiler......, and a water-jetting survey in August 2015 confirmed its position. This paper discusses the detection of the Ma‘agan Mikhael B shipwreck using a chirp sub-bottom profiler....

  5. Europe: towards reinforced and faster measures; Europe: vers des mesures renforcees et accelerees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-02-01

    On December 20, 2002, three years after the shipwreck of the Erika tanker ship, the European Commission proposed to reinforce the European and international rules about the maritime safety. Taking into consideration the subsequent catastrophic consequences of the Prestige tanker ship wreck, which took place on November 13, 2002, the Commission requested the European Parliament and Council to adopt these measures as soon as possible and to make them enforced on March 2003 as a maximum date line. (J.S.)

  6. Shipwreck archaeology of the Lakshadweep Islands, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.

    Archaeological investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands have brought to light the presence of a large number of shipwrecks and the archival records have the details of some of these wrecks. Northern islands and reefs of Minicoy were the locations...

  7. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Architecture Synthesis for Shipwreck Interior Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    required sensory functions. 3. Vehicle Shape The vehicle’s shape is a significant architectural decision. The vehicle’s shape is important for... ARCHITECTURE SYNTHESIS FOR SHIPWRECK INTERIOR EXPLORATION by Ross A. Eldred December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Fotis A. Papoulias Co-Advisor: Noel E. Du...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE ARCHITECTURE SYNTHESIS FOR SHIPWRECK INTERIOR EXPLORATION 5. FUNDING

  8. Liver and kidney concentrations of vanadium in oiled seabirds after the Erika wreck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerer, M.; Mastain, O.; Le Drean-Quenech' du, S.; Pouliquen, H.; Larhantec, M

    2004-10-15

    Vanadium was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver and kidney of several oiled seabirds that were stranded on the French Atlantic coasts after the Erika wreck and died in wildlife care Centers. Estimated averages were 30 to 77 ng g{sup -1} wet weight (ww) in the liver and 52 to 72 ng g{sup -1} wet weight in the kidney. These concentrations were not higher in oiled birds than in dead birds found later, without visible traces of petroleum on beaches not affected by the Erika pollution. Vanadium hepatic and renal concentrations do not seem to be appropriate biomarkers for recent exposure to fuel in seabirds.

  9. Liver and kidney concentrations of vanadium in oiled seabirds after the Erika wreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, M; Mastain, O; Le Dréan-Quenech'du, S; Pouliquen, H; Larhantec, M

    2004-10-15

    Vanadium was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver and kidney of several oiled seabirds that were stranded on the French Atlantic coasts after the Erika wreck and died in wildlife care Centers. Estimated averages were 30 to 77 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) in the liver and 52 to 72 ng g(-1) wet weight in the kidney. These concentrations were not higher in oiled birds than in dead birds found later, without visible traces of petroleum on beaches not affected by the Erika pollution. Vanadium hepatic and renal concentrations do not seem to be appropriate biomarkers for recent exposure to fuel in seabirds.

  10. Overview of risk analysis research on tanker groundings and collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    The Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) has initiated a new study on evaluating alterntive Tanker designs to double hull tankers. This effort was mandated by the US Congress in the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1998. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology for eval......The Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) has initiated a new study on evaluating alterntive Tanker designs to double hull tankers. This effort was mandated by the US Congress in the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 1998. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology...... for evaluation of the oil outlfow performance of alternative tanker designs in the event of a collision or grounding. The present paper is an invited contribution oto the first meeting of the Committee on Evaluating Double Hull Alterntive Tanker Designs held at the National Academy of Sciences' Georgetown...

  11. A Biosocioeconomic Evaluation of Shipwrecks Used for Fishery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The use of artificial reefs as a management tool to enhance both dive tourism and fisheries has been poorly studied, often resulting in permanent structures created with little knowledge of their impacts. This study specifically evaluated the use of three shipwrecks, off the coast of Kenya, using biosocioeconomic ...

  12. KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    consistent data processing specified in the applicable joint and system integrated architecture views. Survivability Aircraft SPM. Tanker ...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-387 KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Information Program Name KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office . References SAR Baseline (Development

  13. Oil Tanker Transportation In The Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konygin A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High hydrocarbon resource potential makes the Russian Arctic an attractive region for major oil and gas producing companies. Any investment decision is commonly based on an assessment stage which includes various types of technical and economical evaluations. Transportation cost in the Russian Arctic drastically influences overall project economics. Thus accurate method for transportation cost assessment becomes important from early stages of project definition. Infrastructure in the Russian Arctic is poorly developed so conventional estimation methods of hydrocarbon transportation tariff are ineffective. This paper describes a cost estimation method for tanker transportation of oil which considers key features of operations in the Russian Arctic.

  14. Design considerations of new oil tankers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, F.H.; Crighton, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 Protocols to MARPOL 1973 (Inter. Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) and SOLAS 1974 (Int. Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) will have a considerable effect upon the design and construction of new crude carriers and products tankers. This article attempts to highlight those aspects of the Protocols having the greatest effect on the design of new tankers. A number of designs have been chosen, ranging from 20,000 tons deadweight to 200,000 tons deadweight, to demonstrate the problems associated with optimizing the positioning of longitudinal and transverse bulkheads within the cargo tank/segregated ballast spaces, to meet the Protective Location requirements for segregated ballast and maximum oil outflow limitations laid down in MARPOL 1973 and the 1978 Protocol. The paper also considers the problems associated with draught, trim, freeboard, stability and tonnage for the chosen designs as required by the appropriate Conventions, and the effect the 1978 Protocols have upon these requirements. The new requirements for Crude Oil Washing and Inert Gas installations are also commented upon together with a section describing possible pumping and piping arrangements.

  15. Remote identification of a shipwreck site from MBES backscatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Giuseppe; Calder, Brian

    2012-11-30

    The method described attempts to remotely identify the shape of an anthropogenic object, such as a wreck of a modern vessel, using reflectivity data from Multi-Beam Echosounder (MBES) systems. In the beam domain, the backscatter strength values - geometrically and radiometrically corrected - are used to extract a large number of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features with different input parameters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied in order to achieve dimensionality reduction whilst a K-means algorithm clusters as "shipwreck site" a large number of beams for each line. After the geo-referencing process, a K-nearest-neighbors (K-NN) technique is applied as a filter for possible misclassifications. Finally, the shape of the shipwreck site is defined from the georeferenced beams using the α-shape method, constructing an output compatible with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [A shipwreck and organization of the psychosocial support work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, P M; Bovin, K J; Haug, T T; Roness, A; Wilhelmsen, I

    1994-02-20

    During recent years attention has been drawn to the importance of psychosocial support to victims of accidents and disasters. Post-traumatic stress disorder seems to be more frequent than earlier believed, and early psychosocial assistance is thought to reduce the psychological effects of the traumatic experience. The authors describe the psychosocial work, as it was organized at Haukeland Hospital, after a shipwreck. Experiences with mobile medical teams with stress competence are also discussed.

  17. Underwater Photogrammetry and 3d Reconstruction of Marble Cargos Shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Costa, E.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays archaeological and architectural surveys are based on the acquisition and processing of point clouds, allowing a high metric precision, essential prerequisite for a good documentation. Digital image processing and laser scanner have changed the archaeological survey campaign, from manual and direct survey to a digital one and, actually, multi-image photogrammetry is a good solution for the underwater archaeology. This technical documentation cannot operate alone, but it has to be supported by a topographical survey to georeference all the finds in the same reference system. In the last years the Ca' Foscari and IUAV University of Venice are conducting a research on integrated survey techniques to support underwater metric documentation. The paper will explain all the phases regarding the survey's design, images acquisition, topographic measure and the data processing of two Roman shipwrecks in south Sicily. The cargos of the shipwrecks are composed by huge marble blocks, but they are different for morphological characteristic of the sites, for the depth and for their distribution on the seabed. Photogrammetrical and topographical surveys were organized in two distinct methods, especially for the second one, due to the depth that have allowed an experimentation of GPS RTK's measurements on one shipwreck. Moreover, this kind of three-dimensional documentation is useful for educational and dissemination aspect, for the ease of understanding by wide public.

  18. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...... and an exact solution method based on a set-partitioning formulation are developed. The latter approach allows very fast solution times. Computational results for a case study with a liner shipping company are presented, including an extensive sensitivity analysis to account for limited predictability of key...

  19. Measuring level of risk exposure in tanker Shipping freight markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WESSAM M. T. ABOUARGHOUB

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to study the volatility structure of the tanker freight market and its exposure to market shocks. Therefore, we introduce a two state regime to investigate the possibility of two different volatility structures in shipping tanker freight markets. Empirical evidence is found that in general terms, shipping tanker freight returns, shift between two regimes, a high volatility regime and a low volatility regime and that market shocks in general increase the volatility of freight returns and has a lasting effect. In regards to measuring freight risk, it seams that semi-parametric approaches are appropriate methods for measuring level of risk exposure for shipping freight markets.

  20. Measuring Tanker Market Future Risk with the use of FORESIM

    OpenAIRE

    Lyridis, Dimitrios; Manos, Nikolaos; Zacharioudakis, Panayotis; Pappas, Athanassios; Mavris, Aristidis

    2017-01-01

    Future market risk has always been a critical question in decision support processes. FORESIM is a simulation technique that models shipping markets (developed recently). In this paper we present the application of this technique in order to obtain useful information regarding future values of the tanker market risk. This is the first attempt to express future tanker market risk in relation to current market fundamentals. We follow a system’s analysis seeking for internal and external paramet...

  1. Exploration of the Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    'ortuguese SIlipC>uilding and Shipwrecks in Go:t Cfiters With the arrival of Ponuguesc n nu~nber of cha~lgcs wcrc noticed in tllc dcsign- ing and building of ships on the west coast ol India. Similarly, the Por-tuguese also burrowed sornc technology from... was to capture the shipbuilding industry of Goa, which was thc best diiri~lg that period (Danvers, 1934). The shipbuilding centres of Por-tuguesc Indin were located at Basscin (Maharasl~tra), Cochin (ICcraln), Goa and Darnan on the west coast of India...

  2. Oil coastal tanker maintenance and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsztejn, Eduardo; Gomez Haedo, Juan Carlos [Government' s Oil Company of Uruguay (ANCAP), Montivideo (Uruguay)

    2008-07-01

    ANCAP (Government's Oil Company of Uruguay) owns a 4000 DWT oil coastal tanker which is mainly used for oil transport in the River Plate, Uruguay and Parana rivers. Availability of the ship is critical because of shortage of available vessels in the region. Full maximum draught of the vessel is 4m , so it can navigate in very shallow waters as it is the case of some places in the Uruguay and Parana rivers. Although the ship was built in 1979, it is a complete double hull, powered by two twin main engines and propellers. Since 1994, several changes in maintenance management have been introduced, in order to increase the availability, thus increasing the total oil volume yearly transported. These changes affected several maintenance items and they also included a modification in the design of part of the cargo tank floors of the ship. As a result of these changes, an increase of 60% of the oil derivatives volume transported yearly was achieved. In this paper, some of the important improvements on maintenance practises and management are described, together with a quantification of their influence on vessel's availability and overall maintenance costs. (author)

  3. Detection and mapping of shipwrecks embedded in sea-floor sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, O.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Cvikel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the detection of shipwrecks embedded in sea-floor sediments using a Chirp sub-bottom profiler. From a methodological-historical perspective it presents four examples of recent chirp recordings of verified shipwrecks embedded in different types of sediment environments, from...... than present 3D systems. Chirp data are therefore of great value in identifying and outlining shipwrecks hidden in the sea floor in survey situations where larger areas must be covered. The overall conclusion is that there are grounds for optimism with regard to this method of detection of maritime...

  4. Kuis saada läbi Siirita? / Mari-Ann Kelam, Erika Salumäe, Sirje Endre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelam, Mari-Ann, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Riigikogu uude juhatusse ei kuulu ühtegi naist : Keskerakond valis Siiri Oviiri asemele Riigikogu aseesimehe kohale Peeter Kreitzbergi. Naiste osalemisvõimalust poliitikas kommenteerivad Riigikogu naisliikmed Mari-Ann Kelam, Erika Salumäe, Sirje Endre, Jaana Padrik, Viive Rosenberg, Mai Treial, Ivi Eenmaa, Liis Klaar, Liia Hänni, Laine Tarvis

  5. Are shipwrecks a real hazard for the ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Monia; Romeo, Teresa; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Canese, Simonepietro; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Focardi, Silvano E; Berti, Claudio; Sprovieri, Mario; Gherardi, Serena; Salvagio, Daniela; Giaramita, Luigi; Esposito, Valentina; Battaglia, Pietro; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Andaloro, Franco

    2017-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hazard from shipwrecks on communities by a holistic approach taking into account different effects on biological communities. Multibeam and Remotely Operated Vehicles surveys recorded ecological assessment of fish and benthic species on three shipwrecks flooded during the Second World War on Maërl beds habitats in the strait of Sicily. Pollution levels of a wide range of chemicals of ecotoxicological concern were also measured in sediments and in fish species from different trophic levels. Statistical analysis evidenced significant differences among pollutant levels between both sediments and fish collected in shipwreck sites and controls. Concerning fish, significant effects due to the vessel's cargo type and flooding position are recorded. In spite of that, our results underline that shipwrecks are also a hotspots of biodiversity and a habitat for preservation strategies in marine ecosystems that need to be monitored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative bioavailability and toxicity of fuel oils leaking from World War II shipwrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Daling, Per; Altin, Dag; Dolva, Hilde; Fosbæk, Bjørn; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2015-05-15

    The Norwegian Authorities have classified 30 WWII shipwrecks to have a considerable potential for pollution to the environment, based on the location and condition of the wreck and the types and amount of fuel. Oil thus far has been removed from eight of these shipwrecks. The water accommodated fractions of oils from two British wrecks and two German wrecks have been studied with special emphasis on chemistry and biological effects (algae growth (Skeletonema costatum) and copepod mortality (Calanus finmarchicus)). Chemical analyses were also performed on three additional German wreck oils. The results from these studies show that the coal based oils from German WWII shipwrecks have higher toxicity to marine organisms than the mineral oils from the British shipwrecks. The potential for higher impact on the marine environment of coal based oils has resulted in an altering of the priority list for oil recovery from WWII wrecks by the authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2005-2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    As a part of the institutional project, 'Application of Geological and Geophysical methods in Marine Archaeology and Underwater Explorations, (OLP 0008)', exploration and excavation of shipwrecks have been carried out from 23 Jan 2006 to 21 Feb 2006...

  8. Macrofauna assemblages in a XVIIth century shipwreck: comparison with those on natural reefs and sandy bottoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coelho, Rui; Monteiro, Pedro; Abecasis, David; Blot, Jean Yves; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S

    2012-01-01

    ... (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou), with the natural reefs showing the highest values. However, the shipwreck presented values relatively similar to those of the natural reefs for the Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices...

  9. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2002-2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    . After ascertaining the distribution of objects, positions were taken by Global Positioning System (GPS). This survey marks systematic approach for exploration of shipwrecks in shallow as well as deep waters off Goa....

  10. Taube Erika, Tuwinische Folkloretexte aus dem Altai (Cengel/Westmongolei). Kleine Formen

    OpenAIRE

    Stépanoff, Charles

    2009-01-01

    L’ethnologue et linguiste allemande Erika Taube a consacré sa carrière à une population turcophone qui fut naguère des plus mal connues d’Asie septentrionale : les Touvas du Cengel sum en Mongolie. Jusqu’aux années 1960, les ouvrages soviétiques signalaient pour mémoire leur existence sous le nom de « Touvas de l’Altaï », en mentionnant les dernières informations les concernant, quelques phrases de G. N. Potanin datant des années 1880. Aujourd’hui, grâce au travail intensif de E. Taube, il n’...

  11. Standardized assessment system in Chile: share of Mario Leyton Soto and Erika Himmel König

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime CAICEO ESCUDERO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational evaluation, as the science of education, began to be developed and applied in Chile only starting from the sixties of the last century. Indeed, several Chilean educators were to his PhD to United States of America in these areas; among them are Mario Leyton and Erika Himmel, who specialized in curriculum and evaluation, through the approaches of Tyler and Bloom. Therefore, both were actively involved in the introduction into the country of two measurement systems: (1 selection for admission to the University, creating a standardized test, the academic aptitude test –paa– which was established from 1967 and remained until 2002 and from 2003 to date was changed to the university selection test –psu–; initially the paa contained only verbal and mathematical aptitude tests; knowledge tests were subsequently added specific (in mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry and Sciences social. (2 the measurement of achievements educational system school, both in basic education and medium from the 1970s with the called initially program of evaluation of educational achievement –per– and, subsequently, with the system of measurement of the quality of the teaching –simce–, which applies from 1988 until today, at the national level and at various levels of the school system: 4.° Basic, 8.° Basic and 2.° Medium, especially with tests of language and communication and mathematics. Both initiatives were directly involved Mario Leyton and Erika Himmel; the first to key positions in the Ministry of Education and the second as academic of the University of Chile and the Catholic University of Chile. Therefore, both have been recognized by the State with the National Prize of Sciences of Education in 2009 and 2011, respectively.

  12. Wetting a rail tanker behind a noise shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmuller, Nils

    2009-05-30

    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150 km long. Alongside the line, over more than 100 km noise shields are apparent. The question is to what extent this noise shield hinders the cooling of a rail tanker, carrying flammable liquid such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)? To answer this question, a full scale test was conducted on an already constructed part of the Betuweline [N. Rosmuller, D.W.G. Arentsen, (2005). Praktijkproeven Betuweroute: Instantane uitstroming en koeling 24 juni 2005, Nibra, Arnhem, The Netherlands]. Two railcars and a rail tanker were placed behind a 3m high noise shield. First, it was tested as to whether firemen or water canons should be used to deliver the water. Water canons were best next, four positions of the water canons to wet the rail tanker were tested. Three camera's and three observers recorded the locations and the extent of water that hit the rail tanker. The results indicate that the noise shield, to a large extent, prevents the water from hitting, and therefore cooling, the rail tanker. The upper parts of the rail tanker were minimally struck by the water canons and the small amount of water flowing down the rail tanker did not reach the lower parts of it because of the armatures at the rail tanker. Also, the amount of water in the ditches to be used for wetting was too small. The ditch nearby ran empty. These insights are both relevant to emergency responders for disaster abatement purposes and to water management organizations. The Ministry of Transport is examining the possible strategies to deal with these findings. The results are based upon one single full scale test near a 3m high noise shield. In addition, it would be valuable to determine what the influence would be of other heights of the noise shields.

  13. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    modeling techniques used in freight rate forecasting. At the same time research in shipping index forecasting e.g. BDTI applying artificial intelligent techniques is scarce. This analyses the possibilities to forecast the BDTI by applying Wavelet Neural Networks (WNN). Firstly, the characteristics......Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) is an important assessment index in world dirty tanker shipping industry. Actors in the industry sector can gain numerous benefits from accurate forecasting of the BDTI. However, limitations exist in traditional stochastic and econometric explanation...

  14. Tanker for liquefied natural gas. Development, technology, design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H. (Howaldtswerke - Deutsche Werft A.G., Kiel (Germany, F.R.))

    1978-12-01

    The article reports on the development of transport of liquefied natural gas overseas and the technical developments required for this purpose. The tank systems most frequently used for LNG tankers are described. Further, a report is given on the construction of two 125,800 cu. metre LNG/LPG tankers, which were built by the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft shipyard at Kiel in the past year. The considerations which led to the use of spherical tanks are discussed. Finally, the possible development of the transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) overseas is discussed.

  15. Settlement and growth of Antipathes pennacea on a shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, S. G.

    1988-11-01

    A large population of the black coral Antipathes pennacea (Pallas) was studied underwater on a 37 year old shipwreck in Jamaican waters. The occurrence of A. pennacea at depths of 30 32 m supports previous observations that the minimum depth for black corals is reduced in turbid waters. Specimens of A. pennacea were found only on the underside of overhangs and 96 were measured. This pattern of occurrence suggests that the angle of inclination of the substrate is assesed prior to larval settlement. A. pennacea morphology was density dependent; isolated individuals grew three dimentionally in the form of a bush, the major stem being circular in cross section. Crowded individuals however, were tall with thin, oval or hourglass shaped stems and had a vertically orientated fan shape. The largest crowded individuals averaged growth rates of 57 mm height/year while the largest isolated individuals averaged 0.92 mm stem diameter/year.

  16. Analysis of beers from an 1840s' shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londesborough, John; Dresel, Michael; Gibson, Brian; Juvonen, Riikka; Holopainen, Ulla; Mikkelson, Atte; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Viljanen, Kaarina; Virtanen, Hannele; Wilpola, Arvi; Hofmann, Thomas; Wilhelmson, Annika

    2015-03-11

    Two bottles of beer from an about 170-year-old shipwreck (M1 Fö 403.3) near the Åland Islands in the Baltic Sea were analyzed. Hop components and their degradation compounds showed that the bottles contained two different beers, one more strongly hopped than the other. The hops used contained higher levels of β-acids than modern varieties and were added before the worts were boiled, converting α-acids to iso-α-acids and β-acids to hulupones. High levels of organic acids, carbonyl compounds, and glucose indicated extensive bacterial and enzyme activity during aging. However, concentrations of yeast-derived flavor compounds were similar to those of modern beers, except that 3-methylbutyl acetate was unusually low in both beers and 2-phenylethanol and possibly 2-phenylethyl acetate were unusually high in one beer. Concentrations of phenolic compounds were similar to those in modern lagers and ales.

  17. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... require a two vessel escort system for double hull tankers over 5,000 GT transporting oil in bulk in PWS... 2008 that double hull tankers be escorted by a two vessel escort system when in transit through PWS... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 168 RIN 1625-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince...

  18. VRAKA – a probabilistic risk assessment method for potentially polluting shipwrecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Landquist

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shipwrecks around the world contain unknown volumes of hazardous substances which, if discharged, could harm the marine environment. Shipwrecks can deteriorate for a number of reasons, including corrosion and physical impact from trawling and other activities, and the probability of a leakage increases with time. Before deciding on possible mitigation measures, there are currently few comprehensive methods for assessing shipwrecks with respect to pollution risks. A holistic method for estimating environmental risks from shipwrecks should be based on well-established risk assessment methods and should take into account both the probability of discharge and the potential consequences. The purpose of this study was therefore to present a holistic risk assessment method for potentially polluting shipwrecks. The focus is set to developing a method for estimating the environmental consequences of potential discharges of hazardous substances from shipwrecks and to combine this with earlier research on a tool for estimating the probability of discharge of hazardous substances. Risk evaluation should also be included in a full risk assessment and is the subject of further research. The consequence assessment was developed for application in three tiers. In Tier 1, the probability of discharge and possible amount of discharge are compared to other shipwrecks. In Tier 2, a risk matrix, including a classification of potential consequences, is suggested as a basis for assessment and comparison. The most detailed level, Tier 3, is based on advanced tools for oil spill trajectory modelling and sensitivity mapping of the Swedish coast.To illustrate the method an example application on two wrecks is presented. Wreck number 1 present a lower probability of discharge and a lower consequence in a Tier 1 and Tier 3 assessment. For the Tier 2 consequence assessment, the two example wrecks present equal consequence. The tool for estimating the probability of discharge

  19. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundtank households had better quality drinking water than households using storage containers filled from communal tankers. Uncovered storage containers had the poorest microbial water quality among all storage containers. All stored water did not meet drinking water standards, although mains water did.

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF VISCOUS FLOW AROUND A TANKER MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Farkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, numerical simulation of the viscous flow around a tanker model was carried out utilizing software package STAR-CCM+. A mathematical model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid method for describing the motion of two-phase media are given. Necessary boundary conditions for the mathematical model and the method of discretization are described as well. The influence of the grid density on the numerical results for the total resistance of tanker model was investigated using three different grid densities. Two different types of k-ε turbulence model are implemented and the deviations in numerical results are highlighted. Results for total resistance of tanker model, obtained by numerical simulations, were validated against experimental results. Experiments were performed in the towing tank of Brodarski Institut in Zagreb for wide range of Froude numbers. It has been shown that for all three grid densities and both types of k-ε turbulence model satisfactory agreement with experimental results can be achieved for whole range of Froude numbers. The scale effects are investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics study for the same tanker model in three different scales. Numerically calculated scale effects on the wave resistance are reviewed.

  1. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drink- ing water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were ...

  2. Proses Individuasi Carl Gustav Jung pada Tokoh Erika Kohut dalam Novel Sang Guru Piano Karya Elfriede Jelinek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oktavia Vidiyanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A personality structure that appears in Erika is similar to one of an important part of Carl Gustav Jung psychology. Jung states that personality is a psiko that covers consciousness and unconsciousness. This psiko will develop to be a stable unity. If every system develops in every individual absolutely, so a health and integrated personality will be achieved. That process in Jung is known as a self­ individualized process. The aim of individualism is a self­achievement. Individual is not only as a psiko centre but also as a representation of the whole individual that unites consciousness and unconsciousness. It is like the character "Erika Kohut" in the novel "Sang Guru Piano".

  3. SR-71 - In-flight from Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Dryden's SR-71B, NASA 831, slices across the snow-covered southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California after being refueled by an Air Force tanker during a 1994 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  4. A fault tree model to assess probability of contaminant discharge from shipwrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landquist, H; Rosén, L; Lindhe, A; Norberg, T; Hassellöv, I-M; Lindgren, J F; Dahllöf, I

    2014-11-15

    Shipwrecks on the sea floor around the world may contain hazardous substances that can cause harm to the marine environment. Today there are no comprehensive methods for environmental risk assessment of shipwrecks, and thus there is poor support for decision-making on prioritization of mitigation measures. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool for quantitative risk estimation of potentially polluting shipwrecks, and in particular an estimation of the annual probability of hazardous substance discharge. The assessment of the probability of discharge is performed using fault tree analysis, facilitating quantification of the probability with respect to a set of identified hazardous events. This approach enables a structured assessment providing transparent uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The model facilitates quantification of risk, quantification of the uncertainties in the risk calculation and identification of parameters to be investigated further in order to obtain a more reliable risk calculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital Survey Techniques for the Documentation of Wooden Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E.; Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, researchers widely employ the acquisition of point clouds as one of the principal type of documentation for cultural heritage. In this paper, different digital survey techniques are employed to document a wooden ancient shipwreck, a particular and difficult kind of archaeological finding due to its material characteristics. The instability of wood and the high costs of restoration do not always offer the opportunity of recovering and showing the hull to researchers and public and three-dimensional surveys are fundamental to document the original conditions of the wood. The precarious conditions of this material in contact with air could modify the structure and the size of the boat, requiring a fast and accurate recording technique. The collaboration between Ca' Foscari University and the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of Iuav University of Venice has given the possibility to demonstrate the utility of these technology. We have surveyed a sewn boat of Roman age through multi-image photogrammetry and laser scanner. Point clouds were compared and a residual analysis was done, to verify the characteristics and the opportunity of the two techniques, both of them have allowed obtaining a very precise documentation from a metrical point of view.

  6. DIGITAL SURVEY TECHNIQUES FOR THE DOCUMENTATION OF WOODEN SHIPWRECKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, researchers widely employ the acquisition of point clouds as one of the principal type of documentation for cultural heritage. In this paper, different digital survey techniques are employed to document a wooden ancient shipwreck, a particular and difficult kind of archaeological finding due to its material characteristics. The instability of wood and the high costs of restoration do not always offer the opportunity of recovering and showing the hull to researchers and public and three-dimensional surveys are fundamental to document the original conditions of the wood. The precarious conditions of this material in contact with air could modify the structure and the size of the boat, requiring a fast and accurate recording technique. The collaboration between Ca' Foscari University and the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of Iuav University of Venice has given the possibility to demonstrate the utility of these technology. We have surveyed a sewn boat of Roman age through multi-image photogrammetry and laser scanner. Point clouds were compared and a residual analysis was done, to verify the characteristics and the opportunity of the two techniques, both of them have allowed obtaining a very precise documentation from a metrical point of view.

  7. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... National University. The goal of the study has been to establish a rational practical design oriented approach to collision resistance that is more sophisticated than previous theoretically based procedures and less complicated than conventional nonlinear finite element methods. The main tasks undertaken...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  8. Operational safety of FPSOs shuttle tanker collision risk summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnem, J.E.

    2003-07-01

    This report presents a summary of some of the observations and recommendations made in the research project' Operational Safety of FPS0s financed by Esso Norge AS/ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Health and Safety Executive and Statoil, and with Navion ASA as a Technology Sponsor. The project is carried out jointly by NTNU and SINTEF, with Department of Marine Technology, NTNU as project responsible. The overall scope of the research project is to develop methodologies for risk assessment of FPSO vessels with particular emphasis on analysis of operational aspects. The scope of the last phase has on the other hand been to analyse in detail, using the previously developed approach, the collision risk between the FPSO and its shuttle tanker, during all phases of off-loading operations. This summary report is focused on the analysis of collision risk between the shuttle tanker and the FPSO. (author)

  9. Use of air tankers pays off ... a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive M. Countryman

    1969-01-01

    Fire suppression costs in the 1967 Timber Canyon Fire, in Southern California, were increased by about $39,000 over what they would have been had air tankers not been used. But because aircraft were called into help put out the fire, fire damages were reduced by $501,375- yielding a "profit" of $461,574. Data on weather, fuels, and topography made it possible...

  10. Tanker Fuel Efficiency: Saving Through Receiver Fuel Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    At the same time, tankers were supporting tsunami relief missions to Japan, an Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) swap out, a Presidential movement, in...Most large air refuelable aircraft do not have this training requirement. The KC-10 however does, and accomplishes this training by swapping large...shorten their training by only gaining currency and not proficiency on maneuvers. The C-32 only was supported on 113 sorties but it has the lowest

  11. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... foreign vessel mean the same as in 46 U.S.C. 2101. SOLAS 74 means the International Convention for the... the same as in Chapter II-1, Regulations 1.1.2 and 1.1.3.1, of SOLAS 74. Existing tanker means a... September 1, 1984, must meet the applicable requirements of Chapter II-1, Regulations 29 and 30, of SOLAS 74...

  12. Morphological modelling of the response to a shipwreck - A case study at Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Fredsoe, Jørgen; Deigaard, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport with a sim......A simulation of the morphological development and degrade of a salient behind a shipwreck located north of Cape Town, South Africa is presented. The morphological model is based on a hybrid morphological model concept which combines a 2D coastal model for calculating sediment transport...

  13. Deep-Water Shipwreck Initial Site Formation: The Equation of Site Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Robert A.

    2014-06-01

    Deep-water shipwrecks and associated debris often sit on the bottom with relatively little disturbance, except for the natural bio-chemical deterioration. The distribution of shipwreck material can often be calculated mathematically as a function of heading, speed, time, and water depth. The Equation of Site Distribution is a method aimed to better understand deep-water site formation and the wrecking events themselves. With the use of a few relatively simple formulas, key elements of a site can be discovered, as well as greater insight of the overall wrecking event achieved.

  14. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijer, K. [International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Victor and Erika Webnovela: An Innovative Generation @ Audience Engagement Strategy for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elizabeth L; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Marc C; Cleary, Sean D; Villalba, Ricardo; Batista, Idalina Cubilla

    2015-01-01

    Entertainment-education (E-E) approaches for young audiences continue to evolve in order to keep stride with younger generations' affinity for technology. E-E and novelas have been used with a wide variety of audiences in the United States, in particular hard-to-reach Latino populations, and have demonstrated effectiveness in disseminating culturally relevant prevention information for a wide variety of health-related risk factors and behaviors. This study discusses the formative research and active engagement of Latino youth living in Langley Park, Maryland, for the development and filming of an innovative 6-episode webnovela titled Victor and Erika (V&E). V&E is part of a larger branding strategy of the Adelante Positive Youth Development intervention that seeks to prevent substance abuse, sexual risk, and interpersonal violence among Latino youth; V&E is also an intervention component. The V&E webnovela is a dramatic portrayal of the lives of 2 immigrant Latino teenagers that also disseminates risk prevention messages. The storyline represents the turning the corner (to a better life) theme that underlies the Adelante intervention brand. Formative research was conducted for character development (n = 20) and creative development of the episodes (n = 14). Results of the formative research showed that youth recommended inclusion of the following topics in V&E episodes: sex, unintended pregnancy, fidelity, trust, family dynamics, immigration status, violence, school dropout, respect, home life, and poverty. Detailed character and episode descriptions are provided, and the implications of using the V&E series as a tool for in-person and online engagement of youth and the dissemination of prevention messages are also discussed.

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of oil spill impacts on deep water shipwreck microbiomes in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, L. J.; Damour, M.; McGown, C.; Figan, C.; Kassahun, Z.; Blackwell, K.; Horrell, C.; Gillevet, P.

    2014-12-01

    Shipwrecks serve as artificial reefs in the deep ocean. Because of their inherent diversity compared to their surrounding environment and their random distribution, shipwrecks are ideal ecosystems to study pollution impacts and microbial distribution patterns in the deep biosphere. This study provides a comparative assessment of Deepwater Horizon spill impacts on shipwreck and local sedimentary microbiomes and the synergistic effects of contaminants on these communities and the physical structures that support them. For this study, microbiomes associated with wooden 19th century shipwrecks and World War II era steel shipwrecks in the northern Gulf of Mexico were investigated using next generation sequencing. Samples derived from in situ biofilm monitoring platforms deployed adjacent to 5 shipwrecks for 4 months, and sediment collected from distances ranging from 2-200m from each shipwreck were evaluated for shifts in microbiome structure and gene function relative to proximity to the spill, and oil spill related contaminants in the local environment. The goals of the investigation are to determine impacts to recruitment and community structure at sites located within and outside of areas impacted by the spill. Taxonomic classification of dominant and rare members of shipwreck microbiomes and metabolic information extracted from sequence data yield new understanding of microbial processes associated with site formation. The study provides information on the identity of microbial inhabitants of shipwrecks, their role in site preservation, and impacts of the Deepwater Horizon spill on the primary colonizers of artificial reefs in the deep ocean. This approach could inform about the role of microorganisms in establishment and maintenance of the artificial reef environment, while providing information about ecosystem feedbacks resulting from spills.

  17. Proses Individuasi Carl Gustav Jung Pada Tokoh Erika Kohut Dalam Novel Sang Guru Piano Karya Elfriede Jelinek

    OpenAIRE

    Vidiyanti, M. Oktavia

    2007-01-01

    A personality structure that appears in Erika is similar to one of an important part of Carl Gustav Jung psychology. Jung states that personality is a psiko that covers consciousness and unconsciousness. This psiko will develop to be a stable unity. If every system develops in every individual absolutely, so a health and integrated personality will be achieved. That process in Jung is known as a self­ individualized process. The aim of individualism is a self­achievement. Individual is not on...

