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Sample records for erhic interaction region

  1. Interaction Region Design for the Electron-Ion Collider eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Montag, Christoph; Tepikian, Steven; Wang, Dong

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate the study of collisions between 10 GeV polarized electrons and 100 GeV/u heavy ions or 250 GeV polarized protons at high luminosities, adding a 10 GeV electron storage ring to the existing RHIC complex has been proposed. The interaction region of this electron-ion collider eRHIC has to provide the required low-beta focusing, while simultaneously accomodating the synchrotron radiation fan generated by beam separation close to the interaction point, which is particularly challenging. The latest design status of the eRHIC interaction region is presented.

  2. High luminosity electron-hadron collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Aschenauer, E.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M..; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; He, P.; Hao, Y.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Skaritka, J.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Pozdeyev, E.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2011-03-28

    We present the design of a future high-energy high-luminosity electron-hadron collider at RHIC called eRHIC. We plan on adding 20 (potentially 30) GeV energy recovery linacs to accelerate and to collide polarized and unpolarized electrons with hadrons in RHIC. The center-of-mass energy of eRHIC will range from 30 to 200 GeV. The luminosity exceeding 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be achieved in eRHIC using the low-beta interaction region with a 10 mrad crab crossing. We report on the progress of important eRHIC R&D such as the high-current polarized electron source, the coherent electron cooling, ERL test facility and the compact magnets for recirculation passes. A natural staging scenario of step-by-step increases of the electron beam energy by building-up of eRHIC's SRF linacs is presented.

  3. Novel deflecting cavity design for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2011-07-25

    To prevent significant loss of the luminosity due to large crossing angle in the future ERL based Electron Ion Collider at BNL (eRHIC), there is a demand for crab cavities. In this article, we will present a novel design of the deflecting/crabbing 181 MHz superconducting RF cavity that will fulfil the requirements of eRHIC. The quarter-wave resonator structure of the new cavity possesses many advantages, such as compact size, high R{sub t}/Q, the absence of the same order mode and lower order mode, and easy higher order mode damping. We will present the properties and characteristics of the new cavity in detail. As the accelerator systems grow in complexity, developing compact and efficient deflecting cavities is of great interest. Such cavities will benefit situations where the beam line space is limited. The future linac-ring type electron-ion collider requires implementation of a crab-crossing scheme for both beams at the interaction region. The ion beam has a long bunches and high rigidity. Therefore, it requires a low frequency, large kicking angle deflector. The frequency of the deflecting mode for the current collider design is 181 MHz, and the deflecting angle is {approx}5 mrad for each beam. At such low frequency, the previous designs of the crab cavities will have very large dimensions, and also will be confronted by typical problems of damping the Lower Order Mode (LOM), the Same Order Mode (SOM), and as usual, the Higher Order Modes (HOM). In this paper we describe how one can use the concept of a quarter-wave (QW) resonator for a deflecting/crabbing cavity, and use its fundamental mode to deflect the beam. The simplicity of the cavity geometry and the large separation between its fundamental mode and the first HOM make it very attractive.

  4. eRHIC Beam Scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-22

    We propose using beam scrubbing to mitigate the electron cloud e ect in the eRHIC. The bunch number is adjusted below the heat load limit, then it increases with the reduced secondary electron yield resulted from the beam scrubbing, up to the design bunch number. Since the electron density threshold of beam instability is lower at the injection, a preliminary injection scrubbing should go rst, where large chromaticity can be used to keep the beam in the ring for scrubbing. After that, the beam can be ramped to full energy, allowing physics scrubbing. Simulations demonstrated that with beam scrubbing in a reasonable period of time, the eRHIC baseline design is feasible.

  5. Nuclear theory summer meeting on ERHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.; Venugopalan, R.

    2000-06-26

    The eRHIC BNL summer meeting was held at BNL from June 26 to July 14, 2000. The meeting was very informal with only two talks a day and with ample time for discussions and collaborations. Several of the theory talks focused on the issue of saturation of parton distributions at small x--whether screening effects have already been seen at HERA, the relation of saturation to shadowing, and on the various signatures of a proposed novel state of matter--the Colored Glass Condensate--that may be observed at eRHIC. A related topic that was addressed was that of quantifying twist four effects, and on the relevance of these for studies of energy loss. Other issues addressed were coherence effects in vector meson production, anti-quark distributions in nuclei, and the relevance of saturation for heavy ion collisions. There were, also, talks on the Pomeron--the relevance of instantons and the non-perturbative gluon condensate to constructing a Pomeron. On the spin physics side, there were talks on predictions for inclusive distributions at small x. There were also talks on Skewed Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering. Though most of the talks were theory talks, there were also several important experimental contributions. A preliminary detector design for eRHIC was presented. Studies for semi-inclusive measurements at eRHIC were also presented. The current status of pA scattering studies at RHIC was also discussed. The eRHIC summer meeting provided a vigorous discussion of the current status of eRHIC studies. It is hoped that this document summarizing these discussions will be of use to all those interested in electron nucleus and polarized electron-polarized proton studies.

  6. eRHIC ERL modeling in Zgoubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This Note discusses on-going work regarding the modeling of eRHIC ERL in the ray-tracing code Zgoubi. The various pieces of the recirculator puzzle, their optical properties and their assemblage into an operational input data file in are addressed. The Note reports in particular on preparatory stages toward extensive end-to-end 6D polarized electron bunch transport simulations, which yield methods, as well a series of preliminary qualitative outcomes, discussed as well.

  7. Polarized proton beam for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    RHIC has provided polarized proton collisions from 31 GeV to 255 GeV in the past decade. To preserve polarization through numerous depolarizing resonances through the whole accelerator chain, harmonic orbit correction, partial snakes, horizontal tune jump system and full snakes have been used. In addition, close attentions have been paid to betatron tune control, orbit control and beam line alignment. The polarization of 60% at 255 GeV has been delivered to experiments with 1.8×1011 bunch intensity. For the eRHIC era, the beam brightness has to be maintained to reach the desired luminosity. Since we only have one hadron ring in the eRHIC era, existing spin rotator and snakes can be converted to six snake configuration for one hadron ring. With properly arranged six snakes, the polarization can be maintained at 70% at 250 GeV. This paper summarizes the effort and plan to reach high polarization with small emittance for eRHIC.

  8. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  9. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  10. ERL with non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient lattice for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The proposed eRHIC electron-hadron collider uses a "non-scaling FFAG" (NS-FFAG) lattice to recirculate 16 turns of different energy through just two beam lines located in the RHIC tunnel. This paper presents lattices for these two FFAGs that are optimized for low magnet field and to minimize total synchrotron radiation across the energy range. The higher number of recirculations in the FFAG allows a shorter linac (1.322GeV) to be used, drastically reducing cost, while still achieving a 21.2 GeV maximum energy to collide with one of the existing RHIC hadron rings at up to 250GeV. eRHIC uses many cost-saving measures in addition to the FFAG: the linac operates in energy recovery mode, so the beams also decelerate via the same FFAG loops and energy is recovered from the interacted beam. All magnets will be constructed from NdFeB permanent magnet material, meaning chillers and large magnet power supplies are not needed. This paper also describes a small prototype ERL-FFAG accelerator that will test all of these technologies in combination to reduce technical risk for eRHIC.

  11. Conceptual design of a quadrupole magnet for eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    eRHIC is a proposed upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, which would allow collisions of up to 21 GeV polarized electrons with a variety of species from the existing RHIC accelerator. eRHIC employs an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and an FFAG lattice for the arcs. The arcs require open-midplane quadrupole magnets of up to 30 T/m gradient of good field quality. In this paper we explore initial quadrupole magnet design concepts based on permanent magnetic material which allow to modify the gradient during operation.

  12. Frequency choice of eRHIC SRF linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-05

    eRHIC is a FFAG lattice-based multipass ERL. The eRHIC SRF linac has been decided to change from 422 MHz 5-cell cavity to 647 MHz 5-cell cavity. There are several considerations affecting the frequency choice for a high-current multipass-ERL: the beam structure, bunch length, energy spread, beam-break-up (BBU) threshold, SRF loss considerations. Beyond the physics considerations, cost and complexity or risk is an important consideration for the frequency choice, especially when we are designing a machine to be built in a few years. Although there are some benefits of using a 422 MHz cavity for eRHIC ERL, however, there are some very critical drawbacks, including lack of facilities to fabricate a 422 MHz 5-cell cavity, very few facilities to process such a cavity and no existing facility to test the cavity anywhere. As the cavity size is big and its weight is large, it is difficult to handle it during fabrication, processing and testing, and no one has experience in this area. As the cavity size is large, the cryomodule becomes big as well. All of these considerations drive the risk of building eRHIC ERL with 422 MHz cavities to a very high level. Therefore, a decision was made to change the frequency of main linac to be 647 MHz 5-cell cavities. This note will compare these two linacs: 422MHz 5-cell cavity linac and 647Mz 5-cell cavity SRF linac, from both practical point of view and physics point of view.

  13. pp Interaction Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    This group served as the interface between experimenters and accelerator physicists. A start was made on a portfolio of IR's, building on previous studies including the Reference Designs Study (RDS). The group also looked at limits on time structure and luminosity, the clustering of IR's, external beams of secondary particles from the IR's, and various operational issues connected with the IR's. Designs were developed for interaction regions for RDS-B (individual cryostats for two 5-T rings, separated by 60 cm vertically). For a fixed geometry, the quadrupoles have been tuned over a range to give a factor of 100 variation in β* (1 to 100 m) and thus in luminosity; an even larger variation may well be possible. Variation of the minimum β* with free space between the quadrupole triplets, for a quad strength of 280 T/m and under the constraint of fixed chromaticity, showed a factor of five decrease in maximum luminosity in going from a high luminosity region with +-20 m free space to a small-angle region with +-100 m. Similar variants of the RDS-A IR were also found

  14. ERL-BASED LEPTON-HADRON COLLIDERS: eRHIC AND LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two hadron-ERL colliders are being proposed. The Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) plans to collide the high-energy protons and heavy ions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with 60-GeV polarized electrons or positrons. The baseline scheme for this facility adds to the LHC a separate recirculating superconducting (SC) lepton linac with energy recovery, delivering a lepton current of 6.4mA. The electron-hadron collider project eRHIC aims to collide polarized (and unpolarized) electrons with a current of 50 (220) mA and energies in the range 5–30 GeV with a variety of hadron beams— heavy ions as well as polarized light ions— stored in the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL. The eRHIC electron beam will be generated in an energy recovery linac (ERL) installed inside the RHIC tunnel.

  15. The ERL-based Design of Electron-Hadron Collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, Vadim [et al.

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments of the ERL-based design of future high-luminosity electron-hadron collider eRHIC focused on balancing technological risks present in the design versus the design cost. As a result a lower risk design has been adopted at moderate cost increase. The modifications include a change of the main linac RF frequency, reduced number of SRF cavity types and modified electron spin transport using a spin rotator. A luminosity-staged approach is being explored with a Nominal design ($L \\sim 10^{33} {\\rm cm}^2 {\\rm s}^{-1}$) that employs reduced electron current and could possibly be based on classical electron cooling, and then with the Ultimate design ($L \\gt 10^{34} {\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$) that uses higher electron current and an innovative cooling technique (CeC). The paper describes the recent design modifications, and presents the full status of the eRHIC ERL-based design.

  16. Interaction region magnets for VLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sen-Gupta, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    The interaction region (IR) magnets for the proposed Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) require high gradient quadrupoles and high field dipoles for high luminosity performance. Moreover, the IR magnets for high energy colliders and storage rings must operate in an environment where the amount of energy deposited on superconducting coils is rather large. In the case of doublet IR optics with flat beams, the design of the first 2-in-1 quadrupole defines the geometry and pole tip field in this and other IR magnets. This paper will present a novel design of this magnet that allows a very small separation between the two apertures. A brief discussion of the conceptual magnetic design of this and other magnets for interaction regions is given. The influence of critical current density in superconductor (a higher value of which is most beneficial to high performance IR magnet design) is also discussed. Since high temperature superconductors (HTS) retain most of their critical current density at high fields and at el...

  17. Report of the eRHIC Ring-Ring Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, E. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Parker, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Willeke, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report evaluates the ring-ring option for eRHIC as a lower risk alternative to the linac-ring option. The reduced risk goes along with a reduced initial luminosity performance. However, a luminosity upgrade path is kept open. This upgrade path consists of two branches, with the ultimate upgrade being either a ring-ring or a linac-ring scheme. The linac-ring upgrade could be almost identical to the proposed linac-ring scheme, which is based on an ERL in the RHIC tunnel. This linac-ring version has been studied in great detail over the past ten years, and its significant risks are known. On the other hand, no detailed work on an ultimate performance ring-ring scenario has been performed yet, other than the development of a consistent parameter set. Pursuing the ring-ring upgrade path introduces high risks and requires significant design work that is beyond the scope of this report.

  18. Interaction Region Issues at the NLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Maruyama, T.; /SLAC

    2007-09-26

    Two detector concepts are being investigated for the Next Linear Collider. This paper discusses the current design of the interaction region for one of them, based on a 6 Tesla solenoid and silicon based tracking. Topics include masking layout, backgrounds and the suppression of final quadrupole jitter. All calculations are based on the 1 TeV design parameters.

  19. An FFAG-ERL at Cornell University for eRHIC prototyping and bright-beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstaetter, Georg [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cornell University has prototyped technology essential for any high-brightness electron ERL. This includes a DC gun and an SRF injector Linac with world-record current and normalized brightness in a bunch train, a high-current CW cryomodule for 70 MeV energy gain, a high-power beam stop, and several diagnostics tools for high-current and high-brightness beams, e.g. slid measurements for 6-D phase-space densities, a fast wire scanner for beam profiles, and beam loos diagnostics. All these are now available to equip a one-cryomodule ERL, and laboratory space has been cleared out and is radiation shielded to install this ERL at Cornell. BNL has designed a multi-turn ERL for eRHIC, where beam is transported more than 20 times around the RHIC tunnel. The number of transport lines is minimized by using two non-scaling (NS) FFAG arcs. A collaboration between BNL and Cornell has been formed to investigate the new NS-FFAG optics and the multi-turn eRHIC ERL design by building a 4-turn, one-cryomodule ERL at Cornell. It has a NS-FFAG return loop built with permanent magnets and is meant to accelerate 40 mA beam to 250 MeV.

  20. Network Interactions in the Great Altai Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Aleksandrovich Korshunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the regional economy, an effective interaction between educational institutions in the Great Altai region is needed. The innovation growth can enhancing this interaction. The article explores the state of network structures in the economy and higher education in the border territories of the countries of Great Altai. The authors propose an updated approach to the three-level classification of network interaction. We analyze growing influence of the countries with emerging economies. We define the factors that impede the more stable and multifaceted regional development of these countries. Further, the authors determine indicators of the higher education systems and cooperation systems at the university level between the Shanghai Cooperation Organization countries (SCO and BRICS countries, showing the international rankings of the universities in these countries. The teaching language is important to overcome the obstacles in the interregional cooperation. The authors specify the problems of the development of the universities of the SCO and BRICS countries as global educational networks. The research applies basic scientific logical methods of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, as well as the SWOT analysis method. We have indentified and analyzed the existing economic and educational relations. To promote the economic innovation development of the border territories of the Great Altai, we propose a model of regional network university. Modern universities function in a new economic environment. Thus, in a great extent, they form the technological and social aspects of this environment. Innovative network structures contribute to the formation of a new network institutional environment of the regional economy, which impacts the macro- and microeconomic performance of the region as a whole. The results of the research can help to optimize the regional economies of the border

  1. LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION SCHEME STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; PTITSIN, V.; WEI, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a companion paper the authors showed that the performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at collision energy is limited by the field quality of the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. In this situation, the dynamic aperture can be increased through local multipole correctors. Since the betatron phase advance is well defined for magnets that are located in regions of large beta functions, local corrections can be very effective and robust. They compare possible compensation schemes and propose a corrector layout to meet the required dynamic aperture performance

  2. LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION SCHEME STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; PTITSIN,V.; WEI,J.

    1999-09-07

    In a companion paper the authors showed that the performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at collision energy is limited by the field quality of the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. In this situation, the dynamic aperture can be increased through local multipole correctors. Since the betatron phase advance is well defined for magnets that are located in regions of large beta functions, local corrections can be very effective and robust. They compare possible compensation schemes and propose a corrector layout to meet the required dynamic aperture performance.

  3. The optics of the low energy FFAG cell of the eRHIC collider, using realistic field maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jain, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mahler, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Severance, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-02

    The proposed electron accelerator of the eRHIC complex [1] will use a 1.32 GeV Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) to accelerate the e-bunches to a top energy of 21.2 GeV before they collide with the hadron bunches. The e-bunches attain the 21.2 GeV energy after passing through the ERL 16 times as they recirculate in two rings which are placed alongside the RHIC hadron accelerator. The two rings [1] are made of periodic cells and each cell is made of one focusing and one defocusing permanent magnet qudrupole. In this paper we present the electromagnetic calculations of the 2D and 3D models of a cell which is comprised of two modified Halbach quadrupoles [4], and the optical properties of the cell.

  4. pp Interaction Regions. [Superconducting super collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    This group served as the interface between experimenters and accelerator physicists. A start was made on a portfolio of IR's, building on previous studies including the Reference Designs Study (RDS). The group also looked at limits on time structure and luminosity, the clustering of IR's, external beams of secondary particles from the IR's, and various operational issues connected with the IR's. Designs were developed for interaction regions for RDS-B (individual cryostats for two 5-T rings, separated by 60 cm vertically). For a fixed geometry, the quadrupoles have been tuned over a range to give a factor of 100 variation in ..beta..* (1 to 100 m) and thus in luminosity; an even larger variation may well be possible. Variation of the minimum ..beta..* with free space between the quadrupole triplets, for a quad strength of 280 T/m and under the constraint of fixed chromaticity, showed a factor of five decrease in maximum luminosity in going from a high luminosity region with +-20 m free space to a small-angle region with +-100 m. Similar variants of the RDS-A IR were also found.

  5. LHC Interaction Region Upgrade Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC is starting operation with beam in 2008. The primary goal of CERN and the LHC community is to ensure that the collider is operated efficiently, maximizing its physics reach, and to achieve the nominal performance in the shortest term. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injector complex. A well substantiated and coherent scenario for the first phase of the upgrade, which is foreseen in 2013, is now approved by CERN Council. In this paper, we present the goals and the proposed conceptual solution for the Phase-I upgrade of the LHC interaction regions. This phase relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology, with the target of increasing the luminosity by a factor of 2-3 with respect to the nominal luminosity of 1034 cm-2s-1, while maximising the use of the existing infrastructure.

  6. Radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, D.E. [ed.

    1988-06-10

    The radiation environment in a typical SSC detector has been evaluated using the best available particle production models coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The problems studied include direct charged particle dose, dose inside a calorimeter from the cascades produced by incident photons and hadrons, the flux of neutrons and photons backscattered from the calorimeter into a central cavity, and neutron flux in the calorimeter. The luminosity lifetime at the SSC is dominated by collision losses in the interaction regions, where the luminosity is equivalent to losing an entire full-energy proton beam into the apparatus every six days. The result of an average p-p collision can be described quite simply. The mean charged multiplicity is about 110, and the particles are distributed nearly uniformly in pseudorapidity ({eta}) over all the angles of interest. The transverse momentum distribution is independent of angle, and for our purposes may be written as p{perpendicular}exp(-p{perpendicular}/{beta}). The mean value of p{perpendicular} may be as high as 0.6 GeV/c. Most of the radiation is produced by the very abundant low-p{perpendicular} particles. The dose or neutron fluence produced by individual particles in this energy region are simulated over a wide variety of conditions, and several measurements serve to confirm the simulation results. In general, the response (a dose, fluence, the number of backscattered neutrons, etc.) for an incident particle of momentum p can be parameterized in the form Np{sup {alpha}}, where 0.5 < {alpha}< 1.0. The authors believe most of their results to be accurate to within a factor of two or three, sufficiently precise to serve as the basis for detailed designs.

  7. Wake potentials of the ILC Interaction Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-16

    The vacuum chamber of the ILC Interaction Region (IR) is optimized for best detector performance. It has special shaping to minimize additional backgrounds due to the metal part of the chamber. Also, for the same reason this thin vacuum chamber does not have water cooling. Therefore, small amounts of power, which may be deposited in the chamber, can be enough to raise the chamber to a high temperature. One of the sources of 'heating' power is the electromagnetic field of the beam. This field diffracts by non-regularities of the beam pipe and excites free-propagating fields, which are then absorbed by the pipe wall. In addition we have a heating power of the image currents due to finite conductivity of the metallic wall. We will discuss these effects as updating the previous results. The conclusions of this report are: (1) The amount of the beam energy loss in IR is almost equal to the energy loss in one ILC (TESLA) accelerating cryo-module; (2) Addition energy spread at IR is very small; (3) Spectrum of the wake fields is limited 300 GHz; (4) Average power of the wake fields excited in IR is 30 W for nominal ILC parameters; and (5) Pulse power in this case is 6 kilowatts.

  8. Interaction for Innovation: Comparing Norwegian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Solesvik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Building upon insights from earlier investigations of innovation collaboration from a regional perspective as well as the triple helix perspective, local/regional innovation systems and open innovation approaches, this study explores whether cooperation between firms, universities and government increases the intensity of innovation equally for the capital city and peripheral regions. We investigate whether firms located in the capital region benefit more from public support, cooperation with universities, and cooperation with different stakeholders than firms located in peripheral regions. Using logistic binary regressions, we find that capital region firms are generally not more innovative than those located elsewhere. We also find no effect on innovation from cooperation with universities, although public support is related to engagement in product and process innovations. Our results warn against simple applications of triple helix and open innovation approaches, as many forms of collaboration seem to have little impact on innovation, regardless of regional context.

  9. Solar wind stream interaction regions throughout the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interactions between the fast solar wind from coronal holes and the intervening slower solar wind, leading to the creation of stream interaction regions that corotate with the Sun and may persist for many solar rotations. Stream interaction regions have been observed near 1 AU, in the inner heliosphere (at ˜ 0.3-1 AU) by the Helios spacecraft, in the outer and distant heliosphere by the Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, and out of the ecliptic by Ulysses, and these observations are reviewed. Stream interaction regions accelerate energetic particles, modulate the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays and generate enhanced geomagnetic activity. The remote detection of interaction regions using interplanetary scintillation and white-light imaging, and MHD modeling of interaction regions will also be discussed.

  10. Orbit correction system for the SSC interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Pilat, F.; Ritson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we review our design of the orbit correction system for the SSC interaction regions, and discuss the principles of the local orbit correction at the IP. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  11. NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOMAS, R.; FISCHER, W.; JAIN, A.; LUO, Y.; PILAT, F.

    2004-01-01

    For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability

  12. NON-LINEAR MODELING OF THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOMAS,R.FISCHER,W.JAIN,A.LUO,Y.PILAT,F.

    2004-07-05

    For RHIC's collision lattices the dominant sources of transverse non-linearities are located in the interaction regions. The field quality is available for most of the magnets in the interaction regions from the magnetic measurements, or from extrapolations of these measurements. We discuss the implementation of these measurements in the MADX models of the Blue and the Yellow rings and their impact on beam stability.

  13. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; WEI,J.

    1999-09-02

    The Workshop on LHC Interaction Region Correction Systems was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, on 6 and 7 May 1999. It was attended by 25 participants from 5 institutions. The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at collision energy is limited by the field quality of the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. In three sessions the workshop addressed the field quality of the these magnets, reviewed the principles and efficiency of global and local correction schemes and finalized a corrector layout. The session on Field Quality Issues, chaired by J. Strait (FNAL), discussed the progress made by KEK and FNAL in achieving the best possible field quality in the interaction region quadrupoles. Results of simulation studies were presented that assess the effects of magnetic field errors with simulation studies. Attention was given to the uncertainties in predicting and measuring field errors. The session on Global Correction, chaired by J.-P. Koutchouk (CERN), considered methods of reducing the nonlinear detuning or resonance driving terms in the accelerator one-turn map by either sorting or correcting. The session also discussed the crossing angle dependence of the dynamic aperture and operational experience from LEP. The session on Local Correction, chaired by T. Taylor (CERN), discussed the location, strength and effectiveness of multipole correctors in the interaction regions for both proton and heavy ion operation. Discussions were based on technical feasibility considerations and dynamic aperture requirements. The work on linear corrections in the interaction regions was reviewed.

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WORKSHOP ON LHC INTERACTION REGION CORRECTION SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; WEI, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Workshop on LHC Interaction Region Correction Systems was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, on 6 and 7 May 1999. It was attended by 25 participants from 5 institutions. The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at collision energy is limited by the field quality of the interaction region quadrupoles and dipoles. In three sessions the workshop addressed the field quality of the these magnets, reviewed the principles and efficiency of global and local correction schemes and finalized a corrector layout. The session on Field Quality Issues, chaired by J. Strait (FNAL), discussed the progress made by KEK and FNAL in achieving the best possible field quality in the interaction region quadrupoles. Results of simulation studies were presented that assess the effects of magnetic field errors with simulation studies. Attention was given to the uncertainties in predicting and measuring field errors. The session on Global Correction, chaired by J.-P. Koutchouk (CERN), considered methods of reducing the nonlinear detuning or resonance driving terms in the accelerator one-turn map by either sorting or correcting. The session also discussed the crossing angle dependence of the dynamic aperture and operational experience from LEP. The session on Local Correction, chaired by T. Taylor (CERN), discussed the location, strength and effectiveness of multipole correctors in the interaction regions for both proton and heavy ion operation. Discussions were based on technical feasibility considerations and dynamic aperture requirements. The work on linear corrections in the interaction regions was reviewed

  15. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weathersby, Stephen; /SLAC; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  16. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña Venegas, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark

  17. Machine constraints for experiments in an intermediate luminosity interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, D.

    1989-05-01

    We summarize existing information about the luminosity as a function of clear space between the interaction point and the front of the final-focus triplet, and about the minimum beam pipe dimensions (stay-clear dimensions) in the region. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR CORRECTIONS IN THE RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PILAT, F.; CAMERON, P.; PTITSYN, V.; KOUTCHOUK, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure operationally the linear and non-linear effects of the interaction region triplets, that gives access to the multipole content through the action kick, by applying closed orbit bumps and analyzing tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been extensively tested and used during the RHIC operations in 2001. Measurements were taken at 3 different interaction regions and for different focusing at the interaction point. Non-linear effects up to the dodecapole have been measured as well as the effects of linear, sextupolar and octupolar corrections. An analysis package for the data processing has been developed that through a precise fit of the experimental tune shift data (measured by a phase lock loop technique to better than 10 -5 resolution) determines the multipole content of an IR triplet

  19. Second order chromaticity of the interaction regions in the collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, T.; Syphers, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The collider in the SSC has large second order chromaticity (ξ 2 ) with the interaction regions (IRs) contributing substantially to it. The authors calculate the general expression for ξ 2 in a storage ring and find that it is driven by the first order chromatic beta wave. Specializing to the interaction regions, they show that ξ 2 is a minimum when the phase advance (Δμ IP -IP) between adjacent interaction points is an odd multiple of π/2 and both IRs are identical. In this case the first order chromatic beta wave is confined within the IRs. Conversely, ξ 2 is large either if δμ IP -IP = (2n + 1)π/2 and the two IRs are very far from equality or if the two IRs are equal but Δμ IP -IP = nπ

  20. The FCC-ee Interaction Region Magnet Design

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, Michael; Blondel, Alain; Bogomyagkov, Anton; Holzer, Bernhard; Oide, Katsunobu; Sinyatkin, Sergey; Zimmermann, Frank; van Nugteren, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The design of the region close to the interaction point of the FCC-ee experiments is especially challenging. The beams collide at an angle (+-15 mrad) in the high-field region of the detector solenoid. Moreover, the very low vertical beta_y* of the machine necessitates that the final focusing quadrupoles have a distance from the IP (L*) of around 2 m and therefore are inside the main detector solenoid. The beams should be screened from the effect of the detector magnetic field, and the emittance blow-up due to vertical dispersion in the interaction region should be minimized, while leaving enough space for detector components. Crosstalk between the two final focus quadrupoles, only about 6 cm apart at the tip, should also be minimized.

  1. Automatic beam centering at the SSC interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joestlein, H.

    1984-01-01

    In the SSC interaction regions, the two colliding beams, each only a few microns in size, will have to be centered and maintained in good alignment over many hours, in order to provide the maximum possible luminosity and to minimize off-center beam-beam focussing effects. It is unlikely that sufficiently good alignment can be achieved without some kind of active feedback system, based on the beam-beam interaction rate. This memo describes such a system. In the proposed scheme, one of the beams is moved continuously and in a circular fashion about its mean transverse position. The radius of this motion is approximately 0.01 of the rms beam size at the interaction point. The motion is achieved with two sets of crossed high frequency dipole magnets, one on each side of the interaction region, suitably phased. As a consequence of this motion, the beam-beam interaction rate is modulated in synchronism with the beam motion when the beams are not centered on one another. The amplitude and phase of this modulation yields information on the magnitude and direction of the misalignment between the beams, allowing continuous display and automatic correction of any misalignment

  2. Quadrupole Beam-Based Alignment in the RHIC Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Satogata, J. Ziegler

    2011-03-01

    Continued beam-based alignment (BBA) efforts have provided significant benefit to both heavy ion and polarized proton operations at RHIC. Recent studies demonstrated previously unknown systematic beam position monitor (BPM) offset errors and produced accurate measurements of individual BPM offsets in the experiment interaction regions. Here we describe the algorithm used to collect and analyze data during the 2010 and early 2011 RHIC runs and the results of these measurements.

  3. Symmetric achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Morozov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new symmetry-based concept for an achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design. A specially designed symmetric chromaticity compensation block (CCB induces an angle spread in the passing beam such that it cancels the chromatic kick of the final focusing quadrupoles. Two such CCBs placed symmetrically around an interaction point allow simultaneous compensation of the 1st-order chromaticities and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant 2nd-order aberrations to the particle trajectory. We first develop an analytic description of this approach and explicitly formulate 2nd-order aberration compensation conditions at the interaction point. The concept is next applied to develop an interaction region design for the ion collider ring of an electron-ion collider. We numerically evaluate performance of the design in terms of momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture. The advantages of the new concept are illustrated by comparing it to the conventional distributed-sextupole chromaticity compensation scheme.

  4. Interacting with Compatriots in Russian Regions: the Experience of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radik R. Gimatdinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Work with compatriots promoting the cultural presence of Russia in the world becomes an important element of "soft power" Supporting the preservation and development among compatriots the cultural traditions of the Tatar people as components of ethnic and cultural diversity of Russia, Tatarstan participates in the implementation of the national foreign policy. The Republic of Tatarstan interacts constructively with the Russian Foreign Ministry, Rossotrudnichestvo, takes part in the activities of the Government Commission on Compatriots Abroad. Work with compatriots is carried out by the executive authorities of the republic within a number of regional government programs. The Coordination Council for the Affairs of Compatriots is created in Tatarstan .The sessions of the World Congress of Tatars (WCT are held every five years. The Executive Committee of the WCT is in contact with one and a half hundreds of Tatar organizations in about 40 countries. The most important event in the in the cultural life of Tatar diaspora is celebration of Sabantui. The Days of the Republic of Tatarstan are also held abroad with great success,and they are aimed at strengthening bilateral cooperation together with the promotion of Tatar culture in the world.A special place in the activities of all the Tatar communities takes the honoring and support of the WWII and labor veterans. Work with the young people is the part of interaction with compatriots: youth forums and camps with the study of the Tatar language are organized. Attracting of compatriots to Tatarstan universities is carried out within Russian government programs.The work of strengthening business ties in the framework of the Tatar diaspora is conducted systematically. The interaction with various target groups of compatriots (women, scientists, cultural figures is organized.The authors propose measures of uniting overseas communities of compatriots and exploiting their potential to promote the interests

  5. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen; Østergård, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...... in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring...... a multivariate design space. As case study, we consider building performance simulations of a 15.000 m² educational centre with respect to energy demand, thermal comfort, and daylight....

  6. Power Saving Optimization for Linear Collider Interaction Region Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Optimization of Interaction Region parameters of a TeV energy scale linear collider has to take into account constraints defined by phenomena such as beam-beam focusing forces, beamstrahlung radiation, and hour-glass effect. With those constraints, achieving a desired luminosity of about 2E34 would require use of e + e - beams with about 10 MW average power. Application of the 'travelling focus' regime may allow the required beam power to be reduced by at least a factor of two, helping reduce the cost of the collider, while keeping the beamstrahlung energy loss reasonably low. The technique is illustrated for the 500 GeV CM parameters of the International Linear Collider. This technique may also in principle allow recycling the e + e - beams and/or recuperation of their energy.

  7. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  8. Busbar studies for the LHC interaction region quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, P; Fehér, S; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Orris, D; Sylvester, C D; Tompkins, J C; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab (FNAL) and the Japanese high energy physics lab (KEK) are developing the superconducting quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions (IR) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These magnets have a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m in a 70 mm bore and operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. The IR magnets are electrically interconnected with superconducting busbars, which need to be protected in the event of a quench. Experiments to determine the most suitable busbar design for the LHC IR magnets and the analysis of the data are presented. The main purpose of the study was to find a design that allows the inclusion of the superconducting busbars in the magnet quench protection scheme, thus avoiding additional quench protection circuitry. A proposed busbar design that was tested in these experiments consists of a superconducting cable, which is normally used for the inner layer of the Fermilab IR quadrupoles, soldered to similar Rutherford type cables as a stabilizer. A series of prototypes with varyin...

  9. Quadrupole beam-based alignment in the RHIC interaction regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, J.; Satogata, T.

    2011-03-28

    Continued beam-based alignment (BBA) efforts have provided significant benefit to both heavy ion and polarized proton operations at RHIC. Recent studies demonstrated previously unknown systematic beam position monitor (BPM) offset errors and produced accurate measurements of individual BPM offsets in the experiment interaction regions. Here we describe the algorithm used to collect and analyze data during the 2010 and early 2011 RHIC runs and the results of these measurements. BBA data has been collected over the past two runs for all three of the active experimental IRs at RHIC, updating results from the 2005 run which were taken with incorrectly installed offsets. The technique was successfully applied to expose a systematic misuse of the BPM survey offsets in the control system. This is likely to benefit polarized proton operations as polarization transmission through acceleration ramps depends on RMS orbit control in the arcs, but a quantitative understanding of its impact is still under active investigation. Data taking is ongoing as are refinements to the BBA technique aimed at reducing systematic errors and properly accounting for dispersive effects. Further development may focus on non-triplet BPMs such as those located near snakes, or arc quadrupoles that do not have individually shunted power supplies (a prerequisite for the current method) and as such, will require a modified procedure.

  10. Interactive 3D computer model of the human corneolimbal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvaer, Rikke K; Andreasen, Arne; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    in the limbal region: limbal epithelial crypts (LECs), limbal crypts (LCs) and focal stromal projections (FSPs). In all, eight LECs, 25 LCs and 105 FSPs were identified in the limbal region. The LECs, LCs and FSPs were predominantly located in the superior limbal region with seven LECs, 19 LCs and 93 FSPs...

  11. Estimating the Local Size and Coverage of Interaction Network Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Michael; Barnes, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Interactive problem solving environments, such as intelligent tutoring systems and educational video games, produce large amounts of transactional data which make it a challenge for both researchers and educators to understand how students work within the environment. Researchers have modeled the student-tutor interactions using complex network…

  12. The interaction region of the large detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    luminosity measurements [3]. As significant backscattering of secondary particles occurs from the BCAL surface, the forward region has to follow a design which minimises the backscattering into the tracking and calorimeter systems of the de- tector. The design of the LDC forward region foresees a large space between the.

  13. Interaction of Regional Labour Markets in Russia: Spatial Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Semerikova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the help of spatial regression models and classical models of panel data the study identifies and assesses the various factors’ influence on the unemployment rate in Russian regions from 2005 to 2010. Using the spatial autoregressive lag model the authors revealed that the change (increase or decrease in the level of unemployment in one region leads to its changes in other regions. The use of spatial regression models allowed the researchers to identify the effect of higher education on the unemployment rate in the region: the higher share of the employed with higher education corresponds to the lower unemployment rate. This can’t be revealed with the help of classical models of panel data. In addition, some regional characteristics have nonlinear functional dependence of unemployment rate, which requires the algorithm modification for finding direct, indirect and total effects and their confidence intervals using the Monte Carlo approach

  14. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which si...... a multivariate design space. As case study, we consider building performance simulations of a 15.000 m² educational centre with respect to energy demand, thermal comfort, and daylight....

  15. Monitoring the beam position in the SLC interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denard, J.C.; Bowden, G.B.; Oxoby, G.J.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Ross, M.C.

    1987-03-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider requires special Beam Position Monitors near the Interaction Point (IP) to bring the two beams (e + and e - ) into collision. These beams pass through two monitors on each side of the IP with a short time separation (about 20 and 50 ns). The mechanics of the monitors as well as the electronics will be described. In order to bring beams of several microns diameter into collision at the IP, these monitors measure beam deflection induced by the presence of the opposite beam

  16. Monitoring the beam position in the SLC interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denard, J.C.; Bowden, G.B.; Oxoby, G.J.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Ross, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider requires special Beam Position Monitors near the Interaction Point (IP) to bring the two beams (e/sup +/ and /sup e-/) into collision. These beams pass through two monitors on each side of the IP with a short time separation (about 20 and 50ns). The mechanics of the monitors as well as the electronics will be described. In order to bring beams of several microns diameter into collision at the IP, these monitors measure beam deflection induced by the presence of the opposite beam

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP ORGANIZATIONS AT REGIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Russavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between credit and entrepreneurship organizations aimed at implementation of regional development programs should be improved according to the following main directions: better accessibility to financial resources; broader spectrum of consultancy, particularly business planning related services rendered to the business; more active cooperation with venture funds. Current regional crediting mechanisms are described for Kaluga Region as example.

  18. Nearshore regional behavior of lightning interaction with wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert A. Malinga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of lightning strikes on offshore wind turbines built along coastal and nearshore regions can pose safety concerns that are often overlooked. In this research study the behavior of electrical discharges for wind turbines that might be located in the nearshore regions along the East Coast of China and Sea of Japan were characterized using a physics-based model that accounted for a total of eleven different geometrical and lightning parameters. Utilizing the electrical potential field predicted using this model it was then possible to estimate the frequency of lightning strikes and the distribution of electrical loads utilizing established semi-empirical relationships and available data. The total number of annual lightning strikes on an offshore wind turbine was found to vary with hub elevation, extent of cloud cover, season and geographical location. The annual lightning strike rate on a wind turbine along the nearshore region on the Sea of Japan during the winter season was shown to be moderately larger compared to the lightning strike frequency on a turbine structure on the East Coast of China. Short duration electrical discharges, represented using marginal probability functions, were found to vary with season and geographical location, exhibiting trends consistent with the distribution of the electrical peak current. It was demonstrated that electrical discharges of moderately long duration typically occur in the winter months on the East Coast of China and the summer season along the Sea of Japan. In contrast, severe electrical discharges are typical of summer thunderstorms on the East Coast of China and winter frontal storm systems along the West Coast of Japan. The electrical charge and specific energy dissipated during lightning discharges on an offshore wind turbine was found to vary stochastically, with severe electrical discharges corresponding to large electrical currents of long duration.

  19. Design of the PEP-II Interaction Region Septum Quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Tanabe, J.; Yee, D.; Younger, F.

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II QF2 magnet is one of the final focus quadrupoles for the Low-Energy Ring (LER) and utilizes a septum aperture to accommodate the adjacent High-Energy Ring (HER) beamline. The LER lattice design specification calls for an extremely high field quality for this magnet. A conventional water-cooled copper coil and laminated steel core design was selected to allow adjustment in the excitation. The close proximity between the LER and HER beamlines and the required integrated quadrupole strength result in a moderately high current density septum design. The QF2 magnets are imbedded in a confined region at each end of the BaBar detector, thus requiring a small magnet core cross section. Pole face windings are included in the QF2 design to buck the skew octupole term induced by the solenoidal fringe field that leaks out of the detector. Back-leg windings are included to buck a small dipole component induced by the lack of perfect quadrupole symmetry in this septum design. 2D pole contour optimization and 3D end chamfers are used to minimize harmonic errors; a separate permanent-magnet Harmonic Corrector Ring compensates for remaining field errors. The design methods and approach, 2D and 3D analyses, and the resulting expected magnet performance are described in this paper.

  20. Threshold couplings of phase-conjugate mirrors with two interaction regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beli, M; Petrovi, M; Sandfuchs, O; Kaiser, F

    1998-03-01

    Using the grating-action method, we determine the threshold coupling strengths of three generic examples of phase-conjugate mirrors with two interaction regions: the cat conjugator, the mutually incoherent beam coupler, and the interconnected ring mirror.

  1. Regional Languages on Wikipedia. Venetian Wikipedia’s user interaction over time

    OpenAIRE

    Zelenkauskaite, Asta; Massa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Given that little is known about regional language user interaction practices on Wikipedia, this study analyzed content creation process, user social interaction and exchanged content over the course of the existence of Venetian Wikipedia. Content of and user interactions over time on Venetian Wikipedia exhibit practices shared within larger Wikipedia communities and display behaviors that are pertinent to this specific community. Shared practices with other Wikipedias (eg. English Wikiped...

  2. Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    Gender-specific spatial interactions on Dutch regional labour markets and the gender employment gap, Regional Studies. This paper analyses gender-specific employment rates and the gender employment gap in Dutch municipalities for 2002. The novelty of this analysis is that it takes into account the

  3. Identifying the regional-scale groundwater-surface water interaction on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Guangxin; Xu, Y Jun; Sun, Guangzhi

    2015-11-01

    Assessment on the interaction between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) can generate information that is critical to regional water resource management, especially for regions that are highly dependent on groundwater resources for irrigation. This study investigated such interaction on China's Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 10(4) km(2)) and produced results to assist sustainable regional water management for intensive agricultural activities. Methods of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and statistical analysis were used in this study. One hundred two water samplings (60 from shallow groundwater, 7 from deep groundwater, and 35 from surface water) were collected and grouped into three clusters and seven sub-clusters during the analyses. The PCA analysis identified four principal components of the interaction, which explained 85.9% variance of total database, attributed to the dissolution and evolution of gypsum, feldspar, and other natural minerals in the region that was affected by anthropic and geological (sedimentary rock mineral) activities. The analyses showed that surface water in the upper region of the Sanjiang Plain gained water from local shallow groundwater, indicating that the surface water in the upper region was relatively more resilient to withdrawal for usage, whereas in the middle region, there was only a weak interaction between shallow groundwater and surface water. In the lower region of the Sanjiang Plain, surface water lost water to shallow groundwater, indicating that the groundwater was vulnerable to pollution by pesticides and fertilizers from terrestrial sources.

  4. Coronal mass ejection and stream interaction region characteristics and their potential geomagnetic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, G.M.; Russell, C.T.; Luhmann, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the largest geomagnetic storms are caused by extraordinary increases in the solar wind velocity and/or southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) produced by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their associated interplanetary shocks. However, much more frequent small to moderate increases in solar wind velocity and compressions in the IMF can be caused by either coronal mass ejections or fast/slow stream interactions. This study examines the relative statistics of the magnitudes of disturbances associated with the passage of both interplanetary coronal mass ejections and stream interaction regions, using an exceptionally continuous interplanetary database from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter at 0.7 AU throughout most of solar cycle 21. It is found that both stream interaction and CMEs produce magnetic fields significantly larger than the nominal IMF. Increases in field magnitude that are up to 2 and 3 times higher than the ambient field are observed for stream interaction regions and CMEs, respectively. Both stream interactions and CMEs produce large positive and negative Β z components at 0.7 AU, but only CMEs produce Β z magnitudes greater than 35 nT. CMEs are often associated with sustained periods of positive or negative Β z whereas stream interaction regions are more often associated with fluctuating Β z . CMEs tend to produce larger solar wind electric fields than stream interactions. Yet stream interactions tend to produce larger dynamic pressures than CMEs. Dst predictions based on solar wind duskward electric field and dynamic pressure indicate that CMEs produce the largest geomagnetic disturbances while the low-speed portion of stream interaction regions are least geomagnetically effective. Both stream interaction regions and CMEs contribute to low and moderate levels of activity with relative importance determined by their solar-cycle-dependent occurrence rates

  5. Social Media Interactions and Online Games - Building up New Human Relationships in Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag K Nikolić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are trying to explore possibilities of using online environment, multiplayer gaming culture and social media networks to engage people in the Danube Region around social, multi-cultural and environment initiatives. The Danube Region online community could become a new cultural phenomena, technology mediated, built on human interactions, common interests and cultural heritage which open space for future humancentered social and infrastructural design initiatives. We believe that such social media environment could also be a research playground where people form Danube Region may express their needs and desires as well as to leave the trace of their behavior, significant for further Danube Region development.

