WorldWideScience

Sample records for eri system

  1. Thermodynamic assessments of the Ag-Er and Er-Y systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Wang, C.P.; Liu, X.J.; Tang, A.T.; Pan, F.S.; Ishida, K.

    2010-01-01

    The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the Ag-Er and Er-Y binary systems have been assessed by using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method on the basis of the experimental data including the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. The Gibbs free energies of the liquid, bcc, fcc, and hcp phases were described by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation, and those of intermetallic compounds (Ag 2 Er and AgEr phases) were treated as stoichiometric compounds, and Ag 51 Er 14 phase was modeled by the sublattice model in the Ag-Er binary system. The thermodynamic parameters of the Ag-Er and Er-Y binary systems were obtained, and an agreement between the calculated results and experimental data was obtained for each binary system.

  2. The Inner 25 au Debris Distribution in the ϵ Eri System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Ballering, Nicholas P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); De Buizer, James M.; Vacca, William D. [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Krivov, Alexander V.; Löhne, Torsten [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitätssternwarte, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Schillergäßchen 2–3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Stapelfeldt, Karl R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Debris disk morphology is wavelength dependent due to the wide range of particle sizes and size-dependent dynamics influenced by various forces. Resolved images of nearby debris disks reveal complex disk structures that are difficult to distinguish from their spectral energy distributions. Therefore, multi-wavelength resolved images of nearby debris systems provide an essential foundation to understand the intricate interplay between collisional, gravitational, and radiative forces that govern debris disk structures. We present the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 35 μ m resolved disk image of ϵ Eri, the closest debris disk around a star similar to the early Sun. Combining with the Spitzer resolved image at 24 μ m and 15–38 μ m excess spectrum, we examine two proposed origins of the inner debris in ϵ Eri: (1) in situ planetesimal belt(s) and (2) dragged-in grains from the cold outer belt. We find that the presence of in situ dust-producing planetesmial belt(s) is the most likely source of the excess emission in the inner 25 au region. Although a small amount of dragged-in grains from the cold belt could contribute to the excess emission in the inner region, the resolution of the SOFIA data is high enough to rule out the possibility that the entire inner warm excess results from dragged-in grains, but not enough to distinguish one broad inner disk from two narrow belts.

  3. Liikennesuunnittelu eri kaavoitusvaiheissa

    OpenAIRE

    Verkamo, Harri

    2008-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä kartoitettiin eri kaavavaiheiden liikennesuunnitelmia ja niiden sisältöä. Kartoituksen pohjalta laadittiin ohjeistus Helsingin kaupunkisuunnitteluviraston liikennesuunnitteluosastolle. Nykyään kaupunkisuunnitteluvirastossa ei ole ohjeita suunnittelijoiden avuksi eri kaavavaiheiden liikennesuunnitelmien laadintaan, mutta sellaiselle on selkeä tarve. Johdonmukaisella ohjeistuksella saadaan luotua yhtenäisempi käytäntö eri kaavavaiheiden liikennesuunnitelmien laatimiselle. ...

  4. Energy research information system (eris) projects report. volume 4, number 1. Report for December 1978-June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, C.A.; Jelinek, J.

    1979-06-01

    The goal of the Energy Research Information System (ERIS) is to provide an inventory of the energy related programs and research activities from 1974 to the present in the States of Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming. Areas of research covered include: coal, petroleum, oil shales, fission fuels, synthetic fuels, hydro-energy, renewable energy, resources, energy policy, reclamation, socioeconomic impacts, environmental impacts and land use. Each project description lists title, investigator(s), research institution, sponsor, funding, time frame, location, a descriptive abstract of the research and the titles of reports and/or publications generated by the research. All projects are indexed by location, personal names, organizations and subject keywords

  5. Modernization of the system integrated ERIS computer (SIEC) of the nuclear power plant Cofrentes; Modernizacion del sistema integrado ERIS computador (SIEC) de la Central Nuclear de cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R.; Ramos, M.; Mendez, J.; Zuriaga, J. V.

    2011-07-01

    The complete replacement of the SIEC of Nuclear Power Cofrentes is framed within the process of modernization of systems instrumentation and control in which the Spanish nuclear power plants are immersed, process caused by an increase in security, as well as the obsolescence and lack of spare parts.

  6. Modernization of the system integrated ERIS computer (SIEC) of the nuclear power plant Cofrentes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Ramos, M.; Mendez, J.; Zuriaga, J. V.

    2011-01-01

    The complete replacement of the SIEC of Nuclear Power Cofrentes is framed within the process of modernization of systems instrumentation and control in which the Spanish nuclear power plants are immersed, process caused by an increase in security, as well as the obsolescence and lack of spare parts.

  7. Ohio Lake Erie Commission Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    management of Lake Erie: including, water quality protection, fisheries management, wetlands restoration over 365 projects since 1993. Projects have focused on an array of issues critical to the effective quality of its waters and ecosystem, and to promote economic development of the region by ensuring the

  8. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  9. 2008 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) New York Lidar: Erie County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using Leica Geosystems ALS50 Laser Systems, 89 flight lines with a nominal point spacing = 1.4 meters (4.59 feet) were collected over Erie County, NY (approximately...

  10. 75 FR 51379 - Safety Zone; Celebrate Erie, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... display. DATES: This rule is effective from 9:30 p.m. until 10:30 p.m. on August 22, 2010. ADDRESSES...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Presque Isle Bay... Presque Isle Bay in Erie, PA during the Celebrate Erie fireworks display, August 22, 2010. This temporary...

  11. 27 CFR 9.83 - Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on the islands of Lake Erie across the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. The beginning... approximately one mile north of Rock Creek, Ohio. (7) The boundary proceeds southwestward, then westward, then... is reached which is due north of the easternmost point of Kelleys Island. (9) The boundary then...

  12. Seiche-induced unsteady flows in the Huron-Erie Corridor: Spectral analysis of oscillations in stage and discharge in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Contantinescu, G.; Garcia, M.; Hanes, D.

    2016-01-01

    Animations of highly dynamic water-surface profiles through the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers have identified transient disturbances propagating from Lakes Huron and Erie into the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, respectively. To determine any relation to seiche and tidal oscillations on Lakes Huron and Erie, a spectral analysis was performed on stage and discharge data from the Huron-Erie Corridor. There is excellent agreement between the observed oscillations in stage and discharge in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers and the documented frequencies of oscillations in Lakes Huron and Erie. The fundamental seiche, some higher-order seiche modes, and the semidiurnal tide from Lakes Huron and Erie are evident in the stage and discharge records at gages along the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, respectively. Lake St. Clair appears to act as a damper in the system. If not accounted for, these oscillations may complicate monitoring, modeling, and restoration of this system.

  13. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River (https://binational.net/2016/02/22/ finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  14. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  15. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume I. Biological,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    maculosa Le Sueur; calico bass, or Lake Erie bass, Pomoxis sparoides Lacepede. (SM) 52. Reardslee, Clark S. 1944. Bonapart’s gull on the Niagara...of the burbot, Lota lota maculosa (LeSueur), in Lake Erie. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 80:163-173. Growth studies were made on 2,329 Lake Erie burbot...almo -- hystus; whitefish, oe onus albus; common shad salmon, Coregonus a upelformis; aobony pike, Lepisosteus bison; spotted burbot, Lota maculosa ; and

  16. The radontechnical process of the sub-slab suction system in detached, semi-detached and terraced houses; Imupistejaerjestelmaen radontekninen toiminta eri tyyppisissae pien- ja rivitaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A.V.; Rissanen, R.; Viljanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Structural Engineering and Building Physics; Arvela, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The sub-slab suction system is a repair method for decreasing radon transfer from soil to indoor air in houses. The sub-slab suction system changes the flow field with the aim to reduce the radon content under the ground slab or/and changes the flow direction from indoor air to foundation soil. The study is divided into the theoretical and experimental part. The theoretical part concentrates on solving the factors affecting the sub-slab suction system taking into consideration features of old houses. The experimental part uses the results of the theoretical part when the level and the type of the suction point had been chosen. The effect of the sub-slab suction system was tested with pressure difference experiments and the radon content measurements in 26 different, typical Finnish detached, semi-detached and terrace houses.

  17. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : functional requirements, working paper #4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-18

    This paper is the fourth in a series that together will comprise an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Study for the Buffalo / Niagara Falls region. This document presents the market packages for the deployment of the Buffalo/Niagara Falls area ...

  18. FERC approves process for Lake Erie link: Project meets significant regulatory milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Electric Regulatory Commission (FERC) of the United States has issued an order to TransEnergie US Ltd., and Hydro One Inc., authorizing the sale of transmission rights for the proposed Lake Erie link. This project will consists of bi-directional high voltage direct current facilities connecting the transmission grids of Ontario, Canada and the United States. The sale is authorized to proceed via a non-discriminatory 'open season' process. The project will consist of buried underwater cables under Lake Erie connecting the transmission systems near Simcoe, Ontario with those in the US at either, or both, of Springfield, Pennsylvania, and Ashtabula, Ohio. The project will provide an increase in transmission capability of up to 975 MW between the electric control areas of the Ontario Independent Electricity Market Operator, the East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement in Ohio and the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection. The Lake Erie Link will be financially supported by those consumers who see value in the associated transmission rights, rather than through the regulated rates paid by transmission customers in general. The article provides an overview of the background of the Lake Erie Link, the cable system, the converter station, and the potential economic benefits

  19. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : objectives, performance criteria & user service plan, working paper #3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-18

    This paper is the third in a series that together will comprise an Intelligent Transportation System Study (ITS) for the Buffalo/Niagara Falls region. In this document, the problems identified in Working Paper #1 are critically reviewed to develop go...

  20. Lessons Learned from Stakeholder-Driven Modeling in the Western Lake Erie Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenich, R. L.; Read, J.; Vaccaro, L.; Kalcic, M. M.; Scavia, D.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Erie's history includes a great environmental success story. Recognizing the impact of high phosphorus loads from point sources, the United States and Canada 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement set load reduction targets to reduce algae blooms and hypoxia. The Lake responded quickly to those reductions and it was declared a success. However, since the mid-1990s, Lake Erie's algal blooms and hypoxia have returned, and this time with a dominant algae species that produces toxins. Return of the algal blooms and hypoxia is again driven by phosphorus loads, but this time a major source is the agriculturally-dominated Maumee River watershed that covers NW Ohio, NE Indiana, and SE Michigan, and the hypoxic extent has been shown to be driven by Maumee River loads plus those from the bi-national and multiple land-use St. Clair - Detroit River system. Stakeholders in the Lake Erie watershed have a long history of engagement with environmental policy, including modeling and monitoring efforts. This talk will focus on the application of interdisciplinary, stakeholder-driven modeling efforts aimed at understanding the primary phosphorus sources and potential pathways to reduce these sources and the resulting algal blooms and hypoxia in Lake Erie. We will discuss the challenges, such as engaging users with different goals, benefits to modeling, such as improvements in modeling data, and new research questions emerging from these modeling efforts that are driven by end-user needs.

  1. Assessing Vulnerability of Lake Erie Landscapes to Soil Erosion: Modelled and Measured Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, P.; Laamrani, A.; Feisthauer, N.; Li, S.

    2017-12-01

    Loss of soil from agricultural landscapes to Lake Erie via water erosion is a key transport mechanism for phosphorus bound to soil particles. Agriculture is the dominant land use in the Canadian side of the Lake Erie basin with approximately 75% of the 2.3 million hectares under crop or livestock production. The variable geography and diversity of agricultural production systems and management practices makes estimating risk of soil erosion from agricultural landscapes in the Canadian Lake Erie basin challenging. Risk of soil erosion depends on a combination of factors including the extent to which soil remains bare, which differs with crop type and management. Two different approaches of estimating the vulnerability of landscapes to soil erosion will be compared among Soil Landscapes of Canada in the Lake Erie basin: a modelling approach incorporating farm census and soil survey data, represented by the 2011 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agri-Environmental Indicator for Soil Erosion Risk; and, a measured approach using remotely sensed data that quantifies the magnitude of bare and covered soil across the basin. Results from both approaches will be compared by scaling the national level (1:1 million) Soil Erosion Risk Indicator and the remotely sensed data (30x30 m resolution) to the quaternary watershed level.

  2. Meetings and Events about Western Lake Erie Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Lake Erie Basin, near Toledo (Ohio), Louisiana of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  3. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  4. 76 FR 50680 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Lake Erie Watersnake (Nerodia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... as a home range. In the winter, Lake Erie watersnakes hibernate below the frost level, in cracks or... undertaken on each island property to avoid injury and harm to the Lake Erie watersnake during typical land...

  5. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  6. Reconstructing Heat Fluxes Over Lake Erie During the Lake Effect Snow Event of November 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, L.; Fujisaki-Manome, A.; Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Spence, C.; Chen, J.; Shao, C.; Posselt, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Lofgren, B. M.; Schwab, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The extreme North American winter storm of November 2014 triggered a record lake effect snowfall (LES) event in southwest New York. This study examined the evaporation from Lake Erie during the record lake effect snowfall event, November 17th-20th, 2014, by reconstructing heat fluxes and evaporation rates over Lake Erie using the unstructured grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). Nine different model runs were conducted using combinations of three different flux algorithms: the Met Flux Algorithm (COARE), a method routinely used at NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (SOLAR), and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE); and three different meteorological forcings: the Climate Forecast System version 2 Operational Analysis (CFSv2), Interpolated observations (Interp), and the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR). A few non-FVCOM model outputs were also included in the evaporation analysis from an atmospheric reanalysis (CFSv2) and the large lake thermodynamic model (LLTM). Model-simulated water temperature and meteorological forcing data (wind direction and air temperature) were validated with buoy data at three locations in Lake Erie. The simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes were validated with the eddy covariance measurements at two offshore sites; Long Point Lighthouse in north central Lake Erie and Toledo water crib intake in western Lake Erie. The evaluation showed a significant increase in heat fluxes over three days, with the peak on the 18th of November. Snow water equivalent data from the National Snow Analyses at the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center showed a spike in water content on the 20th of November, two days after the peak heat fluxes. The ensemble runs presented a variation in spatial pattern of evaporation, lake-wide average evaporation, and resulting cooling of the lake. Overall, the evaporation tended to be larger in deep water than shallow water near the shore. The lake-wide average evaporations

  7. Assessment of the Great Lakes Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Characterizing Lake Erie Surge, Seiche and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadzadeh, A.; Hashemi, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Erie, the fourth largest in surface area, smallest in volume and shallowest among the Great Lakes is approximately 400 km long and 90 km wide. Short term lake level variations are due to storm surge generated by high winds and moving pressure systems over the lake mainly in the southwest-northeast direction, along the lakes longitudinal axis. The historical wave data from three active offshore buoys shows that significant wave height can exceed 5 m in the eastern and central basins. The long-term lake level data show that storm surge can reach up to 3 m in eastern Lake Erie. Owing its shallow depth, Lake Erie frequently experiences seiching motions, the low frequency oscillations that are initiated by storm surge. The seiches whose first mode of oscillations has a period of nearly 14.2 hours can last from several hours to days. In this study, the Lake Erie potential for power generation, primarily using storm surge and seiche and also waves are assessed. Given the cyclic lake level variations due to storm-induced seiching, a concept similar to that of tidal range development is utilized to assess the potential of storm surge and seiche energy harvesting mechanisms for power generation. In addition, wave energy resources of the Lake is characterized -. To achieve these objectives, the following steps are taken : (1) Frequency of occurrence for extreme storm surge and wave events is determined using extreme value analysis such as Peak-Over-Threshold method for the long-term water level and wave data; (2) Spatial and temporal variations of wave height, storm surge and seiche are characterized. The characterization is carried out using the wave and storm surge outputs from numerical simulation of a number of historical extreme events. The coupled ADCIRC and SWAN model is utilized for the modeling; (3) Assessment of the potentials for marine renewable power generation in Lake Erie is made. The approach can be extended to the other lakes in the Great Lakes region.

  8. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume IV. Physical,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    cruise 69-101, February 6-27; cruise 69-103, May 29-June 4; cruise 69-104, July 2-6; cruise 69-105, July 28-August 2, 1969. Canadian Oceano - graphic...ber 13 and covered 64 sampling locations. 98. Canada Centre for Inland Waters. 1969. Lake Erie cruise 66-11, August 8-14, 1966. Canadian Oceano - 59... sol - uble phosphorus is remarkably uniform at any one place in Lake Erie, with occasional variations. Concentrations gen- erally decrease from shore

  9. 78 FR 59649 - Approval of Subzone Status, Hardinger Transfer Co., Erie and Grove City, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ..., Hardinger Transfer Co., Erie and Grove City, Pennsylvania On July 24, 2013, the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board docketed an application submitted by the Erie Western Pennsylvania Port..., on behalf of Hardinger Transfer Co., in Erie and Grove City, Pennsylvania. The application was...

  10. 77 FR 38490 - Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Erie, Mentor, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Mentor Harbor Yachting Club fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  11. Population models of burrowing mayfly recolonization in Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schloesser, D.W.; Krieger, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies, Hexagenia spp. (H. limbata and H. rigida), began recolonizing western Lake Erie during the 1990s. Survey data for mayfly nymph densities indicated that the population experienced exponential growth between 1991 and 1997. To predict the time to full recovery of the mayfly population, we fitted logistic models, ranging in carrying capacity from 600 to 2000 nymphs/m2, to these survey data. Based on the fitted logistic curves, we forecast that the mayfly population in western Lake Erie would achieve full recovery between years 1998 and 2000, depending on the carrying capacity of the western basin. Additionally, we estimated the mortality rate of nymphs in western Lake Erie during 1994 and then applied an age-based matrix model to the mayfly population. The results of the matrix population modeling corroborated the exponential growth model application in that both methods yielded an estimate of the population growth rate, r, in excess of 0.8 yr-1. This was the first evidence that mayfly populations are capable of recolonizing large aquatic ecosystems at rates comparable with those observed in much smaller lentic ecosystems. Our model predictions should prove valuable to managers of power plant facilities along the western basin in planning for mayfly emergences and to managers of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) fishery in western Lake Erie.

  12. Managing inherent complexity for sustainable walleye fisheries in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Drouin, Richard; Gaden, Marc; Knight, Roger; Tyson, Jeff; Zhao, Yingming; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    In Lake Erie, Walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus) is king. The naturally occurring species is the foundation of commercial fishing operations on the Canadian side of the lake and is a much-prized sport fish on the American side. Management of Lake Erie walleye fisheries is complex and takes place in an inter-jurisdictional setting composed of resource agencies from the states of Michigan (MDNR), Ohio (ODNR), Pennsylvania (PFBC), and New York (NYDEC) and the province of Ontario (OMNR). The complexity of walleye management is exacerbated by interactions among environmental and ecological changes in Lake Erie, complex life-history characteristics of the species, public demand for walleye, and cultural/governance differences among managing groups and their respective constituents. Success of future management strategies will largely hinge upon our ability to understand these inherent complexities and to employ tactics that successfully accommodate stock productivity and human demand in a highly dynamic environment. In this report, we review the history of Lake Erie walleye management, outline the multi-jurisdictional process for international management of walleye, and discuss strategies to address challenges facing managers.

  13. A geophysical analysis of hydro-geomorphic controls within a headwater wetland in a granitic landscape, through ERI and IP

    OpenAIRE

    E. S. Riddell; S. A. Lorentz; D. C. Kotze

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are undergoing considerable degradation in South Africa. As interventions are often technical and costly, there is a requirement to develop conceptual process models for these wetland systems so that rehabilitation attempts will be successful. This paper presents an approach using the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP) to delineate sub-surface hydro-geomorphic controls that maintain equilibrium disconnectivity of wetland-catchmen...

  14. 78 FR 34575 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim VI, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... June 22, 2013, a large scale swimming event will be held on Presque Isle Bay near the Erie Yacht Club...'48.82'' W and extend in a straight line 1,000 feet wide to the Erie Yacht Club at position 42[deg]07... wide to the Erie Yacht Club at position 42[deg]07'21.74'' N, 80[deg]07'58.30'' W. (NAD 83) (b...

  15. Historical Sediment Budget (1860s to Present) for the United States Shoreline of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Soil Classification polygons with 1 km reaches. Each polygon has a 2- to 4-digit classification code indicating the dominant soil type...1988). Photograph shows high quantity of shale plates in soil column (USACE 2004). ................ 125 Figure A-1. New York shore stratigraphy... USLS 1935, NGVD29, USLS 1903, Mean Level of Lake Erie (1860–1875) (Toledo-Conneaut), Mean Lake Level of Lake Erie (1860–1875) (Erie-Buffalo), and Mean

  16. Metagenomic identification of bacterioplankton taxa and pathways involved in microcystin degradation in lake erie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Mou

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CyanoHABs that produce microcystins are appearing in an increasing number of freshwater ecosystems worldwide, damaging quality of water for use by human and aquatic life. Heterotrophic bacteria assemblages are thought to be important in transforming and detoxifying microcystins in natural environments. However, little is known about their taxonomic composition or pathways involved in the process. To address this knowledge gap, we compared the metagenomes of Lake Erie free-living bacterioplankton assemblages in laboratory microcosms amended with microcystins relative to unamended controls. A diverse array of bacterial phyla were responsive to elevated supply of microcystins, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria of the alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subdivisions and Verrucomicrobia. At more detailed taxonomic levels, Methylophilales (mainly in genus Methylotenera and Burkholderiales (mainly in genera Bordetella, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, Polaromonas, Ralstonia, Polynucleobacter and Variovorax of Betaproteobacteria were suggested to be more important in microcystin degradation than Sphingomonadales of Alphaproteobacteria. The latter taxa were previously thought to be major microcystin degraders. Homologs to known microcystin-degrading genes (mlr were not overrepresented in microcystin-amended metagenomes, indicating that Lake Erie bacterioplankton might employ alternative genes and/or pathways in microcystin degradation. Genes for xenobiotic metabolism were overrepresented in microcystin-amended microcosms, suggesting they are important in bacterial degradation of microcystin, a phenomenon that has been identified previously only in eukaryotic systems.

  17. The role of groundwater discharge fluxes on Si:P ratios in a major tributary to Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maavara, Taylor; Slowinski, Stephanie; Rezanezhad, Fereidoun; Van Meter, Kimberly; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Groundwater discharge can be a major source of nutrients to river systems. Although quantification of groundwater nitrate loading to streams is common, the dependence of surface water silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) concentrations on groundwater sources has rarely been determined. Additionally, the ability of groundwater discharge to drive surface water Si:P ratios has not been contextualized relative to riverine inputs or in-stream transformations. In this study, we quantify the seasonal dynamics of Si and P cycles in the Grand River (GR) watershed, the largest Canadian watershed draining into Lake Erie, to test our hypothesis that regions of Si-rich groundwater discharge increase surface water Si:P ratios. Historically, both the GR and Lake Erie have been considered stoichiometrically P-limited, where the molar Si:P ratio is greater than the ~16:1 phytoplankton uptake ratio. However, recent trends suggest that eastern Lake Erie may be approaching Si-limitation. We sampled groundwater and surface water for dissolved and reactive particulate Si as well as total dissolved P for 12months within and downstream of a 50-km reach of high groundwater discharge. Our results indicate that groundwater Si:P ratios are lower than the corresponding surface water and that groundwater is a significant source of bioavailable P to surface water. Despite these observations, the watershed remains P-limited for the majority of the year, with localized periods of Si-limitation. We further find that groundwater Si:P ratios are a relatively minor driver of surface water Si:P, but that the magnitude of Si and P loads from groundwater represent a large proportion of the overall fluxes to Lake Erie. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PHOTOLYTIC HAZES IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF 51 ERI B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahnle, K.; Marley, M. S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morley, C. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Moses, J. I., E-mail: Kevin.J.Zahnle@NASA.gov, E-mail: kzahnle@mail.arc.NASA.gov, E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov, E-mail: cmorley@ucolick.org, E-mail: jmoses@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    We use a 1D model to address photochemistry and possible haze formation in the irradiated warm Jupiter, 51 Eridani b. The intended focus was to be carbon, but sulfur photochemistry turns out to be important. The case for organic photochemical hazes is intriguing but falls short of being compelling. If organic hazes form, they are likeliest to do so if vertical mixing in 51 Eri b is weaker than in Jupiter, and they would be found below the altitudes where methane and water are photolyzed. The more novel result is that photochemistry turns H{sub 2}S into elemental sulfur, here treated as S{sub 8}. In the cooler models, S{sub 8} is predicted to condense in optically thick clouds of solid sulfur particles, while in the warmer models S{sub 8} remains a vapor along with several other sulfur allotropes that are both visually striking and potentially observable. For 51 Eri b, the division between models with and without condensed sulfur is at an effective temperature of 700 K, which is within error its actual effective temperature; the local temperature where sulfur condenses is between 280 and 320 K. The sulfur photochemistry we have discussed is quite general and ought to be found in a wide variety of worlds over a broad temperature range, both colder and hotter than the 650–750 K range studied here, and we show that products of sulfur photochemistry will be nearly as abundant on planets where the UV irradiation is orders of magnitude weaker than it is on 51 Eri b.

  19. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    indirectly through excessive turbidity, current or depth would impact the higher life forms. Phytoplankton , periphyton and aquatic macrophyte comprise...System. The hydro-electric interest relates to the facilities at the St. Marys River, Welland Canal, Niagara River, St. Lawrence River at Cornwall... relates to three components: water quality, fish, and wildlife. The economic evaluations of regulation plans were also made to determine effects on

  20. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, K.

    2002-01-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  1. 33 CFR 162.134 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. 162.134 Section 162.134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.134 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. (a) Detroit River. The...

  2. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162.132 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a...

  3. 33 CFR 162.130 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. 162.130 Section 162.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.130 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. (a) Purpose. The...

  4. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for...

  5. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  6. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a...

  7. Evaluation of different strains of eri silkworms ( Samia cynthia ricini B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eri silkworms, Samia cynthia ricini B., is one of the silkworm races under utilization in Ethiopia. However, it has several strains with wide variation in their commercial traits and selection and utilization of best suited strains of this eri silkworm race that adapt to different agro-ecologies will help to increase silk productivity and ...

  8. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect participants..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  9. 75 FR 55477 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... portions of the Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Cedar Point Triathlon. The temporary safety zone is... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have...

  10. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  11. Genome sequences of lower Great Lakes Microcystis sp. reveal strain-specific genes that are present and expressed in western Lake Erie blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Anthony Meyer

    Full Text Available Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are increasing worldwide. In the Laurentian Great Lakes they pose major socioeconomic, ecological, and human health threats, particularly in western Lake Erie. However, the interpretation of "omics" data is constrained by the highly variable genome of Microcystis and the small number of reference genome sequences from strains isolated from the Great Lakes. To address this, we sequenced two Microcystis isolates from Lake Erie (Microcystis aeruginosa LE3 and M. wesenbergii LE013-01 and one from upstream Lake St. Clair (M. cf aeruginosa LSC13-02, and compared these data to the genomes of seventeen Microcystis spp. from across the globe as well as one metagenome and seven metatranscriptomes from a 2014 Lake Erie Microcystis bloom. For the publically available strains analyzed, the core genome is ~1900 genes, representing ~11% of total genes in the pan-genome and ~45% of each strain's genome. The flexible genome content was related to Microcystis subclades defined by phylogenetic analysis of both housekeeping genes and total core genes. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that the flexible genome is linked to the core genome of the Microcystis species complex. The majority of strain-specific genes were present and expressed in bloom communities in Lake Erie. Roughly 8% of these genes from the lower Great Lakes are involved in genome plasticity (rapid gain, loss, or rearrangement of genes and resistance to foreign genetic elements (such as CRISPR-Cas systems. Intriguingly, strain-specific genes from Microcystis cultured from around the world were also present and expressed in the Lake Erie blooms, suggesting that the Microcystis pangenome is truly global. The presence and expression of flexible genes, including strain-specific genes, suggests that strain-level genomic diversity may be important in maintaining Microcystis abundance during bloom events.

  12. Meteotsunamis in the Great Lakes and Investigation into the May 27, 2012 Event on Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. J.; Bechle, A.; Wu, C. H.; Schwab, D. J.; Mann, G.

    2016-02-01

    Meteotsunami events have been documented in several countries around the world in the coastal ocean, semi-enclosed basins, and in the Great Lakes. In particular, investigations in the Great Lakes have raised the issue of dangers posed by enclosed basins due to the reflection and interaction of meteotsunami waves, in which the destructive waves can arrive several hours after the atmospheric disturbance has passed. This disassociation in time and space between the atmospheric disturbance and resultant meteotsunami wave can pose a significant threat to the public. In a recent event on May 27, 2012, atmospheric conditions gave rise to two convective systems that generated a series of waves in the meteotsunami band on Lake Erie. The resulting waves swept three swimmers a half-mile offshore, inundated a marina, and may have led to a capsized boat along the southern shoreline. Examination of the observed conditions shows that these events occurred at a time between the arrivals of these two storm systems when atmospheric conditions were relatively calm but water level displacements were at their greatest. In this work, we attempt to explain the processes that led to these conditions through a combination of atmospheric and hydrodynamic modeling and an analysis of the observed radial velocities associated with the meteotsunami-inducing front. Results from a high-resolution atmospheric model and hydrodynamic model reveal that the formation of these destructive waves resulted from a combination of wave reflection, focusing, and edge waves that impacted the southern shore of Lake Erie. This event illustrates the unique danger posed by temporal lags between the inducing atmospheric conditions and resulting dangerous nearshore wave conditions.

  13. Impacts of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species on the Lake Erie ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Madeline J.W.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.; Johnson, Tim B.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Schloesser, Donald W.; George, Sandra E.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Erie is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and establishment of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species (NIS) populations. A minimum of 144 aquatic NIS have been recorded in the Lake Erie basin including several species [e.g., Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha); quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis); an amphipod (Echinogammarus ischnus); round goby (Neogobius melanostomus); and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)] that have had discernible impacts on the lake's ecology. NIS pose threats to the Lake Erie ecosystem for a variety of reasons including their ability to proliferate quickly, compete with native species, and transfer contaminants (e.g., PCBs) and disease through the food web. Six of the 14 beneficial use impairments listed in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are impaired in Lake Erie, in part as a result of the introduction of NIS. The Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) has adopted an ecosystem approach to restore beneficial use impairments in the lake. Furthermore, a research consortium, known as the Lake Erie Millennium Network, is working alongside the LaMP, to address research problems regarding NIS, the loss of habitat, and the role of contaminants in the Lake Erie ecosystem.

  14. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  15. Internal loading of phosphorus in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald; Kaltenberg, Eliza M.; Steely, Rebecca L.; Hummel, Stephanie K.; Seo, Jinyu; Gibbons, Kenneth J.; Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Seo, Youngwoo; Behbahani, Mohsen; James, William F.; Johnson, Laura; Doan, Phuong; Dittrich, Maria; Evans, Mary Anne; Chaffin, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    This study applied eight techniques to obtain estimates of the diffusive flux of phosphorus (P) from bottom sediments throughout the western basin of Lake Erie. The flux was quantified from both aerobic and anaerobic incubations of whole cores; by monitoring the water encapsulated in bottom chambers; from pore water concentration profiles measured with a phosphate microelectrode, a diffusive equilibrium in thin films (DET) hydrogel, and expressed pore waters; and from mass balance and biogeochemical diagenetic models. Fluxes under aerobic conditions at summertime temperatures averaged 1.35 mg P/m2/day and displayed spatial variability on scales as small as a centimeter. Using two different temperature correction factors, the flux was adjusted to mean annual temperature yielding average annual fluxes of 0.43–0.91 mg P/m2/day and a western basin-wide total of 378–808 Mg P/year as the diffusive flux from sediments. This is 3–7% of the 11,000 Mg P/year International Joint Commission (IJC) target load for phosphorus delivery to Lake Erie from external sources. Using these average aerobic fluxes, the sediment contributes 3.0–6.3 μg P/L as a background internal contribution that represents 20–42% of the IJC Target Concentration of 15 μg P/L for the western basin. The implication is that this internal diffusive recycling of P is unlikely to trigger cyanobacterial blooms by itself but is sufficiently large to cause blooms when combined with external loads. This background flux may be also responsible for delayed response of the lake to any decrease in the external loading.

  16. Nitrogen cycling in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie: oscillations between strong and weak export and implications for harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Kateri R.; Bullerjahn, George S.; McKay, Robert Michael L.; Chaffin, Justin D.; Ostrom, Nathaniel E.

    2018-05-01

    Recent global water quality crises point to an urgent need for greater understanding of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs) and their drivers. Nearshore areas of Lake Erie such as Sandusky Bay may become seasonally limited by nitrogen (N) and are characterized by distinct cHAB compositions (i.e., Planktothrix over Microcystis). This study investigated phytoplankton N uptake pathways, determined drivers of N depletion, and characterized the N budget in Sandusky Bay. Nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) uptake, N fixation, and N removal processes were quantified by stable isotopic approaches. Dissimilatory N reduction was a relatively modest N sink, with denitrification, anammox, and N2O production accounting for 84, 14, and 2 % of sediment N removal, respectively. Phytoplankton assimilation was the dominant N uptake mechanism, and NO3- uptake rates were higher than NH4+ uptake rates. Riverine N loading was sometimes insufficient to meet assimilatory and dissimilatory demands, but N fixation alleviated this deficit. N fixation made up 23.7-85.4 % of total phytoplankton N acquisition and indirectly supports Planktothrix blooms. However, N fixation rates were surprisingly uncorrelated with NO3- or NH4+ concentrations. Owing to temporal separation in sources and sinks of N to Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay oscillates between a conduit and a filter of downstream N loading to Lake Erie, delivering extensively recycled forms of N during periods of low export. Drowned river mouths such as Sandusky Bay are mediators of downstream N loading, but climate-change-induced increases in precipitation and N loading will likely intensify N export from these systems.

  17. Historical Documentation of Warm-Season Grasses Management at Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The early accounts of an active grassland management program at Erie National Wildlife Refuge dates back to 1977. This report is an attempt to document the refuge’s...

  18. BOTULISM E IN LAKE ERIE: ECOLOGY AND LOWER FOOD WEB TRANSFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will determine the environmental conditions that favor botulism Type E bacteria in Lake Erie and explore whether quagga mussels are altering bottom sediment conditions to favor C. botulinum growth. Analysis of environmental parameters, including water chemistry, alg...

  19. Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H; Barthelmie, R J; Crippa, P; Doubrawa, P; Pryor, S C

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve

  20. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... from the US Border Port of Entry/Peace Bridge Plaza (Plaza), in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New... Drive, and to provide alternate access from Porter Avenue to the Plaza. Letters describing the proposed...

  1. Hydrology and environmental aspects of Erie Canal (1817-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Walter Basil

    1976-01-01

    As the first major water project in the United States, the old Erie Canal provides an example of the hydrological and environmental consequences of water development. The available record shows that the project aroused environmental fears that the canal might be impaired by the adverse hydrologic effects of land development induced by the canal. Water requirements proved greater than anticipated, and problems of floods and hydraulic inefficiencies beset navigation throughout its history. The Erie Canal proved the practicality of major hydraulic works to the extent that operations and maintenance could cope with the burdens of deficiencies in design. The weight of prior experience that upland streams, such as the Potomac and Mohawk Rivers, had proved unsatisfactory for dependable navigation, led to a decision to build an independent canal which freed the location from the constraints of river channels and made possible a cross-country water route directly to Lake Erie. The decision on dimensioning the canal prism--chiefly width and depth-involved balance between a fear of building too small and thus not achieving the economic potentials, and a fear of building too expensively. The constraints proved effective, and for the first part of its history the revenues collected were sufficient to repay all costs. So great was the economic advantage of the canal that the rising trend in traffic soon induced an enlargement of the canal cross section, based upon a new but riskier objective-build as large as the projected trend in toll revenues would finance. The increased revenues did not materialize. Water supplies were a primary concern for both the planners and the operators of the canal. Water required for lockage, although the most obvious to the planners, proved to be a relatively minor item compared with the amounts of water that were required to compensate for leakage through the bed and banks of the canal. Leakage amounted to about 8 inches of depth per day. The total

  2. Hearing in the matter of an application by Erie Shores Wind Farm Limited Partnership for an Order granting leave to construct transmission facilities to connect a wind farm to the transmission facilities of Hydro One Network Inc.[In the matter of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998, S.O. 1998, c. 15, Schedule B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, G.; Vlahos, P.; Betts, B.

    2005-06-20

    This document presents the transcripts of an Ontario Energy Board hearing regarding an application filed by Erie Shores Wind Farm Limited to construct transmission facilities that will connect Erie Shores' wind farm on the north shore of Lake Erie to the transmission facilities of Hydro One Network. This document presents the examinations by representatives of the Board Counsel, Erie Shores Wind Farm Limited Partnership, Hydro One Networks Inc., Ontario's Independent Electricity System Operator and intervenors. Erie Shores is a limited partnership between AIM PowerGen Corporation and Clean Power Income Fund. The proposed wind farm is to be located along the north shore of Lake Erie, covering about 14,000 acres of farmland in the townships of Bayham, Malahide and Norfolk County. It consists of 66 wind turbines with a net output of 99 MW. The construction of transmission facilities would involve the construction of a new transformer station with a 34.5/115 kV transformer, a capacitor bank, switch gear, and space for a future transformer. It would also include a transmission line from the Port Burwell transmission station to Hydro One's circuits at Cranberry Junction near Tillsonburg. Erie Shores also proposes to construct 27 km of the transmission line within the existing Otter Valley utility corridor, 3 km along the active Canadian Pacific Rail corridor, and over certain private lands located south of Tillsonburg Junction. Erie Shores was one of the successful bidders that has entered into a 20-year renewable energy supply contract with the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. The Board considers that the project is in the public interest and granted approval for the project, subject to certain conditions regarding communications, monitoring and reporting requirements. 2 refs., 1 appendix.

  3. Internet, Electronic Libraries, and Information Retrieval Internet, Elektronik Kütüphaneler ve Bilgi Erişim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tonta

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of information systems that are accessible through the Internet is constantly increasing. Information systems on those systems are getting varied and occupy more space, too. Up until a few years ago, only textual information sources were accessible via computer networks, whereas today multimedia information sources containing graphics, sound, pictures, and animation are also accessible over the Internet. Geographic information systems, electronic libraries, film and TV archives can he given as examples of multimedia information sources, We point out that information retrieval should he seen as an integral component of the computer networks, and technological, economic, and legal problems in this field should he solved. We end up with what should he done to improve the library and information services that arc accessible through the Internet in Turkey. Günümüzde Internet aracılığıyla erişilebilen bilgi sistemlerinin sayısı hızla artmaktadır. Bu sistemler üzerindeki bilgi kaynakları da giderek çeşitlenmekte ve daha fazla yer kaplamaktadır. Yakın zamana dek bilgisayar ağları aracılığıyla çoğunlukla metin (text türü bilgilere erişim sağlanabilirken, günümüzde grafik, ses, görüntü, canlandırma ve diğer görsel-işitsel veriler içeren çokluortam (multimedia türü bilgiler de Internet üzerinde hizmete sunulabilmektedir. Coğrafik bilgi sistemleri, elektronik kütüphaneler, film ve TV arşivleri bu tür bilgilere örnek olarak gösterilebilir. Bu makalede Internet aracılığıyla bilgi erişim ve bilgi keşfetmede karşılaşılan sorunlar incelenmekte ve sayıca giderek artan ve çeşitlenen bilgi kaynaklarına erişimi kolaylaştırmak için yapılması gerekenler kısaca özetlenmektedir. Sonuç olarak bilgi erişimin, büyük paralar ve entellektüel çabalar harcanarak kurulan bilgisayar ağlarının bir parçası olarak görülmesi gerektiğine işaret edilerek bu alandaki teknolojik

  4. Fusion of hyperspectral remote sensing data for near real-time monitoring of microcystin distribution in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannah, Benjamin; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Urban growth and agricultural production have caused an influx of nutrients into Lake Erie, leading to eutrophic zones. These conditions result in the formation of algal blooms, some of which are toxic due to the presence of Microcystis (a cyanobacteria), which produces the hepatotoxin microcystin. Microcystis has a unique advantage over its competition as a result of the invasive zebra mussel population that filters algae out of the water column except for the toxic Microcystis. The toxin threatens human health and the ecosystem, and it is a concern for water treatment plants using the lake water as a tap water source. This presentation demonstrates the prototype of a near real-time early warning system using Integrated Data Fusion techniques with the aid of both hyperspectral remote sensing data to determine spatiotemporal microcystin concentrations. The temporal resolution of MODIS is fused with the higher spatial and spectral resolution of MERIS to create synthetic images on a daily basis. As a demonstration, the spatiotemporal distributions of microcystin within western Lake Erie are reconstructed using the band data from the fused products and applied machine-learning techniques. Analysis of the results through statistical indices confirmed that the this type of algorithm has better potential to accurately estimating microcystin concentrations in the lake, which is better than current two band models and other computational intelligence models.