  18. Biological and Archaeological Analysis of Deepwater Shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico: Studying the Artificial Reef Effect of Six World War II Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, R. A.; Irion, J. B.; Schroeder, W. W.; Warren, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    In the summer of 2004 researchers from across the United States and Canada partnered together to investigate biological and archaeological questions relating to six World War II era shipwrecks discovered in the Gulf of Mexico. The science team included microbiologists, marine vertebrate and invertebrate zoologists, a molecular biologist, an oceanographer, marine archaeologists, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technicians, and a professional marine survey crew. The United States Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, and the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration sponsored this multidisciplinary project under the auspices of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. The organizational involvement included six universities, two non-profit organizations, three commercial companies, and three U. S. federal agencies. The depth of the shipwrecks ranged from 87 to 1,964 meters. All six shipwrecks were war casualties, found during the past two decades on oil and gas surveys. These wrecks serve as artificial reefs sunk on well- documented dates, thereby offering biologists a unique opportunity to study the "artificial reef effect" of man- made structures in deep water. Taken together, these sites are an underwater battlefield, and a vital historical resource documenting a little-studied area in a crucial period of world history. They preserve information vital to scholarly and popular understanding of the war's impact in the Gulf of Mexico, on the American home front, and the global conflict. This paper will discuss the field methodology and touch on many of the scientific and technical aspects, and findings of the project.

  19. Shipwreck archaeology of Goa: Evidence of maritime contacts with other countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Vora, K.H.

    . The NIO has been exploring shipwrecks in Sunchi Reef and St George’s Reef, off Goa since 1989. The findings of Sunchi Reef include a brass barrel of a handgun, Chinese ceramic, Martaban pottery, bases of glass bottles, elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth...

  20. Exploration for shipwrecks off Sunchi Reef, Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Archival records show that a number of ships have sunk in the waters off Goa, on the west coast of India, as a result of foul weather, warfare and human error. Explorations were carried out in 1997-99 to locate shipwrecks using a boat-towed metal...

  1. Expert elicitation for deriving input data for probabilistic risk assessment of shipwrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landquist, H; Norrman, J; Lindhe, A; Norberg, T; Hassellöv, I-M; Lindgren, J F; Rosén, L

    2017-09-29

    The necessity of having a process in place for adequate risk assessment of shipwrecks that pose a threat to the marine environment is today internationally acknowledged. However, retrieving the desired data for such a risk assessment can prove challenging. One means of addressing this problem is to make use of experts' knowledge and experience. The purpose of this paper is therefore to present and analyse data for risk assessment of shipwrecks derived by expert elicitation. The main outcome is the experts' estimations of (i) the generic probability of an opening in a shipwreck due to the occurrence of a number of activities and (ii) estimations of the degree to which site-specific and wreck-specific indicators affect the probability of opening. Results show that the derived information is applicable in probabilistic shipwreck risk assessment and that the VRAKA framework now contains needed information for integrating generic and site-specific information using Bayesian updating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bayesian updating in a fault tree model for shipwreck risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landquist, H; Rosén, L; Lindhe, A; Norberg, T; Hassellöv, I-M

    2017-07-15

    Shipwrecks containing oil and other hazardous substances have been deteriorating on the seabeds of the world for many years and are threatening to pollute the marine environment. The status of the wrecks and the potential volume of harmful substances present in the wrecks are affected by a multitude of uncertainties. Each shipwreck poses a unique threat, the nature of which is determined by the structural status of the wreck and possible damage resulting from hazardous activities that could potentially cause a discharge. Decision support is required to ensure the efficiency of the prioritisation process and the allocation of resources required to carry out risk mitigation measures. Whilst risk assessments can provide the requisite decision support, comprehensive methods that take into account key uncertainties related to shipwrecks are limited. The aim of this paper was to develop a method for estimating the probability of discharge of hazardous substances from shipwrecks. The method is based on Bayesian updating of generic information on the hazards posed by different activities in the surroundings of the wreck, with information on site-specific and wreck-specific conditions in a fault tree model. Bayesian updating is performed using Monte Carlo simulations for estimating the probability of a discharge of hazardous substances and formal handling of intrinsic uncertainties. An example application involving two wrecks located off the Swedish coast is presented. Results show the estimated probability of opening, discharge and volume of the discharge for the two wrecks and illustrate the capability of the model to provide decision support. Together with consequence estimations of a discharge of hazardous substances, the suggested model enables comprehensive and probabilistic risk assessments of shipwrecks to be made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P. [ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  4. Fuzzy Logic Trajectory Tracking Controller for a Tanker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dur Muhammad Pathan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fuzzy logic controller for design of autopilot of a ship. Triangular membership functions have been use for fuzzification and the centroid method for defuzzification. A nonlinear mathematical model of an oil tanker has been considered whose parameters vary with the depth of water. The performance of proposed controller has been tested under both course changing and trajectory keeping mode of operations. It has been demonstrated that the performance is robust in shallow as well as deep waters.

  5. Explosion of a road tanker containing liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas-Cuchi, E.; Casal, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Catalonia (Spain). CERTEC; Gasulla, N.; Ventosa, A. [Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Spain). General Directorate for Emergencies and Civl Security

    2004-07-01

    The explosion of a road tanker transporting LNG (one person killed, two injured) is studied. The analysis shows that the explosion, which followed a two-step mode as for the failure of the vessel, could have been a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). The overpressure and thermal radiation have been estimated and related to the effects observed. Only a relatively small part of the energy released in the explosion was manifested in the pressure wave. The large fragments (the three pieces into which the tank was broken) and the truck motor were ejected at various distances along the tank's main axis. (author)

  6. Long-Term Corrosion Processes of Iron and Steel Shipwrecks in the Marine Environment: A Review of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James D.

    2015-12-01

    Methodologies for examining the corrosion behavior of iron and steel shipwrecks have steadily progressed since the 1970s, but the analytical techniques utilized since then are comparatively site-specific, and the overall quantity of data available for independent review is seemingly limited. Laudable advancements in the fields of maritime archaeology, oceanography, and corrosion science support the determination that microbiologically-influenced corrosion primarily controls the degradation rates of iron and steel shipwrecks over archaeological timescales. Future in situ analyses performed on these shipwreck sites need to consider the overreaching impacts that microbiological metabolism have on long-term corrosion rates. The corrosion behavior of an iron or steel archaeological shipwreck site should also not be readily applied to similar sites or to other wrecked vessels that are in close proximity.

  7. Applying Advanced Imaging and Visualization Technology to the Battle of the Atlantic Shipwrecks between 20110531 and 20110821

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2008, the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary (MNMS) commenced a multiyear project focusing on shipwreck sites associated with the Battle of the Atlantic. During...

  8. Optimum use of air tankers in initial attack: selection, basing, and transfer rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis E. Greulich; William G. O' Regan

    1982-01-01

    Fire managers face two interrelated problems in deciding the most efficient use of air tankers: where best to base them, and how best to reallocate them each day in anticipation of fire occurrence. A computerized model based on a mixed integer linear program can help in assigning air tankers throughout the fire season. The model was tested using information from...

  9. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Court, K E; Kumm, W H; O' Callaghan, J E

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars.

  10. The Erika oil spill impact on land vegetation : main results of a five year monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncet, F. [Cedre, Brest (France); Ragot, R. [Conservatoir Botanique National de Brest, Brest (France); Tintilier, F. [Biotope, Bouguenais (France)

    2007-07-01

    An extensive environmental impact assessment was initiated by the French Ministry of the Environment following a spill of 20,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil that occurred in December 1999 when the tanker Erica broke and sank off the coast of Brittany. The spill affected 400 km of coastline. Before the oil reached the shore, it had been drifting and weathering at sea for 12 days under harsh sea conditions, resulting in oil fragmentation and scattering. The oil then reached lichen communities and coastal plants of the splash zone on rocky shores, dune vegetation and salt marshes. The oil was composed of 90 per cent heavy distillation residue and 10 per cent light fraction. The type of oil is significant, since weathered crude oils are considered to be less toxic to marsh grass than lighter more penetrating oils. A large scale, 2.5 year clean-up operation was conducted under the POLMAR French national organization. Vegetation clean-up was undertaken depending on the degree of oiling, sensitivity of plant species or natural habitats. A 5 year monitoring program was also launched to determine the impact on vegetation and contamination of the plant tissues by aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program established 175 permanent quadrats on all types of affected vegetation communities and followed a phyto-sociological method. It was determined that adequate removal of the bulk oil resulted in minimal impact on heavily oiled vegetation. Although there was light to moderate short and medium term damages, the composition of vegetation and cover did not evolve significantly in most quadrats monitored. There was a long-term impact on slow growing communities such as lichen, and grey dunes. Residual oil was still observed up to 2005. The adverse effects were linked to coating rather than to toxic effects. Fixed dunes, aerohaline grass and heath communities were found to be more vulnerable and have not yet recovered to pre-spill state. 15 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Historic Shipwrecks as Ecosystem Monitoring Platforms in the Wake of Deepwater Horizon? Results of the Gulf of Mexico Shipwreck Corrosion, Hydrocarbon Exposure, Microbiology, and Archaeology (GOM-SCHEMA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, M.; Hamdan, L. J.; Salerno, J. L.; McGown, C.; Blackwell, C. A.; Church, R.; Warren, D.; Horrell, C.; Jordan, B.; Moore, J.

    2016-02-01

    Historic shipwrecks and other archaeological sites are protected by a well-established body of historic preservation laws intended to preserve these sensitive, non-renewable resources. While the cultural, historical, and archaeological value of historic shipwrecks is unequivocal, their function and value as ecosystem monitoring platforms following a major environmental disaster is becoming apparent. Shipwrecks have been found in previous studies to serve as artificial reefs and hotspots of biodiversity, essentially providing the basis for an intact ecosystem. This is especially true in the deepwater marine environment where natural hard-bottom is sparse. Micro- and macro-infaunal diversity on shipwrecks and their sensitivity to environmental change demonstrates the suitability of these platforms for monitoring ecosystem impact and recovery. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and partners initiated a multidisciplinary study to examine spill effects on shipwrecks and their associated microbial communities. To assess these impacts and to perform comparative analyses, the team collected microbiological, geochemical, and archaeological data at wooden- and metal-hulled shipwrecks within and outside of the subsurface spill-impacted area. Microbial community biodiversity informs us of micro-scale changes while 3D laser and sonar data reveal macro-scale changes. A multidisciplinary approach informs us of the roles microorganisms have in shipwreck degradation and corrosion as well as their response to ecosystem impacts. Results of the study identified multiple lines of evidence that sites were impacted by exposure to spill-related contaminants. Future multidisciplinary studies at these sites, as part of a long-term monitoring program, should inform on ecosystem recovery.

  12. Shipwreck rates and tree rings suggest reduced North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Maunder Minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, G. L.; Trouet, V.; Dominguez Delmas, M.

    2014-12-01

    The observational record of North Atlantic TCs is too short to inform our understanding of decadal-scale climatic controls on TC regimes. We combined two new annual-resolution proxies of Atlantic storm activity to extend the observational TC record back to the 16th Century. A tree-growth suppression chronology (1707-2010 CE) from the Florida Keys, U.S.A. captures 91% of observed North Atlantic TCs (1850-2010 CE) and shares significant peak events with a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the Caribbean (1495-1820). Decadal-scale shipwreck rates were lowest during the Maunder Minimum (ca. 1645-1715), indicating that cooler Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during this period reduced Caribbean TC activity. Our results support global-scale climate proxy data and suggest that cooler tropical Atlantic SSTs and a generally negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the Little Ice Age reduced TC frequency.

  13. Selecting Tanker Steaming Speeds under Uncertainty: A Rule-Based Bayesian Reasoning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tanker industry, there are a lot of uncertain conditions that tanker companies have to deal with. For example, the global financial crisis and economic recession, the increase of bunker fuel prices and global climate change. Such conditions have forced tanker companies to change tankers speed from full speed to slow speed, extra slow speed and super slow speed. Due to such conditions, the objective of this paper is to present a methodology for determining vessel speeds of tankers that minimize the cost of the vessels under such conditions. The four levels of vessel speed in the tanker industry will be investigated and will incorporate a number of uncertain conditions. This will be done by developing a scientific model using a rule-based Bayesian reasoning method. The proposed model has produced 96 rules that can be used as guidance in the decision making process. Such results help tanker companies to determine the appropriate vessel speed to be used in a dynamic operational environmental.

  14. Nature preservation acceptance model applied to tanker oil spill simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    is exemplified by a study of oil spills due to simulated tanker collisions in the Danish straits. It is found that the distribution of the oil spill volume per spill is well represented by an exponential distribution both in Oeresund and in Great Belt. When applied in the Poisson model, a risk profile reasonably...... close to the standard lognormal profile is obtained. Moreover, based on data pairs (volume, cost) for world wide oil spills it is inferred that the conditional distribution of the costs given the spill volume is well modeled by a lognormal distribution. By unconditioning by the exponential distribution...... of the single oil spill, a risk profile for the costs is obtained that is indistinguishable from the standard lognormal risk profile.Finally the question of formulating a public risk acceptance criterion is addressed following Ditlevsen, and it is argued that a Nature Preservation Willingness Index can...

  15. Fault Monitooring and Fault Recovery Control for Position Moored Tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses fault tolerant control for position mooring of a shuttle tanker operating in the North Sea. A complete framework for fault diagnosis is presented but the loss of a sub-sea mooring line buoyancy element is given particular attention, since this fault could lead to line breakage...... and risky abortion of an oil-loading operation. With signicant drift forces from waves, non-Gaussian elements dominate in residuals and fault diagnosis need be designed using dedicated change detection for the type of distribution encountered. In addition to dedicated diagnosis, an optimal position...... algorithm is proposed to accommodate buoyancy element failure and keep the mooring system in a safe state. Detection properties and fault-tolerant control are demonstrated by high delity simulations...

  16. Fault Monitoring and Fault Recovery Control for Position Moored Tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Shaoji; Blanke, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses fault tolerant control for position mooring of a shuttle tanker operating in the North Sea. A complete framework for fault diagnosis is presented but the loss of a sub-sea mooring line buoyancy element is given particular attention, since this fault could lead to mooring line...... breakage and a high-risk abortion of an oil-loading operation. With significant drift forces from waves, non-Gaussian elements dominate forces and the residuals designed for fault diagnosis. Hypothesis testing need be designed using dedicated change detection for the type of distribution encountered....... In addition to dedicated diagnosis, an optimal position algorithm is proposed to accommodate buoyancy element failure and keep the mooring system in a safe state. Furthermore, even in the case of line breakage, this optimal position strategy could be utilised to avoid breakage of a second mooring line...

  17. Evaluation of the modern submarine landscape off southwestern Turkey through the documentation of ancient shipwreck sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Michael L.; Ballard, Robert D.; Roman, Chris; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Buxton, Bridget; Coleman, Dwight F.; Inglis, Gabrielle; Köyağasıoğlu, Orkan; Turanlı, Tufan

    2012-07-01

    The issue of damage to shipwreck sites caused by the operation of mobile fishing gear has only recently begun to be addressed by the archaeological community. However, the nature, extent, and intensity of this damage has yet to be quantified. Acoustic and video surveys conducted between 2008 and 2010 located and imaged sixteen ancient shipwrecks around the Bodrum and Datça Peninsulas, Turkey, many of which were heavily damaged by trawling activity. The results of this research illustrate the unfortunate reality that many wreck sites in the Aegean Sea are heavily damaged by modern fishing activities. Quantifying the extent and intensity of trawl scars on the seabed further reveals the geographic spread of damage in these areas. The results of these mapping projects call attention to the dismantling of cultural sites by the use of mobile fishing gear on the seabed. By comparing the number of broken artifacts on these wreck sites to other sites that have escaped the effects of trawling, such as those in the Black Sea, we see that shipwrecks that are or were at one time in areas of trawling activity show a considerable amount of damage. The location and condition of these wreck sites helps map and quantify past and recent trawling activity, and pinpoint areas on the shallow coastal shelf where additional trawling restrictions or protected zones may be able to help the preservation of archaeological material.

  18. Research on Intelligent Avoidance Method of Shipwreck Based on Bigdata Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that current avoidance method of shipwreck has the problem of low success rate of avoidance, this paper proposes a method of intelligent avoidance of shipwreck based on big data analysis. Firstly,our method used big data analysis to calculate the safe distance of approach of ship under the head-on situation, the crossing situation and the overtaking situation.On this basis, by calculating the risk-degree of collision of ships,our research determined the degree of immediate danger of ships.Finally, we calculated the three kinds of evaluation function of ship navigation, and used genetic algorithm to realize the intelligent avoidance of shipwreck.Experimental result shows that compared the proposed method with the traditional method in two in a recent meeting when the distance to closest point of approach between two ships is 0.13nmile, they can effectively evade.The success rate of avoidance is high.

  19. Fish assemblages on shipwrecks and natural rocky reefs strongly differ in trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Pinheiro, Hudson T

    2013-09-01

    In the present work fish assemblages over two metallic vessels, five and 105 years old, and two natural rocky reefs were compared. The hypothesis that shipwrecks support assemblages with trophic structure similar to that encountered on natural reefs was rejected. Artificial and natural reefs strongly differ in their trophic structure, both in their multivariate composition and in biomass of most guilds. Substrate characteristics such as rugosity and benthic cover were found to influence the trophic organisation of the communities. Moreover, slow-paced structural changes over time in both biotic and abiotic aspects of wrecks appear responsible for younger and older artificial reefs be dissimilar in respect to biomass density of most feeding guilds. However, the older artificial reef did not present any strikingly "intermediate" feature between the younger artificial reef and the natural reefs, evidencing that distinct trophic assemblages exist over wrecks. Finally, the results found indicate that the use of shipwrecks as mitigation tool for losses of natural reefs may not be fully appropriate as they greatly differ in trophic structure, and consequently in energy flow, from natural reefs. Also, setting shipwrecks near natural reefs should be avoided as they differ in resources availability for many species, which may alter the community structure of natural habitats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight, view from tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane from a KC-135 tanker aircraft. The Eclipse aircraft was not refueling but simply flying below and behind the tanker for purposes of shooting the photograph from the air. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  1. Modeling of tanker movement at the oil terminal in the high seas at crosshair management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov S.O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of modeling of tanker movement during cargo operations at the oil terminal in the high seas has been considered. An innovative method of crosshair management has been used

  2. Development of Power Management System for Electric Power Generation in Tanker Ship Based on Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Indra Ranu Kusuma; Raynaldi Pratama

    2017-01-01

    Power management system (PMS) for electric power generation in ship, in the case of tanker ship, is the system that has function to control and to monitor all generators in ship as the main electricity supplier for all electric...

  3. Validating national landslide susceptibility and hazard maps for Caribbean island countries: the case of Dominica and tropical storm Erika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, Cees; Jetten, Victor; Alkema, Dinand

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to generate national-scale landslide susceptibility and hazard maps for four Caribbean islands, as part of the World Bank project CHARIM (Caribbean Handbook on Disaster Geoinformation Management, www.charim.net). This paper focuses on the results for the island country of Dominica, located in the Eastern part of the Caribbean, in-between Guadalupe and Martinique. The available data turned out to be insufficient to generate reliable results. We therefore generated a new database of disaster events for Dominica using all available data, making use of many different sources. We compiled landslide inventories for five recent rainfall events from the maintenance records of the Ministry of Public Works, and generated a completely new landslide inventory using multi-temporal visual image interpretation, and generated an extensive landslide database for Dominica. We analyzed the triggering conditions for landslides as far as was possible given the available data, and generated rainfall magnitude-frequency relations. We applied a method for landslide susceptibility assessment which combined bi-variate statistical analysis, that provided indications on the importance of the possible contributing factors, with an expert-based iterative weighing approach using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. The method is transparent, as the stakeholders (e.g. the engineers and planners from the four countries) and other consultants can consult the criteria trees and evaluate the standardization and weights, and make adjustments. The landslide susceptibility map was converted into a landslide hazard map using landslide density and frequencies for so called major, moderate and minor triggering events. The landslide hazard map was produced in May 2015. A major rainfall event occurred on Dominica following the passage of tropical storm Erika on 26 to 28 August 2015. An event-based landslide inventory for this event was produced by UNOSAT using very high resolution

  4. Human error contribution in collision and grounding of oil tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Maturana, Marcos Coelho

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a quantitative analysis of the human failure contribution in the collision and/or grounding of oil tankers, considering the recommendation of the "Guidelines for Formal Safety Assessment" of the International Maritime Organization. Initially, the employed methodology is presented, emphasizing the use of the technique for human error prediction to reach the desired objective. Later, this methodology is applied to a ship operating on the Brazilian coast and, thereafter, the procedure to isolate the human actions with the greatest potential to reduce the risk of an accident is described. Finally, the management and organizational factors presented in the "International Safety Management Code" are associated with these selected actions. Therefore, an operator will be able to decide where to work in order to obtain an effective reduction in the probability of accidents. Even though this study does not present a new methodology, it can be considered as a reference in the human reliability analysis for the maritime industry, which, in spite of having some guides for risk analysis, has few studies related to human reliability effectively applied to the sector.

  5. Macrofauna assemblages in a XVIIth century shipwreck: comparison with those on natural reefs and sandy bottoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The macrofauna assemblages of a XVIIth century shipwreck off southern Portugal were studied and compared with those of nearby natural reefs and sandy bottoms, by underwater visual census. A total of 11 173 specimens of 224 different fauna taxa and 12 phyla were recorded. Natural reefs had the highest density of specimens (35 122 / 1000 m² followed by the shipwreck (21 392 / 1000 m² and the sandy bottoms (3771 / 1000 m². Three biodiversity indices were estimated (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou, with the natural reefs showing the highest values. However, the shipwreck presented values relatively similar to those of the natural reefs for the Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices. The three habitats were clearly distinguishable by multivariate statistical analysis, with the average dissimilarity between sand and shipwreck, and between sand and natural reefs being much higher than that between the shipwreck and the natural reefs. The shipwreck had higher abundances of some commercially important species, such as the pouting Trisopterus luscus, European conger Conger conger, and common spider crab Maja squinado, as well as some vulnerable and threatened species such as the pink seafan Eunicella verrucosa. The results presented emphasize the importance of this habitat on the southern Portuguese coast.As comunidades de macrofauna de um naufrágio do século XVII ocorrido ao largo da costa Sul de Portugal, foram estudadas e comparadas com recifes naturais e fundos de areia através de census visuais subaquáticos. Foram registados 11 173 espécimes pertencentes a 224 taxa faunísticos e 12 phyla. Os recifes naturais apresentaram a maior densidade de espécimes (35 122 / 1000 m² seguidos do naufrágio (21 392 / 1000 m² e dos fundos de areia (3771 / 1000 m². Foram calculados três índices de biodiversidade (Margalef, Shannon-Wiener e Pielou, com os recifes naturais que apresentarem os valores mais elevados. No entanto, o naufrágio mostrou valores

  6. Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Cvikel, D. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, 31905 (Israel); Stern, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Klein, S. [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Facheinheit Mineralogie, J. W. Goethe Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, 31905 (Israel)

    2014-06-01

    The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck. • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse.

  7. Characterization of a 12-pdr wrought-iron cannonball from the Akko 1 shipwreck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvikel, D. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Stern, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2013-09-15

    The Akko 1 shipwreck, discovered in Akko harbor, Israel, is the remains of an eastern Mediterranean brig built at the beginning of the 19th century. Among other finds, eleven cannonballs were found in the shipwreck and three of them were retrieved. Two of the cannonballs, the 9- and 24-pdrs, have been studied previously. The present study of the 12-pdr cannonball included γ-rays radiographic testing, XRF analysis, density measurements, optical microscopy and SEM-EDS observation, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure and slag analysis. The results revealed a quite homogenous microstructure of α-ferrite phase, with glassy, wüstite and fayalite slags, as typical for a wrought-iron—annealed product, a more complicated and an earlier technology, compared to the 9- and 24-pdr that were made of cast-iron. Ferritic cannonballs are extremely rare, especially in the 19th century, when cannonballs were manufactured of cast iron by the sand casting process. The different manufacturing methods may indicate a different place of fabrication, and an apparently earlier production date for the 12-pdr, which might have even been used as ballast. - Highlights: • Three cannonballs were retrieved from the 19th century Akko 1 shipwreck. • The 12-pdr differs from the 9- and 24-pdr cannonballs previously studied. • The 12-pdr was made of high quality annealed wrought-iron, not of cast-iron. • The technology used indicates a date earlier than the middle of the 19th century. • Perhaps the 12-pdr belonged to another navy than the other two or used as ballast.

  8. Exploration of Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters of India: With special reference to Sunchi reef

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Stones displayed in the Archaeological Museum at Old Goa depict naval battle scenes (12th-13th century AD) that indirectly indicate that there might be shipwrecks of the Kadamba period in Goa waters. Further, Mascarenhas [4] mentions that a Kadamba... resembles the anchors, kept in the Archaeological Museum at Old Goa, the one kept at Marine Archaeology Centre of NIO and others found in Aguada Bay. In these types of iron anchors wooden stocks were used, however the stock of the anchor is missing...

  9. [Study on Provenance of Kraak Porcelains from "Nan'ao I" Shipwreck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing-nan; Chen, Yue; Li, Nai-sheng; Ming, Chao-fang; Zhu, Jian; Luo, Wu-gan

    2015-06-01

    The "Kraak Porcelain" was a kind of Blue and White Porcelain which exported from China to Europe in Ming and Qing period. The study of Kraak Porcelain is a focus issue in international field of porcelain research. In 2007, the discovery of "Nan'ao I" Shipwreck of Ming Dynasty and the porcelains loaded in it, provided precious materials for the research on Kraak Porcelain. In this paper, we explored the provenance of 10 Kraak Porcelain samples from Nan'ao I, using both traditional visual method and WDXRF.

  10. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  11. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally

  12. Petroleum oil and mercury pollution from shipwrecks in Norwegian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Kuria; Beylich, Björnar A; Staalstrøm, André; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Berge, John A; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Schaanning, Morten; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje. The submarine is estimated to have been carrying 67t of elemental Hg, some of which has leaked on to surrounding sediment. The total Hg concentration in bottom surface sediment within a 200m radius of the wreckage decreases from 100g/kgd.w. at the wreckage hotspot to about 1mg/kgd.w. at 100m from the hotspot. The second wreck is a German WWII cargo ship (Nordvard), that lies at a depth of ca. 30m near the Norwegian harbor of Moss. Oil leakage from Nordvard has contaminated the bottom coastal sediment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The findings from this study provide useful insight to coastal administration authorities involved in assessing and remediating wreck-borne pollution from any of the tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early psychological care of the French victims of the Costa Concordia shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toesca, R; Guyon, V; Marchand, M; Bessereau, J; Abbona, F; Amérigo, K; Beaurain, F; Brun, P M; Chaume, I; Cochet, L; Costa, M; Cremniter, D; De Olivera, A; Desplantes, A; Duval, S; Fallot, J L; Garcia, M; Garry, P; Gourdon, X; Martignoni, S; Meyran, D; Michelet, P; Nahmias, V; N'Guyen, C; Nguyen, J; Perrion, F; Petaroscia, C; Pinzelli, P; Puget, A; Pugliarese, S; Richard, E; Rougier, S; Roy, N; Zekri, D; Topin, F; Auffray, J P; Samuelian, J C

    2013-01-01

    Most of the French passengers who survived the shipwreck of the cruise ship Costa Concordia were repatriatedfrom Italy to Marseille, one of the stopovers of the cruise. The shipwreck happened during the nightof 13th-14th January 2012 and entailed the forced evacuation of 4195 passengers and crewmembers.Thirty-two persons died and 2 others are still reported missing. The massive and unexpected inflow of402 French citizens in the port of Marseille required the quick setting up of welcome facilities, not only tosolve logistical problems, but also to address psychological and sometimes even medical problems. ThePrehospital Psychological Emergency Service (CUMP) and the Prehospital Emergency Medical Service(SAMU) of Marseille examined 196 persons in total, and were able to avoid a great number of emergencyadmissions deemed necessary because of difficult psychological situations (death, missing or lost persons,acute stress). The objective of this report is to rapidly present the emergency committee as a whole andto describe in more detail the work that the CUMP accomplished during the 36 hours necessary to takecharge of the majority of the French passengers of the Costa Concordia.

  14. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  15. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  16. Research on configuration of railway self-equipped tanker based on minimum cost maximum flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuefang; Gan, Chunhui; Shen, Tingting

    2017-05-01

    In the study of the configuration of the tanker of chemical logistics park, the minimum cost maximum flow model is adopted. Firstly, the transport capacity of the park loading and unloading area and the transportation demand of the dangerous goods are taken as the constraint condition of the model; then the transport arc capacity, the transport arc flow and the transport arc edge weight are determined in the transportation network diagram; finally, the software calculations. The calculation results show that the configuration issue of the tankers can be effectively solved by the minimum cost maximum flow model, which has theoretical and practical application value for tanker management of railway transportation of dangerous goods in the chemical logistics park.

  17. SEM–EDS analysis of copper, glass and iron recovered from the 1st century AD shipwreck site off Godawaya, Southern Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandraratne, W.M.; Gaur, A.S.; Rao, B.R.; Bhushan, R.; Muthucumarana, R.; Manders, M.; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.

    Recent maritime archaeological explorations conducted at a shipwreck site in the offshore regions of Godawaya, a fishing village on the south coast of Sri Lanka led to the retrieval of several artifacts such as copper slag, glass ingots, iron...

  18. Risk acceptance criterion for tanker oil spill risk reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarros, George; Skjong, Rolf; Vanem, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at investigating whether there is ample support for the view that the acceptance criterion for evaluating measures for prevention of oil spills from tankers should be based on cost-effectiveness considerations. One such criterion can be reflected by the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS) whereas its target value is updated by elaborating the inherent uncertainties of oil spill costs and establishing a value for the criterion's assurance factor. To this end, a value of $80,000/t is proposed as a sensible CATS criterion and the proposed value for the assurance factor F=1.5 is supported by the retrieved Protection and Indemnity (P&I) Clubs' Annual Reports. It is envisaged that this criterion would allow the conversion of direct and indirect costs into a non-market value for the optimal allocation of resources between the various parties investing in shipping. A review of previous cost estimation models on oil spills is presented and a probability distribution (log-normal) is fitted on the available oil spill cost data, where it should be made abundantly clear that the mean value of the distribution is used for deriving the updated CATS criterion value. However, the difference between the initial and the updated CATS criterion in the percentiles of the distribution is small. It is found through the current analysis that results are partly lower than the predicted values from the published estimation models. The costs are also found to depend on the type of accident, which is in agreement with the results of previous studies. Other proposals on acceptance criteria are reviewed and it is asserted that the CATS criterion can be considered as the best candidate. Evidence is provided that the CATS approach is practical and meaningful by including examples of successful applications in actual risk assessments. Finally, it is suggested that the criterion may be refined subject to more readily available cost data and experience gained from future

  19. Evaluation of the residual sanitary risk for people spending time on the beaches polluted by the Erika fuel, after the depollution; Evaluation du risque sanitaire residuel pour les populations frequentant les plages polluees par le fioul rejete par l'ERIKA, apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor, F.; Gourier-Frery, C.; Zmirou, D. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Cicolella, A.; Bonnard, R.; Dujardin, R. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)

    2004-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the short dated and long dated sanitary risks for adults and children who are going to spend time on the beach affected by the Erika fuel, after the depollution. 36 beaches were selected and 7 beaches which were not polluted, were taking as a reference. The methodology, the analysis of the data and the results are described. (A.L.B.)

  20. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons along the oil tanker route in the southern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.; SenGupta, R.

    Concentrations of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons during 3 cruises (Nos. 51, 66 and 68) of R V Gaveshani, along the oil tanker route, in the southern Bay of Bengal at 0, 10 and 20 m were 19.95 + or - 3.38, 16.78 + or - 2.53 and 13.45 + or - 2.17 mu...

  1. Slow steaming application for a 50,000dwt product tanker: Trade-off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product Tanker). Prior to this paper, the talk of slow steaming has always impinged on Container vessels. The shipping industry being a truly global industry, although being passionate about her past (one in which the idea was to get cargo and ...

  2. Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  3. Proteolysis produced within biofilms of bacterial isolates from raw milk tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Koon Hoong; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Andrewes, Paul; Bremer, Phil; Lindsay, Denise

    2012-06-15

    In this study, six bacterial isolates that produced thermo-resistant enzymes isolated from the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers were evaluated for their ability to produce proteolysis within either single culture biofilms or co-culture biofilms. Biofilms were formed in an in vitro model system that simulated the upper internal surface of a raw milk tanker during a typical summer's day of milk collection in New Zealand. The bacterial isolates were further evaluated for their ability to form biofilms at 25, 30 and 37°C. Mutual and competitive effects were observed in some of the co-culture biofilms, with all isolates being able to form biofilms in either single culture or co-culture at the three temperatures. The proteolysis was also evaluated in both biofilms and corresponding planktonic cultures. The proteolysis per cell decreased as the temperature of incubation (20-37°C) increased. Furthermore, mutualistic interactions in terms of proteolysis were observed when cultures were grown as co-culture biofilms. This is the first study to show that proteolytic enzymes can be produced in biofilms on the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers. This has important implications for the cleaning and the temperature control of raw milk transport tankers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination along oil tanker routes in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    Concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater from the oil tanker route region between 0-25 N and 45-75 E were estimated using UV-absorbance and fluoroscence techniques. Concentrations in surface waters averaged 9.2 plus or minus 1.18 mu g l-1...

  5. Effects of Costa Concordia shipwreck on epiphytic assemblages and biotic features of Posidonia oceanica canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, T; Penna, M; Rende, S F; Trabucco, B; Gennaro, P; Bertasi, F; Marusso, V; Grossi, L; Cicero, A M

    2016-08-15

    This research provides first information about Posidonia oceanica canopy in the area affected by Costa Concordia wreck. Percentage cover of algal and animal taxa on the leaves was estimated and biotic features of the meadow were measured in the period just after the shipwreck until its removal from the impacted site. Changes in epiphytic assemblages and some biotic features were detected in the Disturbed site compared with Control ones, highlighting effects due to the wreck presence and activities related to its removal. A temporary decrease of encrusting macroalgae and an increase of erected macroalgae and foraminifers, as well as a temporary increase of tip erosion of the canopy were detected in the Disturbed site. The obtained results were discussed and hypotheses about possible synergic effects occurred near the wreck were commented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maritime Archaeology and Trans-Oceanic Trade: A Case Study of the Oranjemund Shipwreck Cargo, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikure, Shadreck; Sinamai, Ashton; Goagoses, Esther; Mubusisi, Marina; Ndoro, W.