  6. Spatiotemporal scales of river-groundwater interaction - The role of local interaction processes and regional groundwater regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Jannis; Huggenberger, Peter; Radny, Dirk; Hammes, Frederik; Hollender, Juliane; Page, Rebecca M; Weber, Stefanie; Bänninger, Dominik; Auckenthaler, Adrian

    2018-03-15

    Drinking water production in the vicinity of rivers not only requires the consideration of different spatiotemporal scales and settings of river-groundwater interaction processes, but also of local and regional scale groundwater regimes. Selected case studies in combination with field-experiments and the setup of high-resolution groundwater flow models enabled the investigation of the spatiotemporal development of microbial (classical fecal indicator bacteria and total cell counts) and selected organic micropollutants in riverine and regional groundwater for different hydrological settings, including low and high flow conditions. Proxy indicators suitable as surrogates for the diverse contaminations in alluvial aquifers with different settings could be identified. Based on the study results, the basic elements for both groundwater management and river restoration concepts are derived, which include the: (1) compilation and evaluation of the "current state" concerning hydrogeology, microbiology and contamination by organic micropollutants, (2) definition of field-experiments to qualitatively assess variability related to the "current state", and (3) quantitative assessment of groundwater regimes, including variability of groundwater components and inflow areas, by application of high-resolution groundwater flow models. The validity and transferability of the concept and inferred controls (specifically drivers and controls of river-groundwater interaction) are tested by evaluations derived from hydraulic relationships to river sections with comparable settings and regional groundwater flow regimes in general. The results of our investigations illustrate the influence of dynamic hydrologic boundary conditions on river-groundwater interaction and of regional scale groundwater flow regimes on the water composition of riverine groundwater systems. It is demonstrated how to identify river sections and their variations with intensified river-groundwater exchange processes

  7. Predicting of regional transpiration at elevated atmospheric CO2: influence of the PBL vegetation interaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    1997-01-01

    A coupled planetary boundary layer (PBL)-vegetation model is used to study the influence of the PBL-vegetation interaction and the ambient CO2 concentration on surface resistance rs and regional transpiration E. Vegetation is described using the big-leaf model in which rs is modeled by means of a

  8. Logic of quench protection assembly for BEPC II interaction region superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fusan; Cheng Jian

    2006-01-01

    Two superconducting magnet complexes are used in BEPC II interaction region. The corresponding quench protection system divides all related faults into two classes and takes different protection actions according to the urgency degree. Since BEPC II has two operating modes and the superconducting magnets use different power supplies in different operating modes, the quench protection system must take the mode switching into consideration. (authors)

  9. Overview of design development of FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082479; Abelleira, Jose; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Benedikt, Michael; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Buffat, Xavier; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy Sven; Martin, Roman; Riegler, Werner; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Boscolo, Manuela; Collamati, Francesco; Nevay, Laurence James; Hofer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The experimental interaction region (EIR) is one of the key areas that define the performance of the Future Circular Collider. In this overview we will describe the status and the evolution of the design of EIR of FCC-hh, focusing on design of the optics, energy deposition in EIR elements, beam-beam effects and machine detector interface issues.

  10. The lignite industry and regional development. Interactions exemplified by the Rhenish mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, Lars; Voigt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Even in times of globalised markets, the German lignite industry retains its local and regional roots. Viewed against this background, the relationship between lignite industry and regional actors, and the interactions between the two play a major role in the perspectives for this branch of Germany's energy sector. Today, the links between the lignite industry and regional bodies are those of a partnership at eye-level. This type of relationship between the industry and regional actors has led to new forms and methods of cooperation at various levels. This is particularly evident in the efforts to re-shape the regional structure, develop the structure of townships and strengthen the economic structure with lignite playing an important role and new partners which are gaining in importance. (orig.)

  11. Examples of scale interactions in local, urban, and regional air quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, C.; De Ridder, K.; Deutsch, F.; Lefebre, F.; Van de Vel, K.

    2008-09-01

    Air quality modeling can help to improve understanding of scale interactions related to meteorology, transport, emissions, formation, removal, and other processes taking place at local, urban, and regional scales. For the local scale, we used the coupling of a street canyon model with a Gaussian dispersion model to study the interactions of emissions and concentrations in urban streets and surrounding urban neighborhoods. The model combination was applied to a city quarter in Ghent, Belgium, and showed that up to 40% of the PM 2.5 concentrations inside street canyons were caused by emissions from the surrounding streets. For the urban scale, the AURORA model has been used successfully in assessments of urban air quality for entire cities or urbanized areas. It has been applied to the Ruhr area in Germany to evaluate the impact of compact or polycentric cities versus the impact of urban sprawl developments. Results for ozone and PM 10 showed that compact city structures may have more adverse effects in terms of air pollution exposure. For the regional scale, the EUROS model was used to study the urban and regional-scale interactions that are important in simulating concentrations of ozone, PM 2.5, and PM 10. It has been applied to study seasonal changes in aerosol concentrations in Flanders. High secondary aerosol concentrations were found during summer. This contribution was related to large contributions from outside the region, showing the importance of the continental scale when studying regional air quality problems.

  12. Improving aerosol interaction with clouds and precipitation in a regional chemical weather modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive aerosol–cloud–precipitation interaction (ACI scheme has been developed under a China Meteorological Administration (CMA chemical weather modeling system, GRAPES/CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System, CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment. Calculated by a sectional aerosol activation scheme based on the information of size and mass from CUACE and the thermal-dynamic and humid states from the weather model GRAPES at each time step, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN are interactively fed online into a two-moment cloud scheme (WRF Double-Moment 6-class scheme – WDM6 and a convective parameterization to drive cloud physics and precipitation formation processes. The modeling system has been applied to study the ACI for January 2013 when several persistent haze-fog events and eight precipitation events occurred.The results show that aerosols that interact with the WDM6 in GRAPES/CUACE obviously increase the total cloud water, liquid water content, and cloud droplet number concentrations, while decreasing the mean diameters of cloud droplets with varying magnitudes of the changes in each case and region. These interactive microphysical properties of clouds improve the calculation of their collection growth rates in some regions and hence the precipitation rate and distributions in the model, showing 24 to 48 % enhancements of threat score for 6 h precipitation in almost all regions. The aerosols that interact with the WDM6 also reduce the regional mean bias of temperature by 3 °C during certain precipitation events, but the monthly means bias is only reduced by about 0.3 °C.

  13. Mechanical Analysis of Fault Interaction in the Puente Hills Region, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. A.; Cooke, M.

    2002-12-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Puente Hills thrust system (PHT) and the Whittier fault has been constructed using published cross sections, surface trace maps [Shaw (1999); Shaw and Suppe (1996); Wright (1991)] and products of the Southern California Earthquake Center. This study utilizes boundary element method models to validate the proposed fault geometry of the Puente Hills region via investigating fault interaction. The interaction between PHT and Whittier faults is evaluated within an elastic half-space under horizontal contraction and evidenced by slip rates on faults, strain energy density (SED), and Navier-Coulomb stress (NC) throughout the host rock. Modeled slip rates are compared to paleoseismic estimates to validate the proposed fault configuration while maps of SED and NC highlight regions of high strain in the host rock and likely faulting. Subsequently, the sensitivity of SED and NC distribution to changes in fault geometry illuminate the nature of fault interaction within this complex system of interacting faults. We explore interaction of faults within the PHT region using two sets of models. The first examines slip rates and SED and NC distribution within a local model of the PHT region while the second set incorporates the PHT faults within the context of the Los Angeles basin. Both sets explore the response of the fault system to systematic addition of faults. Adding faults within regions of high SED and NC does not influence slip on neighboring faults; however the addition of fault surfaces in regions of low/moderate SED and NC reduces slip along adjacent faults. The sensitivity of fault slip rates to direction of remote contraction in the Los Angeles Basin is examined with contraction directions of 036, 017, and 006.5 [Bawden (2001), Argus (1999), and Feigl (1993)]. Furthermore, variations on intersection geometry between the PHT and Whittier fault are explored. Portions of the PHT and Whittier faults show reasonable match to available

  14. The Institutional Models of Participants Interaction as Instrument for Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nataliia M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the processes of interaction of participants at the regional level. The necessity of search and development of directions of cooperation of participants in process of realization of tasks of both sectoral and regional development has been proved. A peculiar philosophy of cooperation has been formulated, it has been proved that it should not appear as some legal formality. The objectives of cooperation within in terms its broad understanding have been defined, taking into consideration the conception of classical marketing complex (4P. The basic theories of cooperation have been reviewed, on the basis of analyzing these it has been found that an intensifying precisely the non-economic conditions of cooperation at regional level is necessary, and also that cooperation and interaction in region should be considered with understanding of function of different parties to the discussed forms of cooperation. A characterization of forms of both intra- and inter-sectoral cooperation of the participants, operating at the regional level, has been developed. The importance of the institutional forms of cooperation in relation to the processes of solving common problems of both the sectoral and the regional development has been substantiated.

  15. The structure and institutions: a regional aspect of interaction in the economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Stepanovich Tarasevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article with the help of two-sector model of the economic system, the interaction of national and regional economy is investigated. This interaction is observed from the position of development of material structure and institutions. As the key structural parameter of an economy, the proportion between sector of excess resources and sector of scarce resources is taken. The situation when sector of excess resources prevails over sector of scarce resources forms structural conditions for the creation of the market institutions. If a sector of excess resources is smaller than a sector of scarce resources, the conditions for the emergence of institutions of government regulation are formed. Two cases are analyzed: the first one concerns the situation of a simple national economy consisting of 2 provisory regions. The second is the case of the national economy consisting of many regions. The authors show that material structure of a total combination of regions defines institutions of the market or state regulation for the national economy as a whole. The institutions formed at the level of the national economy, can support or resist the development of structure of the region. The conditions are observed under which united institutions of the national economy contradict a development of structure of the individual region.

  16. Mapping Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regions of Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Heckler

    Full Text Available Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC is a heterodimeric nitric oxide (NO receptor that produces cyclic GMP. This signaling mechanism is a key component in the cardiovascular system. NO binds to heme in the β subunit and stimulates the catalytic conversion of GTP to cGMP several hundred fold. Several endogenous factors have been identified that modulate sGC function in vitro and in vivo. In previous work, we determined that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI interacts with sGC in a redox-dependent manner in vitro and that PDI inhibited NO-stimulated activity in cells. To our knowledge, this was the first report of a physical interaction between sGC and a thiol-redox protein. To characterize this interaction between sGC and PDI, we first identified peptide linkages between sGC and PDI, using a lysine cross-linking reagent and recently developed mass spectrometry analysis. Together with Flag-immunoprecipitation using sGC domain deletions, wild-type (WT and mutated PDI, regions of sGC involved in this interaction were identified. The observed data were further explored with computational modeling to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between sGC and oxidized PDI. Our results indicate that PDI interacts preferentially with the catalytic domain of sGC, thus providing a mechanism for PDI inhibition of sGC. A model in which PDI interacts with either the α or the β catalytic domain is proposed.

  17. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  18. Network Interaction of Universities in Higher Education System of Ural Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garold Efimovich Zborovsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the analysis are the characteristics and forms of cooperation between universities of Ural Federal District on the basis of their typology. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the necessity and possibility of network interaction between universities of the macro-region. We prove the importance and potential effectiveness of universities network interaction in the terms of socio-economic uncertainty of the development of Ural Federal District and its higher education. Networking interaction and multilateral cooperation are considered as a new type of inter-universities relations, which can be activated and intensified by strengthening the relations of universities with stakeholders. The authors examine certain concrete forms and formats of network interaction and cooperation between universities and discuss selected cases of new type of relations. In it, they see the real and potential innovation of higher school nonlinear development processes. The statements of the article allow to confirm the hypothesis about the reality of strengthening the network interaction in macro-region. It can transform higher education in the driver of socio-economic development of Ural Federal District; ensure the competitiveness of higher education of the macro-region in the Russian and global educational space; enhance its role in the society; become one of the most significant elements of nonlinear models of higher education development in the country. The authors’ research is based on the interdisciplinary methodology including the potential of theoretical sociology, sociology of higher education, economic sociology, management theory, regional economics. The results of the study can form the basis for the improvement of the Ural Federal District’s educational policy.

  19. Module discovery by exhaustive search for densely connected, co-expressed regions in biomolecular interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Colak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational prediction of functionally related groups of genes (functional modules from large-scale data is an important issue in computational biology. Gene expression experiments and interaction networks are well studied large-scale data sources, available for many not yet exhaustively annotated organisms. It has been well established, when analyzing these two data sources jointly, modules are often reflected by highly interconnected (dense regions in the interaction networks whose participating genes are co-expressed. However, the tractability of the problem had remained unclear and methods by which to exhaustively search for such constellations had not been presented.We provide an algorithmic framework, referred to as Densely Connected Biclustering (DECOB, by which the aforementioned search problem becomes tractable. To benchmark the predictive power inherent to the approach, we computed all co-expressed, dense regions in physical protein and genetic interaction networks from human and yeast. An automatized filtering procedure reduces our output which results in smaller collections of modules, comparable to state-of-the-art approaches. Our results performed favorably in a fair benchmarking competition which adheres to standard criteria. We demonstrate the usefulness of an exhaustive module search, by using the unreduced output to more quickly perform GO term related function prediction tasks. We point out the advantages of our exhaustive output by predicting functional relationships using two examples.We demonstrate that the computation of all densely connected and co-expressed regions in interaction networks is an approach to module discovery of considerable value. Beyond confirming the well settled hypothesis that such co-expressed, densely connected interaction network regions reflect functional modules, we open up novel computational ways to comprehensively analyze the modular organization of an organism based on prevalent and largely

  20. Non-stationarities in land-atmosphere-climate interactions in Europe and the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Karin; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere are of major importance for the regional and global climate. Soil moisture thereby plays a key role: availability of water in the soils is one of the drivers of evaporation and thus impacts on temperature and precipitation. Regions of strong soil moisture-atmosphere coupling include the Mediterranean area while in other regions of Europe non-local effects such as the advection of dry (moist) air are more important. However, previous studies have also shown that climate is fundamentally non-stationary and that such non-stationarities occur on various spatial and temporal scales. These studies have mainly focused on sea-surface-atmosphere interactions or circulation-climate interactions. Thus, the question arises whether soil-moisture-atmosphere-climate interactions also show a non-stationary behavior. As a first step, Varimax-rotated s-mode principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce dimensions of soil moisture fields, circulation variables as well as of 2m temperature fields. The resulting PC loadings represent the spatial patterns while the PC scores are the corresponding time coefficients. For the analysis of non-stationarities, the time coefficients of soil moisture and temperature are further used in 30-year running correlation and feedback parameter analyses. Furthermore, correlation analyses are carried out for the circulation variables and soil moisture or temperature, as changes of the atmospheric circulation are a potential source of non-stationarities. All analyses focus on the boreal summer season 1950-2009. Results show substantial non-stationaries in the relationship between soil moisture and temperature in several regions in the European and Mediterranean domain. Depending on the region considered, these changes are accompanied by modifications in different large-scale circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Scandinavia pattern or a high pressure system centered

  1. Emission-line diagnostics of nearby H II regions including interacting binary populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    We present numerical models of the nebular emission from H II regions around young stellar populations over a range of compositions and ages. The synthetic stellar populations include both single stars and interacting binary stars. We compare these models to the observed emission lines of 254 H II regions of 13 nearby spiral galaxies and 21 dwarf galaxies drawn from archival data. The models are created using the combination of the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) code with the photoionization code CLOUDY to study the differences caused by the inclusion of interacting binary stars in the stellar population. We obtain agreement with the observed emission line ratios from the nearby star-forming regions and discuss the effect of binary star evolution pathways on the nebular ionization of H II regions. We find that at population ages above 10 Myr, single-star models rapidly decrease in flux and ionization strength, while binary-star models still produce strong flux and high [O III]/Hβ ratios. Our models can reproduce the metallicity of H II regions from spiral galaxies but we find higher metallicities than previously estimated for the H II regions from dwarf galaxies. Comparing the equivalent width of Hβ emission between models and observations, we find that accounting for ionizing photon leakage can affect age estimates for H II regions. When it is included, the typical age derived for H II regions is 5 Myr from single-star models, and up to 10 Myr with binary-star models. This is due to the existence of binary-star evolution pathways which produce more hot WR and helium stars at older ages. For future reference, we calculate new BPASS binary maximal starburst lines as a function of metallicity, and for the total model population, and present these in Appendix A.

  2. Tropoelastin bridge region positions the cell-interactive C terminus and contributes to elastic fiber assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Baldock, Clair; Tuukkanen, Anne; Roessle, Manfred; Dyksterhuis, Leanne B; Wise, Steven G; Matthews, Jacqueline; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Weiss, Anthony S

    2012-02-21

    The tropoelastin monomer undergoes stages of association by coacervation, deposition onto microfibrils, and cross-linking to form elastic fibers. Tropoelastin consists of an elastic N-terminal coil region and a cell-interactive C-terminal foot region linked together by a highly exposed bridge region. The bridge region is conveniently positioned to modulate elastic fiber assembly through association by coacervation and its proximity to dominant cross-linking domains. Tropoelastin constructs that either modify or remove the entire bridge and downstream regions were assessed for elastogenesis. These constructs focused on a single alanine substitution (R515A) and a truncation (M155n) at the highly conserved arginine 515 site that borders the bridge. Each form displayed less efficient coacervation, impaired hydrogel formation, and decreased dermal fibroblast attachment compared to wild-type tropoelastin. The R515A mutant protein additionally showed reduced elastic fiber formation upon addition to human retinal pigmented epithelium cells and dermal fibroblasts. The small-angle X-ray scattering nanostructure of the R515A mutant protein revealed greater conformational flexibility around the bridge and C-terminal regions. This increased flexibility of the R515A mutant suggests that the tropoelastin R515 residue stabilizes the structure of the bridge region, which is critical for elastic fiber assembly.

  3. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE INTERACTION REGION WORKING GROUP (T1) AT SNOWMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, Thomas W

    2002-09-23

    The Interaction Region Working Group (T1) at Snowmass 2001 reviewed the issues, designs, and plans of existing and proposed colliders, including hadron colliders, e{sup -} hadron colliders, e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} linear colliders, e{sup +}e{sup -} circular colliders, and muon colliders. This document summarizes the IR issues, status, and R&D plans for each project.

  4. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit.

  5. Interaction region of 4x7 GeV asymmetric B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovin, A.N.; Vlasov, A.M.; Zholents, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the organization of the interaction region of a double ring B-factory in the conditions of a comparatively small energy difference between the beams. Besides the well known fact of advantages for the observation of CP violation, this approach gives also the benefit for a storage ring design. The foundations of the approach are given and a variant of the scheme design is presented. 1 ref.; 7 figs

  6. Conserved regions of ribonucleoprotein ribonuclease MRP are involved in interactions with its substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, Olga; Perederina, Anna; Berezin, Igor; Krasilnikov, Andrey S

    2013-08-01

    Ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a ubiquitous and essential site-specific eukaryotic endoribonuclease involved in the metabolism of a wide range of RNA molecules. RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein with a large catalytic RNA moiety that is closely related to the RNA component of RNase P, and multiple proteins, most of which are shared with RNase P. Here, we report the results of an ultraviolet-cross-linking analysis of interactions between a photoreactive RNase MRP substrate and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase MRP holoenzyme. The results show that the substrate interacts with phylogenetically conserved RNA elements universally found in all enzymes of the RNase P/MRP family, as well as with a phylogenetically conserved RNA region that is unique to RNase MRP, and demonstrate that four RNase MRP protein components, all shared with RNase P, interact with the substrate. Implications for the structural organization of RNase MRP and the roles of its components are discussed.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Drug-drug Interactions in the Regional Hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Driton; Tahiri, Zejdush; Bara, Petrit; Hudhra, Klejda; Malaj, Ledian; Jucja, Besnik; Bozalia, Adnan; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-08-01

    Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged ≥18 years (mean age: 57.8±11.2 years; 50.3% women; overall response: 96%) from the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo, during 2011-2013. Potential drug-drug-interactions were assessed and clinical data as well as demographic and socioeconomic information were collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of drug-drug interactions. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as the clinical characteristics, drug-drug interactions were positively and significantly related to older age (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.3-2.8), a lower educational attainment (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9), a longer hospitalization period (OR=2.7, 95%CI=2.1-3.6), presence of three groups of diseases [infectious diseases (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.3-2.4), cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.4-2.6), respiratory diseases (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.2-2.5)], presence of comorbid conditions (OR=3.2, 95%CI=2.3-4.4) and an intake of at least four drugs (OR=5.9, 95%CI=4.6-7.1). Our study provides important evidence on the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the hospitalized patients in the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo. Findings from our study should raise the awareness of decision-makers and policy makers about the prevalence and determinants of drug-drug interactions in the adult population of post-war Kosovo.

  8. POPULATION MOBILITY CHARACTERISTIC: NOTES FROM THE URBAN-URBAN INTERACTION IN SEMARANG METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDHOTILLAH Santi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of cities is characterized by the "pressure" in the form of increasingly dense urban areas, slums, traffic congestion, unemployment in the cities, and the number of illegal housing in the suburbs. This issue demonstrates the need for a balance between urban and rural areas. The balance is obtained through the interaction, and the interaction there is a process of "transfer" in the form of the human population, natural resources, and other supporting components. This view of the phenomenon makes many researchers conducting various studies in the context of the interaction between rural and urban. Furthermore, the study of the interaction of cities such as Salatiga and Semarang are in fact joined in the same region, KSN Kedungsepur. Semarang and surrounding developments as Semarang Metropolitan Region (SMR are the main attraction for the people who are around Semarang that caused an increase in the spatial interactions between Semarang and surrounding areas. From some areas belonging to KSN Kedungsepur, there are only two areas with the status of the city of Semarang city as a centre of KSN and Salatiga. This becomes interesting, unique conditions for studying the phenomenon under study is the interaction of the cities. The method used in this research was a quantitative method with descriptive analysis. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey technique primary by taking a random sample of migrants from Salatiga City and studied at the city of Semarang. The results of the study there were four mobility characteristics formed between Salatiga and Semarang, namely, commuting-boarding, boarding-commuting, boarding and boarding-permanent.

  9. Changes in regional climate extremes as a function of global mean temperature: an interactive plotting framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wartenburger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article extends a previous study Seneviratne et al. (2016 to provide regional analyses of changes in climate extremes as a function of projected changes in global mean temperature. We introduce the DROUGHT-HEAT Regional Climate Atlas, an interactive tool to analyse and display a range of well-established climate extremes and water-cycle indices and their changes as a function of global warming. These projections are based on simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. A selection of example results are presented here, but users can visualize specific indices of interest using the online tool. This implementation enables a direct assessment of regional climate changes associated with global mean temperature targets, such as the 2 and 1.5° limits agreed within the 2015 Paris Agreement.

  10. The Target Model of Strategic Interaction of Kazan Federal University and the Region in the Field of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabdulchakov, Valerian F.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the study in the article is conceptual basis of construction of the target model of interaction between University and region. Hence the topic of the article "the Target model of strategic interaction between the University and the region in the field of education." The objective was to design a target model of this…

  11. DO COROTATING INTERACTION REGION ASSOCIATED SHOCKS SURVIVE WHEN THEY PROPAGATE INTO THE HELIOSHEATH?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provornikova, E.; Opher, M.; Izmodenov, V.; Toth, G.

    2012-01-01

    During the solar minimum at the distance of 42-52 AU from the Sun, Voyager 2 observed recurrent sharp, shock-like increases in the solar wind speed that look very much like forward shocks (Lazarus et al.). The shocks were produced by corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that originated near the Sun. After the termination shock (TS) crossing in 2007, Voyager 2 entered the heliosheath and has been observing the plasma emanated during the recent solar minima. Measurements show high variable flow, but there were no shocks detected in the heliosheath. When CIR-driven shocks propagate to the outer heliosphere, their structure changes due to collision and merging processes of CIRs. In this Letter, we explore an effect of the merging of CIRs on the structure of CIR-associated shocks. We use a three-dimensional MHD model to study the outward propagation of the shocks with characteristics similar to those observed by Voyager 2 at ∼45 AU (Lazarus et al. 1999). We show that due to merging of CIRs (1) reverse shocks disappear, (2) forward shocks become weaker due to interaction with rarefaction regions from preceding CIRs, and (3) forward shocks significantly weaken in the heliosheath. Merged CIRs produce compression regions in the heliosheath with small fluctuations of plasma parameters. Amplitudes of the fluctuations diminish as they propagate deeper in the sheath. We conclude that interaction of shocks and rarefaction regions could be one of the explanations, why shocks produced by CIRs are not observed in the heliosheath by Voyager 2 while they were frequently observed upstream the TS.

  12. Atypical energetic particle events observed prior energetic particle enhancements associated with corotating interaction regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malandraki, Olga; Zank, Gary; Jackson, Bernard; Bisi, Mario; Desai, Mihir; Li, Gang; le Roux, Jakobus; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies of mechanisms of particle acceleration in the heliosphere have revealed the importance of the comprehensive analysis of stream-stream interactions as well as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - stream interactions that often occur in the solar wind, producing huge magnetic cavities bounded by strong current sheets. Such cavities are usually filled with small-scale magnetic islands that trap and re-accelerate energetic particles (Zank et al. ApJ, 2014, 2015; le Roux et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016; Khabarova et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016). Crossings of these regions are associated with unusual variations in the energetic particle flux up to several MeV/nuc near the Earth's orbit. These energetic particle flux enhancements called "atypical energetic particle events" (AEPEs) are not associated with standard mechanisms of particle acceleration. The analysis of multi-spacecraft measurements of energetic particle flux, plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field shows that AEPEs have a local origin as they are observed by different spacecraft with a time delay corresponding to the solar wind propagation from one spacecraft to another, which is a signature of local particle acceleration in the region embedded in expanding and rotating background solar wind. AEPEs are often observed before the arrival of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) or stream interaction regions (SIRs) to the Earth's orbit. When fast solar wind streams catch up with slow solar wind, SIRs of compressed heated plasma or more regular CIRs are created at the leading edge of the high-speed stream. Since coronal holes are often long-lived structures, the same CIR re-appears often for several consecutive solar rotations. At low heliographic latitudes, such CIRs are typically bounded by forward and reverse waves on their leading and trailing edges, respectively, that steepen into shocks at heliocentric distances beyond 1 AU. Energetic ion increases have been frequently observed in association with CIR

  13. A functional interaction approach to the definition of meso regions: The case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlebach Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of functional meso regions for the territory of the Czech Republic is articulated in this article. Functional regions reflect horizontal interactions in space and are presented as a useful tool for various types of geographical analyses, and also for spatial planning, economic policy designs, etc. This paper attempts to add to the discussion on the need to delineate areal units at different hierarchical levels, and to understand the functional flows and spatial behaviours of the population in a given space. Three agglomerative methods are applied in the paper (the CURDS regionalisation algorithm, Intramax, and cluster analysis, and they have not been used previously in Czech geography for the delineation of functional meso regions. Existing functional regions at the micro-level, based on daily travel-to-work flows from the 2001 census, have served as the building blocks. The analyses have produced five regional systems at the meso level, based on daily labour commuting movements of the population. Basic statistics and a characterisation of these systems are provided in this paper.

  14. Simulation of Crab Waist Collisions In DA$\\Phi$NE With KLOE-2 Interaction Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobov, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Drago, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Gallo, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Milardi, C. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Shatilov, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics (BINP); Valishev, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-06-24

    After the successful completion of the SIDDHARTA experiment run with crab waist collisions, the electron-positron collider DAΦNE has started routine operations for the KLOE-2 detector. The new interaction region also exploits the crab waist collision scheme, but features certain complications including the experimental detector solenoid, compensating anti-solenoids, and tilted quadrupole magnets. We have performed simulations of the beam-beam collisions in the collider taking into account the real DAΦNE nonlinear lattice. In particular, we have evaluated the effect of crab waist sextupoles and beam-beam interactions on the DAΦNE dynamical aperture and energy acceptance, and estimated the luminosity that can be potentially achieved with and without crab waist sextupoles in the present working conditions. A numerical analysis has been performed in order to propose possible steps for further luminosity increase in DAΦNE such as a better working point choice, crab sextupole strength optimization, correction of the phase advance between the sextupoles and the interaction region. The proposed change of the e- ring working point was implemented and resulted in a significant performance increase.

  15. University–Industry Interaction Trends in the Baltic Sea Region: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murashova Elena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to summarise and analyse the level of scientific interest from researchers from the Baltic Sea Region in interacting with each other on scientific and research projects in university–industry interaction field. This study will use bibliometric analysis based on actual joint initiatives and their published results. The growth of interest from both universities and industry in joint initiatives and changes in the nature of their cooperation (Butcher & Jeffren, 2005 has led to a significant increase in the Baltic Region and the number of scientific publications has doubled in the years 2010–2014. However, compared to the number of similar published studies from the United States, the United Kingdom, China and Japan, those results far outnumber the achievements of the Baltic regions. At the same time, there has been significant increase in the number of studies undertaken by Sweden, Germany and Finland in the period from 2012 to 2014, facilitated by active international and interdisciplinary cooperation and involvement in the research by a large number of authors. The results of the evaluation indicators through this bibliometric analysis can assist in the specific targeting and allocation of available finance and funding into promising fields of research and aid in communication and cooperation between stakeholders and interested organisations.

  16. Aerosol-radiation-climate interactions over the Gangetic-Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ritesh

    A growing body of evidence indicates that tropospheric aerosols, a major component of the global climate system, significantly influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate forcings. Their multi-faceted impacts on climate with considerable lack of in-depth knowledge of their properties and spatio-temporal distribution makes aerosols one of the least understood components of the Earth's climate. Over heavily polluted regions, the difficulty in quantifying aerosol effects is exacerbated. For example, the South Asian region of which about 1/7th of the world's population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) is one of the major hotspots of rising pollution due to rapid urbanization/industrialization and growing energy demands. Bounded by the high-altitude Himalayas in the north, the regional climate is largely governed by the summer (southwest) and winter (northeast) monsoons. This dissertation is an attempt to gain reliable insight into the complex interactions between aerosols, radiation and climate of the Gangetic-Himalayan region with a special emphasis on the regional hydrological cycle through the extensive use of multi-sensor satellite data together with ground radiometric measurements. Plausible couplings in the two contrasting seasons (winter and pre-monsoon/summer) namely, between the widespread winter haze and fog; and the connection between pre-monsoon dust transport and summer monsoon rainfall variability were investigated. The spatial and temporal distribution of fog occurrences is found to be influenced by the heavy pollution over the eastern IGP through its microphysical and radiative interactions. During the pre-monsoon period, dust plumes (mixed with local pollution) in the Gangetic-Himalayan (GH) region occurs at elevated altitudes (>5 km) and is found to be significantly absorbing in nature causing enhanced heating in the middle troposphere. There is an increasing trend in the atmospheric loading of absorbing aerosols during the pre

  17. Interactions between temperature and drought in global and regional crop yield variability during 1961-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiu, Michael; Ankerst, Donna P; Menzel, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Inter-annual crop yield variation is driven in large parts by climate variability, wherein the climate components of temperature and precipitation often play the biggest role. Nonlinear effects of temperature on yield as well as interactions among the climate variables have to be considered. Links between climate and crop yield variability have been previously studied, both globally and at regional scales, but typically with additive models with no interactions, or when interactions were included, with implications not fully explained. In this study yearly country level yields of maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat of the top producing countries were combined with growing season temperature and SPEI (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index) to determine interaction and intensification effects of climate variability on crop yield variability during 1961-2014. For maize, soybeans, and wheat, heat and dryness significantly reduced yields globally, while global effects for rice were not significant. But because of interactions, heat was more damaging in dry than in normal conditions for maize and wheat, and temperature effects were not significant in wet conditions for maize, soybeans, and wheat. Country yield responses to climate variability naturally differed between the top producing countries, but an accurate description of interaction effects at the country scale required sub-national data (shown only for the USA). Climate intensification, that is consecutive dry or warm years, reduced yields additionally in some cases, however, this might be linked to spillover effects of multiple growing seasons. Consequently, the effect of temperature on yields might be underestimated in dry conditions: While there were no significant global effects of temperature for maize and soybeans yields for average SPEI, the combined effects of high temperatures and drought significantly decreased yields of maize, soybeans, and wheat by 11.6, 12.4, and 9.2%, respectively.

  18. THE MAIN TRENDS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ROSPOTREBNADZOR IN THE LENINGRAD REGION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF LENINGRAD REGION IN THE FIELD OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gorbanev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the main interaction trends of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in the Leningrad Region and the Government of Leningrad Region regarding issues of regional radiation protection. It reports on comprehensive measures devoted to the limitation of the population exposure from natural irradiation sources, monitoring of territories which suffered from Chernobyl NPP accident and monitoring of the environmental impact of unauthorized dumps and solid municipal waste sites in the Leningrad Region. It presents the basic issues of medical exposure limitation in the Leningrad Region and measures for their solving.

  19. submitter ELECTRON CLOUD AND COLLECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE INTERACTION REGION OF FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Belli, E; Rumolo, G

    2016-01-01

    The FCC-ee is an e⁺e⁻ circular collider designed to accommodate four different experiments in a beam energy range from 91 to 350 GeV and is a part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) project at CERN. One of the most critical aspects of this new very challenging machine regards the collective effects which can produce instabilities, thus limiting the accelerator operation and reducing its performance. The following studies are focused on the Interaction Region of the machine. This talk will present preliminary simulation results of the power loss due to the wake fields generated by the electromagnetic interaction of the beam with the vacuum chamber. A preliminary estimation of the electron cloud build-up is also reported, whose effects have been recognized as one of the main limitations for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

  20. Energy deposition in TEVATRON magnets from beam losses in interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginneken, A.V.

    1988-10-01

    In addition to interacting in the detector, particles produced at an interaction region also deposit energy, with less desirable consequences, in magnets and other components of the accelerator. This note briefly assesses the damage potential of these (essentially unavoidable) beam losses from the viewpoint of quenching of superconducting magnets in an upgraded Tevatron, specifically for the 1 TeV p-/ovrreverse arrowstring/p option with a luminosity of 10 31 cm/sup - 2/ sec -1 , through the results carry more generality. Related issues such as radiation damage to detector electronics or other components are not addressed here. These are thought to be less problematic at the Tevatron, as in thus far supported by operational experience. 8 refs., 10 figs

  1. Does serotonin influence aggression? Comparing regional activity before and during social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Summers, C.H.; Korzan, W.J.; Lukkes, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    in both dominant and subordinate males. As serotonergic activity does not appear to inhibit agonistic behavior during combative social interaction, we investigated the possibility that the negative correlation between serotonergic activity and aggression exists before aggressive behavior begins. To do...... this, putatively dominant and more aggressive males were determined by their speed overcoming stress ( latency to feeding after capture) and their celerity to court females. Serotonergic activities before aggression are differentiated by social rank in a region-specific manner. Among aggressive males......, where low serotonergic activity may help promote aggression, agonistic behavior also stimulates the greatest rise in serotonergic activity among the most aggressive males, most likely as a result of the stress associated with social interaction....

  2. Recurrent variations of anomalous oxygen in association with a corotating interaction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Reuss

    Full Text Available The fluxes of anomalous oxygen (E ranging from 3.5-6.8 MeV/amu, as measured by the EPAC instrument on ULYSSES, show a recurrent variation with the solar rotation period, which is anticorrelated with the fluxes of particles accelerated at the shocks of a corotating interaction region (CIR, and correlated with the fluxes of galactic cosmic rays known to be modulated by the CIR. The amplitude of this variation is much higher than expected for galactic cosmic rays of the same rigidity.

  3. Development of a high gradient quadrupole for the LHC Interaction Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.; Feher, S.; Gourlay, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    A collaboration of Fermilab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory is engaged in the design of a high gradient quadrupole suitable for use in the LHC interaction regions. The cold iron design incorporates a two-layer, cos(2θ) coil geometry with a 70 mm aperture operating in superfluid helium. This paper summarizes the progress on a magnetic, mechanical and thermal design that meets the requirements of maximum gradient above 250 T/m, high field quality and provision for adequate cooling in a high radiation environment

  4. Interaction Region for a 100 TeV Proton-Proton Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, R; Dalena, B

    2015-01-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV, pushing the energy frontier of fundamental physics to a new limit. At a circumference of 80-100 km, this machine is planned to use the same tunnel as FCC-ee, a proposed 90-350 GeV high luminosity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the design progress and technical challenges for the interaction region of FCC-hh.

  5. Combining region-based and imprecise boundary-based cues for interactive medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan-Lee; Xie, Xianghua; Essa, Ehab

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present an approach combining both region selection and user point selection for user-assisted segmentation as either an enclosed object or an open curve, investigate the method of image segmentation in specific medical applications (user-assisted segmentation of the media-adventitia border in intravascular ultrasound images, and lumen border in optical coherence tomography images), and then demonstrate the method with generic images to show how it could be utilized in other types of medical image and is not limited to the applications described. The proposed method combines point-based soft constraint on object boundary and stroke-based regional constraint. The user points act as attraction points and are treated as soft constraints rather than hard constraints that the segmented boundary has to pass through. The user can also use strokes to specify region of interest. The probabilities of region of interest for each pixel are then calculated, and their discontinuity is used to indicate object boundary. The combinations of different types of user constraints and image features allow flexible and robust segmentation, which is formulated as an energy minimization problem on a multilayered graph and is solved using a shortest path search algorithm. We show that this combinatorial approach allows efficient and effective interactive segmentation, which can be used with both open and closed curves to segment a variety of images in different ways. The proposed method is demonstrated in the two medical applications, that is, intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography images, where image artefacts such as acoustic shadow and calcification are commonplace and thus user guidance is desirable. We carried out both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results for the medical data; comparing the proposed method against a number of interactive segmentation techniques. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Fuzzy regions in an intrinsically disordered protein impair protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Antoine; Dosnon, Marion; Blocquel, David; Brunel, Joanna; Gerlier, Denis; Das, Rahul K; Bonetti, Daniela; Gianni, Stefano; Fuxreiter, Monika; Longhi, Sonia; Bignon, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Despite the partial disorder-to-order transition that intrinsically disordered proteins often undergo upon binding to their partners, a considerable amount of residual disorder may be retained in the bound form, resulting in a fuzzy complex. Fuzzy regions flanking molecular recognition elements may enable partner fishing through non-specific, transient contacts, thereby facilitating binding, but may also disfavor binding through various mechanisms. So far, few computational or experimental studies have addressed the effect of fuzzy appendages on partner recognition by intrinsically disordered proteins. In order to shed light onto this issue, we used the interaction between the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein (NTAIL ) and the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein as model system. After binding to XD, the N-terminal region of NTAIL remains conspicuously disordered, with α-helical folding taking place only within a short molecular recognition element. To study the effect of the N-terminal fuzzy region on NTAIL /XD binding, we generated N-terminal truncation variants of NTAIL , and assessed their binding abilities towards XD. The results revealed that binding increases with shortening of the N-terminal fuzzy region, with this also being observed with hsp70 (another MeV NTAIL binding partner), and for the homologous NTAIL /XD pairs from the Nipah and Hendra viruses. Finally, similar results were obtained when the MeV NTAIL fuzzy region was replaced with a highly dissimilar artificial disordered sequence, supporting a sequence-independent inhibitory effect of the fuzzy region. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Effects of Implementing Subgrid-Scale Cloud-Radiation Interactions in a Regional Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwehe, J. A.; Alapaty, K.; Otte, T.; Nolte, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between atmospheric radiation, clouds, and aerosols are the most important processes that determine the climate and its variability. In regional scale models, when used at relatively coarse spatial resolutions (e.g., larger than 1 km), convective cumulus clouds need to be parameterized as subgrid-scale clouds. Like many groups, our regional climate modeling group at the EPA uses the Weather Research & Forecasting model (WRF) as a regional climate model (RCM). One of the findings from our RCM studies is that the summertime convective systems simulated by the WRF model are highly energetic, leading to excessive surface precipitation. We also found that the WRF model does not consider the interactions between convective clouds and radiation, thereby omitting an important process that drives the climate. Thus, the subgrid-scale cloudiness associated with convective clouds (from shallow cumuli to thunderstorms) does not exist and radiation passes through the atmosphere nearly unimpeded, potentially leading to overly energetic convection. This also has implications for air quality modeling systems that are dependent upon cloud properties from the WRF model, as the failure to account for subgrid-scale cloudiness can lead to problems such as the underrepresentation of aqueous chemistry processes within clouds and the overprediction of ozone from overactive photolysis. In an effort to advance the climate science of the cloud-aerosol-radiation (CAR) interactions in RCM systems, as a first step we have focused on linking the cumulus clouds with the radiation processes. To this end, our research group has implemented into WRF's Kain-Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization a cloudiness formulation that is widely used in global earth system models (e.g., CESM/CAM5). Estimated grid-scale cloudiness and associated condensate are adjusted to account for the subgrid clouds and then passed to WRF's Rapid Radiative Transfer Model - Global (RRTMG) radiation schemes to affect

  8. Masking system and background estimation at the interaction region of KEK B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, S.

    1991-01-01

    There are two sources of beam background in any positron-electron collider experiment. One source is the synchrotron radiation from bending magnets and quadrupole magnets. Another source of the background comes from spent electrons which hit the beam pipe near the interaction region because of over-bending. To reduce such backgrounds, the careful design of a masking system is important. A masking system has been designed based on the insertion design. Although the critical energy of synchrotron radiation is rather low in the proposed B-Factory, the number of photons with energy higher than 5 keV is large. Those must be reduced by a set of several masks and the optimized radius of the beam pipe. the beryllium beam pipe, the arrangement of horizontal masks and the shadowed region caused by a mask are shown. The background contribution from spent electrons were studied using the DECAY TURTLE code. During injection, beam loss might be significantly large, and radiation damage might occur. This can be prevented by placing another mask far away from the interaction point. (k.I.)

  9. Cryosphere-hydrosphere interactions: Numerical modeling using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) at different scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Budgell, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Conveyor belt circulation controls global climate through heat and water fluxes with atmosphere and from tropical to polar regions and vice versa. This circulation, commonly referred to as thermohaline circulation (THC), seems to have millennium time scale and nowadays-a non-glacial period-appears to be as rather stable. However, concern is raised by the buildup of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (IPCC, Third assessment report: Climate Change 2001. A contribution 01 working group I, n and In to the Third Assessment Report of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge Univ. Press, UK) 2001, http://www.ipcc.ch) as these may affect the THC conveyor paths. Since it is widely recognized that dense water formation sites ad as primary sources in strengthening quasi-stable THC paths (Stommel H., Tellus, 13 (1961) 224), in order to simulate properly the consequences of such scenarios a better understanding of these oceanic processes is needed. To successfully model these processes, air sea-ice-integrated modelling approaches are often required. Here we focus on two polar regions using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). In the first region investigated, the North Atlantic-Arctic, where open-ocean Jeep convection and open-sea ire formation and dispersion under the intense air-sea interactions are the major engines, we use a new version of the coupled hydrodynamic-ice ROMS model. The second area belongs to the Antarctica region inside the Southern Ocean, where brine rejections during ice formation inside shelf seas origin dense water that, flowing along the continental slope, overflow becoming eventually abyssal waters. Results show how nowadays integrated-modelling tasks have become more and more feasible and effective; numerical simulations dealing with large computational domains or challenging different climate scenarios can be run on multi-processors platforms and on systems like LINUX clusters, made of the same hardware as PCs, and

  10. Beam dynamics of the interaction region solenoid in a linear collider due to a crossing angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tenenbaum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Future linear colliders may require a nonzero crossing angle between the two beams at the interaction point (IP. This requirement in turn implies that the beams will pass through the strong interaction region solenoid with an angle, and thus that the component of the solenoidal field perpendicular to the beam trajectory is nonzero. The interaction of the beam and the solenoidal field in the presence of a crossing angle will cause optical effects not observed for beams passing through the solenoid on axis; these effects include dispersion, deflection of the beam, and synchrotron radiation effects. For a purely solenoidal field, the optical effects which are relevant to luminosity exactly cancel at the IP when the influence of the solenoid’s fringe field is taken into account. Beam size growth due to synchrotron radiation in the solenoid is proportional to the fifth power of the product of the solenoidal field, the length of the solenoid, and the crossing angle. Examples based on proposed linear collider detector solenoid configurations are presented.

  11. Representing human-water interactions in an integrated regional earth system modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Huang, M.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Ke, Y.; Coleman, A. M.; Leung, L.

    2010-12-01

    The hydrologic cycle has been under the influence of human activities, active (modification) or passive (adaptation), since the beginning of civilization. In recent years, the topic of the interactions between human activities and the water cycle in the context of climate change has emerged with critical importance within the hydrologic and climate science communities. However, such interactions have not been sufficiently represented in most hydrologic and land surface models. In this study, we aim to develop and evaluate two critical components relevant to human-water interactions in an integrated regional earth system modeling (iRESM) framework under development. They are (1) an irrigation module to be integrated into the land component of iRESM for managed ecosystems; and (2) a generic water management module to allocate water to different sectors, e.g., irrigation and energy production, which are competing against each other for limited water. We will evaluate these components against in-situ and remotely sensed observations in selected sites and watersheds in the western United States, where irrigation and water management activities are pronounced.

  12. [The structure and technical research of medical information interaction and sharing among regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangjie; Pu, Lixin; Qu, Jianming; Hu, Jianping

    2014-08-01

    The hospital information structure, which is made up of various medical business systems, is suffering from the problems of the "information isolated island". Medical business systems in the hospital are mutually isomerous and difficult to become a whole. How to realize the internal barrier-free interaction of the patients effective medical information in the hospital and further to complete the area sharing of patients longitudinal diagnosis and treatment information has become a question having to be solved urgently in the process of healthcare informatization. Based on the HL7 standard, this paper refers to the IHE technical framework, expounds the overall structure of the interaction in the hospital internal and area sharing of medical information with the medical information exchange platform. The paper also gives the details of the whole process of the complete display of the discrete patient health information using Portal technology, which is saved in the business systems in different hospitals. It interacts internally through the information exchange platform and at last stores the information in the regional clinical data repository (CDR).