  5. Does behavioural thermoregulation underlie seasonal movements in Lake Erie walleye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Graham D.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Hayden, Todd A.; Faust, Matthew D.; Kraus, Richard T.; Dettmers, John M.; Cooke, Steven J.; Zhao, Yingming; Fisk, Aaron T.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Thermoregulation is presumed to be a widespread determinant of behaviour in fishes, but has not often been investigated as a mechanism shaping long-distance migrations. We used acoustic telemetry and animal-borne thermal loggers to test the hypothesis that seasonal migration in adult walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie is size- and (or) sex-specific and related to behavioural thermoregulation. Female walleye migrated out of the warm, shallow western basin earlier than did males and were 1.8 times more likely to be detected on acoustic receivers in the deeper and cooler eastern basin. The few fish that remained in the western basin were restricted to a smaller range of higher temperatures (≥20 °C) than those that migrated to the central and eastern basins (∼16–21 °C). However, temperature records from walleye in the central basin were nearly indistinguishable from those in the eastern basin, suggesting thermal preferences alone could not explain migration to the eastern basin. As such, our effort to understand the mechanisms that cause migratory behaviours has generated mixed evidence on the role of temperature and that factors like foraging opportunities may have synergistic roles in the migration.

  6. Detection and Modeling of a Meteotsunami in Lake Erie During a High Wind Event on May 27, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. J.; Schwab, D. J.; Lombardy, K. A.; LaPlante, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    On May 27, 2012, a mesoscale convective system moved southeast across the central basin of Lake Erie (the shallowest of the Great Lakes) causing an increase in surface wind speed from 3 to 15 m/s over a few minutes. Although no significant pressure change was observed during this period (+1 mbar), the storm resulted in 3 reported edge waves on the southern shore (5 minutes apart), with wave heights up to 7 feet (2.13 m). Witnesses along the coast reported that the water receded before the waves hit, the only warning of the impending danger. After impact on the southern shore, several individuals were stranded in the water near Cleveland, Ohio. Fortunately, there were no fatalities or serious injury as a result of the edge waves. The storm event yielded two separate but similar squall line events that impacted the southern shore of Lake Erie several hours apart. The first event had little impact on nearshore conditions, however, the second event (moving south-eastward at 21.1 m/s or 41 knots), resulted in 7 ft waves near Cleveland as reported above. The thunderstorms generated three closely packed outflow boundaries that intersected the southern shore of Lake Erie between 1700 and 1730 UTC. The outflow boundaries were followed by a stronger outflow at 1800 UTC. Radial velocities on the WSR-88D in Cleveland, Ohio indicated the winds were stronger in the second outflow boundary. The radar indicated winds between 20.6 and 24.7 m/s (40 and 48 knots) within 240 meters (800 feet) above ground level. In order to better understand the storm event and the cause of the waves that impacted the southern shore, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Erie has been developed using the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). The model is being developed as part of the Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting (GLCFS), a set of experimental real-time pre-operational hydrodynamic models run at the NOAA Great Lakes Research Laboratory that forecast currents, waves, temperature, and

  7. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  8. A preliminary study of the Hg flux from selected Ohio watersheds to Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgibbon, T.O.; Berry Lyons, W.; Gardner, Christopher B.; Carey, Anne E.

    2008-01-01

    New measurements of riverine dissolved and particulate Hg fluxes into Lake Erie from 12 northern Ohio watersheds have been determined from samples collected in April 2002 and analyzed using ultra-clean techniques with cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total Hg concentrations ranged through 2.5-18.5 ng L -1 , with a mean of 10.4 ng L -1 with most Hg in particulate form. Dissolved Hg concentrations ranged through 0.8-4.3 ng L -1 , with a mean of 2.5 ng L -1 . Highest total Hg concentrations were observed in western rivers with primarily agricultural land use and eastern rivers with mixed land use in their watersheds. Total suspended solid concentrations ranged through 10-180 mg L -1 with particulate Hg concentrations ranging through 47-170 ng g -1 , with a mean of 99 ng g -1 . Particulate Hg was similar to published data for central Lake Erie bottom sediments but much lower than for bottom sediments in western Lake Erie. Total Hg concentrations were positively correlated with suspended sediment concentrations and negatively with dissolved NO 3 - concentrations. The total estimated annual Hg fluxes from these rivers into Lake Erie is estimated to be 85 kg, but because only one event was sampled during high flow conditions, this may be an overestimate. This is much lower than previous published estimates of riverine Hg input into Lake Erie

  9. Using wind setdown and storm surge on Lake Erie to calibrate the air-sea drag coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1.

  10. Thinking outside of the Lake: Can controls on nutrient inputs into Lake Erie benefit stream conservation in its watershed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investment in agricultural conservation practices (CPs) to address Lake Erie's re-eutrophication may offer benefits that extend beyond the lake, such as improved habitat conditions for fish communities throughout the watershed. If such conditions are not explicitly considered in Lake Erie nutrient ...

  11. 76 FR 66710 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 5984-063] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and....: 5984-063. c. Date Filed: May 10, 2011. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. (dba Brookfield...

  12. 78 FR 68044 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7320-042] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and Soliciting Scoping Comments.... Date filed: July 1, 2013. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm...

  13. 78 FR 62348 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7320-042] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests.... Date filed: July 1, 2013. d. Applicant: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Name of Project: Chasm...

  14. 75 FR 51451 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and.... Project No.: 7320-040. c. Dated Filed: June 29, 2010. d. Submitted By: Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e...: John Mudre at (202) 502-8902; or e-mail at [email protected] . j. Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P...

  15. Nutrient Application and Algal Blooms: Farmer Decisions Regarding the Use of Best Management Practices in Lake Erie's Maumee River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, A.; Toman, E.; Wilson, R. S.; Martin, J.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Erie is the most productive of the Great Lakes. However, harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by nutrient run-off threaten the lake. Experts have proposed numerous best management practices (BMPs) designed to reduce nutrient and sediment run-off. However, for these practices to be effective at reducing HABs, a significant portion of farmers and landowners within Lake Erie's watersheds have to first adopt and implement these practices. In order to better understand how farmers and landowners make decisions about whether or not to adopt and implement BMPs we conducted a series of focus groups and a mail survey of Lake Erie's largest watershed. We found that many farmers were supportive of adopting BMPs. For example, 60% of farmers in the watershed have already adopted using grid soil sampling while another 30% are willing to adopt the practice in the future. However, other practices were less popular, for example, only 18% of farmers had already adopted cover crops. Farmers also expressed several reservations about adopting some BMPs. For example, farmers were concerned about the costs of some BMPs, such as cover crops and drainage management systems, and how such practices might interfere with the planting of subsequent crops. Our research has several implications for reducing nutrient production by promoting BMPs. First, we identified potential concerns and limitations farmers faced in implementing specific BMPs. For example, conservationists can design future programs and communication efforts to target these specific concerns. Second, through examining the socio-psychological and cognitive characteristics that influence farmer decision-making, we identified that willingness to adopt nutrient BMPs is association with how strongly a farmer identifies with conservation and how effective they believed the BMP was at reducing run-off. Messages and information about BMPs may be more effective if they are framed in a way that aligns with identities and beliefs about

  16. A geophysical analysis of hydro-geomorphic controls within a headwater wetland in a granitic landscape, through ERI and IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Riddell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are undergoing considerable degradation in South Africa. As interventions are often technical and costly, there is a requirement to develop conceptual process models for these wetland systems so that rehabilitation attempts will be successful. This paper presents an approach using the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI and Induced Polarization (IP to delineate sub-surface hydro-geomorphic controls that maintain equilibrium disconnectivity of wetland-catchment processes, which through gully erosion are increasing the catchments connectivity through loss of water and sediment. The findings presented here give insight into the geomorphic processes that maintain the wetland in an un-degraded state, this allows for the development of a conceptual model outlining the wetland forming processes. The analysis suggests that sub-surface clay-plugs, within an otherwise sandy substrate are created by illuviation of clays from the surrounding hillslopes particularly at zones of valley confinement.

  17. 78 FR 60009 - Environmental Impact Statement: Erie and Genesee Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... and Genesee Counties, New York AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT; New York State... counties of Erie and Genesee, New York (NYSDOT Project Identification Number: 5528.28). A Notice of Intent... CONTACT: Jonathan McDade, Division Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, New York Division, Leo W...

  18. Associations between cyanobacteria and indices of secondary production in the western basin of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Evans, Mary Anne; Kennedy, Robert J.; Bailey, Sean; Loftin, Keith A.; Laughrey, Zachary; Femmer, Robin; Schaeffer, Jeff; Richardson, William B.; Wynne, Timothy; Nelson, J. C.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2018-01-01

    Large lakes provide a variety of ecological services to surrounding cities and communities. Many of these services are supported by ecological processes that are threatened by the increasing prevalence of cyanobacterial blooms which occur as aquatic ecosystems experience cultural eutrophication. Over the past 10 yr, Lake Erie experienced cyanobacterial blooms of increasing severity and frequency, which have resulted in impaired drinking water for the surrounding communities. Cyanobacterial blooms may impact ecological processes that support other services, but many of these impacts have not been documented. Secondary production (production of primary consumers) is an important process that supports economically important higher trophic levels. Cyanobacterial blooms may influence secondary production because cyanobacteria are a poor‐quality food resource and cyanotoxins may be harmful to consumers. Over 3 yr at 34 sites across the western basin of Lake Erie, we measured three indices of secondary production that focus on the dominant bivalve taxa: (1) growth of a native unionid mussel, (2) the size of young‐of‐year dreissenid mussels, and (3) the mass of colonizing animals on a Hester‐Dendy sampler. Associations between these indices and cyanobacterial data were estimated to assess whether cyanobacteria are associated with variation in secondary production in the western basin of Lake Erie. The results suggest cyanobacterial abundance alone is only weakly associated with secondary production, but that cyanotoxins have a larger effect on secondary production. Given recurring late‐summer cyanobacterial blooms, this impact on secondary production has the potential to undermine Lake Erie's ability to sustain important ecosystem services.

  19. 77 FR 40266 - Safety Zone; Conneaut 4th of July Festival, Lake Erie, Conneaut, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Conneaut 4th of July Festival, Lake Erie, Conneaut, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Conneaut 4th of July Festival Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... vessels during the Conneaut 4th of July Festival Fireworks. This zone will be effective and enforced from...

  20. 77 FR 35860 - Safety Zone; Bay Swim V, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Yacht Club at position 42[deg]07'21.74'' N, 80[deg]07'58.30'' W (DATUM: NAD 83). Entry into, transiting... extend in a straight line 1,000 feet wide to the Erie Yacht Club at position 42[deg]07'21.74'' N, 80[deg...

  1. 77 FR 39638 - Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 10. Indian Tribal... be held on Lake Erie near Lake View, NY. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that fireworks launched proximate to a gathering of watercraft pose a significant risk to public safety and...

  2. Lake Erie, phosphorus and microcystin: Is it really the farmer's fault?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural loss of phosphorus (P) have been identified as a primary contributor to eutrophication and the associated release of toxins (i.e., mycrocystin) in Lake Erie. These losses are commonly deemed excessive by the media and the public, singling out agriculture as the culprit in spite of redu...

  3. Esteetilis-praktiline töö kui eriõppe alternatiiv / Uffe Bjerre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bjerre, Uffe

    2005-01-01

    Milleks tuupida lapsele pähe seda, millega ta hakkama ei saa, selle asemel et arendada õpilase tugevaid külgi? Samas ka koolipsühholoogide, eripedagoogide Tove Hvidi ja Howard Gardneri väited eriõpet vajavate laste kohta

  4. Occurrence of zebra mussels in near-shore areas of western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels, (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  5. 78 FR 36662 - Safety Zone; Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras, Lake Erie, Fairport, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... the Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie...

  6. 77 FR 24880 - Safety Zone; Jet Express Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Lakeside, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... the Federal Register. Background and Purpose The organization Endurance Sports Productions is... safety zone would encompass all waters of Lake Erie within a direct line from 41-33'-49'' N, 082-47-8'' W to 41-33'- 25'' N, 82-48'-8'' W and 15 yards on either side of direct line. All geographic...

  7. 77 FR 50923 - Safety Zone; Jet Express Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Lakeside, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... fireworks display. B. Basis and Purpose The organization Endurance Sports Productions is sponsoring a... waters of Lake Erie within a direct line from 41[deg]33'49'' N, 082[deg]47'8'' W to 41[deg]33'25'' N, 82[deg]48'8'' W and 15 yards on either side of direct line. All geographic coordinates are North American...

  8. 76 FR 46287 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2047-049] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission or FERC) regulations...

  9. 76 FR 65717 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2713-082-New York] Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission...

  10. 76 FR 12103 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Hydropower, L.P; Notice of Settlement Agreement and Soliciting Comments Take notice that the following... Boulevard Hydropower, L.P. e. Location: The existing multi-development project is located on the Oswegatchie... 791 (a)-825(r) h. Applicant Contact: Daniel Daoust, Erie Boulevard Hydropower, 33 West 1st Street...

  11. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  12. 77 FR 35619 - Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect... ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the Old Fashion 4th July Fireworks. [[Page 35620...

  13. Fish community responses to submerged aquatic vegetation in Maumee Bay, Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob; Kocovsky, Patrick; Wiegmann, Daniel; Miner, Jeffery G.

    2018-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in clearwater systems simultaneously provides habitat for invertebrate prey and acts as refugia for small fishes. Many fishes in Lake Erie rely on shallow, heavily vegetated bays as spawning grounds and the loss or absence of which is known to reduce recruitment in other systems. The Maumee River and Maumee Bay, which once had abundant macrophyte beds, have experienced a decline of SAV and an increase in suspended solids (turbidity) over the last century due to numerous causes. To compare fish communities in open‐water (turbid) and in SAV (clearer water) habitats in this region, which is designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an Area of Concern, and to indicate community changes that could occur with expansion of SAV habitat, we sampled a 300‐ha sector of northern Maumee Bay that contained both habitats. Using towed neuston nets through patches of each habitat, we determined that areas of SAV contained more species and a different species complex (based on the Jaccard index and the wetland fish index), than did the open‐water habitat (averaging 8.6 versus 5 species per net trawl). The SAV habitat was dominated by centrarchids, namely Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and Black Crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus. Open‐water habitat was dominated by Spottail Shiner Notropis hudsonius, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, and White Perch Morone americana, an invasive species. These results indicate that restoration efforts aimed at decreasing turbidity and increasing the distribution of SAV could cause substantive shifts in the fish community and address important metrics for assessing the beneficial use impairments in this Area of Concern.

  14. Use of historical and geospatial data to guide the restoration of a Lake Erie coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    1999-01-01

    Historical and geospatial data were used to identify the relationships between water levels, wetland vegetation, littoral drift of sediments, and the condition of a protective barrier beach at Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland in western Lake Erie, to enhance and guide a joint federal and state wetland restoration project. Eleven sets of large-scale aerial photographs dating from 1940 through 1994 were interpreted to delineate major vegetation types and boundaries of the barrier beach. A geographic information system (GIS) was then used to digitize the data and calculate the vegetated area and length of barrier beach. Supplemented by paleoecological and sedimentological analyses, aerial photographic interpretation revealed that Metzger Marsh was once a drowned-river-mouth wetland dominated by sedges and protected by a sand barrier beach. Extremely high water levels, storm events, and reduction of sediments in the littoral drift contributed to the complete destruction of the barrier beach in 1973 and prevented its recovery. The extent of wetland vegetation, correlated to water levels and condition of the barrier beach, decreased from a high of 108 ha in 1940 to a low of 33 ha in 1994. The lack of an adequate sediment supply and low probability of a period of extremely low lake levels in the near future made natural reestablishment of the barrier beach and wetland vegetation unlikely. Therefore, the federal and state managers chose to construct a dike to replace the protective barrier beach. Recommendations stemming from this historical analysis, however, resulted in the incorporation of a water-control structure in the dike that will retain a hydrologic connection between wetland and lake. Management of the wetland will seek to mimic processes natural to the wetland type identified by this analysis.

  15. Draft environmental statement related to construction of Erie Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. STN 50-580 and STN 50-581)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of construction permits to the Ohio Edison Company, acting on behalf of itself, the Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company, Duquesne Light Company, Pennsylvania Power Company, and the Toledo Edison Company, for the construction of the Erie Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2, located in Erie County, Ohio. A total of 704 hectares (ha) (1740 acres) will be used for the Erie plant site. Construction-related activities on the primary site will disturb about 223 ha (551 acres). Approximately 641 ha (1584 acres) will be required for transmission line rights-of-way. The 3.86-km (2.4-mile) intake and discharge pipeline land corridor will involve alteration of approximately 13 ha (32 acres) of corridor and 1 ha (2.5 acres) for shore facilities. Also, 3.9 ha (9.6 acres) of lake bottom will be disturbed to provide 15-m-wide (50-ft-wide) trenches and an additional 15-m-wide (50-ft-wide) area for storage of excavated material for subsequent backfill for the 701-m (2300-ft) intake and 579-m (1900-ft) discharge lines. Plant construction will involve some community impacts. No residents will be displaced from the site property. Traffic on local roads will increase due to construction and commuting activities. The influx of construction workers' families (a peak work force of about 2700) is expected to cause no major housing or school problems. It is assumed that aquatic organisms entrained in the circulating water system will be killed due to thermal and mechanical shock. The maximum impact based on the population densities of phytoplankton and zooplankton organisms in the adjacent lake area will be the destruction of 0.1% of the entrainable organisms from the lake water. The entrainment of fish larvae will not constitute a significant impact on the lake fishery. 62 figs., 32 tabs

  16. 75 FR 30319 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule to remove the Lake Erie Watersnake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... frost level, in cracks or crevices in the bedrock, interstitial spaces of rocky substrates, tree roots... actions that will be undertaken on each island property to avoid injury and harm to the Lake Erie...

  17. Technological Learning in Energy Models: Experience and Scenario Analysis with MARKAL and the ERIS Model Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    1999-09-01

    Understanding technology dynamics, a fundamental driving factor of the evolution of energy systems, is essential for sound policy formulation and decision making. Technological change is not an autonomous process, but evolves from a number of endogenous interactions within the social system. Technologies evolve and improve only if experience with them is possible. Efforts must be devoted to improve our analytical tools concerning the treatment given to the technological variable, recognising the cumulative and gradual nature of technological change and the important role played by learning processes. This report presents a collection of works developed by the authors concerning the endogenisation of technological change in energy optimisation models, as a contribution to the Energy Technology Dynamics andAdvanced Energy System Modelling Project (TEEM), developed in the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme JOULE III of the European Union (DGXII). Here, learning curves, an empirically observed manifestation of the cumulative technological learning processes, are endogenised in two energy optimisation models. MARKAL, a widely used bottom-up model developed by the ETSAP programme of the IEA and ERIS, a model prototype, developed within the TEEM project for assessing different concepts and approaches. The methodological approach is described and some results and insights derived from the model analyses are presented. The incorporation of learning curves results in significantly different model outcomes than those obtained with traditional approaches. New, innovative technologies, hardly considered by the standard models, are introduced to the solution when endogenous learning is present. Up-front investments in initially expensive, but promising, technologies allow the necessary accumulation of experience to render them cost-effective. When uncertainty in emission reduction commitments is considered, the results point also in the direction of undertaking early

  18. Technological Learning in Energy Models: Experience and Scenario Analysis with MARKAL and the ERIS Model Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    1999-09-01

    Understanding technology dynamics, a fundamental driving factor of the evolution of energy systems, is essential for sound policy formulation and decision making. Technological change is not an autonomous process, but evolves from a number of endogenous interactions within the social system. Technologies evolve and improve only if experience with them is possible. Efforts must be devoted to improve our analytical tools concerning the treatment given to the technological variable, recognising the cumulative and gradual nature of technological change and the important role played by learning processes. This report presents a collection of works developed by the authors concerning the endogenisation of technological change in energy optimisation models, as a contribution to the Energy Technology Dynamics and Advanced Energy System Modelling Project (TEEM), developed in the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme JOULE III of the European Union (DGXII). Here, learning curves, an empirically observed manifestation of the cumulative technological learning processes, are endogenised in two energy optimisation models. MARKAL, a widely used bottom-up model developed by the ETSAP programme of the IEA and ERIS, a model prototype, developed within the TEEM project for assessing different concepts and approaches. The methodological approach is described and some results and insights derived from the model analyses are presented. The incorporation of learning curves results in significantly different model outcomes than those obtained with traditional approaches. New, innovative technologies, hardly considered by the standard models, are introduced to the solution when endogenous learning is present. Up-front investments in initially expensive, but promising, technologies allow the necessary accumulation of experience to render them cost-effective. When uncertainty in emission reduction commitments is considered, the results point also in the direction of undertaking early

  19. A potent Brucella abortus 2308 Δery live vaccine allows for the differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbo; Yin, Shuanghong; Guo, Fei; Meng, Ren; Chen, Chuangfu; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhiqiang; Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Li, Tiansen; Zhang, Ke

    2014-08-01

    Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease that causes animal and human diseases. However, the current Brucella abortus vaccines (S19 and RB51) are deficient; they can cause abortion in pregnant animals. Moreover, when the vaccine S19 is used, tests cannot differentiate natural from vaccinated infection. Therefore, a safer and more potent vaccine is needed. A Brucella abortus 2308 ery promoter mutant (Δery) was constructed to overcome these drawbacks. The growth of the Δery mutant was significantly attenuated in macrophages and mice and induced high protective immunity in mice. Moreover, Δery induced an anti-Brucella-specific IgG (immunoglobulin G) response and stimulated the expression of interferon-gamma (INF-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Furthermore, the expression of EryA antigen allowed for the serological differentiation between natural and vaccinated infection in mice. These results indicate that the Δery mutant is a potential attenuated live vaccine candidate against virulent Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) infection.

  20. First records of a European cladoceran, Bythotrephes cederstroemi, in Lakes Erie and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, Michael T.; Klarer, David M.; Krieger, Kenneth A.

    1986-01-01

    Adult forms of the cladoceran Bythotrephes cederstroemi Schoedler (Cercopagidae), a widespread European freshwater zooplankter, occurred in the stomachs of four common species of Lake Erie fish (yellow perch, Perca flavescens; white perch, Morone americana; white bass, M. chrysops; and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) collected in early October 1985. The fish were collected at several stations in the nearshore open waters of the central basin between Ashtabula and Huron, Ohio. Other investigators have seen this species in other locations in Lake Erie and also in Lake Huron. The report of B. cederstroemi in Lake Huron in December 1984 appears to be the first record of this species in North America.

  1. Lake Erie and Lake Michigan zebra mussel settlement monitoring and implications for chlorination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoss, D.; Mendelsberg, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the 1991 zebra mussel veliger settlement monitoring program undertaken to record and evaluate zebra mussel veliger settlement in Lake Erie and Lake Michigan. Studies by Dr. Gerald Mackie of Canada in 1990 indicated veliger settlement may be occurring primarily during short time periods every season corresponding with warmer water temperatures. Veliger settlement monitoring was performed using a plexiglass sampler apparatus. The samplers were simple in design and consisted of a 20-inch-square plexiglass base panel with thirty-six 1 inch x 3 inch clear plexiglass microscope slides attached. The results of the monitoring program indicate the existence of preferential settlement periods for veligers correlating with sustained lake water temperatures above 70 degrees F. Veliger settlement concentrations in the south basin of Lake Michigan appear to be similar to those in western Lake Erie

  2. Assessing and addressing the re-eutrophication of Lake Erie: central basin hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavia, Donald; Allan, J. David; Arend, Kristin K.; Bartell, Steven; Beletsky, Dmitry; Bosch, Nate S.; Brandt, Stephen B.; Briland, Ruth D.; Daloğlu, Irem; DePinto, Joseph V.; Dolan, David M.; Evans, Mary Anne; Farmer, Troy M.; Goto, Daisuke; Han, Haejin; Höök, Tomas O.; Knight, Roger; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Mason, Doran; Michalak, Anna M.; Richards, R. Peter; Roberts, James J.; Rucinski, Daniel K.; Rutherford, Edward; Schwab, David J.; Sesterhenn, Timothy M.; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhou, Yuntao

    2014-01-01

    Relieving phosphorus loading is a key management tool for controlling Lake Erie eutrophication. During the 1960s and 1970s, increased phosphorus inputs degraded water quality and reduced central basin hypolimnetic oxygen levels which, in turn, eliminated thermal habitat vital to cold-water organisms and contributed to the extirpation of important benthic macroinvertebrate prey species for fishes. In response to load reductions initiated in 1972, Lake Erie responded quickly with reduced water-column phosphorus concentrations, phytoplankton biomass, and bottom-water hypoxia (dissolved oxygen 2) requires cutting total phosphorus loads by 46% from the 2003–2011 average or reducing dissolved reactive phosphorus loads by 78% from the 2005–2011 average. Reductions to these levels are also protective of fish habitat. We provide potential approaches for achieving those new loading targets, and suggest that recent load reduction recommendations focused on western basin cyanobacteria blooms may not be sufficient to reduce central basin hypoxia to 2000 km2.

  3. Invertebrate communities associated with Bangia atropurpurea and Cladophora glomerata in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, E.W.; Lowe, R.L.; Schurr, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of the marine alga Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta) in Lake Erie has been followed by its rapid dispersal throughout the eulittoral zone of the lake. Bangia was extensively sampled to determine its suitability as a habitat for littoral organisms. Present data indicate that the only organisms capable of maintaining populations on Bangia filaments are larval Chironomidae. Cladophora supports a larger and more diverse community. It is concluded that the mucilaginous cell wall of Bangia provides a less stable substrate for attached or clinging organisms than does the cellulose cell wall of Cladophora. The presence of Bangia in the littoral zone of Lake Erie results in a reduction of the quantity and diversity of algal epiphytes and may negatively impact the littoral food web.

  4. Eri prosessointien vaikutus ruusunmarjan c-vitamiinipitoisuuteen : kuumennus, paseeraus ja pakastesäilytys

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Raili

    2007-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyön liittyy kotimaisten ruusunmarjojen sekä tuore- ja höyrysoseiden Cvitamiinin säilymiseen eri prosessointimenetelmien ja pakkassäilytyksen aikana. Näytteinä tutkimuksessa olivat kokonaisena poimitut pakastetut ruusunmarjat, tuore pakastettu ruusunmarjasose ja kuumakäsitelty (höyrytetty) ruusunmarjasose. Tutkittavan ruusunmarjan pakastesäilytysaika oli ollut kokonaisuudessaan yksi vuosi. Tutkimus toteutettiin Haapaveden ammattiopistolla. Ruusunmarjan C- vitamiinipitoisuudet an...

  5. Lucifer's Planet: Photolytic Hazes in the Atmosphere of 51 Eri b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We use a 1D model to address photochemistry and possible haze formation in the irradiated atmosphere of 51 Eri b (2016arXiv160407388Z). The intended focus was to have been on carbon and organic hazes, but sulfur photochemistry turns out to be interesting and possibly more important. The case for organic photochemical hazes is intriguing but falls short of being compelling. If organic hazes form abundantly, they are likeliest to do so if vertical mixing in 51 Eri b is weaker than in Jupiter, and they would be found below the altitudes where methane and water are photolyzed. The more novel result is that photochemistry turns H2S into elemental sulfur, here treated as S8. In the cooler models, S8 is predicted to condense in optically significant clouds of solid sulfur particles, whilst in the warmer models S8 remains a vapor along with several other sulfur allotropes that are both visually striking and potentially observable. For 51 Eri b, the division between models with and without condensed sulfur is at an effective temperature of 700 K, which is within error its actual effective temperature; the local temperature where sulfur condenses is between 280 and 320 K. The sulfur photochemistry we discuss is quite general and ought to be found in a wide variety of worlds over a broad temperature range, both colder and hotter than the 650-750 K range studied here, and we show that products of sulfur photochemistry will be nearly as abundant on planets where the UV irradiation is orders of magnitude weaker than it is on 51 Eri b.

  6. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  7. Recruitment of Hexagenia mayfly nymphs in western Lake Erie linked to environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Thomas B.; Schloesser, Don W.; Krause, Ann E.

    2006-01-01

    After a 40-year absence caused by pollution and eutrophication, burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) recolonized western Lake Erie in the mid 1990s as water quality improved. Mayflies are an important food resource for the economically valuable yellow perch fishery and are considered to be major indicator species of the ecological condition of the lake. Since their reappearance, however, mayfly populations have suffered occasional unexplained recruitment failures. In 2002, a failure of fall recruitment followed an unusually warm summer in which western Lake Erie became temporarily stratified, resulting in low dissolved oxygen levels near the lake floor. In the present study, we examined a possible link between Hexagenia recruitment and periods of intermittent stratification for the years 1997-2002. A simple model was developed using surface temperature, wind speed, and water column data from 2003 to predict stratification. The model was then used to detect episodes of stratification in past years for which water column data are unavailable. Low or undetectable mayfly recruitment occurred in 1997 and 2002, years in which there was frequent or extended stratification between June and September. Highest mayfly reproduction in 2000 corresponded to the fewest stratified periods. These results suggest that even relatively brief periods of stratification can result in loss of larval mayfly recruitment, probably through the effects of hypoxia. A trend toward increasing frequency of hot summers in the Great Lakes region could result in recurrent loss of mayfly larvae in western Lake Erie and other shallow areas in the Great Lakes.

  8. Minimum size limits for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Wilbur L.; Nepszy, Stephen J.; Scholl, Russell L.

    1980-01-01

    During the 1960's yellow perch (Perca flavescens) of Lake Erie supported a commercial fishery that produced an average annual catch of 23 million pounds, as well as a modest sport fishery. Since 1969, the resource has seriously deteriorated. Commercial landings amounted to only 6 million pounds in 1976, and included proportionally more immature perch than in the 1960's. Moreover, no strong year classes were produced between 1965 and 1975. An interagency technical committee was appointed in 1975 by the Lake Erie Committee of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission to develop an interim management strategy that would provide for greater protection of perch in western Lake Erie, where declines have been the most severe. The committee first determined the age structure, growth and mortality rates, maturation schedule, and length-fecundity relationship for the population, and then applied Ricker-type equilibrium yield models to determine the effects of various minimum length limits on yield, production, average stock weight, potential egg deposition, and the Abrosov spawning frequency indicator (average number of spawning opportunities per female). The committee recommended increasing the minimum length limit of 5.0 inches to at least 8.5 inches. Theoretically, this change would increase the average stock weight by 36% and potential egg deposition by 44%, without significantly decreasing yield. Abrosov's spawning frequency indicator would rise from the existing 0.6 to about 1.2.

  9. Elemental contaminants in livers of mute swans on lakes Erie and St. Clair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schummer, Michael L; Petrie, Scott A; Badzinski, Shannon S; Deming, Misty; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2011-11-01

    Contaminant inputs to the lower Great Lakes (LGL) have decreased since the 1960s and 1970s, but elemental contaminants continue to enter the LGL watershed at levels that are potentially deleterious to migratory waterfowl. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) using the LGL primarily eat plants, are essentially nonmigratory, forage exclusively in aquatic systems, and have increased substantially in number in the last few decades. Therefore, mute swans are an ideal sentinel species for monitoring elemental contaminants available to herbivorous and omnivorous waterfowl that use the LGL. We investigated hepatic concentrations, seasonal dynamics, and correlations of elements in mute swans (n = 50) collected at Long Point, Lake Erie, and Lake St. Clair from 2001 to 2004. Elements detected in liver at levels potentially harmful to waterfowl were copper (Cu) [range 60.3 to 6063.0 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw)] and selenium (SE; range 1.6 to 37.3 μg g(-1) dw). Decreases in aluminum, Se, and mercury (Hg) concentrations were detected from spring (nesting) through winter (nonbreeding). Elemental contaminants may be more available to waterfowl during spring than fall and winter, but study of seasonal availability of elements within LGL aquatic systems is necessary. From April to June, 68% of mute swans had Se levels >10 μg g(-1), whereas only 18% of swans contained these elevated levels of Se from July to March. An increase in the number of mute swans at the LGL despite elevated levels of Cu and Se suggests that these burdens do not substantially limit their reproduction or survival. Se was correlated with Cu (r = 0.85, p < 0.01) and Hg (r = 0.65, p < 0.01), which might indicate interaction between these elements. Some element interactions decrease the toxicity of both elements involved in the interaction. We recommend continued research of elemental contaminant concentrations, including detailed analyses of biological pathways and element forms (e.g., methylmercury) in LGL waterfowl to help

  10. Interpretation of Landscape Scale SWAT Model Outputs in the Western Lake Erie Basin: Potential Implications for Conservation Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. V. V.; Behrman, K. D.; Atwood, J. D.; White, M. J.; Norfleet, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    There is substantial interest in understanding how conservation practices and agricultural management impact water quality, particularly phosphorus dynamics, in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB). In 2016, the US and Canada accepted total phosphorus (TP) load targets recommended by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Annex 4 Objectives and Targets Task Team; these were 6,000 MTA delivered to Lake Erie and 3,660 MTA delivered to WLEB. Outstanding challenges include development of metrics to determine achievement of these goals, establishment of sufficient monitoring capacity to assess progress, and identification of appropriate conservation practices to achieve the most cost-effective results. Process-based modeling can help inform decisions to address these challenges more quickly than can system observation. As part of the NRCS-led Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to predict impacts of conservation practice adoption reported by farmers on TP loss and load delivery dynamics in WLEB. SWAT results suggest that once the conservation practices in place in 2003-06 and 2012 are fully functional, TP loads delivered to WLEB will average 3,175 MTA and 3,084 MTA, respectively. In other words, SWAT predicts that currently adopted practices are sufficient to meet Annex 4 TP load targets. Yet, WLEB gauging stations show Annex 4 goals are unmet. There are several reasons the model predictions and current monitoring efforts are not in agreement: 1. SWAT assumes full functionality of simulated conservation practices; 2. SWAT does not simulate changing management over time, nor impacts of past management on legacy loads; 3. SWAT assumes WLEB hydrological system equilibrium under simulated management. The SWAT model runs used to construct the scenarios that informed the Annex 4 targets were similarly constrained by model assumptions. It takes time for a system to achieve equilibrium when management changes and it

  11. Chromospherically active stars. III - HD 26337 = EI Eri: An RS CVn candidate for the Doppler-imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Quigley, Robert; Gillies, Kim; Africano, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chromospherically active G5 IV single-lined binary HD 26337 = EI Eri are presented. An orbital period of 1.94722 days is found for the star. It has moderately strong Ca II H and K emission and strong ultraviolet emission features, while H-alpha is a weak absorption feature that is variable in strength. The inclination of the system is 46 + or - 12 deg, and the unseen secondary is probably a late K or early M dwarf. The v sin i of the primary is 50 + or - 3 km/s, resulting in a minimum radius of 1.9 + or - 0.1 solar radius. The star is within the required limits for Doppler imaging. The primary is close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in a strong constraint that the mass ratio is 2.6 or greater, with a primary mass of at least 1.4 solar mass. The distance to the system is estimated at 75 pc.

  12. Stable isotopes and heavy metal distribution in Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussels) from western basin of Lake Erie, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Aasm, I.S.; Clarke, J.D.; Fryer, B.J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-02-01

    Dreissena polymorpha is an exotic freshwater bivalve species which was introduced into the Great Lakes system in the fall of 1985 through the release of ballast water from European freighters. Utilizing individual growth rings of the shells, the stable isotope distribution ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C) was determined for the life history of selected samples which were collected from the western basin of Lake Erie. These bivalves deposit their shell in near equilibrium with the ambient water and thus reflect any annual variation of the system in the isotopic records held within their shells. Observed values for {delta}{sup 18}O range from -6.64 to -9.46 permille with an average value of -7.69 permille PDB, while carbon values ranged from -0.80 to -4.67 permille with an average value of -1.76 permille PDB. Dreissena polymorpha shells incorporate metals into their shells during growth. Individual shell growth increments were analyzed for Pb, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cd, Cu, and V concentrations. The shells show increased uptake of certain metals during periods of isotopic enrichment which correspond with warmer water temperatures. Since metals are incorporated into the shells, the organism may be useful as a biomonitor of metal pollution within aquatic environments. (orig.)

  13. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, William; Gawne, Carrie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, Mark W.; Stewart, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the USGS LEBS successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and LTLA (see FTG, CWTG, and FTG reports, respectively). Results from the surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Task Group data needs and analyses of trends in Lake Erie’s fish communities. The cruise survey schedule in 2014 was greatly increased by LEBS’s participation in the Lake Erie CSMI, which consisted of up-to two weeks of additional sampling per month from April to October. CSMI is a bi-national effort that occurs at Lake Erie every five years with the purpose of addressing data and knowledge gaps necessary to management agencies and the Lake Erie LaMP. LEBS deepwater science capabilities also provided a platform for data collection by Lake Erie investigators from multiple agencies and universities including: the USGS GLSC, ODW, KSU, OSU, UM, PU, UT, and the USNRL. Samples from this survey are being processed and a separate report of the findings will be made available in a separate document. Our 2014 vessel operations were initiated in mid-April, as soon after ice-out as possible, and continued into early December. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 196 bottom trawls covering 48.5 km of lake-bottom, nearly 6 km of gillnet, collected data from 60 hydroacoustics transects, 285 lower trophic (i.e., zooplankton and benthos) samples, and 330 water quality measures (e.g., temperature profiles, water samples). Thus, 2014 was an intensive year of field activity. Our June and September bottom trawl surveys in the Western Basin were numerically dominated by Emerald Shiner, White Perch, and Yellow Perch; however, Freshwater Drum were

  14. Understanding the Atmosphere of 51 Eri b: Do Photochemical Hazes Cloud the Planets Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott; Zahnle, Kevin; Moses, J.; Morley, C.

    2015-01-01

    The first young giant planet to be discovered by the Gemini Planet Imager was the (is) approximately 2MJ planet 51 Eri b. This approximately 20 Myr old young Jupiter is the first directly imaged planet to show unmistakable methane in H band. To constrain the planet's mass, atmospheric temperature, and composition, the GPI J and H band spectra as well as some limited photometric points were compared to the predictions of substellar atmosphere models. The best fitting models reported in the discovery paper (Macintosh et al. 2015) relied upon a combination of clear and cloudy atmospheric columns to reproduce the data. However for an object as cool as 700 K, the origin of the cloud coverage is somewhat puzzling, as the global silicate and iron clouds would be expected to have sunk well below the photosphere by this effective temperature. While strong vertical mixing in these low gravity atmospheres remains a plausible explanation, we have explored whether atmospheric photochemistry, driven by the UV flux from the primary star, may yield hazes that also influence the observed spectrum of the planet. To explore this possibility we have modeled the atmospheric photochemistry of 51 Eri b using two state-of-the-art photochemical models, both capable of predicting yields of complex hydrocarbons under various atmospheric conditions. In our presentation we will summarize the modeling approach employed to characterize 51 Eri b, explaining constraints on the planet's effective temperature, gravity, and atmospheric composition and also present results of our studies of atmospheric photochemistry. We will discuss whether photochemical hazes could indeed be responsible for the particulate opacity that apparently sculpts the spectrum of the planet.

  15. Eri aistijärjestelmiä aktivoivat tasapainoharjoitteluvälineet

    OpenAIRE

    Kytölinna, Pauliina

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää tämänhetkiset näyttöön perustuvat tasapainoharjoittelukeinot sekä – välineet, jonka perusteella Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulun fysioterapian koulutusohjelmille laaditaan tasapainovälineiden hankintasuunnitelma. Tasapainovälineiden hankintasuunnitelman näkökulmaksi valittiin tasapainoharjoittelun pienvälineet, jotka monipuolisesti aktivoivat eri aistijärjestelmiä. Kuvailevan kirjallisuuskatsauksen keinoin opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin aistijärjeste...