    2010-10-01

    Routine sand dredging for alluvial diamonds at Oranjemund on the southern coast of Namibia exposed remnants of a long forgotten Portuguese merchant ship believed to have wrecked in the 1530s. The rescue excavations yielded over 40 tons of cargo consisting of thousands of gold and silver coins, tons of copper and lead ingots, and large quantities of ivory together with food refuse, part of personal possessions and the superstructure of the ship. This paper discusses the cargo from the shipwreck. The varying provenances show that overland inter-and intra-regional networks fed into the maritime trade between Europe and the Indian sub-continent. As such, the wreck is a lens through which we can view what was happening on the seas as well as on land. Finally we consider wider issues raised by this discovery relating to the protection and management of such material wherever it may be found in future.

  7. Prospects for using sonar for underwater archeology on the Yenisei: surveying a 19th century shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Current progress in underwater archeology is based on a rich arsenal of high-tech appliances, among which sonar technology plays a key role; it enables scientists not only to detect submerged archeological objects, but to examine them in high definition without having to conduct diving operations or use expensive underwater unmanned vehicles. While the majority of sensational scientific discoveries using sonar have been made in saltwater environments, freshwater ones, rivers in particular, have seen limited activity. The river Yenisei in central Siberia contains an unrecorded number of shipwrecks that await being discovered and studied. In this article we focus on the peculiarities of using sonar for detecting archeological sites on the Yenisei. This article is based on the results of the 2016 expedition, which has determined the location of Thames, a 19th century British steam schooner which was wrecked on the Yenisei.

  8. Effects of substrata and environmental conditions on ecological succession on historic shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Manuel M.; Fernández-Montblanc, Tomás; Bethencourt, Manuel; Izquierdo, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of the interactions between biological, chemical and physical dynamics is especially important for the adequate conservation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. However, while physical and chemical processes are relatively well-investigated, the biological communities associated with these habitats are poorly studied. We compared the sessile community developed on panels of different materials placed on two historical shipwrecks, the Fougueux and the Bucentaure, from the Battle of Trafalgar (October 1805). Six materials used at the construction of vessels at the 18th and 19th centuries were selected: copper, brass, cast iron, carbon steel, pine and oak. The sessile community developed on the panels was studied two and 15 months after their immersion at the water to determine the effects of materials and environmental conditions (sediments, waves, hydrodynamic conditions, temperature and salinity) on ecological succession and the possible implications at the conservation of historical shipwrecks. On the Fougueux, the environmental conditions more strongly influenced the biological succession than the material type, with pioneer colonisers dominating the communities in both sampling periods. On the Bucentaure, exposed to more stable environmental conditions, the sessile community showed differences between sampling periods and among materials at the end of the experiment. Under these more stable environmental conditions, the material type showed a higher influence on the sessile community. Species that produce calcareous concretions developed on metallic panels, but were absent on wood panels, where the shipworm Teredo navalis was more abundant. The relationship between environmental conditions, sessile organisms and material type can influence the conservation status of the archaeological sites.

  9. [The shipwreck of "Der Brandtaucher" in the then territory of the Danish monarchy - in Kiel's harbor - February 1, 1851].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, I

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the first German submarine - "Der Brandtaucher" - constructed in Schleswig-Holstein by Wilhelm V. Bauer in 1850. The submarine was built as a special weapon to attack the Danish blokading warships of the harbour of Kiel during the First Danish-German War 1848-51. The military-medical aspects are dealing with the shipwreck of a submarine because of an overpressure during submerge, and the rescue of its crew of 3 men through a "free ascent" of 52 feet - followed by comments of today. As for the description of the construction of "Der Brandtaucher", the shipwreck and the "free ascent", it was originally retold in German by Gerd Stolz in his book: "Die Schleswig-Holsteinische Marine 1848-1852". (1987).

  10. Maritime and Shipwreck Archaeology in the Western Indian Ocean and Southern Red Sea: An Overview of Past and Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Paul J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of previous archaeological research on shipwrecks and the maritime archaeology of the Western Indian Ocean and southern Red Sea. It highlights the early pioneering research on the Santo António de Tanná, wreck off Mombasa Island, before discussing more recent discoveries, surveys and excavations. Attention is drawn to the important distinction between `shipwreck' and `maritime' archaeology, and the need to develop integrated programmes aimed at investigating the diversity of the maritime heritage of these two regions. Particular attention is also drawn to the increased activity of treasure hunters and other threats to the underwater heritage of these regions, the need to sustain ongoing training and capacity building in maritime archaeology and for strengthening existing legislation.

  11. Identification of Anse à la Barque's Shipwrecks (Guadeloupe FWI): Historical Research in the Service of Underwater Archaeology

    OpenAIRE

    Guibert, Jean-Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    International audience; On 18 December 1809 under the pressure of an English fleet, two Napoleonic Period store-ships, corvettes de charge,were sunk in Anse à la Barque on the west coast of Guadeloupe (FWI), south of the town of Bouillante. Underwaterarchaeological excavations, took place between 2001 and 2008. these investigationsrevealed that, in addition to those two shipwrecks, hulls of four different ships were also present on the seafloor. Twoof them have been identified as the French v...

  12. SR-71 - In-flight Close-up from Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This extreme close-up of the SR-71B operated by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, gives an unusual view of the twin cockpit of Dryden's SR-71B, NASA 831, and its helmeted crew members. The photo was taken from an Air Force tanker refueling the Blackbird during a 1994 flight. The Mach 3 Blackbird aircraft were loaned to NASA by the U.S. Air Force for high-speed, high-altitude aeronautical research. Capable of flying more than 2200 mph and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet, they are excellent platforms for research and experiments in aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data

  13. SR-71 Mid-air Refueling with KC-135 Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SR-71B, tail number 831, is seen here receiving air refueling from a USAF tanker during a July, 1995 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in

  14. SR-71B - in Flight - View from Air Force Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This look-down view shows NASA 831, an SR-71B flown by Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, as it cruises over the Mojave Desert. The photo was from an Air Force refueling tanker taken on a 1997 mission. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in

  15. Basic aspects and contributions to the optimization of energy systems exploitation of a super tanker ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faitar, C.; Novac, I.

    2017-08-01

    Today, the concept of energy efficiency or energy optimization in ships has become one of the main problems of engineers in the whole world. To increase the fiability of a crude oil super tanker ship it means, among other things, to improve the energy performance and optimize the fuel consumption of ship through the development of engines and propulsion system or using alternative energies. Also, the importance of having an effective and reliable Power Management System (PMS) in a vessel operating system means to reduce operational costs and maintain power system of machine parts working in minimum stress in all operating conditions. Studying the Energy Efficiency Design Index and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator for a crude oil super tanker ship, it allows us to study the reconfiguration of ship power system introducing new generation systems.

  16. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  17. A Model for Prediction of Propulsion Power and Emissions – Tankers and Bulk Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    design standards. The IHS Fairplay World Fleet Statistics for vessels built in the period 1990 – 2010 is used as a basis for the modeling of the main dimensions. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions, including emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), from bulk carriers and tankers......To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies of tankers and bulk carriers has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity...... it is possible to estimate the influence of the different parameters on the power demand. The model is based on previously well-established power prediction methods which have been updated and verified by model test results and full-scale data, meaning that the predictions are up to date according to modern ship...

  18. Effect of Baffles on the Sloshing in Road Tankers Carrying LPG: A Comparative Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bautista-Jacobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative numerical study of the effect of using baffles, and its design, on the behavior of sloshing in a partially filled road tanker carrying LPG. Navier-Stokes equations and standard k-ε turbulence model are used to simulate fluid movement; the Volume of Fluid (VOF method is used to track the liquid-gas interface. Velocity distributions, sloshing stabilization times, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy, which are of high importance in choosing the best design of baffles, are shown. The results show sloshing stabilization times of 22 and 21 s for road tankers with cross-shaped (Type I and X-shaped (Type II baffles, respectively, finding lower values of turbulent kinetic energy for Type II design, being, therefore, the best design of baffles for damping of sloshing and vehicle control among studied ones.

  19. Archaeometallurgical investigation of the iron anchor from the Tantura F shipwreck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ashkenazi, D., E-mail: dana@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Barkai, O.; Kahanov, Y. [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    The Tantura F shipwreck was a coaster or a fishing vessel about 15.7 m long, discovered in the Dor/Tantura lagoon, Israel in 1995. It was dated to between the mid-7th and the end of the 8th centuries CE. Among the finds excavated were two T-shaped type iron anchors. Of the two anchors, one (anchor A) was thoroughly studied by archaeometallurgical methods in order to identify forge-welding lines, to determine the welding quality and to understand the manufacturing technology. The examinations included X-ray radiography, XRF analysis, optical microscopy, SEM/EDS observation and analysis, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure, thermal treatments, forge-welding junctions and slag analysis. The results revealed a heterogeneous microstructure, rich in glassy, fayalite and wüstite slag. Iron based phases included ferrite, pearlite, cementite and Widmanstätten plates, all typical to wrought iron. The forge-welds of Anchor A were located. Each arm was made of one piece, weighing about 2.5–3 kg and the shank was made of a few 1.5–2 kg pieces. The second anchor (anchor B) was only briefly examined visually and with a few radiographs, which support the results from anchor A. The research results revealed significant information about T-shaped anchors and their manufacturing process, including hot-working processes without any additional heat treatments, and folding techniques. The microstructure was similar to other ancient simple tools such as saws, sickles, axes and mortise chisels, and though the technology to make complicated structures and objects, such as swords, existed at that time, the anchors did not require this sophistication; thus simpler techniques were used, presumably because they were more cost-effective. - Highlights: ► Tantura F was a coaster dated to mid-7th–end-8th centuries. ► Two iron anchors were discovered at the Tantura F shipwreck-site. ► Anchor A was

  20. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  1. Tankering Fuel on U.S. Air Force Transport Aircraft: An Assessment of Cost Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    therefore increase the traffic of fuel trucks at the apron ( leading to possible safety concerns) with truck drivers going from one aircraft to...Boone continued Col Fowler’s lead , and his help as we concluded our effort was very much appreciated. Also from the FEO, Col Michael Horsey, Maj Darren...relative fuel price differences that exist between the various refueling locations. This situation would lead AMC to conclude that tankering is

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF RISK EVENTS IN THE OIL-TANKER MAINTENANCE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Rabechini Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation into risk events and their respective causes, carried out in ship maintenance undertakings in the logistical sector of the Brazilian oil industry. Its theoretical, conceptual positioning lies in those aspects related to risk management of the undertakings as instruments of support in decision making by executives in the tanker-maintenance business. The case-study method was used as an alternative methodology with a qualitative approach of an exploratory nature and, for the presentation of data, a descriptive format was chosen. Through the analysis of 75 risk events in projects of tanker docking it was possible to extract eight of the greatest relevance. The risk analysis facilitated the identification of actions aimed at their mitigation. As a conclusion it was possible to propose a risk-framework model in four categories, HSE (health, safety and the environment, technicians, externalities and management, designed to provide tanker-docking business executives and administrators, with evidence of actions to assist in their decision-making processes. Finally, the authors identified proposals for further study as well as showing the principal limitations of the study.

  3. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures.

  4. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Do Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  5. Casting techniques of cannonballs from the Akko 1 shipwreck: Archaeometallurgical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikel D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cannonballs were found in the Akko 1 shipwreck; two of them, a 9-pdr and a 24-pdr, were retrieved and studied using archaeometallurgical methods. Findings are reported in the present work. The aim of this research was to study the manufacturing technologies of the two cannonballs, and if possible to determine their date and manufacturing location according to the detailed technological analysis. The examination used optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, including energy dispersive spectroscopy, and hardness tests. The results show that the two cannonballs were casted by sand moulds, in two dissimilar processes and were made of different types of cast-iron. The non-uniformity of the 24-pdr cannonball could be the outcome of using a feeder of gray cast-iron in order to complete the casting process and compensating for the shrinkage of the metal. Based on their manufacturing process, it is suggested that the cannonballs were manufactured about the end of the first half of the nineteenth century. Combined with the archaeological and historical background, this supports the possibility that Akko 1 was a naval auxiliary vessel, which was in Akko harbour circa 1840.

  6. Shipwreck rates reveal Caribbean tropical cyclone response to past radiative forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, Valerie; Harley, Grant L; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta

    2016-03-22

    Assessing the impact of future climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity is of crucial societal importance, but the limited quantity and quality of observational records interferes with the skill of future TC projections. In particular, North Atlantic TC response to radiative forcing is poorly understood and creates the dominant source of uncertainty for twenty-first-century projections. Here, we study TC variability in the Caribbean during the Maunder Minimum (MM; 1645-1715 CE), a period defined by the most severe reduction in solar irradiance in documented history (1610-present). For this purpose, we combine a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the Caribbean (1495-1825 CE) with a tree-growth suppression chronology from the Florida Keys (1707-2009 CE). We find a 75% reduction in decadal-scale Caribbean TC activity during the MM, which suggests modulation of the influence of reduced solar irradiance by the cumulative effect of cool North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, El Niño-like conditions, and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results emphasize the need to enhance our understanding of the response of these oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns to radiative forcing and climate change to improve the skill of future TC projections.

  7. Shipwreck in the rowing sport community in 1902: reflections on life and death in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People usually start thinking about death when something tragic happens, including in the sport context. At the beginning of 20th century, in South Brazil, four rowers died while they practiced their sport, coming back from an excursion to an island near to Porto Alegre, the capital city of Rio Grande do Sul, where they lived. Following the tragedy, the newspapers published details, both of the tragedy itself, and the ensuing commotion of society, with reflections about life, its fragility and death. This sporting tragedy is a suitable example for trying to understand the way we think about death in sport, given its vast newspaper coverage and the effort to remember the event throughout the 20th century. The interpretation of newspaper sources and reflections on the event will also be considered through the lens of the philosophy of existence of Martin Heidegger. The sources revealed that the shipwreck tragedy made it possible for people to realize that being mortal affects us existentially – that we can never return back to this moment (it is fleeting, it is here and then gone, that we have to make choices that we cannot take back, and that we ourselves are finite beings.

  8. Shipwreck rates reveal Caribbean tropical cyclone response to past radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, Valerie; Harley, Grant L.; Domínguez-Delmás, Marta

    2016-03-01

    Assessing the impact of future climate change on North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity is of crucial societal importance, but the limited quantity and quality of observational records interferes with the skill of future TC projections. In particular, North Atlantic TC response to radiative forcing is poorly understood and creates the dominant source of uncertainty for twenty-first-century projections. Here, we study TC variability in the Caribbean during the Maunder Minimum (MM; 1645-1715 CE), a period defined by the most severe reduction in solar irradiance in documented history (1610-present). For this purpose, we combine a documentary time series of Spanish shipwrecks in the Caribbean (1495-1825 CE) with a tree-growth suppression chronology from the Florida Keys (1707-2009 CE). We find a 75% reduction in decadal-scale Caribbean TC activity during the MM, which suggests modulation of the influence of reduced solar irradiance by the cumulative effect of cool North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, El Niño-like conditions, and a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results emphasize the need to enhance our understanding of the response of these oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns to radiative forcing and climate change to improve the skill of future TC projections.

  9. Micro-seismic monitoring after the shipwreck of the Costa Concordia at Giglio Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Andrea; Matassoni, Luca; Lotti, Alessia; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2017-08-01

    A micro-seismic network was used for monitoring the wreck of the Costa Concordia cruise ship, wrecked and run agrounded along the Giglio Island coasts during the night of 13 January 2012, until its removal. The seismic traces were processed by means of real-time and "a posteriori" procedures to detect transients that could be ascribed to wreck movements on the sea bed to integrate this information in an early warning system for assessing the wreck stability. After a first discrimination of the transients using amplitude criteria we proceeded to the localization of the detected signals to focus the attention only on the transients originated in the shipwreck resting area. The results showed that most of the events localized on the wreck were likely related to human work activities or sudden internal brittle failure but not to displacements on the seafloor. Instead, the displacements are associated to the impact on the vessel of great sea storms which approach were well correlated with the increasing seismic noise at low frequency. The carried out procedures based on this unique dataset represent an opportunity to test seismic monitoring techniques also in not usual engineering context to support emergency management activities.

  10. Micro-seismic monitoring after the shipwreck of the Costa Concordia at Giglio Island (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Andrea; Matassoni, Luca; Lotti, Alessia; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2017-10-01

    A micro-seismic network was used for monitoring the wreck of the Costa Concordia cruise ship, wrecked and run agrounded along the Giglio Island coasts during the night of 13 January 2012, until its removal. The seismic traces were processed by means of real-time and "a posteriori" procedures to detect transients that could be ascribed to wreck movements on the sea bed to integrate this information in an early warning system for assessing the wreck stability. After a first discrimination of the transients using amplitude criteria we proceeded to the localization of the detected signals to focus the attention only on the transients originated in the shipwreck resting area. The results showed that most of the events localized on the wreck were likely related to human work activities or sudden internal brittle failure but not to displacements on the seafloor. Instead, the displacements are associated to the impact on the vessel of great sea storms which approach were well correlated with the increasing seismic noise at low frequency. The carried out procedures based on this unique dataset represent an opportunity to test seismic monitoring techniques also in not usual engineering context to support emergency management activities.

  11. Assessing the Long-Term Efficacy of Geotextiles in Preserving Archaeological Wooden Shipwrecks in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournou, Anastasia

    2017-09-01

    Archaeological wood cannot be found preserved in the marine ecosystem unless it is buried in anoxic or dysoxic sediments. These habitats do not allow the growth and activity of wood degraders, and thus wooden shipwrecks can survive within these environments for centuries. However, due to natural factors or anthropogenic interventions wood can be re-exposed to the oxygenated water column, where it disintegrates rapidly. In such cases, in situ preservation becomes a main priority, as lifting and conservation are not usually feasible. One of the most common in situ preservation methods is the covering of wood with geotextiles. To date however, even though this method has been used worldwide the past decades, its long-term performance and effectiveness hasn't been evaluated. This work presents, for the first time, results on the efficacy of geotextiles used for 12 years on a shipwreck found in the Mediterranean. Fabric performance was evaluated based on wreck timbers condition, its physical, mechanical and hydraulic properties and the ecological and hydrographical profile of the underwater site created, following its application. Obtained results demonstrated that wreck timbers covered with geotextiles did not show signs of attack during the 12 years of in situ preservation. Geotextiles properties were found to be adequately retained when compared with properties of new unused geotextiles. The fabric had entrapped sediment and was colonised by the local flora and fauna, re-establishing anoxic conditions. This work showed that geotextiles can successfully preserve in situ wooden shipwrecks in high biodeterioration risk environments for at least a 10 year period.

  12. Assessment of released heavy metals from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) existing in shipwrecks through laboratory-scale simulation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahladakis, John N., E-mail: john_chach@yahoo.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Stylianos, Michailakis [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A laboratory-scale reactor was built to simulate the “Sea Diamond” shipwreck. ► EEE was thrown into the reactor for heavy metal release rate assessment. ► 15 seawater samples were taken and analyzed in a nine month experimental period. ► Zinc, mercury and copper were found in concentrations above the CMC criterion. ► Nickel and lead were found in concentrations higher than the CCC criterion. -- Abstract: In a passenger ship, the existence of EEE is obvious. In time, under shipwreck's conditions, all these materials will undergo an accelerated severe corrosion, due to salt water, releasing, consequently, heavy metals and other hazardous substances in the aquatic environment. In this study, a laboratory-scale reactor was manufactured in order to simulate the conditions under which the “Sea Diamond” shipwreck lies (14 bars of pressure and 16 °C of temperature) and remotely observe and assess any heavy metal release that would occur, from part of the EEE present in the ship, into the sea. Ten metals were examined and the results showed that zinc, mercury and copper were abundant in the water samples taken from the reactor and in significantly higher concentrations compared to the US EPA CMC (criterion maximum concentration) criterion. Moreover, nickel and lead were found in concentrations higher than the CCC (criterion constant concentration) criterion set by the US EPA for clean seawater. The rest of the elements were measured in concentrations within the permissible limits. It is therefore of environmental benefit to salvage the wreck and recycle all the WEEE found in it.

  13. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  14. Fouling Communities of Two Accidental Artificial Reefs (Modern Shipwrecks in Cyprus (Levantine Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jimenez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs are considered one of the alternative methods in fisheries management, used in order to enhance stocks and marine biodiversity in general. A number of biotic and abiotic parameters influence the fouling communities’ formation on artificial reefs through complex interactions. In order to understand how epibiotic or fouling communities progress through time, it is important to study these communities in mature artificial reefs, especially those that have been around for many decades, or in some cases, millennia. This study was conducted on the coral and other fouling organisms of two accidental artificial reefs (40 to 70 year-old shipwrecks in Cyprus (Levantine Sea. The thermal and nutrient annual regime of the study sites were characterized by processing satellite data. The results indicate that the wrecks are normally under warm and oligotrophic conditions. Percentage coverage of corals and other organisms on the wrecks was calculated (image-analysis software on photos taken in 2010 (two wrecks and again in 2016 (one wreck of the fouling communities. Sponges were the organisms with the highest percent cover (~27% at the two wrecks. Four scleractinian coral species were found (7%–19% total coral cover. The oldest wreck, which has well-developed coral communities, was revisited during fieldwork in a near-by area in 2016. Only two major benthic categories (dead coral and macro algae changed significantly between sampling periods. Given the actual policies to sink wrecks to create artificial reefs and the diverse environmental conditions in different areas that will inevitably influence fouling, it is important to carry out studies relating to mature artificial reefs/wrecks in order to be able to assess the ecological effectiveness of longstanding artificial reefs.

  15. Pink teeth in a series of bodies recovered from a single shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, Carlo P; Di Vella, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Favia, Gianfranco; Introna, Francesco

    2006-12-01

    Pink teeth have most often been observed in victims of drowning but have also been reported in subjects who died suddenly and unnaturally. There is general agreement that there is no obvious connection between the occurrence of pink teeth and the cause of death, but the condition of the surroundings (especially humidity) must certainly play an important role in the development of the pink-tooth phenomenon. The frequency and distribution of postmortem pink coloration of the teeth have been studied among a representative sample of 52 cadavers. All the bodies were victims of a single shipwreck that occurred on March 13, 1997, in the middle of the Otranto Canal (Mediterranean Sea). The bodies were recovered from the seawater after approximately 7 months. A distinct pink coloration of the teeth was found in only 18 cadavers (13 females and 5 males) of ages ranging between 13 and 60 years. The phenomenon was more pronounced in younger individuals due to age-related changes of the root canal, less penetrable by the pigment responsible for the postmortem pink staining. By histochemical methods and autofluorescence, hemoglobin and its derivatives have been identified as the most likely pigments responsible for this postmortem process that can be considered analogous to postmortem lividity. These data are consistent with previous reports on pink teeth, indicating that the diffusion of the blood in the pulp into the dentinal tubules causes the red discoloration of the teeth. Based on the results, the pigmentation is more prominent on the teeth with single roots rather than in the posterior teeth with multiple roots.

  16. [Risk assessment of schistosomiasis transmission on rescue workers involved in "Oriental Star shipwreck event"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhao-yu; Tan, Xiao-dong; Gao, Xu-dong; Ni, Zi-ling; Liu, Bei

    2015-10-01

    To assess the impact of the "Oriental Star shipwreck event" on the risk of schistosomiasis transmission in Jianli County, Hubei Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate measures of schistosomiasis prevention and control. Based on the field observation and investigation, the data of the on-the-spot rescue and the historical endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jianli County were collected and analyzed. Meanwhile, the focus group discussion and risk matrix were conducted to assess the risk of schistosome infection of the rescuers. Over 10 000 rescuers participated in the search operation, including the armed police forces, local people, reservists and so on. The armed police forces were the major components, which accounted for 39%. Jianli country was schistosomiasis endemic area with a high infection level in history, but the endemic situation had been mitigated significantly after years of positive prevention and treatment; the schistosome infection rate of population was 0.44% in 2014 and the Oncomelania hupensis snail area was only 6.6 hm2 around the rescue areas in the upstream and downstream. In addition, the snail density was not high, and no infected snails had been found for 11 years. The risk of schistosome infection was in the medium level. Though there exists the schistosome infection risk in the water area where the accident happened, the probability of occurrence is not high. In order to prevent the outbreak and endemic of schistosomiasis, the protection measures and health education to the rescuers as well as snail control and monitoring, and early-warning should be strengthened.

  17. Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus isolated from 170-year-old beer recovered from a shipwreck lack the metabolic activities required to grow in modern lager beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajala, Ilkka; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Redekop, Anna; Juvonen, Riikka; Storgårds, Erna; Ziola, Barry

    2017-11-08

    In 2010, bottles of beer containing viable bacteria of the common beer-spoilage species Lactobacillus backii and Pediococcus damnosus were recovered from a shipwreck near the Åland Islands, Finland. The 170-year quiescent state maintained by the shipwreck bacteria presented a unique opportunity to study lactic acid bacteria (LAB) evolution vis a vis growth and survival in the beer environment. Three shipwreck bacteria (one L. backii strain and two P. damnosus strains) and modern-day beer-spoilage isolates of the same two species were genome sequenced, characterized for hop iso-α-acid tolerance, and growth in degassed lager and wheat beer. In addition, plasmid variants of the modern-day P. damnosus strain were analyzed for the effect of plasmid-encoded genes on growth in lager beer. Coding content on two plasmids was identified as essential for LAB growth in modern lager beer. Three chromosomal regions containing genes related to sugar transport and cell wall polysaccharides were shared by pediococci able to grow in beer. Our results show that the three shipwreck bacteria lack the necessary plasmid-located genetic content to grow in modern lager beer, but carry additional genes related to acid tolerance and biofilm formation compared to their modern counterparts. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Epibenthic communities associated with unintentional artificial reefs (modern shipwrecks) under contrasting regimes of nutrients in the Levantine Sea (Cyprus and Lebanon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos; Andreou, Vasilis; Evriviadou, Marina; Munkes, Britta; Hadjioannou, Louis; Petrou, Antonis; Abu Alhaija, Rana

    2017-01-01

    Artificial reefs, in the Eastern Mediterranean (Cyprus,) became a popular and frequently used tool, in fisheries and biodiversity conservation management. Even though evaluation studies about the efficacy of artificial reefs are plentiful in the rest of the Mediterranean (Central and Western), in the Eastern Basin they are largely absent. As the Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea is characterised by unique physical parameters, the necessity to study artificial reefs under these contrasting regimes increases. The epibenthic communities of two unintentional artificial reefs (modern shipwrecks) in Cyprus (Zenobia) and Lebanon (Alice-B) were evaluated in 2010. Both shipwrecks are at similar depth, type of sea bottom, made of the same material (steel) and were sunk approximately the same period of time. However, Alice-B shipwreck off the coast of Lebanon is constantly exposed to higher levels of nutrients than Zenobia in Cyprus. Significant dissimilarities were observed in the composition, percentage of benthic cover of predominant taxonomic groups and development of the epibenthic communities. Differences in physical and chemical parameters between sides lay mainly in the nutrient and thermal regimes affecting the shipwrecks and most likely bring about the differences in the observed community structure. The results of this study suggest that epibenthic communities could be highly impacted by eutrophication caused by anthropogenic activities, leading to less biodiverse communities dominated by specific species that are favoured by the eutrophic conditions.

  19. The effect of channel shape, bed morphology, and shipwrecks on flow velocities in the Upper St. Clair River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Best, Jim; Parsons, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    In the Great Lakes of North America, the St. Clair River is the major outlet of Lake Huron and conveys water to Lake St. Clair which then flows to Lake Erie. One major topic of interest is morphological change in the St. Clair River and its impact on water levels in the Upper Great Lakes and connecting channel flows. A combined multibeam echosounder (MBES) bathymetric survey and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow survey of the outlet of Lake Huron and the Upper St. Clair River was conducted July 21 – 25, 2008. This paper presents how channel morphology and shipwrecks affect the flow in the Upper St. Clair River. The river is most constricted at the Blue Water Bridge near Port Huron, Michigan, with water velocities over 2 ms-1 for a flow of 5,200 m3s-1. Downstream of this constriction, the river flows around a bend and expands creating a large recirculation zone along the left bank due to flow separation. This recirculation zone reduces the effective channel width, and thus increases flow velocities to over 2 ms-1 in this region. The surveys reveal several shipwrecks on the bed of the St. Clair River, which possess distinct wakes in their flow velocity downstream of the wrecks. The constriction and expansion of the channel, combined with forcing of the flow by bed topography, initiates channel-scale secondary flow, creating streamwise vortices that maintain coherence downstream over a distance of several channel widths.

  20. Assessment of released heavy metals from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) existing in shipwrecks through laboratory-scale simulation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Stylianos, Michailakis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2013-04-15

    In a passenger ship, the existence of EEE is obvious. In time, under shipwreck's conditions, all these materials will undergo an accelerated severe corrosion, due to salt water, releasing, consequently, heavy metals and other hazardous substances in the aquatic environment. In this study, a laboratory-scale reactor was manufactured in order to simulate the conditions under which the "Sea Diamond" shipwreck lies (14 bars of pressure and 16°C of temperature) and remotely observe and assess any heavy metal release that would occur, from part of the EEE present in the ship, into the sea. Ten metals were examined and the results showed that zinc, mercury and copper were abundant in the water samples taken from the reactor and in significantly higher concentrations compared to the US EPA CMC (criterion maximum concentration) criterion. Moreover, nickel and lead were found in concentrations higher than the CCC (criterion constant concentration) criterion set by the US EPA for clean seawater. The rest of the elements were measured in concentrations within the permissible limits. It is therefore of environmental benefit to salvage the wreck and recycle all the WEEE found in it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In-situ corrosion measurements of WWII shipwrecks in Chuuk Lagoon, quantification of decay mechanisms and rates of deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Donald Macleod

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a series of measurements taken on WWII historic shipwrecks that resulted from the effects of Operation Hailstone in February 1944 on the Japanese merchant fleet which was assembled in Chuuk lagoon, Federated States of Micronesia. More than 65 shipwrecks and 250 aircraft were sunk during two main bombing raids. The vessels lost covered a wide range of underwater orientation and water depths and so provided a perfect suite of corrosion experiments. Since the fuel on board the aircraft was either readily burnt at the time or was lost through volatilisation, the wrecked planes present no pollution problems today. However the bunker fuel kept inside on-board storage tanks does present a real conservation management crisis. In-situ measurements on many vessels have determined how water depth, the localised wreck topography, dissolved oxygen levels, temperature and salinity affects the corrosion rate of cast iron and mild steel. Thus corrosion rates can be calculated with confidence.

  2. STUDI KASUS : PENERAPAN ENERGY SAVING DEVICE DALAM RANGKA MENAIKKAN EFISIENSI THRUST PADA KAPAL TANKER PERTAMINA 40000 LTDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Raditya Putra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Saving Devices (ESD merupakan alat yang berfungsi menekan hambatan gesek yang terjadi pada buritan kapal, sehingga energi yang dikeluarkan oleh mesin kapal tidak mengalami loss energy yang cukup berpengaruh pada konsumsi bahan bakar. Alat ini dipasang di sekitar propeler, yang tujuannya untuk mengurangi kavitasi pada daerah propeler sehingga hambatan yang dialami oleh kapal dapat berkurang. PT. Pertamina (PERSERO selaku BUMN yang bergerak di bidang minyak dan gas, membutuhkan kapal tanker yang efisien dalam hal konsumsi bahan bakar. Dari kasus ini, kemudian dicari model ESD yang akan dipakai untuk kapal tanker, mengetahui efisiensi dari ESD dan perbandingan hambatan sebelum dan setelah dipasang ESD.

  3. Safety analysis of the foreign tanker boarding program. January 1977 through June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancrant, R.J.; Ecker, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard's Foreign Tank Vessel Examination Program was given increased emphasis as a result of a series of tanker incidents during the winter of 1976-77. Foreign flag tankers calling at U.S. ports are now examined at least annually to ensure that they are in compliance with the general safety control provisions of SOLAS 60, the applicable Load Line Convention, and all applicable U.S. regulations. During the period Jan. 1977-June 1978, more than 3400 examinations were conducted on more than 1500 different foreign tank vessels. A comparison of vessel age vs. deficiencies showed that 55Vertical Bar3< of the vessels examined were over ten years old and they accounted for almost 74Vertical Bar3< of the total deficiencies. The deficiency data were further tabulated in three six-month periods for vessels registered under the six most frequently examined flags. It showed an improved level of safety, evidenced by a downward trend in the deficiencies per examination during each succeeding period. The most recent period also had the highest percentage of deficiency-free examinations.

  4. Risk Assessment in Financial Feasibility of Tanker Project Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Every ship project would not be apart from risk and uncertainty issues. The inappropriate risk assessment process would have long-term impact, such as financial loss. Thus, risk and uncertainties analysis would be a very important process in financial feasibility determination of the project. This study analyzes the financial feasibility of 17,500 LTDW tanker project. Risk and uncertainty are two differentiated terminologies in this study, where risk focuses on operational risk due to shipbuilding process nonconformity to shipowner finance, while uncertainty focuses on variable costs that affect project cash flows. There are three funding scenarios in this study, where the percentage of funding with own capital and bank loan in scenario 1 is 100% : 0%, scenario 2 is 75% : 25%, and scenario 3 is 50% : 50%. Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to simulate the acceptance criteria, such as net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, payback period (PP, and profitability index (PI. The results of simulation show that 17,500 LTDW tanker project funding by scenario 1, 2 and 3 are feasible to run, where probability of each acceptance criteria was greater than 50%. Charter rate being the most sensitive uncertainty over project's financial feasibility parameters.

  5. Development of Power Management System for Electric Power Generation in Tanker Ship Based on Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Power management system (PMS for electric power generation in ship, in the case of tanker ship, is the system that has function to control and to monitor all generators in ship as the main electricity supplier for all electric equipments or installed load. The number of total load that supplied by generator depends on the frequency of the use of load itself which would be read in PMS as well. It leads the operator to take a decision on how many generator should be operate whether in parralel or stand alone operation to fulfilling the power needs. Those loads should be grouped into essential and non essential load. This groups affecting the performance of the generators, where it will covers the maximum load at 306.67 kw under the condition of all electric equipments are operated well while the cargo handling of tanker ship is on process. However, in the state of emergency while the non essential electrical equipments are being cut off trough PMS, the generator will only covers the the maximum load at 253.88 kw to fulfilling the same needs. In the extreme case (total efficiency of parralel operation at 70%, the generators would cover the total load at 306.6 kw still by sparing the generated power of 52.72 kw.