  13. Experimental evidence of biological interactions among different isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi from the Chaco Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula G Ragone

    Full Text Available Many infectious diseases arise from co-infections or re-infections with more than one genotype of the same pathogen. These mixed infections could alter host fitness, the severity of symptoms, success in pathogen transmission and the epidemiology of the disease. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, exhibits a high biological variability often correlated with its genetic diversity. Here, we developed an experimental approach in order to evaluate biological interaction between three T. cruzi isolates belonging to different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs TcIII, TcV and TcVI. These isolates were obtained from a restricted geographical area in the Chaco Region. Different mixed infections involving combinations of two isolates (TcIII + TcV, TcIII + TcVI and TcV + TcVI were studied in a mouse model. The parameters evaluated were number of parasites circulating in peripheral blood, histopathology and genetic characterization of each DTU in different tissues by DNA hybridization probes. We found a predominance of TcVI isolate in blood and tissues respect to TcIII and TcV; and a decrease of the inflammatory response in heart when the damage of mice infected with TcVI and TcIII + TcVI mixture were compared. In addition, simultaneous presence of two isolates in the same tissue was not detected. Our results show that biological interactions between isolates with different biological behaviors lead to changes in their biological properties. The occurrence of interactions among different genotypes of T. cruzi observed in our mouse model suggests that these phenomena could also occur in natural cycles in the Chaco Region.

  14. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Harlan

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is de...

  15. Regional factors interact with educational and income tax levels to influence food intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndels, K; Dallongeville, J; Simon, C; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Ruidavets, J-B; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Amouyel, P; Dauchet, L

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess whether geographic factors affect the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and adherence to the French National Nutritional Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)) guidelines. The MONA LISA-NUT study (2005-2007) is a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample from northern, northeastern and southwestern France. Educational level and household income tax were recorded by trained interviewers. Food intake was assessed with a 3-day food diary in 3188 subjects aged from 35-64 years. Adherence to the PNNS guidelines was assessed with a validated score (the French score of indicators of the PNNS objective (FSIPO)). Multivariate analyses were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, body mass index, energy intake and medically prescribed diets. The FSIPO score was higher in southwestern France than in the two other regions (Ptax level and the FSIPO score were positively correlated (Ptax interaction: P=0.09). The relationship between educational level and adherence to the national nutritional health guidelines differs from one region of France to another, suggesting that nutrition education programmes should perhaps be adapted on a regional basis. In contrast, guideline adherence is correlated with income tax level independently of geographical factors, suggesting that financial constraints on food choices are uniform across France.

  16. Dynamical Models of Interactions between Herds Forage and Water Resources in Sahelian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Jules Tewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal foraging is one of the capital topics nowadays in Sahelian region. The vast majority of feed consumed by ruminants in Sahelian region is still formed by natural pastures. Pastoral constraints are the high variability of available forage and drinking water in space and especially in time (highly seasonal, interannual variability and the scarcity of water resources. The mobility is the main functional and opportunistic adaptation to these constraints. Our goal in this paper is to formalize two dynamical models for interactions between a herd of domesticate animals, forage resources, and water resources inside a given Sahelian area, in order to confirm, explain, and predict by mathematical models some observations about pastoralism in Sahelian region. These models in some contexts can be similar to predator-prey models as forage and water resources can be considered as preys and herd’s animals as predators. These models exhibit very rich dynamics, since it predicts abrupt changes in consumer behaviour and disponibility of forage or water resources. The dynamics exhibits a possible coexistence between herd, resources, and water with alternative peaks in their trajectories.

  17. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PANAMA, PANAMA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology datasets were created using an automated intelligent algorithm which...

  18. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF TEHUANTEPEC, MEXICO V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology datasets were created using an automated intelligent algorithm which...

  19. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology datasets were created using an automated intelligent algorithm which...

  20. REGIONAL AIR-SEA INTERACTION (RASI) GAP WIND AND COASTAL UPWELLING EVENTS CLIMATOLOGY GULF OF PAPAGAYO, COSTA RICA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regional Air-Sea Interactions (RASI) Gap Wind and Coastal Upwelling Events Climatology Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica dataset was created using an automated...

  1. Interaction of dependent and non-dependent regions of the acutely injured lung during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Rettig, Jordan S; Smallwood, Craig D; Boyd, Theonia K; Arnold, John H; Wolf, Gerhard K

    2013-02-01

    The benefit of treating acute lung injury with recruitment manoeuvres is controversial. An impediment to settling this debate is the difficulty in visualizing how distinct lung regions respond to the manoeuvre. Here, regional lung mechanics were studied by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre in a porcine model with acute lung injury. The following interaction between dependent and non-dependent regions consistently occurred: atelectasis in the most dependent region was reversed only after the non-dependent region became overdistended. EIT estimates of overdistension and atelectasis were validated by histological examination of lung tissue, confirming that the dependent region was primarily atelectatic and the non-dependent region was primarily overdistended. The pulmonary pressure-volume equation, originally designed for modelling measurements at the airway opening, was adapted for EIT-based regional estimates of overdistension and atelectasis. The adaptation accurately modelled the regional EIT data from dependent and non-dependent regions (R(2) > 0.93, P < 0.0001) and predicted their interaction during recruitment. In conclusion, EIT imaging of regional lung mechanics reveals that overdistension in the non-dependent region precedes atelectasis reversal in the dependent region during a stepwise recruitment manoeuvre.

  2. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joël; Acocella, Valerio; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja's calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  3. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2017-12-04

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja’s calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  4. The Solar Wind and Geomagnetic Activity as a Function of Time Relative to Corotating Interaction Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherron, Robert L.; Weygand, James

    2006-01-01

    Corotating interaction regions during the declining phase of the solar cycle are the cause of recurrent geomagnetic storms and are responsible for the generation of high fluxes of relativistic electrons. These regions are produced by the collision of a high-speed stream of solar wind with a slow-speed stream. The interface between the two streams is easily identified with plasma and field data from a solar wind monitor upstream of the Earth. The properties of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field are systematic functions of time relative to the stream interface. Consequently the coupling of the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere produces a predictable sequence of events. Because the streams persist for many solar rotations it should be possible to use terrestrial observations of past magnetic activity to predict future activity. Also the high-speed streams are produced by large unipolar magnetic regions on the Sun so that empirical models can be used to predict the velocity profile of a stream expected at the Earth. In either case knowledge of the statistical properties of the solar wind and geomagnetic activity as a function of time relative to a stream interface provides the basis for medium term forecasting of geomagnetic activity. In this report we use lists of stream interfaces identified in solar wind data during the years 1995 and 2004 to develop probability distribution functions for a variety of different variables as a function of time relative to the interface. The results are presented as temporal profiles of the quartiles of the cumulative probability distributions of these variables. We demonstrate that the storms produced by these interaction regions are generally very weak. Despite this the fluxes of relativistic electrons produced during those storms are the highest seen in the solar cycle. We attribute this to the specific sequence of events produced by the organization of the solar wind relative to the stream interfaces. We also

  5. Production and performance of the LHC interaction region quadrupoles at KEK

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, T; Fujii, T; Hashiguchi, E; Higashi, N; Hirano, H; Iida, M; Kanahara, T; Kimura, N; Murai, S; Odajima, W; Ogitsu, T; Ohhata, H; Ohuchi, N; Orikasa, T; Shintomi, T; Sugawara, S; Sugita, K; Tanaka, K; Terashima, A; Tsuchiya, K; Yamamoto, A

    2003-01-01

    The MQXA superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the LHC interaction regions are required to generate a field gradient of up to 215 T/m at 1.9 K along an effective magnetic length of 6.37 m. After completion of an R&D program on short models and full length prototypes, the series production of magnets has started, with to date five series magnets subsequently tested at KEK. Basic characteristics such as normal training, subsequent full energy dump, thermal cycle, ramp rate dependence and temperature dependence have been studied and results indicate that magnets have satisfactory quench performance. Magnetic field measurements performed at 1.9 K show the field quality to be uniform and to satisfy the stringent beam optics requirements. (10 refs).

  6. Towards a new LHC Interaction Region design for a luminosity upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J; Limon, P; Mokhov, N V; Sen, T; Zlobin, A V; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Ostojic, R; Rossi, L; Ruggiero, F; Taylor, T; ten Kate, H; Devred, A; Gupta, R; Harrison, M; Peggs, S; Pilat, F; Caspi, S; Gourlay, S; Sabbi, G

    2003-01-01

    After the LHC operates for several years at nominal parameters, it will be necessary to upgrade it for higher luminosity. Replacing the low-beta insertions with a higher performance design based on advanced superconducting magnets is one of the most straightforward steps in this direction. Preliminary studies show that, with magnet technology that is expected to be developed by early in the next decade, a factor of 2 to 5 reduction in beta* could be achieved with new insertions, as part of an upgrade aimed at a factor of 10 luminosity increase. In this paper we survey several possible second generation LHC interaction regions designs, which address the expected limitations on LHC performance imposed by the baseline insertions.

  7. Conceptual Design of the LHC Interaction Region Upgrade Phase-I

    CERN Document Server

    Ostojic, R; Baglin, V; Ballarino, A; Cerutti, F; Denz, R; Fartoukh, S; Fessia, P; Foraz, K; Fürstner, M; Herr, Werner; Karppinen, M; Kos, N; Mainaud-Durand, H; Mereghetti, A; Muttoni, Y; Nisbet, D; Prin, H; Tock, J P; Van Weelderen, R; Wildner, E

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is starting operation with beam. The primary goal of CERN and the LHC community is to ensure that the collider is operated efficiently and that it achieves nominal performance in the shortest term. Since several years the community has been discussing the directions for maximizing the physics reach of the LHC by upgrading the experiments, in particular ATLAS and CMS, the LHC machine and the CERN proton injector complex, in a phased approach. The first phase of the LHC interaction region upgrade was approved by Council in December 2007. This phase relies on the mature Nb-Ti superconducting magnet technology with the target of increasing the LHC luminosity to 2 to 3 10^34 cm^-2s^-1, while maximising the use of the existing infrastructure. In this report, we present the goals and the proposed conceptual solutions for the LHC IR Upgrade Phase-I which include the recommendations of the conceptual design review.

  8. Auroral effects in the D region of the ionosphere. [interactions between auroral particles and electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    1974-01-01

    Physical phenomena associated with the interaction between auroral particles and electromagnetic fields, auroral energy flow, and the propagation of auroral effects to low altitudes are discussed in detail. It is concluded that energy deposition of soft auroral X-rays would be negligible at stratospheric altitudes. New data from incoherent backscatter measurements of neutral winds in the auroral region indicate a lack of correlation between stratospheric winds and winds in the auroral ionosphere. Magnetograms are used to show that sector boundary crossings with a time scale of approximately one hour (as opposed to the sector structure itself with a time scale of several days) do not couple effectively with the magnetosphere and are not significant energy inputs to it.

  9. RNA interactions in the 5' region of the HIV-1 genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian Kroun; Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The untranslated leader of the dimeric HIV-1 RNA genome is folded into a complex structure that plays multiple and essential roles in the viral replication cycle. Here, we have investigated secondary and tertiary structural elements within the 5' 744 nucleotides of the HIV-1 genome using...... a combination of bioinformatics, enzymatic probing, native gel electrophoresis, and UV-crosslinking experiments. We used a recently developed RNA folding algorithm (Pfold) to predict the common secondary structure of an alignment of 20 divergent HIV-1 sequences. Combining this analysis with biochemical data, we...... present a secondary structure model for the entire 744 nucleotide fragment, which incorporates previously recognized and novel structural elements. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for a long-distance interaction between the region encompassing the AUG Gag initiation codon and an upstream...

  10. REALISTIC NON-LINEAR MODEL AND FIELD QUALITY ANALYSIS IN RHIC INTERACTION REGIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; JAIN, A.

    2007-06-25

    The existence of multipole components in the dipole and quadrupole magnets is one of the factors limiting the beam stability in the RHIC operations. So, a realistic non-linear model is crucial for understanding the beam behavior and to achieve the ultimate performance in RHIC. A procedure is developed to build a non-linear model using the available multipole component data obtained from measurements of RHIC magnets. We first discuss the measurements performed at different stages of manufacturing of the magnets in relation to their current state in RHIC. We then describe the procedure to implement these measurement data into tracking models, including the implementation of the multipole feed down effect due to the beam orbit offset from the magnet center. Finally, the field quality analysis in the RHIC interaction regions (IR) is presented.

  11. Low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region: Venus Express observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guicking

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate wave properties of low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region based on the measurements made on board the Venus Express spacecraft. The orbit geometry is very suitable to investigate the fluctuations in Venus' low-altitude magnetosheath and mid-magnetotail and provides an opportunity for a comparative study of low-frequency waves at Venus and Mars. The spatial distributions of the wave properties, in particular in the dayside and nightside magnetosheath as well as in the tail and mantle region, are similar to observations at Mars. As both planets do not have a global magnetic field, the interaction process of the solar wind with both planets is similar and leads to similar instabilities and wave structures. We focus on the spatial distribution of the wave intensity of the fluctuating magnetic field and detect an enhancement of the intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and a strong decrease towards the terminator. For a detailed investigation of the intensity distribution we adopt an analytical streamline model to describe the plasma flow around Venus. This allows displaying the evolution of the intensity along different streamlines. It is assumed that the waves are generated in the vicinity of the bow shock and are convected downstream with the turbulent magnetosheath flow. However, neither the different Mach numbers upstream and downstream of the bow shock, nor the variation of the cross sectional area and the flow velocity along the streamlines play probably an important role in order to explain the observed concentration of wave intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and the decay towards the nightside magnetosheath. But, the concept of freely evolving or decaying turbulence is in good qualitative agreement with the observations, as we observe a power law decay of the intensity along the streamlines. The observations support the assumption of wave convection through the magnetosheath, but

  12. Influence of configuration interaction on satellite lines of xenon and tin in the EUV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaufridy de Dortan, F.

    2007-02-01

    Theoretical line strengths and positions of satellite lines of xenon and tin ions are computed in the EUV region (transitions from doubly excited configurations or between singly excited configurations). Calculations are conducted with HULLAC parametric multi-configuration relativistic code. Influence of configuration interaction is investigated for doubly excited configurations of ions from Pd- to Rb-like. The emission close to 13.5 nm, which is of interest to the EUV lithography, is detailed. A strong narrowing of 4d-4f/4d-4p group of satellite lines is observed, compared to the calculation without configuration interaction. The emissivity is strongly enhanced in the centre of this group of lines. This strongly increases the EUV emission at 13.5 nm for tin at moderate to high densities. The EUV emission of xenon at 13.5 nm is enhanced by 4d-5p satellite lines of Xe 9+ and 10+. Radiative transitions between singly excited configurations and between doubly excited configurations also enhance the emission at 13.5 nm, especially 6g-4f transitions of Xe 9+, 10+ and 5g-4f transitions of Xe 11+.

  13. Proline-rich regions and motifs in trafficking: from ESCRT interaction to viral exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuefeng; Hurley, James H

    2011-10-01

    Most membrane-enveloped viruses bud from infected cells by hijacking the host ESCRT machinery. The ESCRTs are recruited to the budding sites by viral proteins that contain short proline (Pro)-rich motifs (PRMs) known as late domains. The late domains probably evolved by co-opting host PRMs involved in the normal functions of ESCRTs in endosomal sorting and cytokinesis. The solution and crystal structures of PRMs bound to their interaction partners explain the conserved roles of Pro and other residues that predominate in these sequences. PRMs are often grouped together in much larger Pro-rich regions (PRRs) of as many as 150 residues. The PRR of the ESCRT-associated protein, ALIX, autoregulates its conformation and activity. The robustness of different viral budding and host pathways to impairments in Pro-based interactions varies considerably. The known biology of PRM recognition in the ESCRT pathway seems, in principle, compatible with antiviral development, given our increasingly nuanced understanding of the relative weakness and robustness of the host and viral processes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Unfavorable regions in the ramachandran plot: Is it really steric hindrance? The interacting quantum atoms perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Peter I; Popelier, Paul L A

    2017-11-05

    Accurate description of the intrinsic preferences of amino acids is important to consider when developing a biomolecular force field. In this study, we use a modern energy partitioning approach called Interacting Quantum Atoms to inspect the cause of the φ and ψ torsional preferences of three dipeptides (Gly, Val, and Ile). Repeating energy trends at each of the molecular, functional group, and atomic levels are observed across both (1) the three amino acids and (2) the φ/ψ scans in Ramachandran plots. At the molecular level, it is surprisingly electrostatic destabilization that causes the high-energy regions in the Ramachandran plot, not molecular steric hindrance (related to the intra-atomic energy). At the functional group and atomic levels, the importance of key peptide atoms (O i -1 , C i , N i , N i +1 ) and some sidechain hydrogen atoms (H γ ) are identified as responsible for the destabilization seen in the energetically disfavored Ramachandran regions. Consistently, the O i -1 atoms are particularly important for the explanation of dipeptide intrinsic behavior, where electrostatic and steric destabilization unusually complement one another. The findings suggest that, at least for these dipeptides, it is the peptide group atoms that dominate the intrinsic behavior, more so than the sidechain atoms. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Interactive Development of Regional Climate Web Pages for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, N.; Redmond, K. T.

    2013-12-01

    Weather and climate have a pervasive and significant influence on the western United States, driving a demand for information that is ongoing and constantly increasing. In communications with stakeholders, policy makers, researchers, educators, and the public through formal and informal encounters, three standout challenges face users of weather and climate information in the West. First, the needed information is scattered about the web making it difficult or tedious to access. Second, information is too complex or requires too much background knowledge to be immediately applicable. Third, due to complex terrain, there is high spatial variability in weather, climate, and their associated impacts in the West, warranting information outlets with a region-specific focus. Two web sites, TahoeClim and the Great Basin Weather and Climate Dashboard were developed to overcome these challenges to meeting regional weather and climate information needs. TahoeClim focuses on the Lake Tahoe Basin, a region of critical environmental concern spanning the border of Nevada and California. TahoeClim arose out of the need for researchers, policy makers, and environmental organizations to have access to all available weather and climate information in one place. Additionally, TahoeClim developed tools to both interpret and visualize data for the Tahoe Basin with supporting instructional material. The Great Basin Weather and Climate Dashboard arose from discussions at an informal meeting about Nevada drought organized by the USDA Farm Service Agency. Stakeholders at this meeting expressed a need to take a 'quick glance' at various climate indicators to support their decision making process. Both sites were designed to provide 'one-stop shopping' for weather and climate information in their respective regions and to be intuitive and usable by a diverse audience. An interactive, 'co-development' approach was taken with sites to ensure needs of potential users were met. The sites were

  16. Quantifying the regional groundwater/surface water interaction based on 18O and Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christoph; Lischeid, Gunnar; Nitzsche, Kai; Kayler, Zachary Eric

    2017-04-01

    time. First results clearly show distinct patterns of the temporal dynamics of the groundwater/surface water interaction reflecting the regional system behavior. They provide the basis for anticipating future development of the hydraulic system under climate change, and - regarding system changes - for adapted water resources management decisions.

  17. Cosmic-Ray Transport in Heliospheric Magnetic Structures. II. Modeling Particle Transport through Corotating Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Andreas [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Statistique et des Plasmas, CP 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Effenberger, Frederic [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrecht-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2017-03-01

    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.

  18. 3D Modeling of Forbidden Line Emission in the Binary Wind Interaction Region of Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present recent work using three-dimensional (3D) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to model the high ([Fe III], [Ar III], [Ne III] and [S III]) and low ([Fe II], [Ni II]) ionization forbidden emission lines observed in Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. These structures are interpreted as the time-averaged, outer extensions of the primary wind and the wind-wind interaction region directly excited by the FUV of the hot companion star of this massive binary system. We discuss how analyzing the results of the 3D SPH simulations and synthetic slit spectra and comparing them to the spectra obtained with the HST/STIS helps us determine the absolute orientation of the binary orbit and helps remove the degeneracy inherent to models based solely on the observed RXTE X-ray light curve. A key point of this work is that spatially resolved observations like those with HST/STIS and comparison to 3D models are necessary to determine the alignment or misalignment of the orbital angular momentum axis with the Homunculus, or correspondingly, the alignment of the orbital plane with the Homunculus skirt.

  19. The high luminosity interaction region for a ring-ring Large Hadron Electron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R. B.; Thompson, L.; Holzer, B.; Fitterer, M.; Bernard, N.; Kostka, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) project is a proposal for high luminosity TeV-scale electron-proton (ep) collisions at the LHC. The LHeC Conceptual Design Report presented an early overview of the machine, including an electron linac solution and a solution involving a 60 GeV electron storage ring. Here we present a new complete solution for the collision insertion of this electron ring, incorporating all constraints including those imposed by the LHC and, for the first time, proving the feasibility of ep collisions at a luminosity of ˜1033 cm-2s-1 in the LHC era. The solution presented offers high luminosity while maintaining the large detector coverage required by the particle physics programme. This negates the earlier need for two separate interaction region designs, one optimized for high luminosity at the cost of detector coverage, and the other for lower luminosity but higher coverage. Synchrotron radiation emission is also a major factor in electron accelerator design, and studies are presented showing the feasibility of the design in this regard. The design is found to be technically viable, solving the problem of TeV-scale, high luminosity and high coverage ep collisions at a ring-ring LHeC.

  20. Quantifying wetland–aquifer interactions in a humid subtropical climate region: An integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Niu, Jie; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; McGuire, Jennifer T.

    2013-01-01

    Wetlands are widely recognized as sentinels of global climate change. Long-term monitoring data combined with process-based modeling has the potential to shed light on key processes and how they change over time. This paper reports the development and application of a simple water balance model based on long-term climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological dynamics to quantify groundwater–surface water (GW–SW) interactions at the Norman landfill research site in Oklahoma, USA. Our integrated approach involved model evaluation by means of the following independent measurements: (a) groundwater inflow calculation using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (16O, 18O, 1H, 2H); (b) seepage flux measurements in the wetland hyporheic sediment; and (c) pan evaporation measurements on land and in the wetland. The integrated approach was useful for identifying the dominant hydrological processes at the site, including recharge and subsurface flows. Simulated recharge compared well with estimates obtained using isotope methods from previous studies and allowed us to identify specific annual signatures of this important process during the period of study (1997–2007). Similarly, observations of groundwater inflow and outflow rates to and from the wetland using seepage meters and isotope methods were found to be in good agreement with simulation results. Results indicate that subsurface flow components in the system are seasonal and readily respond to rainfall events. The wetland water balance is dominated by local groundwater inputs and regional groundwater flow contributes little to the overall water balance.

  1. Informing Regional Water-Energy-Food Nexus with System Analysis and Interactive Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. C. E.; Wi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Communicating scientific results to non-technical practitioners is challenging due to their differing interests, concerns and agendas. It is further complicated by the growing number of relevant factors that need to be considered, such as climate change and demographic dynamic. Visualization is an effective method for the scientific community to disseminate results, and it represents an opportunity for the future of water resources systems analysis (WRSA). This study demonstrates an intuitive way to communicate WRSA results to practitioners using interactive web-based visualization tools developed by the JavaScript library: Data-Driven Documents (D3) with a case study in Great Ruaha River of Tanzania. The decreasing trend of streamflow during the last decades in the region highlights the need of assessing the water usage competition between agricultural production, energy generation, and ecosystem service. Our team conduct the advance water resources systems analysis to inform policy that will affect the water-energy-food nexus. Modeling results are presented in the web-based visualization tools and allow non-technical practitioners to brush the graph directly (e. g. Figure 1). The WRSA suggests that no single measure can completely resolve the water competition. A combination of measures, each of which is acceptable from a social and economic perspective, and accepting that zero flows cannot be totally eliminated during dry years in the wetland, are likely to be the best way forward.

  2. Interaction region design for a ring ring version of the LHEC study

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Dainton, J; Holzer, B; Bettoni, S; Bruning, O; Russenschuck, S H; Kostka, P; Kling, A; Nagorny, B; Schneekloth, U; Polini, A; Klein, M

    2010-01-01

    The LHeC aims at colliding hadron-lepton beams with center of mass energies in the TeV scale. For this purpose the existing LHC storage ring is extended by a high energy electron accelerator in the energy range of 60 to 140 GeV. The electron beam will be accelerated and stored in a LEP like storage ring in the LHC tunnel. In this paper we present the layout of the interaction region which has to deliver at the same time well matched beam optics and an efficient separation of the electron and proton beams. In general the large momentum difference of the two colliding beams provides a very elegant way to solve this problem: A focusing scheme that leads to the required beamsizes of the electrons and protons is combined with an early but gentle beam separation to avoid parasitic beam encounters and still keep the synchrotron radiation level in the IR within reasonable limits. We present in this paper two versions of this concept: A high luminosity layout where the mini β magnets are embedded into the detector de...

  3. Genome-wide occupancy profile of mediator and the Srb8-11 module reveals interactions with coding regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Wirén, Marianna; Sinha, Indranil

    2006-01-01

    to investigate genome-wide localization of Mediator and the Srb8-11 module in fission yeast. Mediator and the Srb8-11 module display similar binding patterns, and interactions with promoters and upstream activating sequences correlate with increased transcription activity. Unexpectedly, Mediator also interacts...... with the downstream coding region of many genes. These interactions display a negative bias for positions closer to the 5' ends of open reading frames (ORFs) and appear functionally important, because downregulation of transcription in a temperature-sensitive med17 mutant strain correlates with increased Mediator...

  4. Key region of laminin receptor 1 for interaction with human period 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... The 67 kDa laminin receptor 1 (Lamr1) is a novel protein that interacts with human circadian clock protein period 1 (hPer1). We confirmed the interaction between hPer1 and complete Lamr1 (295 amino acids) through yeast two-hybrid system in the present study. And we identified the interaction between.

  5. Key region of laminin receptor 1 for interaction with human ... - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... The 67 kDa laminin receptor 1 (Lamr1) is a novel protein that interacts with human circadian clock protein period 1 (hPer1). We confirmed the interaction between hPer1 and complete Lamr1 (295 amino acids) through yeast two-hybrid system in the present study. And we identified the interaction between.

  6. Regional scale effects of the aerosol cloud interaction simulated with an online coupled comprehensive chemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bangert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have extended the coupled mesoscale atmosphere and chemistry model COSMO-ART to account for the transformation of aerosol particles into cloud condensation nuclei and to quantify their interaction with warm cloud microphysics on the regional scale. The new model system aims to fill the gap between cloud resolving models and global scale models. It represents the very complex microscale aerosol and cloud physics as detailed as possible, whereas the continental domain size and efficient codes will allow for both studying weather and regional climate. The model system is applied in a first extended case study for Europe for a cloudy five day period in August 2005.

    The model results show that the mean cloud droplet number concentration of clouds is correlated with the structure of the terrain, and we present a terrain slope parameter TS to classify this dependency. We propose to use this relationship to parameterize the probability density function, PDF, of subgrid-scale cloud updraft velocity in the activation parameterizations of climate models.

    The simulations show that the presence of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and clouds are closely related spatially. We find high aerosol and CCN number concentrations in the vicinity of clouds at high altitudes. The nucleation of secondary particles is enhanced above the clouds. This is caused by an efficient formation of gaseous aerosol precursors above the cloud due to more available radiation, transport of gases in clean air above the cloud, and humid conditions. Therefore the treatment of complex photochemistry is crucial in atmospheric models to simulate the distribution of CCN.

    The mean cloud droplet number concentration and droplet diameter showed a close link to the change in the aerosol. To quantify the net impact of an aerosol change on the precipitation we calculated the precipitation susceptibility β for the whole model domain over a period of two days with

  7. Interaction between the tidal and seasonal variability of the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavouta, Anna; Thompson, Keith; Lu, Youyu; Loder, John

    2017-04-01

    In the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf (off the northeastern coast of North America) tides are large and can alter the local hydrographic properties, circulation, and sea surface height through processes such as tidal rectification, mixing, and horizontal advection. Furthermore, the stratification of the water column can influence tidal elevation and currents over the shelves (e.g., baroclinic tides). To investigate this interaction, a newly developed high resolution (1/36 degree) regional circulation model is used (GoMSS model). First, numerical experiments with and without density stratification are used to demonstrate the influence of stratification on the tides. GoMSS model is then used to interpret the physical mechanisms responsible for the largest seasonal variations in the M2 surface current which occur over, and to the north of, Georges Bank. An alternating pattern of highs and lows in the summer maximum M2 surface speed in the Gulf of Maine is identified, for the first time, in both the model output and observations by a high frequency coastal radar system. This pattern consists of extended striations in tidal speed aligned with the northern flank of Georges Bank that separates the Gulf of Maine from the North Atlantic. The striations are explained in terms of a linear superposition of the barotropic tide flowing across the northern flank of Georges Bank and the reflected, phase-locked baroclinic tide. The striations have amplitudes of about 0.1 m/s and longitudinal length scales of order 100 km, and are thus of practical significance.

  8. Source Population and Acceleration Location of Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Corotating Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filwett, R. J.; Desai, M. I. [University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Dayeh, M. A.; Broiles, T. W. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We have analyzed the ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} suprathermal (ST) heavy ion abundances in 41 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) observed by the Wind spacecraft from 1995 January to 2008 December. Our results are: (1) the CIR Fe/CNO and NeS/CNO ratios vary with the sunspot number, with values being closer to average solar energetic particle event values during solar maxima and lower than nominal solar wind values during solar minima. The physical mechanism responsible for the depleted abundances during solar minimum remains an open question. (2) The Fe/CNO increases with energy in the 6 events that occurred during solar maximum, while no such trends are observed for the 35 events during solar minimum. (3) The Fe/CNO shows no correlation with the average solar wind speed. (4) The Fe/CNO is well correlated with the corresponding upstream ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO and not with the solar wind Fe/O measured by ACE in 31 events. Using the correlations between the upstream ∼20–40 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO and the ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO in CIRs, we estimate that, on average, the ST particles traveled ∼2 au along the nominal Parker spiral field line, which corresponds to upper limits for the radial distance of the source or acceleration location of ∼1 au beyond Earth orbit. Our results are consistent with those obtained from recent surveys, and confirm that CIR ST heavy ions are accelerated more locally, and are at odds with the traditional viewpoint that CIR ions seen at 1 au are bulk solar wind ions accelerated between 3 and 5 au.

  9. Genomic distance entrained clustering and regression modelling highlights interacting genomic regions contributing to proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Tim J; Sims, David; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Mackay, Alan; Grigoriadis, Anita; Ahmad, Amar S; Zvelebil, Marketa

    2010-09-08

    Genomic copy number changes and regional alterations in epigenetic states have been linked to grade in breast cancer. However, the relative contribution of specific alterations to the pathology of different breast cancer subtypes remains unclear. The heterogeneity and interplay of genomic and epigenetic variations means that large datasets and statistical data mining methods are required to uncover recurrent patterns that are likely to be important in cancer progression. We employed ridge regression to model the relationship between regional changes in gene expression and proliferation. Regional features were extracted from tumour gene expression data using a novel clustering method, called genomic distance entrained agglomerative (GDEC) clustering. Using gene expression data in this way provides a simple means of integrating the phenotypic effects of both copy number aberrations and alterations in chromatin state. We show that regional metagenes derived from GDEC clustering are representative of recurrent regions of epigenetic regulation or copy number aberrations in breast cancer. Furthermore, detected patterns of genomic alterations are conserved across independent oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer datasets. Sequential competitive metagene selection was used to reveal the relative importance of genomic regions in predicting proliferation rate. The predictive model suggested additive interactions between the most informative regions such as 8p22-12 and 8q13-22. Data-mining of large-scale microarray gene expression datasets can reveal regional clusters of co-ordinate gene expression, independent of cause. By correlating these clusters with tumour proliferation we have identified a number of genomic regions that act together to promote proliferation in ER+ breast cancer. Identification of such regions should enable prioritisation of genomic regions for combinatorial functional studies to pinpoint the key genes and interactions contributing to

  10. Genomic distance entrained clustering and regression modelling highlights interacting genomic regions contributing to proliferation in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter Tim J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic copy number changes and regional alterations in epigenetic states have been linked to grade in breast cancer. However, the relative contribution of specific alterations to the pathology of different breast cancer subtypes remains unclear. The heterogeneity and interplay of genomic and epigenetic variations means that large datasets and statistical data mining methods are required to uncover recurrent patterns that are likely to be important in cancer progression. Results We employed ridge regression to model the relationship between regional changes in gene expression and proliferation. Regional features were extracted from tumour gene expression data using a novel clustering method, called genomic distance entrained agglomerative (GDEC clustering. Using gene expression data in this way provides a simple means of integrating the phenotypic effects of both copy number aberrations and alterations in chromatin state. We show that regional metagenes derived from GDEC clustering are representative of recurrent regions of epigenetic regulation or copy number aberrations in breast cancer. Furthermore, detected patterns of genomic alterations are conserved across independent oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer datasets. Sequential competitive metagene selection was used to reveal the relative importance of genomic regions in predicting proliferation rate. The predictive model suggested additive interactions between the most informative regions such as 8p22-12 and 8q13-22. Conclusions Data-mining of large-scale microarray gene expression datasets can reveal regional clusters of co-ordinate gene expression, independent of cause. By correlating these clusters with tumour proliferation we have identified a number of genomic regions that act together to promote proliferation in ER+ breast cancer. Identification of such regions should enable prioritisation of genomic regions for combinatorial functional studies to pinpoint

  11. Impacts of future changes in phenology on land-atmosphere interactions in temperate and boreal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduk, Jörg; Los, Sietse

    2010-05-01

    ), which suggest an advance of more than six days average. The observed relationship between chilling and warming at the time of green-up indicates an element of regional adaptation of the warming required for leaf out in biomes covering large areas. The phenological models were implemented in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES). In the model the advance in green up leads to a longer growing season with longer leaf display. In regions where soil moisture is mainly fed by spring rain and snow melt, however, there is only a limited increase of photosynthesis as it is determined by soil water availability. A longer summer dry period is resulting. Simulations including a Fire Weather Index indicate that the longer dry summers lead to an increase in the forest fire risk under future climate change in considerable areas. While this increase results partially from the changed climate, partially also the earlier leaf appearance contributes to the increased risk. Also there is a significant difference between simulations using only SWMs in contrast to employing also a chilling dependency. The results highlight the necessity of including appropriate phenology models in climate models for correct predictions of land-atmosphere interactions.

  12. Main Effects of Diagnoses, Brain Regions, and their Interaction Effects for Cerebral Metabolites in Bipolar and Unipolar Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hai-Zhu; Li, Hui; Liu, Chen-Feng; Guan, Ji-Tian; Guo, Xiao-Bo; Wen, Can-Hong; Ou, Shao-Min; Zhang, Yin-Nan; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Chong-Tao; Shen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ren-Hua; Wang, Xue-Qin

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies suggested patients with bipolar depressive disorder (BDd) or unipolar depressive disorder (UDd) have cerebral metabolites abnormalities. These abnormalities may stem from multiple sub-regions of gray matter in brain regions. Thirteen BDd patients, 20 UDd patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to investigate these abnormalities. Absolute concentrations of 5 cerebral metabolites (glutamate-glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr), parietal cortex (PC)) were measured from 4 subregions (the medial frontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and parietal cortex (PC)) of gray matter. Main and interaction effects of cerebral metabolites across subregions of gray matter were evaluated. For example, the Glx was significantly higher in BDd compared with UDd, and so on. As the interaction analyses showed, some interaction effects existed. The concentrations of BDds’ Glx, Cho, Cr in the ACC and HCs’ mI and Cr in the PC were higher than that of other interaction effects. In addition, the concentrations of BDds’ Glx and Cr in the PC and HCs’ mI in the ACC were statistically significant lower than that of other interaction effects. These findings point to region-related abnormalities of cerebral metabolites across subjects with BDd and UDd.

  13. Natural analogue study for interaction between alkaline groundwater and bentonite at Mangatarem region in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Y.; Fujita, K.; Nakabayashi, R.; Sato, T.; Yoneda, T.; Yamakawa, M.; Fujii, N.; Namiki, K.; Kasama, T.; Alexander, R.; Arcilla, C.; Pascua, C.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Alteration of bentonite by alkaline leachate from cement/concrete in geological repositories for TRU radioactive waste is deleterious to bentonite performance as a buffer material. Although there have been many laboratory studies on high pH fluid-bentonite interaction for longer term understanding of the behavior of bentonites as buffer materials, different time scales between laboratory experiments and real disposal conditions impede its proper assessment. Thus, a natural analogue study can play an important role in (a) bridging the timescale gaps between laboratory experiments and real disposal conditions and (b) verifying the modeling studies of bentonite stability. Previous natural analogue studies on the cement-bentonite interaction are relatively few. Therefore, this study focuses on the process of serpentinization in ophiolitic rocks which resemble the process of leaching high pH ground waters from cement materials and report the results of study about alkaline water-bentonite interaction in Mangatarem, Philippines. In Mangatarem, in west central Luzon Island in the northern Philippines, there are bentonite quarries in the Aksitero Formation, which is part of the Zambales Ophiolite. Several alkaline hot springs derived from ongoing serpentinization of the ophiolite can be found in close proximity to the bentonite.Through a site characterization (including a foot survey, a series of boreholes and trench excavation in the Saile quarry in Mangatarem, the interface between the bentonite and the pillow lava of the upper ophiolite was confirmed, and chrysotile, a low temperature type of serpentine, was observed in the fault filling by XRD analysis. In the pillow lava, serpentine was also observed inside the fault that cut across both the bentonite and the pillow lava. From these facts, low temperature high pH fluids appears to have passed through the faults and came into contact with the bentonite. In order to

  14. TAXPAYERS AND TAX AUTHORITIES INTERACTING WITHIN THE MENA REGION: THE NEXUS BETWEEN TRUST, POWER AND COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Larissa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any type of interaction climate, be it synergistic or antagonistic, is delineated by a tandem of dimensions: trust in authorities and power of authorities. Advocates for this assumption are the manifold of empirical studies testing the “slippery slope framework” which subsumes the two dimensions. A major proffer advanced by the framework is that tax authorities’ approach towards citizens poses great influence on compliance, either fuelling or hindering it. Irrespective of whether tax burden level is high (e.g., Scandinavian, Continental welfare states, medium (e.g., East European, Anglo-Saxon welfare states, minimum or completely lacking (e.g., tax havens, tax authorities and taxpayers establish a connection in which the former’s actions are mirrored in the latter’s perceptions about leadership’s benevolence in public good provisions (i.e., trust and efficiency in deterring tax evasion (i.e., power. The tandem trust-power and the specific features of such connections within some countries of the Middle East and Northern Africa tax climate (i.e., Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates are the thrust of the present study. The methodology spans a multidisciplinary approach, from explaining trust and power via governance indicators proposed by the World Bank, investigating economic development with chain base indexes and examining tax compliance process on country-level. The MENA region is source for novel and relevant insights on the nexus between trust, power and compliance, as it hosts countries which vary greatly in terms of economic development (transition to developed, fiscal policy (low to no taxes or economy drivers (oil exporters, oil importers and where tax compliance gains importance amid diminishing hydrocarbon resources. Nowadays economic realities constrain MENA authorities to refocus their governing strategies and perceive taxation as a viable future solution for

  15. Satellite observation of aerosol - cloud interactions over semi-arid and arid land regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klüser, L.; Holzer-Popp, T.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite observations from three different sources are used to study the interactions between aerosol and ice clouds in five semi-arid and arid land regions over Africa and Asia, reaching from the South-African Kalahari to the Taklimakan and Gobi in Mongolia. (1) Six years of Aqua MODIS cloud and aerosol observations (including "Deep Blue" retrievals) which contain a qualitative separation into coarse and fine mode aerosol are analysed. (2) Five years of APOLLO cloud observations and SYNAER aerosol retrievals which allow discriminating between mineral dust and soot dominated cases from AATSR and SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT are exploited. (3) Moreover IASI provides one year of ice cloud and mineral dust observations over land retrieved with a newly developed method based on singular vector decomposition. Cloud top temperature observations are used to asses the state of convection and to statistically re-project observation distributions of cloud properties to background conditions. Then the difference between observation density distributions of background and re-projected aerosol-contaminated samples can be evaluated. By such way of analysis the influence of different cloud development stages, which also manifest in seasonal cycles of cloud properties, can be minimised. The analysis of the various observation density distributions shows that liquid water and ice effective radius is mainly decreased for increased total aerosol content for both aerosol types, biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust, separately. Two different modes of aerosol impacts on cloud optical depth can be shown. Optical depth is mainly increased, directly following the theory of the so-called "Twomey effect". In the West African Sahel a decrease of cloud water path (for both liquid water and ice) under the influence of absorbing aerosols results also in decreased optical depth. As at the same time the cloud fraction does not decrease under aerosol influence, the statistical decrease of mean

  16. Interactions between trophic levels in upwelling and non-upwelling regions during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Malik, A.; Fernandes, C.E.G.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Subina, N.S.; Mamatha, S.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Varik, S.; RituKumari; Gauns, M.; Cejoice, R.P.; Pandey, S.S.; Jineesh, V.K.; Kamaleson, A.S.; Vijayan, V.; Mukherjee, I.; Subramanyan, S.; Nair, S.; Ingole, B.S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    , phytoplankton and zooplankton significantly responded. Primary and bacterial productivity enhanced together with increase in the percentage of viable bacteria (TVC). Pearson's correlation analysis pointed out the differences in bacterial interactions with other...

  17. Gravitation Model and Spatial Interaction: An Application of Geographical Science for Regional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendra Martha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geography as a science describing the inter-relationship between nature and human actions, has a particular applicability values. One of the examples is the use of gravity and  space interaction model approach. This approach applies a formula in which inetraction within space an be known; by multiplying total number of population in two (city areas and the distances between them. This application is very useful to plan infrastructure, particularly for places having low interaction values.

  18. Selective interaction of heparin with the variable region 3 within surface glycoprotein of laboratory-adapted feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiong-Ying; Fink, Elizabeth; Grant, Chris K; Elder, John H

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) can act as binding receptors for certain laboratory-adapted (TCA) strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Heparin, a soluble heparin sulfate (HS), can inhibit TCA HIV and FIV entry mediated by HSPG interaction in vitro. In the present study, we further determined the selective interaction of heparin with the V3 loop of TCA of FIV. Our current results indicate that heparin selectively inhibits infection by TCA strains, but not for field isolates (FS). Heparin also specifically interferes with TCA surface glycoprotein (SU) binding to CXCR4, by interactions with HSPG binding sites on the V3 loop of the FIV envelope protein. Peptides representing either the N- or C-terminal side of the V3 loop and containing HSPG binding sites were able to compete away the heparin block of TCA SU binding to CXCR4. Heparin does not interfere with the interaction of SU with anti-V3 antibodies that target the CXCR4 binding region or with the interaction between FS FIV and anti-V3 antibodies since FS SU has no HSPG binding sites within the HSPG binding region. Our data show that heparin blocks TCA FIV infection or entry not only through its competition of HSPG on the cell surface interaction with SU, but also by its interference with CXCR4 binding to SU. These studies aid in the design and development of heparin derivatives or analogues that can inhibit steps in virus infection and are informative regarding the HSPG/SU interaction.

  19. Selective interaction of heparin with the variable region 3 within surface glycoprotein of laboratory-adapted feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Ying Hu

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG can act as binding receptors for certain laboratory-adapted (TCA strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Heparin, a soluble heparin sulfate (HS, can inhibit TCA HIV and FIV entry mediated by HSPG interaction in vitro. In the present study, we further determined the selective interaction of heparin with the V3 loop of TCA of FIV. Our current results indicate that heparin selectively inhibits infection by TCA strains, but not for field isolates (FS. Heparin also specifically interferes with TCA surface glycoprotein (SU binding to CXCR4, by interactions with HSPG binding sites on the V3 loop of the FIV envelope protein. Peptides representing either the N- or C-terminal side of the V3 loop and containing HSPG binding sites were able to compete away the heparin block of TCA SU binding to CXCR4. Heparin does not interfere with the interaction of SU with anti-V3 antibodies that target the CXCR4 binding region or with the interaction between FS FIV and anti-V3 antibodies since FS SU has no HSPG binding sites within the HSPG binding region. Our data show that heparin blocks TCA FIV infection or entry not only through its competition of HSPG on the cell surface interaction with SU, but also by its interference with CXCR4 binding to SU. These studies aid in the design and development of heparin derivatives or analogues that can inhibit steps in virus infection and are informative regarding the HSPG/SU interaction.

  20. Binding characteristics and interactive region of 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Zhong, Dandan; Luo, Jinhui; Tan, Hongliang; Chen, Shouhui; Li, Ping; Wang, Li; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between 2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline (PQ) and DNA under physiological conditions was investigated using multi-spectroscopic techniques, atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis. The thermodynamic parameters were estimated and were discussed in detail. The results of fluorescence-quenching experiments indicated that the main interactive force between PQ and DNA was a hydrophobic interaction and that it was a static quenching process. Potassium iodide and single-strand (ss)DNA quenching studies, together with circular dichroism spectra implied groove binding of PQ with DNA. Atomic force microscopy and gel electrophoresis experiments suggested that there were no major conformational changes in DNA upon interaction with PQ. In addition, UV/vis absorption titration of DNA bases confirmed that PQ bound with DNA mainly through a minor groove interaction and preferentially interacted with adenine and thymine. We anticipate that this work will provide useful information for the application of quinazoline derivatives in the fields of medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Multi-tracer profiling of natural and anthropogenic water sources and interaction in the oil sands region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; YI, Y.; Moncur, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic, geochemical and organic tracer techniques for labeling water and for tracing biogeochemical processes in the Athabasca oil sands region, northern Alberta are being developed as part of research projects led by Alberta Innovates Technology Futures (AITF). Studies conducted to date have included both regional and site-specific assessments of baseline groundwater geochemistry, groundwater-surface water interactions, lake/wetland water balance, and acid sensitivity studies, as well as analysis of specific industrial issues such as airborne deposition, water supply, SAGD metals mobility, surface-casing-vent flows, and oil-sands process-affected water. Multiple tracers have been applied to interpret the source of water, salinity and organics in groundwater and surface water, which has led to better understanding of groundwater age, hydrodynamics, surface-subsurface connectivity, and the role of glaciogenic water and evaporate deposits in the regional hydrogeological system. Progress has also been made towards more extensive chemical characterization of process-affected water. The key to assessing ongoing anthropogenic impacts, in the context of significant observed natural variability in the oil sands region, is application of a multi-tracer toolkit as well as understanding of the regional and site-specific biogeochemical processes that control tracer distribution and interaction.