  16. Review of Reports on Lake Erie - Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix D. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    Venezuela (29 percent). Canada produced 48.3 million tons of iron ore in 1970 ,of which 23.9 million tons were exported to the United States (14.4 million...grain traffic, 1971 D-14 D-6 U.S. - Great Lakes grain exports 1960 - 1971 and projected D-15 D-7 U.S. doal traffic, Lake Erie - Lake Ontario, 1958-1970...Soybeans Wheat Barley Oats Rice Sorghum Grains Flaxseed Oilseeds, n.e.c. Tobacco, leaf Hay and Fodder Field crops, n.e.c. Fresh fruits Co ffee Cocoa beans

  17. Binary Star Orbits. V. The Nearby White Dwarf/Red Dwarf Pair 40 Eri BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Miles, Korie N.

    2017-11-01

    A new relative orbit solution with new dynamical masses is determined for the nearby white dwarf-red dwarf pair 40 Eri BC. The period is 230.09 ± 0.68 years. It is predicted to close slowly over the next half-century, getting as close as 1.″32 in early 2066. We determine masses of 0.575 ± 0.018 {{ M }}⊙ for the white dwarf and 0.2041 ± 0.0064 {{ M }}⊙ for the red dwarf companion. The inconsistency of the masses determined by gravitational redshift and dynamical techniques, due to a premature orbit calculation, no longer exists.

  18. Seasonal dynamics in dissolved organic matter, hydrogen peroxide, and cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose M. Cory

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 has been suggested to influence cyanobacterial community structure and toxicity. However, no study has investigated H2O2 concentrations in freshwaters relative to cyanobacterial blooms when sources and sinks of H2O2 may be highly variable. For example, photochemical production of H2O2 from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM may vary over the course of the bloom with changing CDOM and UV light in the water column, while microbial sources and sinks of H2O2 may change with community biomass and composition. To assess relationships between H2O2 and harmful algal blooms dominated by toxic cyanobacteria in the western basin of Lake Erie, we measured H2O2 weekly at six stations from June – November, 2014 and 2015, with supporting physical, chemical, and biological water quality data. Nine additional stations across the western, eastern, and central basins of Lake Erie were sampled during August and October, 2015. CDOM sources were quantified from the fluorescence fraction of CDOM using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. CDOM concentration and source were significantly correlated with specific conductivity, demonstrating that discharge of terrestrially-derived CDOM from rivers can be tracked in the lake. Autochthonous sources of CDOM in the lake increased over the course of the blooms. Concentrations of H2O2 in Lake Erie ranged from 47 ± 16 nM to 1570 ± 16 nM (average of 371 ± 17 nM; n = 225, and were not correlated to CDOM concentration or source, UV light, or estimates of photochemical production of H2O2 by CDOM. Temporal patterns in H2O2 were more closely aligned with bloom dynamics in the lake. In 2014 and 2015, maximum concentrations of H2O2 were observed prior to peak water column respiration and chlorophyll a, coinciding with the onset of the widespread Microcystis blooms in late July. The spatial and temporal patterns in H2O2 concentrations suggested that production and decay of H2O2 from aquatic

  19. Effects of complex effluents on photosynthesis in Lake Erie and Lake Huron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgham, S.D.; McNaught, D.C.; Meadows, C.

    1988-01-01

    Phytoplankton are the base of the food chain in most large lake ecosystems; if affected by environmental pollutants, significant ecosystem changes can result with potential impact on higher trophic levels. The research determined the effects of a complex effluent discharge from the River Raisin in Monroe County, Michigan, on the Lake Erie ecosystem. The river flows through southern Michigan and has large nutrient and industrial inputs, especially in the Monroe Harbor area. The functional parameters measured were bacterial uptake rate of acetate, zooplankton feeding and reproduction rates, and primary production. The results of the effects of complex effluents on gross photosynthesis, measured as carbon-14 ((14)C) uptake, are presented in the paper

  20. Isolation, Identification and Phenotypic Characterization of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, A.; Mou, X. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Erie, the smallest and warmest lake among the Laurentian Great Lakes, is known for its problem of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). One major harmful effect of CyanoHABs is the production of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins. Microcystins (MC) are a group of hepatotoxins and the predominant variant of them is MC-LR. Field measurements and lab experiments indicate that MC degradation in Lake Erie is mainly carried out by indigenous bacteria. However, our knowledge on taxa involved in this process is very limited. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap using a culture-dependent approach. Water and surface sediment samples were collected from Lake Erie in 2014 and 2015 and enriched with MC-LR. Cells were plated on a number of culturing media. The obtained pure bacterial cultures were screened for MC degrading abilities by MT2 BIO-LOG assays and by growing cells in liquid media containing MC-LR as the sole carbon source. In the latter experiment, MC concentrations were measured using HPLC. Isolates showing positive MC degradation activities in the screening steps were designated MC+ bacteria and characterized based on their phenotypic properties, including colony pigmentation, elevation, opacity, margin, gram nature and motility. The taxonomic identity of MC+ bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene full-length DNA sequencing. The presence of mlrA, a gene encoding MC cleavage pathway, was detected by PCR. Our culturing efforts obtained 520 pure cultures; 44 of them were identified as MC+. These MC+ isolates showed diversity in taxonomic identities and differed in their morphology, gram nature, colony characteristics and motility. PCR amplification of mlrA gene yield negative results for all MC+ isolates, indicating that the primers that were used may not be ubiquitous enough to cover the heterogeneity of mlrA genes or, more likely, alternative degradative genes/pathways were employed by Lake Erie bacteria

  1. Erie Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. License application, preliminary safety analysis report, volume 1: chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Erie 1 and 2 reactors will be located on a site consisting of 1,740 acres in Berlin Township about 2.4 miles south of Lake Erie and 8.9 miles southeast of Sandusky, Ohio. Lake Erie will provide makeup water. The ultimate heat sink will be a 40 acre cooling reservoir shared by both units. Each unit has a proposed core thermal power level of 3,760 MW(t) and a nominal net capacity of about 1282 MW(e). Unit 1 is scheduled for commercial operation by 4/1/84 and Unit 2 by 4/1/86. Fuel will be Zircaloy-4 clad tubes containing cylindrical fuel pellets of UO 2 . B and W pressurized water reactor units to be employed are described in DOCKET-STN-50561

  2. Transient Social-Ecological Stability: the Effects of Invasive Species and Ecosystem Restoration on Nutrient Management Compromise in Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Together, lake ecosystems and local human activity form complex social-ecological systems (SESs characterized by feedback loops and discontinuous change. Researchers in diverse fields have suggested that complex systems do not have single stable equilibria in the long term because of inevitable perturbation. During this study, we sought to address the general question of whether or not stable social-ecological equilibria exist in highly stressed and managed lacustrine systems. Using an integrated human-biophysical model, we investigated the impacts of a species invasion and ecosystem restoration on SES equilibrium, defined here as a compromise in phosphorus management among opposing stakeholders, in western Lake Erie. Our integrated model is composed of a calibrated ecological submodel representing Sandusky Bay, and a phosphorus management submodel that reflects the societal benefits and costs of phosphorus regulation. These two submodels together form a dynamic feedback loop that includes freshwater ecology, ecosystem services, and phosphorus management. We found that the invasion of dreissenid mussels decreased ecosystem resistance to eutrophication, necessitating increased phosphorus management to preserve ecosystem services and thus creating the potential for a shift in social-ecological equilibrium. Additionally, our results suggest that net benefits in the region following the invasion of dreissenids may never again reach the pre-invasion level if on-site phosphorus control is the sole management lever. Further demonstrating transient system stability, large-scale wetland restoration shifted points of management compromise to states characterized by less on-site phosphorus management and higher environmental quality, resulting in a significant increase in net benefits in the region. We conclude that lacustrine SESs are open and dynamic, and we recommend that future models of these systems emphasize site-specific perturbation over

  3. El idealismo en la filosofía medieval: el caso de Juan Escoto Eriúgena

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Dermont

    2012-01-01

    Quiero sostener en este artículo (en contra de la posición de Myles Burnyeat) que el idealismo es una posibilidad filosófica genuina previa a Descartes. En efecto, podemos encontrar una versión del idealismo que supone un concepto desarrollado de subjetividad en una sofisticada versión del  Periphyseon de Escoto Eriúgena. El inmaterialismo intelectualista extremo de Eriúgena difiere del idealismo moderno en la medida en que aquél no está motivado tanto por una consideración epistemológica de ...

  4. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Robert C. [Daemen College, Amherst, NY (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  5. GC-MS analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Vartak, Marissa; Tallmadge, Weslene

    2012-06-01

    Lake Erie is one of the five great lakes of North America. It is the shallowest, the warmest, and the most biologically productive of the Great Lakes producing more fish than all of the other four lakes combined. It is also a source of drinking water for 11 million people and a recreational asset. On the flipside, it is also very vulnerable and troubled with environmental challenges because it has the smallest water volume, but the greatest pressures from the human settlement. One of the many issues faced by the Lake is pollution. It receives larger loads of many pollutants than any other Great Lake. Even with the best pollution controls many pesticides and organohalogens continue to enter the lake. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame-retardants that have been used in a variety of consumer products since the 1970s. They are added to many commercial and household products such as computers, foam mattresses, carpets, etc. Being largely non-polar and chemically stable, these chemicals are extremely lipophilic and resist degradation in the environment, thus giving them a high affinity for their bioaccumulation. Due to these properties PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. These compounds are reported to be endocrine disruptors and could cause oxidative damage. This report presents the sample preparation protocol, the GC-MS analysis of PBDEs in Lake Erie sediment samples.

  6. Growth, reproduction, mortality, distribution, and biomass of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    Predominant age-groups in the Lake Erie freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunnienspopulation were 3, 4, and 5 as determined from gill net, trap net, bottom trawl, and midwater trawl samples. Age and growth calculations indicated that females grew faster than males. However, the length-weight relation did not differ between sexes and was described by the equation: log W = −5.4383 + 3.1987 log L. Some males became sexually mature at age 2 and all were mature by age 6. Females matured 1 year later than males. Three sizes of eggs were present in ovaries; the average total number was 127,000 per female for 20 females over a length range of 270 to 478 mm. Seasonal analysis of the ovary-body weight ratio indicated that spawning extended from June to August. A total annual mortality rate of 49% for drum aged 4 through 11 was derived from catch-curve analysis. Freshwater drum were widely distributed throughout Lake Erie in 1977–1979, the greatest concentration being in the western basin. They moved into warm, shallow water (less than 10 m deep) during summer, and returned to deeper water in late fall. Summer biomass estimates for the western basin, based on systematic surveys with bottom trawls, were 9,545 t in 1977 and 2,333 t in 1978.

  7. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability.

  8. Detection of the spatiotemporal trends of mercury in Lake Erie fish communities: a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, M Ekram; Kumarappah, Ananthavalli; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Backus, Sean M; Arhonditsis, George

    2011-03-15

    The temporal trends of total mercury (THg) in four fish species in Lake Erie were evaluated based on 35 years of fish contaminant data. Our Bayesian statistical approach consists of three steps aiming to address different questions. First, we used the exponential and mixed-order decay models to assess the declining rates in four intensively sampled fish species, i.e., walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and white bass (Morone chrysops). Because the two models postulate monotonic decrease of the THg levels, we included first- and second-order random walk terms in our statistical formulations to accommodate nonmonotonic patterns in the data time series. Our analysis identified a recent increase in the THg concentrations, particularly after the mid-1990s. In the second step, we used double exponential models to quantify the relative magnitude of the THg trends depending on the type of data used (skinless-boneless fillet versus whole fish data) and the fish species examined. The observed THg concentrations were significantly higher in skinless boneless fillet than in whole fish portions, while the whole fish portions of walleye exhibited faster decline rates and slower rates of increase relative to the skinless boneless fillet data. Our analysis also shows lower decline rates and higher rates of increase in walleye relative to the other three fish species examined. The food web structural shifts induced by the invasive species (dreissenid mussels and round goby) may be associated with the recent THg trends in Lake Erie fish.

  9. Detection of Potential Shallow Aquifer Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at UTHM Campus, Johor Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzaty Riwayat, Akhtar; Nazri, Mohd Ariff Ahmad; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) has become part of important method in preliminary stage as to gain more information in indicate the hidden water in underground layers. The problem faces by engineers is to determine the exact location of groundwater zone in subsurface layers. ERI seen as the most suitable tools in exploration of groundwater as this method have been applied in geotechnical and geo-environment investigation. This study was conducted using resistivity at UTHM campus to interpret the potential shallow aquifer and potential location for borehole as observation well. A Schlumberger array was setup during data acquisition as this array is capable in imaging deeper profile data and suitable for areas with homogeneous layer. The raw data was processed using RES2DINV software for 2D subsurface image. The result obtained indicate that the thickness of shallow aquifer for both spread line varies between 7.5 m to 15 m. The analysis of rest raw data using IP showed that the chargeability parameter is equal to 0 which strongly indicated the presence of groundwater aquifer in the study area.

  10. Nonlinear convective flow of Powell-Erying magneto nanofluid with Newtonian heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Qayyum

    Full Text Available Objective of present article is to describe magnetohydrodynamic (MHD non-linear convective flow of Powell-Erying nanofluid over a stretching surface. Characteristics of Newtonian heat and mass conditions in this attempt is given attention. Heat and mass transfer analysis is examined in the frame of thermal radiation and chemical reaction. Brownian motion and thermophoresis concept is introduced due to presence of nanoparticles. Nonlinear equations of momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into dimensionless expression by invoking suitable variables. The series solutions are obtained through homotopy analysis method (HAM. Impact of embedded variables on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration is graphically presented. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and analyzed. It is concluded that velocity field enhances for fluid variable while reverse situation is noticed regarding Hartman number. Temperature and heat transfer rate behave quite reverse for Prandtl number. It is also noted that the concentration and local Sherwood number have opposite behavior in the frame of Brownian motion. Keywords: Powell-Erying nanofluid, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD, Nonlinear convection, Thermal radiation, Chemical reaction, Newtonian heat and mass conditions

  11. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerks, P.L.; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%·day -1 of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn·m -2 ·day -1 ) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  12. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klerks, P.L. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Dept. of Biology, Lafayette, Louisiana (United States)]. E-mail: klerks@usl.edu; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E. [Univ. of Toledo, Dept. of Biology, Toledo, Ohio (United States)

    1997-07-15

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%{center_dot}day{sup -1} of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}day{sup -1}) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  13. The Optimization of Molecular Detection of Clinical Isolates of Brucella in Blood Cultures by eryD Transcriptase Gene for Confirmation of Culture-Negative Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibnejad, Mahsa; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Arjomandzadegan, Mohammad; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Naseri, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis disease which is widespread across the world. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of culture-negative blood samples. A total of 100 patients with suspected brucellosis were included in this experimental study and given positive serological tests. Diagnosis was performed on patients with clinical symptoms of the disease, followed by the detection of a titer that was equal to or more than 1:160 (in endemic areas) by the standard tube agglutination method. Blood samples were cultured by a BACTEC 9050 system, and subsequently by Brucella agar. At the same time, DNA from all blood samples was extracted by Qiagen Kit Company (Qia Amp Mini Kit). A molecular assay of blood samples was carried out by detection of eryD transcriptase and bcsp 31 genes in specific double PCR reactions. The specificity of the primers was evaluated by DNA from pure and approved Brucella colonies found in the blood samples, by DNA from other bacteria, and by ordinary PCR. DNA extraction from the pure colonies was carried out by both Qiagen Kit and Chelex 100 methods; the two were compared. 39 cases (39%) had positive results when tested by the BACTEC system, and 61 cases (61%) became negative. 23 culture-positive blood samples were randomly selected for PCR reactions; all showed 491 bp for the eryD gene and 223 bp for the bcsp 31 gene. Interestingly, out of 14 culture-negative blood samples, 13 cases showed positive bonds in PCR. The specificity of the PCR method was equal to 100%. DNA extraction from pure cultures was done by both Chelex 100 and Qiagen Kit; these showed the same results for all samples. The results prove that the presented double PCR method could be used to detect positive cases from culture-negative blood samples. The Chelex 100 method is simpler and safer than the use of Qiagen Kit for DNA extraction.

  14. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  15. 78 FR 62348 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7518-015] Erie Boulevard... and a maximum storage capacity of approximately 112 acre-feet; (2) a 247- foot-long, 11.5-foot-high concrete gravity dam with a spillway crest elevation of 165.2 feet above mean sea level; (3) a 34-foot-long...

  16. 76 FR 4097 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2713-082] Erie Boulevard... Oswegatchie River and consists of: (1) A 941-foot-long dam with a 192-foot-long, 69-foot-high concrete gravity... seasonal flash boards; (2) a 168-acre reservoir with a gross storage capacity of 3,234 acre-feet and a...

  17. Using water quality to assess ecological condition in the St. Marys River and Huron-Erie Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The St. Marys River and Huron-Erie-Corridor were assessed by EPA for the first time in 2014-2016 as part of the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). NCCA uses a probabilistic survey design to allow unbiased assessment of ecological condition across the entire Great Lakes...

  18. 76 FR 23799 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. P-2713-082] Erie Boulevard...: Kimberly D. Bose, Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC... Environmental Conservation, New York State Council of Trout Unlimited, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the...

  19. Comparative Sensor Fusion between Hyperspectral and Multispectral Remote Sensing Data for Monitoring Microcystin Distribution in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban growth and agricultural production have caused an influx of nutrients into Lake Erie, leading to eutrophic zones. These conditions result in the formation of algal blooms, some of which are toxic due to the presence of Microcystis (a cyanobacteria), which produces the hepat...

  20. 75 FR 71122 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7518-012--New York] Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review November 15, 2010. Commission staff will be conducting two public scoping meetings and an environmental site review in support...

  1. 76 FR 59682 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 7518-012] Erie Boulevard Hydropower L.P.; Notice of Dispute Resolution Panel Meeting and Technical Conference On September 16, 2011, Commission staff, in response to the filing of notice of study dispute by the New York State Department of...

  2. Eri silkworm: a source of edible oil with a high content of α-linolenic acid and of significant nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, Thingnganing; Manghtya, Korra; Qadri, Syed S Y H

    2012-07-01

    The study was undertaken to provide value addition to spent eri silkworm as an alternative source of edible oil for the food and feed industry by carrying out a short-term nutritional and toxicological evaluation of eri silkworm pupae oil using Wistar NIN rats. Growth performance of rats fed either sunflower oil (Control) or eri silkworm pupae oil (Experimental) was comparable. Histopathological examination of the various tissues showed no signs of toxicity even after feeding the eri silkworm oil for 18 weeks. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly reduced (P oil. The study showed that eri silkworm pupae oil is safe and nutritionally equivalent to commonly used vegetable oils. Eri silkworm pupae can be harvested to provide a cost effective alternative edible oil that can be used to nutritional advantage in the food and feed industry. Therefore eri silkworm and its host plants offer an excellent example of multiple product crops and of sustainable agricultural practice with excellent opportunity for economic and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Age and growth of the lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill), in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John; Hile, Ralph

    1949-01-01

    Although the whitefish has by no means ranked first from the standpoint of production, it has always been an important commercial species in Lake Erie. Trends in the output of whitefish have differed in the United States and Canadian waters of the lake. The 1893–1946 average annual yield of 1,201,000 pounds in the United States was only 38.3 percent of the 1879–1890 mean of 3,133,000 pounds, whereas in Canada the more recent (1907–1946) average annual take of 1,397,000 pounds has been 5.48 times the 1871–1906 mean of 255,000 pounds. The United States fishery was centered in the western part of Lake Erie (61.5 percent of the production in Michigan and Ohio) before 1921 and in the eastern part (62.6 percent in Pennsylvania and New York) in 1921–1946. The eastern part of Lake Erie (east of Port Burwell) dominated the Canadian production in 1900–1909 (65.4 percent) and in 1922–1946 (57.2 percent) but the western end was the more productive in 1871–1899 (79.8 percent) and 1910–1921 (69.7 percent). Ages were determined and individual growth histories calculated from the examination and measurement of the scales of 3,399 Lake Erie whitefish captured off four ports (Sandusky, Lorain, and Conneaut, Ohio, and Erie, Pennsylvania) over the period, 1927–1930. The number of specimens used for the investigation of other phases of the life history varied according to the amount of data available or required. Age-group III was typically (but not invariably) dominant in random samples from gear employed for the commercial production of whitefish (trap nets, pound nets, and large-mesh gill nets). The same age group also dominated most samples of the marketable catch (that is, whitefish that equalled or exceeded the minimum legal weight of 1 3/4 pounds) taken in late summer, autumn, and early winter. Age-group IV, however, was strongest among marketable fish from trap nets in early July although the III group was dominant in the random samples from the same nets

  4. Simultaneous X-ray, UV, and Optical Variations in lambda ERI (B2e)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. A.; Murakami, T.; Anandarao, B.

    1996-12-01

    We have carried out a simultaneous observing campaign on the prototypical Be star lambda Eri using ground stations and ROSAT, ASCA, IUE, and Voyager spacecrafts during the week of February-March 1995; a smaller campaign was carried out the following September. In late February lambda Eri showed extraordinary disk-wind activity. ROSAT/HRI monitoring disclosed no large flares such as ROSAT observed in 1991 in lambda Eri. Possible low amplitude fluctuations in the 1995 data occurred at the same time with unusual activity in Hα , HeI lambda 6678, HeII lambda 1640, CIII, and the CIV doublet. The helium line activity suggests that mass ejection occurred at the base of the wind. The strong CIII and CIV lines implies that shock interactions originated in the wind flow. It is not clear that the X-ray fluctuations are directly related to the increases in wind line absorption. Within hours of the mild X-ray flux variations found by ROSAT on February 28, the Voyager UVS observed a ``ringing" that decayed over three 3-hr. cycles. The amplitude of these fluctuations was large (50%) at lambda lambda 950-1100, decreased rapidly with wavelength, and faded to nondetection above lambda 1300. Various considerations indicate that these continuum variations were not due to an instrument pathology in the UVS. Rather, they appear to be due to a time-dependent flux deficit in the lambda lambda 1250 during the minima of these cycles. We outline a scenario in which dense plasma over the star's surface is alternately heated and cooled quasi-periodically to produce the flux changes. Additional examples of this new phenomenon are needed. Amateur astronomers can make a significant contribution to the understanding of flickering in Be star light curves during their outburst phases. We also draw attention to an increase in the emission of the Hα line that occurred at about the same time the FUV ringing started. This increased emission hints that ~ 50,000K plasma near the star's surface can

  5. Recolonization and possible recovery of burrowing mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae: Hexagenia spp.) in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Krieger, Kenneth A.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.

    2000-01-01

    Burrowing mayflies of the genus Hexagenia spp. were widely distributed (ca. 80% of sites) and abundant (ca. 160 nymphs/m2) in the western basin of Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1929–1930, prior to a period of anoxia in the mid 1950s. Nymphs were absent or rare in the basin between 1961 and 1973–1975. In 1979–1991, nymphs were infrequently found (13–46% of sites) in low abundance (3–40 nymphs/m2) near shore (recolonized sediments of western Lake Erie and that their abundance may be similar to levels observed before their disappearance in the mid 1950s. However, prior to the mid 1950s, densities were greater in offshore than nearshore waters, but between 1979 and 1998 greater densities occurred near shore than offshore. In addition, there were two areas in the 1990s where low densities consistently occurred. Therefore, recovery of nymphs in western Lake Erie may not have been complete in 1998. At present we do not know the cause for the sudden recolonization of nymphs in large portions of western Lake Erie. Undoubtedly, pollution-abatement programs contributed to improved conditions that would have ultimately led to mayfly recovery in the future. However, the explosive growth of the exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, undoubtedly diverted plankton foods to bottom substrates which could have increased the speed at which Hexagenia spp. nymphs recolonized sediments in western Lake Erie in the 1990s.

  6. Fecundity of walleyes in western Lake Erie, 1966 and 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Kenneth M.; Ickes, Brian S.

    1993-01-01

    Ovaries were collected from walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in western Lake Erie just prior to spawning in 1990 and 1991 to determine current fecundity. Results were compared with fecundity determined in 1966 prior to stock rehabilitation when walleye abundance was lower and fish size at age was greater. Fecundity estimates determined from 121 fish aged 3-10 ranged from 53,000 to 426,000 eggs per female. Increases in egg production correlated with increases in length and weight, and weight accounting for most of the variability. In 1990-91 the mean egg production of the dominant age groups of spawners (ages 4 to 8) was approximately 25% lower than fishes of similar age in 1966. The mean egg diameter in 1990-91 (1.63 mm) was not related to the size or age of the fish and was not significantly smaller than the egg diameter in 1966 (1.72 mm).

  7. Flow of an Erying-Powell fluid over a stretching sheet in presence of chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the flow of an incompressible Erying-Powell fluid bounded by a linear stretching surface. The mass transfer analysis in the presence of destructive /generative chemical reactions is also analyzed. A similarity transformation is used to transform the governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Computations for dimensionless velocity and concentration fields are performed by an efficient approach namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM and numerical solution is obtained by shooting technique along with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme. Graphical results are prepared to illustrate the details of flow and mass transfer characteristics and their dependence upon the physical parameters. The values for gradient of mass transfer are also evaluated and analyzed. A comparison of the present solutions with published results in the literature is performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

  8. A project for recovering mercury from fluorescent tubes from schools in the Grand Erie District School Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic substance that poses a serious threat to the environment and human health. Mercury compounds can be carried hundreds of kilometers once airborne and inhaling mercury vapours or ingesting mercury can cause serious injury or death. In Canada, mercury is regularly found in thousands of products such as fluorescent lamps, thermostats, fever thermometers and button batteries, as well as a variety of industrial applications. This report discussed a project that was undertaken by the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) that targeted schools, within the Grand Erie District School Board (GEDSB), to pilot a program over a period of 3 months to track, collect and recycle sufficient number of fluorescent tubes. The purpose was to successfully divert 2200 mgs of mercury that may otherwise be destined for landfill. The primary objective of the pilot project was to establish an operating system to collect and recycle fluorescent tube lighting and develop recycling guidelines for the GEDSB that would be transferable to other school districts. The report discussed why fluorescent lamp recycling was needed and outlined the project partners. One recycling partner's recycling process, Fluorescent Lamp Recyclers (FLR) was described. The report also discussed regulations affecting the handling and disposal of fluorescent lamps in Ontario. GEDSB's, RCO's and FLR's responsibilities in the project were outlined. The methodology and florescent lamp collection process were described. The report also presented the collection schedule and results. It was concluded that with very little effort, significant amounts of fluorescent lamps could be diverted, preventing mercury from entering landfills. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  9. Seasonal and interannual effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in central Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Kristin K.; Beletsky, Dmitry; DePinto, Joseph; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Roberts, James J.; Rucinski, Daniel K.; Scavia, Donald; Schwab, David J.; Höök, Tomas O.

    2011-01-01

    1. Hypoxia occurs seasonally in many stratified coastal marine and freshwater ecosystems when bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are depleted below 2–3 mg O2 L-1. 2. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia on fish habitat quality in the central basin of Lake Erie from 1987 to 2005, using bioenergetic growth rate potential (GRP) as a proxy for habitat quality. We compared the effect of hypoxia on habitat quality of (i) rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax mordax Mitchill (young-of-year, YOY, and adult), a cold-water planktivore, (ii) emerald shiner, Notropis atherinoides Rafinesque (adult), a warm-water planktivore, (iii) yellow perch, Perca flavescens Mitchill (YOY and adult), a cool-water benthopelagic omnivore and (iv) round goby Neogobius melanostomus Pallas (adult) a eurythermal benthivore. Annual thermal and DO profiles were generated from 1D thermal and DO hydrodynamics models developed for Lake Erie’s central basin. 3. Hypoxia occurred annually, typically from mid-July to mid-October, which spatially and temporally overlaps with otherwise high benthic habitat quality. Hypoxia reduced the habitat quality across fish species and life stages, but the magnitude of the reduction varied both among and within species because of the differences in tolerance to low DO levels and warm-water temperatures. 4. Across years, trends in habitat quality mirrored trends in phosphorus concentration and water column oxygen demand in central Lake Erie. The per cent reduction in habitat quality owing to hypoxia was greatest for adult rainbow smelt and round goby (mean: -35%), followed by adult emerald shiner (mean: -12%), YOY rainbow smelt (mean: -10%) and YOY and adult yellow perch (mean: -8.5%). 5. Our results highlight the importance of differential spatiotemporally interactive effects of DO and temperature on relative fish habitat quality and quantity. These effects have the potential to influence the performance of individual fish species as well as population dynamics

  10. Increase deposition of organic matter, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cadmium by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, E. P; Mackie, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Biodeposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and cadmium by zebra mussels in the western basin of Lake Erie was investigated using sediment traps, and compared to natural rates of sedimentation. On a per unit area of organic matter, deposition rates by zebra mussels up to eight to ten times higher than natural rates of sedimentation were found. These results suggest that zebra mussels are altering contaminant movement in western Lake Erie. At the same time, it was also suggested that the net effect of biodeposition may not be as great as shown in this study since only the effects of zebra mussels on the flux of the contaminants was examined and the re-suspension factor was not considered. It was recommended that to better understand the overall effects of zebra mussels on contaminant dynamics in aquatic environments, future studies should incorporate the re-suspension factors. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  11. Snipper, an Eri1 homologue, affects histone mRNA abundance and is crucial for normal Drosophila melanogaster development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Anastasios; Delidakis, Christos; Kalantidis, Kriton

    2017-07-01

    The conserved 3'-5' RNA exonuclease ERI1 is implicated in RNA interference inhibition, 5.8S rRNA maturation and histone mRNA maturation and turnover. The single ERI1 homologue in Drosophila melanogaster Snipper (Snp) is a 3'-5' exonuclease, but its in vivo function remains elusive. Here, we report Snp requirement for normal Drosophila development, since its perturbation leads to larval arrest and tissue-specific downregulation results in abnormal tissue development. Additionally, Snp directly interacts with histone mRNA, and its depletion results in drastic reduction in histone transcript levels. We propose that Snp protects the 3'-ends of histone mRNAs and upon its absence, histone transcripts are readily degraded. This in turn may lead to cell cycle delay or arrest, causing growth arrest and developmental perturbations. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Screening for eri silkworm (Samia ricini Donovan ecoraces using morphological characters, growth, yields, and ISSR marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanpen Wongsorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of eri silkworm ecoraces with high yield and distinct morphological characters is necessary for variety improvement. The five ecoraces SaKKU1, SaKKU2, SaKKU3, SaKKU4 and SaKKU5 were derived mostly by international academic cooperation. They were cultured using castor leaves of TCO 101 cultivar as food plant at 25±2°C, 80±5% R.H. Based on morphological characters, they are similar, except the body of the 5th instar larva of SaKKU1 is clearly covered with more creamy white powder and the mature larva has a shiny dominant yellow color. The duration of the life cycle among ecoraces was also similar; 46-53 days (SaKKU1, 42-53 days (SaKKU2, 42-52 days (SaKKU3, 40-56 days (SaKKU4 and 41-52 days (SaKKU5. SaKKU1 had the highest survival rate at larval stage (1st – 5th instar (100.00% and larva (1st – 5th instar - adult (88.89%, including the predominant heaviest average larva weight of all instars, 0.0317 g (2nd instar, 0.2206 g (3rd instar, 1.0788 g (4th instar, 4.0102 g (5th instar, and 8.9940 g (5 days of 5th instar, which was significantly different (P<0.05 to other ecoraces. Moreover, this ecorace gave the highest average yields: fresh cocoon weight (3.8016 g, pupa weight (3.2532 g, shell weight (0.5287 g, shell ratio (14.01%, fresh cocoon weight/10,000 larvae (38.01 kg, eggs/moth (531.13 eggs, total eggs (6,375.27 eggs and total hatching eggs (6,006.13 eggs, which was also significantly different (P<0.05 than other ecoraces. Of those properties, especially survival rates and yields, this ecorace (SaKKU1 is favored for further varietal improvement program. In parallel, genetic relationship analysis of eri silkworm ecoraces using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR technique was also carried out. The result revealed from dendrogram analysis that SaKKU1 was the farthest distance than other ecoraces, especially against SaKKU3. Based on all above results, the SaKKU1 ecorace was considered to be the most suitable for heat tolerant

  13. Turbidity as a factor in the decline of Great Lakes fishes with special reference to Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1948-01-01

    Fish live and thrive in water with turbidities that range above 400 p.p.m. and average 200 p.p.m. The waters of the Great Lakes usually are clear except in Lake Erie where the turbidities of the inshore areas averaged 37 p.p.m.; the turbidities of the offshore waters averaged less. Lake Erie waters were no clearer 50 years ago than they are now. In fact, the turbidity values are less now than they were in the earlier years; the annual average of the inshore waters dropped from 44 p.p.m. before 1930 to 32 p.p.m. in 1930 and later, and the April-May values decreased from 72 p.p.m. to 46 p.p.m. Any general decline in the Lake Erie fishes cannot be attributed to increased turbidities. Furthermore, these turbidities averaged well below 100 p.p.m. and, therefore, were too low to affect fishes adversely.

  14. Spawning site fidelity and apparent annual survival of walleye (Sander vitreus) differ between a Lake Huron and Lake Erie tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Todd A.; Binder, Thomas; Holbrook, Christopher; Vandergoot, Christopher; Fielder, David G.; Cooke, Steven J.; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Fidelity to spawning habitats can maximise reproductive success of fish by synchronising movements to sites of previous recruitment. To determine the role of reproductive fidelity in structuring walleye Sander vitreus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, we used acoustic telemetry combined with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to estimate spawning site fidelity and apparent annual survival for the Tittabawassee River in Lake Huron and Maumee River in Lake Erie. Walleye in spawning condition were tagged from the Tittabawassee River in Lake Huron and Maumee River in Lake Erie in 2011–2012. Site fidelity and apparent annual survival were estimated from return of individuals to the stream where tagged. Site fidelity estimates were higher in the Tittabawassee River (95%) than the Maumee River (70%) and were not related to sex or fish length at tagging. Apparent annual survival of walleye tagged in the Tittabawassee did not differ among spawning seasons but was higher for female than male walleye and decreased linearly as fish length increased. Apparent annual survival of walleye tagged in the Maumee River did not differ among spawning seasons but was higher for female walleye than male walleye and increased linearly as fish length increased. Greater fidelity of walleye tagged in the Tittabawassee River than walleye tagged in the Maumee River may be related to the close proximity to the Maumee River of other spawning aggregations and multiple spawning sites in Lake Erie. As spawning site fidelity increases, management actions to conserve population structure require an increasing focus on individual stocks.

  15. Concentrations and trophic magnification of cyclic siloxanes in aquatic biota from the Western Basin of Lake Erie, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Chan, Cecilia; Drouillard, Ken G.; Keir, Michael J.; Clark, Mandi G.; Backus, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the concentrations and food web biomagnification of three cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) using aquatic biota collected from Lake Erie. Concentrations of cVMS in biota were within the range reported for other studies of cVMS in aquatic biota. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were assessed in various food web configurations to investigate the effects of food web structure. TMF estimates were highly dependent on the inclusion/exclusion of the organisms occupying the highest and lowest trophic levels and were >1 for D4 and D5, indicating biomagnification, in only 1 of the 5 food web configurations investigated and were <1 in the remaining 4 food web configurations. TMF estimates for PCB180 were also dependant on food web configuration, but did not correspond with those obtained for cVMS materials. These differences may be attributed to environmental exposure and/or lipid partitioning differences between PCB180 and cVMS. -- Highlights: • We investigated trophic magnification of siloxanes in aquatic biota from Lake Erie. • Trophic magnification estimates were variable and sensitive to food web structure. • Lipid partitioning of siloxanes and PCBs differ and may contribute to variability. -- Biomagnification estimates for siloxanes in Lake Erie are sensitive to food web structure, contaminant exposure pathways, and lipid partitioning differences between PCBs and siloxanes

  16. The Gutenberg Health Study: measuring psychosocial factors at work and predicting health and work-related outcomes with the ERI and the COPSOQ questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuebling, Matthias; Seidler, Andreas; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Latza, Ute; Wagner, Mandy; Hegewald, Janice; Liebers, Falk; Jankowiak, Sylvia; Zwiener, Isabella; Wild, Philipp S; Letzel, Stephan

    2013-06-04

    Several instruments have been developed to assess psychosocial workload. We compared two of these instruments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) with regard to congruent validity and internal validity. This analysis is based on a population-based sample of the baseline examination of 2,783 employees from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). About half of the participants completed the ERI questionnaire (n = 1,342), the other half completed the COPSOQ (n = 1,441). First, the two samples were compared and descriptive analyses were carried out calculating mean values for both instruments in general, then separately for age, gender and main occupational groups. Second, we analyzed the relationship between ERI and COPSOQ scales on the workplace situation and on the workplace outcomes: job satisfaction, general health, burnout, satisfaction with life, by applying stepwise logistic regression analysis. For the majority of occupations, high effort as reflected by the ERI corresponded with high demands as reflected by the COPSOQ. Comparably, high reward (according to ERI) yielded a good agreement with high "influence and development" (according to COPSOQ). However, we could also find differences between ERI and COPSOQ concerning the intensity of psychosocial workload in some occupations (e.g., physicians/pharmacists or warehouse managers/warehousemen/transport workers). These differences point to differing theoretical concepts of ERI and COPSOQ. When the ability of ERI and COPSOQ was examined to determine the associations with health and work outcomes, burnout could be better predicted by the COPSOQ; this might be due to the fact that COPSOQ comprises the constructs "work-privacy conflict" and "emotional demand", which are closely related to burnout. However, methodological differences between these instruments limit their direct comparability. The ERI and COPSOQ instrument yielded similar results for most

  17. Fabrication and characterization of biomaterial film from gland silk of muga and eri silkworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Saranga; Talukdar, Bijit; Bharali, Rupjyoti; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Devi, Dipali

    2013-05-01

    This study discusses the possibilities of liquid silk (Silk gland silk) of Muga and Eri silk, the indigenous non mulberry silkworms of North Eastern region of India, as potential biomaterials. Silk protein fibroin of Bombyx mori, commonly known as mulberry silkworm, has been extensively studied as a versatile biomaterial. As properties of different silk-based biomaterials vary significantly, it is important to characterize the non mulberry silkworms also in this aspect. Fibroin was extracted from the posterior silk gland of full grown fifth instars larvae, and 2D film was fabricated using standard methods. The films were characterized using SEM, Dynamic contact angle test, FTIR, XRD, DSC, and TGA and compared with respective silk fibers. SEM images of films reveal presence of some globules and filamentous structure. Films of both the silkworms were found to be amorphous with random coil conformation, hydrophobic in nature, and resistant to organic solvents. Non mulberry silk films had higher thermal resistance than mulberry silk. Fibers were thermally more stable than the films. This study provides insight into the new arena of research in application of liquid silk of non mulberry silkworms as biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Flatiron-Erie 115kV transmission line project, Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to uprate its existing 115-kV Flatiron-Erie transmission line. The line is located in Larimer, Weld and Boulder Counties, Colorado, and passes through the City of Longmont. The line connects Flatiron Substation and several of the substations supplying Longmont. It is a single circuit 115-kV line, 31.5 miles long, and was built in 1950-51 on a 75-foot wide right-of-way (ROW) using wood H-frame structures. Western proposes to build 27 new structures along the line, to replace or modify 45 of the existing structures and to remote 11 of them. Many of these additions and changes would involve structures that are approximately 5 to 15 feet taller than the existing ones. The existing conductors and ground wires would remain in place. The purpose of these actions would be to allow the power carrying capability of the line to be increased and to replace deteriorating/structural members. Western would be the sole participant in the proposed project. This report gives an analysis of the study area environment and the development of alternative routes. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the primary alternative routes. The environmental consequences of this project are addressed

  19. Selective food preferences of walleyes of the 1959 year class in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, John W.