  6. Factors affecting health-promoting lifestyle profile in Iranian male seafarers working on tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seafaring is a risky occupation that is associated with a high incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. The present study was carried out to examine health promotion behaviour and its associated factors in seafarers of the National Iranian Tanker Company. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cros.......57, p educational level was found to have a significant positive effect on spiritual growth (B = 2.97, p ...BACKGROUND: Seafaring is a risky occupation that is associated with a high incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. The present study was carried out to examine health promotion behaviour and its associated factors in seafarers of the National Iranian Tanker Company. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross...... (19.95 ± 4.23). The lowest score for nutrition was found among the seafarers working in the engine department (engine: 20.41 ± 4.50, deck: 23.52 ± 4.97, and galley: 24.83 ± 4.64) (p effect on the nutrition score (B = -3...

  7. Benthic conditions around a historic shipwreck: Vrouw Maria (1771) in the northern Baltic proper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, A. T.; Kraufvelin, P.; Alvik, R.; Díaz, E. R.; Honkonen, J.; Kanerva, J.; Karell, K.; Kekäläinen, P.; Lappalainen, J.; Mikkola, R.; Mustasaari, T.; Nappu, N.; Nieminen, A.; Roininen, J.; Svahnbäck, K.

    2015-04-01

    Since her shipwreck in 1771, the wooden vessel Vrouw Maria has been lying on the seabed at 41 m depth on the border between the Archipelago Sea and the northern Baltic proper, off the southern coast of Finland. The wreck lies in an upward position in a right angle to the dominating bottom current, which is potentially affecting seabed topography, sediment characteristics and zoobenthic communities both upstream (NE) and downstream (SW) of the wreck. This multidisciplinary study attempts to clarify abiotic and biotic patterns and processes in the vicinity of the wreck by combining field investigations with physical simulation studies in the field and in the laboratory. Multibeam echo-sounder techniques were utilised to generate a map of the wreck area and sediment grab samples were taken to characterize the sediment type and its zoobenthic community. A medium-sized field experiment generated data on the accumulation of sediment organic matter in the presence and absence of a current and/or a barrier on the seafloor and a small-scaled laboratory study was conducted to simulate scour forming processes. The results showed that a deeper basin, scour area, with the dimensions 150×300 m, was present downstream of the wreck and there was also a smaller scour area upstream of the wreck. Similar traces on the bottom were simulated in the laboratory. The organic content (recent mud) and the proportion of finer sediment were more pronounced in areas closer to both sides of the wreck. These results were in turn imitated in a field experiment, where the accumulation of organic matter in the sediment increased significantly downstream, when a current was interrupted by a barrier. Regarding zoobenthos in the wreck area, 11 taxa and a mean total abundance of 773 individuals per m2 were registered. The dominant species were Macoma balthica and Marenzelleria sp., which together made up >80% of the total number of individuals. Multivariate data analyses showed significant differences

  8. Design for air-to-air refuelling operations; new passenger and tanker aircraft design for AAR scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Air-to-air refuelling is a way to improve fuel efficiency of the overall transport system without waiting for the improvement of basic aviation technology. To take full advantage of such an operation, both passenger aircraft and tanker aircraft (which deliver required fuel to the passenger aircraft

  9. Comparison of Heat Insulations for Cryogenic Tankers Using Analytical and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Miralbés Buil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a methodology for the design of heat insulations used in cryogenic tankers. This insulation usually comprises a combination of vacuum and perlite or vacuum and superinsulation. Concretely, it is a methodology to obtain the temperatures, heat fluxes, and so forth. Using analytical tools has been established, which is based on the equivalence with an electric circuit, and on numerical tools using finite elements. Results obtained with both methods are then compared. In addition, the influence of the outer finish of the external part, due to the effect of the solar radiation, is analyzed too, and the equations to determine the maximum time available to transport the cryogenic liquid have been established. All these aspects are applied to a specific cryogenic commercial vehicle.

  10. Evaluation of hazardous waste minimization techniques for fuel tanker purging at Fort Story, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of the project is to develop and evaluate techniques for purging fuel tankers that minimize the volume of wastes generated and to evaluate techniques to recycle, treat, and dispose of purging wastes. The approach taken in this project was to visit Fort Story and interview company personnel to define purging requirements and company constraints. Other military installations, federal agencies, and private industries were then contacted to identify potentially relevant techniques used at their locations. Hazardous Waste Minimization (HAZMIN) techniques were combined with alternatives for minimizing the frequency of purging, offsite purging, onsite purging, and waste treatment. Alternatives were then evaluated on the basis of their applicability to operations at Fort Story, their technical effectiveness, their cost, and safety considerations.

  11. Analisis Potensi Kebangkrutan PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. dengan Menggunakan Altman’s Z Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Iswandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. (BLTA is a company engaged in the ocean transportation services listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. In 2009 and 2010 BLTA experienced a net loss. At the end of 2011 the company rocked the financial markets in Indonesia and Singapore being unable to meet financial obligations to financial institutions and corporate bondholders. Given such conditions until the end of August 2012 BLTA can not submit audited financial statement of year 2011 to the authorities of stock exchange and public. By using the 2007 to 2010 audited financial statements and June 2011 inhouse financial statement were analyzed using Altman's Z score model can be known that since 2007 BLTA produce a Z score were classified bankruptcy. Investors should analyze the financial condition by using Z Score in order to minimized shareholders and bondholders potential losses.

  12. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  13. Spatial analysis of private tanker water markets in Jordan: Using a hydroeconomic multi-agent model to simulate non-observed water transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim; Gawel, Erik; Sigel, Katja; Klauer, Bernd; Talozi, Samer; Lachaut, Thibaut; Selby, Philip; Knox, Stephen; Gorelick, Steven; Tilmant, Amaury; Harou, Julien; Mustafa, Daanish; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Avisse, Nicolas; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The country of Jordan is characterized by severe water scarcity and deficient public water supply networks. To address these issues, Jordan's water sector authorities have adopted a water rationing scheme implemented by interrupting piped water supply for several days per week. As in many arid countries around the world, this has led to the emergence of private markets of small-scale providers, delivering water via tanker trucks. On the one hand, these markets play a crucial role in meeting residential and commercial water demands by balancing the shortcomings of the public supply system. On the other hand, providers partially rely on illegal abstractions from rural ground and surface water sources, thereby circumventing regulatory efforts to conserve these resources. Private tanker water markets, therefore, provide a substantial contribution to consumer welfare while jeopardizing freshwater resource sustainability. Thus, a better understanding of these markets is of great importance for the formulation of policy interventions pursuing freshwater sustainability in a socially acceptable manner. Direct assessments of the size of these markets or their responses to policy interventions are, however, impeded by their partially illegal nature and the resulting lack of available information. To overcome this data collection challenge, we use a hydroeconomic multi-agent model developed in the Jordan Water Project to indirectly simulate country-wide tanker water market activities on the basis of demand and supply estimates. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. Finally, a spatial market algorithm

  14. Mapping methods applied to Underwater Archaeology: the photoprogrammetrical model and the photomosaic of the Phoenician shipwreck Mazarrón-2 (Puerto de Mazarrón, Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Miñano Domínguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, ARQVA – National Museum of Underwater Archaeology carried out an archaeological project at the Phoenician shipwreck Mazarrón-2 (Port of Mazarrón, Murcia, Spain. The aims of the project were to check the state of preservation of the hull remains of the ship as well as the metal structure that protects the site. Moreover, the available archaeological data on the shipwreck were updated for the purpose of creating a new digital archive of the site. A real scale photogrammetrical 3D model of the interior of the hull of the ship was created using the program Photomodeler. In addition, a high-resolution photomosaic of the ship was produced since this had not been done in the past. This article describes the methods employed in the realization of both the photogrammetrical model and the photomosaic. Finally, an evaluation is offered of the applications of these recording techniques for archaeological hull remains underwater.

  15. The European Union wants methods for condition monitoring of ships from land; Vil overvaake skip fra land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2004-07-01

    The European Union wants to develop improved methods for condition monitoring of ships from land. This is to prevent fatal shipwrecks that would have serious consequences for life in the sea and for the economic life of coastal nations. So far major oil catastrophes along the coast of Norway have been avoided. Some of the most serious polluting catastrophes in the world caused by shipwrecks have occurred off the exposed coasts of Spain, France and Great Britain. The most recent was the tanker M/T Prestige, which was wrecked off the coast of Galicia in Northern Spain in November 2002. Just before, the M/T Erika had sunk off the coast of Brittany. Both tankers sank because of large structural weaknesses in their hulls. They had become too old or wrong decisions led to the catastrophes. Shipping to and fro the northern regions has been limited but is growing fast. The European Union has understood that shipowners, environmentalists and authorities are facing large problems to avoid such catastrophes or to limit the pollution as much as possible. Several research projects have been started to establish support for decisions that may reduce the risk of a shipwreck. Two such projects are Hullmon+ and DSS DS conducted by Sintef Marintek. Hullmon+ develops systems for monitoring of waves, sea loads and hull strength, while DSS DS examines the survival ability of a damaged ship with focus on automation system, navigation and consequences of running aground. Important information must be transmitted to land to make it possible for various decision makers such as shipowners or authorities. Specialized equipment must be installed onboard.

  16. Risk Analysis Of Collision Between Passenger Ferry And Chemical Tanker In The Western Zone Of The Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przywarty Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents assumptions and process of the forming of a risk assessment model for collision between a passenger ferry departing from or approaching port of Świnoujście and a chemical tanker carrying a dangerous cargo. In order to assess navigational safety on the basis of data obtained from AIS system, were prepared probabilistic domains of ships, which made it possible to estimate number of navigational incidents as well as their spatial distribution, that consequently allowed to determine potentially dangerous areas. The next phase was formulation of a simulative model intended for the calculating of probability of collision between the ferry and chemical tanker as well as the determining of characteristic scenarios for such collision. This paper presents also an analysis of consequences of the collision with taking into consideration a damage of cargo tanks.

  17. Sanitary impact of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck: evaluation and prevention. Synthesis of available data and recommendations; Impact sanitaire des operations de nettoyage consecutives a la pollution engendree par le naufrage de l'Erika: evaluation et prevention. Synthese des donnees disponibles et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The I.N.E.R.I.S. (Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques) report relative to the consequences of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck gives the following conclusions: whatever the pollutants are, the carcinogen risks by pulmonary way are negligible for people assigned to the beaches cleaning; the general carcinogen effects, linked to benzopyrene in organism after skin crossing, have been evaluated as negligible; there is a non negligible risk for the embryo-fetal development linked to the benzopyrene skin crossing; It is not possible to tell if the skin cancer risk is or not negligible, because of the uncertainty of the dose effectively absorbed by the skin and the lack of acceptable toxicological references; the risks linked to the volatile organic compounds are negligible; an uncertainty exists on the risks linked to the thiophene family that have not been determined, because of the deficiency of base data. For the second study, whatever the studied scenario, the R.I.V.M. (Riijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en mileuhygiene) Dutch organism report concludes to a risk qualified as acceptable for the voluntary workers and professionals, included the birds cleaners. The risk of skin cancer consecutive to the skin exposure has been characterized with a dose response relationship model coming from previous works of the R.I.V.M. (N.C.)

  18. Fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion at Chala in Kannur (Kerala, India): August 27, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod

    2013-11-01

    A fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion occurred at Chala bypass, Kannur, Kerala, India on August 27, 2012. The three chambered tanker with total 16tonnes (162.57 quintal) LPG collided with a road divider and exploded thrice. A total of 41 people became victims during first blast; out of which 20 died in various hospitals. Five people remained inside the house after first blast and escaped unhurt from the zone of accident before second blast. All the victims were transferred to various hospitals; of these, six were transferred to the burns unit of the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal (320km from Chala). Five (5/6) were transferred within 1-5 days at our burns unit suffered 31-72% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, none had external injuries. One (1/6) was transferred on 20th day as a follow up case of 15% TBSA burn with 4% residual raw area and diabetes mellitus. Except one, all were managed conservatively using Limited access dressings (LAD; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy). One of the patient wound bed prepared under LAD and on 41 post burn day underwent split skin grafting under LAD. Out of the six patients admitted at the burns unit, two (2/6) admitted patients expired (one due to inhalation injury and another due to sepsis with multiple organ failure). One survivor (1/4) developed sepsis related liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly but recovered well. The total hospital stay of survivors at the burns unit varied from 8 to 60 days (mean hospital stay 36.5 days). All the victims who developed psychological symptoms were treated by psychiatrists and counselled before discharge. Three of survivors developed psychological symptoms. Two of them (2/3) developed mixed anxiety-depression disorder (ICD 10 code F41.8) and one of these two showed grief reaction too (ICD 10 code F43.23). One victim (1/3) developed non-organic insomnia (ICD 10 code F51.0) and responded to counselling. The article describes the incident, mechanism of the incident, injuries sustained

  19. World tanker fleet enjoyed a good year in 1979 but market may decline as West treies to cut consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, P.

    1980-02-01

    The 1980 oil tanker earnings will probably not match the 1979 earnings, as a record 4600 million bbl, equivalent to 90 days supply for the Free World, is in storage and no large increase (or perhaps a decrease) in oil consumption is foreseen. The leading crude trade route, from the Persian Gulf to Northwest Europe, had an average Worldscale index of W46.5 in 1979, with a peak of W66.6, and is predicted to have an average of W50 in 1980 (vs. the 1979 base). The Saudi and Iranian oil processed in Europe and returned to the Middle East will provide a new source of product trade in 1980. The decline in tanker productivity caused by the entrance of new shippers in 1979, the concomitant necessity of transporting smaller quantities of oil per tanker, and the probable excess of production over demand in 1980 will put pressures on prices and profit margins. There will be more oil in 1980 from Mexico and the North Sea, but the amount of oil produced by OPEC countries is predicted to drop by 2.5 million bbl/day.

  20. Modelling the propagation of smoke from a tanker fire in a built-up area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Lucyna

    2014-02-15

    The paper presents the application of a Lagrangian particle model to problems connected with safety in road transport. Numerical simulations were performed for a hypothetical case of smoke emission from a tanker fire in a built-up area. Propagation of smoke was analysed for three wind directions. A diagnostic model was used to determine the air velocity field, whereas the dispersion of pollutants was analysed by means of a Lagrangian particle model (Brzozowska, 2013). The Idrisi Andes geographic information system was used to provide data on landforms and on their aerodynamic roughness. The presented results of computations and their analysis exemplify a possible application of the Lagrangian particle model: evaluation of mean (averaged over time) concentrations of pollutants and their distribution in the considered area (especially important due to the protection of people, animals and plants) and simulation of the propagation of harmful compounds in time as well as performing computations for cases of the potential effects of road incidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase shift from a coral to a corallimorph-dominated reef associated with a shipwreck on Palmyra atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M; Aeby, Greta S; Maragos, James E

    2008-08-20

    Coral reefs can undergo relatively rapid changes in the dominant biota, a phenomenon referred to as phase shift. Various reasons have been proposed to explain this phenomenon including increased human disturbance, pollution, or changes in coral reef biota that serve a major ecological function such as depletion of grazers. However, pinpointing the actual factors potentially responsible can be problematic. Here we show a phase shift from coral to the corallimorpharian Rhodactis howesii associated with a long line vessel that wrecked in 1991 on an isolated atoll (Palmyra) in the central Pacific Ocean. We documented high densities of R. howesii near the ship that progressively decreased with distance from the ship whereas R. howesii were rare to absent in other parts of the atoll. We also confirmed high densities of R. howesii around several buoys recently installed on the atoll in 2001. This is the first time that a phase shift on a coral reef has been unambiguously associated with man-made structures. This association was made, in part, because of the remoteness of Palmyra and its recent history of minimal human habitation or impact. Phase shifts can have long-term negative ramification for coral reefs, and eradication of organisms responsible for phase shifts in marine ecosystems can be difficult, particularly if such organisms cover a large area. The extensive R. howesii invasion and subsequent loss of coral reef habitat at Palmyra also highlights the importance of rapid removal of shipwrecks on corals reefs to mitigate the potential of reef overgrowth by invasives.

  2. [A Study on Quantitative Evaluation of Damage in Conservation of Ceramics from Huaguangjiao I Shipwreck with ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-jing; Chen, Yue; Li, Nai-sheng; Li, Bin; Luo, Wu-gan

    2015-03-01

    ICP-AES was used to determine the elemental composition of solutions in different conservation steps for understanding the impact of cleaning agents on ceramics from Huaguangjiao I shipwreck. The results showed that high content in solution of Al, Fe, Mg ions, which can be indexes to reflect the damage in conservation of ceramics. According to these indexes, we discovered that agents of strong cleaning ability bring more damage to ceramic samples. Meanwhile, the state of preservation of the ceramics was closely related to the damage in conservation. Ceramics in an excellent state of preservation endure less damage than that in bad state. We also found that each cleaning agent cause certain degree of damage on porcelains, even neutral reagent, like deionized water. Moreover, moderate cleaning reagent, when using a long time, bring the same degree of damage as the strong acid. Therefore, in actual protection procedure, for conservation ceramics safe and effective, damage of each cleaning agents and cumulative damage should be considered.

  3. Phase Shift from a Coral to a Corallimorph-Dominated Reef Associated with a Shipwreck on Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Maragos, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Coral reefs can undergo relatively rapid changes in the dominant biota, a phenomenon referred to as phase shift. Various reasons have been proposed to explain this phenomenon including increased human disturbance, pollution, or changes in coral reef biota that serve a major ecological function such as depletion of grazers. However, pinpointing the actual factors potentially responsible can be problematic. Here we show a phase shift from coral to the corallimorpharian Rhodactis howesii associated with a long line vessel that wrecked in 1991 on an isolated atoll (Palmyra) in the central Pacific Ocean. We documented high densities of R. howesii near the ship that progressively decreased with distance from the ship whereas R. howesii were rare to absent in other parts of the atoll. We also confirmed high densities of R. howesii around several buoys recently installed on the atoll in 2001. This is the first time that a phase shift on a coral reef has been unambiguously associated with man-made structures. This association was made, in part, because of the remoteness of Palmyra and its recent history of minimal human habitation or impact. Phase shifts can have long-term negative ramification for coral reefs, and eradication of organisms responsible for phase shifts in marine ecosystems can be difficult, particularly if such organisms cover a large area. The extensive R. howesii invasion and subsequent loss of coral reef habitat at Palmyra also highlights the importance of rapid removal of shipwrecks on corals reefs to mitigate the potential of reef overgrowth by invasives. PMID:18714355

  4. Conserving archaeological sites as biological and historical resources in the Gulf of Mexico: the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the biodiversity and corrosion potential of shipwreck bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, J. L.; Little, B.; Lee, J.; Ray, R.; Hamdan, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    There are more than 2,000 documented shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico. Historic shipwrecks are invaluable cultural resources, but also serve as artificial reefs, enhancing biodiversity in the deep sea. Oil and gas-related activities have the potential to impact shipwreck sites. An estimated 30% of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill was deposited in the deep-sea, in areas that contain shipwrecks. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to determine if crude oil, dispersed oil, and/or dispersant affect the community composition, metabolic function, and/or corrosion potential of microorganisms inhabiting shipwrecks. Platforms containing carbon steel coupons (CSC) (n = 34 per platform) were placed at impacted and non-impacted shipwrecks or into four experimental microcosm tanks. After a 2-week acclimation period, tanks were treated with crude oil and/or dispersant or received no treatment. CSC and seawater (SW) samples for bacterial genetic analysis were collected bi-weekly (at 16 wks for field samples). Proteobacteria dominated field and lab CSC bacterial communities (77-97% of sequences). Field CSC bacterial communities differed at each wreck site (P = 0.001), with oil-impacted sites differing from control sites. Lab CSC bacterial communities differed between all treatment groups (P = 0.005) and changed over the course of the experiment (P = 0.001). CSC bacterial species richness, diversity, and dominance increased with time across all treatments indicating the recruitment and establishment of microbial biofilms on CSCs. SW bacterial communities differed between treatment groups (P = 0.001), with the dispersant treatment being most dissimilar from all other treatments (P < 0.01), and changed over time (P = 0.001). Oil- and oil/dispersant-treated CSCs exhibited higher corrosion compared to dispersant and control treatments. These findings indicate that exposure to oil and/or dispersant may alter bacterial community composition and corrosion potential.

  5. Tahaks eestlaseks saada / Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaats, Erika, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Vt. ka Molodjozh Estonii : Subbota Sep/2 lk. 10. Venelased panevad lapse eesti kooli, kuid ei arvesta sellega, et võõras keeles õppides ei pruugi laps koolis edukalt edasi jõuda. Lisa: Eesti koolid, kus saab õppida vene keeles

  6. Were freak waves involved in the sinking of the Tanker "Prestige"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lechuga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possible involvement of freak, rogue or giant waves in the damage suffered by the Tanker Prestige, which eventually led to its sinking. By reason of their very characteristics, giant waves are hard to record. Their more or less sudden appearance makes them fairly elusive objects, except for the consequences they produce. However, some hints with regard to the probability of their occurrence can be derived from considering how close the maritime weather of the area of interest is to the situation which is optimal for their generation. This paper takes into account the wave field in the area and at the time of the Prestige accident and investigates how near or how far the wave field was to the instability conditions that are favourable to the generation of freak waves in the different approximations. This paper explores mostly the modulation instability which is one of the most common mechanisms to produce freak waves: it leads to the decomposition of an initially homogeneous train of Stokes waves firstly into a series of groups of waves, whose envelope then produces the so-called "solitons", that then collapse in the form of a giant wave. This mechanism mainly occurs in deep waters. Zakharov studied it in 1968 and, independently, Benjamin and Feir analysed it in 1967. This paper proves that the wave field was conspicuously two dimensional with two main wave components travelling in directions almost orthogonal to each other. This means that the wave field was well outside the instability domain. Therefore it is concluded that freak waves were very unlikely generated and it is improbable that they were responsible for the accident.

  7. Medical Surge Capacity in Atlanta-Area Hospitals in Response to Tanker Truck Chemical Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Curtis; Bell, William; Rollor, Edward; Waltz, Tawny; Blackwell, Pam; Dallas, Cham

    2015-12-01

    We designed and conducted a regional full-scale exercise in 2007 to test the ability of Atlanta-area hospitals and community partners to respond to a terrorist attack involving the coordinated release of 2 dangerous chemicals (toluene diisocyanate and parathion) that were being transported through the area by tanker truck. The exercise was designed to facilitate the activation of hospital emergency response plans and to test applicable triage, decontamination, and communications protocols. Plume modeling was conducted by using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V4 program. The scenario went through multiple iterations as exercise planners sought to reduce total injuries to a manageable, but stressful, level for Atlanta's health care infrastructure. Atlanta-area hospitals rapidly performed multiple casualty triage and were able to take in a surge of victims from the simulated attack. However, health care facilities were reticent to push the perceived manageable numbers of victims, and scenarios were modified significantly to lower the magnitude of the simulated attack. Additional coordination with community response partners and incident command training is recommended. Security at health care facilities and decontamination of arriving victims are two areas that will require continued review. Atlanta-area hospitals participated in an innovative regional exercise that pushed facilities beyond traditional scopes of practice and brought together numerous health care community response partners. Using lessons learned from this exercise coupled with subsequent real-world events and training exercises, participants have significantly enhanced preparedness levels and increased the metropolitan region's medical surge capacity in the case of a multiple casualty disaster.

  8. Simulating partially illegal markets of private tanker water providers on the country level: A multi-agent, hydroeconomic case-study of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.; Talozi, S.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.; Harou, J. J.; Mustafa, D.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Rajsekhar, D.; Avisse, N.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    In arid countries around the world, markets of private small-scale water providers, mostly delivering water via tanker trucks, have emerged to balance the shortcomings of public water supply systems. While these markets can provide substantial contributions to meeting customers' water demands, they often partially rely on illegal water abstractions, thus imposing an unregulated and unmonitored strain on ground and surface water resources. Despite their important impacts on water users' welfare and resource sustainability, these markets are still poorly understood. We use a multi-agent, hydroeconomic simulation model, developed as part of the Jordan Water Project, to investigate the role of these markets in a country-wide case-study of Jordan. Jordan's water sector is characterized by a severe and growing scarcity of water resources, high intermittency in the public water network, and a strongly increasing demand due to an unprecedented refugee crisis. The tanker water market serves an important role in providing water from rural wells to households and commercial enterprises, especially during supply interruptions. In order to overcome the lack of direct data about this partially illegal market, we simulate demand and supply for tanker water. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. A market algorithm is then used to match rural supplies with users' demands, accounting for survey data on tanker operators' transport costs and profit expectations. The model is used to gain insights into the size of the tanker markets in all 89 subdistricts of Jordan and their responsiveness to various policy

  9. Privatization by Other Means: Social Power, Tankers and Techno-Assemblages of Water Supply in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, D.

    2016-12-01

    Combined piped and tanker based water supply systems have become a ubiquitous feature of urban waterscapes in the global South. Jordanian water sector, and Amman in particular has been a recipient of considerable international financial and technical assistance over the past decades. The international assistance has coupled with the Jordanian state's own pro-market ideological stance, and its political compulsions to spawn a techno-social assemblage of water supply that represents a hybrid state and commercial water supply system. I present the results of a field study in Amman, Jordan on water tankers and water users to understand the techno-political underpinnings of the hybrid system and its impact on differential access to water. I explore how Actor Network Theory (ANT) based analysis of tankers, suction pumps and piped water system and their materiality may explain differential access to water. But that exploration is inflected by a larger political ecological concern with questions of power and discourses about citizenship and claim making on the state. I find that ANT based focus on water technologies, while ontologically fertile, and epistemologically innovative, is nevertheless politically barren. Much richer political insights are to be gained from structural and post-structurally based investigations of the discursive and material drivers of the techno-social assemblages of water supply. The technologies don't just neutrally impact water access, but seem to almost intentionally favour the powerful over the powerless. Surely the political agency must not reside in inanimate technologies but in the social actors and structures that fashion those technologies, and configure them such to reinforce geographies of power. I call for a renewed focus on social power and how its impact on lived geographies is mediated by technology.

  10. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  11. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ANALYSIS OF PIPE MATERIAL TEMPERATURE CHANGES INFLUENCE ON LINE EXPANSION LOOPS IN HYDRAULIC INSTALLATIONS ON MODERN TANKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Zylinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method analysis of main lines of hydraulic central loading system installation expansion loops mounted on product and chemical tankers has been presented in the paper. The axial forces problem in installations mounted along the ship's open decks executed from hull deformations on waves and thermal stresses is given. Use of "U" type expansion loops is described. Results of forces in anchor points and stresses of Mises due to expansion loop deformations are shown. Calculations were made by ABAQUS Ver.6.7 FEM computer program.

  12. Creating Student Engagement Through Immersion: Exploring the MT6 Shipwreck in Puget Sound via Submersible, Using a Team Challenge Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarason, C. P.; Hartzler, R.; Anderson, A.

    2016-02-01

    Educational literature has many stories describing the "aha" moment that teachers are privileged to observe: a student who suddenly grasps a concept (ding!), dives into an activity (whee!) or works tirelessly to complete a complicated project (wow!). Designing moments like these for students can be one of the great joys of teaching. Experiencing such a moment can have a lasting impact on student engagement and motivation, and is the underlying rationale for the importance of creating a wide array of outreach efforts, from field work to telepresence activities.During the spring of 2015, OceanGate Foundation and Seattle Central College partnered on a pilot program to design a program that had this kind of impact and created the Open The Oceans Challenge. Student teams responded to our Request for Proposal (RFP), which was centered around the exploration of a shipwreck in 150 meters of water just off the Seattle waterfront, the MT-6. Students spent a significant amount of time crafting their proposals and reported that they enjoyed the process of writing the proposal as a team. The two winning teams accompanied us on a series of submersible dives performed by OceanGate, Inc. and worked up the results afterward. In addition to researching the MT-6 wreck and documenting what they found, students were able to do basic observational research on the wreck, providing sonar and photographic data that will help form the basis of future expeditions to this site.We report on lessons learned from this pilot — the impact for the small set of students involved in this project was profound, but how can we expand the reach of such activities? Results from this experience suggest that providing a highly engaging topic and expedition may not be enough to inspire an "aha" moment that creates lasting engagement; the scaffolding and mentorship that surrounds a rich experience is also critical.

  13. Laser ablation cleaning of an underwater archaeological bronze spectacle plate from the H.M.S. DeBraak shipwreck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajnowski, Bartosz A.

    2013-05-01

    Laser ablation was successfully used to sequentially remove layers of concretion and corrosion from the surface of a copper alloy spectacle plate from the shipwreck of His Majesty's Sloop of War DeBraak. The H.M.S. DeBraak was a single-masted cutter that was originally a Dutch ship until it was taken by the British, refitted, and repurposed as a Royal Navy ship in 1796. The ship sank along the Delaware coast in 1798 and artifacts were recovered from the wreck site in 1984. This spectacle plate is an important part of the ships rudder and it is part of the collection of the Delaware Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs. The object was brought the Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation for treatment. The object was examined with cross section microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) as well as Back Scattered Electron (BSE) analysis with a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Interestingly, layers of both copper and iron corrosion products were identified within the concretion. A 1064nm Long Q-Switch (LQS) laser with 100ns pulses was tested along with a Short Free Running (SFR) with 60 - 130 microseconds pulses, at various fluences and frequencies, to determine optimal cleaning parameters for removing the concretion. Laser cleaning also revealed fragments of wood from the original rudder, which were previously trapped within the concretion. After laser cleaning, the spectacle plate was treated with 3% Benzotriazole in ethanol and then given a protective microcrystalline wax coating.

  14. Phase shift from a coral to a corallimorph-dominated reef associated with a shipwreck on Palmyra atoll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry M Work

    Full Text Available Coral reefs can undergo relatively rapid changes in the dominant biota, a phenomenon referred to as phase shift. Various reasons have been proposed to explain this phenomenon including increased human disturbance, pollution, or changes in coral reef biota that serve a major ecological function such as depletion of grazers. However, pinpointing the actual factors potentially responsible can be problematic. Here we show a phase shift from coral to the corallimorpharian Rhodactis howesii associated with a long line vessel that wrecked in 1991 on an isolated atoll (Palmyra in the central Pacific Ocean. We documented high densities of R. howesii near the ship that progressively decreased with distance from the ship whereas R. howesii were rare to absent in other parts of the atoll. We also confirmed high densities of R. howesii around several buoys recently installed on the atoll in 2001. This is the first time that a phase shift on a coral reef has been unambiguously associated with man-made structures. This association was made, in part, because of the remoteness of Palmyra and its recent history of minimal human habitation or impact. Phase shifts can have long-term negative ramification for coral reefs, and eradication of organisms responsible for phase shifts in marine ecosystems can be difficult, particularly if such organisms cover a large area. The extensive R. howesii invasion and subsequent loss of coral reef habitat at Palmyra also highlights the importance of rapid removal of shipwrecks on corals reefs to mitigate the potential of reef overgrowth by invasives.

  15. The role of the water tankers market in water stressed semi-arid urban areas:Implications on water quality and economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Kinda; Massoud, May; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-03-01

    Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision. Users are invariably unaware of the origin or the quality of purchased water. In an effort to better assess this sector, a field survey of water vending wells and tankers coupled with a water quality sampling and analysis program was implemented in a pilot semi-arid urban area (Beirut, Lebanon) to shed light on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the water tanker sector. Total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (Cl-), and microbial loads exceeded drinking water quality standards. While TDS and Cl- levels were mostly due to saltwater intrusion in coastal wells, tankers were found to be a significant source of total coliforms. Delivered water costs varied depending on the tanker size, the quality of the distributed water, and pre-treatment used, with a markup of nearly 8-24 folds of the public water supply and an equivalent economic burden of 16% of the average household income excluding environmental externalities of water quality. The study concludes with a management framework towards consumer protection under integrated supply and demand side measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is

  17. Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. A transition to more sustainable water consumption patterns will likely require Jordan’s water authorities to rely more strongly on water demand management in the future. We conduct a case study of the effects of pricing policies, using an agent-based model of household water consumption in Jordan’s capital Amman, in order to analyze the distribution of burdens imposed by demand-side policies across society. Amman’s households face highly intermittent piped water supply, leading them to supplement it with water from storage tanks and informal private tanker operators. Using a detailed data set of the distribution of supply durations across Amman, our model can derive the demand for additional tanker water. We find that integrating these different supply sources into our model causes demand-side policies to have strongly heterogeneous effects across districts and income groups. This highlights the importance of a disaggregated perspective on water policy impacts in order to identify and potentially mitigate excessive burdens.

  18. THESEUS - achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation; THESEUS - Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechsterreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompe, K.; Heuser, G.

    1996-03-01

    In spring 1990, the Federal German Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) commissioned the team from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler-Benz, the Federal Road Research Institute (BASt) with the University of Cologne, Ellinghaus and TUeV Rheinland (project leader) to perform the research project `THESEUS` (the acronym THESEUS comes from the German `Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation`, which translates as `achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation`). Arting from an analysis of road transport tanker accidents, crash tests and overturn tests were performed and supplemented by investigations of road transport tanker components and accompanying complex calculations of the failure processes. Parallel to this, the static side-tilt stability of road transport tankers was determined on a tilting test platform. The causes of and constructive possibilities for avoiding overturning, which is the most common cause of accidents in which hazardous materials escape, wewre analysed in dynamic driving tests with supplementary computer simulation. Various measures for improving the safety of road transport tankers were determined and subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie hat seit 1990 das Forschungsproject `THESEUS` (Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation) der Arbeitsgemeinschaft aus TUeV Rheinland (Federfuehrung), Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler Benz, Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen (BASt), Universitaet Koeln und Ellinghaus gefoerdert. Ausgehend von der detaillierten Analyse von 231 Tankfahrzeugunfaellen wurden Tankfahrzeug-Crashversuche und Tankfahrzeug-Umsturzversuche durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen an kompletten Fahrzeugen

  19. The Core and Seasonal Microbiota of Raw Bovine Milk in Tanker Trucks and the Impact of Transfer to a Milk Processing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Kable

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the bacterial composition of raw milk in tanker trucks and the outcomes of transfer and storage of that milk at commercial processing facilities are not well understood. We set out to identify the bacteria in raw milk collected for large-scale dairy product manufacturing. Raw bovine milk samples from 899 tanker trucks arriving at two dairy processors in San Joaquin Valley of California during three seasons (spring, summer, and fall were analyzed by community 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial populations, which exhibited seasonal differences. Raw milk collected in the spring contained the most diverse bacterial communities, with the highest total cell numbers and highest proportions being those of Actinobacteria. Even with this complexity, a core microbiota was present, consisting of 29 taxonomic groups and high proportions of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and unidentified members of Clostridiales. Milk samples were also collected from five large-volume silos and from 13 to 25 tankers whose contents were unloaded into each of them during 2 days in the summer. Transfer of the milk to storage silos resulted in two community types. One group of silos contained a high proportion of Streptococcus spp. and was similar in that respect to the tankers that filled them. The community found in the other group of silos was distinct and dominated by Acinetobacter. Overall, despite highly diverse tanker milk community structures, distinct milk bacterial communities were selected within the processing facility environment. This knowledge can inform the development of new sanitation procedures and process controls to ensure the consistent production of safe and high-quality dairy products on a global scale.