  2. Low energy ions in co-rotating interaction regions at 1 AU: evidence for statistical ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of the statistical acceleration of solar wind ions to energies above 10 keV in the vicinity of co-rotating high speed solar wind streams by scattering from hydromagnetic waves is considered. It was found that this process may occur only in the compressed fast stream plasma within the interaction region between the stream interface and the trailing edge, and may account for the energetic ion enhancements observed in this region by Richardson and Zwickl. When statistical acceleration occurs in the outer heliosphere, the accelerated ions may provide a source population for acceleration at the co-rotating reverse shock. (author)

  3. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Koff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  4. Understanding nutrient dynamics in an African savanna : Local biotic interactions outweigh a major regional rainfall gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Michiel P.; Hulshof, Anneleen; Fokkema, Wimke; Berg, Matty P.; Olff, Han

    Nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems has been found to vary along regional climatic and soil gradients and drive variation in plant community composition and vegetation structure. However, more local biotic feedbacks also affect nutrient availability, but their importance in determining

  5. Understanding nutrient dynamics in an African savanna: local biotic interactions outweigh a major regional rainfall gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, M.P.; Hulshof, A.; Fokkema, W.; Berg, M.P.; Olff, H.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems has been found to vary along regional climatic and soil gradients and drive variation in plant community composition and vegetation structure. However, more local biotic feedbacks also affect nutrient availability, but their importance in determining

  6. Wind tunnel study of the wind turbine interaction with a boundary-layer flow: Upwind region, turbine performance, and wake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastankhah, M.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive wind tunnel experiments were carried out to study the interaction of a turbulent boundary layer with a wind turbine operating under different tip-speed ratios and yaw angles. Force and power measurements were performed to characterize the variation of thrust force (both magnitude and direction) and generated power of the wind turbine under different operating conditions. Moreover, flow measurements, collected using high-resolution particle-image velocimetry as well as hot-wire anemometry, were employed to systematically study the flow in the upwind, near-wake, and far-wake regions. These measurements provide new insights into the effect of turbine operating conditions on flow characteristics in these regions. For the upwind region, the results show a strong lateral asymmetry under yawed conditions. For the near-wake region, the evolution of tip and root vortices was studied with the use of both instantaneous and phase-averaged vorticity fields. The results suggest that the vortex breakdown position cannot be determined based on phase-averaged statistics, particularly for tip vortices under turbulent inflow conditions. Moreover, the measurements in the near-wake region indicate a complex velocity distribution with a speed-up region in the wake center, especially for higher tip-speed ratios. In order to elucidate the meandering tendency of far wakes, particular focus was placed on studying the characteristics of large turbulent structures in the boundary layer and their interaction with wind turbines. Although these structures are elongated in the streamwise direction, their cross sections are found to have a size comparable to the rotor area, so that they can be affected by the presence of the turbine. In addition, the study of spatial coherence in turbine wakes reveals that any statistics based on streamwise velocity fluctuations cannot provide reliable information about the size of large turbulent structures in turbine wakes due to the effect of wake

  7. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more...... that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non...... evidence that, for many of the complex diseases studied here, common genetic associations implicate regions encoding proteins that physically interact in a preferential manner, in line with observations in Mendelian disease....

  8. Urban-rural interaction and implications for regional planning in China, 1980-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng Li

    2011-01-01

    Urban-rural interaction in China has evolved a lot due to the economic growth and policy influences in the post-reform era since 1978. This evolution has exerted influences on the urban and rural areas in various aspects of demography, economy and environment. At present, China is on a track of fast economic growth and urbanization development which will definitely shape urban and rural areas at the same time. How will urban-rural interaction in China develop in the future? What are the impli...

  9. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  10. Asymmetric Multisensory Interactions of Visual and Somatosensory Responses in a Region of the Rat Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Michael T.; Takagaki, Kentaroh

    2013-01-01

    Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD) responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level. PMID:23667650

  11. Vegetation–climate interactions in arid and semi–arid regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Zun

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation–climate interactions play an important role in earth system dynamics. It includes the effects of climate on vegetation and feedbacks from vegetation to climate. Such complex and nonlinear processes can enhance climate variation and lead to alternative stable states under given climate

  12. Interactive Ways of Becoming a Specialist Fine Art of the Ukrainian Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pastyr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions the method of education is especially effective if it is built on the intensification of mental activity and is aimed at developing a creative personality. The study presents a system of interactive ways of becoming a specialist in Izmail State Liberal Arts University.

  13. Asymmetric multisensory interactions of visual and somatosensory responses in a region of the rat parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Lippert

    Full Text Available Perception greatly benefits from integrating multiple sensory cues into a unified percept. To study the neural mechanisms of sensory integration, model systems are required that allow the simultaneous assessment of activity and the use of techniques to affect individual neural processes in behaving animals. While rodents qualify for these requirements, little is known about multisensory integration and areas involved for this purpose in the rodent. Using optical imaging combined with laminar electrophysiological recordings, the rat parietal cortex was identified as an area where visual and somatosensory inputs converge and interact. Our results reveal similar response patterns to visual and somatosensory stimuli at the level of current source density (CSD responses and multi-unit responses within a strip in parietal cortex. Surprisingly, a selective asymmetry was observed in multisensory interactions: when the somatosensory response preceded the visual response, supra-linear summation of CSD was observed, but the reverse stimulus order resulted in sub-linear effects in the CSD. This asymmetry was not present in multi-unit activity however, which showed consistently sub-linear interactions. These interactions were restricted to a specific temporal window, and pharmacological tests revealed significant local intra-cortical contributions to this phenomenon. Our results highlight the rodent parietal cortex as a system to model the neural underpinnings of multisensory processing in behaving animals and at the cellular level.

  14. Identification of T1D susceptibility genes within the MHC region by combining protein interaction networks and SNP genotyping data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, C.; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Hansen, Kasper Lage

    2009-01-01

    genes. We have developed a novel method that combines single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data with protein-protein interaction (ppi) networks to identify disease-associated network modules enriched for proteins encoded from the MHC region. Approximately 2500 SNPs located in the 4 Mb MHC......To develop novel methods for identifying new genes that contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6, independently of the known linkage disequilibrium (LD) between human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1...... are well known in the pathogenesis of T1D, but the modules also contain additional candidates that have been implicated in beta-cell development and diabetic complications. The extensive LD within the MHC region makes it important to develop new methods for analysing genotyping data for identification...

  15. Meteor matter interaction with the Earth's atmosphere and the ionospheric E-region structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, O.

    1987-01-01

    The exploration of the ionospheric E region is a pressing problem, both in the applied and fundamental studies. Results are presented of an investigation: (1) to estimate the meteor ionization contribution to the night time E layer and influx; (2) to study the phenomenon of intensive sporadic layer formation following cessation of meteor stream activity; and (3) to access the role of metallic ions of meteor origin in the diurnal and seasonal variations in the occurrence probabilities of midlatitude E/sub s/. The contribution was evaluated of meteor matter, Lyman radiation and corpuscular particles to the electron concentration of the night E region. Results are discussed

  16. Interactive lakes in the Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 5: the role of lakes in the regional climate of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dugas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two one-dimensional (1-D column lake models have been coupled interactively with a developmental version of the Canadian Regional Climate Model. Multidecadal reanalyses-driven simulations with and without lakes revealed the systematic biases of the model and the impact of lakes on the simulated North American climate.The presence of lakes strongly influences the climate of the lake-rich region of the Canadian Shield. Due to their large thermal inertia, lakes act to dampen the diurnal and seasonal cycle of low-level air temperature. In late autumn and winter, ice-free lakes induce large sensible and latent heat fluxes, resulting in a strong enhancement of precipitation downstream of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which is referred to as the snow belt.The FLake (FL and Hostetler (HL lake models perform adequately for small subgrid-scale lakes and for large resolved lakes with shallow depth, located in temperate or warm climatic regions. Both lake models exhibit specific strengths and weaknesses. For example, HL simulates too rapid spring warming and too warm surface temperature, especially in large and deep lakes; FL tends to damp the diurnal cycle of surface temperature. An adaptation of 1-D lake models might be required for an adequate simulation of large and deep lakes.

  17. Interacting Regional-Scale Regime Shifts for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leadley, P.; Proenca, V.; Fernandez-Manjarres, J.; Pereira, H.M.; Alkemade, J.R.M.; Biggs, R.; Bruley, E.; Cheung, W.; Cooper, D.; Figueiredo, J.; Gilman, E.; Guenette, S.; Hurtt, G.; Mbow, C.; Oberdorff, T.; Revenga, C.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Scholes, R.; Smith, M.S.; Sumaila, U.R.; Walpole, M.

    2014-01-01

    Current trajectories of global change may lead to regime shifts at regional scales, driving coupled human-environment systems to highly degraded states in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. For business-as-usual socioeconomic development pathways, regime shifts are

  18. Cross-talk studies between FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081283; Seryi, Andrei; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Besana, Maria Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    Debris from 50 TeV proton-proton collisions at the main interaction point in the FCC-hh may contribute to the background in the subsequent detector. This cross-talk is of possible concern for the FCC-hh due to the high luminosity and energy of the collider. DPMJET-III is used as a collision debris generator in order to assess the muon cross-talk contribution. An analytical calculation of muon range in rock is performed. This is followed by a full Monte Carlo simulation using FLUKA, where the accelerator tunnel has been modelled. The muon cross talk between the adjacent interaction points is assessed and its implications for FCC-hh design are discussed.

  19. Housing shortages in urban regions: aggressive interactions at tree hollows in forest remnants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Davis

    Full Text Available Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we investigated how the hollow-using assemblage, visitation rate, diversity and number of interactions varied between hollows within urban remnant forest and continuous forest. Motion-activated video cameras were installed, via roped access to the canopy, and hollow usage was monitored at 61 hollows over a two-year period. Tree hollows within urban remnants had a significantly different assemblage of visitors to those in continuous forest as well as a higher rate of visitation than hollows within continuous forest, with the rainbow lorikeet making significantly more visitations than any other taxa. Hollows within urban remnants were characterised by significantly higher usage rates and significantly more aggressive interactions than hollows within continuous forest, with parrots responsible for almost all interactions. Within urban remnants, high rates of hollow visitation and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions observed at tree hollows suggest the number of available optimal hollows may be limiting. Understanding the usage of urban remnant hollows by wildlife, as well as the role of parrots as a potential flagship for the conservation of tree-hollows, is vital to prevent a decrease in the diversity of urban fauna, particularly as other less competitive species risk being outcompeted by abundant native species.

  20. Housing Shortages in Urban Regions: Aggressive Interactions at Tree Hollows in Forest Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adrian; Major, Richard E.; Taylor, Charlotte E.

    2013-01-01

    Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we investigated how the hollow-using assemblage, visitation rate, diversity and number of interactions varied between hollows within urban remnant forest and continuous forest. Motion-activated video cameras were installed, via roped access to the canopy, and hollow usage was monitored at 61 hollows over a two-year period. Tree hollows within urban remnants had a significantly different assemblage of visitors to those in continuous forest as well as a higher rate of visitation than hollows within continuous forest, with the rainbow lorikeet making significantly more visitations than any other taxa. Hollows within urban remnants were characterised by significantly higher usage rates and significantly more aggressive interactions than hollows within continuous forest, with parrots responsible for almost all interactions. Within urban remnants, high rates of hollow visitation and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions observed at tree hollows suggest the number of available optimal hollows may be limiting. Understanding the usage of urban remnant hollows by wildlife, as well as the role of parrots as a potential flagship for the conservation of tree-hollows, is vital to prevent a decrease in the diversity of urban fauna, particularly as other less competitive species risk being outcompeted by abundant native species. PMID:23555657

  1. Modeling the Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Impacted by Agricultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In many semi-arid and arid regions, interaction between surface water and groundwater plays an important role in the eco-hydrological system. The interaction is often complicated by agricultural activities such as surface water diversion, groundwater pumping, and irrigation. In existing surface water-groundwater integrated models, simulation of the interaction is often simplified, which could introduce significant simulation uncertainty under certain circumstance. In this study, GSFLOW, a USGS model coupling PRMS and MODFLOW, was improved to better characterize the surface water-groundwater interaction. The practices of water diversion from rivers, groundwater pumping and irrigation are explicitly simulated. In addition, the original kinematic wave routing method was replaced by a dynamic wave routing method. The improved model was then applied in Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe River Baisn), China, where the famous 'Silk Road' came through. It is a typical semi-arid region of the western China, with extensive agriculture in its oasis. The model was established and calibrated using the data in 2000-2008. A series of numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of those improvements. It has been demonstrated that with the improvements, the observed streamflow and groundwater level were better reproduced by the model. The improvements have a significant impact on the simulation of multiple fluxes associated with the interaction, such as groundwater discharge, riverbed seepage, infiltration, etc. Human activities were proved to be key elements of the water cycle in the study area. The study results have important implications to the water resources modeling and management in semi-arid and arid basins.

  2. Thermodynamics of antibody-antigen interaction revealed by mutation analysis of antibody variable regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-07-01

    Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. SOURCE REGIONS OF THE TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVED DURING A CME–CME INTERACTION ON 2013 MAY 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Krupar, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind /WAVES and STEREO /WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  4. The Gateway Reflex, a Novel Neuro-Immune Interaction for the Regulation of Regional Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Tanaka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gateway reflex is a new phenomenon that explains how immune cells bypass the blood–brain barrier to infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS and trigger neuroinflammation. To date, four examples of gateway reflexes have been discovered, each described by the stimulus that evokes the reflex. Gravity, electricity, pain, and stress have all been found to create gateways at specific regions of the CNS. The gateway reflex, the most recently discovered of the four, has also been shown to upset the homeostasis of organs in the periphery through its action on the CNS. These reflexes provide novel therapeutic targets for the control of local neuroinflammation and organ function. Each gateway reflex is activated by different neural activations and induces inflmammation at different regions in the CNS. Therefore, it is theoretically possible to manipulate each independently, providing a novel therapeutic strategy to control local neuroinflammation and peripheral organ homeostasis.

  5. Interaction of Economic Freedom and Foreign Direct Investment Globally: Special Cases from Neglected Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhlas Sovbetov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the macroeconomic impact of economic freedom on foreign direct investments inflows in both global and regional panel analyses involving 156 countries through the period of 1995-2016. Unlike to prior literature, it includes often neglected nations such as Fragile and Conflict-Affected states, Sub-Saharan, Oceanian, and Post-Soviet countries. The paper finds a positive impact of economic freedom on FDI under fixed-effects model in global case where a unit change in economic freedom scales FDI inflows up to 1.15 units. More specifically, all 9 regions also refer to positive and significant impact of economic freedom on FDI. The highest impact is recorded in European countries, whereas the lowest ones are documented in Fragile-Conflict affected states, Sub-Saharan zone, and Oceanian countries.

  6. The Gateway Reflex, a Novel Neuro-Immune Interaction for the Regulation of Regional Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuki; Arima, Yasunobu; Kamimura, Daisuke; Murakami, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    The gateway reflex is a new phenomenon that explains how immune cells bypass the blood-brain barrier to infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and trigger neuroinflammation. To date, four examples of gateway reflexes have been discovered, each described by the stimulus that evokes the reflex. Gravity, electricity, pain, and stress have all been found to create gateways at specific regions of the CNS. The gateway reflex, the most recently discovered of the four, has also been shown to upset the homeostasis of organs in the periphery through its action on the CNS. These reflexes provide novel therapeutic targets for the control of local neuroinflammation and organ function. Each gateway reflex is activated by different neural activations and induces inflmammation at different regions in the CNS. Therefore, it is theoretically possible to manipulate each independently, providing a novel therapeutic strategy to control local neuroinflammation and peripheral organ homeostasis.

  7. Decomposition & synergy: a study of the interactions and dependence among the 5 Brazilian macro regions

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, Joaquim José Marins; Moretto, Antonio Carlos; Rodrigues, Rosana Lott

    2001-01-01

    The methodology originally developed by Sonis, Hewings, and Miyazawa (1997) is now expanded and discussed more horoughly when applied to an interregional table at the level of the 5 macro regions of the Brazilian economy for the year of 1995. The methodology used in this work is based on a partitioned input-output system and exploits techniques of the Leontief inverse through the nature of the internal and external interdependencies giving by the linkages, which allows to classify the types o...

  8. Identification of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Hexon Regions That Interact with Scavenger Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, Reeti; Reddy, Vijay S.; Nemerow, Glen R.; Barry, Michael A. (Scripps); (Mayo)

    2012-05-04

    Most of an intravenous dose of species C adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is destroyed by liver Kupffer cells. In contrast, another species C virus, Ad6, evades these cells to mediate more efficient liver gene delivery. Given that this difference in Kupffer cell interaction is mediated by the hypervariable (HVR) loops of the virus hexon protein, we genetically modified each of the seven HVRs of Ad5 with a cysteine residue to enable conditional blocking of these sites with polyethylene glycol (PEG). We show that these modifications do not affect in vitro virus transduction. In contrast, after intravenous injection, targeted PEGylation at HVRs 1, 2, 5, and 7 increased viral liver transduction up to 20-fold. Elimination or saturation of liver Kupffer cells did not significantly affect this increase in the liver transduction. In vitro, PEGylation blocked uptake of viruses via the Kupffer cell scavenger receptor SRA-II. These data suggest that HVRs 1, 2, 5, and 7 of Ad5 may be involved in Kupffer cell recognition and subsequent destruction. These data also demonstrate that this conditional genetic-chemical mutation strategy is a useful tool for investigating the interactions of viruses with host tissues.

  9. The Global Implications and Grand Challenge of Neutral-Ion Interactions in the Polar Regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    That the smallest of interactions occurring between neutrals and ions in the polar thermosphere can impact the largest of scales in thermosphere response is a testament to the primary importance of the Joule heating rate as an energy source for the thermosphere. Yet, our understanding/quantification of this primary energy source is woefully represented by numerical models and poorly sampled by measurement. For numerical models, the Joule heating rate requires parameterizations to account for the presumed “missing” energy in the simulations, while, for measurements, numerous approximations abound. In addition to being a primary thermosphere energy source, the Joule heating rate also represents a collective of neutral and ion interactions that result from solar wind and solar processes and exchange processes among the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere. Thus, to properly simulate the Joule heating rate requires a system perspective. Furthermore, to properly observe the Joule heating rate requires measurements of the ionosphere-thermosphere system at high temporal and spatial scales. This remains a very difficult task. The estimation and modeling of the Joule heating rate represents a grand challenge that involves the entire sun-earth system. This talk will put into perspective the current state in addressing the challenge of capturing this illusive source of energy.

  10. Environmental changes and human work in the region of the Upper Paraná River floodplain: processes and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA. Tomanik

    Full Text Available The environment and society constitute a complex of elements and interactions. Thus, an understanding of the processes in which the environment and psychosocial elements are involved may not be gained from knowledge of just one isolated variable. Based on such premises, the present paper, which summarizes the results of a series of studies, adopts work relationships as its main focus, but in addition, it has two complementary objectives. One is to present some analyses on the interaction between human actions and the environmental changes that have been taking place in the region of the Upper Paraná River floodplain and in its boundaries. A secondary aim is to show how those two factors have been changing people's working and living conditions and the identity configuration of some of the human groups that live at that site.

  11. Interactive and individual effects of sensory potentiation and region-specific changes in excitability after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, N; Parker, D

    2011-12-29

    While promoting regeneration across lesion sites is a main focus of research into spinal injury, changes also occur in the sublesion spinal cord and its sensory inputs. However, how these varied effects relate to recovery remains largely unknown. Here, we have examined changes in sensory inputs and region-specific changes in spinal cord excitability after spinal cord lesions in the lamprey, a model system for studying regeneration and functional recovery, and related the changes to the degree of locomotor recovery.Proprioceptive responses below lesion sites were potentiated and their rate of adaptation reduced 8-10 weeks after lesioning (i.e. when animals usually showed significant locomotor recovery). These effects were associated with changes in cellular properties that were consistent with an increase in proprioceptor excitability. However, the changes in proprioceptive inputs did not correlate with the degree of locomotor recovery. There were region-specific changes in spinal cord excitability below lesion sites. In isolation, these excitability changes also did not correlate with the degree of locomotor recovery, but in this case, there were significant interactions between the magnitude of stimulation-evoked responses across the lesion site (used to assess the extent of regeneration) and sublesion changes in excitability. These interactions differed in animals that recovered well or poorly, suggesting that the nature of this interaction influenced recovery. These results add to the evidence for diverse changes in the spinal cord after injury, and suggest that regenerated inputs and their interactions with sublesion networks influence the degree of functional recovery. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the magnetic turbulence in a corotating interaction region in the interplanetary medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Valdés-Galicia

    Full Text Available We study the geometry of magnetic fluctuations in a CIR observed by Pioneer 10 at 5 AU between days 292 and 295 in 1973. We apply the methodology proposed by Bieber et al. to make a comparison of the relative importance of two geometric arrays of vector propagation of the magnetic field fluctuations: slab and two-dimensional (2D. We found that inside the studied CIR this model is not applicable due to the restrictions imposed on it. Our results are consistent with Alfvenic fluctuations propagating close to the radial direction, confirming Mavromichalaki et al.'s findings. A mixture of isotropic and magnetoacoustic waves in the region before the front shock would be consistent with our results, and a mixture of slab/2D and magnetoacoustic waves in a region after the reverse shock. We base the latter conclusions on the theoretical analysis made by Kunstmann. We discuss the reasons why the composite model can not be applied in the CIR studied although the fluctuations inside it are two dimensional.

    Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (magnetic fields · Space plasma physics (turbulence; waves and instabilities

  13. Superluminous Transients at AGN Centers from Interaction between Black Hole Disk Winds and Broad-line Region Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Ohsuga, Ken [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki, E-mail: takashi.moriya@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-07-10

    We propose that superluminous transients that appear at central regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) such as CSS100217:102913+404220 (CSS100217) and PS16dtm, which reach near- or super-Eddington luminosities of the central black holes, are powered by the interaction between accretion-disk winds and clouds in broad-line regions (BLRs) surrounding them. If the disk luminosity temporarily increases by, e.g., limit–cycle oscillations, leading to a powerful radiatively driven wind, strong shock waves propagate in the BLR. Because the dense clouds in the AGN BLRs typically have similar densities to those found in SNe IIn, strong radiative shocks emerge and efficiently convert the ejecta kinetic energy to radiation. As a result, transients similar to SNe IIn can be observed at AGN central regions. Since a typical black hole disk-wind velocity is ≃0.1 c , where c is the speed of light, the ejecta kinetic energy is expected to be ≃10{sup 52} erg when ≃1 M {sub ⊙} is ejected. This kinetic energy is transformed to radiation energy in a timescale for the wind to sweep up a similar mass to itself in the BLR, which is a few hundred days. Therefore, both luminosities (∼10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}) and timescales (∼100 days) of the superluminous transients from AGN central regions match those expected in our interaction model. If CSS100217 and PS16dtm are related to the AGN activities triggered by limit–cycle oscillations, they become bright again in coming years or decades.

  14. A process study of the interaction of tidal currents, tidal mixing and density gradients in a region of freshwater influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jiuxing; Chen, Shengli

    2017-08-01

    A three dimensional unstructured grid model of the west coast of Britain is used to study the process of the interaction of tidal currents, tidal mixing and density gradient in the Liverpool Bay region. Calculations with M2 tidal forcing and omitting freshwater discharge show that tidal currents in the region are strong (of order 1 ms- 1), with tidal current ellipses essentially rectilinear in the surface and bottom. In the absence of tidal forcing, the freshwater is confined to a thin surface layer. With the inclusion of tidal mixing the surface layer thickens, and in the shallow water area mixed layer occupies the whole water depth. This has a significant effect of reducing its lateral spread. A detailed study of time series of velocity, salinity and turbulence reveals that at flood tide, more saline water is advected into the coastal region and rapid vertical mixing occurs, whereas at ebb tide, fresher water is advected over more saline water. The induced strong pycnocline uncouples surface and bottom layers leading to more circular tidal ellipses which rotate in opposite directions in the vertical, as found in observations. The three dimensional nature of the model reveals that this process involves both horizontal and vertical density gradients, and shows significant horizontal variability in the Liverpool Bay region.

  15. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  16. Modelling the interactions between regional farming structure, nitrogen losses and environmental regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happe, Kathrin; Hutchings, Nick; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    by one livestock unit. Substantial changes in the structure of agricultural production were shown for both scenarios. The effect on the regional nitrogen surpluses was predicted to differ between scenarios and the contribution of the different farm types to change with time. Predicted ammonia emission......Changes in the structure of agriculture are known to affect emissions of environmental pollutants from agriculture. Such changes are often driven by structural changes in agricultural production, so structural changes are likely to have indirect effects on emissions. In a pilot study, we consider...... how linking two complementary simulation models might be used to explore these effects. The agent-based AgriPoliS model was used to simulate the structural dynamics of agricultural production. The results from AgriPoliS were passed via a number of intermediate models to the Farm-N model, which...

  17. New experimental results on the pion-nucleon interaction investigation in the resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumachev, V. V.; Beloglazov, Yu. A.; Kovalev, A. I.; Kozlenko, N. G.; Kruglov, S. P.; Kulbardis, A. A.; Novinsky, D. V.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Alekseev, I. G.; Budkovsky, P. E.; Kanavets, V. P.; Koroleva, L. I.; Morozov, B. V.; Nesterov, V. M.; Ryltsov, V. V.; Sulimov, A. D.; Svirida, D. N.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Bunyatova, E. I.

    2002-03-01

    The spin rotation parameters A and R were measured for the elastic pion-proton scattering by the PNPI-ITEP collaboration in the D13 (1700), ΔS31(1900), ΔP33(1920) and ΔD33 (1940) resonances region. These resonances were absent in the set of partial wave analysis (PWA) of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute group (VPI), but was included in the tables of the Review of Particle Physics. The main goal of the experimental program was to resolve the current PWA’s disagreement in spin rotation parameters value predictions. Simultaneously with A and R the polarization parameter P was measured with the purpose to improve the experimental data base and estimate the experimental systematic errors. Our results for spin rotation parameters A and | R| are in agreement with PWA VPI predictions.

  18. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... including puppetry and dance. However, the aesthetics of these traditions vary across cultures and carry different associative and interpretive meanings. Puppetry offers a useful frame for understanding the relationship between abstract and imitative gestures and behavior, and instantiates the complex...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  19. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists such as ......The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists...... such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...... also key figures in the philosophical discussions of nature and science - from philosophical tendencies like logical empiricism via critical rationalism to various neo-Kantian trends....

  20. International workshop on final focus and interaction regions of next generation linear colliders: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The first day of the workshop was devoted to four plenary ''issues'' talks, one for each working group: Beam-Beam Interaction, Detector, Hardware, and Optical Design. The last day was devoted to plenary talks summarizing the activities of the working groups. Each of the three remaining days there,was a short morning plenary devoted to a brief summary of the preceding day and an announcement of planned working group discussions for that day. The transparencies for the ''issues'' and ''summary'' talks are included in this volume, along with some remarks from the working group chairpersons. Very briefly, the beam-beam group continued to address the quantitative study of QED induced backgrounds, and attempted to better understand the nature and prevalence of QCD millijets. The detector group attempted to identify the impact on masking and detector design of the beam-beam backgrounds, the synchrotron radiation induced backgrounds from beam halos and muon backgrounds produced primarily in collimators. Nanosecond timing elements needed in conjunction with multi-bunch operation were discussed. The hardware group addressed the problem of magnet design and support, especially the final doublet magnets suspended within the detector environment, and instrumentation issues, such as high resolution beam position monitors. The optics group discussed new final focus system ideas, collimator design, and improvement of beamline tolerances. If you were not here to participate, we hope that this volume will help you in your orientation to these problems

  1. International workshop on final focus and interaction regions of next generation linear colliders: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The first day of the workshop was devoted to four plenary issues'' talks, one for each working group: Beam-Beam Interaction, Detector, Hardware, and Optical Design. The last day was devoted to plenary talks summarizing the activities of the working groups. Each of the three remaining days there,was a short morning plenary devoted to a brief summary of the preceding day and an announcement of planned working group discussions for that day. The transparencies for the issues'' and summary'' talks are included in this volume, along with some remarks from the working group chairpersons. Very briefly, the beam-beam group continued to address the quantitative study of QED induced backgrounds, and attempted to better understand the nature and prevalence of QCD millijets. The detector group attempted to identify the impact on masking and detector design of the beam-beam backgrounds, the synchrotron radiation induced backgrounds from beam halos and muon backgrounds produced primarily in collimators. Nanosecond timing elements needed in conjunction with multi-bunch operation were discussed. The hardware group addressed the problem of magnet design and support, especially the final doublet magnets suspended within the detector environment, and instrumentation issues, such as high resolution beam position monitors. The optics group discussed new final focus system ideas, collimator design, and improvement of beamline tolerances. If you were not here to participate, we hope that this volume will help you in your orientation to these problems.

  2. International workshop on final focus and interaction regions of next generation linear colliders: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The first day of the workshop was devoted to four plenary ``issues`` talks, one for each working group: Beam-Beam Interaction, Detector, Hardware, and Optical Design. The last day was devoted to plenary talks summarizing the activities of the working groups. Each of the three remaining days there,was a short morning plenary devoted to a brief summary of the preceding day and an announcement of planned working group discussions for that day. The transparencies for the ``issues`` and ``summary`` talks are included in this volume, along with some remarks from the working group chairpersons. Very briefly, the beam-beam group continued to address the quantitative study of QED induced backgrounds, and attempted to better understand the nature and prevalence of QCD millijets. The detector group attempted to identify the impact on masking and detector design of the beam-beam backgrounds, the synchrotron radiation induced backgrounds from beam halos and muon backgrounds produced primarily in collimators. Nanosecond timing elements needed in conjunction with multi-bunch operation were discussed. The hardware group addressed the problem of magnet design and support, especially the final doublet magnets suspended within the detector environment, and instrumentation issues, such as high resolution beam position monitors. The optics group discussed new final focus system ideas, collimator design, and improvement of beamline tolerances. If you were not here to participate, we hope that this volume will help you in your orientation to these problems.

  3. Interaction between differentially methylated regions partitions the imprinted genes Igf2 and H19 into parent-specific chromatin loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Adele; Heeson, Sarah; Reik, Wolf

    2004-08-01

    Imprinted genes are expressed from only one of the parental alleles and are marked epigenetically by DNA methylation and histone modifications. The paternally expressed gene insulin-like growth-factor 2 (Igf2) is separated by approximately 100 kb from the maternally expressed noncoding gene H19 on mouse distal chromosome 7. Differentially methylated regions in Igf2 and H19 contain chromatin boundaries, silencers and activators and regulate the reciprocal expression of the two genes in a methylation-sensitive manner by allowing them exclusive access to a shared set of enhancers. Various chromatin models have been proposed that separate Igf2 and H19 into active and silent domains. Here we used a GAL4 knock-in approach as well as the chromosome conformation capture technique to show that the differentially methylated regions in the imprinted genes Igf2 and H19 interact in mice. These interactions are epigenetically regulated and partition maternal and paternal chromatin into distinct loops. This generates a simple epigenetic switch for Igf2 through which it moves between an active and a silent chromatin domain.

  4. Evaluating hot spot-ridge interaction in the Atlantic from regional-scale seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaherty, James B.; Dunn, Robert A.

    2007-05-01

    We probe variations in mantle temperature, composition, and fabric along hot spot-influenced sections of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), using surface waves from nearby ridge earthquakes recorded on broadband island-based seismic stations. We invert frequency-dependent phase delays from these events to estimate one-dimensional mean shear velocity and radial shear anisotropy profiles in the upper 200 km of the mantle within two seafloor age intervals: 5-10 Ma and 15-20 Ma. Mean shear velocity profiles correlate with apparent hot spot flux: lithosphere formed near the low-flux Ascension hot spot is characterized by high mantle velocities, while the MAR near the higher-flux Azores hot spot has lower velocities. The impact of the high-flux Iceland hot spot on mantle velocities along the nearby MAR is strongly asymmetric: the lithospheric velocities near the Kolbeinsey ridge are moderately slow, while velocities near the Reykjanes ridge estimated in previous studies are much slower. Within each region the increase in shear velocity with age is consistent with a half-space cooling model, and the velocity variations observed between Ascension, the Azores, and Kolbeinsey are consistent with approximately ±75° potential-temperature variation among these sites. In comparison, the Reykjanes lithosphere is too slow to result purely from half-space cooling of a high-temperature mantle source. We speculate that the anomalously low shear velocities within the lithosphere produced at the Reykjanes ridge result from high asthenospheric temperatures of +50-75 K combined with ˜12% (by volume) gabbro retained in the mantle due to the imbalance between high hot spot-influenced melt production and relatively inefficient melt extraction along the slow spreading Reykjanes. Radial shear anisotropy in the upper 150 km also indicates an apparent hot spot influence: mantle fabric near Ascension is quite weak, consistent with previous models of anisotropy produced by corner flow during slow

  5. Interaction of hyperalgesia and sensory loss in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Huge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS. In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. METHODS: 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT, the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS were observed. RESULTS: In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. CONCLUSIONS: We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system.

  6. New techniques to control salinity-wastewater reuse interactions in golf courses of the Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrao, J.; Costa, M.; Rosado, V.; Gamito, P.; Santos, R.; Khaydarova, V.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the lack water around the Mediterranean regions, potable water luxurious uses - as in golf courses - are increasingly contested. In order to solve this problem, non conventional water resources (effluent, gray, recycled, reclaimed, brackish), like treated wastewater, for irrigation gained increasing role in the planning and development of additional water supplies in golf courses. In most cases, the intense use of effluent for irrigation attracted public awareness in respect of contaminating pathogens and heavy metals. The contaminating effect of salinity in soil and underground water is very often neglected. The objective of this work is to present the conventional techniques to control salinity of treated wastewater and to present some results on new clean techniques to solve this problem, in the framework of the INCO-COPERNICUS project (no. IC-15CT98-0105) "Adaptation of Efficient Water Use Criteria in Marginal Regions of Europe and Middle Asia with Scarce Sources Subject to Environmental Control, Climate Change and Socio-Economic Development" and of the INCO-DC project (no. IC18-CT98-0266) "Control of Salination and Combating Desertification Effects in the Mediterranean Region. Phase II". Saline water is the most common irrigation water in arid climates. Moreover, for each region treated wastewater is always more saline than tap water, and therefore, when treated wastewater is reused in golf courses, more salinity problems occur. Conventional techniques to combat the salination process in golf courses can be characterized by four generations: 1) Problem of root zone salination by soil leaching - two options can occur - when there is an impermeable layer, salts will be concentrated above this layer; on the other hand, when there is no impermeable layer, aquifers contamination can be observed; 2) Use of subsurface trickle irrigation - economy of water, and therefore less additional salts; however the problem of groundwater contamination due to natural rain

  7. Regional Responses to Black Carbon Aerosols: The Importance of Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Scott, A. A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Seviour, W. J. M.; Waugh, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of modern black carbon aerosols on climate via their changes in radiative balance is studied using a coupled model where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are allowed to vary and an atmosphere-only version of the same model where SSTs are held fixed. Allowing the ocean to respond is shown to have a profound impact on the pattern of temperature change. Particularly, large impacts are found in the North Pacific (which cools by up to 1 K in the coupled model) and in north central Asia (which warms in the coupled simulation and cools in the fixed SST simulation). Neither set of experiments shows large changes in surface temperatures in the Southeast Asian region where the atmospheric burden of black carbon is highest. These results are related to the stabilization of the atmosphere and changes in oceanic heat transport. Over the North Pacific, atmospheric stabilization results in an increase in stratiform clouds. The resulting shading reduces evaporation, freshening the surface layer of the ocean and reducing the inflow of warm subtropical waters. Over the land, a delicate balance between greater atmospheric absorption, shading of the surface and changes in latent cooling of the surface helps to determine whether warming or cooling is seen. Our results emphasize the importance of coupling in determining the response of the climate system to black carbon and suggest that black carbon may play an important role in modulating climate change over the North Pacific.

  8. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  9. High-Affinity Interaction of the K-Ras4B Hypervariable Region with the Ras Active Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Tanmay S.; Jang, Hyunbum; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Abraham, Sherwin J.; Banerjee, Avik; Freed, Benjamin C.; Johannessen, Liv; Tarasov, Sergey G.; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth; Tarasova, Nadya I.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are small GTPases that act as signal transducers between cell surface receptors and several intracellular signaling cascades. They contain highly homologous catalytic domains and flexible C-terminal hypervariable regions (HVRs) that differ across Ras isoforms. KRAS is among the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human tumors. Surprisingly, we found that the C-terminal HVR of K-Ras4B, thought to minimally impact the catalytic domain, directly interacts with the active site of the protein. The interaction is almost 100-fold tighter with the GDP-bound than the GTP-bound protein. HVR binding interferes with Ras-Raf interaction, modulates binding to phospholipids, and slightly slows down nucleotide exchange. The data indicate that contrary to previously suggested models of K-Ras4B signaling, HVR plays essential roles in regulation of signaling. High affinity binding of short peptide analogs of HVR to K-Ras active site suggests that targeting this surface with inhibitory synthetic molecules for the therapy of KRAS-dependent tumors is feasible. PMID:26682817

  10. High resolution modelling of aerosol dispersion regimes during the CAPITOUL field experiment: from regional to local scale interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactions between the urban dynamics and the aerosol plumes. During a two-day Intensive Observational Period, a numerical model experiment was set up to reproduce the spatial distribution of specific particle pollutants, from the regional scales and the interactions between different cities, to the local scales with specific turbulent structures. Observations show that local dynamics depends on the day-regime, and may lead to different mesoscale dynamical structures. This study focuses on reproducing these fine scale dynamical structures, and investigate the impact on the aerosol plume dispersion. The 500-m resolution simulation manages to reproduce convective rolls at local scale, which concentrate most of the aerosol particles and can locally affect the pollutant dispersion and air quality.

  11. A Spatially Explicit Dual-Isotope Approach to Map Regions of Plant-Plant Interaction after Exotic Plant Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hellmann

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions between native and invasive plant species in field settings and quantifying the impact of invaders in heterogeneous native ecosystems requires resolving the spatial scale on which these processes take place. Therefore, functional tracers are needed that enable resolving the alterations induced by exotic plant invasion in contrast to natural variation in a spatially explicit way. 15N isoscapes, i.e., spatially referenced representations of stable nitrogen isotopic signatures, have recently provided such a tracer. However, different processes, e.g. water, nitrogen or carbon cycles, may be affected at different spatial scales. Thus multi-isotope studies, by using different functional tracers, can potentially return a more integrated picture of invader impact. This is particularly true when isoscapes are submitted to statistical methods suitable to find homogeneous subgroups in multivariate data such as cluster analysis. Here, we used model-based clustering of spatially explicit foliar δ15N and δ13C isoscapes together with N concentration of a native indicator species, Corema album, to map regions of influence in a Portuguese dune ecosystem invaded by the N2-fixing Acacia longifolia. Cluster analysis identified regions with pronounced alterations in N budget and water use efficiency in the native species, with a more than twofold increase in foliar N, and δ13C and δ15N enrichment of up to 2‰ and 8‰ closer to the invader, respectively. Furthermore, clusters of multiple functional tracers indicated a spatial shift from facilitation through N addition in the proximity of the invader to competition for resources other than N in close contact. Finding homogeneous subgroups in multi-isotope data by means of model-based cluster analysis provided an effective tool for detecting spatial structure in processes affecting plant physiology and performance. The proposed method can give an objective measure of the spatial extent

  12. Simulating Complex, Cold-region Process Interactions Using a Multi-scale, Variable-complexity Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate management of water resources is necessary for social, economic, and environmental sustainability worldwide. In locations with seasonal snowcovers, the accurate prediction of these water resources is further complicated due to frozen soils, solid-phase precipitation, blowing snow transport, and snowcover-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. Complex process interactions and feedbacks are a key feature of hydrological systems and may result in emergent phenomena, i.e., the arising of novel and unexpected properties within a complex system. One example is the feedback associated with blowing snow redistribution, which can lead to drifts that cause locally-increased soil moisture, thus increasing plant growth that in turn subsequently impacts snow redistribution, creating larger drifts. Attempting to simulate these emergent behaviours is a significant challenge, however, and there is concern that process conceptualizations within current models are too incomplete to represent the needed interactions. An improved understanding of the role of emergence in hydrological systems often requires high resolution distributed numerical hydrological models that incorporate the relevant process dynamics. The Canadian Hydrological Model (CHM) provides a novel tool for examining cold region hydrological systems. Key features include efficient terrain representation, allowing simulations at various spatial scales, reduced computational overhead, and a modular process representation allowing for an alternative-hypothesis framework. Using both physics-based and conceptual process representations sourced from long term process studies and the current cold regions literature allows for comparison of process representations and importantly, their ability to produce emergent behaviours. Examining the system in a holistic, process-based manner can hopefully derive important insights and aid in development of improved process representations.

  13. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... including puppetry and dance. However, the aesthetics of these traditions vary across cultures and carry different associative and interpretive meanings. Puppetry offers a useful frame for understanding the relationship between abstract and imitative gestures and behavior, and instantiates the complex...

  14. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3 and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon air pollutants for the period 1970–2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport, which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3 higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27, demonstrating the large

  15. Sustained spatial attention to vibrotactile stimulation in the flutter range: relevant brain regions and their interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Goltz

    Full Text Available The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was designed to get a better understanding of the brain regions involved in sustained spatial attention to tactile events and to ascertain to what extent their activation was correlated. We presented continuous 20 Hz vibrotactile stimuli (range of flutter concurrently to the left and right index fingers of healthy human volunteers. An arrow cue instructed subjects in a trial-by-trial fashion to attend to the left or right index finger and to detect rare target events that were embedded in the vibrotactile stimulation streams. We found blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD attentional modulation in primary somatosensory cortex (SI, mainly covering Brodmann area 1, 2, and 3b, as well as in secondary somatosensory cortex (SII, contralateral to the to-be-attended hand. Furthermore, attention to the right (dominant hand resulted in additional BOLD modulation in left posterior insula. All of the effects were caused by an increased activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand, except for the effects in left SI and insula. In left SI, the effect was related to a mixture of both a slight increase in activation when attention was paid to the contralateral hand as well as a slight decrease in activation when attention was paid to the ipsilateral hand (i.e., the tactile distraction condition. In contrast, the effect in left posterior insula was exclusively driven by a relative decrease in activation in the tactile distraction condition, which points to an active inhibition when tactile information is irrelevant. Finally, correlation analyses indicate a linear relationship between attention effects in intrahemispheric somatosensory cortices, since attentional modulation in SI and SII were interrelated within one hemisphere but not across hemispheres. All in all, our results provide a basis for future research on sustained attention to continuous vibrotactile stimulation in the range

  16. Experimental investigations of strong interaction in the non-perturbative QCD region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Samuel, S.

    1993-09-01

    A critical investigation of non-perturbative QCD require investigating glueballs, search for a Quark Gluon Plasma (OGP), and search for strangelets. In the glueball area the data obtained (E- 881) at 8 GeV/c were analyzed for π - + p → φφn (OZI forbidden), φK + K - n (OZI allowed), K - p → φφ(ΛΣ) (OZI allowed), and bar pp → φφ → φφπ 0 (OZI forbidden), φK + K - π 0 (OZI allowed). By comparing the OZI forbidden (glueball filter reactions) with the OZI allowed and previous 22 GeV/c π - p → φφn or φK + K - n data a further critical test of the so far unsuccessfully challenged hypothesis that our g T (2010), g T '(2300) and g T double-prime(2340) all with I G J PC = 0 + 2 ++ are produced by 1-3 2 ++ glueballs will be made. In the QGP search with a large-solid-angle TPC a good Ξ signal was observed. The ratio of Ξ to single strange quark particles such as λ is a better indication of strangeness enhancement in QGP formation. The data indicate enhancement by a factor ∼ 2 over cascade model (corrected to observed strangeness) predictions, but it is definitely far from conclusive at this stage since the result is model dependent. Double λ topologies of the type needed to discover light strangelets in the nanosecond lifetime region were found. In addition, research has been accomplished in three main areas: bosonic technicolor and strings, buckministerfullerene C 60 and neutrino oscillations in a dense neutrino gas

  17. The importance of drought-pathogen interactions in driving oak mortality events in the Ozark Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Benjamin O.; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Gu, Lianhong

    2018-01-01

    Forests are expected to become more vulnerable to drought-induced tree mortality owing to rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns that amplify drought lethality. There is a crucial knowledge gap regarding drought-pathogen interactions and their effects on tree mortality. The objectives of this research were to examine whether stand dynamics and ‘background’ mortality rates were affected by a severe drought in 2012; and to evaluate the importance of drought-pathogen interactions within the context of a mortality event that killed 10.0% and 26.5% of white (Quercus alba L.) and black (Q. velutina Lam.) oak stems, respectively, in a single year. We synthesized (i) forest inventory data (24 years), (ii) 11 years of ecosystem flux data with supporting biological data including predawn leaf water potential and annual forest inventories, (iii) tree-ring analyses of individual white oaks that were alive and ones that died in 2013, and (iv) documentation of a pathogen infection. This forest displayed stand dynamics consistent with expected patterns of decreasing tree density and increasing basal area. Continued basal area growth outpaced mortality implying a net accumulation of live biomass, which was supported by eddy covariance ecosystem carbon flux observations. Individual white and black oaks that died in 2013 displayed historically lower growth with the majority of dead trees exhibiting Biscogniauxia cankers. Our observations point to the importance of event-based oak mortality and that drought-Biscogniauxia interactions are important in shaping oak stand dynamics in this region. Although forest function has not been significantly impaired, these drought-pathogen interactions could amplify mortality under future climate conditions and thus warrant further investigation.