    1971-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,473 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) of the 1959 year class collected in western Lake Erie from June 1959 to October 1960. In the same period, the relative abundance and lengths of potential forage species were determined from trawl catches. The walleye fed almost entirely on fish. In 1959 the food was dominated first (in June and July) by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and then, in sequence, by spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius) and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides). In 1960, the walleyes fed mostly on yearling spottail shiners and emerald shiners in the spring and summer but young alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) became the dominant food in the fall. The length of forage fish increased with the length of walleyes and walleyes of a given length usually ate forage fish within a restricted range of lengths. This size preference was shown by walleyes of the same length in the same and different months. The increased in length of forage fish with length of walleye was not proportionate. Walleyes 2.5 inches long ate forage fish 0.44 times their length whereas walleyes 15.5 inches long ate forage fish only 0.28 times their length. The diet of the walleyes changed according to species and lengths of forage fish available. Since young of several species hatched in different months and grew at different rates, abundance and suitability as forage sometimes changed rapidly.

  20. Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H

    2014-06-16

    Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve model parameterizations in the CABL. Vertical profiles of wind speed up to 200 m were measured onshore and offshore by lidar wind profilers, and horizontal gradients of wind speed by a 3-D scanning lidar. Turbulence data were collected from sonic anemometers deployed onshore and offshore. Numerical simulations were conducted with the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with 2 nested domains down to a resolution of 1-km over the lake. Initial data analyses presented in this paper investigate complex flow patterns across the coast. Acceleration was observed up to 200 m above the surface for flow coming from the land to the water. However, by 7 km off the coast the wind field had not yet reached equilibrium with the new surface (water) conditions. The surface turbulence parameters over the water derived from the sonic data could not predict wind profiles observed by the ZephlR lidar located offshore. Horizontal wind speed gradients near the coast show the influence of atmospheric stability on flow dynamics. Wind profiles retrieved from the 3-D scanning lidar show evidence of nocturnal low level jets (LLJs). The WRF model was able to capture the occurrence of LLJ events, but its performance varied in predicting their intensity, duration, and the location of the jet core.

  1. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  2. Petrology of the Devonian gas-bearing shale along Lake Erie helps explain gas shows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhead, R.F.; Potter, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive petrologic study of 136 thin sections of the Ohio Shale along Lake Erie, when combined with detailed stratigraphic study, helps explain the occurrence of its gas shows, most of which occur in the silty, greenish-gray, organic poor Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed. Both have thicker siltstone laminae and more siltstone beds than other members of the Ohio Shale and both units also contain more clayshales. The source of the gas in the Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shale is believed to be the bituminous-rich shales of the middle and lower parts of the underlying Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Eleven petrographic types were recognized and extended descriptions are provided of the major ones - claystones, clayshales, mudshales, and bituminous shales plus laminated and unlaminated siltstones and very minor marlstones and sandstones. In addition three major types of lamination were identified and studied. Thirty-two shale samples were analyzed for organic carbon, whole rock hydrogen and whole rock nitrogen with a Perkin-Elmer 240 Elemental Analyzer and provided the data base for source rock evaluation of the Ohio Shale.

  3. Focused risk assessment: Mound Plant, Miami-Erie Canal Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.R.; Dunning, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    In 1969, an underground waste line at Mound Plant ruptured and released plutonium-238 in a dilute nitric acid solution to the surrounding soils. Most of the acid was neutralized by the native soils. The plutonium, which in a neutral solution is tightly sorbed onto clay particles, remained within the spill area. During remediation, a severe storm eroded some of the contaminated soil. Fine grained plutonium-contaminated clay particles were carried away through the natural drainage courses to the remnants of the Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to Mound Plant, and then into the Great Miami River. This focused risk assessment considers exposure pathways relevant to site conditions, including incidental ingestion of contaminated soils, ingestion of drinking water and fish, and inhalation of resuspended soils and sediments. For each potential exposure pathway, a simplified conceptual model and exposure scenarios have been used to develop conservative estimates of potential radiation dose equivalents and health risks. The conservatism of the dose and risk estimates provides a substantive margin of safety in assuring that the public health is protected

  4. Stability of plutonium contaminated sediments in the Miami--Erie Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, B.M.; Carfagno, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the stability of plutonium-contaminated sediment in the Miami-Erie Canal. Correlations were sought to relate concentrations at air sampling stations to plutonium-238 concentrations in air and stack emissions, wind direction, particulate loading, rainfall, and construction activities. There appears to be some impact on airborne concentrations at air sampling stations 122 and 123 from the contaminated sediment in the canal and ponds area. For purposes of this evaluation, it was assumed that the plutonium-238 found in the air samples came from the contaminated sediment in the canal/ponds area. To complete the evaluation of the inhalation pathway, dose calculations were performed using actual airborne concentrations of plutonium-238 measured at sampler 123. The dose equivalent to an individual in that area was calculated for 1 yr and 70 yr. Dose calculations were also performed on potential uptake of contaminated vegetation from that area for 1 yr and 70 yr. This study indicates that, although the contaminated sediments in the canal and pond area appear to contribute to airborne plutonium-238, the observed maximum monthly concentration of plutonium-238 in air is a small fraction of the DOE Radioactivity Concentration Guide (RCG) and the nine-month average concentration of plutonium-238 in air observed thus far during 1977 is less than 1% of the RCG. Dose equivalents, conservatively calculated from these actual data, are well within existing DOE standards and proposed EPA guidance

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on rates and size distribution of primary production by Lake Erie phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiriart, V.P.; Greenberg, B.M.; Guildford, S.J.; Smith, R.E.H.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly UVB (297-320 nm), on phytoplankton primary production in Lake Erie was investigated during the spring and summer of 1997. Radiocarbon incorporation and size-selective filtration was used to trace total production and its distribution among particulate and dissolved pools. On average, 1-h exposures produced half the UVB-dependent inhibition of total production realized in 8-h exposures, indicating rapid kinetics of photoinhibition. Cumulative UVB-dependent photoinhibition averaged 36% in 8-h simulated surface exposures. The efficiency of photoinhibition was greater for N-deficient than N-replete communities, but was not related to phytoplankton light history, P limitation, or the dominant genera. The proportion of recently fixed carbon occurring in the dissolved pool after 8-h exposures was significantly greater in higher-UVB treatments, whereas the share in picoplankton (<2 μm) was significantly lower. Significant UVB-dependent inhibition of total production was limited on average to relatively severe exposures, but the rapid kinetics of inhibition and the apparent effects on the allocation of carbon suggest it may be important to the lake's food web. Differences in optical properties and thermal stratification patterns suggested that the relatively turbid west basin was potentially more susceptible to UVR photoinhibition than the more transparent east or central basins. (author)

  6. Food of forage fishes in western Lake Erie, 1975-76

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Kenneth M.; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.

    1989-01-01

    In western Lake Erie in the summer and fall of 1975–1976, food eaten by seven forage fishes—emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), andyoung-of-the-year (YOY) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), white bass (Morone chrysops), and freshwater drum (Aplodi-notus grunniens)—was divided among six major taxa: Cladocera, Copepoda, Diptera, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and Algae. In addition, fish were eaten by YOY white bass, and Rotifera were consumed by YOY gizzard shad. Interspecies diet overlap indices, calculated to compare the food of the different species and to evaluate diet similarities, were usually highest for YOY white bass and YOY freshwater drum when compared with the other species and usually lowest between emerald shiners and all other forage fishes. Understanding the feeding interactions among fishes that could influence production at the forage-food level of the food web could provide insight into how cascading trophic interactions influence the production of piscivorous predators.

  7. The Delta Scuti star 38 Eri from the ground and from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparó, M.; Kolláth, Z.; Shobbrook, R. R.; Matthews, J. M.; Antoci, V.; Benkő, J. M.; Park, N.-K.; Mirtorabi, M. T.; Luedeke, K.; Kusakin, A.; Bognár, Zs; Sódor, Á.; García-Hernández, A.; Pe na, J. H.; Kuschnig, R.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rowe, J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2018-04-01

    We present and discuss the pulsational characteristics of the Delta Scuti star 38 Eri from photometric data obtained at two widely spaced epochs, partly from the ground (1998) and partly from space (MOST, 2011). We found 18 frequencies resolving the discrepancy among the previously published frequencies. Some of the frequencies appeared with different relative amplitudes at two epochs, however, we carried out investigation for amplitude variability for only the MOST data. Amplitude variability was found for one of three frequencies that satisfy the necessary frequency criteria for linear-combination or resonant-mode coupling. Checking the criteria of beating and resonant-mode coupling we excluded them as possible reason for amplitude variability. The two recently developed methods of rotational-splitting and sequence-search were applied to find regular spacings based only on frequencies. Doublets or incomplete multiplets with l = 1, 2 and 3 were found in the rotational splitting search. In the sequence search method we identified four sequences. The averaged spacing, probably a combination of the large separation and the rotational frequency, is 1.724 ± 0.092 d-1. Using the spacing and the scaling relation \\bar{ρ }= [0.0394, 0.0554] gcm-3 was derived. The shift of the sequences proved to be the integer multiple of the rotational splitting spacing. Using the precise MOST frequencies and multi-colour photometry in a hybrid way, we identified four modes with l = 1, two modes with l = 2, two modes with l = 3, and two modes as l = 0 radial modes.

  8. Changes in the deep-water benthos of eastern Lake Erie between 1979 and 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermott, R.; Kerec, D. [Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    In order to examine changes of the benthic community and benthic biomass as a result of mussel colonization, a survey of the deep-water benthic fauna in eastern Lake Erie was repeated in 1993 using the same sites and methods as in a 1979 survey. During 1979, the community beyond 30 m was dominated by oligochaete worms and the burrowing amphipod Diporeia, which represented 50 and 40% of the total benthic biomass respectively. By 1993, quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) formed over 90% of the benthic biomass. Mussels were present at all 13 sites. Densities of individuals >2 mm in length averaged 3,241 mussels m{sup -2}. Of these mussels, 97% were quagga mussels. Total density of all sizes retained on a 180 {mu}m sieve averaged 34,800 mussels m{sup -2} but total biomass decreased from 1.58 to 0.98 g m{sup -2}. The density of the amphipod Diporeia was reduced from 1,844 in 1979 to 218 m{sup -2} in 1993. While present at all sites during 1979, Diporeia remained common only at two sites and were absent at 8 of the 13 sites in 1993. The native fingernail clams, Pisidium spp., were reduced from 327 to 82 m{sup -2}. No significant reduction occurred in the worm and chironomid populations, however the dry biomass of the chironomids was reduced from 0.07 to 0.0008 g m{sup -2}. These reductions may be due to competition with the mussels for freshly settling algae. The meiofauna, which included small nematodes, ostracods, and harpacticoids retained on a 180 {mu}m sieve, all increased in density. Perhaps they benefited from an increase in the detritus deposited as pseudofeces around the mussels.

  9. Ichthyoplankton assemblages of coastal west-central Lake Erie and associated habitat characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Hunter, R. Douglas; Fabrizio, M.C.; Savino, J.F.; Todd, T.N.; Bur, M.

    2008-01-01

    Early life stage survival often determines fish cohort strength and that survival is affected by habitat conditions. The structure and dynamics of ichthyoplankton assemblages can tell us much about biodiversity and fish population dynamics, but are poorly understood in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, where most spawning and nursery habitats exist. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected with a neuston net in waters 2-13 m deep weekly or biweekly from mid-April through August, during 3 years (2000-2002) as part of a study of fish assemblages in west-central Lake Erie. A suite of abiotic variables was simultaneously measured to characterize habitat. Cluster and ordination analyses revealed several distinct ichthyoplankton assemblages that changed seasonally. A lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) dominated assemblage appeared first in April. In May, assemblages were dominated by several percid species. Summer assemblages were overwhelmingly dominated by emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), with large gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) components. This seasonal trend in species assemblages was also associated with increasing temperature and water clarity. Water depth and drift processes may also play a role in structuring these assemblages. The most common and widely distributed assemblages were not associated with substratum type, which we characterized as either hard or soft. The timing of hatch and larval growth separated the major groups in time and may have adaptive significance for the members of each major assemblage. The quality and locations (with reference to lake circulation) of spawning and nursery grounds may determine larval success and affect year class strength.

  10. Sampling little fish in big rivers: Larval fish detection probabilities in two Lake Erie tributaries and implications for sampling effort and abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Roseman, Edward F.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Larval fish are frequently sampled in coastal tributaries to determine factors affecting recruitment, evaluate spawning success, and estimate production from spawning habitats. Imperfect detection of larvae is common, because larval fish are small and unevenly distributed in space and time, and coastal tributaries are often large and heterogeneous. We estimated detection probabilities of larval fish from several taxa in the Maumee and Detroit rivers, the two largest tributaries of Lake Erie. We then demonstrated how accounting for imperfect detection influenced (1) the probability of observing taxa as present relative to sampling effort and (2) abundance indices for larval fish of two Detroit River species. We found that detection probabilities ranged from 0.09 to 0.91 but were always less than 1.0, indicating that imperfect detection is common among taxa and between systems. In general, taxa with high fecundities, small larval length at hatching, and no nesting behaviors had the highest detection probabilities. Also, detection probabilities were higher in the Maumee River than in the Detroit River. Accounting for imperfect detection produced up to fourfold increases in abundance indices for Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. The effect of accounting for imperfect detection in abundance indices was greatest during periods of low abundance for both species. Detection information can be used to determine the appropriate level of sampling effort for larval fishes and may improve management and conservation decisions based on larval fish data.

  11. A description of the severity of equestrian-related injuries (ERIs) using clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Alexander; Edwards, Elton; Dowrick, Adam; Gosling, Cameron

    2014-09-01

    Despite a number of injury prevention campaigns and interventions, horse riding continues to be a dangerous activity, resulting in more accidents per hour than motorcycling, skiing and football. Injuries are often serious, with one in four patients requiring admission to hospital. This study aims to describe the severity of equestrian-related injuries (ERIs) using both clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes. A retrospective study of all patients aged ≥18 years admitted to The Alfred Hospital between January 2003 and January 2008 with an ERI was performed. Specific clinical data were extracted from the medical record. In addition, a questionnaire was conducted identifying the details of the accident, the required recovery time and levels of ongoing pain and physical disability. During the study period 172 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were three deaths (2%). Eighty-two patients (48%) suffered head injuries. Forty-one patients (24%) were admitted to the ICU and 31 patients (18%) required mechanical ventilation. On discharge, 41 patients (24%) required transfer to a sub-acute rehabilitation facility. One-hundred-and-twenty-four patients (72%) completed the questionnaire. Thirty-nine respondents (31%) were not wearing a helmet. Among patients injured for more than 6 months, 38 (35%) still experienced moderate or severe pain or disability. Ninety-five patients had returned to work at the time of review, among which 47(50%) required longer than 6 months to recover, and 40 (42%) returned at a reduced capacity. The clinical and patient-reported outcomes of ERIs requiring hospital admission are poor. Persistent pain and disability are common, even up to 5 years post-injury. A large proportion of patients required longer than 6 months to return to work and many return at a reduced capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influencia de Gregorio de Nisa sobre Juan Escoto Eriúgena: Aproximación a partir del Periphyseon

    OpenAIRE

    Pachas, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    A partir de los cinco libros del Periphyseon el autor intenta un acercamiento entre el pensamiento de Juan Escoto Eriúgena y Gregorio de Nisa, buscando sobre todo las principales influencias del segundo sobre el primero. Encuentra una plataforma de amplia base común entre ambos pensadores, marcada principalmente por un tipo de pensamiento circular según el esquema: procesión y retorno. Sin embargo, es notoria la influencia del Niseno sobre el Carolingio, principalmente cuando se trata de plan...

  13. Evidence that lake trout served as a buffer against sea lamprey predation on burbot in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The population of burbot Lota lota in Lake Erie recovered during 1986–2003, mainly because of the control of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in 1986. Burbot populations continued to grow during 1996–1998, when sea lamprey control was substantially reduced. We calculated mortality parameters for burbot in Lake Erie by estimating age at capture for 2,793 burbot caught in annual gill-net surveys of eastern Lake Erie from 1994 to 2003. Based on catch-curve analysis, annual mortality in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 was estimated as 33%. Annual mortality of the 1992 year-class of burbot was estimated as 30%. The mortality of burbot during the years of reduced sea lamprey control was not different from that during the 3 years preceding reduced control and was significantly lower than that during the entire portion of the time series in which full sea lamprey control was conducted. These results suggest that the reduction in sea lamprey control did not lead to increased burbot mortality. The catch per gill-net lift of large burbot (total length > 600 mm), the size preferred by sea lampreys, was lower than that of adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (age 5 and older; total length > 700 mm) before lampricide application was reduced. Although adult lake trout populations declined, the abundance of large burbot did not change during the period of reduced lampricide application. These results support a hypothesis that a healthy population of adult lake trout can serve as a buffer species, acting to reduce predation of burbot by sea lampreys when sea lamprey populations increase. Burbot attained sexual maturity at a relatively early age (3 or 4 years) and a total length (approximately 500 mm) that was smaller than the preferred prey size for sea lampreys. These characteristics and the buffering effect of the lake trout population enabled growth of the burbot population during the brief period when lamprey control was reduced.

  14. Diode-pumped high power 2.7 μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao; Tang, Dingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Investigation of room temperature laser performance of the polycrystalline Er:Y2O3 ceramic at 2.7 μm with respect to dopant concentrations was conducted. With 7 at.% Er3+ concentration Er:Y2O3 ceramic as laser gain medium, over 2.05 W of CW output power at 2.7 μm was generated with a slope efficiency of 11.1% with respect to the absorbed LD pump power. The prospects for improvement in lasing efficiency and output power are considered.

  15. Increasingly, Data Availability Limits Model Predictive Capacity: the Western Lake Erie Basin, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, K. D.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Atwood, J. D.; Norfleet, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent algal blooms in Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) have renewed scientific community's interest in developing process based models to better understand and predict the drivers of eutrophic conditions in the lake. At the same time, in order to prevent future blooms, farmers, local communities and policy makers are interested in developing spatially explicit nutrient and sediment management plans at various scales, from field to watershed. These interests have fueled several modeling exercises intended to locate "hotspots" in the basin where targeted adoption of additional agricultural conservation practices could provide the most benefit to water quality. The models have also been used to simulate various scenarios representing potential agricultural solutions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and its sister model, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX), have been used to simulate hydrology of interacting land uses in thousands of scientific studies around the world. High performance computing allows SWAT and APEX users to continue to improve and refine the model specificity to make predictions at small-spatial scales. Consequently, data inputs and calibration/validation data are now becoming the limiting factor to model performance. Water quality data for the tributaries and rivers that flow through WLEB is spatially and temporally limited. Land management data, including conservation practice and nutrient management data, are not publicly available at fine spatial and temporal scales. Here we show the data uncertainties associated with modeling WLEB croplands at a relatively large spatial scale (HUC-4) using site management data from over 1,000 farms collected by the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). The error associated with downscaling this data to the HUC-8 and HUC-12 scale is shown. Simulations of spatially explicit dynamics can be very informative, but care must be taken when policy decisions are made based on models

  16. Directing osteogenesis of stem cells with hydroxyapatite precipitated electrospun eri-tasar silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, N; Bissoyi, A; Pramanik, K; Biswas, A

    2014-01-01

    Stimulating stem cell differentiation without growth factor supplement offers a potent and cost-effective scaffold for tissue regeneration. We hypothesise that surface precipitation of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) over blends of non-mulberry silk fibroin with better hydrophilicity and RGD amino acid sequences can direct the stem cell towards osteogenesis. This report focuses on the fabrication of a blended eri-tasar silk fibroin nanofibrous scaffold (ET) followed by nHAp deposition by a surface precipitation (alternate soaking in calcium and phosphate solution) method. Morphology, hydrophilicity, composition, and the thermal and mechanical properties of ET/nHAp were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, TEM, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, TGA and contact angle measurement and compared with ET. The composite scaffold demonstrated improved thermal stability and surface hydrophilicity with an increase in stiffness and elastic modulus (778 ± 2.4 N/m and 13.1 ± 0.36 MPa) as compared to ET (160.6 ± 1.34 N/m and 8.3 ± 0.4 MPa). Mineralisation studies revealed an enhanced and more uniform surface deposition of HAp-like crystals, while significant differences in cellular viability and attachment were observed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and confocal microscopy study. The cell viability and expression of adhesion molecules (CD 44 and CD 29) are found to be optimum for subsequent stages of growth proliferation and differentiation. The rates of proliferation have been observed to decrease owing to the transition of MSC from a state of proliferation to a state of differentiation. The confirmation of improved osteogenic differentiation was finally verified through the alkaline phosphatase assay, pattern of gene expression related to osteogenic differentiation and morphological observations of differentiated cord blood human mesenchymal stem cells under fluorescence microscope. The results

  17. Using Watershed Models and Human Behavioral Analyses to identify Management Options to Reduce Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Wilson, R. S.; Aloysius, N.; Kalcic, M. M.; Roe, B.; Howard, G.; Irwin, E.; Zhang, W.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    In early 2016, the United States and Canada formally agreed to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie by 40% to reduce the severity of annual Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have become more severe, with record events occurring in 2011 and 2015, and have compromised public safety, shut down drinking water supplies, and negatively impacted the economy of the western Lake Erie basin. Now, a key question is what management options should be pursued to reach the 40% reduction. This presentation will highlight interdisciplinary research to compare the amount and types of practices needed for this reduction to the current and projected levels of adoption. Multiple models of the Maumee watershed identified management plans and adoption rates needed to reach the reduction targets. For example, one successful scenario estimated necessary adoption rates of 50% for subsurface application of fertilizer on row crops, 58% for cover crops, and 78% for buffer strips. Current adoption is below these levels, but future projections based on farmer surveys shows these levels are possible. This information was then used to guide another round of watershed modeling analysis to evaluate scenarios that represented more realistic scenarios based on potential levels of management adoption. In general, these results show that accelerated adoption of management plans is needed compared to past adoption rates, and that some of these greater adoption levels are possible based on likely adoption rates. Increasing the perceived efficacy of the practices is one method that will support greater voluntary rates of adoption.

  18. Vertical Stratification of Soil Phosphorus as a Concern for Dissolved Phosphorus Runoff in the Lake Erie Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David B; Johnson, Laura T; Confesor, Remegio B; Crumrine, John P

    2017-11-01

    During the re-eutrophication of Lake Erie, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) loading and concentrations to the lake have nearly doubled, while particulate phosphorus (PP) has remained relatively constant. One potential cause of increased DRP concentrations is P stratification, or the buildup of soil-test P (STP) in the upper soil layer (soil samples (0-5 or 0-2.5 cm) alongside their normal agronomic samples (0-20 cm) ( = 1758 fields). The mean STP level in the upper 2.5 cm was 55% higher than the mean of agronomic samples used for fertilizer recommendations. The amounts of stratification were highly variable and did not correlate with agronomic STPs (Spearman's = 0.039, = 0.178). Agronomic STP in 70% of the fields was within the buildup or maintenance ranges for corn ( L.) and soybeans [ (L.) Merr.] (0-46 mg kg Mehlich-3 P). The cumulative risks for DRP runoff from the large number of fields in the buildup and maintenance ranges exceeded the risks from fields above those ranges. Reducing stratification by a one-time soil inversion has the potential for larger and quicker reductions in DRP runoff risk than practices related to drawing down agronomic STP levels. Periodic soil inversion and mixing, targeted by stratified STP data, should be considered a viable practice to reduce DRP loading to Lake Erie. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

  20. Integration of process computer systems to Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettone Justo, A.; Pindado Andres, R.; Buedo Jimenez, J.L.; Jimenez Fernandez-Sesma, A.; Delgado Muelas, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The existence of three different process computer systems in Cofrentes NPP and the ageing of two of them have led to the need for their integration into a single real time computer system, known as Integrated ERIS-Computer System (SIEC), which covers the functionality of the three systems: Process Computer (PC), Emergency Response Information System (ERIS) and Nuclear Calculation Computer (OCN). The paper describes the integration project developed, which has essentially consisted in the integration of PC, ERIS and OCN databases into a single database, the migration of programs from the old process computer into the new SIEC hardware-software platform and the installation of a communications programme to transmit all necessary data for OCN programs from the SIEC computer, which in the new configuration is responsible for managing the databases of the whole system. (Author)

  1. Longshore water-current velocity and the potential for transport of contaminants—A pilot study in Lake Erie from Walnut Creek to Presque Isle State Park beaches, Erie, Pennsylvania, June and August 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittle, Elizabeth A.

    2017-04-20

    Bacteria-driven restrictions and (or) advisories on swimming at beaches in Presque Isle State Park (PISP), Erie, Pennsylvania, can occur during the summer months. One of the suspected sources of bacteria is sediment. A terrestrial sediment source to the west of PISP is Walnut Creek, which discharges to Lake Erie about 8.5 kilometers southwest of PISP Beach 1. On June 24, June 25, August 18, and August 19, 2015, synoptic surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Sea Grant, in Lake Erie between Walnut Creek and PISP Beach 1 to characterize the water-current velocity and direction to determine whether sediment from Walnut Creek could be affecting the PISP beaches. Water-quality data (temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity) were collected in conjunction with the synoptic surveys in June. Water-quality data (Escherichia coli [E. coli] bacteria, temperature, and turbidity) were collected about a meter from the shore (nearshore) on June 24, August 19, and after a precipitation event on August 11, 2015. Additionally, suspended sediment was collected nearshore on June 24 and August 11, 2015. Samples collected near Walnut Creek during all three bacterial sampling events contained higher counts than other samples. Counts steadily decreased from west to east, then increased about 1–2 kilometers from PISP Beach 1; however, this study was not focused on examining other potential sources of bacteria.The Velocity Mapping Toolbox (VMT) was used to process the water-current synoptic surveys, and the results were visualized within ArcMap. For the survey accomplished on June 24, 2015, potential paths a particle could take between Walnut Creek and PSIP Beach 1 if conditions remained steady over a number of hours were visualized. However, the water-current velocity and direction were variable from one day to the other, indicating this was likely an unrealistic assumption for the study area. This analysis was not accomplished

  2. 76 FR 63991 - Midwest Rail d/b/a Toledo, Lake Erie and Western Railway-Lease and Operation Exemption-Toledo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... provide common carrier rail service over the Line, connecting with and interchanging traffic with NSR, and... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35555] Midwest Rail d/b/a... Railway and Museum, Inc. Midwest Rail d/b/a Toledo, Lake Erie and Western Railway (Toledo), a noncarrier...

  3. Muusika. Cannes Classical Award Eri Klasile. EFK USAsse ja Kanadasse. "opeNBaroque" ئ 11 kontserti. Chopini konkurss Narvas. Tubina ühingu aastakoosolek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Eri Klasi ja Tampere Linnaorkestri CD helilooja Einar Englundi loominguga pälvis mainekaplaadiauhinna, Cannes Classical Award'i. 7.-24. veebruarini on Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoorringreisil USAs ja Kanadas. Festivali "opeNBaroque" kontsertidest. Chopini loomingule pühendatud Läänemeremaade noorte pianistide konkursist Narvas. Tubina ühingu aastakoosolekust 5. veebruaril

  4. Usûlî Kıyasın Bilgi ve Amel Değeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrd.Doç.Dr. Temel Kacır

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Ortak bir illete sahip olmaları nedeniyle, aslın hükmünün fer‘e verilmesidir" şeklinde tanımlanan usûlî kıyasın bilgi ve amel değeri, ilk dönemden itibaren tartışma konusu olmuştur. Şöyle ki; hüküm verme yetkisi sadece Şar‘î’e ait olduğu halde usûlî kıyasın dinde hüküm verme anlamına geldiği ve bilgi değerinin de nasslarca yerilmiş zan olduğu gibi bazı argümanlar ileri sürerek usûlî kıyası reddedenler olsa da, çoğunluk tarafından usûlî kıyas aslî ve şer‘î delil olarak kabul edilmiş ve elde edilen bu hüküm ile amel edilmesi gerekli görülmüştür. Bu çalışma, usûlî kıyası kabul eden ve etmeyenlerin görüşlerini mukayese etmenin ötesinde, usûlî kıyasın salt aklî bir çaba olmadığını, kendisi ile ulaşılan bilginin naslarda yerilen zan olmayıp aksine delile dayalı zannın en üst derecesi olduğunu ve bunun da furû fıkıhta amel için yeterli olduğunu naklî ve aklî deliller ile ele alan bir çalışmadır. Kıyasla ilgili genel bir çerçeve çizildikten sonra, usûlî kıyas ve deliller hiyerarşisindeki yeri ve kıyasın bilgi ve amelî değeri ile sınırlandırılan bu makale ile usûlî kıyasın bilgi ve amel değeri konusundaki tartışmalara açıklık getirilmek istenmektedir.

  5. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  6. Culture-based Identification Of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria In the Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, A.; Mou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Harmful cyanobacteria blooms (cyanoHABs) are a serious issue that affects wildlife, human health, recreation and local economics worldwide. CyanoHABs produce cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs) that lead to skin irritation, illness and liver tumors. Bacterially mediated degradation of MCs plays a key role to transform these toxic substrates to less harmful metabolites in natural environments. However, only a few Sphingomonos species have been isolated for degradation of MCs and many of which are from other habitats such as water plants. This project aims to isolate and identify bacteria that can degrade MC-LR and MC-RR, two major forms of MCs found during cyanoHABs in Lake Erie. Water samples were collected from the surface of Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie and immediately filtered through 3.0 -μm-pore-size membrane filters to obtain bacterioplankton fraction. The filtrates were amended with excessive inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and incubated in the dark for a week to purposely establish a carbon-limited condition. Afterwards, enrichment microcosms were established in flasks filled with pre-incubated bacterioplankton and single MC compounds (final concentration 10 μM). Once cell growth was confirmed by flow cytometry-based cell counting, bacterial cells in enriched microcosms were transferred onto solid surfaces, i.e., GFF filter and noble agar for colony isolation. Obtained single colonies were inoculated in defined liquid media with MCs as single carbon source. DNA was extracted from each purified isolate and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). A total of 18 different RFLP banding patterns were found, indicating MC-degrading bacteria may be heterogeneous in studied water samples. 16S rRNA genes of selected bacterial isolates were PCR amplified and sequenced for taxonomic identification. Our results demonstrated that MCs can be degraded by multiple bacterial species in Lake Erie. Future directions

  7. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the power to detect temporal trends in fishery independent surveys: A case study based on Gillnets Set in the Ohio waters of Lake Erie for walleye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Tyson, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Fishery-independent (FI) surveys provide critical information used for the sustainable management and conservation of fish populations. Because fisheries management often requires the effects of management actions to be evaluated and detected within a relatively short time frame, it is important that research be directed toward FI survey evaluation, especially with respect to the ability to detect temporal trends. Using annual FI gill-net survey data for Lake Erie walleyes Sander vitreus collected from 1978 to 2006 as a case study, our goals were to (1) highlight the usefulness of hierarchical models for estimating spatial and temporal sources of variation in catch per effort (CPE); (2) demonstrate how the resulting variance estimates can be used to examine the statistical power to detect temporal trends in CPE in relation to sample size, duration of sampling, and decisions regarding what data are most appropriate for analysis; and (3) discuss recommendations for evaluating FI surveys and analyzing the resulting data to support fisheries management. This case study illustrated that the statistical power to detect temporal trends was low over relatively short sampling periods (e.g., 5–10 years) unless the annual decline in CPE reached 10–20%. For example, if 50 sites were sampled each year, a 10% annual decline in CPE would not be detected with more than 0.80 power until 15 years of sampling, and a 5% annual decline would not be detected with more than 0.8 power for approximately 22 years. Because the evaluation of FI surveys is essential for ensuring that trends in fish populations can be detected over management-relevant time periods, we suggest using a meta-analysis–type approach across systems to quantify sources of spatial and temporal variation. This approach can be used to evaluate and identify sampling designs that increase the ability of managers to make inferences about trends in fish stocks.

  9. Spatial and temporal genetic diversity of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd; Hartman, Travis; Johnson, Jim; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) are important commercially, culturally, and ecologically in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Stocks of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes have recovered from low levels of abundance in the 1960s. Reductions in abundance, loss of habitat and environmental degradation can be accompanied by losses of genetic diversity and overall fitness that may persist even as populations recover demographically. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify stocks that have reduced levels of genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity at microsatellite DNA loci in lake whitefish collected between 1927 and 1929 (historical period) and between 1997 and 2005 (contemporary period) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Genetic analysis of lake whitefish from Lakes Huron and Erie shows that the amount of population structuring varies from lake to lake. Greater genetic divergences among collections from Lake Huron may be the result of sampling scale, migration patterns and demographic processes. Fluctuations in abundance of lake whitefish populations may have resulted in periods of increased genetic drift that have resulted in changes in allele frequencies over time, but periodic genetic drift was not severe enough to result in a significant loss of genetic diversity. Migration among stocks may have decreased levels of genetic differentiation while not completely obscuring stock boundaries. Recent changes in spatial boundaries to stocks, the number of stocks and life history characteristics of stocks further demonstrate the potential of coregonids for a swift and varied response to environmental change and emphasise the importance of incorporating both spatial and temporal considerations into management plans to ensure that diversity is preserved.

  10. Double-Crested Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax auritus) Nesting Effects on Understory Composition and Diversity on Island Ecosystems in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Darby M.; Murphy, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    The context for this study is the management concerns over the severity and extent of the impact of cormorants on island flora in the recent past on Lake Erie islands. Accordingly, this study sought to quantify the nesting colonies' influence on coarse woody litter and how nest densities and litter depth may influence the herbaceous layer, the seed bank composition and viability across the extent of three Lake Erie islands. The data for this study were collected from 2004 to 2008 on East Sister Island and Middle Island using two main strategies. First, herbaceous layer surveys, cormorant nest counts, soil seed bank cores, and litter depth measurements were executed using a plotless-point quarter method to test island-wide impacts from nesting activities (data were also collected on a third island, West Sister Island as a reference for the other two islands). Secondly, a sub-sample of the entire plot set was examined in particularly high nesting density areas for two islands (Middle Island and East Sister Island). Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that there are subtle changes in the herbaceous diversity (total, native and exotic) and seed bank composition across the islands. The sub sample set of the plots demonstrated that Phalacrocorax auritus nest density does influence litter depth, herbaceous species abundance and diversity. Cormorant nesting pressures are restricted to areas of high nesting pressures and competition. However, there remains a risk to the interior herbaceous layer of the island if the effects of nesting pressures at the edges advance inward from this perimeter.

  11. UHT Yöntemiyle İşlenmiş Sterilize Sütün Besin Değeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Sezgin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sütün bir gıda olarak değeri günümüzde artık çok iyi bilinmektedir. Özellikle ülkemiz gibi hayvansal proteinin az tüketildiği yerlerde, içinde ihtiyacımız olan besin elementlerinin hemen hemen hepsini yeterli ve dengeli bir şekilde bulunduran sütün önemi daha da artmaktadır. Bilindiği gibi sütün besin değeri tamamen sütün bileşimiyle ilgili bulunmakta ve bu da hayvanın, türü, ırkı, yem, laktasyon mevsim ve benzeri faktörlerle geniş ölçüde değişmektedir. Süt esas olarak protein, kalsiyum ve bazı suda eriyen vitaminler yönünden önem taşımaktadır. Örneğin, 0.5 L süt 5 yaşındaki bir çocuğun protein ihtiyacının %40’ını kalsiyum ve riboflavin ihtiyacının %70’ni, tiamin, folik asit, A vitamini ihtiyacının 1/3’ni, B12 vitamini ihtiyacının ise tamamını karşılayabilmektedir.

  12. Eriçó de mar: Estudi antropològic, geolingüístic i etimològic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Corcoll Llobet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Els objectius bàsics d’aquest treball monogràfic sobre l’eriçó de mar és donar a conèixer els termes genèrics i aquells que fan referència a una o unes espècies en concret d’aquest animal marí, la seva distribució geogràfica, la seva vitalitat i la motivació semàntica o l’etimologia de tots aquests significants. Així mateix, faig esment de possibles castellanismes i d’algunes peculiaritats fonètiques que afecten diversos significants de l’eriçó de mar.

  13. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  14. Elevated Psychosocial Stress at Work in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jutta G; Muth, Thomas; Li, Jian; Brinks, Ralph; Chehab, Gamal; Koch, Tobias; Siegrist, Johannes; Angerer, Peter; Huscher, Dörte; Schneider, Matthias

    2018-02-01

    Psychosocial stress at work not only affects the healthy working population, but also workers with chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate the psychosocial work stress levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional study applied the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire - an internationally established instrument that measures work stress - to patients with SLE and RA who were capable of work and to a group of controls without these diseases. Participants were recruited through rheumatologists in private practices, hospitals, and from self-help groups by personal communication, paper-based flyers, and online advertisements. Because very few studies tested the ERI's applicability in patient groups, with a lack of evidence in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, internal consistency and construct validity of the ERI measure were evaluated. Data came from 270 patients with RA and 247 with SLE, and 178 controls. Patients showed elevated psychosocial stress at work compared to controls. Across the total sample and all groups, satisfactory internal consistencies of the scales effort, reward, and overcommitment were obtained (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.70), and confirmatory factor analysis replicated the theoretical structure of the ERI model (goodness-of-fit index > 0.80). We found elevated psychosocial stress at work in patients with SLE and RA compared to controls by applying the ERI model. Despite some heterogeneity in the sample, we achieved satisfactory psychometric properties of the ERI questionnaire. Our results suggest that the ERI questionnaire is a psychometrically useful tool to be implemented in epidemiological studies of employed patients with SLE and RA.

  15. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey at the Giribaile site (upper Guadalquivir valley; southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Rey, J.; Gutiérrez, L. M.; Novo, A.; Ortiz, A. J.; Alejo, M.; Galdón, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Giribaile archaeological site is one of the most important Iberian enclaves of the Alto Guadalquivir (Southern Spain). However, to date, only minimal excavation work has been performed at the site. Evaluation requires a preliminary, non-destructive general analysis to determine high-interest areas. This stage required a geophysical survey. Specifically, a 100 m2 grid was selected, where an initial campaign of nine electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) profiles was performed, where each profile was 111 m in length; these profiles were previously located using a detailed topographical survey. A total of 112 electrodes were used for each profile, spaced at 1 m apart with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Secondly, 201 GPR profiles were created using a 500 MHz antenna. The 100 m long profiles were spaced 0.5 m apart and parallel to one another. The present research analyses the efficiency of each of these geophysical tools in supporting archaeological research. Using these methodologies, the position, morphology, and depth of different buried structures can be determined. 3D interpretation of the geophysical survey in 100 × 100 m grid allowed to differentiate structures square and rectangular, interesting buildings in a semicircle (interpreted as ovens) plus delineate different streets. From the geophysical survey follows the Carthaginian presence inside this ancient Iberian enclave.

  16. Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Haw; White, Michael J; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Keitzer, S Conor; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Atwood, Jay D; Daggupati, Prasad; Herbert, Matthew E; Sowa, Scott P; Ludsin, Stuart A; Robertson, Dale M; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Rewa, Charles A

    2016-11-01

    Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inquiry based Teacher Professional development from a multidisciplinary perspective: The NEOGEO Lake Erie Earth Science Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J. D.; Munro-Stasiuk, M. J.; Hart, B. I.; Mokaren, D. M.; Arnold, B.; Chermansky, J. V.; Vlack, Y. A.