  20. Optimal Tilt Angle of Photovoltaic Arrays and Economic Allocation of Energy Storage System on Large Oil Tanker Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study optimizes the tilt angle of photovoltaic (PV panels on a large oil tanker ship system and considers the impact of partial shading to improve the performance of the PV system. This work presents a novel method that considers the difference between the expected and real outputs of PV modules to optimize the size of energy storage system (ESS. The method also takes into account the cost of wasted power, the capital cost of the system, fuel cost and the CO2 emissions. Unlike on land, power generation using a PV on a ship depends on the date, latitude and longitude of the navigation. Accordingly, this work considers a route from Dalian in China to Aden in Yemen, accounting for the seasonal and geographical variations of solar irradiation. This proposed method adopts five conditions associated with the navigation route to model the total shipload. Various cases are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  1. F-16XL Ship #2 during last flight viewed from tanker showing titanium laminar flow glove on left win

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Dryden research pilot Dana Purifoy drops NASA F-16XL #848 away from the tanker in the 44th flight in the Supersonic Laminar Flow Control program recently. The flight test portion of the program ended with the 45th and last data collection flight Nov. 26, 1996. The project demonstrated that laminar--or smooth--airflow could be achieved over a major portion of a wing at supersonic speeds by use of a suction system. The system drew turbulent boundary-layer air through millions of tiny laser-drilled holes in a titanium 'glove' fitted to the upper left wing. About 90 hours of flight time were logged by the unique aircraft during the 13-month flight research program, much of it at speeds of Mach 2. Data acquired during the program will be used to develop a design code calibration database which could assist designers in reducing aerodynamic drag of a proposed second-generation supersonic transport.

  2. Existing Design Trends for Tankers and Bulk Carriers - Design Changes for Improvement of the EEDI in the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Lützen, Marie

    from bulk carriers and tankers, including emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). A calculation procedure for estimating the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is also included in the model. The IHS Fairplay World Fleet Statistics for vessels built in the period 1990–2010 are used as a basis......To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity is the primary one, a proposal...... for the main dimensions and the necessary installed power is calculated by the model. By adjusting the vessel design, i.e. the main parameters, and varying the speed it is possible to observe the influence of the different parameters on the power demand. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions...

  3. SR-71A - in Flight View from Tanker during an Airborne Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows a USAF tanker aircraft Boom Operator's or 'Boomer's' view of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's SR-71A, tail number 844, following air refueling during a 1997 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  4. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  5. KC-46 Tanker Modernization: Delivery of First Fully Capable Aircraft Has Been Delayed over One Year and Additional Delays Are Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Delays Are Possible Report to Congressional Committees March 2017 GAO-17-370 United States Government Accountability Office United...Delivery of First Fully Capable Aircraft Has Been Delayed over One Year and Additional Delays Are Possible What GAO Found The KC-46 tanker...modernization program is meeting cost and performance targets, but has experienced some recent schedule delays. • Costs: As shown in the table below, the

  6. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  7. The Core and Seasonal Microbiota of Raw Bovine Milk in Tanker Trucks and the Impact of Transfer to a Milk Processing Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Mary E; Srisengfa, Yanin; Laird, Miles; Zaragoza, Jose; McLeod, Jeremy; Heidenreich, Jessie; Marco, Maria L

    2016-08-23

    Currently, the bacterial composition of raw milk in tanker trucks and the outcomes of transfer and storage of that milk at commercial processing facilities are not well understood. We set out to identify the bacteria in raw milk collected for large-scale dairy product manufacturing. Raw bovine milk samples from 899 tanker trucks arriving at two dairy processors in San Joaquin Valley of California during three seasons (spring, summer, and fall) were analyzed by community 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This analysis revealed highly diverse bacterial populations, which exhibited seasonal differences. Raw milk collected in the spring contained the most diverse bacterial communities, with the highest total cell numbers and highest proportions being those of Actinobacteria Even with this complexity, a core microbiota was present, consisting of 29 taxonomic groups and high proportions of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus and unidentified members of Clostridiales Milk samples were also collected from five large-volume silos and from 13 to 25 tankers whose contents were unloaded into each of them during 2 days in the summer. Transfer of the milk to storage silos resulted in two community types. One group of silos contained a high proportion of Streptococcus spp. and was similar in that respect to the tankers that filled them. The community found in the other group of silos was distinct and dominated by Acinetobacter Overall, despite highly diverse tanker milk community structures, distinct milk bacterial communities were selected within the processing facility environment. This knowledge can inform the development of new sanitation procedures and process controls to ensure the consistent production of safe and high-quality dairy products on a global scale. Raw milk harbors diverse bacteria that are crucial determinants of the quality and safety of fluid milk and (fermented) dairy products. These bacteria enter farm milk during transport, storage, and processing. Although

  8. Growth and condition of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. as indicators of habitat quality in coastal and estuarine nurseries in the Bay of Biscay with a focus on sites exposed to Erika oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Gilliers

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of growth and condition were used to compare the habitat quality of nurseries of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. in the Bay of Biscay, based on one survey in 2000. The four biological indicators are poorly correlated with each other, suggesting that no single measure may give an adequate description of fish health and of its habitat’s quality. Growth indicators showed significant differences between northern and southern areas. Juveniles from the two southernmost nurseries, the Gironde estuary and the Pertuis Antioche, displayed significant lower otolith increment widths and mean sizes. These differences were inversely related to water temperature and unrelated to genetic or age differences, and are unlikely to be due to limiting trophic conditions in the nurseries. Hence, they may be considered in terms of differences in habitat quality and potential anthropogenic impacts. Condition indices do not show this north-south pattern but highlight low condition values in the Pertuis Antioche. Short-term and fluctuating biochemical indicators such as RNA/DNA ratios appeared to be unreliable over a long-term study, while morphometric indices seemed to be relevant, complementary indicators as they integrate the whole juvenile life-history of sole in the nurseries. The growth and condition indices of juveniles in September 2000 from nursery grounds exposed to the Erika oil spill in December 1999 were relatively high. These results lead us to suggest that there was no obvious impact of this event on the health of juvenile sole and on the quality of the exposed nursery grounds a few months after the event.

  9. Sulfur and iron accumulation in three marine-archaeological shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea: The Ghost, the Crown and the Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Yvonne; Grudd, Håkan; Rindby, Anders; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Sandström, Magnus; Cato, Ingemar; Bornmalm, Lennart

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur and iron concentrations in wood from three 17th century shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea, the Ghost wreck, the Crown and the Sword, were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. In near anaerobic environments symbiotic microorganisms degrade waterlogged wood, reduce sulfate and promote accumulation of low-valent sulfur compounds, as previously found for the famous wrecks of the Vasa and Mary Rose. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses of Ghost wreck wood show that organic thiols and disulfides dominate, together with elemental sulfur probably generated by sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa bacteria. Iron sulfides were not detected, consistent with the relatively low iron concentration in the wood. In a museum climate with high atmospheric humidity oxidation processes, especially of iron sulfides formed in the presence of corroding iron, may induce post-conservation wood degradation. Subject to more general confirmation by further analyses no severe conservation concerns are expected for the Ghost wreck wood.

  10. Sulfur and iron accumulation in three marine-archaeological shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea: The Ghost, the Crown and the Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Yvonne; Grudd, Håkan; Rindby, Anders; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Sandström, Magnus; Cato, Ingemar; Bornmalm, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur and iron concentrations in wood from three 17th century shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea, the Ghost wreck, the Crown and the Sword, were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. In near anaerobic environments symbiotic microorganisms degrade waterlogged wood, reduce sulfate and promote accumulation of low-valent sulfur compounds, as previously found for the famous wrecks of the Vasa and Mary Rose. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses of Ghost wreck wood show that organic thiols and disulfides dominate, together with elemental sulfur probably generated by sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa bacteria. Iron sulfides were not detected, consistent with the relatively low iron concentration in the wood. In a museum climate with high atmospheric humidity oxidation processes, especially of iron sulfides formed in the presence of corroding iron, may induce post-conservation wood degradation. Subject to more general confirmation by further analyses no severe conservation concerns are expected for the Ghost wreck wood. PMID:24573214

  11. SWASV speciation of Cd, Pb and Cu for the determination of seawater contamination in the area of the Nicole shipwreck (Ancona coast, Central Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The study reports for the first time on the heavy metal contamination of the waters surrounding a shipwreck lying on the sea floor. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been used for a survey of the total and dissolved Cd, Pb and Cu contents of the seawater at the site of the sinking of the Nicole M/V (Coastal Adriatic Sea, Italy). Results show that the hulk has a considerable impact as regards all three metals in the bottom water, especially for the particulate fraction concentrations, which increased by factors of ≈ 9 (Cd), ≈ 3 (Pb) and ≈ 5 (Cu). The contaminated plume extended downstream for about 2 miles. Much lower contamination was observed for dissolved bottom concentrations; nevertheless Pb (0.56 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is higher than the Italian legal limits established for 2015 and Cd (0.23 ± 0.03 nmol/L) is very close the limit of Cd will be exceeded if the hulk is not removed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. What comes after the Prestige disaster? An entropic approach to modeling the recurrence of major oil tanker spills in Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente

    2007-08-01

    A methodology is presented to investigate the recurrence of extraordinary events. The approach is fully general and complies with a canon of inference establishing a set of basic rationality requirements scientific reasoning should satisfy. In particular, we apply it to model the interarrival time between disastrous oil spills in the Galician coast in the northwest of Spain, one of the greatest risk areas in the world, as confirmed by the Prestige accident of November 2002. We formulate the problem within the logical probability framework, using plausible logic languages with observations to allow the appropriate expression of evidences. Therein, inference is regarded as the joint selection of a pair of reference and inferred probability distributions, which better encode the knowledge about potential times between incidents provided by the available evidences and other higher-order information at hand. To solve it, we employ the REF relative entropy method with fractile constraints. Next, we analyze the variability of the joint entropic solution, as knowledge that a time has elapsed since the last recorded spill is added, by conditioning the evidences. Attention is paid to the variability of two representative parameters: the average reference recurrence time and an inferred characteristic probability fractile for the time to an event. In contrast with classical results, the salient consequence is their nonconstancy with the elapsed time and the appearance of a variability pattern indicating an observational memory, even under the assumption of one-parameter exponential models, traditionally regarded as memoryless. Tanker accidentality is therefore dynamic, changing as time goes on with no further accidents. Generality of the methodology entails that identical conclusions would apply to hazard modeling of any other kind of extraordinary phenomena. This should be considered in risk assessment and management.

  13. Fire disaster caused by LPG tanker explosion at Lice in Diyarbakır (Turkey): July 21, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Yılmaz; Dursun, Recep; İçer, Mustafa; Gündüz, Ercan; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Erbatur, Serkan; Damar, Ömer; Güloğlu, Cahfer

    2015-09-01

    A disaster can be defined as a situation where the affected society cannot overcome its own resources. Our aim was to present the case of a fire disaster caused by a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tanker-based explosion on the Diyarbakır-Bingöl road in Lice to determine the various kinds of challenges and patient groups that an emergency department faces and to discuss more effective interventions for similar disasters. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. To find out the factors that affected mortality, we investigated the patient conditions presented at the time of admission. Among 69 patients included in the study, 62 were male (89.9%) and seven were female (10.1%). The average age of patients was 32.10±14.01 years, and the burn percentage was 51.1±32.2. One patient died during the first response, and a total of 34 patients (49.3%) died during the patient follow-up. Factors statistically related to mortality were determined to be inclusion in the severe burn group, presence of inhalation injuries, use of central venous catheter on patients, application of fasciotomy, presence of a tracheostomy opening, use of endotracheal intubation and sedoanalgesia, and transfer to centers outside the city (p-values explosions are rare, the frequency of such disasters will increase with the increase in LPG use. The factors affecting mortality should be determined to decrease mortality. We recommend that all personnel members who engage in work related to LPG from production to use, in addition to rescue and first-response personnel, be trained comprehensively and that advanced technological fire equipment be used to prevent such disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Implications of the IMCO proposed pollution-prevention regulations to existing oil tankers and the consequential increase in unit transportation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, B.S.; Rowden, S.C.

    1979-05-01

    According to studies by Cinco Marine Services Ltd., compliance of owners of existing crude oil tankers with the IMCO pollution prevention regulations proposed in the 1978 convention will require selecting one of three types of conversion. The first, the CBT conversion, requires ballast water to be carried in cargo tanks designated solely for carrying clean ballast, and for tankers over 40,000 dwt, it is intended as an interim measure only; these requirements are in Regulation 13A and Resolution 14 of the MARPOL Protocol. The second type, the SBT conversion, embraces the segregation of ballast tanks and their piping and pumping systems from cargo and fuel tanks and systems; certain requirements for this conversion are in Regulation 13. The third conversion, providing for tank washing with crude oil and the basic requirements, are in Regulation 13B and Resolution 15 of the MARPOL Protocol. The conversions, the associated requirements, their economic and other implications, the increased transportation cost that will result, and the requirements of MARPOL 1973 and SOLAS 1974 and their respective protocols are discussed.

  15. Tuuma ümberprogrammeerimine / Erika Jonietz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jonietz, Erika

    2006-01-01

    Lootuses lahendada embrüotüvirakkude ümber käiv vaidlus, pakub Oregoni meditsiiniülikooli juures asuva tüvirakukeskuse juhataja Marcus Crompe eetilisemat võimalust rakkude tootmiseks. Artikkel üldpealkirja all: 10 tulevikutehnoloogiat

  16. Kunstnik kavatseb maalidest jaanitule teha / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Andrus Older teeb jaanitule oma piltidest, mis jäävad ostmata oksjonil, mille ta korraldab päev enne Sillamäe lähedal Orava talus. Harrastuskunstnik paneb müüki umbes 50 maali. Kunstniku kommentaarid

  17. Film Ita Everi juubeliks / Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaats, Erika, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    Näitleja Ita Everi 75-ndaks sünnipäevaks 6. aprillil peab ekraanile jõudma töös olev mängufilm "Vana daami visiit" : stsenaristid Roman Baskin, Ilmar Raag : režissöör Roman Baskin : peaosas Ita Ever, kaasa lööb üle 30 tuntud eesti näitleja : MTÜ Kell Kümme koostöös ETV ja Exitfilmiga, toetab ka Kultuurkapital

  18. Miks nad niimoodi teevad? / Erika Sari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sari, Erika

    2007-01-01

    Kultuuride erinevusi käsitlevast Gert Jan Hofstede raamatust "Kultuuri uurides", mis aitab mõista lapsi, kes tulevad meie kooli teisest kultuurikeskkonnast, keda on kasvatatud meist erinevalt ja mida autor soovitab ajaloo- ja ühiskonnaõpetuse õpetajana ka kolleegidele

  19. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. 2011 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  1. Accidental pollution in the ocean: besides crude oil, chemicals and other spills; Les pollutions marines accidentelles. Au-dela du petrole brut, les produits chimiques et autres deversements en mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, M. [Ifremer Institut francais de recherche pour l' exploitation de la mer, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France)

    2003-07-01

    Accidental pollution of the seas is usually illustrated by the shipwreck of tankers carrying crude oil. We must look beyond this image since such accidents spill substances other than petrochemicals. We need but mention the Levoli Sun's accident near the Cotentin peninsula, France, one year after the Erika went down. And what about spills of agricultural and food products? An accidental spill as apparently harmless as wheat might have serious effects on not just the environment but also human health. In all cases, two major series of questions crop up: 1) Is it necessary to intervene? If so, are we able to? And if we can, how to fight against spills? 2) What are the short- and long-term effects on the environment and on all human activities related to the sea (fishing, fish-farming, salt production, tourism, salt-water cures, etc.)? These two questions have a common denominator: the need to know how spilled products react. This knowledge conditions both the operational response for fighting against pollution and the assessment of the impact on the maritime environment. (author)

  2. Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Rüdiger; Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Rawlings, Timothy A; Sierwald, Petra; Collins, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites. Two additional mollusks found on the artificial reefs, the amathinid gastropod Cyclothyca pacei and gryphaeid oyster Hyotissa mcgintyi, the latter also common in the natural reef areas, are discussed as potentially non-native. A new species of sessile, suspension-feeding, worm-snail, Thylacodes vandyensis Bieler, Rawlings & Collins n. sp. (Vermetidae), is described from the wreck of the USNS Vandenberg off Key West and discussed as potentially invasive. This new species is compared morphologically and by DNA barcode markers to other known members of the genus, and may be a recent arrival from the Pacific Ocean. Thylacodes vandyensis is polychromatic, with individuals varying in both overall head-foot coloration and mantle margin color pattern. Females brood stalked egg capsules attached to their shell within the confines of their mantle cavity, and give rise to crawl-away juveniles. Such direct-developing species have the demonstrated capacity for colonizing habitats isolated far from their native ranges and establishing rapidly growing founder populations. Vermetid gastropods are common components of the marine fouling community in warm temperate and tropical waters and, as such, have been tagged as potentially invasive or with a high potential to be invasive in the Pacific Ocean. As vermetids can influence coral growth/composition in the Pacific and have been reported serving as intermediate hosts for blood flukes of loggerhead turtles

  3. Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Rawlings, Timothy A.; Sierwald, Petra; Collins, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites. Two additional mollusks found on the artificial reefs, the amathinid gastropod Cyclothyca pacei and gryphaeid oyster Hyotissa mcgintyi, the latter also common in the natural reef areas, are discussed as potentially non-native. A new species of sessile, suspension-feeding, worm-snail, Thylacodes vandyensis Bieler, Rawlings & Collins n. sp. (Vermetidae), is described from the wreck of the USNS Vandenberg off Key West and discussed as potentially invasive. This new species is compared morphologically and by DNA barcode markers to other known members of the genus, and may be a recent arrival from the Pacific Ocean. Thylacodes vandyensis is polychromatic, with individuals varying in both overall head-foot coloration and mantle margin color pattern. Females brood stalked egg capsules attached to their shell within the confines of their mantle cavity, and give rise to crawl-away juveniles. Such direct-developing species have the demonstrated capacity for colonizing habitats isolated far from their native ranges and establishing rapidly growing founder populations. Vermetid gastropods are common components of the marine fouling community in warm temperate and tropical waters and, as such, have been tagged as potentially invasive or with a high potential to be invasive in the Pacific Ocean. As vermetids can influence coral growth/composition in the Pacific and have been reported serving as intermediate hosts for blood flukes of loggerhead turtles

  4. Non-native molluscan colonizers on deliberately placed shipwrecks in the Florida Keys, with description of a new species of potentially invasive worm-snail (Gastropoda: Vermetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Bieler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs created by deliberately sinking ships off the coast of the Florida Keys island chain are providing new habitat for marine invertebrates. This newly developing fouling community includes the previously reported invasive orange tube coral Tubastraea coccinea and the non-native giant foam oyster Hyotissa hyotis. New SCUBA-based surveys involving five shipwrecks spanning the upper, middle, and lower Florida Keys, show T. coccinea now also established in the lower Keys and H. hyotis likewise extending to new sites. Two additional mollusks found on the artificial reefs, the amathinid gastropod Cyclothyca pacei and gryphaeid oyster Hyotissa mcgintyi, the latter also common in the natural reef areas, are discussed as potentially non-native. A new species of sessile, suspension-feeding, worm-snail, Thylacodes vandyensis Bieler, Rawlings & Collins n. sp. (Vermetidae, is described from the wreck of the USNS Vandenberg off Key West and discussed as potentially invasive. This new species is compared morphologically and by DNA barcode markers to other known members of the genus, and may be a recent arrival from the Pacific Ocean. Thylacodes vandyensis is polychromatic, with individuals varying in both overall head-foot coloration and mantle margin color pattern. Females brood stalked egg capsules attached to their shell within the confines of their mantle cavity, and give rise to crawl-away juveniles. Such direct-developing species have the demonstrated capacity for colonizing habitats isolated far from their native ranges and establishing rapidly growing founder populations. Vermetid gastropods are common components of the marine fouling community in warm temperate and tropical waters and, as such, have been tagged as potentially invasive or with a high potential to be invasive in the Pacific Ocean. As vermetids can influence coral growth/composition in the Pacific and have been reported serving as intermediate hosts for blood flukes of

  5. Comparison of residual strength-grounding damage index diagrams for tankers produced by the ALPS/HULL ISFEM and design formula method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the Residual ultimate longitudinal strength – grounding Damage index (R-D diagrams produced by two analysis methods: the ALPS/HULL Intelligent Supersize Finite Element Method (ISFEM and the design formula (modified Paik and Mansour method – used to assess the safety of damaged ships. The comparison includes four types of double-hull oil tankers: Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax and VLCC. The R-D diagrams were calculated for a series of 50 grounding scenarios. The diagrams were efficiently sampled using the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique and comprehensively analysed based on ship size. Finally, the two methods were compared by statistically analysing the differences between their grounding damage indices and ultimate longitudinal strength predictions. The findings provide a useful example of how to apply the ultimate longitudinal strength analysis method to grounded ships.

  6. And the 'Shadoks' pumped...; Et les Shadoks pomperent...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, J.Ch.

    2000-04-01

    With the Erika shipwreck, a long action has been undertaken to control the oil slick. Beyond the controversies on the petroleum noxiousness and on the organization problems of the 'Polmar' plans, a lot of human and materials means have been used to neutralize the wreckage, to cleanse the littoral and to treat the wastes. (O.M.)

  7. «  Erika hätte so gern ein Bild von Koch ». Materielle Erinnerungskulturen in Mädchenschulen in Österreich und Deutschland in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gerhalter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available « Erika aimerait tellement avoir une image de la Koch ». Cultures matérielles de la mémoire dans des écoles pour jeunes filles en Autriche et en Allemagne pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle.Le présent article se situe à la croisée de problématiques formulées, d’une part, par l’histoire du genre et les études sur l’auto/biographie et les ego-documents, et d’autre part, par l’histoire de l’amitié et du patronage, l’histoire des émotions ainsi que les recherches sur la culture matérielle. En effet, l’étude d’un ensemble de journaux intimes et de correspondances, tenus par des jeunes filles issues de milieux bourgeois en Autriche et en Allemagne pendant la première moitié du XXe siècle, permet de dégager trois séries d’objets qui circulent entre les élèves mais aussi entre élèves et enseignantes et qui, en matérialisant ainsi les relations affectives (d’amitié, d’admiration, etc. en milieu scolaire, deviennent des objets mémoriels. Ce sont avant tout les cahiers de souvenirs, des lettres ainsi que des portraits photographiques qui s’échangeaient suivant des logiques spécifiques, dont l’article se propose de relever les contraintes, les possibilités et les temporalités propres au parcours scolaire. Les classes, exclusivement féminines, sont considérées comme des ensembles sociaux fortement hiérarchisés mais au sein desquels relations formelles et informelles entre les élèves et les enseignantes s’imbriquaient étroitement. Les objets échangés entre élèves et ceux échangés entre élèves et enseignantes étaient les mêmes ; les modalités des échanges en revanche étaient clairement plus hiérarchiques dans le second cas. Si la nature des faveurs (une lettre, une photo ou un mot écrit sur le cahiers de souvenirs que demandaient les élèves à une camarade ou à une enseignante, était la même, l’enseignante n’y accédait que rarement ; les enseignantes ne

  8. Munitsipaalmaja : Tallinn, Erika t. 9 = Municipal Housing : Tallinn, Erika St. 9 / Liina Jänes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänes, Liina, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    120 korteriga munitsipaalelamu on 1953. a. pärineva stalinistliku lagunenud kasarmuhoone rekonstruktsioon. Projekteerija: Rein Murula Arhitektuuribüroo. Autorid: Rein Murula, Marti Kahu, Karl Koosa. Konstruktor Tõnu Rausberg (TA-Konsult). Projekt ja hoone valmis: 2002. I, IV ja katusekorruse plaan, 4 välisvaadet

  9. The shipwreck of the singular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, David; Mangin, Derelie; Applbaum, Kalman

    2014-08-01

    In 1962, Louis Lasagna was one of the central figures in the creation of our current drug regulation systems. His influence on the practice of modern medicine, through a series of unanticipated consequences of these systems, has been profound. In the 1960s, he was one of the most progressive thinkers in medicine. By the 1980s, he had apparently become one of the most reactionary. This article attempts to delineate the dilemmas he believed he was dealing with, dilemmas that stemmed from a system he had helped create, that produced this apparent change in orientation. The problems with which he grappled are ones that remain unresolved and indeed, have become more acute. The example of how he attempted to remedy what had gone wrong may provide pointers as to how to solve or how not to solve current difficulties.

  10. ANALISA TEGANGAN SISTEM PERPIPAAN BONGKAR MUAT KAPAL TANKER MT. AVILA 6300 DWT DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PERANGKAT LUNAK CAESAR II v5.10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono Yudo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pipe stress analysis (piping stress analysis is more directed to the analysis of flexibility and stress that occur as a result of the force and the expenses incurred pipe (system in a state of work or ready (steady. In order, system can work optimally and safely in accordance with applicable standards.In this paper, using two modifications to reduce stresses that occurs in the loading and unloading piping system of MT. Avila 6300 DWT using software caesar II v5.10. First, modifications ware made is modification to eliminate overstress can be done by considering the distance by changing the type of  support in accordance with the movement of the pipe that occurred (deflection. Second is modification ware made based on calculations of allowable pipe span formulas, then with the analysis by using software CAESAR II v5.10 we can compare and determine the best model of piping systems for MT. Ávila 6300 DWT tanker ship vessel.

  11. Influence of the oceanographic conditions during spring 2003 on the transport of the Prestige tanker fuel oil to the Galician coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Salgado, X A; Herrera, J L; Gago, J; Otero, P; Soriano, J A; Pola, C G; García-Soto, C

    2006-01-01

    Hydrographic data collected during the cruise HIDROPRESTIGE were combined with meteorological and dynamic data provided by remote sensors and drifting/moored buoys, to describe the surface circulation of the Northern Iberian basin in March-April 2003. Sea surface winds transported the floating Prestige oil slicks from the sinking area to the continental slope off the Rías Baixas in 1/2 month: the surface current intensity was 2% of the wind intensity and it was rotated clockwise 5 degrees from the wind direction. Mesoscale cyclonic and anticyclonic structures west of 10 degrees W increased the residence time of oil patches in the Northern Iberian basin, as compared with the expected southwards flow of the Iberian current (IC). On the other hand, the Iberian poleward current (IPC) formed a marked surface front with coastal waters, preventing the entry of fuel oil into the rías. PAHs in the surface layer during the cruise were <0.5 microgL(-1), except in the Galicia bank (approximately 1 microg L(-1); where the Prestige tanker was still leaking) and the vicinity of Cape Fisterra (approximately 1.5 microg L(-1); where the convergence front between the IPC and coastal waters vanished).

  12. A Case Study in Balancing Protection, Interpretation, and Public Access in the Treasure Hunting Capital of the World: The Management of the HMS Fowey Shipwreck in Biscayne National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Joshua

    2015-08-01

    The management of the HMS Fowey shipwreck site in Biscayne National Park is a unique case study in the development of an interpretation and outreach program for the sensitive and now inaccessible site. Decades of restricted access and recent stabilization activities completed at the site have effectively closed archaeological access to it for the foreseeable future. The National Park Service did not come lightly to the decision to physically remove access the site. However, after several decades of monitoring significant loss, due to both erosion and looting, few options remained. This article utilizes the management of HMS Fowey as a case study in the development and modification of an interpretation and outreach program that can be applied to resources in similar peril and specifically to those located within the Florida Keys. Following a discussion of the archaeological history of the wreck site and the difficulties of regulating public access to HMS Fowey, this article addresses some of the difficulties associated with interpreting a closed and inaccessible archaeological site while detailing the Park's attempts to balance the protection, interpretation, and public access to sensitive archaeological sites in what could be described as the treasure hunting capital of the world.

  13. Naufrágio, cativeiro, e relações ibéricas: a História trágico-marítima num contexto comparativo Shipwreck, captivity, and Iberian relations: the História trágico-marítima in a comparative context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Voigt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo compara as narrativas portuguesas de naufrágios dos séculos dezesseis e dezessete, muitas das quais foram publicadas no livro História trágico-marítima, de Bernardo Gomes de Brito (1735-1736, com os relatos coevos de naufrágio e cativeiro hispânicos. Ao examinar não só as estratégias e as estruturas das narrativas de naufrágio e cativeiro, mas também suas conexões intertextuais, pretende-se iluminar o contexto ideológico e literário compartilhado pelos impérios ibéricos na modernidade. A comparação permite desnudar ainda a capacidade destas narrativas de divertir os autores e os leitores modernos como também o seu caráter didático e dessa forma questionar as interpretações contemporâneas que ou priorizam a perspectiva nacionalista ou focam-se exclusivamente no aspecto contra-hegemônico contidos nesses textos.This essay compares sixteenth - and early seventeenth-century Portuguese shipwreck narratives, many of which were collected and published in Bernardo Gomes de Brito's História trágico-marítima (1735-1736, with early modern Spanish accounts of shipwreck and captivity. By examining not only the common strategies and structures of shipwreck and captivity narratives, but also direct intertextual connections, it illuminates the shared literary and ideological context of the early modern Iberian empires. The comparison highlights the pleasurable as well as the didactic dimensions of these narratives for early modern writers and readers, thus challenging both nationalist interpretations and those that focus exclusively on their counter-hegemonic potential.

  14. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 2. development of the liquid hydrogen transportation tanker); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 2 hen ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technology development is being conducted for construction of the long distance transportation tanker of large quantity liquid hydrogen. In fiscal 1997, test pieces of thermal insulating materials to be planned for fiscal 1998 were designed and studied. The purpose of the test is to confirm thermal insulating performance and behaviors of each material under the temperature of liquid hydrogen. The inside of the outer tank of the experimental equipment was held at vacuum of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr to exclude thermal convection effects and evaluate only heat coming from heater through the test piece. The heat from the heater at the lower part of the test piece is through the test piece and makes the liquid hydrogen of the upper tank evaporate. Thermal conductivity of the test piece is calculated from the evaporation quantity. As to PUF (polyurethane foam) panels, studied were reformation preventive measures, influential evaluation of the side transfer heat quantity, and the time required for vacuuming. In the vacuum panel, study subjects were extracted on the selection of core materials, reformation preventive measures, deterioration with age, the practical manufacturing method of experimental panels, etc. As to the super insulation, subjects were studied on the performance measuring method/accuracy, measures against heat transfer from the inside of the experimental equipment, control of the vacuum degree, etc. 10 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Biomonitoring of possible human exposure to environmental genotoxic chemicals: lessons from a study following the wreck of the oil tanker Braer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J; Beare, D M; Waugh, A P; Capulas, E; Aldridge, K E; Arlett, C F; Green, M H; Crum, J E; Cox, D; Garner, R C; Dingley, K H; Martin, E A; Podmore, K; Heydon, R; Farmer, P B

    1997-01-01

    In January 1993 the oil tanker Braer ran aground in the Shetland Islands, Scotland. Approximately 80,000 tons of crude oil were released. Exceptionally high winds caused extensive pollution and exposure of the local population to crude oil. We describe the study which was immediately set in place to examine the exposed population for evidence of genotoxic exposure. Blood samples were taken and primary DNA damage was measured in the mononuclear cell fraction by the butanol modification of the 32P-postlabelling method. Mutation was measured at the hprt locus in T lymphocytes. No evidence of genotoxicity was obtained for either end point, but nevertheless, we believe that useful lessons were learnt, which should be incorporated into the design of future studies: (1) A rapid response is essential, and even if sufficient funds are not immediately available, it is still worth attempting to obtain samples quickly and use cryopreservation, also to attempt to estimate exposure. (2) Adequate numbers of volunteers must be sought, together with enough controls, not just to allow meaningful analysis but to overcome loss of samples and failure of things to go according to plan. (3) Points concerning laboratory practice include: (i) samples should be coded, (ii) clearly defined and proven protocols should be used, (iii) irreplaceable samples should not be used for method development, (iv) should a problem become apparent during the study, work on such samples should cease immediately until the problem is solved, (v) all critical experimental components should be pretested against a laboratory standard. (4) The study design should include replicate experiments to monitor experimental variability and reproducibility, as well as internal standards and cryopreserved "in house" samples. Care must be taken that samples from any one exposure group are spread between a number of independent experiments and that each experiment includes samples from a number of exposure groups. (5) A

  16. Le vieillissement de la flotte pétrolière et les marées noires dans les années 80 Aging of the Oil Tanker Fleet and Major Oil Spills in the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smets H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le vieillissement de la flotte pétrolière au cours des années à venir pourrait entraîner un accroissement du nombre et du volume des marées noires. L'examen de divers scénarios de contraction de la flotte pétrolière et de mise hors service des navires âgés permet cependant de conclure que la fréquence et le volume des marées noires en 1990 ne devraient pas excéder de façon très sensible les valeurs observées actuellement et pourraient même être inférieurs. The aging of the oil tanker fleet in the years to come could result in an increase in the number and volume of major oil spills. However, an examination of different scenarios for reducing the tanker fleet and for deactivating the older ships leads to the conclusion that the frequency and volume of major oil spills in 1990 should not be appreciably greater than the levels now observed and even that they could be somewhat less.