  18. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  19. Diagnostics of corotating interaction regions with the kinetic properties of iron ions as determined with STEREO/PLASTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bochsler

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available STEREO/PLASTIC determines three-dimensional distributions of solar wind iron ions with unprecedented time resolution. Typically 300 to 1000 counts are registered within each 5 min time interval. For the present study we use the information contained in these distributions to characterize CIRs (Corotating Interaction Regions in two test cases. We perform a consistency test for both the derived physical parameters and for the analytical model of CIRs of Lee (2000. At 1 AU we find that apart from compositional changes the most indicative parameter for marking the time when a CIR passes a spacecraft is the angular deflection of the flow vector of particles. Changes in particle densities and the changes in magnitudes of speeds are apparently less reliable indicators of stream interfaces.

  20. Interaction of a nodule specific, trans-acting factor with distinct DNA elements in the soybean leghaemoglobin Ibc(3) 5' upstream region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Marcker, Kjeld A; Schell, J

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from soybean nodules, leaves and roots were used to investigate protein-DNA interactions in the 5' upstream (promoter) region of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene. Two distinct regions were identified which strongly bind a nodule specific factor. A Bal31 deletion analysis...

  1. Development and manufacturing of a Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnet Model at CEA/Saclay for TESLA Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Maria; Fratini, M; Leboeuf, D; Segreti, M; Védrine, Pierre; 10.1109/TASC.2004.829129

    2004-01-01

    One possible application of Nb/sub 3/Sn, whose superconducting properties far exceed those of NbTi, is the fabrication of short and powerful quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of large particle accelerators. In some projects, as in the future linear collider TESLA, the quadrupole magnets are inside the detector solenoid and must operate in its background field. This situation gives singular Lorentz force distribution in the ends of the magnet. To learn about Nb/sub 3/Sn technology, evaluate fabrication techniques and test the interaction with a solenoidal field, DAPNIA /SACM at CEA/Saclay has started the manufacturing of a 1-m-long, 56- mm-single-aperture quadrupole magnet model. The model relies on the same coil geometry as the LHC arc quadrupole magnets, but has no iron yoke. It will produce a nominal field gradient of 211 T/m at 11,870 A. The coils are wound from Rutherford-type cables insulated with glass fiber tape, before being heat-treated and vacuum-impregnated with epoxy resin. Laminated,...

  2. Genetic interactions between Shox2 and Hox genes during the regional growth and development of the mouse limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Stanley J; Wang, Fan; Cobb, John

    2014-11-01

    The growth and development of the vertebrate limb relies on homeobox genes of the Hox and Shox families, with their independent mutation often giving dose-dependent effects. Here we investigate whether Shox2 and Hox genes function together during mouse limb development by modulating their relative dosage and examining the limb for nonadditive effects on growth. Using double mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in single embryos, we first show that Shox2 and Hox genes have associated spatial expression dynamics, with Shox2 expression restricted to the proximal limb along with Hoxd9 and Hoxa11 expression, juxtaposing the distal expression of Hoxa13 and Hoxd13. By generating mice with all possible dosage combinations of mutant Shox2 alleles and HoxA/D cluster deletions, we then show that their coordinated proximal limb expression is critical to generate normally proportioned limb segments. These epistatic interactions tune limb length, where Shox2 underexpression enhances, and Shox2 overexpression suppresses, Hox-mutant phenotypes. Disruption of either Shox2 or Hox genes leads to a similar reduction in Runx2 expression in the developing humerus, suggesting their concerted action drives cartilage maturation during normal development. While we furthermore provide evidence that Hox gene function influences Shox2 expression, this regulation is limited in extent and is unlikely on its own to be a major explanation for their genetic interaction. Given the similar effect of human SHOX mutations on regional limb growth, Shox and Hox genes may generally function as genetic interaction partners during the growth and development of the proximal vertebrate limb. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Early modality-specific somatosensory cortical regions are modulated by attended visual stimuli: interaction of vision, touch and behavioral intent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Richard Staines

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal interactions between relevant visual and tactile inputs can facilitate attentional modulation at early stages in somatosensory cortices to achieve goal-oriented behaviors. However, the specific contribution of each sensory system during attentional processing and, importantly, how these interact with the required behavioural motor goals remains unclear. Here we used EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs to test the hypothesis that activity from modality-specific somatosensory cortical regions would be enhanced with task-relevant bimodal (visual-tactile stimuli and that the degree of modulation would depend on the difficulty of the associated sensory-motor task demands. Tactile stimuli were discrete vibrations to the index finger and visual stimuli were horizontal bars on a computer screen, both with random amplitudes. Streams of unimodal (tactile and crossmodal (visual and tactile stimuli were randomly presented and participants were instructed to attend to one type of stimulus (unimodal or crossmodal and responses involved either an indication of the presence of an attended stimulus (detect, or the integration and summation of 2 stimulus amplitudes using a pressure-sensitive ball (grade. Force-amplitude associations were learned in a training session, and no feedback was provided during the task. ERPs were time-locked to tactile stimuli and extracted for early modality-specific components (P50, P100, N140. The P50 was enhanced with bimodal (visual-tactile stimuli that were attended to. This was maximal when the motor requirements involved integration of the 2 stimuli in the grade task and when the visual stimulus occurred before (100 ms the tactile stimulus. These results suggest that visual information relevant for movement modulates early somatosensory processing and that the motor behavioral context influences this likely through interaction of top-down attentional and motor preparatory systems with more bottom-up crossmodal

  4. Direct evidence of megamammal-carnivore interaction decoded from bone marks in historical fossil collections from the Pampean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Vanesa Chichkoyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene South American megafauna has traditionally attracted the interest of scientists and the popular media alike. However, ecological interactions between the species that inhabited these ecosystems, such as predator-prey relationships or interspecific competition, are poorly known. To this regard, carnivore marks imprinted on the fossil bones of megamammal remains are very useful for deciphering biological activity and, hence, potential interspecific relationships among taxa. In this article, we study historical fossil collections housed in different European and Argentinean museums that were excavated during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Pampean region, Argentina, in order to detect carnivore marks on bones of megamammals and provide crucial information on the ecological relationships between South American taxa during the Pleistocene. Our results indicate that the long bones of megafauna from the Pampean region (e.g., the Mylodontidae and Toxodontidae families exhibit carnivore marks. Furthermore, long bones of medium-sized species and indeterminate bones also present punctures, pits, scores and fractures. Members of the large-carnivore guild, such as ursids, canids and even felids, are recognised as the main agents that inflicted the marks. We hypothesize that the analysed carnivore marks represent the last stages of megaherbivore carcass exploitation, suggesting full consumption of these animals by the same or multiple taxa in a hunting and/or scavenging scenario. Moreover, our observations provide novel insights that help further our understanding of the palaeoecological relationships of these unique communities of megamammals.

  5. Direct evidence of megamammal-carnivore interaction decoded from bone marks in historical fossil collections from the Pampean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichkoyan, Karina Vanesa; Figueirido, Borja; Belinchón, Margarita; Lanata, José Luis; Moigne, Anne-Marie; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido

    2017-01-01

    Pleistocene South American megafauna has traditionally attracted the interest of scientists and the popular media alike. However, ecological interactions between the species that inhabited these ecosystems, such as predator-prey relationships or interspecific competition, are poorly known. To this regard, carnivore marks imprinted on the fossil bones of megamammal remains are very useful for deciphering biological activity and, hence, potential interspecific relationships among taxa. In this article, we study historical fossil collections housed in different European and Argentinean museums that were excavated during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Pampean region, Argentina, in order to detect carnivore marks on bones of megamammals and provide crucial information on the ecological relationships between South American taxa during the Pleistocene. Our results indicate that the long bones of megafauna from the Pampean region (e.g., the Mylodontidae and Toxodontidae families) exhibit carnivore marks. Furthermore, long bones of medium-sized species and indeterminate bones also present punctures, pits, scores and fractures. Members of the large-carnivore guild, such as ursids, canids and even felids, are recognised as the main agents that inflicted the marks. We hypothesize that the analysed carnivore marks represent the last stages of megaherbivore carcass exploitation, suggesting full consumption of these animals by the same or multiple taxa in a hunting and/or scavenging scenario. Moreover, our observations provide novel insights that help further our understanding of the palaeoecological relationships of these unique communities of megamammals.

  6. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3 of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES, and GOES-10 are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October–16 November 2008 WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties, and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with

  7. The Rev1 interacting region (RIR) motif in the scaffold protein XRCC1 mediates a low-affinity interaction with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) during DNA single-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Claire; Mani, Rajam S; Fanta, Mesfin; Hoch, Nicolas; Weinfeld, Michael; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-09-29

    The scaffold protein X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) interacts with multiple enzymes involved in DNA base excision repair and single-strand break repair (SSBR) and is important for genetic integrity and normal neurological function. One of the most important interactions of XRCC1 is that with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP), a dual-function DNA kinase/phosphatase that processes damaged DNA termini and that, if mutated, results in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 4 (AOA4) and microcephaly with early-onset seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ). XRCC1 and PNKP interact via a high-affinity phosphorylation-dependent interaction site in XRCC1 and a forkhead-associated domain in PNKP. Here, we identified using biochemical and biophysical approaches a second PNKP interaction site in XRCC1 that binds PNKP with lower affinity and independently of XRCC1 phosphorylation. However, this interaction nevertheless stimulated PNKP activity and promoted SSBR and cell survival. The low-affinity interaction site required the highly conserved Rev1-interacting region (RIR) motif in XRCC1 and included three critical and evolutionarily invariant phenylalanine residues. We propose a bipartite interaction model in which the previously identified high-affinity interaction acts as a molecular tether, holding XRCC1 and PNKP together and thereby promoting the low-affinity interaction identified here, which then stimulates PNKP directly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The interaction between deepwater channel systems and growing thrusts and folds, toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, B.; Lonergan, L.; Whittaker, A.

    2012-04-01

    Gravity-driven seaward-verging thrusts, landward-verging back-thrusts and associated folds often characterize the slope and deepwater settings of passive margins. These structures, found in the "toe-thrust" region of the system, exert a significant control on sediment gravity flows because they create and determine the location and configuration of sediment depocentres and transport systems. However, to fully understand the interaction between sediment gravity flows and seabed topography we need to evaluate and quantify the geomorphic response of sub-marine channels to faulting in an area where the degree of tectonic shortening can be well constrained. This study exploits 3D seismic data in the outer toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta to analyze the interaction between Plio-Pleistocene channel systems and actively growing folds and thrusts. We first mapped folds and thrusts from the seismic data and we used this data to reconstruct the history of fold growth. We then used the sea-bed seismic horizon to build a 50 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the sea floor in Arc-GIS. From the DEM, we extracted channel long profiles across growing structures for both the current channel thalwegs and for the associated channel cut-and-fill sequences identified from the seismic data. We measured channel geometry at regular intervals along the channel length to evaluate system response to tectonic perturbation, and we used this data to help us approximate the down-system distribution of bed shear stress, and hence incision capacity. Initial results show that changes in submarine channel longitudinal profiles are directly correlated to underlying seabed thrusts and folds. Channels gradients are typically linear to slightly concave, and have an average gradient of 0.90. Actively growing thrusts are associated with a local steepening in channel gradient (up to 200% change), which typically extends 0.5 to 2 km upstream of the fault. Within these "knickzones

  9. Remote monitoring system for the cryogenic system of superconducting magnets in the SuperKEKB interaction region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K.; Ohuchi, N.; Zong, Z.; Arimoto, Y.; Wang, X.; Yamaoka, H.; Kawai, M.; Kondou, Y.; Makida, Y.; Hirose, M.; Endou, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Nakamura, T.

    2017-12-01

    A remote monitoring system was developed based on the software infrastructure of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for the cryogenic system of superconducting magnets in the interaction region of the SuperKEKB accelerator. The SuperKEKB has been constructed to conduct high-energy physics experiments at KEK. These superconducting magnets consist of three apparatuses, the Belle II detector solenoid, and QCSL and QCSR accelerator magnets. They are each contained in three cryostats cooled by dedicated helium cryogenic systems. The monitoring system was developed to read data of the EX-8000, which is an integrated instrumentation system to control all cryogenic components. The monitoring system uses the I/O control tools of EPICS software for TCP/IP, archiving techniques using a relational database, and easy human-computer interface. Using this monitoring system, it is possible to remotely monitor all real-time data of the superconducting magnets and cryogenic systems. It is also convenient to share data among multiple groups.

  10. Compression of Jupiter's magnetosphere by the solar wind: Reexamination via MHD simulation of evolving corotating interaction regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Z.K.; Dryer, M.; Fillius, R.W.; Smith, E.J.; Wolfe, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the major changes in the solar wind before, during, and after the Pioneer 10 and 11 encounters with the Jovian magnetosphere during 1973 and 1974, respectively. In an earlier study, Smith et al. (1978) concluded that the Jovian magnetosphere was subjected to large-scale compression during at least three or four intervals during which it appeared that the spacecraft had reentered the solar wind or magnetosheath near 50 R/sub J/ after having first entered the magnetosphere near 100 R/sub J/. They based this suggestion on the observations of the sister spacecraft, which indicated--on the basis of a kinematic translation of corotating interaction regions (CIR's)--that these structures would be expected to arrive at Jupiter at the appropriate beginning of these three intervals. Our reexamination of this suggestion involved the numerical simulation of the multiple CIR evolutions from one spacecraft to the sister spacecraft. This approach, considered to be a major improvement, confirms the suggestion by Smith et al. (1978) that Jupiter's magnetosphere was compressed by interplanetary CIR's during three or four of these events. Our MHD simulation also suggests that Jupiter's magnetosphere reacts to solar wind rarefactions in the opposite way--by expanding. A previously unexplained pair of magnetopause crossings on the Pioneer 11 outbound pass may simply be due to a delayed reexpansion of Jupiter's magnetosphere from a compression that occurred during the inbound pass

  11. From plot to regional scales: Interactions of slope and catchment hydrological and geomorphic processes in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Beguería, Santiago; Lasanta, Teodoro; Regüés, David; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Serrano-Muela, Pilar; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Alvera, Bernardo; Martí-Bono, Carlos; Alatorre, Luis C.

    2010-08-01

    secondary streams. At the regional scale, the most important consequences include a reduction in the frequency of floods, reduced sediment yields, increasing stabilization of fluvial channels (colonization of sedimentary bars by riparian vegetation and a reduction in the braiding index), and stabilization of alluvial fans. These results demonstrate the complexity and multiscalar nature of the interactions among land use and runoff generation, soil erosion, sediment transport, and fluvial channel dynamics, and highlight the need to adopt a multiscale approach in other mountain areas of the world.

  12. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  13. Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Boysen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogeophysical (BGP and biogeochemical (BGC effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC, contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID project. Over the period 2006–2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between −0.47 and 0.10 K. Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.

  14. Interaction of E. coli Hsp90 with DnaK Involves the DnaJ Binding Region of DnaK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravats, Andrea N; Doyle, Shannon M; Hoskins, Joel R; Genest, Olivier; Doody, Erin; Wickner, Sue

    2017-03-24

    The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a widely conserved and ubiquitous molecular chaperone that participates in ATP-dependent protein remodeling in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It functions in conjunction with Hsp70 and the Hsp70 cochaperones, an Hsp40 (J-protein) and a nucleotide exchange factor. In Escherichia coli, the functional collaboration between Hsp90 Ec and Hsp70, DnaK, requires that the two chaperones directly interact. We used molecular docking to model the interaction of Hsp90 Ec and DnaK. The top-ranked docked model predicted that a region in the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of DnaK interacted with a region in the middle domain of Hsp90 Ec . We then made substitution mutants in DnaK residues suggested by the model to interact with Hsp90 Ec . Of the 12 mutants tested, 11 were defective or partially defective in their ability to interact with Hsp90 Ec in vivo in a bacterial two-hybrid assay and in vitro in a bio-layer interferometry assay. These DnaK mutants were also defective in their ability to function collaboratively in protein remodeling with Hsp90 Ec but retained the ability to act with DnaK cochaperones. Taken together, these results suggest that a specific region in the NBD of DnaK is involved in the interaction with Hsp90 Ec , and this interaction is functionally important. Moreover, the region of DnaK that we found to be necessary for Hsp90 Ec binding includes residues that are also involved in J-protein binding, suggesting a functional interplay among DnaK, DnaK cochaperones, and Hsp90 Ec . Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Polarization light curve modelling of corotating interaction regions in the wind of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, N.; Tremblay, Patrick; Ignace, Richard

    2018-02-01

    The intriguing WN4b star WR 6 has been known to display epoch-dependent spectroscopic, photometric and polarimetric variability for several decades. In this paper, we set out to verify if a simplified analytical model in which corotating interaction regions (CIRs) threading an otherwise spherical wind is able to reproduce the many broad-band continuum light curves from the literature with a reasonable set of parameters. We modified the optically thin model developed by Ignace, St-Louis & Proulx-Giraldeau to approximately account for multiple scattering and used it to fit 13 separate data sets of this star. By including two CIRs in the wind, we obtained reasonable fits for all data sets with coherent values for the inclination of the rotation axis (i0 = 166°) and for its orientation in the plane of the sky, although in the latter case we obtained two equally acceptable values (ψ = 63° and 152°) from the polarimetry. Additional line profile variation simulations using the Sobolev approximation for the line transfer allowed us to eliminate the ψ = 152° solution. With the adopted configuration (i0 = 166° and ψ = 63°), we were able to reproduce all data sets relatively well with two CIRs located near the stellar equator and always separated by ˜90° in longitude. The epoch dependence comes from the fact that these CIRs migrate along the surface of the star. Density contrasts smaller than a factor of 2 and large opening angles for the CIR (β ⪆ 35°) were found to best reproduce the type of spectroscopic variability reported in the literature.

  16. Opposing effects of D-cycloserine on fear despite a common extinction duration: interactions between brain regions and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, Scott S; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-09-01

    A number of studies have reported that D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor, can facilitate the loss of conditioned fear if it is administered during an extinction trial. Here we examine the effects of DCS injected into the hippocampus or amygdala on extinction of context-evoked freezing after contextual fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. We find that DCS administered prior to an extinction session decreased freezing from the outset of the session regardless of which brain region was targeted. Retention tests revealed opposite effects on fear expression despite identical behavioral treatments: intra-hippocampal DCS inhibited fear expression while intra-amygdala DCS potentiated fear expression. Following post-extinction session injections of DCS, we found a similar though less pronounced effect. Closer inspection of the data revealed that the effects of DCS interacted with the behavior of the subjects during extinction. Intra-hippocampal injections of DCS enhanced extinction in those mice that showed the greatest amount of within-session extinction, but had less pronounced effects on mice that showed the least within-session extinction. Intra-amygdala injections of DCS impaired extinction in those mice that showed the least within-session extinction, but there was some evidence that the effect in the amygdala did not depend on behavior during extinction. These findings demonstrate that even with identical extinction trial durations, the effects of DCS administered into the hippocampus and amygdala can heavily depend on the organism's behavior during the extinction session. The broader implication of these findings is that the effects of pharmacological treatments designed to enhance extinction by targeting hippocampal or amygdalar processes may depend on the responsivity of the subject to the behavioral treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prospective Out-of-ecliptic White-light Imaging of Interplanetary Corotating Interaction Regions at Solar Maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ming; Yang, Liping; Liu, Ying D.; Keiji, Hayashi; Li, Huichao [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A. [RAL Space, STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom); Li, Bo; Xia, Lidong, E-mail: mxiong@spacweather.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai (China)

    2017-07-20

    Interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) can be remotely imaged in white light (WL), as demonstrated by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis spacecraft and Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) on board the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) spacecraft. The interplanetary WL intensity, due to Thomson scattering of incident sunlight by free electrons, is jointly determined by the 3D distribution of electron number density and line-of-sight (LOS) weighting factors of the Thomson-scattering geometry. The 2D radiance patterns of CIRs in WL sky maps look very different from different 3D viewpoints. Because of the in-ecliptic locations of both the STEREO and Coriolis spacecraft, the longitudinal dimension of interplanetary CIRs has, up to now, always been integrated in WL imagery. To synthesize the WL radiance patterns of CIRs from an out-of-ecliptic (OOE) vantage point, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the 3D inner heliosphere during Carrington Rotation CR1967 at solar maximum. The mixing effects associated with viewing 3D CIRs are significantly minimized from an OOE viewpoint. Our forward modeling results demonstrate that OOE WL imaging from a latitude greater than 60° can (1) enable the garden-hose spiral morphology of CIRs to be readily resolved, (2) enable multiple coexisting CIRs to be differentiated, and (3) enable the continuous tracing of any interplanetary CIR back toward its coronal source. In particular, an OOE view in WL can reveal where nascent CIRs are formed in the extended corona and how these CIRs develop in interplanetary space. Therefore, a panoramic view from a suite of wide-field WL imagers in a solar polar orbit would be invaluable in unambiguously resolving the large-scale longitudinal structure of CIRs in the 3D inner heliosphere.

  18. Expected genetic gain and genotype- environment interaction in Acacia mangium in the northern region of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Pavlotzky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Acacia mangium Willd. progeny tests were evaluated, pursuing an increment in the profitability of commercial plantations. The 25 open-pollinated families were established in Los Chiles and San Carlos, northern region of Costa Rica, in year 2006, and evaluated in 2007 and in 2010. Genetic material came from plus tree selections obtained by GENFORES, a costarican tree-improvement and gene-conservation cooperative. In each trial, families were represented by 48 progenies, planted in 4 pairs randomly distributed within each of the 6 blocks. In 2010, DBH, survival rate, commercial number of logs per tree, forking, forking height and log quality in the first 4 logs, were evaluated. Based on these measurements, wood commercial volume per tree and per hectare were estimated. Data was analyzed with SELEGEN software from EMBRAPA, Brasil, in order to determine all genetic parameters of the breeding population. All traits evaluated showed family mean heritability values over 0.46. Genetic gain in commercial volume per hectare was estimated as 55.8%, when selecting as parents the 2 best individuals from the top 12 families, which would correspond to an expected commercial volume.ha -1 , at 4 years age, of 78.93 m 3 .ha -1 (around 20 m 3 .ha -1 .year -1 . The 2 Colombian provenances were significantly superior in growth to the rest of the evaluated materials. No significant gene-environment interaction was observed between both sites. Genetic correlations among evaluated traits showed that diameter growth rate is expressed early in this tree species, thus could be used in shortening future selections.

  19. Variations of the Electron Fluxes in the Terrestrial Radiation Belts Due To the Impact of Corotating Interaction Regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacquista, R.; Boscher, D.; Rochel, S.; Maget, V.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the variations of the radiation belts electron fluxes induced by the interaction of two types of solar wind structures with the Earth magnetosphere: the corotating interaction regions and the interplanetary coronal mass ejections. We use a statistical method based on the comparison of the preevent and postevent fluxes. Applied to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Polar Operational Environmental Satellites data, this gives us the opportunity to extend previous studies focused on relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit. We enlighten how corotating interaction regions and Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections can impact differently the electron belts depending on the energy and the L shell. In addition, we provide a new insight concerning these variations by considering their amplitude. Finally, we show strong relations between the intensity of the magnetic storms related to the events and the variation of the flux. These relations concern both the capacity of the events to increase the flux and the deepness of these increases.

  20. Gα16 interacts with tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (TPR1 through its β3 region to activate Ras independently of phospholipase Cβ signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Maurice KC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of cell surface receptors in the mammalian genome. As the core of the G protein signal transduction machinery, the Gα subunits are required to interact with multiple partners. The GTP-bound active state of many Gα subunits can bind a multitude of effectors and regulatory proteins. Yet it remains unclear if the different proteins utilize distinct or common structural motifs on the Gα subunit for binding. Using Gα16 as a model, we asked if its recently discovered adaptor protein tetratricopeptide repeat 1 (TPR1 binds to the same region as its canonical effector, phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ. Results We have examined the specificity of Gα16/TPR1 association by testing a series of chimeras between Gα16 and Gαz. TPR1 co-immunoprecipitated with Gα16 and more tightly with its constitutively active Gα16QL, but not Gαz. Progressive replacement of Gα16 sequence with the corresponding residues of Gαz eventually identified a stretch of six amino acids in the β3 region of Gα16 which are responsible for TPR1 interaction and the subsequent Ras activation. Insertion of these six residues into Gαz allowed productive TPR1-interaction. Since the β3 region only minimally contributes to interact with PLCβ, several chimeras exhibited differential abilities to stimulate PLCβ and Ras. The ability of the chimeras to activate downstream transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor κB appeared to be associated with PLCβ signaling. Conclusions Our results suggest that Gα16 can signal through TPR1/Ras and PLCβ simultaneously and independently. The β3 region of Gα16 is essential for interaction with TPR1 and the subsequent activation of Ras, but has relatively minor influence on the PLCβ interaction. Gα16 may utilize different structural domains to bind TPR1 and PLCβ.

  1. Major Geomagnetic Storms (Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) Generated by Corotating Interaction Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Webb, D. F.; Zhang, J.; Berdichevsky, B. D.; Biesecker, D. A.; Kasper, J. C.; Kataoka, R.; Steinberg, J. T.; Thompson, B. J.; Wu, C.-C.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-nine major geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst less than or equal to -100 nT) observed in 1996 to 2004 were the focus of a Living with a Star Coordinated Data-Analysis Workshop (CDAW) in March, 2005. In 9 cases, the storm driver appears to have been purely a corotating interaction region (CIR) without any contribution from coronal mass ejection-related material (interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs). These storms were generated by structures within CIRs located both before and/or after the stream interface that included persistently southward magnetic fields for intervals of several hours. We compare their geomagnetic effects with those of 159 CIRs observed during 1996 - 2005. The major storms form the extreme tail of a continuous distribution of CIR geoeffectiveness which peaks at Dst approx. -40 nT but is subject to a prominent seasonal variation of - 40 nT which is ordered by the spring and fall equinoxes and the solar wind magnetic field direction towards or away from the Sun. The O'Brien and McPherron [2000] equations, which estimate Dst by integrating the incident solar wind electric field and incorporating a ring current loss term, largely account for the variation in storm size. They tend to underestimate the size of the larger CIR-associated storms by Dst approx. 20 nT. This suggests that injection into the ring current may be more efficient than expected in such storms. Four of the nine major storms in 1996 - 2004 occurred during a period of less than three solar rotations in September - November, 2002, also the time of maximum mean IMF and solar magnetic field intensity during the current solar cycle. The maximum CIR-storm strength found in our sample of events, plus additional 23 probable CIR-associated Dst less than or equal to -100 nT storms in 1972 - 1995, is (Dst = -161 nT). This is consistent with the maximum storm strength (Dst approx. -180 nT) expected from the O'Brien and McPherron equations for the typical range of solar wind

  2. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  3. Water-rock-tailings interactions and sources of sulfur and metals in the subtropical mining region of Taxco, Guerrero (southern Mexico): A multi-isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera Mendoza, Oscar; Ruiz, Joaquin; Díaz Villaseñor, Elvia; Ramírez Guzmán, Alejandro; Cortés, Alejandra; Salgado Souto, Sergio Adrián; Dótor Almazán, Azucena; Rivera Bustos, Reymundo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-isotope (H, O, S, Sr, Pb) systems coupled with conventional (major and trace element) hydrogeochemical analysis were applied to determine the origin of water, to model water-rock-tailings interactions and for source apportionment of sulfur and associated toxic metals in the mining region of Taxco, Guerrero in southern Mexico. Oxygen and H isotopes indicate that meteoric water in the zone is rainwater undergoing varying degrees of isotopic fractionation by atmospheric evaporation whereas Sr isotopes trace the interaction of pristine water from volcanics of the regional recharge zone and subsequently flowing through sandstone and shale to spring points. Leachates form from two distinctive sources (spring water and surface water) having differential interactions with bedrocks prior to entering the tailings. Compared to pristine water, leachates are enriched in sulfate, metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metalloids (e.g. As). The sulfur isotopic composition of ore-sulfides, leachates, secondary precipitates, regional surface water and hypogenic sulfates is described in terms of a two-component mixing model with shale of Mexcala and limestone of Morelos formations representing the light and heavy end-members, respectively, whereas Sr isotopic composition is bracketed combining three lithogenic (Mexcala/Morelos, Tilzapotla and Taxco Schist) sources. Finally, leachates have a mixture of lead from ore-sulfides and Taxco Schist Formation (Family I) or from ore-sulfides alone (Family II). The application of multiple environmental isotopic techniques is an outstanding tool for elucidating complex interactions of water with bedrocks and tailings and for determining the source of sulfur and toxic metal from mining and other metal polluted environments. - Highlights: • We applied multi-isotope techniques to model water-bedrocks-tailings interaction. • Spring water records fractionation by evaporation and interaction with local rocks. • The sulfur cycle is modeled in

  4. Study of Λ-production in target fragmentation region from rhorho interactions at 360 GeV/c in the triple regge framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Ganguli, S.N.; Malhotra, P.K.; Raghavan, R.; Bailly, J.L.; Herquet, P.; Bruyant, F.; Caso, C.; Hrubec, J.; Marin, J.C.; Montanet, L.; Chiba, Y.; Epp, B.; Girtler, P.; Fontanelli, F.; Squarcia, S.; Trevisan, U.; Gemesy, T.; Pinter, G.; Matsumoto, S.; Mittra, I.S.; Singh, J.B.; Takahashi, K.; Tikhonova, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of Λ production has been made in the target fragmentation region from pp interactions at 360 GeV/c. The triple Regge analysis of the double differential distribution d 2 N/d(M 2 /s)dt led to an estimate of the kaon trajectory intercept as approx.=-0.6. Comparison of the double and single inclusive distributions supports the idea of Pomeron factorization. The charged multiplicities and moments from virtual 'K + 'p interactions have been studied as a function of M, the c.m. energy of the virtual 'K + 'p system. The results agree reasonably well with the on shell K + p data. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear interaction study around beam pipe region in the Tracker system at CMS with 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Analysis is presented to study the material in the Tracker system with nuclear interactions from proton-proton collisions recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 7.3 pb$^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected at 3.8 Tesla magnetic field. With reconstructed nuclear interactions we observe the structure of the material, including beam pipe, in the Tracker system.

  6. Interactions between Pain and the Motor Cortex: Insights from Research on Phantom Limb Pain and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, Catherine; Léonard, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Pain is a significantly disabling problem that often interacts with other deficits during the rehabilitation process. The aim of this paper is to review evidence of interactions between pain and the motor cortex in order to attempt to answer the following questions: (1) Does acute pain interfere with motor-cortex activity? (2) Does chronic pain interfere with motor-cortex activity, and, conversely, does motor-cortex plasticity contribute to chronic pain? (3) Can the induction of moto...

  7. Social Interaction and Participation of Hearing Impaired Students in the Regular Classroom Setting : The Case of Four Hearing Impaired Students in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Habte, Nitsuh Belachew

    2008-01-01

    This study is carried out in the classroom and out of classroom at one of the school in the Amhara Regional State in Debre Markos. The purpose of the study is to investigate the social interaction and participation of hearing impaired students with their teachers and hearing peers in the regular classroom setting in different teaching learning activities. Out of classroom in extra-curricular activities, guidance and counseling, sport and play during break time are also investigated in this st...

  8. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat-trans-Activation-Responsive Region Interaction by an Antiviral Quinolone Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sara; Parolin, Cristina; Gatto, Barbara; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Fravolini, Arnaldo; Palù, Giorgio; Palumbo, Manlio

    2004-01-01

    WM5, a 6-aminoquinolone derivative, binds with high affinity to the bulge of the trans-activation-responsive region (TAR), whereas it displays low binding affinity for the loop and stem regions of TAR and for random RNA and DNA sequences. Furthermore, WM5 disrupts the natural protein-nucleic acid complex with a 50% inhibitory concentration in the low micromolar range in both in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:15105155

  9. Design and Mechanical Stability Analysis of the Interaction Region for the Inverse Compton Scattering Gamma-Ray Source Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhanok, Andrei

    Development of a compact source of high-spectral brilliance and high impulse frequency gamma rays has been in scope of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for quite some time. Main goal of the project is to develop a setup to support gamma rays detection test and gamma ray spectroscopy. Potential applications include but not limited to nuclear astrophysics, nuclear medicine, oncology ('gamma knife'). Present work covers multiple interconnected stages of development of the interaction region to ensure high levels of structural strength and vibrational resistance. Inverse Compton scattering is a complex phenomenon, in which charged particle transfers a part of its energy to a photon. It requires extreme precision as the interaction point is estimated to be 20 microm. The slightest deflection of the mirrors will reduce effectiveness of conversion by orders of magnitude. For acceptable conversion efficiency laser cavity also must have >1000 finesse value, which requires a trade-off between size, mechanical stability, complexity, and price of the setup. This work focuses on advantages and weak points of different designs of interaction regions as well as in-depth description of analyses performed. This includes laser cavity amplification and finesse estimates, natural frequency mapping, harmonic analysis. Structural analysis is required as interaction must occur under high vacuum conditions.

  10. Structure-function analysis of RBP-J-interacting and tubulin-associated (RITA) reveals regions critical for repression of Notch target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaja, Nassif; Yuan, Zhenyu; Oswald, Franz; Kovall, Rhett A

    2017-06-23

    The Notch pathway is a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism that is essential for tissue development and maintenance, and aberrant Notch signaling has been implicated in various cancers, congenital defects, and cardiovascular diseases. Notch signaling activates the expression of target genes, which are regulated by the transcription factor CSL (CBF1/RBP-J, Su(H), Lag-1). CSL interacts with both transcriptional corepressor and coactivator proteins, functioning as both a repressor and activator, respectively. Although Notch activation complexes are relatively well understood at the structural level, less is known about how CSL interacts with corepressors. Recently, a new RBP-J (mammalian CSL ortholog)-interacting protein termed RITA has been identified and shown to export RBP-J out of the nucleus, thereby leading to the down-regulation of Notch target gene expression. However, the molecular details of RBP-J/RITA interactions are unclear. Here, using a combination of biochemical/cellular, structural, and biophysical techniques, we demonstrate that endogenous RBP-J and RITA proteins interact in cells, map the binding regions necessary for RBP-J·RITA complex formation, and determine the X-ray structure of the RBP-J·RITA complex bound to DNA. To validate the structure and glean more insights into function, we tested structure-based RBP-J and RITA mutants with biochemical/cellular assays and isothermal titration calorimetry. Whereas our structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that RITA binds RBP-J similarly to the RAM (RBP-J-associated molecule) domain of Notch, our biochemical and cellular assays suggest that RITA interacts with additional regions in RBP-J. Taken together, these results provide molecular insights into the mechanism of RITA-mediated regulation of Notch signaling, contributing to our understanding of how CSL functions as a transcriptional repressor of Notch target genes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Biomedical image representation approach using visualness and spatial information in a concept feature space for interactive region-of-interest-based retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Antani, Sameer K; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts where images are represented in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term "concept" refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as the Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist the user in interactively selecting a region-of-interest (ROI) and searching for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a postprocessing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval is validated through experiments on two different data sets, which are collected from open access biomedical literature.

  12. Exploring the Relation between the Degree of Novelty of Innovations and User-producer Interaction across Different Income Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harirchi, Gouya; Chaminade, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    -level data, this paper explores how collaboration with users in different income regions affects the degree of innovations’ novelty. We find that collaborating with international users is positively related to higher degrees of novelty. Furthermore, firms in low- and middle income countries will benefit more...

  13. Methodology to Model and Understand the Complexities of Social, Economic,and Governance Interactions for Regional Assessment in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Commodities Exported Technological Resources Population in Service Sector Income per Person in Technology Sector Education Level International Loans...international primary commodity markets responds to an exclusionary form of globalization; with major implications for the promotion of peace...domestic maize and fertilizer prices in the region; 2) to assess possible changes in cropping patterns, national food production, and consumers

  14. The C-terminal region of A-kinase anchor protein 350 (AKAP350A) enables formation of microtubule-nucleation centers and interacts with pericentriolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Elena; Roland, Joseph T; Lapierre, Lynne A; Williams, Janice A; Mason, Twila A; Goldenring, James R

    2017-12-15

    Microtubules in animal cells assemble (nucleate) from both the centrosome and the cis-Golgi cisternae. A-kinase anchor protein 350 kDa (AKAP350A, also called AKAP450/CG-NAP/AKAP9) is a large scaffolding protein located at both the centrosome and Golgi apparatus. Previous findings have suggested that AKAP350 is important for microtubule dynamics at both locations, but how this scaffolding protein assembles microtubule nucleation machinery is unclear. Here, we found that overexpression of the C-terminal third of AKAP350A, enhanced GFP-AKAP350A(2691-3907), induces the formation of multiple microtubule-nucleation centers (MTNCs). Nevertheless, these induced MTNCs lacked "true" centriole proteins, such as Cep135. Mapping analysis with AKAP350A truncations demonstrated that AKAP350A contains discrete regions responsible for promoting or inhibiting the formation of multiple MTNCs. Moreover, GFP-AKAP350A(2691-3907) recruited several pericentriolar proteins to MTNCs, including γ-tubulin, pericentrin, Cep68, Cep170, and Cdk5RAP2. Proteomic analysis indicated that Cdk5RAP2 and Cep170 both interact with the microtubule nucleation-promoting region of AKAP350A, whereas Cep68 interacts with the distal C-terminal AKAP350A region. Yeast two-hybrid assays established a direct interaction of Cep170 with AKAP350A. Super-resolution and deconvolution microscopy analyses were performed to define the association of AKAP350A with centrosomes, and these studies disclosed that AKAP350A spans the bridge between centrioles, co-localizing with rootletin and Cep68 in the linker region. siRNA-mediated depletion of AKAP350A caused displacement of both Cep68 and Cep170 from the centrosome. These results suggest that AKAP350A acts as a scaffold for factors involved in microtubule nucleation at the centrosome and coordinates the assembly of protein complexes associating with the intercentriolar bridge.

  15. Potential for social learning in sustainable regional development: analysis of stakeholder interaction with a focus on the role of scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dlouhá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with regional development and its dimension of (unsustainability: it analyses conditions for the success or failure of environmental or SD strategies from a social point of view. The authors share their experience acquired within the process of compiling a database of case studies from different regions of the Czech Republic and from abroad, and subsequently provide a brief analytical overview of cases in this special issue. The analytical perspective focuses on the roles of actors in a dialogue about regional sustainability issues within cooperative or conflict situations, and a description of the communication processes at play, especially within the science – policy interface. An analytical tool (actor analysis is employed to explore network characteristics, the relationships of the actors involved and the process of deliberation itself where different approaches to “nature”, “environment”, and/or “sustainable development” were conceived but often not agreed upon. A comparative meta-analysis of different cases helped to formulate several hypotheses: for a successful sustainability transition on a regional level, future visions are necessary and should be discussed and shared by stakeholders. Necessary innovation is often the result of the involvement of experts and might be provided from outside the region. Dialogue should be based on respect for actor diversity and their viewpoints (this is a condition for social learning, as well as a commitment to contribute to the “common good”. Where local actors had only to choose between controversial extant solutions, a deadlock in communication often resulted. The establishment of a communication framework for actor involvement appeared to be beneficial, which is also an opportunity for facilitation of these processes in practice.

  16. Effects of air-sea interaction on extended-range prediction of geopotential height at 500 hPa over the northern extratropical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xujia; Zheng, Zhihai; Feng, Guolin

    2018-04-01

    The contribution of air-sea interaction on the extended-range prediction of geopotential height at 500 hPa in the northern extratropical region has been analyzed with a coupled model form Beijing Climate Center and its atmospheric components. Under the assumption of the perfect model, the extended-range prediction skill was evaluated by anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC), root mean square error (RMSE), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The coupled model has a better prediction skill than its atmospheric model, especially, the air-sea interaction in July made a greater contribution for the improvement of prediction skill than other months. The prediction skill of the extratropical region in the coupled model reaches 16-18 days in all months, while the atmospheric model reaches 10-11 days in January, April, and July and only 7-8 days in October, indicating that the air-sea interaction can extend the prediction skill of the atmospheric model by about 1 week. The errors of both the coupled model and the atmospheric model reach saturation in about 20 days, suggesting that the predictable range is less than 3 weeks.

  17. Interaction and cooperation of the member states of the SCO in the context of regional security: lessons, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Kozhagulovna Iskakova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the main areas of cooperation of SCO member states in the framework of the international organization (the state security and the fight against terrorism, territorial integrity and stability, education, health, environment. The stages of security policy of the SCO are determined. Theevents of recent years have witnessed the growing negativetrends in the SCO region and adjacent territories. The fight against international terrorism, extremism and drug trafficking has become the focal activity of the SCO's security. It is obvious the necessity of diversification of foreign relations and finding new partners who would not seek to have a noticeableimpact on the configuration of alliances and integration structures in the region. Moreover, the author analyzes the problems and prospects of further cooperation and expanding the influence of the international organization. The directions for the strategy of integration of the SC are proposed.

  18. Specific interactions between transcription factors and the promoter-regulatory region of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazal, P.; Lubon, H.; Hennighausen, L.

    1988-01-01

    Repeat sequence motifs as well as unique sequences between nucleotides -150 and -22 of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 gene interact in vitro with nuclear proteins. The authors show that a transcriptional element between nucleotides -91 and -65 stimulated promoter activity in vivo and in vitro by binding specific cellular transcription factors. Finally, a common sequence motif, (T)TGG/AC, present in 15 of the determined binding sites suggests a particular class of nuclear factors associated with the immediate-early 1 gene

  19. High-precision mass measurements in the rare-earth region to investigate the proton-neutron interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Schwarz, S; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M; Litvinov, Y

    We propose precision mass measurements on a series of short-lived nuclides for the investigation of proton-neutron interactions and two neutron separation energies and their role in nuclear structure, especially concerning deformation and collectivity. The nuclides include neutron-rich Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, and Yb isotopes, as well as $^{186}$Hf. The investigations will require the Penning trap mass-spectrometer ISOLTRAP which routinely reaches the necessary mass precision of about 10 keV. The measurements are planned for a period of two years and include a request for the test of the RILIS scheme of Sm.

  20. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  1. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo; Montoya-Pfeiffer, Paula María; Parra-H, Alejandro; Solarte, Victor; Tupac Otero, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Choc6 Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championi and Eg. ignita. The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomia spp. and Anthurium spp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae) which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  2. Interaction networks and the use of floral resources by male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini in a primary rain forests of the Chocó Region (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodulfo Ospina-Torres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orchid bees are important keystone pollinators from the Neotropics. With the aim to study the relationships between orchid bees and their nectar and aromatic host species, we made systematic samplings of males across two conservation areas in the biogeographic Chocó Region of Colombia. We used chemical baits to collect 352 male bees during five months. The pollen attached to their bodies was extracted for palynological identification and to estimate interaction networks. The euglossine community consisted of at least 22 species including Eg. maculilabris, Eg. orellana, Eg. championiand Eg. ignita.The male bees were associated with 84 plants but depended on a small group of them (Peperomiaspp. and Anthuriumspp, as well as species of Solanaceae, Ericaceae and Malpighiaceae which were widely distributed across the altitudinal gradient, and were available through the year. The resulting interaction networks revealed a typical nested pattern usually found in plant-pollinator interactions, with several rare bee and plant species interaction with a small group of generalist bees and plant species. Albeit, we found variation within networks related to species composition. Such variation may be a consequence of specific differences in plant flowering phenology.

  3. Applications of electrical resistivity imaging for characterizing groundwater-surface water interactions from local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M. B.; Befus, K. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Ong, J.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Cook, P. L.; Tait, D. R.; Erler, D.; Santos, I. R.; Siringan, F. P.

    2012-12-01

    Surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) interact across multiple spatial and temporal scales and their interaction is important for ecological and biogeochemical functions. The mixing of GW and SW has been challenging to simultaneously map with sufficient detail and coverage. Fortunately, ambient differences in salinity of waters occupying geologic formations and sediment are an ideal target for electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). We present examples of the application of ERI for mapping GW discharge and for understanding GW-SW interactions at: (1) a large regulated river, (2) neighboring lakes with differing salinity, (3) fringing coral reefs and lagoons, (4) beaches, and (5) estuaries. In all these cases, the ER tomograms were critical for improving conceptual understanding of GW-SW interactions. At the Lower Colorado River in Austin, Texas (USA), time-lapse ERI was conducted across a 12-hour dam-release cycle when the river stage varied by 0.7 m. Using temporal variability in electrical resistivity (ER) signatures, we identified a shallow well-flushed hyporheic zone, a transition zone where SW and GW mix, and a stable deep zone hosting only GW. In alkaline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills (Nebraska, USA), ER surveys using boat-towed cables allowed for mapping the 3D electrical structure underneath the lake. The tomograms were used to distinguish flow-through lakes, which have decreasing subsurface ER from GW inflow to outflow area, from pure GW discharge lakes, which have uniformly stratified increasing-with-depth ER profiles. Moreover, GW plumes in both discharge and recharge zones were clearly outlined underneath the lake. More than 30 km of ER profiles collected via boat-towed surveys over a fringing coral reef in the Philippines identified areas of high ER within the reef that coincide with resistive zones in the seawater. Analysis of 222Rn of bottom waters and vertical conductivity-temperature-depth measurements show the persistence of fresh GW input into

  4. The role of land-climate interactions for the regional amplification of temperature extremes in climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Vogel, M.; Zscheischler, J.; Schwingshackl, C.; Davin, E.; Gudmundsson, L.; Guillod, B.; Hauser, M.; Hirsch, A.; Hirschi, M.; Humphrey, V.; Thiery, W.