    2006-12-01

    State and national educational standards stress the need to incorporate inquiry-based approaches into the K- 12 science curriculum. However, many teachers either lack training in these pedagogical techniques or science content mastery. Both of these are needed to confidently approach science teaching in the less structured framework associated with a real world exploration of the natural environment. To overcome these barriers to implementation, we have developed an intensive, field-based professional development workshop which explores the connections between the bedrock geology, glacial geomorphology, ecology, and geography of the Lake Erie Islands and the shore of its western basin. This workshop is part of a series of three workshops that form the professional development activities of our NSF funded Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) project, the Northeast Ohio Geoscience Education Outreach (NEOGEO) Program which seeks to improve the quality of Earth Science education at the middle and high school levels in Northeast Ohio. During the workshop students explored the ecology and geomorphology of a series of coastal wetlands, collecting instrumental data and field observations to evaluate water quality and the forces that created these surface features. Exceptional exposure of glacial scours and striations at Kelleys Island and along the Marblehead Peninsula allowed the participants to reconstruct evolving ice flow paths to see how recent geological history shaped the landscape. Finally, stratigraphic observations in a local quarry enabled the students to understand why the observed glacial features varied as a function of bedrock type. Response to the workshop was overwhelming positive with participants commenting positively on quality and quantity of the material presented and the manner in which inquiry based teaching was modeled. End of term projects which included the conceptualization of a teaching plan to incorporate the approaches learned

  18. Controls of event-based nutrient transport within nested headwater agricultural watersheds of the western Lake Erie basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark R.; Livingston, Stanley J.; Penn, Chad J.; Smith, Douglas R.; King, Kevin W.; Huang, Chi-hua

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the processes controlling nutrient delivery in headwater agricultural watersheds is essential for predicting and mitigating eutrophication and harmful algal blooms in receiving surface waters. The objective of this study was to elucidate nutrient transport pathways and examine key components driving nutrient delivery processes during storm events in four nested agricultural watersheds (298-19,341 ha) in the western Lake Erie basin with poorly drained soils and an extensive artificial drainage network typical of the Midwestern U.S. Concentration-discharge hysteresis patterns of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and particulate phosphorus (PP) occurring during 47 storm events over a 6 year period (2004-2009) were evaluated. An assessment of the factors producing nutrient hysteresis was completed following a factor analysis on a suite of measured environmental variables representing the fluvial and wider watershed conditions prior to, and during the monitored storm events. Results showed the artificial drainage network (i.e., surface tile inlets and subsurface tile drains) in these watersheds was the primary flow pathway for nutrient delivery to streams, but nutrient behavior and export during storm events was regulated by the flow paths to and the intensity of the drainage network, the availability of nutrients, and the relative contributions of upland and in-stream nutrient sources. Potential sources and flow pathways for transport varied among NO3-N, PP, and DRP with results underscoring the challenge of mitigating nutrient loss in these watersheds. Conservation practices addressing both nutrient management and hydrologic connectivity will likely be required to decrease nutrient loss in artificially drained landscapes.

  19. Western Lake Erie Basin: Soft-data-constrained, NHDPlus resolution watershed modeling and exploration of applicable conservation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Haw; White, Michael J.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Keitzer, S. Conor; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Atwood, Jay D.; Daggupati, Prasad; Herbert, Matthew E.; Sowa, Scott P.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Robertson, Dale M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Rewa, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2012) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation.

  20. Large-scale Watershed Modeling: NHDPlus Resolution with Achievable Conservation Scenarios in the Western Lake Erie Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H.; White, M. J.; Arnold, J. G.; Keitzer, S. C.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Atwood, J. D.; Daggupati, P.; Herbert, M. E.; Sowa, S. P.; Ludsin, S.; Robertson, D. M.; Srinivasan, R.; Rewa, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    By the substantial improvement of computer technology, large-scale watershed modeling has become practically feasible in conducting detailed investigations of hydrologic, sediment, and nutrient processes. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), water quality issues caused by anthropogenic activities are not just interesting research subjects but, have implications related to human health and welfare, as well as ecological integrity, resistance, and resilience. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the finest resolution stream network, NHDPlus, were implemented on the WLEB to examine the interactions between achievable conservation scenarios with corresponding additional projected costs. During the calibration/validation processes, both hard (temporal) and soft (non-temporal) data were used to ensure the modeling outputs are coherent with actual watershed behavior. The results showed that widespread adoption of conservation practices intended to provide erosion control could deliver average reductions of sediment and nutrients without additional nutrient management changes. On the other hand, responses of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) dynamics may be different than responses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus dynamics under the same conservation practice. Model results also implied that fewer financial resources are required to achieve conservation goals if the goal is to achieve reductions in targeted watershed outputs (ex. NO3 or DIP) rather than aggregated outputs (ex. total nitrogen or total phosphorus). In addition, it was found that the model's capacity to simulate seasonal effects and responses to changing conservation adoption on a seasonal basis could provide a useful index to help alleviate additional cost through temporal targeting of conservation practices. Scientists, engineers, and stakeholders can take advantage of the work performed in this study as essential information while conducting policy

  1. Using LEGO Kits to Teach Higher Level Problem Solving Skills in System Dynamics: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; de Vries, Charlotte; Dunsworth, Qi

    2018-01-01

    System Dynamics is a required course offered to junior Mechanical Engineering students at Penn State Erie, the Behrend College. It addresses the intercoupling dynamics of a wide range of dynamic systems: including mechanical, electrical, fluid, hydraulic, electromechanical, and biomedical systems. This course is challenging for students due to the…

  2. Wyzwanie dla racjonalności: Leibniz i początek ery Newtona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Heller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present knowledge in the field of dynamical systems, information theory, probability theory and other similar domains indicates that the human brain is a complex dynamical system working in a strong chaotic regime in which random processes play important roles. In this environment our mental life develops. To choose a logically ordered sequence from a random or almost random stream of thoughts is a difficult and energy consuming task. The only domain in which we are able to do this with a full success is mathematics. Leibniz’s life ambition was to extend this success, with the help of what he called characteristica universalis, to other areas of human activity. The belief that this is possible lies at the basis of Leibniz’s rationalist system. Reasoning within his system, Leibniz claimed that also fundamental laws of physics can be deduced from the “first principles”. Just as linguistic or conceptual units are at the basis of the charactersistica universalis, his monads are responsible for physical activity of material bodies. When this rationalistic strategy is applied to the philosophy of space and time, it leads to their radically relational conception. Leibniz’s rationalistic approach to philosophy and science arouses out sympathy but it was Newton’s mathematical-empirical method that turned out to be effective in human endeavour to understand the functioning of the physical world. Successes of the Newtonian method compel us to revise our concept of rationality.

  3. The Nature of Science and Librarianship and Information Science as a Discipline of Science Bilimin İçeriği ve Bir Bilim Dalı Olarak Kütüphanecilik ve Enformasyon Bilimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Gürdal

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Science is a systemized from of knowledge which is a product of human creativity. The aim of this study is to try to explain the nature of the concept of science, and to evaluate librarianship and information science as a scientific discipline in accordance with the synthesis achieved; and invite colleagues to consider this issue. Bilim insan yaratıcılığıyla üretilen bilginin sistematiğe edilmiş şeklidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, bilim kavramının içeriğini açımlamaya çalışmak; varılacak sentezlerle kütüphanecilik ve enformasyon biliminin bir "bilim disiplini" olarak değerlendirmesini sunmak ve meslektaşları konu üzerinde düşünmeye çağırmaktır.

  4. Fall diets of red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator) and walleye (Sander vitreus) in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, M.T.; Stapanian, M.A.; Bernhardt, G.; Turner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although published studies indicate the contrary, there is concern among many sport anglers that migrating red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) and other waterbirds pose a competitive threat to sport fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) in Lake Erie. We quantified the diet of autumn-migrant mergansers and walleye during 1998-2000 in Sandusky Bay and adjacent waters of western Lake Erie. We hypothesized that the diets of both predators would be similar in species composition, but because of different foraging ecologies their diets would differ markedly in size of prey consumed. In addition to predator samples, we used trawl data from the same general area as an index of prey availability. We found that mergansers fed almost exclusively on fish (nine species). Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Walleye fed exclusively on fish: gizzard shad, alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and emerald shiner were consumed in the greatest numbers, most frequently and comprised the greatest biomass. Diet overlap between mergansers and walleye was 67% by weight and 66% by species frequency. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby found in walleye stomachs exceeded those captured in trawls by 47%, on average. Mean total lengths of gizzard shad, emerald shiner and round goby were greater in walleye stomachs than in merganser stomachs. Mean total lengths of emerald shiner and round goby were less in merganser stomachs than in trawls. Our results suggest that although the diets of walleye and mergansers overlapped considerably, mergansers generally consumed smaller fish than walleye. Given the abundance and diversity of prey species available, and the transient nature of mergansers on Lake Erie during migration, we conclude that competition for food between these species is minimal.

  5. La vinculación de Juan Escoto Eriúgena con la tradición en las obras de Brucker, Tennemann y Rixner

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Strok

    2014-01-01

    Se busca dar cuenta de la filiación filosófica que tres historiadores de la filosofía (de los siglos XVIII y XIX) otorgan a Juan Escoto Eriúgena (siglo IX). El iluminista J. Brucker, el kantiano W. Tennemann y el romántico T. Rixner son representan- tes del periodo de gestación de la historia de la filosofía como disciplina, y sus obras son fuentes para destacados filósofos, como por ejemplo Hegel. Se muestra hasta qué punto las líneas interpretativas que iniciaron estos autores se conti- núa...

  6. El control del cuerpo y el alma en la sexta parte de la insoportable levedad del ser: Kundera, Eriúgena y Agustín

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Almenar, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Se analiza la relación entre un fragmento de la sexta parte de La insoportable levedad del ser de Milan Kundera y los dos textos que le sirven de fuente: el Peri physeon de Escoto Eriúgena y el De civitate Dei de Agustín de Hipona. Los tres fragmentos analizados en este artículo mantienen una relación de copresencia llamada “alusión” por Genette. Se defiende que el paso de Kundera no es plenamente comprensible sin la intelección de sus fuentes. El problema conceptual desarrollado por los tres...

  7. Short-Pulse-Width Repetitively Q-Switched ~2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 Ceramic Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A short-pulse-width repetitively Q-switched 2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser is demonstrated using a specially designed mechanical switch, a metal plate carved with slits of both slit-width and duty-cycle optimized. With a 20% transmission output coupler, stable pulse trains with durations (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM of 27–38 ns were generated with a repetition rate within the range of 0.26–4 kHz. The peak power at a 0.26 kHz repetition rate was ~3 kW.

  8. Increased nutrient concentrations in Lake Erie tributaries influenced by greenhouse agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Wellen, Christopher; Stammler, Katie L; Mundle, Scott O C

    2018-08-15

    Greenhouse production of vegetables is a growing global trade. While greenhouses are typically captured under regulations aimed at farmland, they may also function as a point source of effluent. In this study, the cumulative impacts greenhouse effluents have on riverine macronutrient and trace metal concentrations were examined. Water samples were collected Bi-weekly for five years from 14 rivers in agriculturally dominated watersheds in southwestern Ontario. Nine of the watersheds contained greenhouses with their boundaries. Greenhouse influenced rivers had significantly higher concentrations of macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and trace metals (copper, molybdenum, and zinc). Concentrations within greenhouse influenced rivers appeared to decrease over the 5-year study while concentrations within non-greenhouse influenced river remained constant. The different temporal pattern between river types was attributed to increased precipitation during the study period. Increases in precipitation diluted concentrations in greenhouse influenced rivers; however, non-influenced river runoff proportionally increased nutrient mobility and flow, stabilizing the observed concentrations of non-point sources. Understanding the dynamic nature of environmental releases of point and non-point sources of nutrients and trace metals in mixed agricultural systems using riverine water chemistry is complicated by changes in climatic conditions, highlighting the need for long-term monitoring of nutrients, river flows and weather data in assessing these agricultural sectors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of in-soil methane production and atmospheric emission among different land covers of a Lake Erie estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Sanchez, C.; Morin, T. H.; Stefanik, K. C.; Angle, J.; Wrighton, K. C.; Bohrer, G.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland soils store a great amount of carbon, but also accumulate and emit methane (CH4), a powerful greenhouse gas. To better understand the vertical and horizontal spatial variability of CH4 emissions, we monitored production and fluxes of CH4 in Old Woman Creek, an estuarine wetland of Lake Erie, Ohio, during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016. Our combined observation methods targeted three different scales: 1) the eddy covariance technique provided continuous high frequency observations integrated over a large spatial footprint; 2) monthly chamber measurements provided sparse point measurements of fluxes in four distinct land-cover types in the wetland: open water, emergent vegetation (Typha spp.), floating vegetation (Nelumbo spp.) and mud flats; and 3) in-situ porewater dialysis samplers, "peepers", provided vertical CH4 concentration data in the soil at the same locations and temporal time steps as the chambers. In addition, we studied gene transcripts to quantify methanogenesis activity along the vertical soil profile. Using integrated chamber and EC measurements, we found an average surface emission rate from Typha, the most abundant vegetated land cover, of 219.4 g CH4-C m-2 y-1, which was much higher than rates reported in similar emergent vegetation types in other wetlands. There was large spatial variation of flux rates, with mud flats having the highest rates of CH4 emission, followed by Nelumbo and Typha patches, and with open water having the lowest emissions. Within the soil column, we applied a numerical model to convert soil methane concentrations to emissions rates. We found that, contrary to current ideas of methane production, most methane was being produced in the well-oxygenated surface soils, probably in anoxic microsites within the oxic layer. Our metatranscriptomic data supported these findings, clearly showing nine times greater methanogenic activity in oxic surface soils relative to deeper anoxic soils. Combined, our results provide

  10. An Evaluation of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Oral Administration in Eri Silkworm through Fat Body Metabolomics Based on 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-wei Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, the main hypoglycemic constituent in mulberry (Morus alba latex, has been extensively researched. Although there is considerable interest in the biological effects of DNJ, the roles of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ in glycometabolism and energy metabolism in insects have received little attention. In this paper, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR based metabonomic was performed to study the effects of the oral supplementation of 0.25% DNJ, 0.5% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1 : 1 on the fat body glycometabolism and energy metabolism of the fourth-instar larvae of Eri silkworms, Samia cynthia ricini. Metabolic pattern recognition analysis (partial least square-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA of fat body extracts indicated that the groups of 0.25% DNJ, 0.5% DNJ, latex, and the mixture of 0.5% DNJ and latex (1 : 1 were significantly different from the control group. Further, compared to the control group, the metabolites levels of lactate, trehalose, succinate, malate, and fumarate were remarkably changed in experimental groups, which were involved in glycolysis, hydrolysis of trehalose, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. Our results indicate that DNJ has a positive impact on the reverse energy metabolism of Eri silkworms and metabonomic analysis based on NMR can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers.

  11. Evaluating the power to detect temporal trends in fishery-independent time surveys: A case study based on gill nets set in the Ohio waters of Lake Erie for walleyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Tyson, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Fishery-independent (FI) surveys provide critical information used for the sustainable management and conservation of fish populations. Because fisheries management often requires the effects of management actions to be evaluated and detected within a relatively short time frame, it is important that research be directed toward FI survey evaluation, especially with respect to the ability to detect temporal trends. Using annual FI gill-net survey data for Lake Erie walleyes Sander vitreus collected from 1978 to 2006 as a case study, our goals were to (1) highlight the usefulness of hierarchical models for estimating spatial and temporal sources of variation in catch per effort (CPE); (2) demonstrate how the resulting variance estimates can be used to examine the statistical power to detect temporal trends in CPE in relation to sample size, duration of sampling, and decisions regarding what data are most appropriate for analysis; and (3) discuss recommendations for evaluating FI surveys and analyzing the resulting data to support fisheries management. This case study illustrated that the statistical power to detect temporal trends was low over relatively short sampling periods (e.g., 5–10 years) unless the annual decline in CPE reached 10–20%. For example, if 50 sites were sampled each year, a 10% annual decline in CPE would not be detected with more than 0.80 power until 15 years of sampling, and a 5% annual decline would not be detected with more than 0.8 power for approximately 22 years. Because the evaluation of FI surveys is essential for ensuring that trends in fish populations can be detected over management-relevant time periods, we suggest using a meta-analysis–type approach across systems to quantify sources of spatial and temporal variation. This approach can be used to evaluate and identify sampling designs that increase the ability of managers to make inferences about trends in fish stocks.

  12. Multi-Spectral Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigment Absorption Properties in Cyanobacteria Bloom Waters: A Regional Example in the Western Basin of Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton pigments absorb sunlight for photosynthesis, protect the chloroplast from damage caused by excess light energy, and influence the color of the water. Some pigments act as bio-markers and are important for separation of phytoplankton functional types. Among many efforts that have been made to obtain information on phytoplankton pigments from bio-optical properties, Gaussian curves decomposed from phytoplankton absorption spectrum have been used to represent the light absorption of different pigments. We incorporated the Gaussian scheme into a semi-analytical model and obtained the Gaussian curves from remote sensing reflectance. In this study, a series of sensitivity tests were conducted to explore the potential of obtaining the Gaussian curves from multi-spectral satellite remote sensing. Results showed that the Gaussian curves can be retrieved with 35% or less mean unbiased absolute percentage differences from MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-like sensors. Further, using Lake Erie as an example, the spatial distribution of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin concentrations were obtained from the Gaussian curves and used as metrics for the spatial extent of an intense cyanobacterial bloom occurred in Lake Erie in 2014. The seasonal variations of Gaussian absorption properties in 2011 were further obtained from MERIS imagery. This study shows that it is feasible to obtain Gaussian curves from multi-spectral satellite remote sensing data, and the obtained chlorophyll a and phycocyanin concentrations from these Gaussian peak heights demonstrated potential application to monitor harmful algal blooms (HABs and identification of phytoplankton groups from satellite ocean color remote sensing semi-analytically.

  13. Thermal and Hydraulic Conditions Supporting the Recruitment of Asian Carp in Seiche Affected Rivers of Lake Erie Basin - A Case Study of the Lower Sandusky River in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, D. T.; Santacruz, S.; Jones, L.; Garcia, T.; Kočovský, P. M.; Embke, H.

    2017-12-01

    Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) is an invasive fish species that spawns in rivers during high-flow events. In their native range, it is believed eggs must hatch within the riverine environment in order to eventually result in production of adult fish. The lower Sandusky River is approximately 26 km long extending from its confluence with Sandusky Bay upstream to the Ballville Dam, which is impassible for Grass Carp. Grass Carp are known to have spawned in the Sandusky River, a tributary to Lake Erie, in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017. This study characterizes the thermal and hydraulic conditions under which these eggs could hatch in the lower Sandusky River, a relatively short river reach for egg hatching. Grass Carp eggs collected in 2015 were previously analyzed for hatching locations using a one-dimensional steady-state HEC-RAS hydraulic model. In this study we refine estimates of hatching locations by incorporating the influence of fluctuating water levels downstream due to seiches in Lake Erie and overland and tributary inflows using an unsteady 1D/2D HEC-RAS hydraulic model. Additionally, conditions conducive to successful hatching, which occurs when eggs reach the hatching stage within the river, were analyzed from nine high-flow events between 2011 and 2015. Simulated hydraulic and water temperature data were used as inputs to the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model, which was used to analyze the transport and dispersal of Grass carp eggs until hatching. We will describe the differences in steady- and unsteady-state hydraulic modeling in predicting hatching locations of Grass Carp eggs for the 2015 spawning events. Results will also include hydraulic and temperature variables that contribute to the successful/unsuccessful in-river hatching for the nine flow events simulated.

  14. Tricho system: hypertrichosis, radiation, and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    Five women in their 6th to 8th decades were treated for facial hypertrichosis in Erie, Pennsylvania, 30 to 40 years ago. The epilations were performed with an x-ray device called Tricho System, which was manufactured, sold, and proclaimed safe by its physician-inventor. The beauty shop operator who administered these treatments may or may not have received instruction by the company in the operation of the equipment. At varying intervals, each of the 5 women developed radiodermatitis and basal cell and/or squamous cell carcinoma at the sites of epilation. All presented to the plastic surgical service at the Hamot Medical Center in Erie, Pennsylvania. Two underwent massive radical resective surgery, 2 required extensive excision and resurfacing, and 1 refused resective surgery althouth she had had a previous surgical attempt 17 years earlier. Case histories are presented in detail. This series is representative of the epidemic nature of Tricho-System-induced disease

  15. The IAGOS-core greenhouse gas package : a measurement system for continuous airborne observations of CO2, CH4, H2O and CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filges, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Chen, Huilin; Franke, Harald; Klaus, Christoph; Jordan, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - European Research Infrastructure), a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS)-based measurement system for the autonomous measurement of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4, as well as CO and water vapour was

  16. Vom Klangrausch des Nordwinds und der leeren Tafel der Seele. Lepo Sumeras vierte Symphonie "Serena Borealis" in Karlsruhe uraufgeführt: Eri Klas dirigierte im Konzert der Badischen Staatskapelle zu den Kulturtagen auch Musik von Arvo Pärt und Edua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hartmann, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    Lepo Sumera neljanda sümfoonia "Serena Borealis" esiettekanne Karlsruhes: Eri Klas dirigeeris kontserdil kultuuripäevade raames ka Arvo Pärdi ja Eduard Tubina muusikat. Eesti muusikute esinemisest Karlsruhe kultuuripäevadel

  17. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  18. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  19. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites

  20. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  1. Novel 1,5,7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxy methyl anthraquinone isolated from terrestrial Streptomyces sp. (eri-26) with antimicrobial and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balachandran, C; Raj, M Karunai; Arasu, M Valan; Ignacimuthu, S

    2014-11-01

    Streptomyces sp. isolate ERI-26 was obtained from the Nilgiris forest soil of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. Novel anthraquinone compound was isolated from the active fraction 5; it was identified by spectroscopical data using UV, IR, NMR and MASS. The isolated compound 1,5,7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxy methyl anthraquinone was tested against bacteria and fungi at minimum inhibitory concentration level. The compound showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus at 125 μg/ml, Staphylococcus epidermidis at 62.5 μg/m, Bacillus subtilis at 31.25 μg/ml, fungi; Epidermophyton floccosum at 62.5 μg/ml, Aspergillus niger at 31.25 μg/ml, Aspergiller flavus at 31.25 μg/ml, Trichophyton rubrum at 62.5 μg/ml and Botrytis cinerea at 62.5 μg/ml. The isolated compound was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition of TtgR, topoisomerase IV and AmpC β-lactamase enzymes which are targets for antimicrobials. Docking studies of the compound showed low docking energy indicating its usefulness as antimicrobial agent. 1,5,7-Trihydroxy-3-hydroxy methyl anthraquinone is new, and its antimicrobial and molecular docking properties are reported for the first time.

  2. Compact Superconducting Power Systems for Airborne Applications (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    rotating machin- ery such as motors and alternators, is to maximize the magnet- ic flux density. This can be achieved by using a higher current...future systems could be driven to much higher power ratios, since the initial machine configuration was a homopolar inductor alternator‡ (HIA). A... Homopolar inductor alternator is an electrically symmetrical synchro- nous generator with a field winding that has a fixed magnetic position in relation to

  3. Stock-specific advection of larval walleye (Sander vitreus) in western Lake Erie: Implications for larval growth, mixing, and stock discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Michael E.; Anderson, Eric J.; May, Cassandra J.; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Davis, Jeremiah J.; DeVanna, Kristen M.; DuFour, Mark R.; Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Mayer, Christine M.; Miner, Jeffery G.; Pangle, Kevin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Zhao, Yingming; Ludsin, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Physical processes can generate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in habitat quality for fish and also influence the overlap of pre-recruit individuals (e.g., larvae) with high-quality habitat through hydrodynamic advection. In turn, individuals from different stocks that are produced in different spawning locations or at different times may experience dissimilar habitat conditions, which can underlie within- and among-stock variability in larval growth and survival. While such physically-mediated variation has been shown to be important in driving intra- and inter-annual patterns in recruitment in marine ecosystems, its role in governing larval advection, growth, survival, and recruitment has received less attention in large lake ecosystems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes. Herein, we used a hydrodynamic model linked to a larval walleye (Sander vitreus) individual-based model to explore how the timing and location of larval walleye emergence from several spawning sites in western Lake Erie (Maumee, Sandusky, and Detroit rivers; Ohio reef complex) can influence advection pathways and mixing among these local spawning populations (stocks), and how spatiotemporal variation in thermal habitat can influence stock-specific larval growth. While basin-wide advection patterns were fairly similar during 2011 and 2012, smaller scale advection patterns and the degree of stock mixing varied both within and between years. Additionally, differences in larval growth were evident among stocks and among cohorts within stocks which were attributed to spatiotemporal differences in water temperature. Using these findings, we discuss the value of linked physical–biological models for understanding the recruitment process and addressing fisheries management problems in the world's Great Lakes.

  4. Water Quality, Cyanobacteria, and Environmental Factors and Their Relations to Microcystin Concentrations for Use in Predictive Models at Ohio Lake Erie and Inland Lake Recreational Sites, 2013-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Ecker, Christopher D.; Brady, Amie M. G.; Pam Struffolino,; Loftin, Keith A.

    2015-11-06

    Harmful cyanobacterial “algal” blooms (cyanoHABs) and associated toxins, such as microcystin, are a major water-quality issue for Lake Erie and inland lakes in Ohio. Predicting when and where a bloom may occur is important to protect the public that uses and consumes a water resource; however, predictions are complicated and likely site specific because of the many factors affecting toxin production. Monitoring for a variety of environmental and water-quality factors, for concentrations of cyanobacteria by molecular methods, and for algal pigments such as chlorophyll and phycocyanin by using optical sensors may provide data that can be used to predict the occurrence of cyanoHABs.

  5. Can observations inside the Solar System reveal the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum?

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum might be the next scientific revolution.It was recently proposed that the quantum vacuum contains the virtual gravitational dipoles; we argue that this hypothesis might be tested within the Solar System. The key point is that quantum vacuum ("enriched" with the gravitational dipoles) induces a retrograde precession of the perihelion. It is obvious that this phenomenon might eventually be revealed by more accurate studies of orbits of planets and orbits of the artificial Earth satellites. However, we suggest that potentialy the best "laboratory" for the study of the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum is the Dwarf Planet Eris and its satellite Dysnomia; the distance of nearly 100AU makes it the unique system in which the precession of the perihelion of Dysnomia (around Eris) is strongly dominated by the quantum vacuum.

  6. DEFPOS Tayfölçeri ve Bazı İyonize Olmuş Kaynakların Hα Tayfları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin ŞAHAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, DEFPOS tayfölçeri, veri indirgeme teknikleri, parlaklık kalibrasyonu ve gökadamızın dört farklı iyonize olmuş bölgesinden (NGC6530, NGC1973, NGC1501, NGC6514 alınan Hα (6563Å tayfları hakkında detaylı bilgi vermektedir. Gözlemlerde 600s ile 3600s arasında değişen uzun poz süreleri kullanılmıştır. Tayflar, kaynakların çizgi genişlikleri, LSR hızları ve parlaklıkları hakkında bilgi sağlamaktadır. Bu tayflardan, yapıların LSR’a göre hızları ve parlaklıkları sırasıyla, NGC6530 için 11.80±0.2 km/s ve 24409.70±16.8 R, NGC1973 (Sh2-279 için 13.65±0.7 km/s ve 477.87±3.2 R, NGC1501 için -26.26±2.6 km/s ve 255.13±4.5 R ve NGC6514 için 14.43±0.2 km/s ve 1856.71±0.6 R olarak bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, her salma kaynağı için parlaklık değerleri kullanarak salma ölçüleri hesaplanmıştır. Bazı sonuçlar, literatürden elde edilen değerlerle karşılaştırılmıştır. Literatürde düşük açısal genişliğe sahip olan bu tür kaynakların parlaklık ve LSR hızları hakkında yeterli bilgi bulunmadığından, DEFPOS ile elde edilen verilerinin literatüre katkı sağlayacağını düşünmekteyiz.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in three tissues of adult snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from six locations in the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie to characterize tissue variation and geographic trends. The locations included the Ohio Areas of Concern, i.e., the Ashtabula, Black, and Maumee Rivers; the Ottawa River near Toledo; and two reference sites. Mean total PCBs were greatest in turtles from the Ottawa River followed by the Maumee, Ashtabula, and Black Rivers. All three types of samples-fat tissue (FT), eggs, and plasma-showed the same geographic trend in PCB levels. On a wet-weight basis, mean concentrations ranged from 2,148 to 18,669 ng/g in FT, from 183 to 3,683 ng/g in eggs, and from 18 to 201 ng/g in plasma. Across all sites, total PCB concentrations between the tissues were significantly correlated (0.001 40 congeners (0.001 < p < 0.05). The distribution ratios determined for these congeners from the slope of the regression lines averaged 1.235 +/- 0.279, 0.430 +/- 0.170, and 0.387 +/- 0.115, respectively. The plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized concentration ratios for these congeners averaged 0.012 +/- 0.006. Both egg-FT and plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized ratios regressed against log K(ow) showed significant decreases, with increasing log K(ow), indicating greater accumulation of highly chlorinated congeners in FT than in other compartments. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents ranged from 0.007 ng/g at reference sites to 0.060 ng/g at contaminated sites and from 0.099 to 1.992 ng/g in plasma and eggs, respectively. In both plasma and eggs, coplanar-CBs were the major contributors to total toxic equivalents (TEQs). Eggs from all contaminated sites had TEQs that exceeded the lowest observed effect level TEQs proposed for bald eagle chicks, in addition to high SigmaPCB levels at some of these sites, especially the Ottawa and Maumee River sites, indicate

  8. Circulation, mixing, and transport in nearshore Lake Erie in the vicinity of Villa Angela Beach and Euclid Creek, Cleveland, Ohio, September 11-12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Villa Angela Beach, on the Lake Erie lakeshore near Cleveland, Ohio, is adjacent to the mouth of Euclid Creek, a small, flashy stream draining approximately 23 square miles and susceptible to periodic contamination from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) (97 and 163 CSO events in 2010 and 2011, respectively). Concerns over high concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples taken along this beach and frequent beach closures led to the collection of synoptic data in the nearshore area in an attempt to gain insights into mixing processes, circulation, and the potential for transport of bacteria and other CSO-related pollutants from various sources in Euclid Creek and along the lakefront. An integrated synoptic survey was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey on September 11–12, 2012, during low-flow conditions on Euclid Creek, which followed rain-induced high flows in the creek on September 8–9, 2012. Data-collection methods included deployment of an autonomous underwater vehicle and use of a manned boat equipped with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Spatial distributions of water-quality measures and nearshore currents indicated that the mixing zone encompassing the mouth of Euclid Creek and Villa Angela Beach is dynamic and highly variable in extent, but can exhibit a large zone of recirculation that can, at times, be decoupled from local wind forcing. Observed circulation patterns during September 2012 indicated that pollutants from CSOs in Euclid Creek and water discharged from three shoreline CSO points within 2,000 feet of the beach could be trapped along Villa Angela Beach by interaction of nearshore currents and shoreline structures. In spite of observed coastal downwelling, denser water from Euclid Creek is shown to mix to the surface via offshore turbulent structures that span the full depth of flow. While the southwesterly longshore currents driving the recirculation pattern along the beach front were observed during the 2011–12

  9. Bilgi Erişim Platformu Olarak Bulut Bilişim: Riskler ve Hukuksal Koşullar Üzerine Bir İnceleme= Cloud Computing as an Information Access Platform: A Study on Threats and Legal Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Külcü

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulut bilişim, bilgiye her yerden ve her an erişebilme kolaylığı ile internet üzerinden sunulan çok yönlü ve hızlı gelişen servis araçlarından biridir. Ancak bu yeni teknoloji servisi birçok faydasının yanı sıra; göz ardı edilmesi halinde büyük kayıplara neden olabilecek riskleri de içermektedir. Çalışma genelinde, küresel çapta yoğun olarak tartışılmakta olan “Bulut üzerinde bulunan bilgilerin sahibi kim? Kişisel verilerin korunmasından kim sorumlu? Kayıp ve zararların telafi edilmesi mümkün mü?” gibi birçok sorunun yanıtı literatür ve mevcut uygulamalar içinde aranarak; bulut bilişimde verilerin güvenliği ve gizliliği konusunda toplumda bilinçlenmenin artırılması hedeflenmiştir. Bu çalışmada, bulut bilişimin faydalı ve olumsuz yönleri ile birlikte; mevcut ABD hukuk mevzuatı, AB direktifleri ve AB sözleşmeleri kapsamlı olarak incelenerek, tüm hukuksal risk ve problemlere dikkat çekilmiştir. Çalışma sonunda, mevcut bulut hizmet sözleşmeleri ve yasal düzenlemeler çerçevesinde; Türkiye’de bulut bilişim kullanıcılarının veri güvenliğini ve gizliliğini yeterli seviyede koruyan bir hukuksal düzenlemenin bulunmadığı ortaya konulmuştur. Ayrıca; veri öznelerinin bulut bilişime olan güveninin sağlanabilmesi ve kişisel verilerin korunabilmesi amacıyla temel olarak kabul edilebilecek güvenli bulut bilişim modeli önerisinde bulunulmuştur./ Cloud computing is one of the services that are delivered over internet for transmission and access to user data at anytime from anywhere. In spite of numerous advantages provided with cloud computing, it is important to recognize the potential threats, including loss of user data, when disregarded. In scope of the study, it is aimed to raise public awareness on cloud computing by investigating security and privacy issues related to user data stored on remote servers based on the questions like “Who is the owner

  10. Biogenic Aerosol - Effect on Clouds and Climate (BAECC-ERI). Extended Radiosonde Intensive Operational Period Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoll, Ken A. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); O' Connor, E. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale properties of clouds such as lifetime, optical thickness, and precipitation are all dependent on small-scale cloud microphysical processes. Such processes determine when droplets will grow or shrink, their size, and the number of cloud droplets. Although our understanding of cloud microphysics has vastly improved over the past several decades with the development of remote sensing methods such as lidar and radar, there remain a number of processes that are not well understood, such as the effect of electrical charge on cloud microphysics. To understand the various processes and feedback mechanisms, high-vertical–resolution observations are required. Radiosondes provide an ideal platform for providing routine vertical profiles of in situ measurements at any location (with a vertical resolution of a few meters). Modified meteorological radiosondes have been extensively developed at the University of Reading for measuring cloud properties, to allow measurements beyond the traditional thermodynamic quantities (pressure, temperature and relative humidity) to be obtained cost-effectively. This project aims to investigate a number of cloud processes in which in situ cloud observations from these modified radiosondes can provide information either complementary to or not obtainable by lidar/radar systems. During two intensive operational periods (IOPs) in May and August 2014 during deployment to Hyytiälä, Finland, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) launched a total of 24 instrumented radiosondes through a number of different cloud types ranging from low-level stratiform cloud to cumulonimbus. Twelve balloon flights of an accelerometer turbulence sensor were made, which detected significant turbulence on eleven of these flights. Most of the turbulent episodes encountered were due to convective processes, but several were associated with the transition from troposphere to stratosphere at

  11. Development of techniques for separation and sorting system of different parts of field plants; Peltokasvien eri osien erottelu- ja lajittelutekniikan kehittaeminen - 502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, T.; Kallio, E.; Paappanen, T.; Leinonen, A. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this research was to construct a segregation concept for an integrated method, by which it is possible to produce fibre fraction for pulping industry and by-product fraction for energy production of the field plants. Experimental data was gathered of the mechanical dry-loosening and segregation technologies, e.g. of milling, crushing and chopping, for different parts of spring-harvested reed canary grass. The applicability of each processing method for loosening different parts of the plant were investigated on the basis of the particle sizes of the processing products, and on the basis of the properties, e.g. the ash content, of the fractions. Air-separation research for processed material was carried out using impact-separator. Especially the chopped material was examined as a function of the length of the chips by making sieving and air-separation tests. Technologies of drumming and chafing between flexible rollers were studied as alternatives for further processing of the chopped material, the aim of which was to find methods which do not crush and grind the straw unnecessarily. The suggestion for the basic elements of the mechanical, as simple segregation method as possible, are the processing phase based on chafing, and the air-separation supplemented with sieving. Depending on the quality requirements of the pulp, no additional mechanical processing might not be needed. Sometimes the chopping can be the only processing phase needed. Because of this the fractionation unit has to be flexible and adjustable with the quality requirements of the pulp

  12. Development of technics for separation and sorting system of different parts of field plants; Peltokasvien eri osien erottelu- ja lajittelutekniikoiden kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindh, T.; Kallio, E.; Taipale, R.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the research is to construct a segregation concept for an integrated method, by which it is possible to produce fiber fraction for pulping industry and byproduct fraction for energy production of the field plants to be processed. The starting point of the concept development was, that the method consists of the plant material processing phase, in which different plant components are segregated from each other, and a sorting phase in which the plant components are divided into different fractions on the basis of the use. Following topics were studied in the first year of this two year research: properties of spring-harvested reed canary grass and the component of it from the point of view of segregation, mechanical dry-processing methods for segregation of plant components from each other and sorting methods, by which the pulp fraction and by-product fraction are separated from each other. Chopping, crushing and milling have been studied as alternatives for processing. The particle size distribution of the produced material has been estimated. Sorting tests, based on air classification, have been made. Property analyses, such as ash content, have been made for different particle classes, by which the most suitable particle size class for sorting was determined. Processing and sorting research of chopped reed canary grass will be continued in 1996. Technical/economical analyses will be made of the costs of the separator by taking the alternatives, in which the separator unit operates at the farm or at the mill, into account. The final separation concept will be made using the results obtained in the experimental researches and cost analyses

  13. Floodplain, Erie County, PA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report, but no digital flood hazard data. GG3 was not contracted to prepare digital flood data, only...

  14. Laidunruohon kemiallinen koostumus eri typpilannoitustasoilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Rinne

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Vuosina 1965—68 Maatalouden tutkimuskeskuksen tekemissä laitumen typpilannoituskokeissa Hämeen, Etelä-Savon ja Pohjois-Savon koeasemilla saatiin seuraavia tuloksia: 1. Typpilannoituksen nostaminen 100 kg:sta 300 kg:an hehtaarille lisäsi erittäin merkitsevästi ruohon raakavalkuaispitoisuutta, vähensi erittäin merkitsevästi typettömien uuteaineiden ja Hämeen koeasemalla myös raakakuidun osuutta, vaikutti karjan ravitsemuksen kannalta edullisesti ruohon kalsium-, magnesium- ja natriumpitoisuuksiin eli kohotti niiden osuutta, vaikutti negatiivisesti ruohon fosfori-, kalium- ja nitraattipitoisuuksiin eli alensi fosforipitoisuutta ja kohotti kalium- ja nitraattipitoisuuksia. 2. Kausivaihteluista selvimmät olivat raakavalkuaispitoisuuden kohoaminen syksyä kohden, alhaisimmat fosforipitoisuudet ja korkeimmat kalsium- ja nitraattipitoisuudet keskikesällä. 3. Nurmen iän lisääntyessä ruohon raakakuitupitoisuus ja typettömien uuteaineiden osuus kas voivat, nitraatti- ja kivennäisainepitoisuudet sekä raakavalkuaispitoisuus alenivat.

  15. TERRAIN, ERIE COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 OSIP bare-earth Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived from digital LiDAR data was collected during the months of March and May (leaf-off conditions)....

  16. Endoscopic-retrograde ileography (ERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higer, H.P.; Eichmann, B.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg

    1983-01-01

    Following high colonoscopy, a catheter was introduced into the caecum in 16 patients and contrast material and air were injected. In ten patients it proved possible to obtain selective double contrast demonstration of the terminal ileum and, in two patients, a single contrast examination was obtained. In four patients there was no reflux, but two of these had severe and extensive stenoses of the terminal ileum. (orig.) [de

  17. Cordia Sebestena Tohumunun ve Tohum Yağının Besinsel Özellikleri ve Potansiyel Değeri (İngilizce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Az kullanılan hammaddelerin geliştirilmesinin ivme kazanması ile iyi bilinen tohum ve tohum yağlarına olan aşırı bağımlılıktan ve bunun sonucundaki yüksek maliyetten dolayı geleneksel ve endüstriyel uygulamalar için az bilinen tohum ve tohum yağları türetilmiştir. Bu nedenle Cordia sebestena tohum ve tohum yağının kullanım potansiyeli bakımından besinsel özelliklerinin değerlendirilmesine yönelik bu çalışma yapılmıştır. Tohum yağında literatürde rapor edilen çeşitli analizler kullanılarak yağ asidi profili incelenmiş ve karakterize edilmişken, tohumda ise genel bileşim, mineral bileşenler ve anti-besinsel faktörler araştırılmıştır. Sonuçlar tohumun iyi bir yağ (%40.3 ± 0.8 ve protein (%11.5 ± 0.6 kaynağı olabileceğini göstermektedir. Tohum aynı zamanda Mg, Ca ve Na benzeri bazı makro-elementler ile esansiyel bir mikro-element olan Zn kaynağı olabilir. Anti-besinlerden fitat, tanen ve oksalat içeriği yüksektir ve gıdalarda tohumun kullanımı sakıncalı olabilir. Bu maddeler belki geleneksel gıda işleme yöntemleri ile giderilebilir. Tohum yağının özellikleri onun alkid reçine sentezinde, biyodizel ve sabun üretiminde kullanışlı olabileceğini göstermektedir. Yağ asidi profili toplam yağın %71.1 oranında insan tüketimi için iyi bir yağ asidi olan oleik asiti (C18:1 ağırlıklı olarak bulundurduğunu göstermektedir. Cordia sebestena tohumu ve tohum yağının önemli kullanım alanları olabileceği görülmüştür, ancak tohum yağının aminoasit profili ve anti-besinler üzerine geleneksel işlemlerin etkileri konularında daha fazla çalışmaya ihtiyaç vardır.