  17. Characterization of phytoplankton biodiversity in tropical shipwrecks off the coast of Pernambuco, Brazil Caracterização da biodiversidade do fitoplâncton em naufrágios tropicais da costa de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Henrique Cavalcanti dos Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community was studied around two artificial reefs (shipwrecks Servemar-X and Servemar-I, located off the coast of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, aiming to identify and thus, better describe these environments. Water samples were collected with Nansen bottle at three depths (surface, mid-column and bottom for chlorophyll a analysis and salinity; temperature and water transparency were also measured. To collect phytoplankton samples, a diver using SCUBA equipment carried out phytoplankton hauls with a 20 µm net around the shipwrecks, about 1.5 m from the bottom for approximatly 3 minutes. Chlorophyll a concentrations at the bottom varied between 0.61 and 5.97 mg.m-3, with an average that indicates a mesotrophic environment. Temperature and salinity registered small seasonal variation, while water transparency showed a seasonal spatial pattern positively related to Chl-a rates. As regards the phytoplankton community, diatoms were the most representative group in the samples, followed by dinoflagellates, and among the species, the cyanobacteria Trichodesmium thiebautii Gomont ex Gomont prevailed quantitatively. The ecological importance of these ecosystems was confirmed by the high diversity and evenness indexes, with the influence of coastal waters playing an essential role in phytoplankton structure and diversity.A comunidade fitoplanctônica foi estudada nas adjacências de dois recifes artificiais (naufrágios Servemar-X e Servemar-I, na costa de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil, com o intuito de identificá-la e melhor caracterizar esses ambientes. Amostras de água foram coletadas com garrafa de Nansen em três profundidades (superfície, meio e fundo para a análise da clorofila a e salinidade, obtendo-se ainda dados de temperatura e transparência da água. Para coleta do fitoplâncton, um mergulhador utilizando equipamento SCUBA realizou arrastos com uma rede de 20 µm ao redor dos naufrágios a 1,5 m do fundo, por cerca

  18. Fremtidens danske energisystem - nogle tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Det nuværende danske energisystem er i et globalt perspektiv meget unikt. For det første er der en stor udnyttelse af såvel varme som el, der er en høj grad af decentrale kraftvarmeanlæg (2500 MW) og vindenergien (3000 MW) dækker helt op til 16% af el-forbruget. I de sidste år har jeg holdt fored...

  19. Characterization and behavior in the environment of the crude oil ''Prestige''; Caracterisation et comportement dans l'environnement du fioul ''Prestige''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    This study presents analysis realized on the crude oil of the tanker ''Prestige'' which sunk the 19 november 2002. The specifications on the product and its behavior in sea water are detailed. All the analysis are compared to the ''Erika'' crude oil. (A.L.B.)

  20. Brigaadi juhib Jan Uuspõld / Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaats, Erika, 1954-

    2007-01-01

    TV3 eetris algab 12-osaline kodumaine haiglaseriaal "Brigaad 3" : produtsent ja üks režissööre Toomas Kirss : režissöör Raivo Maripuu : stsenarist Peeter Urm : rollides Jan Uuspõld, Maria Soomets, Margus Prangel

  1. Lorilaulud viisid presidendi vastuvõtule / Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaats, Erika, 1954-

    2003-01-01

    Iseseisvuspäeva vastuvõtule olid kutsutud auhinnaga pärjatud folkloristid ja pärimuskultuuriga tegelejad. Vt. samas: Pärimuskultuuri auhinna laureaadid 2000-2002. Heinz Valk oma harrastusest, vanavara ja rahvaluule kogumisest

  2. Lorilaulud viisid presidendi vastuvõtule / Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaats, Erika, 1954-

    2003-01-01

    Iseseisvuspäeva vastuvõtule olid president Arnold Rüütel ja proua Ingrid Rüütel kutsunud kümmekond auhinnaga pärjatud folkloristi ja pärimuskultuuriga tegelejat. Samas: Pärimuskultuuri auhinna laureaadid 2000-2002: Vabariigi Presidendi Kultuurirahastu noore kultuuritegelase preemia laureaadid ; Vabariigi Presidendi Kultuurirahastu rahvaluulepreemia laureaadid

  3. Elevating Mallarmé’s Shipwreck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dernie

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses collage as a means to explore spatial ideas. It concerns the practice of drawing-as-research, the spatiality of drawing and the nature of paper. It questions the homogeneity of digital tools in contemporary practice. It is introduced with a discussion of architectural representation and space with a historical trajectory. It questions an understanding of space-as-geometry and discusses the potential role of non-perspectival drawings and non-digital drawing in current practice. The collage studies focus on the late nineteenth century. Working in the tradition of the collage novel, and with original engravings from the popular French newspaper Le Grande Illustré (1904, the collages work with the thematic structure and spatiality of Stéphane Mallarmé’s revolutionary poem Un Coup de Dés written a few years earlier. In this paper, the spatial and thematic content of Mallarmé’s poem are visualized for the first time. The conclusions of this study concern the role of non-digital drawings in the profession, and the potential of creative “paper technologies” to engage the material imagination at the early stages of a design process. It opens new ground as a study of the spatiality of text, the relationship between dramaturgy and architecture and on the nature of topological drawings.

  4. Maritime archaeology and shipwrecks off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    In recent years, maritime archaeological studies have unearthed several of our lost cultural heritages. Many believe that maritime archaeology is a complex and specialized field. Author has penned down his personal experiences in the form...

  5. Search for shipwrecks in Goa water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakkar, M.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 2_Indian_Conf_Mar_Archaeol_I.O._Countries_1990_195.pdf.txt stream_source_info 2_Indian_Conf_Mar_Archaeol_I.O._Countries_1990_195.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content...

  6. Some important shipwrecks on Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gudigar, P.; Sundaresh

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_3_48.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_3_48.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Student-Built ROVs Explore Shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Najwa; Trabucco, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    The mysteries of the deep aren't always unsolvable. The students of Natick (Massachusetts) High School's robotics club and robotics courses took on a project that resulted in their locating and remotely exploring a barge that sank in Newfound Lake in New Hampshire, likely in the early 1900s. They did it by designing, building, and operating three…

  8. Portuguese shipwrecks on the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakkar, M

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_2_107.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_2_107.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Influence of a shipwreck on a nearshore-reef fish assemblages off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Influencia de un buque sumergido sobre agregaciones de peces asociados a un arrecife somero de la costa nordeste de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barros Fagundes-Netto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Orion shipwreck on fish assemblage distribution near the reef was studied to the northeast of Rio de Janeiro with six different fishing gears: gillnets, mid-water longlines, circular traps, rectangular traps, vertical longlines, and bottom trawling. The study consisted of a pre-monitoring survey four months before the shipwreck in the area (A and in two control areas (B and C. After 36 months, a total of 56 species were caught in the Orion reef area, 49 in control area B and 59 in control area C. The similarity analysis, considering the number of fish caught during the nine surveys in the three study areas, clustered the pre-monitoring and first post-settlement surveys of the three sites. This occurred due to the low number of fish captured and the dominance of Trichiurus lepturus and Lagocephalus laevigatus. These results differed from all the other studies in the three areas due to the co-dominance of Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus and Stephanolepis hispidus. Such spatial similarity shows the low influence of the Orion reef in the area after three years. Biomass values were 15% higher in the Orion reef area than in the control areas, representing an increase of up to 1.2 times in wet weight. The increment of fish communities is still insufficient for proposing sustainable fishery activity in the shipwreck area. The monitoring time (32 months after the sinking of the Orion may be considered too short to assure that the wreckage had reached its maturity as an artificial reef, either as a fish attractor or producer.El efecto del buque sumergido Orion sobre la distribución de las comunidades de peces próximas al arrecife fue estudiado en el noreste de Rio de Janeiro utilizándose seis artes de pesca: red de enmalle, palangre pelágico, trampas circulares, trampas rectangulares, palangres y red de arrastre de fondo. El estudio consistió en una investigación premonitoreo, cuatro meses antes del naufragio en el area (A y en dos

  10. Educación ambiental en tiempos de catástrofe: la respuesta educativa al naufragio del Prestige Environmental education in times of catastrophes: the education response to the shipwreck of the Prestige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Angel Meira Cartea

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En noviembre de 2002, un petrolero obsoleto, el Prestige, naufragó y vertió su carga en las costas de Galicia (noroeste de la Península Ibérica. Este accidente originó un "experimento" social indeseado pero valioso para comprender cómo se representa socialmente la experiencia catastrófica de los "riesgos manufacturados". Este artículo analiza la respuesta del sistema educativo regional a la catástrofe desde dos puntos de vista: a su comprensión en el marco de la respuesta social crítica y proactiva ante los intentos oficiales de representar una "no-catástrofe" y, b el papel de la Educación Ambiental (EA como praxis pedagógica cuya dimensión política se revela como indispensable. La tesis que defendemos es que la naturaleza política de la EA, muchas veces sólo implícita y otras negada explícitamente, se redescubre aquí como eje primordial en la respuesta del sistema educativo y de otros agentes educadores. En este sentido, la catástrofe no ha sido sólo ecológica, sino también, y sobre todo, social y política al cuestionar la globalización económica - su causa radical - y poner en evidencia la vulnerabilidad de las administraciones, incapaces de prevenir o mitigar su impacto sobre el ambiente y las comunidades humanas. En este escenario, la EA contribuye a reflexionar sobre el origen de la catástrofe como consecuencia inesperada de la "modernidad avanzada", en sintonía con el análisis que hace Ulrich Beck sobre la "sociedad del riesgo" y sobre el potencial politizador de las sucesivas catástrofes - la punta del iceberg - en las que el nuevo ethos social se manifiesta y construye.In November 2002, the Prestige, an obsolete oil tanker, sank and spilled her cargo offshore Galicia (in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. This accident originated a social experiment, unwanted but valuable to understand how the catastrophic experience of the "manufactured risks" is socially represented. The present article analyzes the

  11. Zinc concentrations in the water column influenced by the oil spill in the vicinity of the Prestige shipwreck; Concentraciones de zinc en la columna de agua influida por el derrame de fuel en los alrededores a la zona de naufragio del Prestige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, Ricardo; Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio [Marine Biogeochemistry Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    Sixteen days after the Prestige tanker sank in the Northeast Atlantic (42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West), a sampling campaign in the neighbouring water column was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of zinc contamination due to the oil spill. Samples were taken in the water column (0-190 m) and in bottom waters -in the vicinity of the bow and stern- where the tanker lies (3520-3820 m). Total zinc concentrations found ranged from 14 to 571 nM, which are from one to two orders of magnitude higher than typical concentrations in these waters (0.2 - 3.2 nM). Therefore, a contamination by this metal, contained in the oil spilt from the tanks of the sunken ship, was detected. Zinc was also found to be a good tracer to detect the presence of fuel in those areas free of patches. [Spanish] Dieciseis dias despues del hundimiento del petrolero Prestige en el Atlantico Noreste (zona 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este) se llevo a cabo una campana de muestreo en la columna de agua adyacente para evaluar la posible contaminacion de zinc debido al fuel derramado al agua. Para ello se tomaron muestras en la columna de agua (0-190m) y en el fondo marino -en las proximidades de la proa y la popa- donde yace el petrolero (3530-3820 m). Las concentraciones totales de zinc obtenidas oscilaron entre 14 y 571 nM, esto es, de uno a dos ordenes de magnitud superiores a las normales en esas aguas (0.2-3.2 nM). Se detecta, pues, una contaminacion por este metal contenido en el fuel vertido procedente de los tanques del buque hundido. El zinc resulta, ademas, un buen trazador para detectar la presencia de fuel en zonas limpias de manchas.

  12. Shipwreck distribution: a spatial analysis of shipwrecks in the province of Flevoland, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Popta, Yftinus

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the result of a research that was carried out by the author at the University of Groningen, and of which the preliminary results were presented at the International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology 13. The main objective of the research was to provide spatial information on the

  13. Tanker Structural Analysis for Minor Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    masses (including virtual masses of the water), the initial bearings, and velocities. 2. Throughout the analysis, the bow of the striking ship Is...initial velocity of the striking ship: m( F ______ (1 t 0 V20) =0.0 f= virtual mass, ship I 2 = virtual mass, ship 2~ m I V . V f ’ K’ Jt 11 FIUR m-2...situ .K. 5Y( i~ lZAKD bow $H 14ILIQj P Lh5T I C. EQ k Y kps) 0 0 94-1 W~IAk) J~~E 0 oC4O.1 ,I Hi PL~c,1C. tlA% ;OQ)- AULA / ;0) 4 4 4~IN -c Q

  14. Tankering Fuel: A Cost Saving Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Dakota US ANG NORTHCOM Hill AFB KHIF AF Utah US AFMC NORTHCOM Holloman AFB KHMN AF New Mexico US ACC NORTHCOM Holy Corp DESC Idaho US NULL NORTHCOM...NEWPORT NEWS WILLIAMSBURG INTL KPHF VA 3.587035 NIAGARA FALLS INTL KIAG NY 3.4684 NIAGARA FALLS INTL KIAG NY 3.4684 NINOY AQUINO INTL (COL JESUS A...3.653219 ST PETERSBURG CLEARWATER INTL KPIE FL 3.723219 ST. CROIX/HENRY E. ROHLSEN APT TISX OS 4.2308 ST. THOMAS /CYRIL E. KING APT TIST OS 3.9667

  15. Riita Oittinen, Blanca-Ana Roig Rechou (coords. (2016: A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres. München: Iudicium Verlag; 327 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pregelj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los temas considerados tabú o difíciles llevan ganando terreno en la literatura infantil y juvenil desde los años noventa. También la crítica literaria, sobre todo los investigadores y los estudiosos de la literatura infantil y juvenil, ha percibido el fenómeno que se viene desarrollando sistemáticamente desde el inicio del siglo XXI. El monográfico A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres es un buen ejemplo del intento de abarcar lo inabarcable, pues presta atención investigadora a un fenómeno simultáneo a sí mismo, lo que dificulta su trabajo. En primer lugar, porque a falta de distancia temporal, el corpus de los textos es incontrolable. Otra de las dificultades del trabajo con ‚la materia viva‘ es una posible falta de distanciamiento y dejarse influir por los autores, las editoriales, el mercado, etc. Todo esto hace que la reflexión crítica sea todavía más ardua, no obstante, también más necesaria, ya que requiere más valentía, conceptos críticos todavía más claros y una visión panorámica sobre un terreno difícilmente abarcable.

  16. The Prestige accident: elements of analysis; Accident du Prestige: elements d'analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-02-01

    This paper treats of the shipwreck of the tanker ship 'Prestige' which took place on November 13, 2002 near the Galicia coast (Spain). The tanker ship was a 26 years old single-hull ship built in Japan and was carrying 77000 t of M100 heavy fuel oil (fuel oil no.6 in the UK terminology). The article presents the circumstances of the accident, the characteristics of the fuel (density, viscosity), the drift of the oil sheets and the risk analysis by expert committees, and the interventions of the Nautile submarine (Ifremer) for the identification and plugging of the leaks on the wreckage hull. (J.S.)

  17. Corrosion aspects of shipwreck metals of Lakshadweep waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, C

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_App_Mar_Archaeol_1997_33.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_App_Mar_Archaeol_1997_33.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  18. An overview of shipwreck explorations in Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    The archaeology of ships, called nautical archaeology (from the ancient Greek word for ship ‘naus’), also reveals design and construction details of various types of watercraft, including merchant vessels, warships and fishing boats. The study...

  19. Early Historic Shipwreck Archaeology of the Indian Subcontinent Region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    ). Godawaya In ancient times Godawaya was known as Godapavata-patanaha that is mentioned in a Brahmi inscription found in Godawaya (Falk, 2001: 328) dated to the 2nd century CE (Roth, et al. 2001: 296), and in Mahavamsa the etymological identifiable term... the river is debouching in the sea at Ambalantota 3 km west of Godawaya. Along the course of Walawe River a number of ancient settlements and monasteries such as Ridiyagama, Mahanavulupura and Ramba monastic complex have been either excavated...

  20. An overview of shipwreck explorations in Goa waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    countries (Gune 1990:117-136). The depiction of a naval battle in the memorial stones (l2th-13th centuries) exhibited in the Archaeological Museum, Old Goa, reflect the maritime activity of this region (Rajagopalan 1987:35; Sila Tripati 2006... Aguada and also resemble the anchors kept in the Archaeological Museum at Old Goa and Goa State Museum, Panaji (Sila Tripati, et al. 2003a: 97-106). The exploration led to the recovery of eight elephant tusks (65 to 32 cm in length) only partially...

  1. Shipwreck: Using Literature and Student Imagination To Teach Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Donna Kay

    1999-01-01

    Provides a geography lesson that integrates literature by focusing on the book "Robinson Crusoe." Explains that the lesson consists of three parts that students perform in groups and individually in which they follow the adventures of Crusoe using the ship's log and excerpts from his journal. (CMK)

  2. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa waters - Preliminary results

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Saxena, M.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Samudrika_7-8_25.pdf.txt stream_source_info Samudrika_7-8_25.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. Shipwrecks, ascidians and modiolarca subpicta (Bivalvia, Mytildae, Musculinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2013-01-01

    The ovulid gastropod Xandarovula patula (Pennant, 1777) was found 14.vi.2011 on the soft coral Alcyonium digitatum Linnaeus, 1758 (Dead man’s fingers) during a dive in the central North Sea on the wreck ‘Jeanette Kristina’ on the Dutch Dogger Bank. Later on additional specimens were found, sometimes

  4. A Biosocioeconomic Evaluation of Shipwrecks Used for Fishery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fishery and Dive Tourism Enhancement in Kenya. Matthew Crabbe1 and Tim R. McClanahan2 ... Abstract—The use of artificial reefs as a management tool to enhance both dive tourism and fisheries has been poorly studied, often resulting in ...... artificial reefs and natural seabed in Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia. Bull.

  5. Of shipwrecks and Weddings: Borders and Mobilities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzanesi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes a new visual politics of Europe’s borders that foregrounds encounters and trespassings. It focuses on the analysis of two films that have received wide international acclaim: On the Bride’s Side (2013) and Fuocoammare (2015). The films deal with migration as a humanitarian crisis

  6. Exploration of shipwreck off Konark coast, Odisha- A preliminary study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Bux, S.; Behera, R.P.

    A.D.) of Andhra Pradesh, east coast of India (Srinivasan 1990). The Motupalli inscription states the following on maritime trade, “in the inscription the King Ganapati Deva has assured and welcomed the traders from other areas going back and forth...

  7. USA saatkond andis aidsiga võitlemiseks 755 000 krooni / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 24. dets. lk. 5. USA saatkond Eestis finantseerib Ida-Virumaal elluviidavat projekti, mille eesmärk on ennetada ja tõkestada nakkuse edasikandumist HIV-positiivsetelt ja aidsihaigetelt rasedatelt naistelt nende lastele

  8. Stenõ Kiviõliskoi russkoi gimnazii ukrasjat freski i mozaika / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline kunstiinimeste seltskond maalib kooli seinale looduslike värvidega fragmente Kiviõli linna ajaloost ning paneb kokku kahhelkivitükikestest mosaiigi. Üritus kannab nime Fresko festival. Kunstiline juht on sakslane Martin Kramer

  9. Pikiuuring õpetajaks õppijate professionaalse identiteedi kujunemisest / Katrin Poom-Valickis, Erika Löfström

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom-Valickis, Katrin, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida õpetajakoolituse üliõpilaste õpetajaidentiteedi aluseks olevaid tähendusi ja uskumusi, mis on loodud interaktsioonis keskkonnaga, sh ülikooli õpingute käigus kogetuga

  10. HIV-positiivsete ja narkomaanide kohta tahetakse luua andmebaas / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Vt. ka Severnoje Poberezhje 18. veebr., lk. 3. Projekti "HIV-positiivsete avastamine Jõhvis" raames sai Jõhvi noorteabikeskus läinud aasta detsembris informatsiooni 50 HIV-positiivse kohta, neist viis on väikese lapsega haiglas olnud emad

  11. HIV-positiivse ema laps ei pruugi nakkust saada / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Vt. ka Severnoje Poberezhje 29. okt., lk. 3. Ida-Virumaal emalt lapsele HI-viiruse leviku ennetamise projekti juhi Tiia Perteli sõnul on lapse nakatumine vaid 2-3%, kui HIV-positiivne rase end varakult arsti juures arvele võtab ja rakendusele võetakse kõik tervishoius olemas olevad ennetusmeetodid

  12. Tööõnnetuste arv Ida-Virus väheneb / Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prave, Erika, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 7. dets. 2004, lk. 3. Tööinspektsiooni viimase üheksa aasta statistikast järeldub, et tööõnnetuste arv on Ida-Virumaal aastatega vähenenud peaaegu poole võrra

  13. Riho Terras: "Esitlen Eesti riiki nagu produkti" / Riho Terras ; interv. Erika Prave

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Terras, Riho, 1967-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 26. apr. lk. 3. Eesti Vabariigi kaitseatashee Saksamaal ja Poolas kolonelleitnant Riho Terras töötab Berliinis ja hoolitseb Eesti kaitsealase koostöö eest Saksamaa ja Poolaga

  14. Predicting work-related flow in the chemical industry / Erika Maree

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Erika

    2008-01-01

    In a new world of work characterised by competitiveness, benchmarking, technological innovation and efficiency, the South African chemical industry needs to function at an optimal level to meet the demands of its stakeholders and employees. The industry needs leadership of the highest standard and an efficient, productive workforce. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leader empowering behaviour, self-efficacy, job resources and work-related flow for empl...

  15. Telesügis: uued omasaated ja õnnemängud / Erika Klaats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaats, Erika, 1954-

    2010-01-01

    ETV ekraanile jõudvatest draamasarjadest "Klass: elu pärast" ja "ENSV" ning Mati Talviku ajaloosarjast "Ajavaod". Kanal 2 ekraanile jõudvast draamasarjast "Pilvede all", dokumentaalsarjast "Eesti maffia", saatest "Tantsud tähtedega". TV 3 ekraanile jõudvast saatest "Eesti talent" ja komöödiasarjast "Kälimehed" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson)

  16. Miks õpilased ei oska jooniseid lugeda? / Kristelle Kaarmaa, Erika Jüriado

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaarmaa, Kristelle

    2007-01-01

    Uuriti 2005. aastal, kuidas on gümnaasiumiõpilased omandanud keemilised vooluallika ja elektrolüüsiprotsessi põhimõtte. Selgus, et teemad osutusid õpilastele raskeks, kusjuures abi ei osatud otsida ka küsimuste juurde lisatud selgitavatelt joonistelt

  17. Development of a Computational Model for Predicting Damage to Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, P.; Pippenger, D.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    A windows based computer program DAMAGE has been developed for analysis of ship grounding on a pinnacle shaped rock. The paper presents part of the theory and the overall ideas of the computerprogram.......A windows based computer program DAMAGE has been developed for analysis of ship grounding on a pinnacle shaped rock. The paper presents part of the theory and the overall ideas of the computerprogram....

  18. Rupture Analysis of Oil Tankers in a Side Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of initiation and steady state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problemis an idealization of the cutting process of a sharp raked bow of a ship into a deck of a stricken ship.A new kinematic model is proposed...

  19. Organizational Effectiveness in the Tanker Airlift Control Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Militello, Laura G; Offner, Anne K; Padula, Greg; Swindler, Stephanie D; Lyons, Joseph B

    2008-01-01

    .... The research team drew from management and psychology literatures, and from operational experience to implement a range of strategies for facilitating change management and assessing the impact of organizational change...

  20. Energy Efficiency for Military Aircraft and Operations: Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Reference Centre n Yawing moment (Body Axis) N Normal Force Non-D non-dimensional q = 0.5 ρ V2, Dynamic Pressure r Aerofoil radius rn Aerofoil ...area t Aerofoil thickness TE Trailing Edge V Airstream Velocity x,y,z Orthogonal Wing Co-ordinates, x along body axis xac Location of Aerodynamic

  1. Studerendes tanker om den tredje Internationale Psykologi Konference i Rom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sullivan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Det var med stor nysgerrighed, at vi, fem psykologistuderende på professionsprogrammet KAiO (Konsultativt Arbejde i Organisationer, forlod Aalborg og vendte snuden mod Rom. Her skulle den tredje Internationale Coaching Psykologi Konference afholdes d. 16. og 17. maj, 2013. Værtskabet stod SCP Italy (Society for Coaching Psychology Italy for, og begivenheden blev organiseret af og afholdt for professionelle coaching psykologer og andre interesserede inden for feltet af coaching. Konferencen havde tre hovedtemaer med ”Surfing the Edge of Chaos”, som omhandlede kompleksiteten i organisatoriske og socioøkonomiske kontekster, ”Third Generation Coaching”, med fokus på personlig og kollektiv meningsskabelse, og slutteligt et gennemgående tema med en ”Evidence-Based Approach”.

  2. Ownership, Finance and Strategy in the Segment of Product Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Nielsen, Peter Tuborgh Arnth; Pretzmann, Louise

    a maritime focus at CBS and create the foundation for CBS as a stronger partner for the maritime industries, as well as for other universities and business school with a devotion to maritime economics research. The competitiveness initiative comprises a number of PhD projects and five short-term mapping...... projects, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge-base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the fundamental changes in financing methods, ownership structures and strategies within the Danish product...

  3. Metallic corrosion of the tanker Prestige in deep seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Espada, L.; Fuente, D. de la; Chico, B.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the authors make a worst-case approach estimate of steel durability in the hull of the wreck. Prestige, based on the scarce data published on marine corrosion of steel at great depths. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Metallic corrosion of the tanker ''Prestige'' in deep seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors make a worst-case approach estimate of steel durability in the hull of the wreck "Prestige", based on the scarce data published on marine corrosion of steel at great depths.

    En el artículo los autores realizan un pronóstico sobre la durabilidad del acero que integra el casco del pecio Prestige, en base a los escasos datos publicados sobre corrosión marina del acero a grandes profundidades.

  5. THE EFFECT OF OIL POLLUTION FROM THE TANKER "WAFRA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Patella tabuloris), abalone (Haliotis midae) and rock lobsters (Jasus laland;;). Both abalone and rock lobsters are much more common to the west of Cape Agulhas than they are near. Struisbaai. THE EFFECT OF OIL POLLUTION ON THE ROCKY SHORES. Notes on the extent and effects of oil pollution were made on two ...

  6. Wetting a rail tanker behind a noise shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmuller, N.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150km long. Alongside the line, over more than

  7. En visionær fortolker af andres tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm, Morten

    and literary sources, and examines the extent to which Dreyer sought to maintain thematic and narrative loyalty to each source. The views Dreyer expressed on adaptation indicate that uniting stylistic innovation with respect towards literary sources remained a central ambition for most of the director's career......: a period marked by loyalty to the source with the aim of raising film's artistic status (seven films); 2) 1927-1947: Freer use of the source in order to highlight film as an independent art form (four films); 3) 1948-1964: High degree of loyalty to the source combined with a strong awareness...

  8. Development of a Sonar Oil Tanker Cargo Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    pinciple classification societies are Lloyd’s registry, London; Bureau Veritas, Paris; British Corporation, Glasgow : Ger- manischer Lloyd, Berlin...the American Petroleum Institute (API) Committee on Marine Accountability ( COMA ). The body concerned with cargo measurement, stated that "we do not...redefinition 151 r I of the traditional concept of "freedom of passage," escala - ting cost of oil, and lack of viable alternatives, the addi- tional expense

  9. A Capacitated Facility Location Approach for the Tanker Employment Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Jeffrey R

    2005-01-01

    Air refueling is conducted to provide rapid response, increased range, and extended airborne operations for bombers, fighters, airlift, command and control, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance aircraft...

  10. Rupture Analysis of Oil Tankers in a Side Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    al. Hysing, Reckling, etc.) The present report belongs to the latter category. The underlying philosophy of the present approach is rooted in the First Principles of Mechanics and is consistently based on the energy methods in plastic structural mechanics with finite displacements and rotations...... depth. The rate of spreading of deformation to the neighbouring baysdepends on the plastic strength of the supporting structure relative to the longitudinal strength of the plate strip. Another interesting result of thepresent solution is the effect of evening-out of strains over several bays...... in the case of a low longitudinal resistance of the supporting frames.In the second part of this report two kinematically admissible solutions for a square rigid-plastic plate under a point load are compared. One is a 2-dimensinal solution with all components of the strain tensor retained. The other one...

  11. Environmental Regulation and Innovation Dynamics in the Oil Tanker Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perunovic, Zoran; Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    The maritime industry is widely seen as less permeable to innovation than other industries. However, the industry is now recognizing that demands for increased environment protection can only be achieved by more innovation.This study demonstrates that environmental innovation has played a signifi...... a significant role in changing the industry's innovation paradigm. It has also been transformed over time....

  12. 流出油回収技術の現状と課題

    OpenAIRE

    木原, 洸; 原, 正一; 野中, 晃二; 山川, 賢次; 宮崎, 英樹; 山尾, 崇; 坂本, 真二; 疋田, 賢次郎; 今里, 元信; Takeshi, KIHARA; Shoichi, HARA; Koji, NONAKA; Kenji, YAMAKAWA; Hideki, MIYAZAKI; Takashi, YAMAO

    1998-01-01

    The Russian oil tanker Nakhodka (13,175 gross tonnage) was shipwrecked in stormy weather and sank in the Japan Sea on January 2 1997. The Nakhodka incident resulted in the leaking and drifting of a large amount of oil spills around the coasts of the Japan Sea. Presently, there is no effective equipment for the recovery of oil in a rough sea, so that this incident caused serious damages to the surrounding environment. There is a need to improve the recovery equipment during oil spills leakage ...

  13. Production and characterization of ceramic composite Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} reinforced with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its stability in crude oil for internal coating of petroleum tankers; Producao e caracterizacao de compositos ceramicos Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} reforcado com Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} e sua estabilidade em petroleo cru para revestimento interno de navios petroleiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; David, N.R.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A.; Shinohara, A.H., E-mail: yadava@ufpe.br, E-mail: natielle.ramos@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2014-07-01

    The internal surfaces of crude petroleum tankers are subjected to corrosive environments, therefore it is of great importance to research coatings for the protection of those structures. Ceramic materials generally exhibit characteristic chemical inertness and are shown as material option for this application. In this study alumina-titania ceramic composites have been produced and reinforced with yttria. These composites were produced by thermo-mechanical process, sintered at 1350 ° C for 24 hours, and left to cool down in the oven. The structural and microstructural characterization of the sintered material was tested by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. And its mechanical property was studied by Vickers microhardness test. After this characterization, the samples underwent a stability test where they were immersed in crude oil at room temperature for 60 days, during which were periodically subjected to tests related to stability, which was found found that the material was free from cracks, fissures or fractures, presenting for these reasons characteristics of inertia when subjected to crude oil environment. (author)

  14. Report made on behalf of the inquiry commission for the enforcement of the measures preconized for the safety of the maritime transport of hazardous or polluting products and for the evaluation of their efficiency; Rapport fait au nom de la commission d'enquete sur l'application des mesures preconisees en matiere de securite du transport maritime des produits dangereux ou polluants et l'evaluation de leur efficacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    On February 5, 2003, three years after the creation of an inquiry commission about the Erika tanker-ship wreck, the principle of a new inquiry commission about the safety of maritime transports was decided by the French house of commons. Its mission is: to evaluate the efficiency of the existing measures of prevention of marine pollution by hydrocarbons, to examine if the preconized safety measures for the transport of dangerous or polluting products are effectively enforced, and to evaluate the status of the transposition of the European directives relative to the control of hazardous ships. This document is the first tome of the report made on behalf of this inquiry commission. It comprises four parts dealing with: 1 - the Prestige tanker-ship wreck and the pollution of Spanish and French coasts: similarities with the Erika wreck but differences in the conditions of crisis management, diverging accident analyses, problems encountered in Spain, a significantly improved management of the crisis by the French administration, the public opinion and the local economy, the global increase of maritime transport and the reduction of accidents frequency; 2 - the real improvements after the Erika wreck: the significant advances but their partial implementation, the acceleration of actions following the Prestige wreck; 3 - the expected and realistic perspectives: the sustain of the political will at the national scale, the concretizing of the European decisions and the follow up of the retained trends, the need for more outstanding evolutions at the international scale; 4 - the international liability and compensation regime: its limitation to the hydrocarbons pollution, the lack of victims indemnification in the case of chemical pollution, the need for an increase of the liability of all actors of the maritime transport and the improvement of the compensation system, a community compensation fund to compensate the inefficiencies of the international compensation mechanisms

  15. Evaluation of the sanitary and environmental risks resulting from the Erika sinking and from the coasts cleaning operations; Evaluation des risques sanitaires et environnementaux resultant du naufrage de l'ERIKA et des operations de nettoyage des cotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicolella, A

    2000-03-15

    This synthesis presents the methodology of the risks evaluation and of the INERIS report, the products analysis, general data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the exposure evaluation, the sanitary impact evaluation for the polycyclic organic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds and the evaluation of ecological risks. (A.L.B.)

  16. Book review. Manuale delle attività investigative per i reati contro la fauna. Rosario Fico, Simone Angelucci, Erika Ciarrocca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il manuale realizzato dal Parco Nazionale della Majella, IZS di Lazio e Toscana, Corpo Forestale dello Stato e Legambiente, è il primo tentativo di tracciare un percorso condiviso nell'ambito delle investigazioni per i reati contro gli animali. Le attività di bracconaggio o di uccisione illegale di animali, infatti, rappresentano ancora oggi un fenomeno tristemente attuale nel nostro Paese; si pensi ai tanti lupi uccisi per avvelenamento o attraverso lacci e armi da fuoco. Gli autori del manuale, realizzato con il cofinanziamento della CE nell'ambito del progetto Life Wolfnet "Development of coordinated protection measures for Wolf in Apennines", sono medici veterinari che ben conoscono la materia, a partire dal dott. Rosario Fico che dirige il Centro di Referenza Nazionale per la Medicina Forense Veterinaria dell'IZS di Lazio e Toscana. La pubblicazione nasce da un progetto, teso alla conservazione e gestione coordinata del Lupo nell'Appennino, che in primis ha messo in atto azioni dirette a ridurre il conflitto verso il lupo conseguente a sistemi normativi e procedurali di indennizzo del danno insufficienti, per poi combattere l'ostilità nei suoi confronti da parte degli allevatori e delle comunità locali. Sono state inoltre intraprese azioni per contrastare il fenomeno della mortalità illegale, ridurre la persistenza di rischi o lo sviluppo di nuove criticità sanitarie per la popolazione di lupo. Il progetto ha infine avviato attività finalizzate alla riduzione del disturbo diretto o indiretto al lupo e l'attivazione di un Network istituzionale. Il manuale è strutturato in 8 capitoli: Normativa essenziale; Ruoli e competenze; La scena del crimine; Dopo la scena del crimine; Il video-foto-trappolaggio come strumento di prevenzione e di indagine; Casi studio; Procedura operativa per la necroscopia del lupo; Modulistica. Da segnalare i contributi di Rita Lorenzini e Antonio Antonucci che si aggiungono ai tre autori principali.