    2017-12-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than the global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level (Seneviratne et al. 2016). This presentation will highlight the processes underlying this behavior, which is strongly related to land-climate feedbacks (Vogel et al. 2017). The identified feedbacks are also affecting the occurrence probability of compound drought and heat events (Zscheischler and Seneviratne 2017), with high relevance for impacts on forest fire and agriculture production. Moreover, the responsible land processes strongly contribute to the inter-model spread in the projections, and can thus be used to derive observations-based constraints to reduce the uncertainty of projected changes in climate extremes. Finally, we will also discuss the role of soil moisture effects on carbon uptake and their relevance for projections, as well as the role of land use changes in affecting the identified feedbacks and projected changes in climate extremes. References: Seneviratne, S.I., M. Donat, A.J. Pitman, R. Knutti, and R.L. Wilby, 2016: Allowable CO2 emissions based on regional and impact-related climate targets. Nature, 529, 477-483, doi:10.1038/nature16542. Vogel, M.M., R. Orth, F. Cheruy, S. Hagemann, R. Lorenz, B.J.J.M. Hurk, and S.I. Seneviratne, 2017: Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(3), 1511-1519, doi:10.1002/2016GL071235. Zscheischler, J., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2017: Dependence of drivers affects risks associated with compound events. Science Advances, 3(6), doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1700263

  5. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  6. Mapping of immunogenic and protein-interacting regions at the surface of the seven-bladed β-propeller domain of the HIV-1 cellular interactor EED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouet Patrice

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group proteins, is involved in multiple cellular protein complexes. Its C-terminal domain, which is common to the four EED isoforms, contains seven repeats of a canonical WD-40 motif. EED is an interactor of three HIV-1 proteins, matrix (MA, integrase (IN and Nef. An antiviral activity has been found to be associated with isoforms EED3 and EED4 at the late stage of HIV-1 replication, due to a negative effect on virus assembly and genomic RNA packaging. The aim of the present study was to determine the regions of the EED C-terminal core domain which were accessible and available to protein interactions, using three-dimensional (3D protein homology modelling with a WD-40 protein of known structure, and epitope mapping of anti-EED antibodies. Results Our data suggested that the C-terminal domain of EED was folded as a seven-bladed β-propeller protein. During the completion of our work, crystallographic data of EED became available from co-crystals of the EED C-terminal core with the N-terminal domain of its cellular partner EZH2. Our 3D-model was in good congruence with the refined structural model determined from crystallographic data, except for a unique α-helix in the fourth β-blade. More importantly, the position of flexible loops and accessible β-strands on the β-propeller was consistent with our mapping of immunogenic epitopes and sites of interaction with HIV-1 MA and IN. Certain immunoreactive regions were found to overlap with the EZH2, MA and IN binding sites, confirming their accessibility and reactivity at the surface of EED. Crystal structure of EED showed that the two discrete regions of interaction with MA and IN did not overlap with each other, nor with the EZH2 binding pocket, but were contiguous, and formed a continuous binding groove running along the lateral face of the β-propeller. Conclusion Identification of antibody-, MA-, IN- and EZH2

  7. Study of neutron-proton interaction in the 300-700 MeV energy region: Progress report, July 1987-August 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1988-08-01

    The experimental program supported by the present grant is a continuation of the work supported under DOE Contract AS05-76ER04449. More detailed discussion of the experimental apparatus and earlier activities can be found in annual reports for that contract. The primary objective of the program the is investigation of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, in the medium-energy region, in both elastic and inelastic channels. This paper reviews experiments dealing with these types of high energy collisions. 41 refs

  8. Calculation of effective atomic numbers and electron densities of different types of material for total photon interaction in the continuous energy region via different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Büyükyıldız

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective atomic number (Zeff and electron density (Neff are convenient parameters used to characterise the radiation response of a multi-element material in the technical and industrial applications, radiation shielding design, absorbed dose and build-up factor calculations. Thus, it is very significant to choose accurate method to determine these parameters unambiguously. In the present study, effective atomic numbers and electron densities of different types of materials have been calculated by using a direct method and an interpolation method for total photon interaction in the energy region of 1 keV to 100 GeV. In addition, agreements and disagreements of the used methods have been discussed, and from the results, significant variations have been observed between the methods used to compute for the materials in the different energy regions.

  9. Groundwater in the Broken Hill region, Australia: recognising interaction with bedrock and mineralisation using S, Sr and Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Kirste, Dirk; Carr, Graham; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The supergiant Pb-Zn-Ag Broken Hill orebody and numerous other minor mineral deposits occur within the limited outcrop of the Proterozoic Curnamona Province of Australia. The vast majority of this Province is concealed by up to 200 m of transported regolith, hampering conventional exploration strategies. Approximately 300 groundwater samples were collected over the southern Curnamona Province to test whether this medium could be helpful in the search for hidden mineral deposits. Sulphur, Sr and Pb isotope composition of the groundwaters were determined and S excess (S XS ), i.e., the amount of S that can be ascribed neither to evaporation nor to mixing, was calculated. Many samples were recognised to have undergone an addition of 34 S-depleted S, which can be attributed to oxidation of sulfides with a Broken Hill type δ 34 S signature (average ∼0%o V-CDT). Furthermore, Sr isotopes identify the broad types of bedrock that the groundwater has been interacting with, from the less radiogenic Adelaidean rocks (and minerals) in the west (groundwater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio as low as 0.708) to the highly radiogenic Willyama Supergroup in the east ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio up to 0.737). The groundwaters have 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios comparable to, or intermediate between, various mineralisation types recognised in the area (Broken Hill, Rupee, Thackaringa, etc., types). The few samples taken in the vicinity of known mineralisation yield positive indicators (positive S XS , low δ 34 S, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signature of bedrock type and Pb isotope fingerprinting of mineralisation type). This study also highlights several new locations under sedimentary cover where these indicators suggest interaction with mineralisation

  10. The visualization and dissemination of the Great Lakes Regional Toxic Air Emissions Inventory: Using geographic information systems and interactive Internet mapping applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, R.M. [Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The eight Great Lakes states, the Canadian province of Ontario and the Great Lakes Commission are involved in a collective effort to develop a regional inventory of toxic air emissions for 49 targeted toxic pollutants from point and area sources. The regional inventory will soon be expanded to include emissions from mobile sources. The inventory, when aggregated for all eight states and Ontario, will eventually reside at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). To aid in the understanding and interpretation of the inventory`s data, an effort has been undertaken to generate two map series for the entire region: (1) choropleth maps of total toxic air emissions at the county level of geography and (2) dot maps showing facility locations. To ensure an effective and efficient dissemination process among the province and various states, an interactive Internet mapping interface prototype was modified and used for the project. With an interactive online visualization tool, the inventory collectors, managers and researchers can quickly and effectively view the inventory`s data on maps, charts or spreadsheets. These graphics can be used as: (1) a QA/QC function for the inventory collectors, (2) a simple communication of complex data to support managers decision making and (3) a means for easy access to complex data and information about any geographic area in the region for the researchers or general public. This paper describes the development and use of PC Arc/Info, ArcView and MapInfo geographic information systems (GIS), mapping and Internet interfacing applications to visualize, disseminate and convey the emissions inventory data in a meaningful and useful manner. The various methods developed and implemented to convert, process and prepare the inventory data and Internet interface for use with a standard Internet web browser also are described in this paper.

  11. Improving the representation of river-groundwater interactions in land surface modeling at the regional scale: Observational evidence and parameterization applied in the Community Land Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zampieri, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    Groundwater is an important component of the hydrological cycle, included in many land surface models to provide a lower boundary condition for soil moisture, which in turn plays a key role in the land-vegetation-atmosphere interactions and the ecosystem dynamics. In regional-scale climate applications land surface models (LSMs) are commonly coupled to atmospheric models to close the surface energy, mass and carbon balance. LSMs in these applications are used to resolve the momentum, heat, water and carbon vertical fluxes, accounting for the effect of vegetation, soil type and other surface parameters, while lack of adequate resolution prevents using them to resolve horizontal sub-grid processes. Specifically, LSMs resolve the large-scale runoff production associated with infiltration excess and sub-grid groundwater convergence, but they neglect the effect from loosing streams to groundwater. Through the analysis of observed data of soil moisture obtained from the Oklahoma Mesoscale Network stations and land surface temperature derived from MODIS we provide evidence that the regional scale soil moisture and surface temperature patterns are affected by the rivers. This is demonstrated on the basis of simulations from a land surface model (i.e., Community Land Model - CLM, version 3.5). We show that the model cannot reproduce the features of the observed soil moisture and temperature spatial patterns that are related to the underlying mechanism of reinfiltration of river water to groundwater. Therefore, we implement a simple parameterization of this process in CLM showing the ability to reproduce the soil moisture and surface temperature spatial variabilities that relate to the river distribution at regional scale. The CLM with this new parameterization is used to evaluate impacts of the improved representation of river-groundwater interactions on the simulated water cycle parameters and the surface energy budget at the regional scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Involvement of the carboxyl-terminal region of the yeast peroxisomal half ABC transporter Pxa2p in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Chuang

    Full Text Available The peroxisome is a single membrane-bound organelle in eukaryotic cells involved in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation of fatty acids. The human genetic disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene (encoding ALDP, a peroxisomal half ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporter. This disease is characterized by defective peroxisomal β-oxidation and a large accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in brain white matter, adrenal cortex, and testis. ALDP forms a homodimer proposed to be the functional transporter, whereas the peroxisomal transporter in yeast is a heterodimer comprising two half ABC transporters, Pxa1p and Pxa2p, both orthologs of human ALDP. While the carboxyl-terminal domain of ALDP is engaged in dimerization, it remains unknown whether the same region is involved in the interaction between Pxa1p and Pxa2p.Using a yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that the carboxyl-terminal region (CT of Pxa2p, but not of Pxa1p, is required for their interaction. Further analysis indicated that the central part of the CT (designated CT2 of Pxa2p was indispensable for its interaction with the carboxyl terminally truncated Pxa1_NBD. An interaction between the CT of Pxa2p and Pxa1_NBD was not detected, but could be identified in the presence of Pxa2_NBD-CT1. A single mutation of two conserved residues (aligned with X-ALD-associated mutations at the same positions in ALDP in the CT2 of the Pxa2_NBD-CT protein impaired its interaction with Pxa1_NBD or Pxa1_NBD-CT, resulting in a mutant protein that exhibited a proteinase K digestion profile different from that of the wild-type protein. Functional analysis of these mutant proteins on oleate plates indicated that they were defective in transporter function.The CT of Pxa2p is involved in its interaction with Pxa1p and in transporter function. This concept may be applied to human ALDP studies, helping to establish the pathological mechanism for CT-related X

  13. Human-climate interactions in the central Mediterranean region during the last millennia: The laminated record of Lake Butrint (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Brushulli, Brunhilda; Sinopoli, Gaia; Wagner, Bernd; Sadori, Laura; Gilli, Adrian; Pambuku, Arben

    2016-03-01

    Lake Butrint (39°47 N, 20°1 E) is a ca. 21 m deep, coastal lagoon located in SW Albania where finely-laminated sediments have been continuously deposited during the last millennia. The multi-proxy analysis (sedimentology, high-resolution elemental geochemistry and pollen) of a 12 m long sediment core, supported by seven AMS radiocarbon dates and 137Cs dating, enable a precise reconstruction of the environmental change that occurred in the central Mediterranean region during the last ∼4.5 cal kyrs BP. Sediments consist of triplets of authigenic carbonates, organic matter and clayey laminae. Fluctuations in the thickness and/or presence of these different types of seasonal laminae indicate variations in water salinity, organic productivity and runoff in the lake's catchment, as a result of the complex interplay of tectonics, anthropogenic forcing and climate variability. The progradation of the Pavllo river delta, favoured by variable human activity from the nearby ancient city of Butrint, led to the progressive isolation of this hydrological system from the Ionian Sea. The system evolved from an open bay to a restricted lagoon, which is consistent with archaeological data. An abrupt increase in mass-wasting activity between 1515 and 1450 BC, likely caused by nearby seismic activity, led to the accumulation of 24 homogenites, up to 17 cm thick. They have been deposited during the onset of finely laminated sedimentation, which indicates restricted, anoxic bottom water conditions and higher salinity. Periods of maximum water salinity, biological productivity, and carbonate precipitation coincide with warmer intervals, such as the early Roman Warm Period (RWP) (500 BC-0 AD), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (800-1400 AD) and recent times (after 1800 AD). Conversely, lower salinity and more oxic conditions, with higher clastic input were recorded during 1400-500 BC, the Late Roman and the Early Medieval periods (0-800 AD) and during the Little Ice Age (1400-1800 AD

  14. A sparse representation of the pathologist's interaction with whole slide images to improve the assigned relevance of regions of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Daniel; Corredor, Germán.; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    During a diagnosis task, a Pathologist looks over a Whole Slide Image (WSI), aiming to find out relevant pathological patterns. Nonetheless, a virtual microscope captures these structures, but also other cellular patterns with different or none diagnostic meaning. Annotation of these images depends on manual delineation, which in practice becomes a hard task. This article contributes a new method for detecting relevant regions in WSI using the routine navigations in a virtual microscope. This method constructs a sparse representation or dictionary of each navigation path and determines the hidden relevance by maximizing the incoherence between several paths. The resulting dictionaries are then projected onto each other and relevant information is set to the dictionary atoms whose similarity is higher than a custom threshold. Evaluation was performed with 6 pathological images segmented from a skin biopsy already diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Results show that our proposal outperforms the baseline by more than 20%.

  15. Interactions of atmospheric gases and aerosols with the monsoon dynamics over the Sudano-Guinean region during AMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroubaix, Adrien; Flamant, Cyrille; Menut, Laurent; Siour, Guillaume; Mailler, Sylvain; Turquety, Solène; Briant, Régis; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Crumeyrolle, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, CO, and fine atmospheric particulate matter, PM2.5, are analyzed over the Guinean Gulf coastal region using the WRF-CHIMERE modeling system and observations during the beginning of the monsoon 2006 (from May to July), corresponding to the Africa Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis (AMMA) campaign period. Along the Guinean Gulf coast, the contribution of long-range pollution transport to CO or PM2.5 concentrations is important. The contribution of desert dust PM2.5 concentration decreases from ˜ 38 % in May to ˜ 5 % in July. The contribution of biomass burning PM2.5 concentration from Central Africa increases from ˜ 10 % in May to ˜ 52 % in July. The anthropogenic contribution is ˜ 30 % for CO and ˜ 10 % for PM2.5 during the whole period. When focusing only on anthropogenic pollution, frequent northward transport events from the coast to the Sahel are associated with periods of low wind and no precipitation. In June, anthropogenic PM2.5 and CO concentrations are higher than in May or July over the Guinean coastal region. Air mass dynamics concentrate pollutants emitted in the Sahel due to a meridional atmospheric cell. Moreover, a part of the pollution emitted remotely at the coast is transported and accumulated over the Sahel. Focusing the analysis on the period 8-15 June, anthropogenic pollutants emitted along the coastline are exported toward the north especially at the beginning of the night (18:00 to 00:00 UTC) with the establishment of the nocturnal low level jet. Plumes originating from different cities are mixed for some hours at the coast, leading to high pollution concentration, because of specific disturbed meteorological conditions.

  16. Interactions of atmospheric gases and aerosols with the monsoon dynamics over the Sudano-Guinean region during AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Deroubaix

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide, CO, and fine atmospheric particulate matter, PM2.5, are analyzed over the Guinean Gulf coastal region using the WRF-CHIMERE modeling system and observations during the beginning of the monsoon 2006 (from May to July, corresponding to the Africa Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis (AMMA campaign period. Along the Guinean Gulf coast, the contribution of long-range pollution transport to CO or PM2.5 concentrations is important. The contribution of desert dust PM2.5 concentration decreases from  ∼ 38 % in May to  ∼ 5 % in July. The contribution of biomass burning PM2.5 concentration from Central Africa increases from  ∼ 10 % in May to  ∼ 52 % in July. The anthropogenic contribution is  ∼ 30 % for CO and  ∼ 10 % for PM2.5 during the whole period. When focusing only on anthropogenic pollution, frequent northward transport events from the coast to the Sahel are associated with periods of low wind and no precipitation. In June, anthropogenic PM2.5 and CO concentrations are higher than in May or July over the Guinean coastal region. Air mass dynamics concentrate pollutants emitted in the Sahel due to a meridional atmospheric cell. Moreover, a part of the pollution emitted remotely at the coast is transported and accumulated over the Sahel. Focusing the analysis on the period 8–15 June, anthropogenic pollutants emitted along the coastline are exported toward the north especially at the beginning of the night (18:00 to 00:00 UTC with the establishment of the nocturnal low level jet. Plumes originating from different cities are mixed for some hours at the coast, leading to high pollution concentration, because of specific disturbed meteorological conditions.

  17. The Role of Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions in Regional Air Quality - A NU-WRF Study Over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z.; Yu, H.; Chin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol plays an integrated role in the Earth's weather and climate system. It alters the atmospheric heating profiles through absorbing and/or scattering solar radiation that leads to changes in temperature, wind, and humidity. It also serves as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei to modify cloud properties and precipitation. The aerosol-induced changes in local/regional weather pattern and planetary boundary layer structure would subsequently impact atmospheric composition and air quality. Before the advent of the fully coupled air quality models, the feedbacks among aerosol, cloud, and radiation (ACR) are often ignored, and the impact of such feedbacks on air quality is less understood. The principle purpose of this work is to assess the impact of ACR interactions on U.S. regional air quality, focusing on ozone and PM2.5, using the NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF) modeling system. NU-WRF builds on the community WRF model with integrations of several NASA components. Specifically it couples with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to account for ACR effects explicitly. A series of three month long simulations spanning from spring to early summer, a season laden with both local and long-range transported aerosols, have been carried out to explore the effect of ACR interactions on U.S. air quality, in which the factor separation method has been applied in order to isolate the contribution from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud effect.

  18. Interactive effects of climate change with nutrients, mercury, and freshwater acidification on key taxa in the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Evers, David C.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horan, Jeffrey; Jones, Jess W.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Marshall, Harold G.; Milliken, Andrew; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schmerfeld, John J.; Sparling, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative LCC (NA LCC) is a public–private partnership that provides information to support conservation decisions that may be affected by global climate change (GCC) and other threats. The NA LCC region extends from southeast Virginia to the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Within this region, the US National Climate Assessment documented increases in air temperature, total precipitation, frequency of heavy precipitation events, and rising sea level, and predicted more drastic changes. Here, we synthesize literature on the effects of GCC interacting with selected contaminant, nutrient, and environmental processes to adversely affect natural resources within this region. Using a case study approach, we focused on 3 stressors with sufficient NA LCC region-specific information for an informed discussion. We describe GCC interactions with a contaminant (Hg) and 2 complex environmental phenomena—freshwater acidification and eutrophication. We also prepared taxa case studies on GCC- and GCC-contaminant/nutrient/process effects on amphibians and freshwater mussels. Several avian species of high conservation concern have blood Hg concentrations that have been associated with reduced nesting success. Freshwater acidification has adversely affected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Adirondacks and other areas of the region that are slowly recovering due to decreased emissions of N and sulfur oxides. Eutrophication in many estuaries within the region is projected to increase from greater storm runoff and less denitrification in riparian wetlands. Estuarine hypoxia may be exacerbated by increased stratification. Elevated water temperature favors algal species that produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). In several of the region's estuaries, HABs have been associated with bird die-offs. In the NA LCC region, amphibian populations appear to be declining. Some species may be adversely affected by GCC through higher temperatures

  19. Interactive analysis and evaluation of ERTS data for regional planning and urban development: A Los Angeles Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, S.; Economy, R.; Willoughby, G.; Mcknight, J.

    1974-01-01

    The progression endemic to the ERTS Data Use Experiment SR 124 in data quality, analysis sophistication and applications responsiveness is reviewed. The roles of the variety of ERTS products, including the supporting underflight aircraft imagery at various scales, are discussed in the context of this investigation. The versatility of interpretation techniques and outputs developed and implemented via the General Electric Multispectral Information Extraction Systems is described and exemplified by both system-expository and applications-explanatory products. The wide-ranging and in-depth applications studied in the course of this experiment can be characterized as community-oriented and agency-directed. In the former, generic category, which is primarily data-contextual, problems analyzed dealt with agricultural systems, surface water bodies, snow cover, brush fire burns, forestry, grass growth, parks - golf courses - cemeteries, dust storms, grading sites, geological features and coastal water structure. The ERTS MSS band selectivity and measurements thresholds were of primary interest here. The agency-directed application areas have been user-evaluational in nature. Beginning with overall urbanized regional analysis of land cover density-development intensity, residential areas were analyzed for ascertaining if housing types could be aggregated with any degree of reliability.

  20. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charreire Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.

  1. Hidden diversity of Nycteribiidae (Diptera) bat flies from the Malagasy region and insights on host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Goodman, Steven M; Gomard, Yann; Dick, Carl W; Tortosa, Pablo

    2017-12-29

    We present information on Nycteribiidae flies parasitizing the bat families Pteropodidae, Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae from the Malagasy Region, contributing insight into their diversity and host preference. Our phylogenetic analysis identified nine clusters of nycteribiid bat flies on Madagascar and the neighbouring Comoros Archipelago. Bat flies sampled from frugivorous bats of the family Pteropodidae are monoxenous: Eucampsipoda madagascariensis, E. theodori and Cyclopodia dubia appear wholly restricted to Rousettus madagascariensis, R. obliviosus and Eidolon dupreanum, respectively. Two different host preference patterns occurred in nycteribiids infecting insectivorous bats. Flies parasitizing bats of the genera Miniopterus (Miniopteridae) and Myotis (Vespertilionidae), namely Penicillidia leptothrinax, Penicillidia sp. and Nycteribia stylidiopsis, are polyxenous and showed little host preference, while those parasitizing the genera Pipistrellus and Scotophilus (both Vespertilionidae) and referable to Basilia spp., are monoxenous. Lastly, the inferred Bayesian phylogeny revealed that the genus Basilia, as currently configured, is paraphyletic. This study provides new information on the differentiation of nycteribiid taxa, including undescribed species. Host preference is either strict as exemplified by flies parasitizing fruit bats, or more relaxed as found on some insectivorous bat species, possibly because of roost site sharing. Detailed taxonomic work is needed to address three undescribed nycteribiid taxa found on Pipistrellus and Scotophilus, tentatively allocated to the genus Basilia, but possibly warranting different generic allocation.

  2. Interaction between extended and localized electronic states in the region of the metal to insulator transition in semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teubert, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this work addresses the influence of those isovalent localized states on the electronic properties of (B,Ga,In)As. Most valuable were the measurements under hydrostatic pressure that revealed a pressure induced metal-insulator transition. One of the main ideas in this context is the trapping of carriers in localized B-related cluster states that appear in the bandgap at high pressure. The key conclusion that can be drawn from the experimental results is that boron atoms seem to have the character of isovalent electron traps, rendering boron as the first known isovalent trap induced by cationic substitution. In the second part, thermoelectric properties of (B,Ga,In)As and (Ga,In)(N,As) are studied. It was found that although the electric-field driven electronic transport in n-type (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As differs considerably from that of n-type GaAs, the temperature-gradient driven electronic transport is very similar for the three semiconductors, despite distinct differences in the conduction band structure of (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As compared to GaAs. The third part addresses the influence of magnetic interactions on the transport properties near the metal-insulator transition (MIT). Here, two scenarios are considered: Firstly the focus is set on ZnMnSe:Cl, a representative of so called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this material Mn(2+) ions provide a large magnetic moment due to their half filled inner 3d-shell. It is shown that magnetic interactions in conjunction with disorder effects are responsible for the unusual magnetotransport behavior found in this and other II-Mn-VI semiconductor alloys. In the second scenario, a different magnetic compound, namely InSb:Mn, is of interest. It is a representative of the III-Mn-V DMS, where the magnetic impurity Mn serves both as the source of a large localized magnetic moment and as the source of a loosely bound hole due to its acceptor character. Up to now, little is known about

  3. Interaction between extended and localized electronic states in the region of the metal to insulator transition in semiconductor alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teubert, Joerg

    2008-07-01

    The first part of this work addresses the influence of those isovalent localized states on the electronic properties of (B,Ga,In)As. Most valuable were the measurements under hydrostatic pressure that revealed a pressure induced metal-insulator transition. One of the main ideas in this context is the trapping of carriers in localized B-related cluster states that appear in the bandgap at high pressure. The key conclusion that can be drawn from the experimental results is that boron atoms seem to have the character of isovalent electron traps, rendering boron as the first known isovalent trap induced by cationic substitution. In the second part, thermoelectric properties of (B,Ga,In)As and (Ga,In)(N,As) are studied. It was found that although the electric-field driven electronic transport in n-type (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As differs considerably from that of n-type GaAs, the temperature-gradient driven electronic transport is very similar for the three semiconductors, despite distinct differences in the conduction band structure of (Ga,In)(N,As) and (B,Ga,In)As compared to GaAs. The third part addresses the influence of magnetic interactions on the transport properties near the metal-insulator transition (MIT). Here, two scenarios are considered: Firstly the focus is set on ZnMnSe:Cl, a representative of so called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this material Mn(2+) ions provide a large magnetic moment due to their half filled inner 3d-shell. It is shown that magnetic interactions in conjunction with disorder effects are responsible for the unusual magnetotransport behavior found in this and other II-Mn-VI semiconductor alloys. In the second scenario, a different magnetic compound, namely InSb:Mn, is of interest. It is a representative of the III-Mn-V DMS, where the magnetic impurity Mn serves both as the source of a large localized magnetic moment and as the source of a loosely bound hole due to its acceptor character. Up to now, little is known about

  4. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh D Desai

    Full Text Available Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated

  5. Multisensory Competition Is Modulated by Sensory Pathway Interactions with Fronto-Sensorimotor and Default-Mode Network Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sai; Li, You; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bao; Liu, Xingzhou; Mo, Lei; Chen, Qi

    2015-06-17

    Multisensory information competes for preferential access to consciousness. It remains unknown what neural processes cause one particular modality to win multisensory competition and eventually dominate behavior. Thus, in a paradigm in which human participants sought to make simultaneous auditory and visual detection responses, we sought to identify prestimulus and poststimulus neural signals that were associated with auditory and visual dominance on each trial. Behaviorally, visual detection responses preceded auditory responses more frequently than vice versa. Even when visual responses were preceded by auditory responses, they recovered more quickly from previous responses, indicating the dominance of vision over audition. Neurally, visual precedence was associated with increased prestimulus activity in the prefrontal cortex and reduced prestimulus activity in the default-mode network, and increased poststimulus connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the visual system. Moreover, the dorsal visual stream showed not only increased activity in post-perceptual phases but also enhanced connectivity with the sensorimotor cortex, indicating the functional role of the dorsal visual stream in prioritizing the flow of visual information into the motor system. In contrast, auditory precedence was associated with increased prestimulus activity in the auditory cortex and increased poststimulus neural coupling between the auditory and the sensorimotor cortex. Finally, whenever one modality lost multisensory competition, the corresponding sensory cortex showed enhanced connectivity with the default-mode network. Overall, the outcome of audiovisual competition depended on dynamic interactions between sensory systems and both the fronto-sensorimotor and the default-mode network. Together, these results revealed both the neural causes and the neural consequences of visual and auditory dominance during multisensory competition. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359064-14$15.00/0.

  6. Relationships of stable isotopes, water-rock interaction and salinization in fractured aquifers, Petrolina region, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Sousa, E-mail: priscila.silva@cprm.gov.br [Serviço Geológico do Brasil (CPRM), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Cunha, Luciano Soares; Mancini, Luís Henrique, E-mail: eloi@unb.br, E-mail: lucianosc@unb.br, E-mail: lmancini@unb.br [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    The Petrolina County, Pernambuco State, Brazil, presents specificities that make it unique from a hydrogeological point of view. Water resource scarcity is both a quantitative and qualitative issue. The climate is classified as semiarid, having low precipitation, along with high temperatures and evapotranspiration rates. Aquifer zones are related to low connected fractures resulting in a restricted water flow in the aquifer. The recharge is limited and the groundwater salinity is high. Stable isotope analyses of H and O were developed in groundwater samples (with different electrical conductivity) and surface water collected in a bypass channel flowing from the São Francisco River. The results were plotted in a δD ‰ versus δ{sup 18}O ‰ graph along with the curves of the global and local meteoric water line. Groundwater samples showed unexpected results showing a lighter sign pattern when compared to the meteoric waters. More negative δD and δ{sup 18}O values indicate an enrichment in light isotopes, which show that this process is not influenced by surface processes, where the enrichment occurs in heavy isotopes due to evaporation. The isotopic signature observed is interpreted either as resulting from the water-rock interaction, or as resulting from recharge from paleo rains. The waters are old and show restricted flow. So the water-rock contact time is extended. In the rock weathering processes, through the hydration of feldspars, there is preferential assimilation of heavy isotopes at the expense of the lighter ones that remain in the water. Analyses of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and isotopic groundwater dating assist in the interpretations. (author)

  7. Scale Dependence of Land Atmosphere Interactions in Wet and Dry Regions as Simulated with NU-WRF over the Southwestern and Southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Wu, Di; Lau, K.- M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale forcing and land-atmosphere interactions on precipitation are investigated with NASA-Unified WRF (NU-WRF) simulations during fast transitions of ENSO phases from spring to early summer of 2010 and 2011. The model is found to capture major precipitation episodes in the 3-month simulations without resorting to nudging. However, the mean intensity of the simulated precipitation is underestimated by 46% and 57% compared with the observations in dry and wet regions in the southwestern and south-central United States, respectively. Sensitivity studies show that large-scale atmospheric forcing plays a major role in producing regional precipitation. A methodology to account for moisture contributions to individual precipitation events, as well as total precipitation, is presented under the same moisture budget framework. The analysis shows that the relative contributions of local evaporation and large-scale moisture convergence depend on the dry/wet regions and are a function of temporal and spatial scales. While the ratio of local and large-scale moisture contributions vary with domain size and weather system, evaporation provides a major moisture source in the dry region and during light rain events, which leads to greater sensitivity to soil moisture in the dry region and during light rain events. The feedback of land surface processes to large-scale forcing is well simulated, as indicated by changes in atmospheric circulation and moisture convergence. Overall, the results reveal an asymmetrical response of precipitation events to soil moisture, with higher sensitivity under dry than wet conditions. Drier soil moisture tends to suppress further existing below-normal precipitation conditions via a positive soil moisture-land surface flux feedback that could worsen drought conditions in the southwestern United States.

  8. Influenza NA and PB1 Gene Segments Interact during the Formation of Viral Progeny: Localization of the Binding Region within the PB1 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Gilbertson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The influenza A virus genome comprises eight negative-sense viral RNAs (vRNAs that form individual ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes. In order to incorporate a complete set of each of these vRNAs, the virus uses a selective packaging mechanism that facilitates co-packaging of specific gene segments but whose molecular basis is still not fully understood. Recently, we used a competitive transfection model where plasmids encoding the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8 and A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn PB1 gene segments were competed to show that the Udorn PB1 gene segment is preferentially co-packaged into progeny virions with the Udorn NA gene segment. Here we created chimeric PB1 genes combining both Udorn and PR8 PB1 sequences to further define the location within the Udorn PB1 gene that drives co-segregation of these genes and show that nucleotides 1776–2070 of the PB1 gene are crucial for preferential selection. In vitro assays examining specific interactions between Udorn NA vRNA and purified vRNAs transcribed from chimeric PB1 genes also supported the importance of this region in the PB1-NA interaction. Hence, this work identifies an association between viral genes that are co-selected during packaging. It also reveals a region potentially important in the RNP-RNP interactions within the supramolecular complex that is predicted to form prior to budding to allow one of each segment to be packaged in the viral progeny. Our study lays the foundation to understand the co-selection of specific genes, which may be critical to the emergence of new viruses with pandemic potential.

  9. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4BWT-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding. PMID:26453300

  10. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-11-27

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4B(WT)-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4B(WT)-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The impact of ocean-atmosphere interaction and atmospheric model resolution on the Mediterranean climate as simulated by regionally coupled ESM ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Dmitry; Cabos, William; Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea and adjacent land is located in a transitional area between tropical and mid-latitudes and presents a complex orography and coastlines where intense local air-sea and land-sea interactions take place. These intense local air-sea interactions together with the inflow of Atlantic water drive the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. The resolution of global climate models in general is too coarse to correctly describe air-sea fluxes of energy and mass that play a key role in the process of deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. From the other hand stand-alone atmospheric models can be inadequate to simulate the air-sea fluxes correctly. For these reasons, the Mediterranean Sea is a region where atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCM) are critical for the study of the processes in the atmosphere and ocean. In this work we use the regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model ROM and its atmospheric component REMO in standalone configuration in order to assess the role of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and the ocean and atmosphere models resolution in the simulation of both the ocean and atmospheric features of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle. To this end, a number of coupled and uncoupled simulations forced by ERA-Interim boundary conditions have been carried out. Namely, four different sets of coupled and uncoupled simulations with different atmospheric resolutions (25 and 12.5 km) are used to estimate the impact of resolution and coupling on the mass and heat budget as well as deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Electron transfer from plant phenolates to carotenoid radical cations. Antioxidant interaction entering the Marcus theory inverted region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong; Han, Rui-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2014-01-29

    β-Carotene, lycopene, and zeaxanthin are maximally regenerated by plant phenolates from their radical cations formed during laser flash photolysis in 9:1 (v/v) chloroform/methanol for a driving force corresponding to the reorganization energy according to the Marcus theory. For β-carotene, the reorganization energy has values of 0.41 ± 0.04 and 0.40 ± 0.04 eV for the plant phenols in the presence of 1 and 2 equiv of base, respectively, at 23 °C. For a driving force lower than the reorganization energy, regeneration of the carotenoids is less efficient as is seen for m-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid. For a driving force above the maximum rate as determined to have kET = 6.3 × 10(9) L·mol(-1)·s(-1) for syringic acid and β-carotene, the reaction becomes gradually slower and regeneration less efficient as is seen for the more reducing caffeic acid, rutin, and quercetin corresponding to an inverted region for the rate of electron transfer. Lycopene and zeaxanthin show a similar behavior for the same series of plant phenols with slightly lower reorganization energy, in agreement with the lower reduction potential of their radical cations, while, for the ketocarotenoids astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, fast reactions with a solvent of radical cations inhibit regeneration from being detected. Intermediate reducing plant phenols accordingly yield maximal protection of carotenoids against photobleaching in foods and beverages.

  13. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  14. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Gasparini, Sylvaine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Attanda, Wikayatou [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gombault, Aurelie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Roussel, Pascal [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France); Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-12-10

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

  15. Effective atomic numbers of different types of materials for proton interaction in the energy region 1 keV-10 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2014-10-01

    The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) of different types of materials such as tissues, tissue equivalents, organic compounds, glasses and dosimetric materials have been calculated for total proton interactions in the energy region 1 keV-10 GeV. Also, effective atomic numbers relative to water (Zeff RW) have been presented in the entire energy region for the materials that show better water equivalent properties. Some human tissues such as adipose tissue, bone compact, muscle skeletal and muscle striated have been investigated in terms of tissue equivalency by comparing Zeff values and the better tissue equivalents have been determined for these tissues. With respect to the variation of Zeff with kinetic energy, it has been observed that Zeff seems to be more or less the same in the energy region 400 keV-10 GeV for the given materials except for the photographic emulsion, calcium fluoride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and Teflon. The values of Zeff have found to be constant for photographic emulsion after 1 GeV, for calcium fluoride between 1 MeV and 1 GeV and for silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and Teflon between 400 keV and 1 GeV. This constancy clearly shows the availability of using Zeff in estimating radiation response of the materials at first glance.

  16. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  17. DNA requirements for interaction of the C-terminal region of Ku80 with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Sarvan Kumar; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2017-09-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Critical to NHEJ is the DNA-dependent interaction of the Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. However, precisely how Ku recruits DNA-PKcs to DSBs ends to enhance its kinase activity has remained enigmatic, with contradictory findings reported in the literature. Here we address the role of the Ku80 C-terminal region (CTR) in the DNA-dependent interaction of Ku70/80 with DNA-PKcs using purified components and defined DNA structures. Our results show that the Ku80 CTR is required for interaction with DNA-PKcs on short segments of blunt ended 25bp dsDNA or 25bp dsDNA with a 15-base poly dA single stranded (ss) DNA extension, but this requirement is less stringent on longer dsDNA molecules (35bp blunt ended dsDNA) or 25bp duplex DNA with either a 15-base poly dT or poly dC ssDNA extension. Moreover, the DNA-PKcs-Ku complex preferentially forms on 25 bp DNA with a poly-pyrimidine ssDNA extension.Our work clarifies the role of the Ku80 CTR and dsDNA ends on the interaction of DNA-PKcs with Ku and provides key information to guide assembly and biology of NHEJ complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of β Clamp-DNA Interaction Regions That Impair the Ability of E. coli to Tolerate Specific Classes of DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanfara, Michael T; Babu, Vignesh M P; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sutton, Mark D

    The E. coli dnaN-encoded β sliding clamp protein plays a pivotal role in managing the actions on DNA of the 5 bacterial DNA polymerases, proteins involved in mismatch repair, as well as several additional proteins involved in DNA replication. Results of in vitro experiments indicate that the loading of β clamp onto DNA relies on both the DnaX clamp loader complex as well as several discrete sliding clamp-DNA interactions. However, the importance of these DNA interactions to E. coli viability, as well as the ability of the β clamp to support the actions of its numerous partner proteins, have not yet been examined. To determine the contribution of β clamp-DNA interactions to the ability of E. coli to cope with different classes of DNA damage, we used alanine scanning to mutate 22 separate residues mapping to 3 distinct β clamp surfaces known or nearby those known to contact the DNA template, including residues P20-L27 (referred to here as loop I), H148-Y154 (loop II) and 7 different residues lining the central pore of the β clamp through which the DNA template threads. Twenty of these 22 dnaN mutants supported bacterial growth. While none of these 20 conferred sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide or ultra violet light, 12 were sensitized to NFZ, 5 were sensitized to MMS, 8 displayed modestly altered frequencies of DNA damage-induced mutagenesis, and 2 may be impaired for supporting hda function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that discrete β clamp-DNA interaction regions contribute to the ability of E. coli to tolerate specific classes of DNA damage.

  19. MECHANISMS OF MANTLE‐CRUST INTERACTION AT DEEP LEVELS OF COLLISION OROGENS (CASE OF THE OLKHON REGION, WEST PRIBAIKALIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Vladimirov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Chernorud granulite zone in the Olkhon region of West Pribaikalie, we studied gabbro‐pyroxenites composing tectonic plates (Chernorud, Tonta and synmetamorphic intrusive bodies (Ulan‐Khargana, as well as nu‐ merous disintegrated boudins and inclusions embedded in the metamorphic matrix. Based on the results of compara‐ tive analysis of the chemical compositions, the gabbro‐pyroxenites are classified into a single island‐arc tholeiitic se‐ ries. The COMAGMAT software was used to simulate this series and to estimate the initial composition of the parent magma (magnesian basalt: SiO2=46.0 wt. %, TiO2=0.8 wt. %, Al2O3=15.3 wt. %, ΣFeO=9.0 wt. %, MnO=0.15 wt. %, MgO=10.5 wt. %, CaO=17.0 wt. %, Na2O=1.0 wt. %, K2O=0.2 wt. %, P2O5=0.05 wt. %, total = 100.0 %, Mg# = 67.5 %. It is concluded that the granulite metamorphism (P=7.7 to 8.6 kbar, T=770 to 820 °C was due not only to dipping of the initial sedimentary‐volcanic series to a depth of 25–28 km, but also to the presence of a deep chamber of magnesian basalt magma. In our estimations, garnet‐pyroxenites (i.e. mafic rocks of the top facies in the above‐mentioned cham‐ ber originated at P=8.0–8.3 kbar and T=900–930 °C. Considering petrology, the deep mafic chamber under the layer of granulite facies is evidenced by metamorphic magma mingling, as well as pipe‐shaped intrusions characterized by the specific morphology, internal structure and bulk rock compositions. Based on the data on the Ulan‐Khargana mas‐ sif and gabbro‐pyroxenite bodies involved in the structure of the marble melange, we propose a petrological model showing two stages of mafic injection – Stage 1: hydraulic fracturing of granulite series and the emergence of tubular structures and bodies, which are similar to kimberlite pipes or channels of different shapes; Stage 2: rising of the flu‐ idized residual alkaline melt through the emerging ‘pipes’ and fractures armored by hardened

  20. Majors soil classes of the metropolitan region of Curitiba (PR, Brazil: II - interaction of Pb with mineral and organic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Duarte Pires

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between heavy metals and soil constituents is one of the most important factors influencing the potential for ground water pollution. To study Pb behavior, samples of soils were incubated with a salt solution containing this metal. The experimental units consisted of plastic bags, partially opened with 0.1 dm³ of soil with three replications. After incubation, samples were subjected to sequential and selective extractions. Lead retention, measured by the maximum adsorption capacity of the soil, was relatively high with values ranging from 6,439 to 22,148 mg kg-1. The sequential and selective extractions showed that Pb adsorption was stable where the metal was found mainly in organic matter, Fe and Al oxides, and residual forms (specific adsorption. The capacity of the soils to retain Pb, thereby increasing the leaching potential of the metal, was in the sequence of: Histosol - Oxisol - Inceptisol.A interação entre os metais pesados e os constituintes orgânicos e minerais do solo é um dos fatores mais importantes para definir o potencial de contaminação das águas subterrâneas. Para estudar o comportamento do Pb em solos da região metropolitana de Curitiba, estado do Paraná, amostras das classes Organossolo, Latossolo e Cambissolo foram submetidas a análises físicas e químicas, e incubadas com soluções de sais desse metal. A dosagem utilizada correspondeu a 40% da Capacidade Máxima de Adsorção de Pb do solo (CMA. O ensaio foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Paraná, em condições de casa de vegetação, no período de 29 de outubro a 29 de dezembro de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e as unidades experimentais corresponderam a sacos plásticos parcialmente abertos com 0,1 dm³ de solo. Após o período de incubação (60 dias, as amostras foram submetidas a extrações seqüenciais e seletivas, na seguinte ordem: 1 KCl 0,005 mol L-1; 2 BaCl2 0,1 mol L-1; 3 Na

  1. Analysis of music-brain interaction with simultaneous measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and electroencephalogram beta rhythm in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Sadato, N; Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Fuwamoto, Y; Yonekura, Y

    1999-11-19

    To elucidate the neural substrates of the receptive aspect of music, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with positron emission tomography (PET) and simultaneously recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in eight normal volunteers. Compared with the rest condition, listening to music caused a significant increase in EEG beta power spectrum (13-30 Hz) averaged over the posterior two third of the scalp. The averaged beta power spectrum was positively correlated with rCBF in the premotor cortex and adjacent prefrontal cortices bilaterally, the anterior portion of the precuneus and the anterior cingulate cortex in both the rest and the music conditions. Listening to music newly recruited the posterior portion of the precuneus bilaterally. This may reflect the interaction of the music with the cognitive processes, such as music-evoked memory recall or visual imagery.

  2. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, T.; Fuglsang, A.T.; Olsson, A.

    1997-01-01

    (+)-ATPase isolated from fusicoccin-treated maize shoots was copurified with the 14-3-3 protein (as determined by protein gel blotting), and the H(+)-ATPase was recovered in an activated state. In the absence of fusicoccin treatment, H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein were well separated, and the H......(+)-ATPase was recovered in a nonactivated form. Trypsin treatment removed the 10-kD C-terminal region from the H(+)-ATPase as well as the 14-3-3 protein. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we could show a direct interaction between Arabidopsis 14-3-3 GF14-phi and the last 98 C-terminal amino acids of the Arabidopsis AHA2...

  3. Evaluation of cross sections for neutron interactions with {sup 238}U in the energy region between 5 keV and 150 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Capote, R.; Trkov, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, NAPC-Nuclear Data Section, Vienna (Austria); Gritzay, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kim, H.I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Nuclear Data Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kopecky, S.; Paradela, C.; Schillebeeckx, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium); Kos, B. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pronyaev, V.G. [Rosatom State Corporation, Atomsrandart, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    Cross sections for neutron interactions with {sup 238}U in the energy region from 5 keV to 150 keV have been evaluated. Average total and capture cross sections have been derived from a least squares analysis using experimental data reported in the literature. The resulting cross sections have been parameterised in terms of average resonance parameters maintaining full consistency with results of optical model calculations by using a dispersive coupled channel optical model potential. The average compound partial cross sections have been expressed in terms of transmission coefficients by applying the Hauser-Feshbach statistical reaction theory including width-fluctuations. A generalized single-level representation compatible with the energy-dependent options of the ENDF-6 format has been applied using standard boundary conditions. The results have been transferred into a full ENDF-6 compatible data file. (orig.)

  4. Polar summer mesospheric extreme horizontal drift speeds during interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) and high-speed solar wind streams: Coupling between the solar wind and the mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kirkwood, Sheila; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shepherd, Gordon G.

    2014-05-01

    We report the observation of echo extreme horizontal drift speed (EEHS, ≥ 300 m s-1) during polar mesospheric (80-90 km) summer echoes (PMSEs) by the VHF (52 MHz) radar at Esrange, Sweden, in years of 2006 and 2008. The EEHS occur in PMSEs as correlated with high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs), observed at least once in 12-17% of all hours of observation for the two summers. The EEHS rate peaks occur either during high solar wind speed in the early part of the PMSE season or during the arrival of interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) followed by peaks in PMSE occurrence rate after 1-4 days, in the latter part of the 2006 summer. The cause of EEHS rate peaks is likely under the competition between the interval of the CIR and HSS passage over the magnetosphere. A candidate process in producing EEHS is suggested to be localized strong electric field, which is caused by solar wind energy transfer from the interaction of CIR and HSS with the magnetosphere in a sequential manner. We suggest that EEHS are created by strong electric field, estimated as > 10-30 V m-1 at 85 km altitude, exceeding the mesospheric breakdown threshold field.