  18. Historiografía filosófica: la vinculación de juan escoto eriúgena con la tradición en las obras de brucker, tennemann y rixner

    OpenAIRE

    Strok, Natalia Soledad

    2013-01-01

    Se busca dar cuenta de la filiación filosófica que tres historiadores de la filosofía (de los siglos XVIII y XIX) otorgan a Juan Escoto Eriúgena (siglo IX). El iluminista J. Brucker, el kantiano W. Tennemann y el romántico T. Rixner son representantes del periodo de gestación de la historia de la filosofía como disciplina, y sus obras son fuentes para destacados filósofos, como por ejemplo Hegel. Se muestra hasta qué punto las líneas interpretativas que iniciaron estos autores se continúan ha...

  19. Bakü İçeri Şeher’de Selçuklular Döneminden Kalma İki Mescit: Sınıg Gala (Muhammed (1078 Ve Aşur (1169 Mescitleri (Two Masjid Around Baku İçeri Şeher Remaining From Seljuks: Sinig Gala (Muhammed (1078 And Ashur (1169 Masjids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan UYKUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, there are a great many of small scaled masjıds in oldBaku, which is called today İçeri Şeher (The Inland City. In this paper,the earliest two cultural material samples of Seljuks in Azerbajcan aswell as Anatolia are depicted. In the study, the main aim is theinvestigation of these two works, which are little known in Turkishworld, in some points of view such as their history, contractors,designs, architectures and ornament. For this reason, in a number ofbuildings in Bakuand around it, some procedures were performed suchas required measures, technical drawings, and photographing. Afterthat, the study was completed with source inquiries in the Archives ofBaku Berpa, Ahundov Library along with a number of Turkish libaries.Consequently, in their new homelands too, Turks tended to apply theaesthetical values, architectural approach and artistic motives whichthey brought in their mind togetheras well as remarkable politicalachievements which they obtained by housing Anatolia. Therefore, it ishighly probable to come accross such samples of pre-Anatolian culturalheritage in the cities they built or on the routes they passed throughduring this mobility.Both of the buildings are considered remarkable in that they arethe earliest samples from Seljuks which have remained until today,making it available us to track down the developments in Turkisharchitecture. Sınıg Gala Masjid, the first small built after Turks' arrivingin Baku, is still found remarkable since it has statical problems as wellas its slipshod appearance and its huge minarets that is independentlybuilt from the main building. As for the Ashur Masjids, with its twostorey facade and embellished supporting arch seperating the inside, itis undoubtedly a work of a less-developed architectural styleestablishment of the period. However, the most considerable drawbackin both of the vaulted buildings is the practise of gloomy, dim andfailedlocations. As a result, even though they are

  20. Türkiye'de engelli bireylere yaklaşım ve bir uygulama sorunu: Adalete erişim hakkı bağlamında engellilerin web sitelerine erişimi = Disability Awareness in Turkey and an Assessment about Accessibility of Web Pages Related to Justice by Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Levent Ertürk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiziksel veya zihinsel nedenlerle bazı hareketleri, duyuları veya işlevleri kısıtlı olan bireyler toplumun bir grubunu oluşturmaktadır. Türkiye’de bu bireyler ve/veya çevreleri toplumda doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak çeşitli sorunlarla karşı karşıya kalmaktadırlar. Günümüzde eğitim, sağlık, adalet, sosyal güvenlik gibi alanlarda bu durum sıklıkla görülebilmektedir. Söz konusu bireyler sorunlarıyla ilgilenilmesini ve çözüme kavuşturulmasını istemektedirler. Bir ülkenin gelişmişlik düzeyi anılan sorunların çözümüne yönelik çalışmalar ile doğrudan ilişkilidir. Çalışmamız, bazı hareketleri, duyuları veya işlevleri kısıtlı olan bireylerin ortak bir terimle ifade edilmesi, engelli birey farkındalığının ortaya konulması ve bu bağlamda ilgili bazı web sitelerinin bu bireyler açısından yeterliliğinin sorgulanmasına yöneliktir. Bunlar ve benzeri web sitelerinin olabildiğince erişilebilir yapılması engelli kullanıcılara diğer bireyler ile eşit hakların sağlanmasına katkı sağlayabilecek, bilgi ve iletişim kaynaklarını çeşitlendirebilecektir. / The people who have physical or mental disabilities which limit their movements, senses, activities or both of them are one of the groups in society. Those people have various problems in social life directly or indirectly in Turkey. Nowadays, they face many problems in accessibility on many fields such as education, healthcare, justice, social security, etc. Those individuals are willing to draw attention and resolve their problems. The level of development of countries is directly related with the solution of the aforementined problems. In this study we focused on the common terms about the people who have limited movements, senses, activities or both; and focused on the awereness of disabled people and we investigated the the accessibility of the web sites about the justice by disabled people. Making accessible of web

  1. Energy research information system projects report, volume 5, number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Schillinger, L.

    1980-07-01

    The system (ERIS) provides an inventory of the energy related programs and research activities from 1974 to the present in the states of Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming. Areas of research covered include coal, reclamation, water resources, environmental impacts, socioeconomic impacts, energy conversion, mining methodology, petroleum, natural gas, oilshale, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy conservation and land use. Each project description lists title, investigator(s), research institution, sponsor, funding, time frame, location, a descriptive abstract of the research and title reports and/or publications generated by the research. All projects are indexed by location, personal names, organizations and subject keywords.

  2. What fraction of white dwarfs are members of binary systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holberg, J B

    2009-01-01

    White dwarfs were originally discovered as the subordinate faint companions of bright nearby stars (i.e. Sirius B and 40 Eri B). Several general categories of binary systems involving white dwarfs are recognized: Sirius-like systems, where the white dwarf may be difficult to detect, binary systems containing white dwarfs and low mass stars, where the white dwarf is often readily discerned; and double degenerate systems. Different modes of white dwarf discovery influence our perception of both the overall binary fraction and the nature of these systems; proper motion surveys emphasize resolved systems, while photometric surveys emphasize unresolved systems containing relatively hot white dwarfs. Recent studies of the local white dwarf population offer some hope of achieving realistic estimates of the relative number of binary systems containing white dwarfs. A sample of 132 white dwarfs within 20 pc indicates that an individual white dwarf has a probability of 32 ± 8% of occurring within a binary or multiple star system.

  3. Is Pluto a planet? A historical journey through the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, David A

    2007-01-01

    A Note from the Author: On August 24, 2006, at the 26th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in Prague, by a majority vote of only the 424 members present, the IAU (an organization of over 10,000 members) passed a resolution defining planet in such a way as to exclude Pluto and established a new class of objects in the solar system to be called ""dwarf planets,"" which was deliberately designed to include Pluto. With the discovery of Eris (2003 UB313)--an outer solar system object thought to be both slightly larger than Pluto and twice as far from the Sun--astrono

  4. Experimental evaluation of 8kW grid-connected photovoltaic system in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Elkholy, A.; Fahmy, F.H.; Abou El-Ela, A.A.; Nafeh, Abd El-Shafy A.; Spea, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental observation study of 8 kW grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system that is installed at Electronics Research Institute (ERI), Giza, Egypt (Latitude 30.04°N, Longitude 31.21°E), is presented. This study includes the quality of the electrical power generated and injected into the network. The considered system consists of 28 × 295 Wp multicrystalline PV modules, StecaGrid three-phase 8 kW grid-connected inverter and a Solar-Log 300 PM+ for data acquisition and remote monitoring. ...

  5. Residue management practices and planter attachments for corn production in a conservation agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nejadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed placement and failure to establish a uniform plant stand are critical problems associated with production of corn (Zea mays following wheat (Triticum aestivum in a conservation agriculture system in Iran. Our objectives were to evaluate the performance of a corn row- crop planter equipped with two planter attachments (smooth/toothed coulters at six wheat residue management systems (three tillage systems and two levels of surface residue at two forward speeds of 5 and 7 km h-1. Residue retained after planting, seeding depth, emergence rate index (ERI and seed spacing indices were determined. The baled residue plots tilled by chisel plow followed by disc harrow (BRCD resulted in minimum residue after planting as compared to other residue treatments. Furthermore, the maximum values of the ERI and uniformity of plant spacing pertained to this treatment. Other results showed that the ERI increased up to 18% for the toothed coulter as compared to the smooth coulter. The toothed coulter also established a deeper seed placement as compared to the smooth coulter. Planting at forward speed of 5 km h-1 resulted in deeper seeding depth as compared to a forward speed of 7 km h-1. However, lower values of miss and precision indices were obtained at forward speed of 7 km h-1, indicating a more uniformity of plant spacing. Results of this study showed that equipping the conventional planter with toothed coulter and planting in soil prepared under the BRCD residue management system can result in a satisfactory conservation crop production system.

  6. Ehl-i Sünnet Açısından Bilgi ve DeğeriKnowledge and its Value in Terms of the Ahl As-Sunnah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ismail yücedağ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelâm ilmînin amacı, dinî inançları kesin deliller kullanarak ispat etmektir. Bu nedenle kelâmcılar Kur’an’ı ve iki kısma ayırdıkları Sünnet’in ilk kısmında yer alan mütevâtir haberleri esas almışlardır. Kelâm ilminde üç bilgi edinme yolu olduğu kabul edilmiştir. Bunlar, beş duyu, akıl ve haber-i sâdık’tır. Bilgi edinme yollarından ilk ikisini oluşturan beş duyu ve akıl ile elde edilen bilgiler ile Sünnet’in ilk kısmında yer alan mütevâtir haberin değeri konusunda İslâm âlimleri arasında bir ihtilâf söz konusu değildir. Hicretin II. asrından itibaren, sünnetin ikinci kısmını oluşturan haber-i vahid’in değeri ve itikâdî konularda delil teşkil edip etmeyeceği konusunda âlimler tarihsel süreç içinde birbirinden farklı görüşler ortaya koymuşlardır. Böylelikle problem günümüze kadar devam etmiştir. Konu hakkında fikir yürüten âlimler, Kelâmcılar ve Selefiyye olmak üzere iki ana gruba ayrılmışlardır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, haber-i vâhid hakkındaki fikir ayrılıklarının nedenlerini, kelâmcılar tarafından bilgi edinme yollarından biri olarak kabul edilen haber-i sâdıkı dikkate alarak araştırmaktır. Abstract The purpose of the Kalam science is to prove the religious beliefs by using definitive evidences. For this reason, the Kalam scholars are inclined to Koran and the mutawatir reports which are included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah divided into two parts. In the Kalam science, it has been accepted that there are three ways of attaining knowledge. These are the five senses, intelligence, and precise reports. It is not the case that Islamic scholars have a disagreement on not only knowledges obtained through the five senses and intelligence but the value of mutawatir reports included in the first part of Ahl As-Sunnah. As of the second century of Hegira, the scholars have put forward different opinions about whether the value of

  7. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data and filling data gaps for determining the effectiveness of agricultural management practices for reducing tributary nutrient loads to Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentanzo, Elin A.; Choquette, Anne F.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Hagan, Erik R; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, informed conservation and use of the nation’s finite fresh water resources in the context of increasingly intensive land development is a priority for today’s policy decisionmakers. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Lake Erie drainage basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  8. An Operational Short-Term Forecasting System for Regional Hydropower Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Labuhn, K. A.; Calappi, T. J.; MacNeil, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Niagara River is the natural outlet of Lake Erie and drains four of the five Great lakes. The river is used to move commerce and is home to both sport fishing and tourism industries. It also provides nearly 5 million kilowatts of hydropower for approximately 3.9 million homes. Due to a complex international treaty and the necessity of balancing water needs for an extensive tourism industry, the power entities operating on the river require detailed and accurate short-term river flow forecasts to maximize power output. A new forecast system is being evaluated that takes advantage of several previously independent components including the NOAA Lake Erie operational Forecast System (LEOFS), a previously developed HEC-RAS model, input from the New York Power Authority(NYPA) and Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and lateral flow forecasts for some of the tributaries provided by the NOAA Northeast River Forecast Center (NERFC). The Corps of Engineers updated the HEC-RAS model of the upper Niagara River to use the output forcing from LEOFS and a planned Grass Island Pool elevation provided by the power entities. The entire system has been integrated at the NERFC; it will be run multiple times per day with results provided to the Niagara River Control Center operators. The new model helps improve discharge forecasts by better accounting for dynamic conditions on Lake Erie. LEOFS captures seiche events on the lake that are often several meters of displacement from still water level. These seiche events translate into flow spikes that HEC-RAS routes downstream. Knowledge of the peak arrival time helps improve operational decisions at the Grass Island Pool. This poster will compare and contrast results from the existing operational flow forecast and the new integrated LEOFS/HEC-RAS forecast. This additional model will supply the Niagara River Control Center operators with multiple forecasts of flow to help improve forecasting under a wider variety of conditions.

  9. The dynamic state monitoring of bearings system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methods of dynamic state monitoring of bearings system. A vibration signal contains important technical information about the machine condition and is currently the most frequently used in diagnostic bearings systems. One of the main ad-vantages of machine condition monitoring is identifying the cause of failure of the bearings and taking preventative measures, otherwise the operation of such a machine will lead to frequent replacement of the bearings. Monitoring changes in the course of the operation of machin-ery repair strategies allows keeping the conditioned state of dynamic failure conditioned preventive repairs and repairs after-failure time. In addition, the paper also presents the fundamental causes of bearing failure and identifies mechanisms related to the creation of any type of damage.

  10. Sağlıklı erişkin bir popülasyonda denge ve düşme riskinin değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Analan, Pınar; Yılmaz, Emine; Leblebici, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this retrospective study, it was aimed to evaluate the risk of fall and balance, and to determine whether there is a correlation between the risk of fall and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, which are the evaluating the vestibular system, in the healthy adults who are working in a factory. Material and Methods: The data of 69 male participants have been reached. Bilateral Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials data and Berg Balance Scale of the participants have been reco...

  11. Investigations of subcritical crack propagation of the Empress 2 all-ceramic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, Gergo; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Rabbo, Mohammad Abed; Petschelt, Anselm; Pospiech, Peter

    2008-02-01

    The mechanical properties and slow crack propapagation of the all-porcelain system Empress 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) with its framework compound Empress 2 and the veneering compounds "Empress 2 and Eris were examined. For all materials, the fracture strength, Weibull parameter and elastic moduli were experimentally determined in a four-point-bending test. For the components of the Empress 2 system, the fracture toughness K(IC) was determined, and the crack propagation parameters n and A were determined in a dynamic fatigue method. Using these data, life data analysis was performed and lifetime diagrams were produced. The development of strength under static fatigue conditions was calculated for a period of 5 years. The newly developed veneering ceramic Eris showed a higher fracture strength (sigma(0)=66.1 MPa) at a failure probability of P(F)=63.2%, and crack growth parameters (n=12.9) compared to the veneering ceramic Empress 2 (sigma(0)=60.3 MPa). For Empress 2 veneer the crack propagation parameter n could only be estimated (n=9.5). This is reflected in the prognosis of long-term resistance presented in the SPT diagrams. For all materials investigated, the Weibull parameter m values (Empress 2 framework m=4.6; Empress 2 veneer m=7.9; Eris m=6.9) were much lower than the minimum demanded by the literature (m=15). The initial fracture strength value alone is not sufficient to characterize the mechanical resistance of ceramic materials, since their stressability is time-dependent. Knowledge about the crack propagation parameters n and A are of great importance when preclinically predicting the clinical suitability of dental ceramic materials. The use of SPT diagrams for lifetime calculation of ceramic materials is a valuable method for comparing different ceramics.

  12. Ölçüm Öncesi Dinlenme Süresinin ve Dinlenme Esnasında Konuşmanın İndirekt Kan Basıncı Ölçüm Değeri Üzerine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAKTAR, DUYGU; KHORSHTD, LEYLA

    2018-01-01

    Başlık:Ölçüm Öncesi Dinlenme Süresinin ve DinlenmeEsnasında Konuşmanın İndirekt Kan Basıncı Ölçüm Değeri Üzerine EtkisiTitle:Özet:            Amaç: Buaraştırma, indirekt arteriyel kan basıncı ölçerken bireyin dinlenme süresininve dinlenme esnasında konuşmanın ölçüm değeri üzerine etkisini incelemekamacıyla yapılmıştır.Gereç-Yöntem:Örneklemini, bir üniversite hastanesinin İç Hastalıkları Polikliniği’nebaşvuran 18 yaşın üzerinde olan, 60 normotansif ve 60 hipertansif bireyleroluşturmuştur. Veri...

  13. The Visibility of Scholarly Knowledge: Awareness for Open Access in Hacettepe University Bilimsel Bilginin Görünürlüğü: Hacettepe Üniversitesi’nde Açık Erişim Farkındalığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Levent Ertürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The scholars begin to place their works into the open repositories or open access journals as well as their personal web sites. In the international arena, the open repositories contain a total of 14,000 Turkey-based scholarly contents. The focus of this study is to determine the level of awareness for open access concept of scholars in Hacettepe University. An electronic questionnaire was conducted to scholars. The data were collected through questionnaire from full time academic staff member in Hacettepe University. It was found that 50% of scholars are aware of the open access concept and 92% of the scholars are willing to place their works into the institutional repository of their university. According to questionnaire study result, different types of works such as articles and assertions can be placed in the institutional open repositories in Turkey and their functionality can be increased in a short time. Bilimsel iletişimin en önemli paydaşı olan bilim insanları, bilimsel bilgilerinin görünürlüğünü artırabilmek için bilimsel eserlerini Web sayfalarında ve/veya açık erişim arşivlerinde depolamaya ya da açık erişim dergilerinde yayınlamaya başlamışlardır. Uluslararası açık erişim arşivlerinde yaklaşık 14 bin Türkiye kaynaklı bilimsel içerik bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışma Hacettepe Üniversitesi’ndeki bilim insanlarının açık erişim farkındalığını belirlemek, kurumsal açık arşivlerin etkin kullanımını konusundaki görüşlerini ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Veriler, Hacettepe Üniversitesi’nde tam zamanlı çalışan öğretim üyelerinden elektronik anket yoluyla elde edilmiştir. Bulgulara göre öğretim üyelerinin en azından yarısının (%50 açık erişim farkındalığına sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Farkındalığı olan öğretim üyeleri yüksek bir çoğunlukla (%92 yayınlarının kendi üniversitelerinde yapılandırılabilecek kurumsal açık ar

  14. 78 FR 53675 - Safety Zone; Lake Erie Heritage Foundation, Battle of Lake Erie Reenactment; Lake Erie, Put-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 11... mitigate the dangers presented by this event, the Captain of the Port Detroit has determined that a safety...

  15. 76 FR 82347 - Public Notice for Release of Aeronautical Property at Erie International Airport (ERI), Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... stormwater management facilities. As such, a drainage easement will be required for PennDOT to maintain... airport to tie into Asbury Road. Parcel 5 is also temporarily impacted while Stormwater Management... constructed outside the limits of the pavement of the widened Asbury Road. This easement will [[Page 82348...

  16. Evolutionary model of the subdwarf binary system LB3459

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Dearborn, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    An evolutionary model is proposed for the eclipsing binary system LB 3459 (=CPD-60 0 389 = HDE 269696). The two stars are hot subdwarfs with degenerate helium cores, hydrogen burning shell sources and low mass hydrogen rich envelopes. The system probably evolved through two common envelope phases. After the first such phase it might look like the semi-detached binary AS Eri. Soon after the second common envelope phase the system might look like UU Sge, an eclipsing binary nucleus of a planetary nebula. The present mass of the optical (spectroscopic) primary is probably close to 0.24 solar mass, and the predicted radial velocity amplitude of the primary is about 150 km/s. The optical secondary should be hotter and bolometrically brighter, with a mass of 0.32 solar mass. The primary eclipse is an occultation. (author)

  17. Nad pakuvad eri lahendusi / Monica Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Monica, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Ajakirjade Kirjastuse müügijuht Kristiina Anvelt, TV3 müügidirektor Meelis Järvela, Eesti Päevalehe müügijuht Krista Liiv ja vanem projektijuht Olari Raig, Delfi müügi- ja marketingijuht Allan Sombri ja Eesti Raadio müügijuht Ave Vahemets selgitavad, miks reklaamida jogurtit, spordiklubi ning pesupublit just nende kanali vahendusel

  18. Erie Harbor, Pennsylvania, Channel Shoaling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    to assist in this effort. Note that there are usually several xyz files to cover the channel survey for a given year. ERDC TR-11-4 3 Table 1...at one time numbering about 100 families and numerous Indians. Fields were cleared and cultivated with corn being the principal crop . A grist mill...of stone being placed. To hold sand fill, 20,400 small poplar trees and 1,900 small willow trees were planted, and 21 bushels of rye and 6 bushels

  19. Suomalaisten kuluttajien maksuhalukkuus puisten huonekalujen eri laatuominaisuuksista

    OpenAIRE

    Alestalo, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Tilastokeskuksen mukaan Suomen huonekaluteollisuuden myydyn tuotannon arvo vuonna 2012 oli noin 762 miljoonaa euroa, josta puisten huonekalujen osuus oli noin 72 %. Vuonna 2012 Suomessa tuotettujen huonekalujen myydystä arvosta noin 85 % myytiin kotimarkkinoilla. Suomen huonekaluteollisuudella on näin ollen suuri intressi ymmärtää, minkälaisista tuoteominaisuuksista kotimaiset kuluttajat ovat valmiita maksamaan. Tässä tutkimuksessa tutkitaan suomalaisten kuluttajien maksuhalukkuutta puisten h...

  20. Evaluation of the Use of Periodicals Collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation and Online Search Center: Arts and Humanities Periodicals YÖK Dokümantasyon ve Uluslararası Bilgi Tarama Merkezi Koleksiyonundaki Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler Konulu Süreli Yayınların Kullanım Değerlendirmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Özbudak

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the use perodicals collections in libraries is important as perodicals report the results of the latest scientific research and they are usually more expensive than other types of library materials. In this study we evaluate the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals in the collection of the Higher Education Council Documentation Center. Although the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals was found to be lower than, say, Biomedical periodicals collection, the number of journal titles in Arts and Humanities appears to be quite satisfactory. Some suggestions are made so as to increase the use of Arts and Humanities periodicals collection. Bilimsel araştırmalar için en güncel bilgileri veren ve maliyeti diğer materyallere göre daha fazla olan süreli yayınların ne oranda kullanıldığının araştırılması, koleksiyon değerlendirmesi açısından önemlidir. Bu amaçla, Yükseköğretim Kurulu Dokümantasyon ve Uluslararası Bilgi Tarama Merkezi süreli yayınlar koleksiyonunun genel bir değerlendirmesi yapılarak "Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler" konulu süreli yayınların kullanımları incelenmiş, Yükseköğretim Kurulu Dokümantasyon ve Uluslararası Bilgi Tarama Merkezi 'nde önemli ve büyük bir süreli yayınlar koleksiyonu bulunduğu, "Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler" konulu süreli yayınların da yeterli olduğu sonuçları çıkartılmıştır. "Sanat ve Beşeri Bilimler" konulu süreli yayınların kullanımlarının nispeten düşük oluşu, bu alanda çalışan araştırmacıların süreli yayınlara yeterince ilgi göstermemelerine bağlanarak, kullanımı artırmak için öneriler getirilmiştir.

  1. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  2. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  3. EXTREME CONDITIONS IN A CLOSE ANALOG TO THE YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM: HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF ε ERIDANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, J. S. [SUPA, Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, B.; Holland, W. S. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Acke, B.; Vandenbussche, B.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Pantin, E. E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universit Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service dAstrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif- sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Olofsson, G.; Brandeker, A.; De Vries, B. L. [Stockholm University Astrobiology Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Dominik, C. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090-GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Bendo, G. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA SCO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 763 0355, Santiago (Chile); Di Francesco, J. [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Programs, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Fridlund, M. [ESA, SRE-SA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gear, W. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Harvey, P. M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ivison, R. J., E-mail: jsg5@st-andrews.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-08-10

    Far-infrared Herschel images of the ε Eridani system, seen at a fifth of the Sun's present age, resolve two belts of debris emission. Fits to the 160 μm PACS image yield radial spans for these belts of 12-16 and 54-68 AU. The south end of the outer belt is ≈10% brighter than the north end in the PACS+SPIRE images at 160, 250, and 350 μm, indicating a pericenter glow attributable to a planet ''c''. From this asymmetry and an upper bound on the offset of the belt center, this second planet should be mildly eccentric (e{sub c} ≈ 0.03-0.3). Compared to the asteroid and Kuiper Belts of the young Sun, the ε Eri belts are intermediate in brightness and more similar to each other, with up to 20 km sized collisional fragments in the inner belt totaling ≈5% of an Earth mass. This reservoir may feed the hot dust close to the star and could send many impactors through the Habitable Zone, especially if it is being perturbed by the suspected planet ε Eri b, at semi-major axis ≈3 AU.

  4. Bazı Meşe ve Gül Türlerinde Galli ve Galsiz Bireylerdeki, Total Protein İçeriğinin Farklı Yöntemler Kullanılarak Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Daştan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Parazit veya simbiyoz olarak bitki üzerinde yaşayan böcek, nematod, akar, bakteri ya da mantarların neden olduğu tahriş ve beslenme fizyolojisinden doğan olumsuzluklara karşı bitkilerin savunma tepkimesi olarak oluşturdukları anormal büyüme şekli gal olarak tanımlanmaktadır. En kompleks, en iyi organize olmuş gallerin birçoğu, gal arıları (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae tarafından meydana getirilirler. En çok tanınan cynipid galleri gül ve meşelerde yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada; Sivas çevresinde yetişen, bazı meşe ve gül türlerinin, gal oluşturmayan ve yoğun olarak sürgün ve meyva gali oluşturan bireylerinden yaprak, meyva ve sürgün gal örnekleri toplanmıştır. Yaprak, meyva ve gallerdeki total protein miktarları, Bradford Mikro Assay, Biüret, Lowry yöntemleri ve ayrıca Ultraviyole (UV spektrofotometresi kullanılarak 280 nm de ölçümleri yapılmak suretiyle hesaplanmıştır. Bu şekilde elde edilen veriler üzerinden hem galli ve galsiz bireyler arasındaki protein miktarları açısından farklılıklar hem de kullanılan dört farklı yöntem arasındaki farklılıklar karşılaştırılmıştır. Yapılan deneyler sonucunda; galli bireylerdeki total protein miktarının galsiz bireylere göre anlamlı şekilde fazla olduğu saptanmıştır. Yine meşelerdeki protein içeriğinin güllerdeki protein içeriğine göre yaklaşık 2 katı değerlerde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Aylara göre protein içeriğindeki farklılıklara baktığımızda ise, meşeler için eylül ayında, kuşburnu bitkisi için ise ağustos ayında daha fazla protein içeriği tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Gal, Rosa sp., Quercus sp., Cynipidae, Total protein içeriği Abstract. Plant galls are an abnormal growth pattern that plants develop as a defense reaction to irritations and negative nutritional physiology caused by insects, nematodes, mites, bacteria and fungi living in a parasitic or symbiotic

  5. The MTA UXO Survey and Target Recovery on Lake Erie at the Former Erie Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    to-medium sandy material which extends approximately 150-300 m (500-1,000 ft) offshore to the 0.6- to 1.2-m (-2- to -44) ( LWD ) contour (Figure 7...shallow, flat bottom (slope less than 1:300) is covered with a soft silty-mud layer out to approximately the 3-m (-104) ( LWD ) contour. This muddy layer...to 1.2-m (-2- to -44) ( LWD ) contour (Figure 7). This underwater sand extension of the beach includes a series of well-defined two to four shore

  6. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  7. Catalytic activity of bimetal-containing Co,Pd systems in the oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksenko, L. P.; Lutsenko, L. V.

    2013-02-01

    The catalytic activity of low-percentage Co,Pd systems on ZSM-5, ERI, SiO2, and Al2O3 supports in the oxidation of CO was studied. The activity of bimetal-containing catalysts was shown to depend on the nature of the catalyst and the amount and ratio of their active components. According to the results of thermoprogrammed reduction with H2 (H2 TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data, the metals are distributed as isolated cations or Coδ+-O-Pdδ+ clusters with cobalt and palladium cations surrounded by off-lattice oxygen in Co,Pd systems. The 0.8% Co,0.5% Pd-ZSM-5 bimetal catalysts were found to be more active due to the presence of clusters.

  8. Yağ İçeriği Azaltılmış Beyaz Peynir Üretiminde Isıl İşlem Uygulanan Lactobacillus helveticus ve Lactobacillus bulgaricus Kültürlerinin Kullanımı

    OpenAIRE

    Gürsoy, Ayşe; Şenel, Ebru; Gürsel, Asuman; Deveci, Organ; Karademir, Ebru; Yaman, Şenay

    2001-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, yağ içeriği azaltılmış Beyaz peynir örneklerinde, proteolizi teşvik ederek olgunlaşmayı hızlandırmak ve böylece yapı ve tadı iyileştirmek amacıyla, isti işlem uygulanan L.helveticus ve L. bulgaricus kültürlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Bunun için kurumaddede %20 yağ içerecek şekilde peynir üretimi gerçekleştirilmiş, ayrıca karşılaştırma amacıyla yağlı peynir örneği (kurumaddede %40 yağ) de üretilmiştir. Peynirler 7±1 °C'de olgunlaşmaya bırakılarak 0, 7, 15, 30, 60 ve 90. gü...

  9. CZMIL (coastal zone mapping and imaging lidar): from first flights to first mission through system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Wozencraft, Jennifer; Aitken, Jennifer; Macon, Christopher; Mathur, Abhinav; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery system and software suite designed for highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for coastal zone mapping in the framework of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. Results of the USACE May-October 2012 mission in Green Bay, WI and Lake Erie are presented. The system performance tests show that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Mississippi with Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) and up to 41m in Florida when Kd=0.11m-1. Bathymetric accuracy of CZMIL was measured by comparing CZMIL depths with multi-beam sonar data from Cat Island, MS and from off the coast of Fort. Lauderdale, FL. Validation demonstrated that CZMIL meets USACE specifications (two standard deviation, 2σ, ~30 cm). To measure topographic accuracy we made direct comparisons of CZMIL elevations to GPS-surveyed ground control points and vehicle-based lidar scans of topographic surfaces. Results confirmed that CZMIL meets the USACE topographic requirements (2σ, ~15 cm). Upon completion of the Green Bay and Lake Erie mission there were 89 flights with 2231 flightlines. The general hours of aircraft engine time (which doesn't include all transit/ferry flights) was 441 hours with 173 hours of time on survey flightlines. The 4.8 billion (!) laser shots and 38.6 billion digitized waveforms covered over 1025 miles of shoreline.

  10. Yağ İçeriği Azaltılmış Beyaz Peynir Üretiminde Isıl İşlem Uygulanan Lactobacillus helveticus ve Lactobacillus bulgaricus Kültürlerinin Kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gürsoy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, yağ içeriği azaltılmış Beyaz peynir örneklerinde, proteolizi teşvik ederek olgunlaşmayı hızlandırmak ve böylece yapı ve tadı iyileştirmek amacıyla, isti işlem uygulanan L.helveticus ve L. bulgaricus kültürlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Bunun için kurumaddede %20 yağ içerecek şekilde peynir üretimi gerçekleştirilmiş, ayrıca karşılaştırma amacıyla yağlı peynir örneği (kurumaddede %40 yağ de üretilmiştir. Peynirler 7±1 °C'de olgunlaşmaya bırakılarak 0, 7, 15, 30, 60 ve 90. günlerde fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal nitelikleri yönünden analiz edilmiştir. Isıl işlem uygulamasıyla yardımcı kültür haline getirilen L.helveticus ve L. bulgaricus kullanımı az yağlı beyaz peynir örneklerinin genel bileşimini etkilememiş olgunlaşmanın hızlandırılmasında da fazla etkili olmamıştır.

  11. Toplumsal Cinsiyet Bağlamında Türkiye’de Kadınların Bestecilik Eğitimine Erişimi ve Bestecilik Kariyeri Women’s Access to Composition Education and Career of Composition in Turkey in the Context in Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gülçin ÖZKİŞİ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Expectations and attitudes related to gender roles are important factors in accessing education, career choices and careers of women and men. Throughout the music history literature, musical creativity has been always accounted to male artists, whereas women are mostly accepted as prominent and talented music performers. The scarcity of women composers in musical canon is caused by several social, cultural and economic factors. The myth of female incapacity for musical creativity, which was rather a strong prejudice until the mid of 20th century and women’s limited access to musical education in the area of composition were among these factors. Although to a lesser extent, gender and gender-based inequality in educational and professional guidance, continues today, as well. Women’s access to composition education and, affects of gender and gender roles to choice of career in the case of composition; profiles of students in the context of gender in general music and composition schools which offer undergraduate composition programmes on Europian academic music are analysed. The lists of students who graduated from these institutions since their foundations are examined on the basis of gender and the numbers of graduate girls/boys are obtained and comprised. The gender profile of age to start composition education in the institutions of undergraduate composition education and academicians who born in 1960-1977 and received an undergraduate education of composition are observed. Cinsiyet rollerine ilişkin beklenti ve tutumlar, kadınlar ve erkeklerin eğitime erişimleri, meslek seçimleri ve kariyerlerinde önemli birer faktördür. Müzik tarihi literatüründe kadınlar, önemli müzik icracıları olarak kabul görürken, bestecilik ve müzikal yaratıcılık, daha çok erkeklerle ilişkilendirilen bir alan olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bestecilik özelinde, kadınların müzikal kanonda erkeklere oranla daha az yer buluyor olmalar

  12. Experimental evaluation of 8 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elkholy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental observation study of 8 kW grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system that is installed at Electronics Research Institute (ERI, Giza, Egypt (Latitude 30.04°N, Longitude 31.21°E, is presented. This study includes the quality of the electrical power generated and injected into the network. The considered system consists of 28 × 295 Wp multicrystalline PV modules, StecaGrid three-phase 8 kW grid-connected inverter and a Solar-Log 300 PM+ for data acquisition and remote monitoring. The power quality parameters at the inverter output side have been measured using CA8335 power quality analyzer. The system has been installed in August 2014 and generated 5.7 MWh till February 2015. The produced electricity by the system is injected directly into the grid without storage device. The purpose of this paper is to present and evaluate the measurements of the power quality parameters obtained from the PV site. Also, this paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of the system over a period of one week. The observation and analyses exploitation of the collected data can help to evaluate the performance of the PV system connected to the network.

  13. Mapping on Slope Seepage Problem using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Aziman, M.; Dan, M. F. Md; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Aishah, M. A. N.; Ambak, K.; Rosli, S.; Rais, Y.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Alel, M. N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The stability of slope may influenced by several factors such as its geomaterial properties, geometry and environmental factors. Problematic slope due to seepage phenomenon will influenced the slope strength thus promoting to its failure. In the past, slope seepage mapping suffer from several limitation due to cost, time and data coverage. Conventional engineering tools to detect or mapped the seepage on slope experienced those problems involving large and high elevation of slope design. As a result, this study introduced geophysical tools for slope seepage mapping based on electrical resistivity method. Two spread lines of electrical resistivity imaging were performed on the slope crest using ABEM SAS 4000 equipment. Data acquisition configuration was based on long and short arrangement, schlumberger array and 2.5 m of equal electrode spacing interval. Raw data obtained from data acquisition was analyzed using RES2DINV software. Both of the resistivity results show that the slope studied consists of three different anomalies representing top soil (200 – 1000 Ωm), perched water (10 – 100 Ωm) and hard/dry layer (> 200 Ωm). It was found that seepage problem on slope studied was derived from perched water zones with electrical resistivity value of 10 – 100 Ωm. Perched water zone has been detected at 6 m depth from the ground level with varying thickness at 5 m and over. Resistivity results have shown some good similarity output with reference to borehole data, geological map and site observation thus verified the resistivity results interpretation. Hence, this study has shown that the electrical resistivity imaging was applicable in slope seepage mapping which consider efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  14. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume III. Engineering,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    the ecology is examined. 83. Bar- Kochba , Y. and A. J. Simon. 1971. Rainfall and floods in Northeastern Ohio. Dept. of Eng. Univ. Akron. 87 p. This...Bar- Kochba , Y. Bergs, A. Dept. of Civil Eng. 1 Yonge Street University of Akron Toronto, Ontario Akron, Ohio 44304 Canada Barnhouse Associates Bethlehem

  15. Operation and Maintence, Vermilion Harbor, Erie County, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    Aphanozomenon flos- aguae . The Ohio EPA reports that on a yearly average, Cyclotella, Stephanodiscus and pennate diatoms are predominant, particularly during the...for both recre- ational and potable water uses (71). For recreational uses (swimming, boating, skiing, etc.), the number of total coliforms per 100 ml

  16. Land Management Alternatives in the Lake Erie Drainage Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    NIB I’ ZhI N a I42 U. ... . " w °A 1 B 1 -A - a4 I B Ck hJ O I / I I ki w I o 0D o • o 0* B B ** .- - Cm Il sD + I rI I tv : LO S A z z 0 0n I o1 I N...4’A SO .Ato C~ Stall - Na.. CaCAO t-.a QC’s Ceaaa a.aa.a Dn..a * 0- - o a.av..aa.-aC, c - a a - 0 a~ S - 0 Uct.toajaO - to. - N C at a -a Ca :a...46 N. 9 . 34.8 0 1 O W"ൈ ftN de a .4 nS Sa o 0 -SIWO * 0 LiS . -’ AL 4Wf w . IS v z -wa u t fm 1- 0, M Is -. 1 , U h.S 84 C: I It C a.. W. o IL 40

  17. Kleeppildid seksuaalse sättumuse eri tahkudest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kunstifestivali Lift 2011 raames esitletakse 13. juulil Tallinnas Märzi projektiruumis kunstnike ja aktivistide loodud "Queer-kleepekakogu". Vestlusringis osalevad kuraatorid-kunstnikud Anna-Stina Treumund ja Jaanus Samma ning kleeppiltide autorid

  18. Viis näitust haaravad eri aastasadu / Margus Haav

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haav, Margus, 1969-

    2009-01-01

    Viljandi uue kunsti muuseumis avati fotograaf Ain Kimberi aktinäitus "Igavene teema", Johann Christoph Brotze pärandit tutvustav näitus, Belgia fotokunstniku Patavoli "Taevariik", Valgevene kunstniku Valeri Slauki litograafiad ning kunstitudengite Eva Järve ja Liis Dvorjanski kineetilised heinakuhjad

  19. Diode pumped cascade Er:Y2O3 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanamyan, T

    2015-01-01

    A cascade, diode-pumped, continuous wave (CW), dual-wavelength operation in a 0.5% Er 3+ :Y 2 O 3 cryogenic ceramic laser is demonstrated for the first time. The laser operates on cascaded Er ( 4 I 11/2   →   4 I 13/2   →   4 I 15/2 ) transitions and can deliver 24 and 13 W at 1.6 and 2.7 μm, respectively. The overall efficiency with respect to the absorbed ∼980 nm power was 62%. This is, to our best knowledge, the first demonstration of an efficient, high power, cascade, erbium laser achieved in bulk solid-state lasers. The analysis of the output power, the laser’s wavelengths and slope efficiency for each individual laser transition are presented for pure CW operation mode. Also presented are the temporal behaviors of each laser line as a function of pump pulse duration in the quasi-CW regime. (letter)

  20. 23. IX korraldab Vaala galerii kunstioksjoni "Väliseesti eri"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Oksjonil on esindatud Eerik Haamer, Jaan Grünberg, Arno Vihalemm, Eduard Wiiralt, Ruth Tulving, Endel Kõks, Harald Jürissaar, Otto Paas, Ville Tops, Otto Puusta. Töödega saab tutvuda alates 18. IX, traditsiooniline sügisoksjon toimub 18. XI

  1. 77 FR 1550 - Environmental Impact Statement: Erie County, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... structure and to expand the border crossing plaza for Federal inspection agencies with reconstruction... the border can be accomplished without a combined bridge and plaza improvements project and addressed...