  17. 78 FR 36570 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... bulk carrier) Shipwreck (Great Lakes Shipwreck Sites of Wisconsin MPS) 820 ft. SE. of Whitefish Dunes State Park, Sevastopol, 13000466 Kewaunee County AMERICA (canaller) Shipwreck (Great Lakes Shipwreck...) Shipwreck (Great Lakes Shipwreck Sites of Wisconsin MPS), 5 mi. E. of North Point, Milwaukee, 13000468...

  18. Effects of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons upon the metabolism of the common sole Solea solea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Fariba; Claireaux, Guy

    2007-07-01

    On December 12th, 1999, the oil tanker Erika sank off the southern coast of Brittany (France), releasing 20000-30000tons of heavy oil in the open sea. Among the affected coastal habitats were important nurseries for numerous flatfish species and particularly for the common sole, Solea solea. To investigate the potential impact of the spill on this economically significant resource, we employed Fry's concept of metabolic scope for activity to assess the deleterious effect of fuel exposure on the functional integrity of juvenile sole. Fish were captured from uncontaminated areas and experimentally exposed to contamination conditions mimicking those encountered during the weeks that followed the Erika spill. Using respirometry techniques we measured basal and active metabolic rates, and calculated aerobic metabolic scope, in control and fuel-exposed sole. We then compared the ability of control and fuel-exposed sole to face an episode of reduced oxygen availability. We found that whereas basal metabolic rate was not altered in fuel-exposed fish, active metabolic rate (-27%), and therefore aerobic metabolic scope, were impacted. These changes in metabolic scope were viewed as indicating changes in fishes' ability to face environmental contingencies. Finally the ability of sole to face an episode of reduced oxygen availability was found to be significantly altered following fuel exposure as indicated by a 65% increase in the critical oxygen level. It is concluded that fuel-exposed sole are functionally impaired and less able to face environmental challenges. The link between these results and the recently reported fall in the abundance of the year class that suffered the Erika oil spill is discussed.

  19. Letter of the 'Arts et Metiers' professional groups. Petroleum group, environment group; La lettre des Groupes Professionnels Arts et Metiers. Groupe Petrole, Groupe Environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Erika tanker ship wreck (December 12, 1999) has led to direct wastes (petroleum products) and indirect wastes (oil contaminated matters and instruments) and also to a public unfriendliness towards Total oil company. This situation has led the company to mobilize exceptional means for the cleansing of the environment and the processing of wastes. The success of this operation has been possible thanks to the know-how collaboration of the petroleum (Total company) and building industry (Brezillon company) sectors, which usually do not work together in environmental activities. 270000 t of wastes have been processed in 2 years. 96 % have been cleanly recycled by washing processes. The macro wastes (4%) have been incinerated for steam/electricity generation. The argillaceous sediments have been valorized in cement industry, while the sand and rocks have been valorized as road filling materials. This short paper recalls the historical context of the Erika wreck, Total's commitments, the basic data, the physico-chemical treatment of wastes and the waste processing status. (J.S.)

  20. The Archaeology of the Nautical Astrolabe: News from a Shipwreck in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Manuel Malhão

    2015-05-01

    Being a sailor, astronomy has always been present in my life and I confess it has been a love affair, but during the last decades of the 20th century something terrible happened. Satellites invaded our lives, and with Navistar and GPS all the romance has gone! Nowadays what remains is history and historians, and fortunately they are here in great number and quality. If we speak about European maritime expansion we will always find the astrolabe as its symbol. This instrument (the adaptation for use at sea of the well known, planispheric astrolabe), although very simple, demonstrates that what is needed at sea is the simplest way to perform the difficult task of knowing the ship's position, or at least its latitude, with sufficient accuracy. Simple as it is, it has been in use for more than a century and a half, and its physical characteristics were known mainly on account of maritime archaeological findings. When David Waters published his work on the mariner's astrolabe (1966), the Department of Navigation and Astronomy of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich listed 21 astrolabes. But Waters in fact listed only 19 when he read his paper in Coimbra. Some years later, in 1983, in Lagos, Portugal, Alan Stimson read his important paper during the IVth International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography, entitled "The Mariner's Astrolabe, a Survey of 48 Surviving Examples". Five years later his well known book, (that became a classical reference on the subject) already listed 66 instruments, 23 of them being of Portuguese origin. Captain Estácio dos Reis, an internationally accepted authority for the study of the mariner's astrolabe and other instruments has deeply studied this subject and published a vast number of works on it (see, for example, "Medir Estrelas", 1977). He is the person responsible for Portugal being the country that has the largest number of marine astrolabes in its museums. The purpose of my paper is to summarise the situation since that time and, mainly, to call scholars' attention to the importance of marine archaeology for the history of navigation and astronomy applied to navigation. The audience will be informed, in some detail, about a recent finding in Namibia of a wreck of a Portuguese ship, which grounded near the mouth of the Orange River on its way to India. The remains of that ship and its cargo, which have been preserved by the sands of the southwest African coast, are awaiting the investigation of experts. It contains probably the most ancient astrolabes found so far.

  1. Role of teak and other hardwoods in shipbuilding as evidenced from literature and shipwrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    for construction of boats and ships since ancient times until it was replaced by iron or steel. Once the size and carrying capacity of vessels was enhanced and overseas trade became more frequent, superior quality of timber was used for building boats and ships...

  2. Preliminary assessment of an early historic (2000 year old) shipwreck at Godawaya, Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Muthucumaran, R.; Chandraratne, W.M.; Orillandeda, B.C.; Manders, M.; Karunarathna, S.; Weerasinghe, P.; Dayananda, A.M.A.; Zainab, T.; Sudaryadi, A.; Ghani, K.A.B.A.; Wahjudin, J.; Samaraweera, N.

    Ganga and Sutlej Basins. Ancient India, 10-11: 5-151. Lilyquist, C., and Brill, R. H., 1993. Studies in ancient Egyptian glass, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Majumdar, G.G., 1969. Problem of Black and -red-ware, A Technological approach... Archaeology Unit, Central Cultural Fund, Fort, Gale, Sri Lanka 3. B.C. ORILLANEDA, Underwater Archaeology National Museum of the Philippines P. Burgos Street. Manila 1000, Philippines 4. Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed Smallepad 5, 3811 MG...

  3. Coastal erosion triggered by a shipwreck along the coast of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Babu, M.T.; Mascarenhas, A; Choudhary, R.; Sudheesh, K.; Vethamony, P.

    Temporal satellite imageries (1999, 2001, 2003, 2006, 2008 and 2011), wave model (DHI) results and field measurements have been used to evaluate whether the grounded ship MV River Princess played a role in triggering erosion along the famous...

  4. Exploration of a Portuguese shipwreck in Goa waters, western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A; Sundaresh

    of a hand gun, guns, Chinese ceramics, sherds of Martaban pottery (stone ware), elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth, a number of dressed granite blocks, a cast iron cannon ball, lead pieces, copper vessel and strip, stone and clay bricks, pieces...

  5. Impact of shipwrecks on the morphology of world coasts: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A; ManiMurali, R.

    Role of the grounded ship MV River Princess in activating erosion along the Candolim to Sinquerim coast of Goa, India, is evaluated Beach and dune system was severely affected, as over a kilometre long strip of coastal sand dunes were destroyed...

  6. When still waters become a soul tsunami: using the Tidal Model to recover from shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Debra L; Lane-Tillerson, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The Tidal model, created by Phil Barker and Poppy Buchanan-Barker, metaphorically employs the natural resource of water to describe the person in crisis and offer a model toward recovery. The model, a midrange nursing theory used primarily in mental health settings, is applied to a women in crisis related to failed infertility treatment who attempts suicide.

  7. True 3D High Resolution imagery of a Buried Shipwreck: the Invincible (1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, J. K.; Bull, J. M.; Henstock, T.; Gutowski, M.; Hogarth, P.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    This paper will present the first true 3D high resolution acoustic imagery of a wreck site buried in the marine environment. Using a 3D Chirp system developed at the University of Southampton, a marine seismic survey of the mid-eighteenth century wreck site has been undertaken. The Invincible was a 74 gun warship built by the French in 1744, captured by the British in 1747 and subsequently lost off Portsmouth, UK in February 1758. The wreck was re-discovered by divers in 1979, partially buried on the margins of a mobile sandbank in approximately 8 metres of water. In 2004 the system was surveyed using a 60 channel, rigid framed 3D Chirp (1.5-13 kHz source sweep) system with integral RTK GPS and attitude systems. An area of 160 m x 160 m, centered over the wreck site, was surveyed with a total of 150 Gb data being acquired. The data was processed, using 3D Promax, to produce 25 cm bins with typical 3-6 fold coverage. The stacked traces have been visualized and interpreted using Kingdom Suite software. The final imagery shows at unprecedented resolution the full three-dimensional buried form of the wreck and it's relationship to the surrounding sedimentary sequences, enabling the full evolution of the site to be discussed. Further, the data is compared to previously acquired swath bathymetry and 2D seismic data in order to illustrate the impact of such a device for underwater cultural heritage management.

  8. Wind estimation around the shipwreck of Oriental Star based on field damage surveys and radar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiyong; Yao, Dan; Bai, Lanqiang; Zheng, Yongguang; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kun; Tian, Fuyou; Wang, Mingjun

    Based on observational analyses and on-site ground and aerial damage surveys, this work aims to reveal the weather phenomena-especially the wind situation-when Oriental Star capsized in the Yangtze River on June 1, 2015. Results demonstrate that the cruise ship capsized when it encountered strong winds at speeds of at least 31 m s-1 near the apex of a bow echo embedded in a squall line. As suggested by the fallen trees within a 2-km radius around the wreck location, such strong winds were likely caused by microburst straight-line wind and/or embedded small vortices, rather than tornadoes.

  9. Crossing the Gulf of Aden: cutaneous infections in African migrant shipwreck survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Fabrice; Gautret, Philippe; Nicolas, Xavier; Ausset, Philippe; De Pina, Jean-Jacques; Demortière, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections were observed in migrants from Somalia who crossed the Gulf of Aden, crowded on a drifting boat for 14 days. Thirty-three percent of survivors of this hazardous journey had skin infections. Seven were hospitalized for severe Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous infections associated with intracellular dehydration. Migrants face infectious risks during their precarious travel, including severe cutaneous infections that require specific medical and surgical treatment by the emergency services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological responses to a marine disaster during a recoil phase: experiences from the Estonia shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiminen, T J; Tuominen, T

    1996-06-01

    The sinking of the car ferry, Estonia, was one of the world's most devastating marine disasters that has ever occurred in peace time. Altogether 138 passengers and crew members were rescued, and 38 of them were taken to the Turku University Central Hospital in Finland. The present article describes the various psychological reactions among the survivors during the first three days of the recoil phase.

  11. A Shipwreck on the Dalmatian Coast and Some Gold Coins of Romanus III Argyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Metcalf

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Finds of Byzantine gold coins in Dalmatia are few, except for coins of of Romanus III (1028-1034: these probably derive from the reported seizure of a gold shipment by Stefan Voislav in 1040.

  12. Shipwreck Salvage: A Unique Approach to Integrating Science with a Business Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Douglas R.; Montvilo, Jerome A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Applied Coastal Oceanography course, a multidisciplinary course at Bryant College which was developed and designed to emphasize the efficacy of a good science and business education. Provides students with a technical base for studying coastal waters and familiarizes the student with different geophysical tools and methodologies…

  13. Marine taphonomy: adipocere formation in a series of bodies recovered from a single shipwreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, T; Almog, J; Levy, J; Shmeltzer, E; Spier, Y; Hiss, J

    1999-09-01

    Taphonomy of marine environments has been studied mostly from individual cases. The formation of adipocere, or "grave-wax," is an important indicator of the postmortem interval. In the present paper, the conditions and the timing of adipoceric formation are observed in a series of 15 cadavers recovered at different times, over a period of 433 days, from the same contained environment. Initial foci of adipocere on the subcutaneous tissue of the cadavers were detected as early as 38 days from the time of immersion in cold (10-12 degrees C) sea water. The discrepancies between our findings and previous reports on the correlation between time since death and decomposition stages in marine environments are discussed.

  14. Surviving the Shipwreck: What Makes Online Students Stay Online and Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, Johannes C.; Adendorff, Debbie E.; Meyer, Salome M.; van Ryneveld, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Although much is written about reasons why students drop out of online courses, little is said about what makes them stay. This article reports on an experiment whereby online students were exposed to a learning experience modelled on the US television series "Survivor." Twenty-four students were put into "tribes" and allowed…

  15. Analysis of lead ingots from an 18th century shipwreck near Poompuhar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Parthiban, G.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_2_114.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_2_114.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2004-2005

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anon

    little elavated. Iron guns and granite stone blocks located earlier were also noticed. The wreck remains has been scattered over 75 to 100 m on the east, northeast and northwest side of the guns but not much artefacts noticed on southern and western sides....

  17. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villares, Ruben; Real, Carlos [Area de Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Fernandez, Jose Angel; Aboal, Jesus; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type. (author)

  18. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya C/ J G Salgado s/n, Campus Nord, Modul B-4, E-08034, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: redondo@fa.upc.es

    2009-01-15

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km{sup 2}, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  19. Après le procès de l’Erika, réflexions sur une responsabilité juridique préventive.

    OpenAIRE

    Kouembeu Tagne, Jean Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Le 30 mars 2010, la Cour d’appel de Paris a rendu « un arrêt historique », du point de vue de « la reconnaissance de la responsabilité pénale de l'ensemble des acteurs impliqués dans le naufrage, qu'ils soient propriétaire du bateau, de la cargaison, armateur ou société de classification » , et du point de vue de « la reconnaissance du préjudice écologique » sur une interprétation articulée autour de « l'interaction entre la vie humaine et l'état de la nature », ce qui « justifie l'allocati...

  20. Keemiaõpetajaks pürgija koolipraktika probleeme kooli ja koolitajate vaatevinklist / Liina Karolin-Salu, Erika Jüriado, Lembi Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karolin-Salu, Liina

    2003-01-01

    Artiklis püütakse välja tuua pedagoogilise koolipraktika puudusi ja näidata selle täiustamise võimalusi. Tehakse ettepanekud koolipraktika paremaks korraldamiseks vastavalt Tartu Ülikoolis rakendatavale 3+2 õppesüsteemile

  1. Evolutionary Trends and the Salience Bias (with Apologies to Oil Tankers, Karl Marx, and Others).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    Examines evolutionary trends, specifically trends in size, complexity, and fitness. Notes that documentation of these trends consists of either long lists of cases, or descriptions of a small number of salient cases. Proposes the use of random samples to avoid this "saliency bias." (SR)

  2. KC-46 Tanker Aircraft: Key Aerial Refueling Capabilities Should Be Demonstrated Prior to the Production Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    in the same mission—a refueling boom that is integrated with a computer assisted control system, and a permanent hose and drogue refueling system...aircraft being refueled. Air Force helicopters and all Navy and Marine Corps aircraft refuel using the “hose and drogue ” system, which involves a long...flexible refueling hose stabilized by a drogue (a small windsock) at the end of the hose. See Figure 1 for a depiction of the conversion of the 767

  3. KC-46 Tanker Aircraft: Program Generally on Track, but Upcoming Schedule Remains Challenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    is integrated with a computer assisted control system, as well as a permanent hose and drogue refueling system.10 The KC-135 has to land and switch...using the “hose and drogue .” The “hose and drogue ” system involves a long, flexible refueling hose stabilized by a drogue (a small windsock) at the...related to aerial refueling—the centerline drogue system and wing aerial refueling pod. Boeing still considers the instability of these components to be

  4. Next Generation Tanker: Optimizing Air Refueling Capabilities in 2030 with a Divested KC-10 Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    capabilities include receiver AAR receptacle, boom and drogue operations on the same 1 sortie, and pre-installed fittings for aeromedical evacuation...212,000 pounds of fuel, 10 percent more than the KC-135, and 65,000 pounds (29,000 kg) of cargo. It has both a probe and drogue and a boom and

  5. Crisis Management: United States Reflagging of Kuwaiti Tankers (1987 - 1988) Politics 217

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Secretary of State Murphy had a poignant exchange with Mr. Torricelli , (D) of New Jersey: MR TORRICELLI . Are you convinced that American destroyers...potential aggression’in the Gulf, the Silkworm missile being the most notable recent change. MR. TORRICELLI . The reason I am raising the question is, it...bitter than drinking poison, and Speaker of the Parliament Rafsanjani blamed Iran’s decision on the willingness of the United States to exercise Its

  6. An Examination of Cleaning and Gas Freeing Costs of Oil Tankers in Government Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    through a nonexplosive condition when the vapors are too lean to explode. [Ref. 9:p. 5] Since these gases are heavier than air , gases expelled from a...gas, which is post- combustion ship’s boiler air . Already inert, flue gas is filtered, cooled and piped into cargo tanks until the oxygen in the air ... contaminacion of the succeeding cargo unless, after cleaning, the tanks have carried at least two carloes of light commercial produc:s and’ara satisfactor

  7. Factors affecting health-promoting lifestyle profile in Iranian male seafarers working on tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    -test was utilised to compare the HPLP-II scores according to the demographic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between demographic variables and the overall HPLP-II score, in addition to the six health-promoting lifestyle subscale scores. RESULTS: The mean age......-sectional study was performed on 200 Iranian male seafarers in 2015. A self-administered socio-demographic and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) questionnaire was completed. One-way analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences among the various departments. The t...

  8. The Death of Superman: The Case Against Specialized Tanker Aircraft in the USAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Strike Task Force ( GSTF ) in the late 1990s. The three factors were the upcoming 1997 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), the budget for the F-22...these factors, Air Force leaders realized they had not well expressed their intentions for the F-22 outside their own organization. Hence, GSTF was...born, explicitly addressing each of the three factors driving its birth.165 Originally called Global Reconnaissance Strike (GSR), GSTF complements the

  9. Formår ikke at sammenfatte sin tid i tanker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2016-01-01

    Anmelder Peter Sloterdijk: "Was geschah im 20. Jahrhundert?" Suhrkamp Verlag Berlin 2016. 348 sider, 26,95 € til Moderne Tider......Anmelder Peter Sloterdijk: "Was geschah im 20. Jahrhundert?" Suhrkamp Verlag Berlin 2016. 348 sider, 26,95 € til Moderne Tider...

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Hercules Tanker Plane Recapitalization at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    grassland community include sand sage brush ( Artemisia tridentata), winter fat (Krascheninnikovia lanata), and broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae...agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers . HC/MC-130 Recapitalization Final EA 49 Historically, the aviation sector is responsible for

  11. The Militarily Useful Clean Product Tanker: Sealift Component of the DoD Petroleum Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Richard K. Orr (senior maritime advisor for Exxor. Corporation) in a September 1982 speech to -he . Shi?-Trans-Por t symposium in Rotterdam...Ref. 561. In reply to guestions regarding the potenzially devastating effect on current vessels ir the trade, Mr. Swinburne countered: "..the very

  12. Fluid-Structure Modeling and Simulation of a Modified KC-135R Icing Tanker Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    balsa wood mounting block was cut so that the accelerometer would maintain proper test orientation. Balsa wood mounting blocks were used to mount...phase II, a more robust solution using wood shims to secure the ruddervators and lessen freeplay was employed. (a) Array Mass Substitute (AMS) (b...near its center of gravity generated adequate responses for measuring the structural modes of interest. Wood shims were used between the shaker

  13. Fluid Structure Modeling and SImulation of a Modified KC-135R Icing Tanker Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    balsa wood mounting block was cut so that the accelerometer would maintain proper test orientation. Balsa wood mounting blocks were used to mount...phase II, a more robust solution using wood shims to secure the ruddervators and lessen freeplay was employed. (a) Array Mass Substitute (AMS) (b...near its center of gravity generated adequate responses for measuring the structural modes of interest. Wood shims were used between the shaker

  14. Riigiprokuratuur keelas tanker Probo Koalal Paldiskist lahkuda / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Riigiprokuratuur alustas tankeri Probo Koala suhtes kriminaalmenetlust. Keskkonnaministeeriumi asekantsleri Allan Gromovi sõnul näitasid analüüside tulemused suurt sarnasust nende ainetega, mis olid õnnetuse põhjuseks Elevandiluurannikul. Vt. samas: Askur Alas. Rohelised pole võimude tegutsemisega rahul; Ulvar Käärti intervjuud Greenpeace'i aktivisti Texas Constantine'iga; 35 aastaga on Greenpeace'ist saanud mõjuvõimas ühendus. Lisa: Eesti keskkonda pole ohtlikke aineid sattunud

  15. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Shipping Marketing and Safety Orientation: The Case of Greek Tanker Shipping Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Plomaritou, Evi; Konsta, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    If you are not sure where you are, how will you find out where to go? The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between the KPIs and the shipping marketing as well as the usefulness of KPIs in shipping companies performance evaluation. The paper brings the importance of KPIs closer to the reader and examines their definition, purpose and role in the shipping company. The first part is devoted to literature review on KPIs. The second part examines the relationship among the KPIs,...

  16. Comparison Test of the Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck (HEMTT), M978 Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    f/1 uiZ -«-400 tf«0O (OlOOO OOOO OOOO V Oil *CSI WCI -^^^ -I ZZ < < < Ul’t/I OOOO nmOO OOOO OOOO OOOO >- Z3 ►- KO — <x JCZ aez scz acz 1CZ...oooo H-OC —l-H 5- ZO I- i-O •- <X JCZ - X -i< i-i OX ca oo 3d i i < OSCM u OO I- UJO...os> X o. i UIU O -• UCO C3 O ZU K <ee o za. UI I— za I-IUI O <C/> OC XO o JCZ bCZ _z _cz _i d5 df cjj ^ i

  17. Lærerstuderendes tanker om feltarbejde i folkeskolens biologi- og geografiundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Breiting, Søren; Andersen, A. M.

    Rapporten belyser, hvilke forestillinger lærerstuderende har om muligheder for feltarbejde og ekskursioner i folkeskolen i biologi og gegorafi, herunder læringspotentialer og forskellige typer af barrierer, som grundlag for en forbedring af kommende læreres baggrund for at varetage feltarbejde i ...

  18. The Effect of Oil Pollution from the Tanker “Wafra” on the Marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that hydrological conditions around South African coasts are different from those in the English Channel and that the marine fauna and flora is quite distinct. No scientific account of the biological effects of oil pollution in South Africa has been published and it is hoped that the following observations of the ...

  19. The Effect of Buffer Bow Structures on Collision Damages of Oil Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    SSCAT for collision scenarios where striking ships at various speeds, sizes and bulb shapes collide perpendicularly with a VLCC in fully loaded condition. The probability of oil spill from the struck VLCC in cases where all the striking ships use buffer bulbous bows was compared with the case where all...

  20. Anatomical studies of timber and EPMA analysis of brass artefacts collected from steam engine shipwreck of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Som, V.; Sundaresh; Khedekar, V.; Shashikala, S.; Sharma, S.K.

    to rolling surf and the amidships and cabins were filled with water. Colombo formed a breakwater against the rolling waves, and the dis- tance between the ship and the land was short that women, children and the sick were dragged by the natives through...

  1. Lead ingots from a shipwreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India: Evidence for overseas trade and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Parthiban, G.; Vora, K.H.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    . Metal objects found on land or underwater are of great interest to archaeologists in search of knowledge of origin, use and metallurgical process of ancient times. In India, for the first time, in 1991 a large number of lead ingots have been noticed from... a wreck off Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu on the east coast of India. It is true that metals like gold, silver, copper, zinc and to some extent lead were traded in ancient times but in later periods, particu- larly, lead was the main metal carried by vessels...

  2. Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sujatha, M.; Rao, R.V.; Rao, K.S.

    of artifice) composed by the king Bhoja of Dhar (11th century AD) gives a detailed account of boats, ships and the variety of wood used for their construction and classification of ships. Further, the text also mentions the quality of timber that is required...

  3. The Underwater Recovery of Monumental Marble Column Drums from an Ancient Shipwreck at Kızılburun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deborah N.

    2016-08-01

    In the first century B.C., a stone carrier sank off the Aegean coast of Turkey at Kızılburun transporting all the elements of a monumental marble column, including a single Doric capital and eight drums. The 60-tonne cargo lay at a depth of 45-48 m and was excavated in its entirety by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Texas A&M University between 2005 and 2011. Ongoing research has shown that the Doric column pieces in the Kızılburun cargo originated in the marble quarries on Proconnesus Island in the Sea of Marmara and were very likely heading for the Temple of Apollo at Claros when the ship sank just 50 km short of its destination. The complete recovery of the ship's cargo posed a unique set of methodological challenges involving lifting the multi-tonne marble drums without disturbing the delicate waterlogged wooden hull remains preserved beneath. This report summarizes the solutions developed over five seasons in order to rig, hoist, move, and ultimately raise to the surface eight large ancient marble column drums (as well as all the other marble artifacts in the cargo) from a depth of almost 50 m under water.

  4. Novel approach to ecotoxicological risk assessment of sediments cores around the shipwreck by the use of self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowska, Justyna; Kudłak, Błażej; Tsakovski, Stefan; Wolska, Lidia; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    Marine and coastal pollution plays an increasingly important role due to recent severe accidents which drew attention to the consequences of oil spills causing widespread devastation of marine ecosystems. All these problems cannot be solved without conducting environmental studies in the area of possible oil spill and performing chemometric evaluation of the data obtained looking for similar patterns among pollutants and optimize environmental monitoring during eventual spills and possible remediation actions - what is the aim of the work presented. Following the chemical and ecotoxicological studies self-organising maps technique has been applied as a competitive learning algorithm based on unsupervised learning process. Summarizing it can be stated that biotests enable assessing the impact of complex chemical mixtures on the organisms inhabiting particular ecosystems. Short and simple application of biotests cannot easily explain the observable toxicity without more complex chemometric evaluation of datasets obtained describing dependence between xenobiotics and toxicological results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Whetstone Typology: Or the First Shipwreck of Turid Fiskarbekk and Marine Archaeologists Who Had to Think Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymoen, Pål

    2009-12-01

    Finds from the Viking period, the middle ages and from more recent historical trading places and towns in northern Europe show that the export of whetstones from Eidsborg in the Telemark district of southern Norway has a history of more than 1,000 years. The water-based route from the quarry area, 600 m above sea level, to the nearest shipping port consists of 120 km of lakes, rivers and portages. This article takes up the export history in the light of a recently discovered cargo of whetstones found in Flåvann, Telemark. The history of the recovery of the find shows that the cargo examined most probably leads to an incident in the 1820s and, to a woman named Turid Fiskarbekk. The find leads to a wider perspective, more specific to the life of Turid Fiskarbekk. Therefore the article presents a side-story about her, where the intention is to show how integrating a gender perspective in maritime archaeology makes new knowledge possible.

  6. Elemental analysis of materials in an underwater archeological shipwreck using a novel remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Salvador; Fortes, Francisco J; Laserna, J Javier

    2015-05-01

    LIBS analysis of submerged materials in an underwater archeological site has been performed for the first time. A fiber-optics-based remote instrument was designed for the recognition and identification of archeological assets in the wreck of the Bucentaure (Bay of Cadiz, South of Spain). The LIBS prototype featured both single-pulse (SP-LIBS) and multi-pulse excitation (MP-LIBS). The use of multi-pulse excitation allowed an increased laser beam energy (up to 95 mJ) transmitted through the optical fiber. This excitation mode results in an improved performance of the equipment in terms of extended range of analysis (to a depth of 50 m) and a broader variety of samples to be analyzed (i.e., rocks, marble, ceramics and concrete). Compared to single-pulse, an intensity enhancement factor of 15× was observed at the same irradiance value, 1.89 GW/cm(2). Thus, a longer pulse duration promotes the heating and melting of the sample, resulting in a greater mass ablated. As a consequence of the optimization of experimental conditions performed in laboratory, underwater characterization of ancient pottery was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.): A preferred timber for shipbuilding in India as evidenced from shipwrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Shukla, S.R.; Shashikala, S.; Sardar, A.A.

    of these crafts, until it was replaced by iron/steel. As the size of the vessels increased to accommodate more cargo and overseas trade became more frequent, superior quality timber was used in the construction of vessels. Among the timbers used, teak was mostly...

  8. 78 FR 53782 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...), (World War II Shipwrecks along the East Coast and Gulf of Mexico MPS) Address Restricted, Westhampton, 13000779 NORTH CAROLINA Dare County DIXIE ARROW (shipwreck and remains), (World War II Shipwrecks along the... remains), (World War II Shipwrecks along the East Coast and Gulf of Mexico MPS) Address Restricted, Cape...

  9. Improving the technical characteristics of a decontamination tanker with the help of TRIZ / Улучшение технических характеристик автоцистерны для деконтаминации, с помощью ТРИЗ методологии / Poboljšanje tehničkih karakteristika automobila cisterne za dekontaminaciju pomoću TRIZ-a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the application of the TRIZ methodology (Theory of Solving Inventive Tasks in the field of solving a technical problem in a decontamination tanker. TRIZ is one of the most suitable scientific and innovative methodologies for solving problems, based on a systematic and logical approach, developed as a result of studying a great number of patents. The correct use of a decontamination tanker identified a harmful function related to preparing the decontamination solution in the on-board reservoir itself, which disabled the supply of drinking water. The function used to extend the use of decontamination tankers to delivery of drinking water was achieved using the Inventive Principles and Alshtuler’s Contradiction Matrix, both known to be very efficient TRIZ methodology tools. / В данной статье представлено применение ТРИЗ (Теория решения изобретательских задач, в области решения технических проблем на автоцистерне для деконтоминации. ТРИЗ является одной из лучших научно-инновационных методологий по решению проблем, основанной на систематическом и логическом принципе, развитом на основании углубленного изучения большого количества патентов. При целевом применении автоцистерны для деконтоминации выявлена вредная функция, связанная с приготовлением деконтоминационного раствора в самом резервуаре, вследствие чего поставки питьевой воды в данных резервуарах исключаются. Благодаря применению ТРИЗ ме

  10. A Combined Adaptive Tabu Search and Set Partitioning Approach for the Crew Scheduling Problem with an Air Tanker Crew Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-15

    Page 1. One Iteration of OpenTS (Harder, 2002...66 11. One Iteration of OpenTS (Harder, 2002...Basic Tabu Search. This section concludes by demonstrating an iteration of the basic tabu search, as implemented in OpenTS , the JavaTM-based

  11. Applying Multi-Class Support Vector Machines for performance assessment of shipping operations: The case of tanker vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Møller, Anders H.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    Energy efficient operations are a key competitive advantage for modern shipping companies. During the operation of the vessel, improvements in energy use can be achieved by not only by technical upgrades, but also through behavioural changes in the way the crew on board is operating the vessels...... of feature selection algorithms. Afterwards, a model based on Multi- Class Support Vector Machines (SVM) was constructed and the efficacy of the approach is shown through the application of a test set. The results demonstrate the importance and benefits of machine learning algorithms in driving energy...... efficiency on board, as well as the impact of power management on energy costs throughout the life cycle of the ships....

  12. Tanker Avionics/Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE). Phase 0. Analysis and Mockup. Volume II. Summary of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    at material on the window edoe and pilots’ laps. 83 P7 7, 4. Front panel lighting is a 7, but general interior cockpit lighting for such things as...avionics but in the situation where the crew had to perform the rendezvous and main- tain an orbit , it would be too much for a low experienced crew...would make orbits and rendezvous easier to accomplish. P7 No. It’s not hardware, it’s time to accomplish all the tasks dve to the low experience

  13. Market Dominance, Efficiency, Innovation, and Globalization: A Case Study of the Tanker Competition Between Boeing and Northrop Grumman/EADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    production delays for the Boeing 787’s. Indeed, due to the lateness of the planes, some airlines, such as Air India and Qantas , have stated that they are...and defense market had 2007 revenues of $636.8 billion in 2007 – The defense segment generated $481.2 billion – The civil aerospace sector generated

  14. Nanotube Adsorption for the Capture and Re-liquefaction of Hydrogen Biol-Off During Tanker Transfer Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discloses an innovative, economically feasible technique to capture and re-liquefy the hydrogen boil-off by using carbon nanotube adsorption prior to...

  15. Instantaneous liquid release from a rail tanker: The influence of noise shields on pool shape and pool size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmuller, N.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150 km long. Alongside the line, more than 100

  16. Design of Protection Coordination for Overcurrent on Electrical System in Tanker Ship Plan Using Electro Mechanical Trip Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of power system in ship is unavoidable case that required a function from safety system to separate the affected parts of system. The disturbance in electrical system generally is a short-circuit current. It is affected when there are two conductors having lowest impedance in normal condition that have two different voltages thus causing an overcurrent. There is one of the device protection to prevent a disturbance like short circuit current, is circuit breaker. It opens the contact with component or system that disturbance using electromechanical trip device. The principal operating of trip device is using electric current flow in the circuit breaker and the magnet induces the tripping part to moving the contact from closed position to the opened position. The main discussion is to coordinate circuit breakers in four operating conditions of the ship's generator using software ETAP. The simulation of the result obtained value of short circuit in main bus one at sailing condition is 8.2 kA. Tripping time for the circuit breakers in sailing condition at one typical disturbance are 0.75 seconds for circuit breaker number 29; 0.83 seconds for circuit breaker number 37 and 1 second for circuit breaker number 28.

  17. Design of Protection Coordination for Overcurrent on Electrical System in Tanker Ship Plan Using Electro Mechanical Trip Device

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Ranu Kusuma; Eddy Setyo Koenhardhono; Riantini Karmina

    2017-01-01

    Disturbance of power system in ship is unavoidable case that required a function from safety system to separate the affected parts of system. The disturbance in electrical system generally is a short-circuit current. It is affected when there are two conductors having lowest impedance in normal condition that have two different voltages thus causing an overcurrent. There is one of the device protection to prevent a disturbance like short circuit current, is circuit breaker. It opens the conta...

  18. Design of Protection Coordination for Overcurrent on Electrical System in Tanker Ship Plan Using Electro Mechanical Trip Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Indra Ranu Kusuma; Eddy Setyo Koenhardhono; Riantini Karmina

    2017-01-01

    .... The disturbance in electrical system generally is a short-circuit current. It is affected when there are two conductors having lowest impedance in normal condition that have two different voltages thus causing an overcurrent...