  5. Interaction between Cannabinoidergic System and H2 Receptors in CA1 Region upon Anxiety-like Behaviors in Hole-Board Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nasehi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids produce a wide array of effects on different species and interact with different neurotransmitter systems in the brain. In the present study, the effects of histaminergic and cannabinoidregic systems as well as their interactions on anxiety-related behaviors were examined on mice. Methods: In this study, at first mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine. They were then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannuale were placed one mm above CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. After that, seventeen groups of animals were tested with hole board apparatus for measuring anxiety behavior. For the statistical analysis, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Dunnett's test were used. Results: Intra-CA1 injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.5µg/mice did not modify anxiety-related behaviors in mice. But administration of AM251 (25 and 50ng/mice, histamine or ranitidine (5µg/mice induced anxiogenic-like response. Also, co-administration of WIN55, 212-2 with histaminergic agents, decreased the anxiogenic-like response of histamine, but not that of ranitidine. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of AM251 with histaminergic drugs did not alter the response induced by these drugs. In all the experiments, locomotor activity was not significantly changed. Conclusion: These results showed that there may be a partial interaction between the cannabinoidergic and the histaminergic systems of the dorsal hippocampus on anxiety-like behaviors.

  6. Interaction between Cannabinoidergic System and H2 Receptors in CA1 Region upon Anxiety-like Behaviors in Hole-Board Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrindast M.R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids produce a wide array of effects on different species and interact with different neurotransmitter systems in the brain. In the present study, the effects of histaminergic and cannabinoidregic systems as well as their interactions on anxiety-related behaviors were examined on mice.Methods: In this study, at first mice were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine. They were then placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. Two stainless-steel cannuale were placed one mm above CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. After that, seventeen groups of animals were tested with hole board apparatus for measuring anxiety behavior. For the statistical analysis, One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Dunnett's test were used.Results: Intra-CA1 injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.5µg/mice did not modify anxiety-related behaviors in mice. But administration of AM251 (25 and 50ng/mice, histamine or ranitidine (5µg/mice induced anxiogenic-like response. Also, co-administration of WIN55, 212-2 with histaminergic agents, decreased the anxiogenic-like response of histamine, but not that of ranitidine. Co-administration of an ineffective dose of AM251 with histaminergic drugs did not alter the response induced by these drugs. In all the experiments, locomotor activity was not significantly changed. Conclusion: These results showed that there may be a partial interaction between the cannabinoidergic and the histaminergic systems of the dorsal hippocampus on anxiety-like behaviors.

  7. SU-C-BRA-01: Interactive Auto-Segmentation for Bowel in Online Adaptive MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy by Using a Multi-Region Labeling Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y; Chen, I; Kashani, R; Wan, H; Maughan, N; Muccigrosso, D; Parikh, P [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In MRI-guided online adaptive radiation therapy, re-contouring of bowel is time-consuming and can impact the overall time of patients on table. The study aims to auto-segment bowel on volumetric MR images by using an interactive multi-region labeling algorithm. Methods: 5 Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer underwent fractionated radiotherapy (18–25 fractions each, total 118 fractions) on an MRI-guided radiation therapy system with a 0.35 Tesla magnet and three Co-60 sources. At each fraction, a volumetric MR image of the patient was acquired when the patient was in the treatment position. An interactive two-dimensional multi-region labeling technique based on graph cut solver was applied on several typical MRI images to segment the large bowel and small bowel, followed by a shape based contour interpolation for generating entire bowel contours along all image slices. The resulted contours were compared with the physician’s manual contouring by using metrics of Dice coefficient and Hausdorff distance. Results: Image data sets from the first 5 fractions of each patient were selected (total of 25 image data sets) for the segmentation test. The algorithm segmented the large and small bowel effectively and efficiently. All bowel segments were successfully identified, auto-contoured and matched with manual contours. The time cost by the algorithm for each image slice was within 30 seconds. For large bowel, the calculated Dice coefficients and Hausdorff distances (mean±std) were 0.77±0.07 and 13.13±5.01mm, respectively; for small bowel, the corresponding metrics were 0.73±0.08and 14.15±4.72mm, respectively. Conclusion: The preliminary results demonstrated the potential of the proposed algorithm in auto-segmenting large and small bowel on low field MRI images in MRI-guided adaptive radiation therapy. Further work will be focused on improving its segmentation accuracy and lessening human interaction.

  8. The Contribution of the Future SWOT Mission to Improve Simulations of River Stages and Stream-Aquifer Interactions at Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Firas; Filipo, Nicolas; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Habets, Florence; Rodriguez, Enersto; Mognard, Nelly

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide a realistic simulation of river stage in regional river networks in order to improve the quantification of stream-aquifer exchanges and better assess the associated aquifer responses that are often impacted by the magnitude and the frequency of the river stage fluctuations. This study extends the earlier work to improve the modeling of the Seine basin with a focus on simulating the hydrodynamics behavior of the Bassée alluvial wetland, a 120 km reach of the Seine River valley located south- east of Paris. The Bassée is of major importance for the drinking-water supply of Paris and surroundings, in addition to its particular hydrodynamic behavior due to the presence of a number of gravels. In this context, the understanding of stream-aquifer interactions is required for water quantity and quality preservation. A regional distributed process-based hydro(geo)logical model, Eau-Dyssée, is used. It aims at the integrated modeling of the hydrosystem to manage the various elements involved in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water resources. Eau-Dyssée simulates pseudo 3D flow in aquifer systems solving the diffusivity equation with a finite difference numerical scheme. River flow is simulated with a Muskingum model. In addition to the in-stream discharge, a river stage estimate is needed to calculate the water exchange at the stream-aquifer interface using a conductance model. In this context, the future SWOT mission and its high-spatial resolution imagery can provide surface water level measurements at the regional scale that will permit to better characterize the Bassée complex hydro(geo)logical system and better assess soil water content. Moreover, the Bassée is considered as a potential target for the framework of the AirSWOT airborne campaign in France, 2013.

  9. A new simulation model to evaluate interaction between neighbouring hydro-geothermal installations developing the deep Malm aquifer in the Munich region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, J.; Wenderoth, F.; Fritzer, T.; Huber, B.; Dussel, M.; Lüschen, E.; Thomas, R.; Schulz, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently, the Molasse basin (Bavaria) is the most dynamically developing "Geothermal region" in Germany. This is particularly relevant considering the cogeneration of heat and power. For a profitable operation very high production and reinjection rates of the geothermal well doublets or triplets are required as the energy source to such installations. This implies drilling targets with excellent structural and facial conditions, i.e. fault zones or reef areas. In turn, this forces special spatial arrangements of neighbouring well doublets which lead to mutual hydraulic influence. Hydraulic interaction is expected to increase because of an increasing number of installations in the nearest future. The new simulation model presented here allows for a quantitative analysis of the current state, for the first time on a scale larger than a single project. The model covers an area of 57 x 47 km around Munich. On the one hand it is based on a detailed revision of the existing structure and hydrogeological models. To initialize the numerical model a simplified, generalized layer structure of the aquifer was derived from all available well data ("standard profile"). On the other hand a 3D-seismic survey was carried out in the core region of the new model SW of Munich (5 x 7 km). Within the context of the revision of existing 2D seismic results in the other parts of the model area layer structure and fault zones were determined from this data. Furthermore, a facies variation map was derived from 3D-seismics and a 2D-seismics reevaluation. It was applied to "overwrite" the hydraulic conductivities of the standard profile within the affect-ed layers. The complex model structure and the achieved quality of model calibration are presented. Already in the stage of model calibration, hydraulic interaction between operating or tested wells was a key feature. Model calibration led to an improvement of the structural and parameter model of the geothermal reservoir in the following

  10. A leader-follower-interactive method for regional water resources management with considering multiple water demands and eco-environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei; Li, Jing; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the mathematical formulation and implementations of a synergistic optimization framework based on an understanding of water availability and reliability together with the characteristics of multiple water demands. This framework simultaneously integrates a set of leader-followers-interactive objectives established by different decision makers during the synergistic optimization. The upper-level model (leader's one) determines the optimal pollutants discharge to satisfy the environmental target. The lower-level model (follower's one) accepts the dispatch requirement from the upper-level one and dominates the optimal water-allocation strategy to maximize economic benefits representing the regional authority. The complicated bi-level model significantly improves upon the conventional programming methods through the mutual influence and restriction between the upper- and lower-level decision processes, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple completing users. To solve the problem, a bi-level interactive solution algorithm based on satisfactory degree is introduced into the decision-making process for measuring to what extent the constraints are met and the objective reaches its optima. The capabilities of the proposed model are illustrated through a real-world case study of water resources management system in the district of Fengtai located in Beijing, China. Feasible decisions in association with water resources allocation, wastewater emission and pollutants discharge would be sequentially generated for balancing the objectives subject to the given water-related constraints, which can enable Stakeholders to grasp the inherent conflicts and trade-offs between the environmental and economic interests. The performance of the developed bi-level model is enhanced by comparing with single-level models. Moreover, in consideration of the uncertainty in water demand and availability, sensitivity analysis and policy analysis are

  11. PolyC-binding protein 1 interacts with 5'-untranslated region of enterovirus 71 RNA in membrane-associated complex to facilitate viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Luo

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, which may lead to severe neurological disorders and mortality in children. EV71 genome is a positive single-stranded RNA containing a single open reading frame (ORF flanked by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR and 3'UTR. The 5'UTR is fundamentally important for virus replication by interacting with cellular proteins. Here, we revealed that poly(C-binding protein 1 (PCBP1 specifically binds to the 5'UTR of EV71. Detailed studies indicated that the RNA-binding K-homologous 1 (KH1 domain of PCBP1 is responsible for its binding to the stem-loop I and IV of EV71 5'UTR. Interestingly, we revealed that PCBP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but mainly localized in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells due to interaction and co-localization with the viral RNA. Furthermore, sub-cellular distribution analysis showed that PCBP1 is located in ER-derived membrane, in where virus replication occurred in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells, suggesting PCBP1 is recruited in a membrane-associated replication complex. In addition, we found that the binding of PCBP1 to 5'UTR resulted in enhancing EV71 viral protein expression and virus production so as to facilitate viral replication. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism in which PCBP1 as a positive regulator involved in regulation of EV71 replication in the host specialized membrane-associated replication complex, which provides an insight into cellular factors involved in EV71 replication.

  12. Managing forests, water resources and their interaction in the face of increasing drought frequency and severity in semi-arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, C.; Moritz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drought and in particular high-temperature droughts are increasingly a concern in semi-arid climates through the globe. Within these regions both forest health and water resources are highly sensitive to the severity and frequency of drought. Drought conditions reduce streamflow, but also water availability and in the case of high temperature drought, water demand for terrestrial ecosystems. Hydrologic and ecosystem responses are coupled since changes in water use by terrestrial ecosystems can in turn influence the impact of drought on downslope streamflow. Further the impact of drought on forest structure, via declines in productivity, increases in fire and mortality and ultimately species change can have longer-term impacts on streamflow, even after precipitation and temperature regimes return to more normal conditions. We argue that accounting for multi-year and coupled ecohydrologic post-drought impacts is an important component of assessing ecosystem health and water resource impacts of droughts in a changing climate. A multi-year, coupled perspective is also important for the strategic allocation of forest management practices, including fuel treatments that may be targeted for reducing the impact of droughts. We utilize a coupled eco-hydrologic model, combined with field measurements from the Sierra Critical Zone Observatory and elsewhere to show how forest structural changes can be a dominant control on streamflow responses, particularly in years following drought and show how forest management practices can interact with drought vulnerability in sometimes surprising ways. We conclude by presenting an approach for rapid assessment of location specific drought vulnerability and management impacts that takes these interactions into account.

  13. Self-organization of large-scale ULF electromagnetic wave structures in their interaction with nonuniform zonal winds in the ionospheric E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.

    2011-01-01

    A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth’s angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.

  14. Genotype-environment interaction of maternal influence characteristics in Nellore cattle bred in the Brazilian humid tropical regions by reaction norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reaction Norm (RN is the study of genotype-environment interaction (GxE that complies with alternative ways of genotypes within different environments. This study was carried out to verify GxE by a reaction norm model of weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days of age in Nellore cattle raised in the Humid Tropical Regions of Brazil. Environmental gradients were obtained by solutions of contemporary groups which were fitted as co-variables in the random regression model via reaction norms. Mean weight at 120 days of age was 127.97 kg, and environmental gradients ranged between -27 and +26 kg. Average was 185.60 kg at 210 days of age and gradients ranged from -54 to +55 kg. Scale changes in the breeding values and heritability estimates occurred along the gradients for the two weights; the genetic correlations between breeding value breeding values were also similar for both weights. These correlations were high between the close gradients, and low to even negative between extreme environments. Slopes representing the environmental sensitivity were high, with changes of scale and changes in classification of ten bulls with a great numbers of calves for the two traits. When regression slopes of the ten bulls with the highest breeding value breeding values were evaluated, these values were different in W120 from those in W210, perhaps due to the greater influence of maternal effect on W120. These results characterize the influence of GxE on the pre-weaning weights of animals in the humid tropical regions of Brazil. Due to this, it is possible to get greater precision on the predictions of the animals breeding values breeding value. A less biased selection and a greater genetic progress occurred.

  15. Regional variation of flow duration curves in the eastern United States: Process-based analyses of the interaction between climate and landscape properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaib, Wafa; Caldwell, Peter V.; Alila, Younes

    2018-04-01

    This paper advances the physical understanding of the flow duration curve (FDC) regional variation. It provides a process-based analysis of the interaction between climate and landscape properties to explain disparities in FDC shapes. We used (i) long term measured flow and precipitation data over 73 catchments from the eastern US. (ii) We calibrated the Sacramento model (SAC-SMA) to simulate soil moisture and flow components FDCs. The catchments classification based on storm characteristics pointed to the effect of catchments landscape properties on the precipitation variability and consequently on the FDC shapes. The landscape properties effect was pronounce such that low value of the slope of FDC (SFDC)-hinting at limited flow variability-were present in regions of high precipitation variability. Whereas, in regions with low precipitation variability the SFDCs were of larger values. The topographic index distribution, at the catchment scale, indicated that saturation excess overland flow mitigated the flow variability under conditions of low elevations with large soil moisture storage capacity and high infiltration rates. The SFDCs increased due to the predominant subsurface stormflow in catchments at high elevations with limited soil moisture storage capacity and low infiltration rates. Our analyses also highlighted the major role of soil infiltration rates on the FDC despite the impact of the predominant runoff generation mechanism and catchment elevation. In conditions of slow infiltration rates in soils of large moisture storage capacity (at low elevations) and predominant saturation excess, the SFDCs were of larger values. On the other hand, the SFDCs decreased in catchments of prevalent subsurface stormflow and poorly drained soils of small soil moisture storage capacity. The analysis of the flow components FDCs demonstrated that the interflow contribution to the response was the higher in catchments with large value of slope of the FDC. The surface flow

  16. Nucleus-neutron interactions in the region of lead and actinides from measurements of total cross sections, elastic scattering cross sections and inelastic scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachkar, J.; Haouat, G.; Lagrange, C.; Cates, M.; Patin, Y.; Sigaud, J.; Jary, J.; Ferguson, S.; Shamu, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study the neutron-nucleus interaction for nuclei in the mass region from A=248 to A=240, neutron data have been taken which include total cross sections for 208 Pb, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu between 1.4 and 14 MeV, elastic scattering cross sections for 208 Pb at 2.5 and 3.4 MeV, and elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections for 208 Pb at 7.5 - 9.5 - 11.5 and 13.5 MeV, for 232 Th and 238 U at 0.7 - 2.5 and 3.4 MeV and for 235 U and 239 Pu at 0.7 and 3.4 MeV. These data have been analysed using the DWBA formalism for 208 Pb and the coupled-channels formalism for the actinides. Optical potential parameters and nuclear deformation parameters have been deduced from these analyses. (author) [fr

  17. Neighborhood × Serotonin Transporter Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) interactions for substance use from ages 10 to 24 years using a harmonized data set of African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Kogan, Steven M; Lee, Sunbok; Chen, Yi-Fu; Lei, Karlo Mankit; Brody, Gene H; Beach, Steven R H; Yu, Tianyi

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the influences of neighborhood factors (residential stability and neighborhood disadvantage) and variants of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype on the development of substance use among African American children aged 10-24 years. To accomplish this, a harmonized data set of five longitudinal studies was created via pooling overlapping age cohorts to establish a database with 2,689 children and 12,474 data points to span ages 10-24 years. A description of steps used in the development of the harmonized data set is provided, including how issues such as the measurement equivalence of constructs were addressed. A sequence of multilevel models was specified to evaluate Gene × Environment effects on growth of substance use across time. Findings indicated that residential instability was associated with higher levels and a steeper gradient of growth in substance use across time. The inclusion of the 5-HTTLPR genotype provided greater precision to the relationships in that higher residential instability, in conjunction with the risk variant of 5-HTTLPR (i.e., the short allele), was associated with the highest level and steepest gradient of growth in substance use across ages 10-24 years. The findings demonstrated how the creation of a harmonized data set increased statistical power to test Gene × Environment interactions for an under studied sample.

  18. Molecular Insights into the Coding Region Determinant-binding Protein-RNA Interaction through Site-directed Mutagenesis in the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein-K-homology Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mark; van Rensburg, Gerrit; Li, Wai-Ming; Mehmood, Kashif; Mackedenski, Sebastian; Chan, Ching-Man; King, Dustin T.; Miller, Andrew L.; Lee, Chow H.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of its four heterogeneous nuclear RNP-K-homology (KH) domains to physically associate with oncogenic mRNAs is a major criterion for the function of the coding region determinant-binding protein (CRD-BP). However, the particular RNA-binding role of each of the KH domains remains largely unresolved. Here, we mutated the first glycine to an aspartate in the universally conserved GXXG motif of the KH domain as an approach to investigate their role. Our results show that mutation of a single GXXG motif generally had no effect on binding, but the mutation in any two KH domains, with the exception of the combination of KH3 and KH4 domains, completely abrogated RNA binding in vitro and significantly retarded granule formation in zebrafish embryos, suggesting that any combination of at least two KH domains cooperate in tandem to bind RNA efficiently. Interestingly, we found that any single point mutation in one of the four KH domains significantly impacted CRD-BP binding to mRNAs in HeLa cells, suggesting that the dynamics of the CRD-BP-mRNA interaction vary over time in vivo. Furthermore, our results suggest that different mRNAs bind preferentially to distinct CRD-BP KH domains. The novel insights revealed in this study have important implications on the understanding of the oncogenic mechanism of CRD-BP as well as in the future design of inhibitors against CRD-BP function. PMID:25389298

  19. Vitronectin Binds to a Specific Stretch within the Head Region of Yersinia Adhesin A and Thereby Modulates Yersinia enterocolitica Host Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenkamp, Melanie C; Hallström, Teresia; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Linke, Dirk; Rinker, Janina; Riesbeck, Kristian; Singh, Birendra; Leo, Jack C; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Zipfel, Peter F; Schütz, Monika S

    2017-01-01

    Complement resistance is an important virulence trait of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). The predominant virulence factor expressed by Ye is Yersinia adhesin A (YadA), which enables bacterial attachment to host cells and extracellular matrix and additionally allows the acquisition of soluble serum factors. The serum glycoprotein vitronectin (Vn) acts as an inhibitory regulator of the terminal complement complex by inhibiting the lytic pore formation. Here, we show YadA-mediated direct interaction of Ye with Vn and investigated the role of this Vn binding during mouse infection in vivo. Using different Yersinia strains, we identified a short stretch in the YadA head domain of Ye O:9 E40, similar to the 'uptake region' of Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII YadA, as crucial for efficient Vn binding. Using recombinant fragments of Vn, we found the C-terminal part of Vn, including heparin-binding domain 3, to be responsible for binding to YadA. Moreover, we found that Vn bound to the bacterial surface is still functionally active and thus inhibits C5b-9 formation. In a mouse infection model, we demonstrate that Vn reduces complement-mediated killing of Ye O:9 E40 and, thus, improved bacterial survival. Taken together, these findings show that YadA-mediated Vn binding influences Ye pathogenesis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The possible interaction of dopamine system in nucleus accumbens shell and glutamate system of prelimbic region on locomotor activity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam Ahmadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nucleus accumbens (NAc and prefrontal cortex (PFC dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems are involved in regulating of locomotor activity behaviors. This study has investigated the interaction of NAc shell dopaminergic system and prelimbic glutamatergic systems in regulating locomotor activity and related parameters. Methods: The aim of this study was the effect the drugs injection interaction in the brain of male Wistar rats on locomotor activity and related parameters, in the order of this purpose, open field apparatus that automatically recorded locomotor activity was employed. Unilateral intra-cerebral injection of drugs was done. Results: Unilateral intra-prelimbic injection of D-AP7 (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid= NMDA receptor antagonist; 0.25, 0.5 and 1μg/μl did not alter locomotor activity behaviors. However, infusion of NMDA (0.9μg/μl in this region increased locomotor activity (P<0.01, whereas decreased rearing (P<0.01 and grooming (P<0.01 which was blocked by D-AP7 (0.25μg/μl (P<0.01. Moreover, unilateral infusion of SCH23390 (dopamine D1 receptor antagonist; 0.25, 0.5 and 1μg/μl into the left NAc shell did not alter locomotor activity. However, injection of SKF38393 (dopamine D1 receptor agonist; 4μg/μl into the left NAc shell increased locomotor activity (P<0.05 which was blocked by SCH23390 (0.25μg/μl (P<0.01. Furthermore, the subthreshold dose infusion of SCH23390 (0.25μg/μl into the left NAc shell reduced the effect of intra- prelimbic NMDA on locomotor activity (P<0.01. In addition, intra-NAc shell administration of the subthreshold dose of SKF38393 (1μg/μl potentiated the middle dose (P<0.05, whereas decreased the higher dose of intra-left prelimbic NMDA response (P<0.05 on locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results suggested a modulatory effect of the NAc shell dopaminergic system on increased locomotor activity by activating glutamate system in prelimbic.

  1. Cells, Agents, and Support Vectors in Interaction - Modeling Urban Sprawl based on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Techniques in a Post-Industrial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, A.; Menz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, artificial intelligence techniques as cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) have been incorporated into land-system simulations to address the complex challenges of transitions in urban areas as open, dynamic systems. The study presents a hybrid modeling approach for modeling the two antagonistic processes of urban sprawl and urban decline at once. The simulation power of support vector machines (SVM), cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) are integrated into one modeling framework and applied to the largest agglomeration of Central Europe: the Ruhr. A modified version of SLEUTH (short for Slope, Land-use, Exclusion, Urban, Transport, and Hillshade) functions as the CA component. SLEUTH makes use of historic urban land-use data sets and growth coefficients for the purpose of modeling physical urban expansion. The machine learning algorithm of SVM is applied in order to enhance SLEUTH. Thus, the stochastic variability of the CA is reduced and information about the human and ecological forces driving the local suitability of urban sprawl is incorporated. Subsequently, the supported CA is coupled with the MAS ReHoSh (Residential Mobility and the Housing Market of Shrinking City Systems). The MAS models population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking regions based on interactions between household and city agents. Semi-explicit urban weights are introduced as a possibility of modeling from and to the pixel simultaneously. Three scenarios of changing housing preferences reveal the urban development of the region in terms of quantity and location. They reflect the dissemination of sustainable thinking among stakeholders versus the steady dream of owning a house in sub- and exurban areas. Additionally, the outcomes are transferred into a digital petri dish reflecting a synthetic environment with perfect conditions of growth. Hence, the generic growth elements affecting the future

  2. Characterisation of genetic variation in ST8SIA2 and its interaction region in NCAM1 in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Shaw

    Full Text Available Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SIA2 is an enzyme responsible for the transfer of polysialic acid (PSA to glycoproteins, principally the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1, and is involved in neuronal plasticity. Variants within ST8SIA2 have previously shown association with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and autism. In addition, altered PSA-NCAM expression in brains of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder indicates a functional dysregulation of glycosylation in mental illness. To explore the role of sequence variation affecting PSA-NCAM formation, we conducted a targeted re-sequencing study of a ∼ 100 kb region--including the entire ST8SIA2 gene and its region of interaction with NCAM1--in 48 Caucasian cases with bipolar disorder using the Roche 454 platform. We identified over 400 DNA variants, including 47 putative novel variants not described in dbSNP. Validation of a subset of variants via Sequenom showed high reliability of Roche 454 genotype calls (97% genotype concordance, with 80% of novel variants independently verified. We did not observe major loss-of-function mutations that would affect PSA-NCAM formation, either by ablating ST8SIA2 function or by affecting the ability of NCAM1 to be glycosylated. However, we identified 13 SNPs in the UTRs of ST8SIA2, a synonymous coding SNP in exon 5 (rs2305561, P207P and many additional non-coding variants that may influence splicing or regulation of ST8SIA2 expression. We calculated nucleotide diversity within ST8SIA2 on specific haplotypes, finding that the diversity on the specific "risk" and "protective" haplotypes was lower than other non-disease-associated haplotypes, suggesting that putative functional variation may have arisen on a spectrum of haplotypes. We have identified common and novel variants (rs11074064, rs722645, 15:92961050 that exist on a spectrum of haplotypes, yet are plausible candidates for conferring the effect of risk and protective haplotypes via

  3. Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests

  4. Resistance to noise-induced hearing loss in 129S6 and MOLF mice: identification of independent, overlapping, and interacting chromosomal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Valerie A; Kujawa, Sharon G; Manichaikul, Ani; Broman, Karl W; Kallman, Jeremy C; Shilling, Dustin J; Iwata, Ayaka J; Robinson, Linda C; Robbins, Carol A; Li, Jin; Liberman, M Charles; Tempel, Bruce L

    2014-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a prevalent health risk. Inbred mouse strains 129S6/SvEvTac (129S6) and MOLF/EiJ (MOLF) show strong NIHL resistance (NR) relative to CBA/CaJ (CBACa). In this study, we developed quantitative trait locus (QTL) maps for NR. We generated F1 animals by intercrossing (129S6 × CBACa) and (MOLF × CBACa). In each intercross, NR was recessive. N2 animals were produced by backcrossing F1s to their respective parental strain. The 232 N2-129S6 and 225 N2-MOLF progenies were evaluated for NR using auditory brainstem response. In 129S6, five QTL were identified on chromosomes (Chr) 17, 18, 14, 11, and 4, referred to as loci nr1, nr2, nr3, nr4, and nr5, respectively. In MOLF, four QTL were found on Chr 4, 17, 6, and 12, referred to as nr7, nr8, nr9, and nr10, respectively. Given that NR QTL were discovered on Chr 4 and 17 in both the N2-129S6 and N2-MOLF cross, we generated two consomic strains by separately transferring 129S6-derived Chr 4 and 17 into an otherwise CBACa background and a double-consomic strain by crossing the two strains. Phenotypic analysis of the consomic strains indicated that whole 129S6 Chr 4 contributes strongly to mid-frequency NR, while whole 129S6 Chr 17 contributes markedly to high-frequency NR. Therefore, we anticipated that the double-consomic strain containing Chr 4 and 17 would demonstrate NR across the mid- and high-frequency range. However, whole 129S6 Chr 17 masks the expression of mid-frequency NR from whole 129S6 Chr 4. To further dissect NR on 129S6 Chr 4 and 17, CBACa.129S6 congenic strains were generated for each chromosome. Phenotypic analysis of the Chr 17 CBACa.129S6 congenic strains further defined the NR region on proximal Chr 17, uncovered another NR locus (nr6) on distal Chr 17, and revealed an epistatic interaction between proximal and distal 129S6 Chr 17.

  5. Interactive Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents guiding principles for developing interactive lessons for the World Wide Web. Describes "Amazing Space: Education Online from the Hubble Space Telescope", a program where students study spectacular Hubble Space Telescope images of stars and star-forming regions to learn about the life cycle of stars and the creation of atoms. (JRH)

  6. The Effects of Dynamic Stress on Fault Interaction and Earthquake Triggering in the San Gorgonio Pass and San Jacinto, CA Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnowski, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how dynamic stresses can affect the occurrence of earthquakes in two regions in southern California. First we look at the San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) with 3D dynamic finite element models to investigate potential rupture paths of earthquakes propagating along faults in the western SGP. The SGP has several structurally complex regions because the San Andreas Fault splinters into many different fault strands and there are additional regional fault zones present in this location. I...

  7. Study of the neutron-proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1981-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations of the nucleon-nucleon interaction at LAMPF energies, in both elastic and inelastic channels, are briefly described. Experiments and results are reviewed, and abstracts of papers presented are included

  8. Study of the neutron-proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1975--76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    Research is summarized on n-p differential cross sections for charge-exchange interactions, meson production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the spectra of charged particles produced in the bombardment of various targets by monoenergetic neutrons

  9. Chaperone protein HYPK interacts with the first 17 amino acid region of Huntingtin and modulates mutant HTT-mediated aggregation and cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Kamalika Roy [Crystallography and Molecular Biology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nitai P., E-mail: nitai_sinp@yahoo.com [Biomedical Genomics Centre, PG Polyclinic Building, 5, Suburbun Hospital Road, Kolkata 700020 (India)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HYPK reduces mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. • Interaction of HYPK with HTT requires N-terminal 17 amino acid of HTT (HTT-N17). • Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to SDS-soluble, smaller, nuclear aggregates. • These smaller aggregates do not associate with HYPK and are more cytotoxic. • Maybe, interaction of HYPK with amphipathic HTT-N17 block HTT aggregate formation. - Abstract: Huntington’s disease is a polyglutamine expansion disorder, characterized by mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity. Many reports suggests roles of N-terminal 17 amino acid domain of HTT (HTT-N17) towards subcellular localization, aggregate formation and subsequent pathogenicity induced by N-terminal HTT harboring polyQ stretch in pathogenic range. HYPK is a HTT-interacting chaperone which can reduce N-terminal mutant HTT-mediated aggregate formation and cytotoxicity in neuronal cell lines. However, how HYPK interacts with N-terminal fragment of HTT remained unknown. Here we report that specific interaction of HYPK with HTT-N17 is crucial for the chaperone activity of HYPK. Deletion of HTT-N17 leads to formation of tinier, SDS-soluble nuclear aggregates formed by N-terminal mutant HTT. The increased cytotoxicity imparted by these tiny aggregates might be contributed due to loss of interaction with HYPK.

  10. STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF PARTICLE MOTION IN STORAGE RINGS. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack J. Shi

    2012-09-07

    During this period, our research was concentrated on the study of beam-beam effects in large storage-ring colliders and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect in light sources. Our group was involved in and made significant contribution to several international accelerator projects such as the US-LHC project for the design of the LHC interaction regions, the luminosity upgrade of Tevatron and HERA, the design of eRHIC, and the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) for the future LHC luminosity upgrade.

  11. Regional interaction between myocardial sympathetic denervation, contractile dysfunction, and fibrosis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, Tadao; Naya, Masanao; Obara, Masahiko [Hokkaido University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Oyama-Manabe, Noriko [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Sapporo (Japan); Manabe, Osamu [Hokkaido University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Magota, Keiichi [Hokkaido University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Ito, Yoichi M. [Hokkaido University, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University, Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Sapporo (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    This investigation aimed to identify significant predictors of regional sympathetic denervation quantified by {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine (HED) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). Included in the study were 34 patients (age 63 ± 15 years, 23 men) with HFpEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≥40%) and 11 age-matched volunteers without heart failure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed to measure left ventricular size and function, and the extent of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). {sup 11}C-HED PET was performed to quantify myocardial sympathetic innervation that was expressed as a {sup 11}C-HED retention index (RI, %/min). To identify predictors of regional {sup 11}C-HED RI in HFpEF patients, we propose a multivariate mixed-effects model for repeated measures over segments with an unstructured covariance matrix. Global {sup 11}C-HED RI was significantly lower and more heterogeneous in HFpEF patients than in volunteers (P < 0.01 for all). Regional {sup 11}C-HED RI was correlated positively with systolic wall thickening (r = 0.42, P < 0.001) and negatively with the extent of LGE (r = -0.43, P < 0.001). Segments in HFpEF patients with a large extent of LGE had the lowest regional {sup 11}C-HED RI among all segments (P < 0.001 in post hoc tests). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that systolic wall thickening and the extent of LGE were significant predictors of regional {sup 11}C-HED RI in HFpEF patients (both P ≤ 0.001). Regional sympathetic denervation was associated with contractile dysfunction and fibrotic burden in HFpEF patients, suggesting that regional sympathetic denervation may provide an integrated measure of myocardial damage in HFpEF. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of cumulus cloud – radiation interaction effects on air quality –relevant meteorological variables from WRF, from a regional climate perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aware only of the resolved, grid-scale clouds, the Weather Research & Forecasting model (WRF) does not consider the interactions between subgrid-scale convective clouds and radiation. One consequence of this omission may be WRF’s overestimation of surface precipitation during sum...

  13. Tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic interaction in the eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engielle Mae Raot-raot Paguican

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA, is an extensively faulted volcanic corridor between the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau. The east-west extending region is in the transition zone between the convergence and subduction of the Gorda Plate underneath the North American Plate; north-south shortening within the Klamath Mountain region; and transcurrent movement in the Walker Lane. We describe the geomorphological and tectonic features, their alignment and distribution, in order to understand the tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic relationships. One outcome of the work is a more refined morpho-structural description that will affect future hazard assessment in the area.A database of volcanic centers and structures was created from interpretations of topographic models generated from satellite images. Volcanic centers in the region were classified by morphological type into cones, sub-cones, shields and massifs. A second classification by height separated the bigger and smaller edifices and revealed an evolutionary trend. Poisson Nearest Neighbor analysis shows that bigger volcanoes are spatially dispersed while smaller ones are clustered. Using volcano centroid locations, about 90 lineaments consisting of at least three centers within 6km of one another were found, revealing that preferential north-northwest directed pathways control the transport of magma from the source to the surface, consistent with the strikes of the major fault systems. Most of the volcano crater openings are perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress, expected for extensional environments with dominant normal regional faults. These results imply that the extension of the Hat Creek Graben region and impingement of the Walker Lane is accommodated mostly by extensional faults and partly by the intrusions that formed the volcanoes. Early in the history of a volcano or volcano cluster, melt produced at depth in the

  14. Evidence for diamond-grade ultra-high pressure metamorphism and fluid interaction in the Swartberget Fe-Ti garnet periodotite-websterite body, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoed, J.C.; Van Roermund, H.L.M.; Davies, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on mineral-chemical evidence we propose that the northernmost Scandian ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic domain within the Western Gneiss Region of Norway can be extended 25 km northeastwards. A newly discovered, well preserved, fine-grained, Fe-Ti type garnet peridotite body at

  15. Genome-wide Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA-DNA interactions are enriched in intergenic regions and gene promoters and correlate with infection-induced differential gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Stephen Dumler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains. We hypothesize that identification of additional AnkA binding sites will better delineate how A. phagocytophilum infection results in reprogramming of the neutrophil genome. Using AnkA-binding ChIP-seq, we showed that AnkA binds broadly throughout all chromosomes in a reproducible pattern, especially at: i intergenic regions predicted to be matrix attachment regions (MARs; ii within predicted lamina-associated domains; and iii at promoters ≤3,000 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. These findings provide genome-wide support for AnkA as a regulator of cis-gene transcription. Moreover, the dominant mark of AnkA in distal intergenic regions known to be AT-enriched, coupled with frequent enrichment in the nuclear lamina, provides strong support for its role as a MAR-binding protein and genome re-organizer. AnkA must be considered a prime candidate to promote neutrophil reprogramming and subsequent functional changes that belie improved microbial fitness and pathogenicity.

  16. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure

  17. A functional SNP in the promoter region of TCOF1 is associated with reduced gene expression and YY1 DNA-protein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, Cibele; Armelin-Correa, Lucia M; Splendore, Alessandra; Lin, Chin J; Barbosa, Angela; Sogayar, Mari C; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita

    2005-10-10

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial malformation caused by null mutations in the TCOF1 gene. High inter and intra familial clinical variability, ranging from mild malar hypoplasia to perinatal death due to airway collapse is observed, but, to date, no genotype-phenotype correlation has been reported. Considering haploinsufficiency as the molecular mechanism underlying the disease, we have hypothesized that mutations in the promoter region of the gene, which has never been previously characterized, in trans with a pathogenic mutation, could modulate the phenotype. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine the TCOF1 gene's core promoter and to identify mutations in this region that could contribute to the phenotypic variation observed in this syndrome. We have delimitated the minimal promoter to a region of less than 150 bp, with 63% of identity among 5 different species. We screened 1.2 kbp of the TCOF1 5' flanking sequence in the DNA obtained from 21 patients and 51 controls and identified four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one of which (-346C>T), was proved to be functional, as it decreased the promoter activity by 38%. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis demonstrated that the -346T allele impairs DNA-binding to the YY1 transcription factor. This promoter variant represents a candidate allele to explain the clinical variability in patients bearing TCS.

  18. Possibilities of government, business and education interaction and collaboration in the framework of the «triple helix» model on the example of agroindustrial complex of Transbaikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Viktorovna Akberdina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with questions on cross-sector cooperation between the government, business and education as part of an innovative model of «triple helix», by implementing state programs of development of agriculture in Transbaikal region. «Triple helix» model is organized in accordance with the principles of intersection of three sets of relationships; it describes innovative development through the dynamics of relations between science (education, business and government (represented by the Cabinet at national and regional levels. «Double helix» of cross-sectoral interactions in the regions where the innovation network is not developed enough, are regarded as an evolutionary step in the development of the full «triple helix». Alignment of competent cross-sectoral interactions and designing of institutes in «double helix» (state-to-business, state-to-science (education, business-to-science (education is the key to the formation of an innovational tripartite model.

  19. Cross-level interaction between individual socioeconomic status and regional deprivation on overall survival after onset of ischemic stroke: National health insurance cohort sample data from 2002 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature on stroke mortality and neighborhood effect is characterized by studies that are often Western society-oriented, with a lack of racial and cultural diversity. We estimated the effect of cross-level interaction between individual and regional socioeconomic status on the survival after onset of ischemic stroke. Methods: We selected newly diagnosed ischemic stroke patients from 2002 to 2013 using stratified representative sampling data of 1,025,340 subjects. A total of 37,044 patients over the 10 years from 2004 to 2013 had newly diagnosed stroke. We calculated hazard ratios (HR of 12- and 36-month mortality using the Cox proportional hazard model, with the reference group as stroke patients with high income in advantaged regions. Results: For the middle income level, the patients in advantaged regions showed low HRs for overall mortality (12-month HR 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.44; 36-month HR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.14–1.37 compared to the others in disadvantaged regions (12-month HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19–1.56; 36-month HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.17–1.44. Interestingly, for the low income level, the patients in advantaged regions showed high HRs for overall mortality (12-month HR 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13–1.44; 36-month HR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.22–1.46 compared to the others in disadvantaged regions (12-month HR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09–1.43; 36-month HR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18–1.44. Conclusion: Although we need to perform further investigations to determine the exact mechanisms, regional deprivation, as well as medical factors, might be associated with survival after onset of ischemic stroke in low-income patients.

  20. Influence of final-state interaction on incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron in the region of the {delta}-resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, E.M.; Arenhoevel, H.; Schwamb, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    The influence of final-state NN and {pi}N rescattering in incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron has been investigated. For the elementary photoproduction operator an effective Lagrangian model is used which describes well the elementary reaction. The interactions in the final two-body subsystems are taken in separable form. While NN rescattering shows quite a significant effect, particularly strong for neutral pion production, {pi}N rescattering is almost negligible. Inclusion of such effects leads to an improved and quite satisfactory agreement with experiment. (orig.)

  1. The nitrogen cycle in highly urbanized tropical regions and the effect of river-aquifer interactions: The case of Jakarta and the Ciliwung River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diogo; Burlando, Paolo; Priadi, Cindy; Shie-Yui, Liong

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater is extensively used in Jakarta to compensate for the limited public water supply network. Recent observations show a rise in nitrate (NO3-) levels in the shallow aquifer, thus pointing at a potential risk for public health. The detected levels are still below national and international regulatory limits for drinking water but a strategy is necessary to contain the growing problem. We combine 3 years of available data in the Ciliwung River, the major river flowing through Jakarta, with a distributed river-aquifer interaction model to characterise the impact of urbanisation on the N-cycle of both surface and groundwater systems. Results show that the N-cycle in the river-aquifer system is heterogeneous in space, seasonal dependent (i.e. flow regime) and strongly affected by urban pollution. Results suggest also that although the main sources of N related groundwater pollution are leaking septic tanks, the aquifer interaction with the Ciliwung River may locally have a strong effect on the concentrations. In the general context of pollution control in urban areas, this study demonstrates how advanced process-based models can be efficiently used in combination with field measurements to bring new insights into complex contamination problems. These are essential for more effective and integrated management of water quality in river-aquifer systems.

  2. Structural Analysis and Deletion Mutagenesis Define Regions of QUIVER/SLEEPLESS that Are Responsible for Interactions with Shaker-Type Potassium Channels and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Wu

    Full Text Available Ly6 proteins are endogenous prototoxins found in most animals. They show striking structural and functional parallels to snake α-neurotoxins, including regulation of ion channels and cholinergic signaling. However, the structural contributions of Ly6 proteins to regulation of effector molecules is poorly understood. This question is particularly relevant to the Ly6 protein QUIVER/SLEEPLESS (QVR/SSS, which has previously been shown to suppress excitability and synaptic transmission by upregulating potassium (K channels and downregulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in wake-promoting neurons to facilitate sleep in Drosophila. Using deletion mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitations, ion flux assays, surface labeling and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that only loop 2 is required for many of the previously described properties of SSS in transfected cells, including interactions with K channels and nAChRs. Collectively our data suggest that QVR/SSS, and by extension perhaps other Ly6 proteins, target effector molecules using limited protein motifs. Mapping these motifs may be useful in rational design of drugs that mimic or suppress Ly6-effector interactions to modulate nervous system function.

  3. Structural Analysis and Deletion Mutagenesis Define Regions of QUIVER/SLEEPLESS that Are Responsible for Interactions with Shaker-Type Potassium Channels and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meilin; Liu, Clifford Z; Joiner, William J

    2016-01-01

    Ly6 proteins are endogenous prototoxins found in most animals. They show striking structural and functional parallels to snake α-neurotoxins, including regulation of ion channels and cholinergic signaling. However, the structural contributions of Ly6 proteins to regulation of effector molecules is poorly understood. This question is particularly relevant to the Ly6 protein QUIVER/SLEEPLESS (QVR/SSS), which has previously been shown to suppress excitability and synaptic transmission by upregulating potassium (K) channels and downregulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in wake-promoting neurons to facilitate sleep in Drosophila. Using deletion mutagenesis, co-immunoprecipitations, ion flux assays, surface labeling and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that only loop 2 is required for many of the previously described properties of SSS in transfected cells, including interactions with K channels and nAChRs. Collectively our data suggest that QVR/SSS, and by extension perhaps other Ly6 proteins, target effector molecules using limited protein motifs. Mapping these motifs may be useful in rational design of drugs that mimic or suppress Ly6-effector interactions to modulate nervous system function.

  4. Ribosomal proteins L11 and L10.(L12)4 and the antibiotic thiostrepton interact with overlapping regions of the 23 S rRNA backbone in the ribosomal GTPase centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, G; Douthwaite, S

    1993-01-01

    RNA, and to investigate how this interaction is influenced by other ribosomal components. Complexes were characterized in both naked 23 S rRNA and ribosomes from an E. coli L11-minus strain, before and after reconstitution with L11. The protein protects 17 riboses between positions 1058 and 1085 in the naked 23 S r......The Escherichia coli ribosomal protein (r-protein) L11 and its binding site on 23 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are associated with ribosomal hydrolysis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP). We have used hydroxyl radical footprinting to map the contacts between L11 and the backbone riboses in 23 S r......)4 and other proteins within the ribosome. The antibiotics thiostrepton and micrococcin inhibit the catalytic functions of this region by slotting in between the accessible loops and interacting with nucleotides there....

  5. Genetic interactions between diverged alleles of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Heading date 3a (Hd3a)/ RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) control differential heading and contribute to regional adaptation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Ding; Tang, Huiwu; Qiu, Rong; Feng, Jinglei; Long, Yunming; Niu, Baixiao; Chen, Danping; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yao-Guang; Guo, Jingxin

    2015-11-01

    Initiation of flowering, also called heading, in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by the florigens encoded by Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1). Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) regulates Hd3a and RFT1. However, different rice varieties have diverged alleles of Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 and their genetic interactions remain largely unclear. Here we generated three segregating populations for different combinations of diverged Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 alleles, and analyzed their genetic interactions between these alleles. We demonstrated that, in an ehd1 mutant background, Hd3a was silenced, but RFT1 was expressed (although at lower levels than in plants with a functional Ehd1) under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions. We identified a nonfunctional RFT1 allele (rft1); the lines carrying homozygous ehd1 and Hd3a/rft1 failed to induce the floral transition under SD and LD conditions. Like Hd3a, RFT1 also interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, the florigen receptors, but a nonfunctional RFT1 with a crucial E105K mutation failed to interact with 14-3-3 proteins. Furthermore, analyses of sequence variation and geographic distribution suggested that functional RFT1 alleles were selected during rice adaptation to high-latitude regions. Our results demonstrate the important roles of RFT1 in rice flowering and regional adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. US Department of Energy Secretary Bill Richardson (centre) at an LHC interaction region quadrupole test cryostat. part of the US contribution to LHC construction and built by the US-LHC collaboration (hence the Fermilab logo)

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Warmbein

    2000-01-01

    Photo 01 : September 2000 - Mr Bill Richardson, Secretary of Energy, United States of America (centre) at an LHC interaction region quadrupole test cryostat, part of the US contribution to LHC construction and built by the US-LHC collaboration (hence the Fermilab logo); with l. to r. Dr Mildred Dresselhaus, Dr Carlo Wyss, CERN Director General, Profesor Luciano Maiani, Professor Roger Cashmore, Ambassador George Moose, Dr Peter Rosen, Dr John Ellis. Photo 02 : Mr. Bill Richardson (right), Secretary of Energy United States of America with Prof. Luciano Maiani leaning over one of the LHC magnets produced at Fermilab during his visit to CERN on 16th September 2000.