  2. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume II. Chemical,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    ural forces tending to restore equilibrium. Bieber , Glen F. - See: Frank J. Little, Jr., et al, No. 212. 37. Bird, John. 1966. Our dying waters...research should indicate more definite trends. 207. Leonard, Justin W. 1962. Environmental requirements of Ephemeroptera. In: Clarence M. Tarzwell (Ed... Bieber , Thomas J. Horst and Danley F. Brown. 1973. Possible accelerated eutrophication thresholds in the Great Lakes rela- tive to human population

  3. scale fish- eries: a comparison of two fishing settlements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is widely recognised as having a major influence on marine ecosystems ... sanal and small - scale fisheries can be difficult due to geographi- ... ever - growing coastal populations, the number of small - scale ... northern Madagascar near the city of Antsiranana, ... increasingly becoming a tourist destination, and some fish-.

  4. Inarritu "Paabel" - eri keeled, sarnane hing / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2006-01-01

    Mängufilm "Paabel" ("Babel") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu, võitis Cannes'is parima režissööri auhinna : peaosades Cate Blanchett, Brad Pitt, Gael Garcia Bernal, Koji Yokusho : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006

  5. Näitus pakub vaadet eri maailmadesse / Tiina Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Tiina, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Omapärane rahvusvaheline kunstinäitus Viljandis Kondase keskuses. Psühhiaatrilistele patsientidele tuge pakkuva ühingu Singel juhi Linda Luhse kutsel on oma tööd Viljandisse toonud Kashtshenko-nimelise Peterburi 1. Psühhiaatriahaigla kunstistuudio. Lisaks on väljas Viljandi kunstiharrastajate tööd

  6. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix B. Regulatory Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    128 IV(1gL.LE.4)13 TO ISO V(13lA(J#0-�t 13r?64*766 764 0Cv1(LA).1)L/? 6𔃻 TO to0 7bb IF(4NA.EO.2):1 to10 63 TO ISO 7? t(f4QLoLE0);1 T3 179...1290 463 5 1973 :o101 5S? 45900 56559 1220 530 S 1975 :0143 566 3153 56551 12rs 723 S 1975 call 564x 27000 5M69 1340 360 S 1975 :040 569 20701 56579

  7. Floodplain Mapping for Erie County, New York, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. Recently, several critical accounts of marine fish- eries management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    possible prediction of population trends through links that operate at the .... and on an overfishing definition that has been charac- .... sampling and analyses should be stratified by demes when estimating the metapopulation age structure. .... The optimal approach to management depends upon objectives which may vary.

  9. 78 FR 54574 - Safety Zone; Tall Ships Erie 2013 Fireworks Show, Holland Street Pier, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision authorizes an agency to issue a rule without prior... Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide...

  10. 78 FR 53677 - Safety Zone; Battle of Lake Erie Fireworks, Lake Erie, Put-In-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 11... of fireworks in the vicinity of Put-In-Bay, OH on September 1, 2013. The Captain of the Port Detroit...

  11. Neli eri ökomajaprojekti, neli eri lähenemist / Kristel Ader, Aivar Õepa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ader, Kristel

    2002-01-01

    Säästvalt remonditud saja-aastane puumaja Haapsalus, looduslähedane kinnisvaraarendusprojekt Tallinna lähedal Leppneemes, Saksa riikliku keskkonnafondi DBU peamaja Osnabrückis, Kabli linnurõngastuskeskuse hoone Nigula kaitsealal

  12. An artificial intelligence system for assisting nuclear power plant operators in the diagnosis of and response to plant faults and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Stasenko, J.E.; Bhatnagar, R.; Hashemi, S.

    1987-12-01

    This report discusses the Artificial Intelligence (AI) system being developed using the Conceptual Structures and Representation Language (CSRL) developed at the Ohio State University Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). This system combines three sub-systems which have been independently developed to perform the tasks of: detecting changes in the state of the plant that may lead to conditions requiring operator response, and then managing the actions taken by the other two subsystems; diagnosing the plant status independent of alarm states by analyzing the status of basic operating parameters such as flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and water levels, and providing a determination of the validity of sensor indications; and providing and/or synthesizing an appropriate procedure for the operator to follow to correct the transient or abnormal state of the plant. These three systems are tied into the main plant computers, including both the process computer and the safety parameter and display system computer, through the use of a compatible database. The architecture of the system is shown in Figure 1. The system is being developed using the Perry Nuclear Power Plant (a BWR/6) as the reference plant, and the General Electric ERIS and GEPAC Plus systems as key data sources. Scenarios are run on the Perry plant referenced simulator for testing of the AI system. Future testing plans call for the system to be interfaced directly to the Perry simulator

  13. An artificial intelligence system for assisting nuclear power plant operators in the diagnosis of the response to plant faults and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    An artificial intelligence system is being developed using the Conceptual Structures and Representation Language (CSRL) developed at The Ohio State University Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research (LAIR). This system combines three subsystems, which have been independently developed to perform the following tasks: (1) detecting changes in the state of the plant that may lead to conditions requiring operator response and then managing the actions taken by the other two subsystems, (2) diagnosing the plant status independent of alarm states by analyzing the status of basic operating parameters, such as flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and water levels, and providing a determination of the validity of sensor indications, and (3) providing and/or synthesizing an appropriate procedure for the operator to follow to correct the transient of abnormal state of the plant. These three system are tied into the main plant computers, including both the process computer and the safety parameter and display system computer, through the use of a compatible data base. The system is being developed using the Perry Nuclear Power Plant (a BWR/6) as the reference plant, and the General Electric ERIS and GEPAC Plus systems as key data sources. Scenarios are run on by the Perry plant referenced simulator for testing of the artificial intelligence system. Future testing plans call for the system to be interfaced directly to the Perry simulator

  14. B and V photoelectric photometry and light curve solution of the interacting binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani and SY Horologii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first photoelectric observations of the eclipsing binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani, and SY Horologii were obtained and complete B and V light curves are presented. Improved light elements were derived for all three systems. The light curves of HI Puppis were analyzed by the three different computer models of Wilson and Devinney (1971), Binnendijk (1977), and Wood (1971) to get the geometrical and photometric elements of the system. HI Puppis, whose light curves show a total eclipse at secondary minimum, is shown to be a classic A-Type W Ursae Majoris system. The geometrical and photometric elements of BL Eridani were obtained from the analysis of the light curves using the method of Wilson and Devinney. The asymmetric nature of the light curve is treated as being due to the presence of an underluminous starspot on the primary component. The light curves of BL Eri show secondary eclipse to be total. The system is found to be a near contact system with the primary component filling its Roche lobe and the secondary nearly filling its lobe with a fill-out ratio of approximately 1.0. The light curves of SY Horologii were also subjected to the model of Wilson and Devinney. Both primary and secondary eclipses are partial

  15. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station RECON Erie, Cleveland (CLV), by Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-24 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123652)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123652 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from Dunkirk Buoy, Lake Erie, by State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry and assembled by Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) in the Great Lakes region from 2014-07-01 to 2017-08-31 (NODC Accession 0123655)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0123655 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data in netCDF formatted files, which follow the Climate and Forecast metadata convention...

  17. Moons of the solar system from giant Ganymede to dainty Dactyl

    CERN Document Server

    Hall III, James A

    2016-01-01

    This book captures the complex world of planetary moons, which are more diverse than Earth's sole satellite might lead you to believe. New missions continue to find more of these planetary satellites, making an up to date guide more necessary than ever.  Why do Mercury and Venus have no moons at all? Earth's  Moon, of course, is covered in the book with highly detailed maps. Then we move outward to the moons of Mars, then on to many of the more notable asteroid moons, and finally to a list of less-notable ones. All the major moons of the gas giant planets are covered in great detail, while the lesser-known satellites of these worlds are also touched on.  Readers will learn of the remarkable trans-Neptunian Objects – Pluto, Eris, Sedna, Quaoar –including many of those that have been given scant attention in the literature. More than just objects to read about, the planets' satellites provide us with important information about the history of the solar system. Projects to help us learn more abo...

  18. Airborne Hyperspectral Sensing of Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms in the Great Lakes Region: System Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John; Anderson, Robert; Avouris, Dulcinea; Becker, RIchard; Churnside, James; Cline, Michael; Demers, James; Leshkevich, George; Liou, Larry; Luvall, Jeffrey; hide

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie have been prominent in recent years. The bloom in 2014 reached a severe level causing the State of Ohio to declare a state of emergency. At that time NASA Glenn Research Center was requested by stakeholders to help monitor the blooms in Lake Erie. Glenn conducted flights twice a week in August and September and assembled and distributed the HAB information to the shoreline water resource managers using its hyperspectral imaging sensor (in development since 2006), the S??3 Viking aircraft, and funding resources from the NASA Headquarters Earth Science Division. Since then, the State of Ohio, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have elevated their funding and activities for observing, monitoring, and addressing the root cause of HABs. Also, the communities and stakeholders have persistently requested NASA Glenn??s participation in HAB observation. Abundant field campaigns and sample analyses have been funded by Ohio and NOAA, which provided a great opportunity for NASA to advance science and airborne hyperspectral remote sensing economically. Capitalizing on this opportunity to advance the science of algal blooms and remote sensing, NASA Glenn conducted the Airborne Hyperspectral Observation of harmful algal blooms campaign in 2015 that was, in many respects, twice as large as the 2014 campaign. Focusing mostly on Lake Erie, but also including other small inland lakes and the Ohio River, the campaign was conducted in partnership with a large number of partners specializing in marine science and remote sensing. Airborne hyperspectral observation of HABs holds promise to distinguish potential HABs from nuisance blooms, determine their concentrations, and delineate their movement in an augmented spatial and temporal resolution and under clouds??all of which are excellent complements to satellite observations. Working with collaborators at several Ohio and Michigan

  19. A portable pulmonary delivery system for nano engineered DNA vaccines driven by surface acoustic wave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajapaksa, A.E.; Qi, Aisha; Yeo, L.; Friend, J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The increase in the need for effective delivery of potelll vaccines against infectious diseases, require robust yet straightforward pro duction of encapsulated DNA-laden aerosols. Aerosol delivery of drugs represents the next generation of vaccine delivery where the drug is deposited into the lung, which provides an ideal, non-invasive route. Moreover, several features of D A vaccines make them more attractive than conventional vaccines; thus, DNA vaccines have gained global interest for a variety of applications. However, several limitations such as ineffective cellular uptake and intracellular delivery, and degradation of DNA need to be overcome before clin ical applications. In this study, a novel and scalable engineered technique has been developed to create a biodegradable polymer system, which enables controlled delivery of a well designed DNA vaccine for immuno-therapeutics. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) atomisation has been found as useful mechanism for atomising fluid samples for medical and industrial devices. It is a straightforward method for synthesising un-agglomerated biodegradable nanoparti cles (<250 nm) in the absence of organic solvents which would represent a major breakthrough for biopharmaceutical encapsulation and delivery. Nano-scale polymer particles for DNA vaccines deliv ery were obtained through an evaporative process of the initial aerosol created by surface acoustic waves at 8-150 MHz, the final size of which could be controlled by modifying the initial polymer concen tration and solid contents. Thus, SAW atomiser represents a promising alternative for the development of a low power device for producing nano-engineered vaccines with a controlled and narrow size distribution as delivery system for genetic immuno-therapeutics.

  20. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  1. [Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Health Management System (Fit for Work and Life) for Employees of a University Hospital - A Practice Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, C; Egen, C; Kahl, K G; Briest, J; Tegtbur, U; Miede, J; Born, M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Due to the increase of sick leave, prolonging working life and the prediction of shortage of skilled workers in the future, health management systems are continuously gaining importance. Employees in a University Hospital are exposed to particular stress factors, which are also reflected in a higher than average amount of sick leave. Against this background, the project "Fit for Work and Life" (FWL) was developed and implemented by the Hannover Medical School (MHH). Aims: FWL aims to maintain, improve or recover the work ability of employees by offering both preventive and rehabilitative treatments. A second goal is to significantly reduce the days of sick leave. Methods: The project was jointly developed and implemented by five MHH departments and the DRV Braunschweig-Hannover (DRV BS-H) according to previously defined principles. It was scientifically evaluated by the following outcomes: average days of sick leave, work ability (WAI), quality of life (SF-36, WHOQOL), coping strategies (FERUS) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI). Results and Conclusions: So far, this project is unique in its concept. It has been successfully implemented in the organisational structures of the MHH. 376 employees have registered during the first project year. Up to now, 182 participants have completed their individual programmes. The results show that 60.4% of employees have moderate to poor WAI values. The average of the mental summary scale of the SF-36 was 44.9, indicating a high workload. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. A measurement system for continuous observations of CO2, CH4, H2O and CO onboard passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Christoph; Filges, Annette; Franke, Harald; Klaus, Christoph; Chen, Huilin

    2013-04-01

    Improved quantification and understanding of surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) caused by natural as well as anthropogenic processes is of paramount importance in a world of a changing climate and ever increasing emissions. Top-down estimation of GHG fluxes is traditionally done by inverse transport modeling, using GHG observations from a global network of stations. Uncertainties in modeled vertical transport rates (moist convection, turbulent mixing, stratosphere-troposphere exchange) however greatly affect the quality of flux estimates. More recently, remote sensing of vertical column mole fractions of GHGs have become available for inverse modeling, reducing the impact of vertical transport uncertainties to first order. However, those need validation against in-situ observations. A strategy for regular, global in-situ atmospheric profiling of GHGs, covering at least the troposphere, is thus needed to provide validation of remote sensing and of forward transport modeling of GHGs, to serve as input for inverse modeling, and to reduce the impact of transport uncertainties. IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - European Research Infrastructure) exploits the synergy between globally operating civil aviation and the need for long-term monitoring of atmospheric composition. Within the framework of IAGOS-ERI a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) based measurement system for greenhouse gases was designed, tested, and qualified for deployment on commercial airliners. The design meets requirements regarding physical dimensions (size, weight), performance (long-term stability, low maintenance, robustness, full automation) and safety issues (fire prevention regulations, airworthiness). The system uses components of a commercially available CRDS instrument (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.) mounted into a frame suitable for integration in the avionics bay of the Airbus A-340. The first of the IAGOS GHG packages is scheduled for

  3. Extensions to the energy system GMM model: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    2006-09-01

    This report describes recent extensions to the energy-systems GMM (Global Multiregional MARKAL) model undertaken by the Energy Economics Group (EEG) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland (hereon referred to as PSI-EEG) in the context of the SAPIENTIA project sponsored by the European Commission (DG Research) and the Swiss National Centre for Competence in Research on Climate (NCCR-Climate). GMM is a multi-regional 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that endogenizes technology learning. The model has been developed and is used at PSI-EEG. The main extensions undertaken here concern the incorporation of a clusters approach to technology learning, the introduction of an improved representation of the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger sub-sector and the implementation of marginal abatement curves for CH 4 and N 2 O, two main non-CO 2 greenhouse gases. Also, a linear representation of the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O has been included. Other changes are related to the inclusion of additional technologies for production of synthetic fuels (hydrogen and Fischer- Tropsch liquids) and the inclusion of CO 2 capture in fossil-based and biomass-based hydrogen production. Several of the developments described here follow the work of Turton and Barreto (2004, 2006) for the ERIS model at the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Program of IIASA. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the basic structure of the GMM model, the main assumptions for the scenario developed and the basic approach to endogenize technology learning in the model and examine the effects of R+D and D+D programs. Section 3 discusses the implementation of technology clusters and describes the key components chosen here. Section 4 presents the improvements to the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger car subsector. Section 5 briefly describes the new technologies for synthetic fuel

  4. Icy Dwarf Planets: Colored popsicles in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi

    2015-08-01

    In 1992 the discovery of 1992 QB1 was the starting signal of a race to characterize the trans-Neptunian belt. The detection of icy “asteroids”, similar to Pluto, in the outer Solar System had been largely hypothesized but it had also being an elusive goal. This belt was considered by the planetary scientists as the icy promised land, the largest reservoir of primordial ices in the Solar System.From 1992 to 2005 about 1000 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs had been discovered and a lot of “first ever” science had been published: 1996 TO66, first ever detection of the water ice bands in a TNO's spectrum; 1998 WW31, first detection of a binary; first estimation of size and albedo from thermal and visible observations, Varuna; discovery of Sedna, at that moment “the coldest most distant place known in the Solar System”2005 was the year of the discovery of three large TNOs: (136108) Haumea, (136472) Makemake and (136199) Eris (a.k.a 2003 EL61, 2005 FY9 and 2003 UB313). These three big guys entered the schoolyard showing off as colored popsicles and making a clear statement: “We are special”, and sure they are!The discovery of these large TNOs resulted in 2006 in the adoption by the IAU of a new definition of planet and in the introduction of a new category of minor bodies: the “dwarf planets”. With only three members at this moment (although this can change anytime) the exclusive club of the icy dwarf planets is formed by the TNOs at the higher end of the size distribution. By virtue of their size and low surface temperatures, these bodies can retain most of their original inventory of ices. As a consequence, their visible and near-infrared spectra show evidences of water ice, nitrogen, methane and longer chains of hydrocarbons. Moreover, they have high geometric albedo in the visible. Also the accretional and radiogenic heating for these bodies was likely more than sufficient to have caused their internal differentiation.In this talk we will

  5. Starting From Ground Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William B.; Stauffer, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    Erie County Community College (New York) has developed a zero-based program budgeting system to meet current fiscal problems and diminished resources. The system allocates resources on the basis of program effectiveness and market potential. (LH)

  6. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  7. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embedded system, micro-con- troller ... Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many ... Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con- .... operating systems for the desktop computers where scheduling.

  8. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  9. A novel electroencephalographic analysis method discriminates alcohol effects from those of other sedative/hypnotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Scott C; Lee, Rong-Sheng; Henriksen, Steven J; Packer, Thomas L; Cook, Daniel R

    2002-04-15

    Here we describe a mathematical and statistical signal processing strategy termed event resolution imaging (ERI). Our principal objective was to determine if the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on spontaneous EEG activity could be discriminated from those of other sedative/hypnotics. We employed ERI to combine and integrate standard analysis methods to learn multiple signal features of time-varying EEG signals. We recorded cortical EEG, electromyographic activity, and motor activity during intravenous administration of saline, ethanol (1.0 g/kg), chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg), pentobarbital (6 mg/kg), heroin (0.3 mg/kg), and methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) administered on separate days in six rats. A blind treatment of one of the drugs was readministered to validate the efficacy of ERI analysis. Significant changes in spontaneous EEG activity produced by all five drugs were detected by ERI analysis with a time resolution of 5-10 s. ERI analysis of spontaneous EEG activity also discriminated, with 90-95% accuracy, an ataxic dose of ethanol versus equivalent ataxic doses of chlordiazepoxide or pentobarbital, as well as the effects of saline, a reinforcing dose of heroin, or a locomotor activating dose of methamphetamine. ERI correctly matched the 'blind drug' as ethanol. These findings indicate that ERI analysis can detect the central nervous system effects of various psychoactive drugs and accurately discriminate the electrocortical effects of select sedative/hypnotics, with similar behavioral endpoints, but with dissimilar mechanisms of action.

  10. 77 FR 23288 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    .... Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Source Right Solutions. 81,297 Samsung... Berkman LLC WV. 81,344 Creditron Financial Erie, PA. Corporation, d/b/a Telatron Marketing Group...

  11. Disease: H01005 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eries of mutations in the DBH gene encoding the key enzyme in noradrenaline synth...esis. Nervous system disease DBH [HSA:1621] [KO:K00503] ... Complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline

  12. Medical research - a of the situation in the certain other countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system followedis often based on historical circumstances, resulting in ... held with representatives of research organizations in Canada, the USA .... tants and equipment. .... throughs, for exampIe the disco\\'ery of the structure of DNA, the.

  13. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  14. 2011 Yılı Yönetici Atama ve Yer Değiştirme Yönetmeği’nin İçeriğine ve Puanlama Ölçütlerine İlişkin Yönetici Görüşlerinin İncelenmesi Investigation of Manager Opinions on the Content and Scoring Criteria of the 2011 Manager Appointment and Rotation Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Beşir DEMİR

    2013-07-01

    ğiştirme Yönetmeliği’ne, yönetmelikte yer alan puanlama ölçütlerine ve yönetmeliğin uygulanışı sürecinde yaşanan aksaklıklara ilişkin kurum yöneticilerinin görüşlerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma, nitel araştırma yöntemleriyle, olgubilim desenine uygun olarak yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, katılımcılar amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden maksimum çeşitlilik örneklemesi ile belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu; (rumuz ilinde görev yapan 8 yöneticiden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada, veri toplama aracı olarak; yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sürecinde tüm görüşmeler ses kayıt cihazıyla kayıt altına alınmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında 240 dakikalık görüşme yapılmış, ses kayıtları herhangi bir elemeye tabi tutulmadan, ham veri olarak Microsoft Word programına aktarılmıştır. Araştırmada her bir transkrip, satır-satır analiz (line by line analysis yaklaşımı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Görüşme verilerinin yorumlanması sürecinde endüktif (inductive betimsel analiz, içerik analizi ve sürekli karşılaştırma tekniği (constant comparison kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizi sonucu; 1. Yönetici atama ve yer değiştirme sürecine ilişkin değerlendirmeler, 2. Yönetici Atama ve Yer Değiştirme Yönetmeliği’nin içeriğine ve puanlama esaslarına ilişkin değerlendirmeler, 3. Zorunlu yer değiştirme (rotasyon uygulamasına ilişkin değerlendirmeler olmak üzere üç ana tema ortaya çıkmıştır.

  15. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  16. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Fiscal Year 2011 Report Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-11-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and avian and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. During FY 2011, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists adapted and applied the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), first developed to examine the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy devices on aquatic environments, to offshore wind development. PNNL scientists conducted a risk screening analysis on two initial OSW cases: a wind project in Lake Erie and a wind project off the Atlantic coast of the United States near Atlantic City, New Jersey. The screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in the two OSW cases were the dynamic effects of the device (e.g., strike), accidents/disasters, and effects of the static physical presence of the device, such as alterations in bottom habitats. Receptor interactions with these stressors at the highest tiers of risk were dominated by threatened and endangered animals. Risk to the physical environment from changes in flow regime also ranked high. Peer review of this process and results will be conducted during FY 2012. The ERES screening analysis provides an assessment of the vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with OSW installations; a probability analysis is needed to determine specific risk levels to receptors. As more data become available that document effects of offshore wind farms on specific receptors in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters, probability analyses will be performed.

  17. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  18. System dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hun; Mun, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Hwan

    1999-02-01

    This book introduces systems thinking and conceptual tool and modeling tool of dynamics system such as tragedy of single thinking, accessible way of system dynamics, feedback structure and causal loop diagram analysis, basic of system dynamics modeling, causal loop diagram and system dynamics modeling, information delay modeling, discovery and application for policy, modeling of crisis of agricultural and stock breeding products, dynamic model and lesson in ecosystem, development and decadence of cites and innovation of education forward system thinking.

  19. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  20. 77 FR 49401 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... meeting would be beneficial. If we determine that one would aid this rulemaking, we will hold one at a..., Cedar Point, OH extending outward 100 yards on either side of a line running between 41-28'-38.59''N 082-41'-10.51''W and 41-28'-17.25''N 082-40'-54.09''W running adjacent to the Cedar Point Marina. These...

  1. Eri riikide noored üritavad lahendada Ida-Viru probleeme / Ishtvan Ban

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ban, Ishtvan

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 8. aug., lk. 3. Kohtla-Nõmmel programmi 'Euroopa Noored' toetusel toimunud rahvusvahelisest noorte kohtumisest, kus arutati Ida-Virumaa keskkonna ja turismi probleeme

  2. 78 FR 35787 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Standards The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) (15 U.S.C. 272 note) directs agencies... comment, if submitted on behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy... time and place announced by a later notice in the Federal Register. B. Regulatory History and...

  3. Eriõli mehed leidsid tulusa kütuse valemi / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. nov., lk. 5. Kodumaised kütsetöösturid on paisanud 1999-2000.a. turule umbes 40 miljonit liitrit kehva kvaliteediga bensiini ja diislikütust umbes 360 miljoni krooni väärtuses. Skeemid

  4. Final report-98-ERI-003 identification of population with lifetime 41Ca-labeled skeletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, S P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 we first postulated the existence of a special human population that had had their skeletons inadvertently isotopically adulterated in the past. We theorized that the population, and the necessary LLNL accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) measurement technology, would prove a significant resource in the fight to combat osteoporosis. This LDRD project was to establish such. The project was significantly successful in its initial year, but was not renewed for another and the research is now ended at LLNL. We proposed a three-year program to (1) confirm the magnitude and extent of historical 41 Ca dosing, (2) exactly characterize the long-term 41 Ca signal by comparing it with conventional measurements of skeletal health, and (3) demonstrate the utility of the historically labeled population in evaluating an actual potential therapy for osteoporosis. However, rather than investigate historical records to learn the identity of those inadvertently dosed, find them, and if possible enroll them into a new protocol, this project was to be particularly efficient by making use of a multiyear archive of samples from original, inadvertent 41 Ca-dosing experiments at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. Because the subjects had been dosed in conventional studies of calcium kinetics, much important correlating historical data would also be available for comparison. Measurements of contemporary urine samples specifically provided for this project by selected identified subjects would follow. We discovered a second archive at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. This is potentially a better source of material as the samples were generated in numerous historical evaluations of actual osteoporosis therapies in which 41 Ca-impure radiotracers were used. The therapies might now powerfully be retrospectively evaluated, both to contribute to our understanding of the therapies and to highlight the potential of the use of 41 Ca tracer and LLNL measurement

  5. Killustatud toetusvõimalused panevad ettevõtja eri asutuste vahet jooksma / Merike Lees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lees, Merike, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus, Põllumajanduse Registrite ja Informatsiooni Amet, konsultatsioonifirma BDA Estonia ning maakondlikud arenduskeskused jagavad toetusvõimaluste kohta erinevat informatsiooni. Kommenteerivad Kadri Ugand, Piret Arusaar, Heli Raamets ja Tiina Tarma

  6. 78 FR 30762 - Safety Zone; 2013 Fish Festival Fireworks, Lake Erie, Vermilion, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision... Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide the Coast Guard in...

  7. 78 FR 30765 - Safety Zone; Bay Village Independence Day Fireworks, Lake Erie, Bay Village, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision... Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide...

  8. 78 FR 54581 - Safety Zone; Perry 200 Fireworks, Presque Isle Bay, Erie, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision... Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide...

  9. H09535: NOS Hydrographic Survey , South Shore of Lake Erie, Ohio, 1974-07-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. 76 FR 64820 - Safety Zone; Mainardi/Kinsey Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lakewood, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... analyzed this rule under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk... near Lakewood, OH. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that fireworks launched in proximity...

  11. Impact of Harmful Algal Blooms on Several Lake Erie Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent events in Ohio have demonstrated the challenge treatment facilities face in providing safe drinking water when encountering extreme harmful algal bloom (HAB) events. Over the last two years the impact of HAB-related microcystins on several drinking water treatment facilit...

  12. 76 FR 11446 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, LP; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... turbine-generator that will utilize the base flow required by Article 405 of the project license. With the...,550 kilowatts while the hydraulic capacity will increase from 4,000 cubic feet per second to 4,325...

  13. 77 FR 71531 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... close proximity to watercraft and in the shipping channel pose extra and unusual hazards to public... on land at the Lakeside dock at positions 41[deg]32'51.96'' N; 082[deg]45'3.15'' W and 41[deg]32'52... on land at the Lakeside dock, 41[deg]32'51.96'' N/082[deg]45'3.15'' W and 41[deg]32'52.21'' N/ 082...

  14. Tietokantapohjaisen www-verkkosovelluksen rakentaminen ja eri tietokantajärjestelmät : Case "koirien sukupuu"

    OpenAIRE

    Lahdensuu, Elina

    2006-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli vertailla kahta tietokantaohjelmaa luomalla koirien sukupuu tietokanta. Vertailtavina tietokantaohjelmina oli Access ja MySQL. Ohjelmissa tuli muodostaa taulut ja kentät sekä niiden suhteet. Tietokanta toteutettiin ensin Accessissa ja vasta sitten MySQL:ssä. Tietokantojen tekemisen aikana ilmeni ohjelmien eroja ja samankaltaisuuksia, kuten molemmissa tietokantaohjelmissa oli graafinen editori. Tämän opinnäytetyön toisena tarkoituksena oli toteuttaa MySQL:...

  15. 77 FR 33130 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self... vessels transiting the swim route shall proceed at a no-wake speed and maintain extra vigilance for people... regulations of Sec. 100.901 apply. Vessels transiting within the regulated area shall travel at a no-wake...

  16. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers were not included in the model because they were shown to be statistically unrelated to E. coli concentrations. From the several models developed, one model was chosen that accounted for 58 percent of the variability in E. coli concentrations. The chosen MLR model contained weighted categorical rainfall, beach-specific turbidity, wave height, and terms to correct for the different magnitudes of E. coli concentrations among the three beaches. For 1997, the MLR model predicted the recreational water quality as well as, and in some cases better than, antecedent E. coli concentrations (the current method). The MLR model improved the sensitivity of the prediction and the percentage of correct predictions over the current method; however, the MLR model predictions still erred to a similar degree as the current method with regard to false negatives. A false negative would allow swimming when, in fact, the bathing water standard was exceeded. More work needs to be done to validate the MLR model with data collected during other recreational seasons, especially during a season with a greater frequency and intensity of summer rains. Studies could focus on adding to the MLR model other environmental and water-quality variables that improve the predictive ability of the model. These variables might include concentrations of E. coli in deeper sediments outside the bathing area, the direction of lake currents, site-specific-rainfall amounts, time-of-day information on overflows and metered outfalls, concentrations of E. coli in treated wastewater-treatment plant effluents, and occurrences of sewage-line breaks. Rapid biological or chemical methods for determination of recreational water quality could also be used as variables in model refinements. Possible methods include the use of experimental rapid assay methods for determination of E. coli concentrations or other fecal indicators and the use of chemical tracers for fecal contamination, such as coprostanol (a degradation

  17. Cyanobacteria Toxin and Cell Propagation through Lake Erie Treatment Facilities - proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), and their associated toxins, in fresh water lakes and reservoirs are drawing the attention of utilities and state regulators nation-wide. Recognizing the potential health and economic consequences, the US Environmental Protection Agency, in partnersh...

  18. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  19. Lapsen musiikkiterapian eri osa-alueet - "musiikki alkaa siitä mihin sanat loppuvat"

    OpenAIRE

    Joensuu, Tuija

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä systemaattinen kirjallisuuskatsaus lapsista musiikkiterapian käyttäjinä. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitä musiikkiterapia on, ketkä hyötyvät musiikkiterapiasta ja miten musiikkiterapia vaikuttaa yksilön elä-mänlaatuun. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tehdä kirjallisuuskatsaus, jota voidaan hyödyntää hoitoalalla. Opinnäytetyö auttaa tulevia ja jo valmistuneita hoitoalan työntekijöitä ymmärtämään musiikkiterapian tuoman hyödyn yksilön elämälle. Kirjalli...

  20. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Digital Elevation Model: Lake Erie

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  1. Struktuur eri pikkusskaaladel = Structure on different length-scales / Salmaan Craig, Martin Melioranski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Craig, Salmaan

    2013-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuri ja linnaplaneerimise osakonnaõppejõu Martin Melioranski vestluskaaslane Salmaan Craig on Harvard Graduate School of Design külalislektor ja töötab ühtlasi arhitektuuribüroos Foster + Partners

  2. Water Quality Data for Lake Erie Basin Tributary Mouth Sampling Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    34 *4 4 1 4. 0 30 aI 04. 4 . * hi hiit V. Ok- P. r-T-P. P. @33. P .P .NP P I.F %P . P .V -P .P . .P .P I .I Ufta A aa a a a a av aa 61 . . U. IL a" 44...12 - 18 0 %k3 0 m 4 wpe a mN n C C3 a P -. N UA 1% f P-4e 4 .4- e e 0p -r -3 Cd.49 4ui to. o - 414 a 42 0 :X z 3ba axe Z 0 a9 .4l hiit a & dV1 0 0 aa

  3. Fen Bilimlerinde ve Beşeri bilimlerde öykülerin rolü

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ondřej; Dervişcemaloğlu, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 20 (2011), s. 263-272 ISSN 1300-5715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/10/1911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : narrative * science * humanities Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  4. Acidic Barren Slope Profiling using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at Ayer Hitam area Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Haimi, D. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, non-destructive method such as the electrical resistivity technique has become increasingly popular in engineering, environmental, mining and archeological studies nowadays. This method was popular in subsurface profiling due to its ability to replicate the images of the subsurface indirectly. The soil slope found in Batu Pahat, specifically in Ayer Hitam, is known to be problematic due to its barren condition. This location is believed to contain futile soil due to its difficulty in supporting the growth of vegetations. In the past, acidic barren slope assessment using non-destructive method was rarely being used due to several reasons related to the equipment and knowledge constraints. Hence, this study performed an electrical resistivity imaging using ABEM Terrameter LS in order to investigate the acidic barren slope conditions. Field data acquisition was based on Schlumberger and Wenner arrays while RES2DINV software was used to analyze and generate a 2-D model of the problematic subsurface profile. Based on electrical resistivity results, it was found that the acidic barren slope studied consists of two main zones representing residual soil (electrical resistivity value = 10 - 600 Ωm) and shale (electrical resistivity value = 20 - 2000 Ωm). The results of resistivity value were correlated with the physical mapping and the in situ mackintosh probe test for verification purposes. It was found that the maximum depth of the mackintosh probe test was 1.8 m due to its ground penetration limitation. However, the results of the resistivity section managed to achieve greater depth up to 40 m. Hence, the correlation between electrical resistivity and mackintosh probe results can only be performed at certain depth of the acidic barren slope profile in contrast with the physical mapping which able to define the whole section of the barren soil slope structure. Finally, a good match of electrical resistivity results calibrated with mackintosh and physical mapping data showed that this technique was appropriate to be applied in near-surface acidic barren slope assessment which can further compliment borehole data and other physical mapping data at a lower cost, higher speed, large data coverage and better environmental sustainability.

  5. feets: feATURE eXTRACTOR for tIME sERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Juan; Sanchez, Bruno; Ramos, Felipe; Gurovich, Sebastián; Granitto, Pablo; VanderPlas, Jake

    2018-06-01

    feets characterizes and analyzes light-curves from astronomical photometric databases for modelling, classification, data cleaning, outlier detection and data analysis. It uses machine learning algorithms to determine the numerical descriptors that characterize and distinguish the different variability classes of light-curves; these range from basic statistical measures such as the mean or standard deviation to complex time-series characteristics such as the autocorrelation function. The library is not restricted to the astronomical field and could also be applied to any kind of time series. This project is a derivative work of FATS (ascl:1711.017).

  6. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix A. Regulation. Volume II. Coordinated Basic Data and Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    F- fta fm~p- ri- a V.- On ;a~V~ I’ .C1A 1" ~ P 0%AJfVtN Q I1’t I O a0 4 . 0 * a C C COO a * a ma. 93 *a Ob fu -E tvvP- fl NurvI M I-Al N Ir-N fuII...NU N4 -4ftfNA fmd .-. - -9 0 0 0r IL 0 w wow 00~ 0Nm(U a 0P.-CM@W aO 0 1.4- 41- &0 M Im -4 & - 40 0 P-0 om fc I- 20o w wwef -4 . aaW4 MMM a-MI- n0 4...O zq~ f-’ W 9 A o a i. po j -4 N NfUfJ .-. AD uw s )LA~L; 4DW L NANI f & ftA DNN W LL) mij 3 z I- -9 9 a -j -z~u nV1 0 ~ OPP~~.N fj- , MD0* n’DCL t cc

  7. H09537: NOS Hydrographic Survey , South Shore of Lake Erie, Ohio, 1974-09-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H09536: NOS Hydrographic Survey , South Shore of Lake Erie, Ohio, 1974-12-31

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. Outlooki grupitöö ühendab ka eri kontorid / Kuldar Kullasepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kullasepp, Kuldar, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Microsofti Internet Free/Busy Service võimaldab koosoleku aega planeerides töökaaslaste kalendrist näha, millal nad on hõivatud ja millal mitte. Skeem: Veebiliides ühendab arvutid. Lisa: Outlooki grupitöölahenduse plussid; Outlooki grupitöölahenduse miinused

  10. An Examination of Issues Related to U.S. Lake Erie Natural Gas Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    37 pg/mL 27 pg/mL 27 pg/mL 27 pg/mL detergent Wac-8 Talc & guar Non-toxic to 10,000 pg/mL in 24 hours gum Wac-10 Talc, silica Non-toxic to 10,000 ug...mL in 24 hours guar gum Fr-10 High molecu- Bioassay Method not applicable lar weight synthetic Fr-19 Polymer Bioassay Method not applicable aData from...Adeorption None Activated carbon. Activated carbon Activated carbon Activated carbon Activated carbon powdered Filtration Sandb Activated carbon. Sand Sand

  11. 78 FR 49923 - Safety Zone; D-Day Conneaut, Lake Erie, Conneaut, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    .... fighter planes leave the area. ADDRESSES: Documents mentioned in this preamble are part of docket [USCG... Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History and Information The Coast Guard is issuing this temporary final... vintage [[Page 49924

  12. 77 FR 42644 - Safety Zone; Canal Fest of the Tonawandas, Erie Canal, Tonawanda, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    .... ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the... Canal during the Canal Fest of the Tonawandas Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display. DATES: This...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hα velocity curves of IM Eri (Armstrong+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E.; Patterson, J.; Michelsen, E.; Thorstensen, J.; Uthas, H.; Vanmunster, T.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Roberts, G.; Dvorak, S.

    2015-01-01

    All data reported here were obtained by the globally distributed small telescopes of the Center for Backyard Astrophysics [see Skillman & Patterson (1993ApJ...417..298S) for details of the CBA instrumentation and observing procedure]. We obtained differential photometry of the CV with respect to a comparison star on the same field, and spliced overlapping data from different longitudes by adding small constants to establish a consistent instrumental scale. With an excellent span of longitudes, we essentially eliminated the possibility of daily aliasing of frequencies in the power spectra. In order to reach good signal-to-noise ratio with good time resolution, we generally observe in unfiltered light. This practice, however, eliminates the possibility of transforming to a standard magnitude. (2 data files).

  14. Cultural Resources in the Southern Lake Erie Basin: A Predictive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    American elm , black ash, and silver maple; also associated were slippery elm , burr oak, swamp white oak, and bitternut hickory. Another type of swamp...American elm -red maple-black ash association dominated the wetter sites. Associated were slippery elm , burr oak, swamp white oak, and bitternut...americana Red elm ( slippery elm ) U. rubra Balsam fir Abies balsanea Hackberry Celtis occidentalis American hazel Corylus americana Eastern hemlock

  15. Hair cortisol and work stress : Importance of workload and stress model (JDCS or ERI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, L.; Gubbels, N.; Schaveling, J.; Almela, M.; van Vugt, M.