  19. Suveræne livsytringer og kredsende tanker og følelser - en kritisk udfoldelse af deres karakteristika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The sovereign expressions of life and the encircling thoughts and emotions are phenomena at the core of K.E. Løgstrup’s metaphysics and ethics. In spite of this their respective characteristics have not been fully developed until now. In this article these characteristics are examined through a s......, definitive, consummated, sovereign, unconditioned, identity creating and anonymous possibilities within interdependent life; as such they possess the power of releasing us from the confinement of our own thoughts and emotions....

  20. "Change in Schools It's More Like Sort of Turning an Oil Tanker": Creating Readiness for Health Promoting Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Belinda; Ollis, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to add to the evidence of best practice in the implementation of the Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework by examining the process of creating readiness for change in a large international school in South-East Asia. Using a settings-based approach and guided by readiness for change theory the data…

  1. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  2. Trends and priorities in the development of the Latvian banking services in the context of emerging knowledge based economy : case of e-banking / Valters Kazhe, Ilona Baumane, Erika Shumilo...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Läti pangateenuste arengutrendidest ja -prioriteetidest teadmistepõhise majanduse kontekstis. Probleemidest Läti finantssektori arengus, e-panganduse teenustest ning nende laiendamise perspektiividest. Joonised

  3. The Overview Of Water Pollution In The World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vang Le

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water is a precious resource but not everyone is aware of it. More than 1 billion people are missing about 20 to 50 liters of clean water each day to cater for basic needs such as eating and bathing. The phenomenon of oil exploration ocean shipping and petroleum-contaminated wastes is one of the causes of water pollution. It is estimated that about 1 billion tons of oil are transported by sea each year. Part of this volume about 0.1 to 0.3 is thrown into the sea in a relatively legal way the washing of oil tankers with seawater. The shipwreck is relatively regular disposal of lubricant or accidental dropping gasoline. The permeation rate of petroleum is seven times that of water which will cause the groundwater to become contaminated. About 1.6 million tons of hydrocarbons are discharged by rivers of industrialized nations. From the above causes we see that human consciousness is the main cause of pollution of water environment. Resources are not endless with the exploitation of an indiscriminate wing rampant run for market economy benefits without the appropriate treatment the water pollution is a certain matter. The importance is inevitable if people are unaware of the importance of water for life in the near future the resources will be exhausted.

  4. Measurement from the Bottom of the World to the Middle School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coester, Lee Anne

    2004-01-01

    A classroom activity analyzes the mathematics found in Shipwreck at the Bottom of the World, the true story of Ernest Shackleton and the 27-man crew who all survived a shipwreck at the South Pole. (Contains 3 figures.)

  5. 26 CFR 1.469-2 - Passive activity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...); (vi) Gross income attributable to the reimbursement of a loss from fire, storm, shipwreck, or other..., storm, shipwreck, or other casualty, or from theft (as such terms are used in section 165(c)(3)) if...

  6. 78 FR 34404 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...., Clarendon, 13000450 NORTH CAROLINA Dare County LANCING (shipwreck), (World War II Shipwrecks along the East Coast and Gulf of Mexico MPS), Address Restricted, Buxton, 13000451 NORTH DAKOTA Barnes County Alderman...

  7. AtlanticCanyons2011: Exploration and Research of Mid-Atlantic Deepwater hard Bottom Habitats and Shipwrecks with Emphasis on Canyons and Coral Communities between 20110604 and 20110617

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an interagency study that focuses on the exploration and investigation of deepwater hard bottom biological communities located in the northwest Atlantic...

  8. Exploration of Basel Mission Company shipwreck remains at St George's Reef off Goa, west coast of India: Impact of the Basel Mission Co. on society and culture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    as the Basel Mission Co. had adopted and still today the converts (both men and women) are working there. Moreover, Comtrust has maintained the same quality and standard of production. Today there is little demand for terracotta columns and Comtrust is involved...

  9. Mistreatment of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked By The International Committee of the Red Cross Study On Customary International Humanitarian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-31

    teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations, as subsidiary means for the determination of rules of law.95 Thus, the... publicists … as subsidiary means for the determination of rules of law.” Statute of the International Court of Justice art. 38, June 26, 1945, 59 Stat...cooperative strategy between States, which is in their long- term best interests, rather than out of a sense of legal obligation, and that this rational

  10. The Feasibility of Converting the Tanker, Transport, and Bomber (TTB) Track of Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training (SUNT) to an All-Simulator Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    realistic crew training and enhanced instructor roles. Cost considerations aside, questions still remain as to whether modern flight simulators are...er, cost considerations are manry times c separ abl related to most simulator, and training program i=sues. I- such cases, coat issues ma. be mentioned...its fol 1 ow-on cour . ses more 1] ci cl +.i -d C tfu c ional I y r- estructured . It the Last, icer. emp t i rig undergr aduate ra,,i gato,,r. r aann

  11. Use of Information Technology Tools in Source Selection Decision Making: A Study on USAF’s KC-X Tanker Replacement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    26 1. Multi-Objective Optimization...........................................................27 2. Multi-Criteria Decision Making ( MCDM ) Methods...Decision Making ( MCDM ) Methods Multi-criteria decision making is a well-known part of the decision making process and is an important part of the...different subject areas with sometimes different names. As it is used in MCDM (with three different names - weighted sum method, multi-criteria scoring

  12. Regulatory Analysis and Environmental Impact Statement. Regulations to Implement the Results of the International Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-14

    changes In our energy consumption pattern . As stated by President Carter In his speech to the nation on July 15, 1979, we are committed to conservation...34 OPERATOR 0.27 200o 0.54 3) BAD OPERATOR 0.41 0.05 0.02 TOTAL 0.94 1. 4 . 1 . 3 * USt OPS - CRUD )E rOIVESTIC - BALLIS FACTOR 470DT PROS. BASE OUTfFL-OW 3) GOOD...cost. The tonnage required is a function of both the quantity of oil imported and the pattern of trade routes. While there are estimates of current

  13. Copper, nickel, and vanadium in the Western Galician Shelf in early spring after the Prestige catastrophe: is there seawater contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Prego, Ricardo; Cobelo-García, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    The original cargo fuel transported by the Prestige tanker, according to our analysis, contained several trace elements, for example Cu (3 microg g(-1)), Ni (97 microg g(-1)), and V (382 microg g(-1)). The possibility of metal contamination of seawater near the bottom from the sedimented fuel and in surface waters from the fuel deposited on the littoral area was researched in the Western Galician Shelf 5 months after the Prestige shipwreck (November 2002). Water samples obtained at eight stations from Finisterre Cape to Mino River were analysed by means of an electroanalytical method (AdCSV) and following trace-metal-clean procedures. Only the surface Cu and Ni levels at the Ons and Cies Islands were higher than those considered as background for Open North East Atlantic Ocean waters. The accumulation and weathering of the fuel deposited on the shores could be a significant source for the enrichment found, but the influence of industrial and urban inputs from the neighbouring Pontevedra and Vigo rias is also possible. Thus, this study was useful for establishing typical values of Cu, Ni, and V in Galician Shelf waters for the first time. Total metal concentrations ranged between 1.7 and 3.4 nmol L(-1) for Cu, between 2.9 and 4.8 nmol L(-1) for Ni, and between 19.7 and 32.3 nmol L(-1) for V; dissolved concentrations were between 0.7 and 1.5 nmol L(-1) for Cu, between 2.2 and 3.3 nmol L(-1) for Ni, and between 15.5 and 27.0 nmol L(-1) for V; particulate values below 2.6 nmol L(-1) for Cu, 2 nmol L(-1) for Ni, and 7.2 nmol L(-1) for V were obtained.

  14. The Search for an Explanation: Breast Cancer in the Context of Genetic Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This case study is an in-depth examination of how Erika (a pseudonym) interpreted and understood her genetic test results for breast cancer susceptibility. Her experience is presented in the form of a biography, which was built from key passages retrieved from the semi structured interview the author conducted at Erika's home. The interview data…

  15. GenBank blastx search result: AK243033 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 3e-43 1 ...

  16. GenBank blastx search result: AK287977 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 4e-15 0 ...

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK243093 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 7e-26 1 ...

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK241540 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 7e-35 1 ...

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK243266 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 4e-14 1 ...

  20. GenBank blastn search result: AK240741 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 5e-42 1 -1 ...

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK240669 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-37 1 ...

  2. GenBank blastn search result: AK063572 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 5e-46 Plus Minus ...

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK287627 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 4e-69 0 ...

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK243553 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 5e-44 1 ...

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK288550 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 3e-76 0 ...

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK242746 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 3e-41 1 ...

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK287819 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 6e-50 0 ...

  8. GenBank blastx search result: AK241633 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-23 1 ...

  9. GenBank blastx search result: AK288988 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 3e-60 0 ...

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK058673 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 5e-53 +1 ...

  11. GenBank blastn search result: AK288534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-108 1 1 ...

  12. GenBank blastx search result: AK242330 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 3e-54 1 ...

  13. GenBank blastx search result: AK060278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 3e-31 +2 ...

  14. GenBank blastx search result: AK060250 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 6e-46 +2 ...

  15. GenBank blastx search result: AK242963 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 5e-26 1 ...

  16. GenBank blastx search result: AK062163 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 3e-36 +1 ...

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK240868 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-35 1 ...

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK241720 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-21 1 ...

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK241237 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 7e-18 1 ...

  20. GenBank blastx search result: AK119460 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 1e-74 +3 ...

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK318615 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-33 2 ...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK288310 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-36 0 ...

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK240741 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 0.0 1 ...

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK243028 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-133 1 ...

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK111956 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 3e-13 +2 ...

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK108692 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 4e-70 +3 ...

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK241631 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-27 1 ...

  8. GenBank blastn search result: AK061651 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 1e-162 Plus Minus ...

  9. GenBank blastx search result: AK240667 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-115 1 ...

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK243333 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 4e-25 1 ...

  11. GenBank blastx search result: AK107666 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 3e-64 +2 ...

  12. GenBank blastx search result: AK242783 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-33 1 ...

  13. GenBank blastx search result: AK289025 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 9e-43 0 ...

  14. GenBank blastx search result: AK059047 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 2e-19 +3 ...

  15. GenBank blastx search result: AK242729 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-79 1 ...

  16. GenBank blastx search result: AK318517 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 8e-30 0 ...

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK242972 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-79 1 ...

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK242269 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-101 1 ...

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK243348 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 5e-27 1 ...

  20. GenBank blastx search result: AK060643 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 2e-19 +3 ...

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK318564 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 6e-12 2 ...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK288994 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-34 0 ...

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK242035 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-46 1 ...

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK243226 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-47 1 ...

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK240816 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-29 1 ...

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK108020 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 5e-24 +1 ...

  7. GenBank blastx search result: AK287448 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-95 0 ...

  8. GenBank blastx search result: AK287660 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 3e-49 0 ...

  9. GenBank blastx search result: AK288106 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 5e-12 0 ...

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK242939 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 2e-13 1 ...

  11. GenBank blastx search result: AK241145 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-25 1 ...

  12. GenBank blastx search result: AK241109 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 7e-57 1 ...

  13. GenBank blastx search result: AK287531 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-124 0 ...

  14. GenBank blastx search result: AK242280 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 7e-44 1 ...

  15. GenBank blastx search result: AK107433 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 0.0 +1 ...

  16. GenBank blastx search result: AK105841 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 2e-64 +2 ...

  17. GenBank blastn search result: AK063598 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 3e-66 Plus Minus ...

  18. GenBank blastn search result: AK060893 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 1e-109 Plus Minus ...

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK240984 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 8e-25 1 ...

  20. GenBank blastx search result: AK063348 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 1e-29 +1 ...

  1. GenBank blastn search result: AK068991 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 2e-68 Plus Minus ...

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK105483 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angela...-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia.|PLN PLN 2e-11 +2 ...

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK241804 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 1e-30 1 ...

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK243392 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tance protein (RGA2) and putative nodulin-like-like protein (NLL) gene, complete cds; and retrotransposons Josephine, Angela-2, Angel...a-4, Heidi, Greti, Angela-3, Fatima, Erika-1, Angela-6, Angela-5, Barbara, Isabelle, Erika-2, and Claudia. PLN 3e-25 1 ...

  5. Uued raamatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Calin Dani raamatust "Emotional architecture 2" (Hand Milked Visions Faundation, 2006), mis on mõeldud saatjaks C. Dani filmile "Trip" (2005) Raine Karbi Tallinna Linnahallist. Erika Nõva raamatust "Erika Nõva : minu töö ja elu" (Tallinn : Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseum, 2006), mille on koostanud Anne Lass, kujundanud Irina Tammis

  6. Analysis and Modeling of Multistatic Clutter and Reverberation and Support for the FORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    characterize the bistatic bottom clutter and shipwreck echoes seen in the Clutter07 data sets using methods developed by D. Abraham (an article for...the first shipwreck circle sub-experiment taken in the CLUTTER07 Experiment. Figure 1 shows 191 consecutive bistatic pings spaced 60 s apart using a 1...664, (Invited). [20] D. A. Abraham and J. R. Preston, “Statistical analysis of monostatic and bistatic echoes from shipwreck clutter,” 4th

  7. Studies on elephant tusks and hippopotamus teeth collected from the early 17th century Portuguese shipwreck off Goa, West coast of India: Evidence of maritime trade between Goa, Portugal and African countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Godfrey, I.

    artists were exposed to non-Christian art prior to the arrival of the Portuguese. Influenced by the Portuguese they started making sculptures and statues of non-religious, secular as well as profane artefacts of the Christian art made out of stone... to this and it was a surprise for them to see the extent of developed ivory art in India. Although Indian ivory has been used for making miniature sculptures and artefacts since the beginning of the Bronze Age in India, it was un- suitable for making big sculptures...

  8. Library holdings for Atlantic Canyons 2011: Exploration and Research of Mid-Atlantic Deepwater hard Bottom Habitats and Shipwrecks with Emphasis on Canyons and Coral Communities between June 4, 2011 and June 17, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  9. Studies on Sonar Clutter and Reverberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    show the locations of shipwrecks and other man-made sources of clutter. REFERENCES [1] C. W. Holland, J. R. Preston, D. A. Abraham, “Long...echoes from shipwreck clutter,” 4th International Conference on Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technologies and Results, Kos, Greece, June 2011

  10. Voedsel of verpakkingsmateriaal? : Botanische resten in scheepswrak OL 79 (Flevoland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Popta, Yftinus; Filatova, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the botanical remains of shipwreck OL 79, a freighter that sank on the Zuiderzee in 1796. The goal of this article is to prove that a study on plant remains from a shipwreck site can help us to understand and reconstruct life on board of a ship (consumption, cargo), learn

  11. Knooppunt Zuiderzee : Een ruimtelijke analyse van scheepsvindplaatsen in Flevoland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Popta, Yftinus

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on a spatial analysis of shipwrecks in the province of Flevoland. Shipwrecks in Flevoland have often been the subject of maritime studies. However, they have never been subjected to a spatial analysis as a group. Therefore a reliable database had to be created, containing the

  12. Eesti tegi algust tankerite ehitusega / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 25. nov. lk. 5. Eesti laevaehitusfirma SRC Uusehitused alustas Rootsi suurfirma Svythoid Tankers tellimusel esimese uue tankeri ehitamist. Kaart: Paljassaare sadam. Lisa: SRC Grupi tanker

  13. 33 CFR 150.355 - How are other vessels cleared to move within the safety zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... landing (STL) system, paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section apply once a tanker connects to the STL buoy. ... deepwater port's person in charge of vessel operations is required before a vessel, other than a tanker or...

  14. Hvad blev der af Blairs "tredje vej"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2007-01-01

    En vurdering af Tony Blairs tid som premierminister og hans tanker om en "tredje vej" Udgivelsesdato: 11/5......En vurdering af Tony Blairs tid som premierminister og hans tanker om en "tredje vej" Udgivelsesdato: 11/5...

  15. What can a FabLab Community become?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Videoen handler om fablab managers i Fablab Berlin og deres tanker om fremtidige muligheder for Fablabs......Videoen handler om fablab managers i Fablab Berlin og deres tanker om fremtidige muligheder for Fablabs...

  16. Dannelsens praktiskhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Eckhardt

    2008-01-01

    Bidraget redegør for den danske filolog og kultusminister Johan Nicolai Madvigs tanker om dannelse. Disse tanker var i opposition til Grundtvigs nationalromantik - og stod i en fornyet nyhumanistisk europæisk tradition....

  17. Kes varjas merereostajat? / Siim Randla, Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Siim, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip sõnas valitsuse pressikonverentsil, et Eesti ajaloo suurima õlireostuse võimalik süüdlane on Libeeria lippu kandev tanker Flawless. Peaministri sõnul ei jõudnud avariiteave, millest tanker 25. jaanuaril Eesti piirivalvele teada andis, õigel ajal avalikkuse ega valitsuseni. Lisa: Tanker Flawless

  18. 33 CFR 157.02 - Incorporation by reference: Where can I get a copy of the publications mentioned in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Item 11, Guidelines and Specifications for Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control Systems for Oil Tankers... Monitoring and Control Systems for Oil Tankers (“A.586(14)”), incorporation by reference approved for § 157... Systems for Oil Tankers and Environmental Testing of Control Sections Thereof (“MEPC.13(19...

  19. Sowjetunion und Völkerrecht 1962-1973 / Henn-Jüri Uibopuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibopuu, Henn-Jüri, 1929-2012

    1980-01-01

    Tutvustus: Sowjetunion und Völkerrecht 1962-1973 : Bibliographie und analyse / hrsg. Boris Meissner, Dietrich Frenzke und Erika Chilicki. Köln : Wissenschaft und Politik, 1979 [t.p. incorrectly: 1977

  20. Here's Why a Soda with That Burger Is Especially Fattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provides much-needed nuance to the understanding of fast-food nutrition, said Erika Renick. She's a bariatric dietitian ... said. The study appears July 20 in the journal BMC Nutrition . SOURCES: Shanon Casperson, Ph.D., research ...

  1. Estafetnõi beg v podderzhku obezdvizhennõhh / Olga Grigorjeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grigorjeva, Olga, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    17. mail Tallinnas, Tartus, Pärnus, Paides ja Toilas toimuvast laste heategevuslikust teatejooksust, mille tulud lähevad liikumispuudega laste aitamiseks. Selgitab ürituse koordinaator Erika Pallase

  2. Näitused / Mari Sobolev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sobolev, Mari, 1968-

    1998-01-01

    Vaal-galerii: Peeter Laurits "Taeva Atlas" (gigitaaltehnoloogias kollaazhid); Sammas-galerii: "Maailma nägu"; Tartu Kunstimaja: "Viljandi kunstipäevad Tartus"; Estonia Talveaed: Mall Mets&Erika Pedak "Due Canzoni" (vaibakunst).

  3. Christiaan Bakkes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Christiaan Bakkes”. . “Stoffel op Safari”. 27 Jun. 2012. . Terblanche, Erika. 11 Jun. 2012. “Christiaan. Bakkes (1965-)”.

  4. Portreed seinal / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2013-01-01

    Erinevaid meetodeid portreede maalimiseks. Ameerika kunstniku Bradley Harti portreed mullikilel, kanada kunstniku Erika Iris Simmonsi maalid kasseti- ja filmilindist, itaalia kunstnike Alita ja Wally (Orticanoodles) portreemaalide sari Stencil and Stencil

  5. Kes on šõuilma tuntuimad (pool)eestlased? / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti päritolu maailmas tuntud meelelahutusmaailmas osalejatest (Mena Suvari, Ornella Muti, Miliza Korjus, Kalev Mark Kostabi, Edmund Valtman, Erika Eleniak, Alar Kivilo, Ants Robert Kristian Luuk, Sonny Arahanga jt)

  6. Uus õpik gümnaasiumile / Sune Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Sune

    1999-01-01

    Kirjastuselt Koolibri ilmus õpik "Kiriku ajalugu ja tänapäev. Kristlik eetika", mille autorid on Tartu ülikooli usuteaduskonna vilistlased Toomas Jürgenstein, Riina Ruut ja Tiina-Erika Friedenthal

  7. 21. X avati Kaunase kunstibiennaal "Textile 2005"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eestist osalevad Mare Kelpmann, Marika Kööbi, Aet Ollisaar, Kadi Pajupuu, Ludmilla Svarzhevska, Hanna Tiidus, Helen Kauksi, Krista Leesi, Aune Taamal, Erika Tammpere, Milvi Thalheim ja Erle Võsa-Tangsoo

  8. 76 FR 34088 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... participate in this HSAC teleconference via afore mentioned procedures. Each individual must provide his or... during the teleconference, contact Erika Nixon at the afore mentioned number (202) 447-3135. Dated: June...

  9. Õuduste ja kummituste öö Olümpias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnapea umbusaldusele eelnenud öö sündmustest hotellis Olümpia, kuhu Eesti Ekspressi andmetel varjusid võimuvahetust kavandavad Res Publica liikmed. Irina Didenko ja Erika Salumäe parteivahetuse tagamaadest

  10. An illicit love affair during the Third Reich: who is my grandfather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Kellers, Antje; Krawczak, Michael; Augustin, Christa; Boomgaarden-Brandes, Kerstin; Simeoni, Eva; Kaatsch, Hans-Jürgen; Mühlbauer, Bernd; Schuchardt, Sven

    2008-03-01

    More than 60 years after an illicit love affair had occurred between Erika H, wife of a Wehrmacht soldier, and a Polish slave worker during World War II, we could clarify the blood relationships of her daughter Uta. When Erika H had become pregnant both of the men could have fathered the child. Erika H was found guilty of fraternization and imprisoned at Ravensbrück concentration camp. She gave birth to Uta and died there in 1944. Uta survived the war as did Erika's husband Gustav, who accepted Uta as his child. Blood samples from family members were taken and DNA extracted. A panel of 16 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were amplified and separated by capillary electrophoresis and the likelihoods calculated using the MLINK software. The combined genotypes yielded a cumulative likelihood ratio of over 200,000 against paternity of Gustav H. This case serves to illustrate the utility of STR profiles for complex deficiency kinship analysis.

  11. Juicebox Gallery

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... et 2014 – Ahmed K. Rashid Erika Malich, Université de Piura, Piura. 1 / 8. Boursier de recherche du CRDI – 2012 et 2014 – Ahmed K. Rashid (En savoir plus). 2 / 8. Boursière de recherche du CRDI – 2016 – Erika Malich, Université de Piura, Piura, Pérou (En savoir plus)

  12. RST analysis of thermal infrared satellite data for a continuous oil spill detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, C. S. L.; Coviello, I.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills is one of the main sea pollution sources causing remarkable ecological impact on maritime and coastal environments. Oil spills can derive both from natural phenomena (hurricanes, landslides, earthquakes) and "human errors" (tankers collisions, shipwrecks, platform accidents), even if the main contribution to this kind of technological hazard comes from operational discharge from tankers (i.e. oil dumped during cleaning operations) representing 45% of total hydrocarbons marine pollution. Mainly for this reason, the developing of systems able to provide a high frequent sampling and observation of sea surface is fundamental. Satellite remote sensing, thanks to global coverage and continuity of observations, might effectively contribute to mitigate oil spill environmental impact, provided that reliable and effective detection techniques are developed and that relevant information and products are timely delivered and made available. In particular, satellite remote sensing by passive optical sensors on board meteorological satellites, thanks to their high temporal resolution (from a few hours to 15 minutes, depending on the characteristics of the platform/sensor), can give a significant opportunity in this field. Unfortunately, up to now, optical satellite data found a poor application in oil spill alert system mainly for the lack of data analysis techniques suitable for an automatic oil spill detection. The few methods up to now proposed are only able to manually and interactively localize the presence of an already known oil spill, mainly for "a posteriori" mapping purpose, often requiring the intervention of an expert operator. In particular, techniques based on Thermal Infrared (TIR) records exploit oil and water different thermal inertia in order to map spill sea pollution. Oil thermal inertia, in fact, is lower than sea water one, so that oil polluted areas usually show Brightness Temperature (BT) higher than sea water in TIR images collected in daytime

  13. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  14. History of marine archaeological research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    archaeology we study the past activities of human from maritime finds, usually from shipwrecks, sunken ports and settlements. Nautical archaeology is studied and explained as maritime archaeology, specialising in maritime activities and technology of ships...

  15. Marine Archaeology in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    the years National Institute of Oceanography, Goa in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excavation of submerged ports and shipwrecks at Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Somnath, Vijaydurg Goa and Lakshadweep on the west coast...

  16. Meri ottab, meri andab / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Shipwreck heritage : digitizing and opening access to maritime history sources = Laevavrakid : digitaliseerimine ja avatud ligipääs mereajalooallikatele = Skeppsvrak : digitalisering och förmedling av det maritima kulturarvet. Tallinn, 2013

  17. Exploring the Submerged New World on R/V Weatherbird II between 20090723 and 20090805

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2008, the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary (MNMS) commenced a multiyear project focusing on shipwreck sites associated with the Battle of the Atlantic. During...

  18. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    to navigators through the ages. Recent discoveries made during marine archaeological exploration and excavations in the Lakshadweep have revealed evidences of early settlement and shipwrecks. The findings suggest that the islands had been inhabited much before...

  19. Tut and the Titanic and Finding History Beneath the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Gail Skroback; Ballard, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Two articles discuss the controversy about exploration of the shipwrecked Titanic. Suggested are questions for discussion and activities to stimulate student interest and to explore ethical issues involved in the treatment of historic artifacts. (CB)

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEEP SEA WRECK USS INDEPENDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa C. Symons; James P. Delgado; Kelly Elliot; Frank Cantelas; Robert Schwemmer

    2016-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to better understand the nature of shipwrecks in National Marine Sanctuaries which may pose some level of pollution risk, and in this case, to definitively locate what is likely the only shipwreck in a sanctuary involved in both nuclear testing and nuclear waste disposal, NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries collaborated with NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and The Boeing Company, which provided their autonomous underwater vehicle, Echo Ranger, to conduct...

  1. 40 CFR 98.250 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; asphalt blowing operations; blowdown systems; storage tanks; process equipment components (compressors..., tanker truck, and similar loading operations; flares; sulfur recovery plants; and non-merchant hydrogen...

  2. Identidades naufragadas: o impacto das organizações na (reconstrução do universo simbólico dos ribeirinhos de Salto Santiago Shipwrecked identities: the impact of organizations in the symbolic universe (reconstruction of riparian people from Salto Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vinholi Rampazo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Para a construção da Usina Hidrelétrica Salto Santiago, localizada na região centro-sul do Paraná na década de 1970, foi necessário deslocar os ribeirinhos que ali viviam para dar lugar ao seu reservatório. Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar o papel de diferentes organizações na (reconstrução da identidade dos ribeirinhos deslocados compulsoriamente de seus territórios para dar lugar a esse reservatório. Para tanto, leva-se em conta que a identidade é construída e reconstruída dentro do espaço social a partir do desejo do Outro que, ao ser reconhecido pelo sujeito como legítimo, internaliza suas práticas, ações e visão de mundo e, portanto, seu habitus. Em termos metodológicos, foi conduzido um estudo qualitativo que envolveu levantamento documental e entrevistas semiestruturadas utilizando as técnicas da história oral com os ribeirinhos e com os representantes das principais organizações presentes hoje no local. Os dados coletados foram interpretados a partir das regras da hermenêutica filosófica de Gadamer, interligando o individual ao geral, e vice-versa, assim como o objetivo com o subjetivo. Por fim, em termos de conclusões, com base na história contada pelos ribeirinhos e pelos representantes das organizações pesquisadas, mostra-se como se deu a (reconstrução das identidades dos ribeirinhos naquele espaço. Assim, foi possível constatar como a construção da Usina Salto Santiago e o consequente deslocamento de parte dos ribeirinhos produziu, devido à entrada de novas organizações naquele território, modificações em suas identidades.For constructing the Salto Santiago Hydroelectric Power Plant, located at the central-southern state of Parana, Brazil, in the 1970s, there was a need to displace the riparian people who lived there to make way for the reservoir. This paper aims to analyze the role of different organizations in the identity (reconstruction of the riparian people compulsorily displaced from their territories to make way for this reservoir. For this, one takes into account that identity is constructed and reconstructed within the social space through the Other's desire which, being acknowledged as legitimate by the subject, internalizes his practices, actions, and worldview and, therefore, his habitus. In methodological terms, one conducted a qualitative study involving documentary survey and semi-structured interviews using the oral history techniques with the riparian people and representatives of key organizations currently found on site. The collected data were interpreted through the rules of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, interconnecting the individual to the general perspective, and vice-versa, as well as the objective to the subjective perspective. Finally, in terms of conclusions, based on the story told by the riparian people and representatives of the organizations under study, one shows how the identity (reconstruction of riparian people took place at that space. Thus, it was possible to find out how the Salto Santiago Power Plant construction and the resultant displacement of riparian people produced, due to entry of new organizations in that territory, changes in their identities.

  3. 78 FR 29813 - Identification of Additional Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY). 8. SUNEAST (f.k.a. AZALEA; f.k.a. SINA) (9HNY9) Crude Oil Tanker... a 24-hour fax-on-demand service, Tel.: 202-622-0077. Background On February 5, 2012, the President... Institutions'' (the ``Order''). Section 1(a) of the Order blocks, with certain exceptions, all property and...

  4. 78 FR 18325 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Formal Training Unit (FTU) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft AGENCY... Training Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft. The EIS... infrastructure and manpower of the FTU and MOB 1 at existing active duty Air Force installations within the...

  5. Improvement jetties near petroEcuador in La Liberdad, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekx, R.; Jensen, I.; Mikkers, Y.; Dirksen, J.

    2005-01-01

    The first issue involves the accessibility of the pier of the refinery where coastal tankers moor to load or unload their cargo. The current depth at the pier is too small for large coastal tankers to fully load when mooring at the pier. In order to increase their cargo capacity, the depth in the

  6. 77 FR 35163 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... scenario in 1993 when an Amtrak passenger train collided with a gasoline tanker truck at a highway-rail... crossing where traffic was congested. The tanker truck was punctured when it was struck by the Amtrak train.... In 1994, Congress directed FRA to conduct pilot projects in at least two States to demonstrate the...

  7. 33 CFR 96.330 - Document of Compliance certificate: what is it and when is it needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS How Will Safety Management Systems Be Certificated and Enforced... U.S. vessel engaged on foreign voyages, carrying more than 12 passengers, or is a tanker, bulk... 12 passengers or a tanker, bulk freight vessel, freight vessel, or a self-propelled mobile offshore...

  8. 76 FR 19989 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... vessels, tankers, tugs, or barges. Because the small fishing vessels are comparably sized to the bulk of... navigational issues. Tankers, tugs, cruise ships and barges have access to mobile pumpout facilities (i.e... does not discharge to LIS waters. It pumps waste from its ferries into the New London City sewer system...

  9. 78 FR 79241 - Assessment Framework and Organizational Restatement Regarding Preemption for Certain Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Policy Act PTSA Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 PWSA Ports and Waterways Safety Act of 1972 SMS Safety Management System U.S.C. United States Code III. Background and Purpose A. Background Courts have... PWSA As amended by the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 (PTSA), the PWSA contains two Titles. Title I...

  10. 77 FR 18151 - Discharge Removal Equipment for Vessels Carrying Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Classification System NEPA National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321-4370f) NOI Notice of.... 155.235 Emergency towing Added new section to capability for oil subpart B. tankers. Sec. 155.240 Damage stability Added new section to information for oil subpart B. tankers and offshore oil barges. Sec...

  11. 75 FR 14493 - Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... temporary safety zone around the USNS Sioux or M/V EL LOBO GRANDE II dive platform and the 332-foot Tanker... CHEHALIS wreck. Background and Purpose On October 7, 1949 the 4,130-ton gasoline tanker CHEHALIS sank in... management systems practices) that are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies. This...

  12. 46 CFR 530.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation by ferry boat, ocean tramp, or chemical parcel tanker, or by a vessel when primarily engaged in... thereto) means the use of the Commission's electronic filing system for receipt of a service contract or...-tanker. (o) OIRM means the Commission's Office of Information and Resources Management. (p) Non-vessel...

  13. 75 FR 10546 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... --Consideration of IACS unified interpretations --Fixed hydrocarbon gas detection systems on double-hull tankers... & approval standards for fire safety systems --Comprehensive review of the fire test procedures code --Fire resistance of ventilation ducts --Measures to prevent explosions on oil and chemical tankers transporting low...

  14. 33 CFR 157.12d - Technical specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the tank. In tankers equipped with an inert gas system, a water seal meeting the requirements of 46... control system. (1) The monitoring system must be capable of effectively monitoring and controlling the... are necessary to fulfill the operational requirements of the oil tanker. (2) The discharge of dirty...

  15. 46 CFR 199.280 - Survival craft embarkation and launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for... from Ships, 1973, as amended by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78), in the case of an oil tanker; (2... Bulk, in the case of a chemical tanker; or (3) The International Code for the Construction and...

  16. 32 CFR 245.21 - ESCAT air traffic priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., interceptors, air refueling tanker aircraft, and airborne early-warning and control aircraft (e.g., E-3, E-2, P-3). (3) Military retaliatory aircraft, including direct tanker support aircraft, executing strategic missions. (4) Airborne command elements which provide backup to command and control systems for the combat...

  17. Naturklasseelevernes relationer til naturen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. M.; Troelsen, Rie Nørager Popp; Sølberg, J.

    2005-01-01

    Formålet med nærværende kapitel er at belyse naturklasseelevernes tanker om natur og deres forståelse af naturfænomener og sammenhænge i naturen. Hensigten med forskningsprojektet har været at give et nuanceret billede af naturklasseelevernes tanker om deres relationer til naturen, og om muligt m...

  18. 33 CFR 155.1110 - Purpose and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... response planning requirements for an owner or operator of a tanker loading cargo at a facility permitted... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Additional Response Plan Requirements for Tankers Loading Cargo at a Facility Permitted Under the Trans-Alaska...

  19. The cholera epidemic of 2000/2001 in KwaZulu-Natal: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tap water, 10% owned water tankers, 10% used dam or river water, 50% knew how to purify water by use of disinfectants such as JIK, 75% practised boiling drinking water, 70% used protected toilets. Out of the 441 people that were stricken with cholera, 54% of them had access to tap water, 3% owned water tankers, 38% ...

  20. Water transfer from peri-urban to urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakash, Anjal; Singh, Sreoshi; Brouwer, Lieuwe

    2015-01-01

    This article documents the conflict between peri-urban and urban water users in Mallampet, a peri-urban village adjacent to Hyderabad City. In Mallampet and adjoining villages, 15–20 tanker companies are operating, most of which are owned by the local residents of the area. The number of tanker