    2018-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) are a potential physiological indicator of work related stress. However, studies that tested the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress in a work setting show mixed findings. This may be because few studies used worker samples that experience prolonged

  16. Estimating microcystin levels at recreational sites in western Lake Erie and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Brady, Amie M. G.; Ecker, Christopher D.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Struffolino, Pamela; Loftin, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) and associated toxins, such as microcystin, are a major global water-quality issue. Water-resource managers need tools to quickly predict when and where toxin-producing cyanoHABs will occur. This could be done by using site-specific models that estimate the potential for elevated toxin concentrations that cause public health concerns. With this study, samples were collected at three Ohio lakes to identify environmental and water-quality factors to develop linear-regression models to estimate microcystin levels. Measures of the algal community (phycocyanin, cyanobacterial biovolume, and cyanobacterial gene concentrations) and pH were most strongly correlated with microcystin concentrations. Cyanobacterial genes were quantified for general cyanobacteria, general Microcystis and Dolichospermum, and for microcystin synthetase (mcyE) for Microcystis, Dolichospermum, and Planktothrix. For phycocyanin, the relations were different between sites and were different between hand-held measurements on-site and nearby continuous monitor measurements for the same site. Continuous measurements of parameters such as phycocyanin, pH, and temperature over multiple days showed the highest correlations to microcystin concentrations. The development of models with high R2values (0.81–0.90), sensitivities (92%), and specificities (100%) for estimating microcystin concentrations above or below the Ohio Recreational Public Health Advisory level of 6 μg L−1 was demonstrated for one site; these statistics may change as more data are collected in subsequent years. This study showed that models could be developed for estimates of exceeding a microcystin threshold concentration at a recreational freshwater lake site, with potential to expand their use to provide relevant public health information to water resource managers and the public for both recreational and drinking waters.

  17. Festival lähetab maailma eri nurkadesse / Kerttu Jänese

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jänese, Kerttu, 1946-

    2008-01-01

    V dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiliste filmide festival "Maailmafilm" algab 24. märtsil Eesti Rahva Muuseumi näitusemajas Tartus. Kavas on ka kolm eriprogrammi: kirjanikud filmis, klassiku Timothy Aschi looming ja 8 filmi inimesest linnas

  18. A Cultural Resources Survey of Proposed Project Areas in the Buffalo Harbor, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    continued warming was indicated - by the transition into the B-I Stage, with the decline of the spruce forests and an increase in birch and pine . Deciduous...County area in 1620 as part of the Plymouth Colony settlement. The claim was made again when the area was granted to the Duke of York in 1664. The first...Buffalo cleared the area in 1902 and removed the Sea Wall Strip of squatters, leaving the area " barren " (Symons and Quintus 1902: 256-257) . Between

  19. "Middletown" as a Model for Community Studies (With Comparative Data from Erie, Pennsylvania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Carl M.

    1985-01-01

    In 1920 Robert S. and Helen M. Lynd published the results of their exhaustive study of everyday life in Muncie, Indiana, dubbing the city "Middletown" as a symbol of the typical American community. Salient conclusions of the study are summarized, and significant recent literature on Middletown is assessed. (RM)

  20. Commensuration and policy comparison: How the use of standardized indicators affects the rankings of pension system / Hans Peeters, Gert Verschraegen, Annelies Debels

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peeters, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Artikkel käsitleb standardiseertud indikaatorite konstrueerimist ja kasutamist pensionipoliitikas, mis aitavad võrrelda ja hinnata eri OECD liikmesriikide pensionisüsteemide sotsiaalset tulemuslikkust, nt vaesusriski vähendamine või elustandardi säilitamine vanas eas. Teiste seas on vaatluse all ka Eesti. Joonised

  1. Effects of Vaporized Decontamination Systems on Selected Building Interior Materials: Chlorine Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) to take advantage of ECBC’s extensive expertise and specialized research facilities for the decontamination of surfaces...Agency (EPA) established an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) to take advantage of ECBC’s extensive...Detector (Waters Corporation, Milford, MA). Conductivity suppression was carried out using an ERIS 1000HP Autosuppressor ( Alltech Corporation, Deerfield

  2. Coupling component systems towards systems of systems

    OpenAIRE

    Autran , Frédéric; Auzelle , Jean-Philippe; Cattan , Denise; Garnier , Jean-Luc; Luzeaux , Dominique; Mayer , Frédérique; Peyrichon , Marc; Ruault , Jean-René

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Systems of systems (SoS) are a hot topic in our "fully connected global world". Our aim is not to provide another definition of what SoS are, but rather to focus on the adequacy of reusing standard system architecting techniques within this approach in order to improve performance, fault detection and safety issues in large-scale coupled systems that definitely qualify as SoS, whatever the definition is. A key issue will be to secure the availability of the services pr...

  3. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  4. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Systems included under the heading ''Reactor Auxillary Systems'' are those immediately involved with the reactor operation. These include the systems for dosing and letdown of reactor coolant, as well as for the chemical dosing, purification and treatment of the reactor coolant and the cooling system in the controlled area. The ancillary systems are mainly responsible for liquid and gaseous treatment and the waste treatment for final storage. (orig.)

  5. A Ninth Planet in Our Solar System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery that the orbits of some Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) share properties has proved puzzling. A pair of scientists have now proposed a bold explanation: there may be a planet-sized object yet undetected in our solar system.Mysterious ClusteringKBOs, the population of mainly small objects beyond Neptune, have proven an especially interesting subject of study in the last decade as many small, distant bodies (such as Eris, the object that led to the demotion of Pluto to dwarf planet) have been discovered.Previous studies have recently discovered that some especially distant KBOs those that orbit with semimajor axes of a 150 AU, nearly four times that of Pluto all cross the ecliptic at a similar phase in their elliptical trajectories. This is unexpected, since gravitational tugs from the giant planets should have randomized this parameter over our solar systems multi-billion-year lifespan.Physical alignment of the orbits of Kuiper belt objects with a 250 AU (and two objects with a 150 AU that are dynamically stable). [Batygin Brown 2016]Two scientists at California Institute of Technology, Konstantin Batygin and Michael Brown (you might recognize Brown as the man who killed Pluto) have now increased the mystery. In a recently published a study, they demonstrate that for KBOs that have orbits with a 250 AU, the orbits are actually physically aligned.To explain this unexpected alignment which Batygin and Brown calculate has only a 0.007% probability of having occurred by chance the authors ask an exciting question: could this be caused by the presence of an unseen, large, perturbing body further out in the solar system?Simulating a Ninth PlanetThe authors test this hypothesis by carrying out both analytical calculations and numerical N-body simulations designed to determine if the gravitational influence of a distant, planetary-mass companion can explain the behavior we observe from the large-orbit KBOs.Simulation of the effect of a distant planet (M = 10

  6. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  7. JOSHUA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeck, H.C.

    1975-04-01

    A major computational system called JOSHUA has been under development at the Savannah River Laboratory since 1968. The JOSHUA System has two major parts: the Operating System and the Application System. The Operating System has been in production use since 1970 and provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities. The Application System uses these facilities in solving problems in reactor physics and engineering. Features of the Application System are the two-dimensional lattice physics and three-dimensional transient reactor physics capabilities, which have been in use since 1971 and 1974, respectively. The capabilities of the JOSHUA System are summarized, and statistics on size, use, and development effort are provided. (U.S.)

  8. Systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  9. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities....

  10. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  11. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  12. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  13. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b...... for the application of expert systems, but also raises issues regarding privacy and legal liability....

  14. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  15. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauthier, J.; Fiori, R.

    1990-01-01

    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr

  16. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  17. Üstverinin Tam-Metin Bilgi Erişim Performansı Üzerindeki Etkisi: Küçük Ölçekli Türkçe Külliyat Üzerinde Deneysel Bir Araştırma / Impact of Metadata on Full-text Information Retrieval Performance: An Experimental Research on a Small Scale Turkish Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Çapkın, Çağdaş

    2016-01-01

    Information institutions use text-based information retrieval systems to store, index and retrieve metadata, full-text, or both metadata and full-text (hybrid) contents. The aim of this research was to evaluate impact of these contents on information retrieval performance. For this purpose, metadata (MIR), full-text (FIR) and hybrid (HIR) content information retrieval systems were developed with default Lucene information retrieval model for a small scale Turkish corpus. In order to evaluate ...

  18. A new mixed self-consistent field procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ibarra, A.; Köster, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    A new approach for the calculation of three-centre electronic repulsion integrals (ERIs) is developed, implemented and benchmarked in the framework of auxiliary density functional theory (ADFT). The so-called mixed self-consistent field (mixed SCF) divides the computationally costly ERIs in two sets: far-field and near-field. Far-field ERIs are calculated using the newly developed double asymptotic expansion as in the direct SCF scheme. Near-field ERIs are calculated only once prior to the SCF procedure and stored in memory, as in the conventional SCF scheme. Hence the name, mixed SCF. The implementation is particularly powerful when used in parallel architectures, since all RAM available are used for near-field ERI storage. In addition, the efficient distribution algorithm performs minimal intercommunication operations between processors, avoiding a potential bottleneck. One-, two- and three-dimensional systems are used for benchmarking, showing substantial time reduction in the ERI calculation for all of them. A Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics calculation for the Na+55 cluster is also shown in order to demonstrate the speed-up for small systems achievable with the mixed SCF. Dedicated to Sourav Pal on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  19. Systems integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a view of systems integration, from an ergonomics/human factors perspective, emphasising the process of systems integration as is carried out by humans. The first section discusses some of the fundamental issues in systems integration, such as the significance of systems boundaries, systems lifecycle and systems entropy, issues arising from complexity, the implications of systems immortality, and so on. The next section outlines various generic processes for executing systems integration, to act as guides for practitioners. These address both the design of the system to be integrated and the preparation of the wider system in which the integration will occur. Then the next section outlines some of the human-specific issues that would need to be addressed in such processes; for example, indeterminacy and incompleteness, the prediction of human reliability, workload issues, extended situation awareness, and knowledge lifecycle management. For all of these, suggestions and further readings are proposed. Finally, the conclusions section reiterates in condensed form the major issues arising from the above.

  20. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  1. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  2. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  3. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  4. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  5. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  6. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  7. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  8. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  9. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-03-01

    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  10. Systems integration (automation system). System integration (automation system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K; Komori, T; Fukuma, Y; Oikawa, M [Nippon Steal Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-26

    This paper introduces business activities on an automation systems integration (SI) started by a company in July,1988, and describes the SI concepts. The business activities include, with the CIM (unified production carried out on computers) and AMENITY (living environment) as the mainstays, a single responsibility construction ranging from consultation on structuring optimal systems for processing and assembling industries and intelligent buildings to system design, installation and after-sales services. With an SI standing on users {prime} position taken most importantly, the business starts from a planning and consultation under close coordination. On the conceptual basis of structuring optimal systems using the ompany {prime}s affluent know-hows and tools and adapting and applying with multi-vendors, open networks, centralized and distributed systems, the business is promoted with the accumulated technologies capable of realizing artificial intelligence and neural networks in its background, and supported with highly valuable business results in the past. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...... deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...... om Extreme Textiles på amerikanske Cooper Hewit Design Museum, samt Professor Ludger Hovestadt, ved ETH, Zürich der fokuserer på udvikling og anvendelse af logaritmiske systemtilgange. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer...

  12. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  13. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  14. Selective removal of erythromycin by magnetic imprinted polymers synthesized from chitosan-stabilized Pickering emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hongxiang; Chen, Qunhui; Pan, Jianming; Zhang, Yunlei; Huang, Yong; Qi, Xueyong

    2015-05-30

    Magnetic imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization and used to adsorb erythromycin (ERY) from aqueous solution. The oil-in-water Pickering emulsion was stabilized by chitosan nanoparticles with hydrophobic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic carrier. The imprinting system was fabricated by radical polymerization with functional and crosslinked monomer in the oil phase. Batches of static and dynamic adsorption experiments were conducted to analyze the adsorption performance on ERY. Isotherm data of MIPs well fitted the Freundlich model (from 15 °C to 35 °C), which indicated heterogeneous adsorption for ERY. The ERY adsorption capacity of MIPs was about 52.32 μmol/g at 15 °C. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-first-order model, which suggested that physical interactions were primarily responsible for ERY adsorption. The Thomas model used in the fixed-bed adsorption design provided a better fit to the experimental data. Meanwhile, ERY exhibited higher affinity during adsorption on the MIPs compared with the adsorption capacity of azithromycin and chloramphenicol. The MIPs also exhibited excellent regeneration capacity with only about 5.04% adsorption efficiency loss in at least three repeated adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The IAGOS-core greenhouse gas package: a measurement system for continuous airborne observations of CO2, CH4, H2O and CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Filges

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System – European Research Infrastructure, a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS-based measurement system for the autonomous measurement of the greenhouse gases (GHGs CO2 and CH4, as well as CO and water vapour was designed, tested and qualified for deployment on commercial airliners. The design meets requirements regarding physical dimensions (size, weight, performance (long-term stability, low maintenance, robustness, full automation and safety issues (fire-prevention regulations. The system uses components of a commercially available CRDS instrument (G2401-m, Picarro Inc. mounted into a frame suitable for integration in the avionics bay of the Airbus A330 and A340 series. To enable robust and automated operation of the IAGOS-core GHG package over 6-month deployment periods, numerous technical issues had to be addressed. An inlet system was designed to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles and water droplets, and to provide additional positive ram-pressure to ensure operation throughout an aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without an upstream sampling pump. Furthermore, no sample drying is required as the simultaneously measured water vapour mole fraction is used to correct for dilution and spectroscopic effects. This also enables measurements of water vapour throughout the atmosphere. To allow for trace gas measurements to be fully traceable to World Meteorological Organization scales, a two-standard calibration system has been designed and tested, which periodically provides calibration gas to the instrument during flight and on ground for each 6-month deployment period. The first of the IAGOS-core GHG packages is scheduled for integration in 2015. The aim is to have five systems operational within 4 yr, providing regular, long-term GHG observations covering major parts of the globe. This paper presents results from recent test

  16. The IAGOS GHG package: a measurement system for continuous airborne observations of CO2, CH4, H2O and CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, C.; Filges, A.; Franke, H.; Klaus, C.; Chen, H.

    2012-12-01

    A cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) based measurement system for greenhouse gases was designed, tested, and qualified for deployment on commercial airliners within the IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - European Research Infrastructure) project. The design meets requirements regarding physical dimensions (size, weight), performance (long term stability, low maintenance, robustness, full automation) and safety issues (fire prevention regulations). The system uses components of a commercially available CRDS instrument (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.) integrated in a frame suitable for integration in the avionics bay of the Airbus A-340. The first of the IAGOS GHG packages is scheduled for integration in early 2013. The aim is to have seven systems operational within four years, providing for long-term GHG observations with near-global coverage. To enable robust and automated operation of the IAGOS GHG package over six-month deployment periods, numerous technical issues had to be addressed. An inlet system, designed as virtual impactor to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles, and water droplets, and provides additional positive ram-pressure. In combination with a lowered sample flow of 0.1 slpm, this ensures a fully controlled sample pressure in the cavity of 140 torr throughout the aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without the need of an upstream sampling pump. Furthermore, no sample drying is required, as the simultaneously measured water vapor mole fraction is used to correct for dilution and spectroscopic effects. This also enables the collection of science-quality water vapor measurements throughout the atmosphere. To allow for trace gas measurements to be fully traceable to WMO scales, a two-standard calibration system has been designed and tested that periodically provides calibration gas to the instrument during flight and on ground. A targeted six-month deployment cycle followed by maintenance of the package

  17. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov...... huge chunks of video data where no events/interactions of interest are occurring and hence let a user focus on manually annotation of only the interesting stuff....

  18. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  19. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  20. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  1. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  2. Kaonic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oset E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I make a short review of the situation of the kaonic systems, with novel information supporting the two Λ(1405 states from the K-d → nπΣ reaction. A review is made of the K¯$ar K$NN system with recent calculations converging to smaller bindings and larger widths. Novel systems involving two kaons and one nucleon or three kaons are also reported and finally a short discussion is made of the analogous state DNN for which recent studies find a large binding and a small width.

  3. The systems integration modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danker, W.J.; Williams, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the systems integration modeling system (SIMS), an analysis tool for the detailed evaluation of the structure and related performance of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) and its interface with waste generators. It's use for evaluations in support of system-level decisions as to FWMS configurations, the allocation, sizing, balancing and integration of functions among elements, and the establishment of system-preferred waste selection and sequencing methods and other operating strategies is presented. SIMS includes major analysis submodels which quantify the detailed characteristics of individual waste items, loaded casks and waste packages, simulate the detailed logistics of handling and processing discrete waste items and packages, and perform detailed cost evaluations

  4. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  5. Septic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater.

  6. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  7. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  8. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  9. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range......, and it aims to illustrate and identify new modes of working in architecture, particularly with regards to brickwork and other complex systems of modular assemblies, whether physical or digital....

  10. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  11. Nanorobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Dong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  12. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  13. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  14. ARAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.F.; Wyman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    In spite of the remarkable safety record of the nuclear industry as a whole, recent public concern over the potential impact of the industry's accelerated growth has prompted ERDA to expand its emergency response procedures. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, ARAC, is a computer communications system designed to enhance the existing emergency response capability of ERDA nuclear facilities. ARAC will add at least two new functions to this capability: centralized, real-time data acquisition and storage, and simulation of the long range atmospheric transport of hazardous materials. To perform these functions, ARAC employs four major sub-systems or facilities: the site facility, the central facility, the global weather center and the regional model. The system has been under development for the past two years at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California

  15. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  16. Spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, W J

    1989-01-01

    This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy

  17. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  18. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  19. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    areas in which this type is useful are multimedia, virtual reality, and advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems, including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS.

  20. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  1. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  2. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  3. Quorum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattenhofer, Roger; Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2016-01-01

    What happens if a single server is no longer powerful enough to service all your customers? The obvious choice is to add more servers and to use the majority approach (e.g. Paxos, Chapter 2) to guarantee consistency. However, even if you buy one million servers, a client still has to access more ...... study the theory behind overlapping sets, known as quorum systems....

  4. System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  5. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...

  6. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  7. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  8. Urogenital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Zaspel, U.

    2007-01-01

    The book is focussed on the radiological diagnostics of diseases in the urogential system. The description of the specific diseases, the identification by modern imaging techniques, the interpretation of examinatory results and therapeutic options are systematically treated in 4 chapters: kidney and adrenal glands, urinary tract, male genitals, female genitals

  9. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  11. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  12. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  13. TUBO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, H.J.C.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Toledo, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings recently incorporated to TUBO system like the seismic analysis and the stress verification acccording to ASME-Boiler Rule and Pressure Vessel Code-section III are presented. The seismic analysis comprehend the consideration of uniform motion of the support, its multiple excitation, and the attainment of the spectral response for both cases. The module for stress verification uses stresses resulting fromthe combination of the loads specified by the user, in the automatic verification of permissible stresses for the pipings class 1 and 2, based on criteria NB-3650 and NC-3650 of ASME. The implementation of these proceedings in the TUBO system are discussed and a numerical example that covers the different phases of a stress analysis in a piping is presented [pt

  14. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  15. Bilateral system. The ABACC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    After relating the antecedents of the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the paper describes the common system of accounting and control set up by Argentina and Brazil. The organization of ABACC is also outlined

  16. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  17. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  18. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  19. Priority Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gössler , Gregor; Sifakis , Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Projet POP_ART; We present a framework for the incremental construction of deadlock-free systems meeting given safety properties. The framework borrows concepts and basic results from the controller synthesis paradigm by considering a step in the construction process as a controller synthesis problem. We show that priorities are expressive enough to represent restrictions induced by deadlock-free controllers preserving safety properties. We define a correspondence between such restrictions an...

  20. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A moving object such as a container on a conveyor belt is imaged by an optical system onto a charge coupled device array in which the lines of the array are arranged perpendicular to the direction of motion of the object. The speed of movement of the object is sensed to generate electrical signals which are processed to provide shift signals enabling the shifting of data row to row in the array in synchronism with the movement of the container. The electrical charge associated with a given point on the array is transferred from one line to the other until it appears at the last line of the array, from which it is read out in known manner in conjunction with all other electrical charges associated with the row of charge coupled devices in the last line of the array. Due to the integrating effect achieved, the aperture of the imaging system can be much smaller than otherwise would be required, and/or the level of light illumination can be reduced. The imaging system can be applied to X-ray inspection devices, aerial surveillance or scanning of moving documents in copying processes. (author)

  1. Braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  2. Protecting information in systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.

    2012-01-01

    Systems of systems are coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. The component systems of a system of systems often belong to different security domains, which are governed by different authorities (hereafter called parties). Furthermore, systems

  3. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D

    1927-01-01

    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  4. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  5. Videobasierte Systeme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  6. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  7. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  8. Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    stand.    CV CS x dAvvdVov dt d F   (18-1) Where  denotes density and vx is the velocity in the x-direction. The first term on the...by  but to avoid confusion with  from Eqs. 18-7 to 10, it is denoted k in this formula . Ru is the universal gas constant (8.314472 J/mol K), pe is...Russian Federation Used on Phobos spacecraft as main engines 74 1.03 NTO/ UDMH 13.73-19.61 316-325 Orbital Maneuvering System 1 Aerojet Shuttle

  9. Effective Rights Exporting Process - Towards system interoperability of digital rights management

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Digitaalisten käyttöoikeuksien tehokas hallinta Digitaalisten käyttöoikeuksien hallinta (Digital Rights Management, DRM) on joukko menetelmiä, joilla hallitaan digitaalisen sisällön käyttöä ja jakelua. Eri menetelmien yhteen toimivuuden puute on hyvin todettu liiketoiminnallisesta, laillisesta ja teknologisesta näkökulmasta. Työn aihe, käyttöoikeuksien siirto, on keskinen DRM-järjestelmien järjestelmätason yhteen toimivuuden osa. Työssä kehitetään menetelmiä sellaisiin digitaaliste...

  10. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  11. System analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seung Hui

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with information technology and business process, information system architecture, methods of system development, plan on system development like problem analysis and feasibility analysis, cases for system development, comprehension of analysis of users demands, analysis of users demands using traditional analysis, users demands analysis using integrated information system architecture, system design using integrated information system architecture, system implementation, and system maintenance.

  12. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for posting hazardous materials into and out of an enclosure, such as a glovebox, through a port in a wall of the enclosure. The port is normally closed by a door which cooperates with a removable end closure, on a container or the like when the latter is presented to and secured at the port. The container is secured in position at the port by means of a rotatable coupling ring. A single interlock ensures that the door cannot be opened in the absence of a container at the port and also that the container cannot be removed from the port when the door is open. In place of the container, a glove secured to a rigid sleeve may be used to enable the operator to perform a work function within the glovebox. (author)

  13. hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bayón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we revise the classical formulation of the problem depriving it of the concepts that are superfluous from the mathematical point of view. We observe that a number of power stations can be substituted by a single one that behaves equivalently to the entire set. Proceeding in this way, we obtain a variational formulation in its purest sense (without restrictions. This formulation allows us to employ the theory of calculus of variations to the highest degree. We then calculate the equivalent minimizer in the case where the cost functions are second-order polynomials. We prove that the equivalent minimizer is a second-order polynomial with piece-wise constant coefficients. Moreover, it belongs to the class C1. Finally, we present various examples prompted by real systems and perform the proposed algorithms using Mathematica.

  14. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  15. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    A posting system for the movement of equipment, such as a manipulator, into and out of an enclosure e.g. a cell or glovebox, for toxic or radioactive materials has the manipulator arranged within a collapsible bellows-like container with an end of the container cooperating with a port entry to the enclosure. The collapsible container isolates the manipulator from the environment outside the enclosure and allows the manipulator to enter and leave the contaminated enclosure without breach of the containment. A particular construction of cell for use with radioactive material is described, having a thick wall of shielding material such as concrete provided with a door normally closed by a Pb shutter and having a cylindrical gamma shield block located over the shutter on the exterior of the wall. (author)

  16. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Goessler, W. [Institut fuer Chemie-Analytische Chemie, Karl-Franzens-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 1, 8010 Graz (Austria); Nermell, B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, E.C. [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Loennerdal, B. [Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); El Arifeen, S. [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), GPO Box 128, Dhaka 100 (Bangladesh); Vahter, M., E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 {mu}g/kg) with a median of 1.1 {mu}g/kg (approximately 0.5 {mu}g/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 {mu}g/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  17. Factors influencing intestinal cadmium uptake in pregnant Bangladeshi women-A prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, M.; Goessler, W.; Nermell, B.; Ekstroem, E.C.; Loennerdal, B.; El Arifeen, S.; Vahter, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies indicate that zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) status, in addition to iron (Fe) status, affect gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium (Cd), an environmental pollutant that is toxic to kidneys, bone and endocrine systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate how various nutritional factors influence the uptake of Cd in women, particularly during pregnancy. The study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh, where malnutrition is prevalent and exposure to Cd via food appears elevated. The uptake of Cd was evaluated by associations between erythrocyte Cd concentrations (Ery-Cd), a marker of ongoing Cd exposure, and concentrations of nutritional markers. Blood samples, collected in early pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Ery-Cd varied considerably (range: 0.31-5.4 μg/kg) with a median of 1.1 μg/kg (approximately 0.5 μg/L in whole blood) in early pregnancy. Ery-Cd was associated with erythrocyte manganese (Ery-Mn; positively), plasma ferritin (p-Ft; negatively), and erythrocyte Ca (Ery-Ca; negatively) in decreasing order, indicating common transporters for Cd, Fe and Mn. There was no evidence of Cd uptake via Zn transporters, but the association between Ery-Cd and p-Ft seemed to be dependent on adequate Zn status. On average, Ery-Cd increased significantly by 0.2 μg/kg from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, apparently due to up-regulated divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). In conclusion, intestinal uptake of Cd appears to be influenced either directly or indirectly by several micronutrients, in particular Fe, Mn and Zn. The negative association with Ca may suggest that Cd inhibits the transport of Ca to blood.

  18. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  19. NJOY system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Choong Sup; Kim, Jung Do

    1998-01-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is used to convert evaluated nuclear data in ENDF format into forms useful for applications. The NJOY code is a modular computer code designed to read evaluated data in ENDF format, transform the data in various ways, and output the results as libraries designed to be used in various applications. The modules are essentially independent programs, and they communicate with each other using input and output files, plus a very few common variables. The NJOY code can work with neutrons, photons, and charged particles. The evaluated nuclear data are reconstructed to pointwise cross sections from ENDF resonance parameters and interpolation schemes. The pointwise data can be Doppler broadened to the temperatures requested by users. The data in unresolved energy range can be computed to effective self-shielded pointwise cross sections. The cross sections and scattering matrices for free or bound scatterers in the thermal energy range are able to be produced. The self-shielded multigroup cross sections, group-to-group scattering matrices, photon-production matrices, and charged-particle cross sections from pointwise data can be generated for various application codes

  20. Chem systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that world styrene demand, paced by a near doubling of combined requirements in East Asia and Oceania, could reach 19.3 million metric tons by 2000, an average growth rate of 3.7%/year. So concludes Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., in a study of world styrene markets through the end of the century. Pacific Rim styrene production and consumption throughout the 1990s are predicted to make up increasingly larger shares of world markets, while demand and production lag in the U.S. and western Europe. Demand and capacity in other parts of the world will grow in real terms, increasing combined market shares only slightly. Most of the increase will be driven by demand in East Asia and Oceania, where consumption by century's end is expected to increase 4.48 million metric tons from 2.25 million tons in 1991. Meantime, Japan's styrene demand in 2000 is projected at 2.64 million tons, a 500,000 ton increase from 1991 demand but a net market loss of 1.9%

  1. El concepto de la Primera Causa en el Segundo Libro del Periphyseon de Juan Escoto Eriúgena

    OpenAIRE

    Kijewska, A. (Agnieszka)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Eriugenian concept of the First Cause as developed in Book Two of his Periphyseon. The paper begins with Eriugena’s fourfold division of nature, and focuses upon his concept of the second form of nature, which consists of primordial causes. Eriugena’s view that God the Father has established in the Beginning, i.e. in His Son, the primordial causes of everything that are at once eternal and created, has led to many misconceptions and accusations of panth...

  2. Access to Internet of People With Disabilities Engellilerin Internet'e Erişimi Üzerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatoş Subaşıoğlu

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has producted a revolution in the world of Internet and computer technology for many disabled people. Especially, with the help of adaptive technology, for example, deaf-blind people can communicate over telephone networks and severely visaully impaired people can read a computer screen directly with the help of speech synthesis or automatically generated Braille displays. People with physical disabilities can use personel computers by blowing. If s even possible to control computers by using the voice. However, currently, the largest problem is that WWW pages are increasingly developed with pictures, images, audio and video clips carrying much of the information. For this reason, the aims of this article are twofold: first, to give some information about products of adaptive technologies for people with disabilities, and second, to give some design examples about Web pages for this people. Son 10 yıl içinde, engellilere yönelik Internet ve bilgisayar teknolojisi alanında yeni bir oluşum yaşanmaya başlandı. Özellikle uyarlanmış teknoloji yardımıyla örneğin, sağır-kör insanlar telefon ağları ile iletişim kurabilmekte ve birçok görme engelli insan konuşma sentezi aracılığı ile bir bilgisayar ekranını ya da otomatik olarak üretilmiş Braille görüntülerini okuyabilmektedir. Fiziksel engelliler, üfleyerek bilgisayarlarını kullanabilmekte, hatta ses ile bilgisayarı kullanmak mümkün olmaktadır. Ancak, günümüzde en büyük sorun, WWW say falarının yoğunlukla resimler, görüntüler, ses ve video küpleri ile geliştirilmekte olduğudur. Bu nedenle bu makalenin amacı, öncelikle engellilere yönelik uyarlanmış teknoloji ürünleri alanında bilgi vermek ve bu bireylere yönelik Web tasarım örnekleri sunmaktır.

  3. 78 FR 57680 - Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Allegheny County, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... employee adversely affected by the abandonment shall be protected under Oregon Short Line Railroad.... 91 (1979). To address whether this condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for..., if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental...

  4. Mechanical and biotechnical fractionating of field biomasses into different fibre fractions; Peltobiomassojen mekaaninen ja biotekninen fraktiointi eri kuitujakeisiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilppunen, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Sohlo, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Separation processes for energy and fibre fractions, predominantly those for seed flax, using traditional pulp classifiers and the new pressure classifier process were studied in the wet-separation part of the project. A combined plant fibre further-refining process, based on mechanical and biotechnical separation, operating on the basis of fibre length, was developed on the basis of dry and wet fraction tests. (orig.)

  5. SU iÇERiSiNDE AGIRLIGI DiKKATE ALINAN BiR KOLONUN BURKULMA ANALiZi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz PEKBEY

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available EULER, 1744 yılında sabit enine kesitli çubukların kritik burkulma kuvvetlerini, çubuk agırlıgını ihmal ederek hesaplamıstır. Daha ekonomik çubuklar için, çubuk agırlıgının da dikkate alınması ve çözüm yapılması gerekir. Literatürde, 10 degisik mesnetleme durumu için çubuk agırlıgı da dikkate alınarak hava ortamında kritik burkulma kuvvetleri ve asimptotik burkulma kuvvetleri hesaplanmıs ve bu kuvvetlerden hareketle 4 mesnetleme durumu için sudaki kritik kuvvetlerin bulunabilecegi, diger 6 mesnetleme durumuna ait sudaki kritik burkulma kuvvetlerinin ise hava ortamındakinden hesaplanamayacagı belirtilmistir. Bu çalısmada, bugüne kadar kritik burkulma kuvvetleri hesaplanmamıs, su içerisinde, üst ucu ankastre mesnetli alt ucu ankastreli kayıcı mesnetli çubuk için çözüm verilmistir.

  6. H11911: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Lake Erie, Detroit and St, Clair Rivers, Michigan, 2008-10-15

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. Western Lake Erie Shore Study, Ohio. Reconnaissance Report (Stage 1) on Flood Protection and Shoreline Erosion Control,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The indoor games and sports activities are not inclusive. The affected area for the recreation and open space may be defined as the distance which...kAFN- 7tA F cGFV,&7- T\\ANGtP t -7-%cz.n, 𔃻oA 1 ka EAFoo.E. ovCT\\), AR~E FFKOwM TE, ,s vjiTR 1--o 5WS)"-E, T-"E Ak-T\\)Ad.. 1EEAC,\\ S\\- OPV IS LE 7S JV

  8. Klasik İslam Geleneğinde Taklidi İmanın Değeri

    OpenAIRE

    Ünverdi, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The value of faith of taqlid is one of the subjects discussed in classical Islamic tradition. The center of these debates which discusses functioning of the mind, autonomy of people and relationship of faith in information is at the necessity of rational justification and the verdict of muqallid?s faith. The Mutazilite, which is rational face of traditional Islam, and the Kharijites have agreed that taqlid is superstition. Their estimation rely on the principle of ?murtekib-i kebire.? On the ...

  9. Rüyâ'nın Delil Değeri ve İstihâre

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Paçacı

    2016-01-01

    Dream is a phenomenon come into existence with the fi rst man and attractspeople from ancient times. Although it was the subject of researches ofearly times, the biological content, functioning and causality of dreams couldnot be completely understood. Dream is divided into three types as divine, satanicand physiological i n Islamic literature. 1. Divine dream: It is a dream thatshown by Allah to his servants. This dream is also called; a loyal dream, a gooddream, mubessirat/evangelist. 2. Sa...

  10. Comparing NET and ERI standardized exam scores between baccalaureate graduates who pass or fail the NCLEX-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondmass, Mary D; Moonie, Sheniz; Kowalski, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, nursing programs are commonly evaluated by their graduates success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). The purpose of this paper is to describe a change in NCLEX-RN success rates following the addition of standardized exams throughout our program's curriculum, and to compare these exam scores between graduates who pass NCLEX-RN and those who do not. Our results indicate an 8.5% change (p pass rate from our previous 5-year mean pass rate, and significant differences in standardized test scores for those who pass the NCLEX-RN compared to those who do not (p pass NCLEX-RN than not.

  11. Review of Reports on Lake Erie-Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix E. Impact Assessment and Environment Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    Ostrya virginiana ), American hornbeam or blue beech (Carpinus caroliana), American elm (Ulnus americana), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple...921 4, 13, 780 Pears 7, 519, lt7 (,, 58t, 058 Cherries 7, 75,727 7, 147, 129 Plums and prunes 2. 892.85i 2, 352, 488 Grapes b, 874, 9e,) 8, t 2 4...drained soils), 10 percent peaches, 15-20 percent grapes, and 5 percent plums and prunes . A high per- centage of new plantings, up to 20 percent for

  12. Newly devised infrared radiometer (ERI type IR ground scanner) and the surface temperature of the Mihara crater, O-shima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimozuru, D [Earthquake Res. Inst., Univ. of Tokyo; Kagiyama, T

    1976-10-01

    The infrared radiometer, a remote sensing tool, can be successfully used to measure the surface temperature of a volcanic or geothermal area. Many of these devices are available commercially for industrial use but their application to volcano observations is limited due to a wide field of view which prohibits detailed examination of specific points. A commercial radiometer was mounted on a balloon theodolite with an electrically driven rotating base. A telescope was attached to the radiometer to permit monitoring of the field of view. Radiometer output can be recorded either on a magnetic tape data recorder or a strip chart recorder. The device is also useful for continuous monitoring of the temperature of a vent or fumarole. The observed temperatures are dependent upon the wave length of actual spatial temperature distribution, the field of view and the scanning speed. Detailed information of both a theoretical and an experimental nature is provided. The improved radiometer was utilized to observe surface temperature in the caldera of Miharayama, Oshima in March, 1976. It was found that the vent temperature was markedly lower than had previously been recorded, as was the average surface temperature.

  13. 78 FR 46315 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 247-Erie, Pennsylvania, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, GE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...; pressure valves; drain valves; fuel injectors; cock valve handles; fuel injector nozzles; bearings; tapered... locomotives and off-highway vehicles; drill equipment; marine equipment; stationary equipment; diesel...; brackets; latch assemblies; supports; blocks; bracket assemblies; holders; conduit assemblies; diesel...

  14. Homme kell 19 algab EKA galeriis Norra eri väljapanek "(A guide to) constructing the universe"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Kuraatoriduo Rakett koosseisus Karolin Tampere ja Ase Lovgren norra noorema kunsti ja muusikaga.12. III toimuva norra video- ja performance'i-õhtu esinejad loetletud, vt. ka lk. 24. Projekti II osa 19. märtsil Ku-Ku klubis (bändid ja dj-d)

  15. H11915: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Lake Erie, Detroit and St, Clair Rivers, Michigan, 2008-08-06

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H11913: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Lake Erie, Detroit and St, Clair Rivers, Michigan, 2008-09-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. System safety education focused on system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  18. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  19. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This report presents the system design for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The design was directed toward the immediate automation of airport data for use in traffic load predicti...

  20. System specifications for the NDS Dictionary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-09-01

    The NDS Dictionary System is a computerized system for maintaining and distributing the EXFOR dictionaries and for preparing internal versions of these dictionaries for use in the NDS EXFOR System and other NDS systems. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS Dictionary System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. This manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; this is the version of January 1979

  1. A New Method of 3D Facial Expression Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animating expressive facial animation is a very challenging topic within the graphics community. In this paper, we introduce a novel ERI (expression ratio image driving framework based on SVR and MPEG-4 for automatic 3D facial expression animation. Through using the method of support vector regression (SVR, the framework can learn and forecast the regression relationship between the facial animation parameters (FAPs and the parameters of expression ratio image. Firstly, we build a 3D face animation system driven by FAP. Secondly, through using the method of principle component analysis (PCA, we generate the parameter sets of eigen-ERI space, which will rebuild reasonable expression ratio image. Then we learn a model with the support vector regression mapping, and facial animation parameters can be synthesized quickly with the parameters of eigen-ERI. Finally, we implement our 3D face animation system driving by the result of FAP and it works effectively.

  2. Engineering Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  3. Quality management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-15

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  4. Quality management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  5. Earth Radiation Imbalance from a Constellation of 66 Iridium Satellites: Climate Science Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, W.; Chiu, CJ. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The "global warming hiatus" since the 1998 El Nino, highlighted by Meehl et al., and the resulting "missing energy" problem highlighted by Trenberth et al., has opened the door to a more fundamental view of climate change than mere surface air temperature. That new view is based on two variables which are strongly correlated: the rate of change of ocean heat content d(OHC)/dt; and Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI) at the top of the atmosphere, whose guesstimated range is 0.4 to 0.9 Watts per square meters (this imbalance being mainly due to increasing CO2). The Argo float array is making better and better measurements of OHC. But existing satellite systems cannot measure ERI to even one significant digit. So, climate model predictions of ERI are used in place of real measurements of it, and the satellite data are tuned to the climate model predictions. Some oceanographers say "just depend on Argo for understanding the global warming hiatus and the missing energy", but we don't think this is a good idea because d(OHC)/dt and ERI have different time scales and are never perfectly correlated. We think the ERB community needs to step up to measuring ERI correctly, just as oceanographers have deployed Argo to measure OHC correctly. This talk will overview a proposed constellation of 66 Earth radiation budget instruments, hosted on Iridium satellites, that will actually be able to measure ERI to at least one significant digit, thus enabling a crucial test of climate models. This constellation will also be able to provide ERI at two-hourly time scales and 500-km spatial scales without extrapolations from uncalibrated narrowband geostationary instruments, using the highly successful methods of GRACE to obtain spatial resolution. This high time resolution would make ERI a synoptic variable like temperature, and allow studies of ERI's response to fast-evolving phenomena like dust storms and hurricanes and even brief excursions of Total Solar Irradiance. Time permitting, we

  6. Protecting Information in Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of Systems (SoS) are dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, the SoS paradigm has a strong impact on system interoperability and on the

  7. A security framework for systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.; Etalle, S.

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  8. A Security Framework for Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  9. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  10. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  11. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  12. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  13. Superspeed Maglev system Transrapid. System decription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L [Thyssen Henschel AG,, Maglev Transportation Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is a track-bound transportation system for passengern and priority freight transport. The transrapid trainsets are composed of self-sufficient vehicle section coupled together. The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is capable of revenue operation at speeds of 100 to 500 km/h. Besides the description of the system concept and system characteristics safety and availability are discussed. (HW)

  14. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  15. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  16. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-07-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centres for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received by the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made

  17. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attree, P M; Smith, P M

    1982-06-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received of the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; the first version was issued in July 1979. (author)

  18. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  19. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  20. Multiobjective Collaborative Optimization of Systems of Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolf, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    ...; in other words an inefficient design of the system of systems. This thesis examines the simultaneous design of several ships using the sea base concept as an example application of a network of ships working together...