  7. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  8. Identification of specific regions in hepatitis C virus core, NS2 and NS5A that genetically interact with p7 and co-ordinate infectious virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouklani, H; Beyer, C; Drummer, H; Gowans, E J; Netter, H J; Haqshenas, G

    2013-04-01

    The p7 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small, integral membrane protein that plays a critical role in virus replication. Recently, we reported two intergenotypic JFH1 chimeric viruses encoding the partial or full-length p7 protein of the HCV-A strain of genotype 1b (GT1b; Virology; 2007; 360:134). In this study, we determined the consensus sequences of the entire polyprotein coding regions of the wild-type JFH1 and the revertant chimeric viruses and identified predominant amino acid substitutions in core (K74M), NS2 (T23N, H99P) and NS5A (D251G). Forward genetic analysis demonstrated that all single mutations restored the infectivity of the defective chimeric genomes suggesting that the infectious virus production involves the association of p7 with specific regions in core, NS2 and NS5A. In addition, it was demonstrated that the NS2 T23N facilitated the generation of infectious intergenotypic chimeric virus encoding p7 from GT6 of HCV. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Model-Independent Analysis of the Neutron-Proton Final-State Interaction Region in the $\\pi\\pi \\to pn\\pi^+$ Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Uzikov, Yu N

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on the \\pi\\pi\\to pn\\pi^+ reaction measured in an exclusive two-arm experiment at 800 MeV show a narrow peak arising from the strong proton-neutron final-state interaction. It was claimed, within the framework of a certain model, that this peak contained up to a 25 % spin-singlet final-state contribution. By comparing the data with those of \\pi\\pi\\to d\\pi^+ in a largely model-independent way, it is here demonstrated that at all the angles measured the whole of the peak could be explained as being due to spin-triplet final states, with the spin-singlet being at most a few percent. Good qualitative agreement with the measured proton analysing power is also found within this approach.

  10. Assessment Planning and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Resources: an Interactive Computer Assisted Procedure. [hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in the Pittsfield metropolitan region, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. W.; Fabos, J. G.; Macdougall, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Adaptation and derivation were used to develop a procedure for assessing the availability of renewable energy resources on the landscape while simultaneously accounting for the economic, legal, social, and environmental issues required. Done in a step-by-step fashion, the procedure can be used interactively at the computer terminals. Its application in determining the hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in a 40,000 acre study area of Western Massachusetts shows that: (1) three existing dam sites are physically capable of being retrofitted for hydropower; (2) each of three general areas has a mean annual windspeed exceeding 14 mph and is conductive to windpower; and (3) 20% of the total land area consists of prime agricultural biomass while 30% of the area is prime forest biomass land.

  11. Coexistence of spherical and deformed states in nuclei in the Z = 50 region; and the interaction of nuclei with electromagnetic fields in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shroy, R.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    By applying the techniques of γ ray spectroscopy to γ rays produced in the decay of nuclear states populated in heavy-ion reactions, the following studies were performed: (1) High-spin states in 113 115 117 119 Sb and 125 127 I were investigated. The states were populated via the ( 6 Li,3n) reaction. Information on the energies, spins, decay modes, lifetimes, and electromagnetic moments was obtained for states up to a typical maximum spin of 25/2. The states in the Sb (Z = 51) and I (Z = 53) nuclei are of interest because of the nearness of the Z = 50 closed proton shell. (2) Experiments were performed to investigate the possibility of using the time differential perturbed angular distribution method to measure quadrupole moments of isomers populated in heavy-ion reactions. First, the previously known quadrupole interaction frequency of the 9/2 1 + state of 69 Ge in Zn was measured, with the state populated via the (α,n) and ( 7 Li,pn) reactions. Next, the quadrupole interaction frequency of the 9/2 1 + state of 73 As was measured in Zn using the ( 7 Li,2n) reaction. A value e 2 Qq/h = 20.2 +- 0.4 MHz was obtained. (3) The destruction of nuclear alignment by lattice defects was also studied for Sb nuclei in a Cd lattice by measuring the anisotropy of γ rays emitted in the decay of an isomer in 115 Sb as a function of temperature. The states were initially aligned when produced in a heavy-ion reaction. As the temperature of the target was increased from approximately 420 0 K to approximately 470 0 K, the anisotrophy was found to increase from zero to the maximum value expected. This can be interpreted in terms of trapping and detrapping of defects by the Sb impurities

  12. Lake Ice Cover of Shallow Lakes and Climate Interactions in Arctic Regions (1950-2011): SAR Data Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, C.; Duguay, C.; Brown, L.; Fernàndez-Prieto, D.; Samuelsson, P.

    2012-12-01

    Lake ice cover is highly correlated with climatic conditions and has, therefore, been demonstrated to be an essential indicator of climate variability and change. Recent studies have shown that the duration of the lake ice cover has decreased, mainly as a consequence of earlier thaw dates in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere over the last 50 years, mainly as a feedback to increased winter and spring air temperature. In response to projected air temperature and winter precipitation changes by climate models until the end of the 21st century, the timing, duration, and thickness of ice cover on Arctic lakes are expected to be impacted. This, in turn, will likely alter the energy, water, and bio-geochemical cycling in various regions of the Arctic. In the case of shallow tundra lakes, many of which are less than 3-m deep, warmer climate conditions could result in a smaller fraction of lakes that fully freeze to the bottom at the time of maximum winter ice thickness since thinner ice covers are predicted to develop. Shallow thermokarst lakes of the coastal plain of northern Alaska, and of other similar Arctic regions, have likely been experiencing changes in seasonal ice phenology and thickness over the last few decades but these have not yet been comprehensively documented. Analysis of a 20-year time series of ERS-1/2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data and numerical lake ice modeling were employed to determine the response of ice cover (thickness, freezing to bed, and phenology) on shallow lakes of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) to climate conditions over the last three decades. New downscaled data specific to the Arctic domain (at a resolution of 0.44 degrees using ERA Interim Reanalysis as boundary condition) produced by the Rossby Centre Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RCA4) was used to drive the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo) for the period 1950-2011. In order to assess and integrate the SAR-derived observed changes into a longer historical context, and

  13. SMAP Multi-Temporal Soil Moisture and Vegetation Optical Depth Retrievals in Vegetated Regions Including Higher-Order Soil-Canopy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Akbar, R.; Konings, A. G.; Piles, M.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission utilizes a zeroth order radiative transfer model, known as the tau-omega model, to retrieve soil moisture from microwave brightness temperature observations. This model neglects first order scattering which is significant at L-Band in vegetated regions, or 30% of land cover. Previous higher order algorithms require extensive in-situ measurements and characterization of canopy layer physical properties. We propose a first order retrieval algorithm that approximately characterizes the eight first order emission pathways using rough surface reflectivity, vegetation optical depth (VOD), and scattering albedo terms. The recently developed Multi-Temporal Dual Channel Algorithm (MT-DCA) then retrieves these three parameters in a forward model without ancillary information under the assumption of temporally static albedo and constant vegetation water content between three day SMAP revisits. The approximated scattering terms are determined to be conservative estimates of analytically derived first order scattering terms. In addition, we find the first order algorithm to be more sensitive to surface emission than the tau-omega model. The simultaneously retrieved VOD, previously demonstrated to be proportional to vegetation water content, can provide insight into vegetation dynamics in regions with significant phenology. Specifically, dry tropical forests exhibit an increase in VOD during the dry season in alignment with prior studies that suggest that certain vegetative species green up during the dry season despite limited water availability. VOD retrieved using the first order algorithm and MT-DCA framework can therefore contribute to understanding of tropical forests' role in the carbon, energy, and water cycles, which has yet to be fully explained.

  14. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Vacuum stability and residual gas density estimation for the vacuum chamber upgrade of the ATLAS interaction region of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bregliozzi, G; Baglin, V; Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has 54 km of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) beam chambers out of which about 90% are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K) and the rest at room temperature. During operation, the residual gas density in the beam pipes is dominated by beam induced effect such ion, electron and photon-stimulated gas desorption. Therefore, the computation of gas density profile is of great importance to confirm the vacuum stability, and to estimate the beam lifetime. Moreover, the gas density profiles are essential to determine the machine induced background in the experimental areas, and to define the pressure profile in the cryogenic sectors where there is no vacuum instrumentation available. In this paper, the vacuum stability is studied for a newly proposed upgrade of the vacuum chamber at the ATLAS interaction point, using the vacuum stability code called VASCO. The residual gas density profile along the ATLAS vacuum chambers and the effects of photon and electron flux hitting the vacuum chamber wal...

  16. The vacuum chamber in the interaction region of particle colliders a historical study and developments implementations in the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Knaster, J R; Gamez-Mejias, L

    2004-01-01

    The history of particle colliders begins in the early 60's when an idea previously patented by R. Wideroe in 1953 is constructed. The design of the vacuum chamber in their experimental area became essential as it was the rst physical barrier that the particles to be detected needed to traverse. The interaction of the products of the collisions with the vacuum chamber structural materials, hindered the identification of the significative events. This Thesis analyses the historical evolution of the experimental vacuum chambers and summarizes the technical criteria that are to be fulfilled. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) presently under construction at CERN is the last generation of particle colliders. Four big experiments will be in operation (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb) in the LHC with diferent physics objectives. In particular, LHCb will be devoted to the study of CP violation and the design of its vacuum chamber is the scope of this Thesis. Physics simulations with an initial design consisting of a conical ...

  17. A cis-acting region in the N-methyl-D-aspartate R1 3′-untranslated region interacts with the novel RNA-binding proteins beta subunit of alpha glucosidase II and annexin A2: effect of chronic ethanol exposure in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2011-01-01

    A cis-acting region, Δ4, located in the 3′-untranslated region of N-methyl-D-aspartate R (NR) mRNA interacts with several trans-acting proteins present in polysomes purified from fetal cortical neurons. Chronic ethanol exposure of fetal cortical neurons increases Δ4 RNA–protein interactions. This increased interaction is due to an increase in one of the Δ4-binding trans-acting proteins identified as beta subunit of alpha glucosidase II (GIIβ). In this study, we examined whether ethanol-mediated regulation of NR1 mRNA in vivo is similar to that in vitro and whether Δ4–trans interactions are important for ethanol-mediated NR1 mRNA stability. Our data show that polysomal proteins from adult mouse cerebral cortex (CC) formed a complex with Δ4 RNA, suggesting the presence of NR1 mRNA-binding trans-acting proteins in CC polysomes. The intensity of the Δ4 RNA–protein complex was increased with polysomes from chronic ethanol-exposed CC. The Δ4 RNA–protein complex harbored GIIβ and a second trans-acting protein identified as annexin A2 (AnxA2). Ethanol-sensitive GIIβ was upregulated by 70% in ethanol-exposed CC. Heparin, a known binding partner of AnxA2, inhibited Δ4 RNA–protein complex formation. Transient transfection studies using chimeric constructs with and without the Δ4 region revealed that cis–trans interactions are important for ethanol-mediated stability of NR1 mRNA. Furthermore, our data highlight, for the first time, the presence of a binding site on the 3′-untranslated region of NR1 mRNA for AnxA2 and demonstrate the regulation of NR1 mRNA by AnxA2, GIIβ and a third NR1 mRNA-binding protein, which is yet to be identified. PMID:21995826

  18. Sediment pore-water interactions associated with arsenic and uranium transport from the North Cave Hills mining region, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Kipp, Gregory G.; Mott, Henry V.; Stone, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of historical U mining impacts is well documented for the North Cave Hills region of Harding County, South Dakota, USA. While previous studies reported watershed sediment and surface water As and U concentrations up to 90× established background concentrations, it was unclear whether or how localized changes in sediment redox behavior may influence contaminant remobilization. Five pore-water equilibration samplers (peepers) were spatially and temporally deployed within the study area to evaluate seasonal solid–liquid As and U distributions as a function of sediment depth. Pore-water and solid phase As and U concentrations, Fe speciation, Eh and pH were measured to ascertain specific geochemical conditions responsible for As and U remobilization and transport behavior. At a mine overburden sedimentation pond adjacent to the mine sites, high total aqueous As and U concentrations (4920 and 674 μg/L, respectively) were found within surface water during summer sampling; however pond dredging prior to autumn sampling resulted in significantly lower aqueous As and U concentrations (579 and 108 μg/L, respectively); however, both As and U still exceeded regional background concentrations (20 and 18 μg/L, respectively). At a wetlands-dominated deposition zone approximately 2 km downstream of the sedimentation pond, pore-water geochemical conditions varied seasonally. Summer conditions promoted reducing conditions in pore water, resulting in active release of As(III) to the water column. Autumn conditions promoted oxidizing conditions, decreasing pore-water As (As pw ) 5× and increasing U pw 10×. Peak U pore-water concentrations (781 μg/L) were 3.5× greater than determined for the surface water (226 μg/L), and approximately 40× background concentrations. At the Bowman–Haley reservoir backwaters 45 km downstream from the mine sites, As and U pore-water concentrations increased significantly between the summer and autumn deployments, attributed to

  19. Modeling interactions between saturated and un-saturated zones by Hydrus-1D in semi-arid regions (plain of Kairouan, Central Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saâdi, Mariem; Zghibi, Adel; Kanzari, Sabri

    2018-02-24

    In semi-arid areas like the Kairouan region, salinization has become an increasing concern because of the constant irrigation with saline water and over use of groundwater resources, soils, and aquifers. In this study, a methodology has been developed to evaluate groundwater contamination risk based on the unsaturated zone hydraulic properties. Two soil profiles with different ranges of salinity, one located in the north of the plain and another one in the south of plain (each 30 m deep) and both characterized by direct recharge of the aquifer, were chosen. Simulations were conducted with Hydrus-1D code using measured precipitation data for the period 1998-2003 and calculated evapotranspiration for both chosen profiles. Four combinations of initial conditions of water content and salt concentration were used for the simulation process in order to find the best match between simulated and measured values. The success of the calibration of Hydrus-1D allowed the investigation of some scenarios in order to assess the contamination risk under different natural conditions. The aquifer risk contamination is related to the natural conditions where it increased while facing climate change and temperature increase and decreased in the presence of a clay layer. Hydrus-1D was a useful tool to predict the groundwater level and quality in the case of a direct recharge and in the absence of any information related to the soil layers except for the texture.

  20. Characteristics of PMSE associated with the geomagnetic disturbance driven by corotating interaction region and high-speed solar wind streams in the declining solar cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kirkwood, Sheila; Kwak, Young-Sil; Shepherd, Gordon G.; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Yang, Tae-Yong; Kero, Antti

    2015-04-01

    We report interannual variations of the correlation between the reflectivity of polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) and solar wind parameters (speed and dynamic pressure), and AE index as a proxy of geomagnetic disturbances, and cosmic noise absorption (CNA) in the declining phase (2001-2008) of solar cycle 23. PMSEs are observed by 52 MHz VHF radar measurements at Esrange (67.8°N, 20.4°E), Sweden. In approaching the solar minimum years, high-speed solar wind streams emanate from frequently emerging coronal holes, leading to 7, 9, and 13.5 day periodicities in their arrival at Earth. Periodicities of 7 and/or 9 days are found in PMSE reflectivity in 2005-2006 and 2008. Periodicity-resolved correlations at 7 and 9 days of both D region ionization observed by cosmic noise absorption (CNA) and PMSE with solar wind speed and AE index vary from year to year but generally increase as solar minimum is approached. PMSEs have a higher periodicity-resolved correlation with AE index than the solar wind speed. In addition, cross correlation of PMSE reflectivity with AE index is mostly higher than with CNA in solar minimum years (2005-2008). This can signify that high-speed solar wind stream-induced high-energy particles possibly have strong influence on CNA, but not as much as on PMSE, especially for the years of significant periodicities occurring.

  1. Study of photon interactions and shielding properties of silicate glasses containing Bi2O3, BaO and PbO in the energy region of 1 keV to 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.; Limsuwan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Interaction photon with of silicate glasses containing PbO, BaO and Bi 2 O 3 studied. ► All interactions were changed with energy and composition of glasses. ► Shielding properties of glasses are better than some standard shielding materials. - Abstract: The mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z eff ), effective electron density (N e,eff ) and half-value layer (HVL) of xR m O n :(1 − x)SiO 2 glass system (where R m O n are Bi 2 O 3 , PbO and BaO, with 0.3 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.7 is fraction by weight) have been calculated by theoretical approach using WinXCom program in the energy region from 1 keV to 100 GeV. Also, the HVL of these glass samples has been compared with some standard shielding concretes. The variations of μ/ρ, Z eff , N e,eff and HVL with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It has been observed that the value of these parameters has been changed with energy and composition of the silicate glasses. The better shielding properties of glass samples were obtained compared with some standard shielding concretes. These results indicated that glasses in the present study can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  2. Long‐distance interaction of the integrated HPV fragment with MYC gene and 8q24.22 region upregulating the allele‐specific MYC expression in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Congle; Liu, Yongzhen; Shi, Shu; Zhang, Ruiyang; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Qiang; Zhu, Pengfei; Lu, Fengmin

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer development. In HeLa cell line, the HPV viral genome is integrated at 8q24 in one allele of chromosome 8. It has been reported that the HPV fragment integrated in HeLa genome can cis‐activate the expression of proto‐oncogene MYC, which is located at 500 kb downstream of the integrated site. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of this regulation is unknown. A recent study reported that MYC was highly expressed exclusively from the HPV‐integrated haplotype, and a long‐range chromatin interaction between the integrated HPV fragment and MYC gene has been hypothesized. In this study, we provided the experimental evidences supporting this long‐range chromatin interaction in HeLa cells by using Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) method. We found that the integrated HPV fragment, MYC and 8q24.22 was close to each other and might form a trimer in spatial location. When knocking out the integrated HPV fragment or 8q24.22 region from chromosome 8 by CRISPR/Cas9 system, the expression of MYC reduced dramatically in HeLa cells. Interestingly, decreased expression was only observed in three from eight cell clones, when only one 8q24.22 allele was knocked out. Functionally, HPV knockout caused senescence‐associated acidic β‐gal activity in HeLa cells. These data indicate a long‐distance interaction of the integrated HPV fragment with MYC gene and 8q24.22 region, providing an alternative mechanism relevant to the carcinogenicity of HPV integration. PMID:28470669

  3. Long-distance interaction of the integrated HPV fragment with MYC gene and 8q24.22 region upregulating the allele-specific MYC expression in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Congle; Liu, Yongzhen; Shi, Shu; Zhang, Ruiyang; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Qiang; Zhu, Pengfei; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

    2017-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer development. In HeLa cell line, the HPV viral genome is integrated at 8q24 in one allele of chromosome 8. It has been reported that the HPV fragment integrated in HeLa genome can cis-activate the expression of proto-oncogene MYC, which is located at 500 kb downstream of the integrated site. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of this regulation is unknown. A recent study reported that MYC was highly expressed exclusively from the HPV-integrated haplotype, and a long-range chromatin interaction between the integrated HPV fragment and MYC gene has been hypothesized. In this study, we provided the experimental evidences supporting this long-range chromatin interaction in HeLa cells by using Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) method. We found that the integrated HPV fragment, MYC and 8q24.22 was close to each other and might form a trimer in spatial location. When knocking out the integrated HPV fragment or 8q24.22 region from chromosome 8 by CRISPR/Cas9 system, the expression of MYC reduced dramatically in HeLa cells. Interestingly, decreased expression was only observed in three from eight cell clones, when only one 8q24.22 allele was knocked out. Functionally, HPV knockout caused senescence-associated acidic β-gal activity in HeLa cells. These data indicate a long-distance interaction of the integrated HPV fragment with MYC gene and 8q24.22 region, providing an alternative mechanism relevant to the carcinogenicity of HPV integration. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  4. Inclusive particle production in e+e- interactions in the 6 and 7 GeV center-of-mass energy regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badtke, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    This dissertation describes a portion of the results from experiment SP19 conducted by the Maryland-Pavia-Princeton (MP 2 ) collaboration at the e + e - storage ring SPEAR II at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The inclusive measurements described were obtained in the 6 and 7 GeV center-of-mass energy regions using a small solid angle (ΔΩ/sub MAX/ = 0.085 sr) magnetic spectrometer situated at 90 0 +- 13 0 with respect to the beams. The spectrometer and a conjugate detector opposite the spectrometer were used to measure back-to-back Bhabhas and muons, and the latter were used to normalize results. The inclusive muon signal at = 7.3 GeV with observed multiplicity n/sub CH/ = 2, acoplanarity par. delta/sub A/ > 20 0 and momentum p > 1.15 GeV/c is found to be in excess of QED and expected backgrounds. The background subtracted inclusive cross section is 10.1 +- 5.4 pb/sr. Both the momentum spectrum and the muon branching ratio of b/sub mu/ = 0.17 +- 0.09 are found to be consistent with the tau. An excess of events above expected backgrounds is also observed in those muons with n/sub CH/ > 2 and p > 1.15 GeV/c. The inclusive background subtracted cross section at = 7.3 GeV of 19.0 +- 6.3 pb/sr cannot be explained by the tau and may indicate the weak decays of charmed mesons. 5 references

  5. Interaction of the 268-282 region of glycoprotein Ibalpha with the heparin-binding site of thrombin inhibits the enzyme activation of factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cristofaro, R; De Filippis, V

    2003-01-01

    Activation of factor VIII (FVIII) by thrombin plays a fundamental role in the amplification of the coagulation cascade and takes place through specific proteolytic cleavages at Arg(372), Arg(740) and Arg(1689). Full FVIII activation requires cleavage at Arg(372), a process involving the alpha-thrombin exosite-II; referred to as heparin-binding site (HBS). The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of glycoprotein Ibalpha (GpIbalpha; 1-282 fragment) binding to thrombin HBS on FVIII activation. Similar experiments were also performed using a synthetic peptide modelled on the 268-282 sequence of GpIbalpha, and sulphated successfully at all tyrosine residues present along its sequence, at positions 276, 278 and 279. Both GpIbalpha 1-282 and the sulphated GpIb 268-282 peptides induced a progressive decrease (up to 70%) in activated FVIII generation, assessed by coagulation and FXa-generation assays. Furthermore, SDS/PAGE and Western-blot experiments showed that the specific appearance of the 44 kDa A2 domain on cleavage of the FVIII Arg(372)-Ser(373) peptide bond was delayed significantly in the presence of either GpIbalpha 1-282 or GpIb 268-282 peptide. Moreover, the effect of the latter on thrombin-mediated hydrolysis of a peptide having the sequence 341-376 of FVIII was investigated using reverse-phase HPLC. The k (cat)/ K (m) values of the FVIII 341-376 peptide hydrolysis by thrombin decreased linearly as a function of the GpIbalpha 268-282 peptide concentration, according to a competitive inhibition effect. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the sulphated 268-282 region of GpIbalpha binds to thrombin HBS, and is responsible for the inhibition of the Arg(372)-Ser(373) bond cleavage and activation of FVIII. PMID:12689334

  6. HIV-1 Induced Nuclear Factor I-B (NF-IB Expression Negatively Regulates HIV-1 Replication through Interaction with the Long Terminal Repeat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Vikram Vemula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retroviruses rely on host factors for cell entry, replication, transcription, and other major steps during their life cycle. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 is well known for utilizing a plethora of strategies to evade the host immune response, including the establishment of latent infection within a subpopulation of susceptible cells. HIV-1 also manipulates cellular factors in latently infected cells and persists for long periods of time, despite the presence of successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Results: In this study we demonstrate that Nuclear Factor-IB (NF-IB is induced during HIV-1 infection and its expression negatively impacts viral replication. During HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and the T cell line, Jurkat or during induction of virus replication in latently infected cells, ACH2 and J1.1, we observed a time-dependent alteration in NF-IB expression pattern that correlated with HIV-1 viral expression. Using the Chip assay, we observed an association of NF-IB with the long terminal repeat region of HIV-1 (LTR (-386 to -453 nt, and this association negatively correlated with HIV-1 transcription. Furthermore, knock-down of NF-IB levels in J1.1 cells resulted in an increase of HIV-1 levels. Knock-down of NF-IB levels in J-Lat-Tat-GFP (A1, (a Jurkat cell GFP reporter model for latent HIV-1 infection resulted in an increase in GFP levels, indicating a potential negative regulatory role of NF-IB in HIV-1 replication. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest that NF-IB may play a role in intrinsic antiretroviral defenses against HIV-1. These observations may offer new insights into the correlation of the latently infected host cell types and HIV-1, and help to define new therapeutic approaches for triggering the switch from latency to active replication thereby eliminating HIV-1 latent infection.

  7. Determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at Pn=(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshits, V.L.; Pechenov, V.N.; Plekhanov, E.B.; Podgoretskij, M.I.; Troyan, Yu.A.; Troyan, A.Yu; Penev, V.N.; Shklovskaya, A.I.; Arakelyan, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    The sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c were determined by means of the method of the identical particle interference correlations. The experimental material involving 48570 pairs of identical pions from 5-prong stars, which was obtained at the irradiation of 1m hydrogen chamber of LHE (JINR) by the beam of quasimonochromatic neutrons, has been used for the analysis. The effective radius for Goldhaber's parametrization is R=(1.30±0.16) fm. In processing we have used two types of the background: the combinations of non-identical pion pairs (π + π - ) and the background constructed by means of our method of mixing with 'the minimal violation of kinematical correlations'. In both the cases the identical results were obtained

  8. Selective screening of a large phage display library of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mutants to localize interaction sites with either thrombin or the variable region 1 of tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijer, M; Roelofs, Y; Neels, J; Horrevoets, A J; van Zonneveld, A J; Pannekoek, H

    1996-03-29

    Phage display technology has been exploited to study in detail the interaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and either thrombin or an essential positively charged "loop" of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), denoted variable region 1 (VR1). For this purpose, a PAI-1 mutant phage library was used that served as a reservoir of PAI-1 proteins potentially deficient in the interaction with either VR1 or thrombin. A stringent two-step selection procedure was developed. (i) A negative selection was performed by incubating the pComb3/PAI-1 mutant library with an excess of a thrombin mutant with its VR1 domain substituted with that of t-PA (thrombin-VR1). (ii) The remaining phages were complexed with t-PA (positive selection) and selected by panning with an immobilized anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody. Four consecutive panning rounds yielded an enrichment of pComb3/PAI-1 mutant phages of approximately 50-fold. Sequence analysis of 16 different cDNAs, encoding PAI-1 mutants that are hampered in the binding to thrombin-VR1, revealed the following mutations. Four independent variants share a mutation of the P4' residue (Glu350 --> Lys). Nine independent PAI-1 variants share a substitution of P1' (Met347 --> Lys), whereas three others share a P2 substitution (Ala345 --> Asp). Kinetic analysis of representative PAI-1 mutants provides evidence that the P4' residue is essential for the interaction with the VR1 domain, consistent with the data of Madison et al. (Madison, E.L., Goldsmith, E.J., Gething, M.J., Sambrook, J.F., and Gerard, R.D. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 21423-21426), whereas the P1' and P2 residues confer thrombin specificity. Concordant with the design of the selection procedure, mutants were obtained that inhibit thrombin-VR1 at least 100-fold slower than wild-type PAI-1, identifying residues that are central to the interaction with either thrombin or VR1. This study demonstrates that phage technology can be used to analyze large numbers of

  9. Mutagenesis of the Agrobacterium VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein identifies regions required for self-association and interaction with VirE1 and a permissive site for hybrid protein construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X R; Christie, P J

    1999-07-01

    The VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is required for delivery of T-DNA to the nuclei of susceptible plant cells. By yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation analyses, VirE2 was shown to self-associate and to interact with VirE1. VirE2 mutants with small deletions or insertions of a 31-residue oligopeptide (i31) at the N or C terminus or with an i31 peptide insertion at Leu236 retained the capacity to form homomultimers. By contrast, VirE2 mutants with modifications outside a central region located between residues 320 and 390 retained the capacity to interact with VirE1. These findings suggest the tertiary structure of VirE2 is important for homomultimer formation whereas a central domain mediates formation of a complex with VirE1. The capacity of VirE2 mutants to interact with full-length VirE2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae correlated with the abundance of the mutant proteins in A. tumefaciens, suggesting that VirE2 is stabilized by homomultimerization in the bacterium. We further characterized the promoter and N- and C-terminal sequence requirements for synthesis of functional VirE2. A PvirB::virE2 construct yielded functional VirE2 protein as defined by complementation of a virE2 null mutation. By contrast, PvirE or Plac promoter constructs yielded functional VirE2 only if virE1 was coexpressed with virE2. Deletion of 10 or 9 residues from the N or C terminus of VirE2, respectively, or addition of heterologous peptides or proteins to either terminus resulted in a loss of protein function. However, an i31 peptide insertion at Tyr39 had no effect on protein function as defined by the capacity of the mutant protein to (i) interact with native VirE2, (ii) interact with VirE1, (iii) accumulate at abundant levels in A. tumefaciens, and (iv) restore wild-type virulence to a virE2 null mutant. We propose that Tyr39 of VirE2 corresponds to a permissive site for insertion of heterologous peptides or proteins of interest

  10. T'ain't what you say, it's the way that you say it--left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-11-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity [Belin, P., Fecteau, S., & Bedard, C. Thinking the voice: Neural correlates of voice perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 129-135, 2004]. Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently, depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right middle/anterior STS showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts.

  11. Social Interactions in Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rosolia; P. Cipollone

    2004-01-01

    We exploit the 1980 earthquake in southern Italy and the subsequent relief from mandatory military service granted to all males in the regions hit by the seism to estimate the strength of endogenous social interactions in schooling achievements. Preliminary results point to a significant and strong effect of interactions not mediated by markets

  12. Assessing the role of local air-sea interaction over the South Asia region in simulating the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) using the new earth system model RegCM-ES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Fabio; Coppola, Erika; Farneti, Riccardo; Giorgi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    The South Asia climate is dominated by the monsoon precipitation that divides the climate in two different seasons, the wet and dry seasons, and it influences the lives of billions of peoples. The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) has different temporal and spatial scales of variability and it is mainly driven by strong air sea interactions. The monsoon interannual variability (IAV) and the intraseasonal variability (ISV) of daily rainfall are the two most important scale of analysis of this phenomenon. In this work, the Regional Earth System Model (RegCM-ES) (Sitz et al, 2016) is used to simulate the South Asia climate. Several model settings are experimented to assess the sensitivity of the monsoon system like for example two different cumulous convection schemes (Tidtke, 1989 and Emanuel, 1991), two different lateral boundary conditions in the regional ocean model (NOAA/Geophysical 5 Fluid Dynamics Laboratory MOM run, Danabasoglu et al 2014; and ORAP reanalysis, Zuo et Al 2015) and two different hydrological models (Cetemps Hydrological Model, Coppola et al, 2007; Max-Planck's HD model, Hagemann and Dümenil, 1998) for a total of 5 coupled and uncoupled simulations all covering the period from 1979 to 2008. One of the main results of the analysis of the mini RegCM-ES ensemble shows that a better representation of the IAV and of the ENSO-monsoon relationship is present in the coupled simulations. Moreover a source of monsoon predictability has been found in the one-year-lag correlation between JJAS India precipitation and ENSO, this is only evident in the coupled system where the one-year-lagged correlation coefficient between the Niño-3.4 and the ISM rainfall is much higher respect to the uncoupled one and similar to values observed between the observations and the Niño-3.4. For the subseasonal time scale, RegCM-ES shows better performance compared to the standalone version of RegCM4 (Giorgi et al 2012), in reproducing "active" and "break" spells that characterize

  13. Critical Environmental Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR SOROCOVSCHI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A short etymological interpretation of the notion of regions (Rette Lineatte, etc.. The region is: R= f (S+P, where S is space and P is power. There follows an evaluation of the characteristics of the region and the presentation of different approaches to the region. From the classic ideas (von Humboldt, 1885, Dokuceaev, 1899, Herbertson, 1905, and others we get to a wide interpretative array of what we accept as organizational spatial units of geographical reality. The environmental region has important connotations with regard to the system as a surrounded element (man, society and the adjacent system. Critical environmental regions are areas where there already exists interactive degradation. The critical character may be physical, hence the “geocritical regions” or the result of human impact, hence the “anthropocritical regions.” Critical situations are differentiated at the local, regional, and global level. In order to understand critical regional situations we must refer to the following characteristics: fragility, resilience, and vulnerability. Still there are few environmental studies on critical regions and work must be done in this field.

  14. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  15. The main features of the interaction of mantle magmas with granulite complexes of the lower crust and their relationship with granitic melts (exemplified by the Early Caledonides of the West Baikal Region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexandr; Khromykh, Sergei; Mekhonoshin, Alexei; Volkova, Nina; Travin, Alexei; Mikheev, Evgeny; Vladimirova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Granulite complexes occurring in the Early Caledonian southern folded framing of the Siberian Craton are deeply eroded fragments of the Vendian-Early Paleozoic accretionary prism, which is an indicator of the early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Gladkochub et al., 2010). The main feature of the granulite complexes is a wide development of gabbro-pyroxenites composing tectonic plates, synmetamorphic intrusive bodies, and numerous disintegrated fragments (boudins and enclaves), immersed in a metamorphic matrix. The volume of basites reaches 5-10 %, which allows us to consider mantle magmatism as a heat source for the granulite metamorphism. The most studied polygon is Chernorud granulite zone, which is a part of the Olkhon metamorphic terrane, West Baikal Region. Just this polygon was used for considering the problems of interaction of mantle magmas with lower crust granulite complexes and their relationship with granitic melts. The Chernorud Zone is a typical example of the accretionary prism with a predominance of metabasalts (70-80 %), subordinate amounts of marbles, quartzites and metapelites that have been subjected to granulite facies metamorphism and viscoelastic flow of rock masses. Study of two-pyroxene granulites (metabasalts) and garnet-sillimanite gneisses (metapelites) allows us to estimate P-T metamorphic conditions (P = 7.7-8.6 kbar, T = 770-820°C) and their U-Pb metamorphic age (530-500 Ma). Metabasalts correspond in their geochemistry to the island-arc tholeiitic series (Volkova et al., 2010; Gladkochub et al., 2010). Sin-metamorphic gabbro-pyroxenites formed in two stages: 1) Chernorud complex - tectonic slices and body's exhumed from deep earth crust levels (10-12 kb) and composed of arc tholeiitic series rocks (age T ≥ 500 Ma); 2) Ulan-Khargana complex - supply magmatic canals and fragmented tabular intrusions. This rocks composition corresponds to subalkaline petrochemical series (OIB) and U/Pb age is equal to 485±10 Ma (Travin et al., 2009

  16. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Blanco-Pérez

    Full Text Available Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV, the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary

  17. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Ruiz, Leticia; Hernández, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs) have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus) in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g) RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg) RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary constraints that may

  18. Interaction of MHD shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A plane MHD shock wave of arbitrary strength meets a slender body moving at super-true-sonic speed in the opposite direction. The interaction between the given shock wave and the weak shock attached to the slender body is studied for aligned fields for axisymmetrical flow and for both aligned and transverse fields in the two-dimensional case. Formal solutions for the linearized flow in the interaction region are obtained by the use of integral transforms. (author)

  19. Kinesthetic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Fritsch, Jonas; Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    Within the Human-Computer Interaction community there is a growing interest in designing for the whole body in interaction design. The attempts aimed at addressing the body have very different outcomes spanning from theoretical arguments for understanding the body in the design process, to more...... practical examples of designing for bodily potential. This paper presents Kinesthetic Interaction as a unifying concept for describing the body in motion as a foundation for designing interactive systems. Based on the theoretical foundation for Kinesthetic Interaction, a conceptual framework is introduced...... to be utilized when analyzing existing designs, as well as developing designs exploring new ways of designing kinesthetic interactions....

  20. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  1. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Krželj-Čolović, Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Individual city and regional authorities in many countries have themselves taken up the issue of “competitiveness” as part of their own economic development agendas: competitiveness has come to be regarded as critical for understanding and promoting local economic performance. Like their national counterparts, regional and city policy-makers have become preoccupied with knowing the relative competitive standing of their local economies compared with others, not just other regions and cities w...

  2. Znojmo Region

    OpenAIRE

    SANALLA, Merkéta

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main findings which are focusing interdisciplinary on contemporary trends in the regional policy in Central Europe. These findings are illustrated on regional policy activities in Znojmo region which is a pioneer in so called paradiplomacy activities. These deal consequents upon geographical emplacement on the border of the former Eastern Bloc which constitute area of renewed relations in united central Europe nowadays. These results are obtained by using classical the...

  3. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...

  4. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  5. EFFECTS OF THE INTERACTION GENOTYPE X NUTRITIONAL SYSTEM ON LIVEWEIGHT AND CARCASS COMPONENT EFEITO DA INTERAÇÃO GENÓTIPO X SISTEMA NUTRICIONAL SOBRE A COMPOSIÇÃO REGIONAL E TECIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rollemberg Cabral Martins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the isolated effects of genotype and of nutritional system, as well as the effect of the interaction between genotype and nutrition on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the meat production, sixty Polwarth male lambs and 51 Corriedale male lamb, born at August and September, raised in three different nutritional systems (native pasture, improved pasture e confinement and slaughtered with 122 days of age, were examined. The animals were weighed before slaughtering and, after slaughtering, the following traits were measured: cold carcass weights, shoulder, hindquarter, rib and neck weights and the weight of bone, muscle and fat of the shoulder and the hindquarter. The percentages were obtained by calculation. The experimental design was a totally randomized in a 3x2 factors (nutritional systems and genotypes. There was interaction genotype-nutrition (P <0.05 for bone of the hindquarter and of the shoulder and for the shoulder fat. Except for the weight and percentage of the bone of the shoulder, for all the other parameters of weight and of carcass studied there was not genotype effect. The nutrition influenced significantly (P <0.05 all the parameters. KEY WORDS: Interaction genotype-nutritional system, lambs, regional composition, tissue composition.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos isolados de genótipo e de sistema nutricional, bem como o da interação genótipo x sistema nutricional sobre aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos da produção de carne ovina, utilizaram-se 60 cordeiros da raça Ideal e

  6. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  7. Regional Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Explores ideas about regional planning and provides a framework for developing a secondary level course on regional planning. Claims that such a course can help students understand more about the world around them and improve their attitude toward contributing to the management of change. (BR)

  8. Using Radon-222 as a Naturally Occurring Tracer to investigate the streamflow-groundwater interactions in a typical Mediterranean fluvial-karst landscape: the interdisciplinary case study of the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Michele; Guida, Domenico; Villani, Paolo; Guadagnuolo, Davide; Longobardi, Antonia; Siervo, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. This paper describes the preliminary findings from Radon-222 activity concentration measurement data collected in streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns, performed from September 2007 to December 2008, in a typical Mediterranean karst river: the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general aim is to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. In fact, the study area is located inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park and, therefore, the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological modelling for planning tasks, in application of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), a Bussento River Monitoring System (BRMS) has been built, at basin, segment and reach scale. Experimental data about 222Rn concentrations, in addition to physical-chemical and streamflow rate, have been acquired and managed from BRMS selected stations, sampling the streamflow and inflow spring waters by means of the Radon-in-Air analyzer, RAD7, together with the Radon-in-water accessories, Radon Water Probe and RAD7H2O (DURRIDGE Co. Inc.), for continuous and batch sampling measurements, respectively. During preliminary surveys, appropriate sampling procedures and measurement protocols have been tested, taking into account the different local hydrogeological and hydrological situations occurring

  9. HIV-2 interaction with cell coreceptors: amino acids within the V1/V2 region of viral envelope are determinant for CCR8, CCR5 and CXCR4 usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Quirina; Lopes, Maria Manuel; Calado, Marta; Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel

    2014-11-25

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) use cellular receptors in distinct ways. Besides a more promiscuous usage of coreceptors by HIV-2 and a more frequent detection of CD4-independent HIV-2 isolates, we have previously identified two HIV-2 isolates (HIV-2MIC97 and HIV-2MJC97) that do not use the two major HIV coreceptors: CCR5 and CXCR4. All these features suggest that in HIV-2 the Env glycoprotein subunits may have a different structural organization enabling distinct - although probably less efficient - interactions with cellular receptors. By infectivity assays using GHOST cell line expressing CD4 and CCR8 and blocking experiments using CCR8-specific ligand, I-309, we show that efficient replication of HIV-2MIC97 and HIV-2MJC97 requires the presence of CCR8 at plasma cell membrane. Additionally, we disclosed the determinants of chemokine receptor usage at the molecular level, and deciphered the amino acids involved in the usage of CCR8 (R8 phenotype) and in the switch from CCR8 to CCR5 or to CCR5/CXCR4 usage (R5 or R5X4 phenotype). The data obtained from site-directed mutagenesis clearly indicates that the main genetic determinants of coreceptor tropism are located within the V1/V2 region of Env surface glycoprotein of these two viruses. We conclude that a viral population able to use CCR8 and unable to infect CCR5 or CXCR4-positive cells, may exist in some HIV-2 infected individuals during an undefined time period, in the course of the asymptomatic stage of infection. This suggests that in vivo alternate molecules might contribute to HIV infection of natural target cells, at least under certain circumstances. Furthermore we provide direct and unequivocal evidence that the usage of CCR8 and the switch from R8 to R5 or R5X4 phenotype is determined by amino acids located in the base and tip of V1 and V2 loops of HIV-2 Env surface glycoprotein.

  10. Effective interactions in p-shell nuclei and the realistic interactions - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, G.K.; Joshi, K.P.

    1984-04-01

    The effective interaction of Jain et al. derived from the Yale interaction by including the prominent core polarization diagrams is analyzed in terms of the interaction radial integrals and their spin tensor components. The interaction is also compared with some phenomenological effective interactions. The general features of the effective force in the 1 p shell region are discussed. (author)

  11. Interactive lecturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoff

    2011-12-01

    Lectures can vary from being entirely teacher-centred through to those that value learner-teacher and learner-learner interaction. Advocates of the exclusively didactic (teacher-centred) lecture aim to maximise the amount of lecture time available to their delivery of content, and regard other activities as 'lost' lecture time. Educational research has, however, identified the potential benefit of interactivity that promotes mentally active learning and improved learning outcomes. This article reviews the notion of 'active learning', outlines how active learning is promoted by interactivity and concludes with strategies for including interactivity within lectures. Narrative review and discussion. The article begins with a summary of the purposes of lecturing, and the distinctions between mentally active and passive learning. The associations between interactivity, cognitively active learning and improved learning outcomes are considered, and strategies for promoting interactivity and active learning are explored. Three student-student interaction strategies are discussed, and an exemplar of each of these strategies in action is provided. The exemplar addresses the 'lost time' concern of some advocates of the exclusively didactic lecture. Interactivity can be readily introduced to lectures without a significant reduction in the amount of time available for didactic lecturing. This paper challenges the view that the inclusion of interactivity equates to a loss of learning time, by showing that students' achievement of learning outcomes is enhanced by planned and structured engagement with others. The paper concludes with an example of how interactivity can be incorporated within the traditional lecture format. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  12. Shaping Regional Strategies of Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich; Heinicke, Patrick; Rasche, Andreas

    on the regional success of MNCs. Using structural equation modelling, we also analyze the interaction effects of regional orientation and inter-regional distance. We evaluate our model by means of both primary and secondary data for Fortune Gloval 500 firms. Our findings show that appropriate degrees of regional...

  13. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  14. Explicit Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwgren, Jonas; Eriksen, Mette Agger; Linde, Per

    2006-01-01

    We report an ongoing study of palpable computing to support surgical rehabilitation, in the general field of interaction design for ubiquitous computing. Through explorative design, fieldwork and participatory design techniques, we explore the design principle of explicit interaction...... as an interpretation of palpability, comprising usability as well as patient empowerment and socially performative issues. We present a prototype environment for video recording during physiotherapeutical consultation which illustrates our current thoughts on explicit interaction and serves as material for further...

  15. Floor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three...... different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors....

  16. Interactive Timetabling

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Tomas; Bartak, Roman

    2001-01-01

    Timetabling is a typical application of constraint programming whose task is to allocate activities to slots in available resources respecting various constraints like precedence and capacity. In this paper we present a basic concept, a constraint model, and the solving algorithms for interactive timetabling. Interactive timetabling combines automated timetabling (the machine allocates the activities) with user interaction (the user can interfere with the process of timetabling). Because the ...

  17. The binding site for regulatory 14-3-3 protein in plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: Involvement of a region promoting phosphorylation-independent interaction in addition to the phosphorylation-dependent C-terminal end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja T; Borch, Jonas; Bych, Katrine

    2003-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of well conserved proteins interacting with a large number of phosphorylated binding partners in eukaryotic cells. The plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase is an unusual target in that a unique phosphothreonine motif (946YpTV, where pT represents phosphothreonine......, Thr-924 is important for interaction with 14-3-3 protein even when Thr-947 is phosphorylated. We suggest that the role of phosphorylation, which is accentuated by fusicoccin, is to stabilize protein-protein interaction between 14-3-3 protein and several residues of the H+-ATPase C-terminal domain....

  18. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  19. The 5'HS2 of the globin locus control region enhances transcription through the interaction of a multimeric complex binding at two functionally distinct NF-E2 binding sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Talbot; F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe locus control region (LCR) of the human beta-globin locus consists of four hypersensitive regions (5'HS 1-4). One of these sites, 5'HS2, is active in both transient and stable transfection assays and transgenic mice. It has previously been shown that the jun/fos consensus binding

  20. Rovibrational spectra of DCF3 in the 1900 cm(-)1 region: High-resolution study of the v(3) = v(4)=1/v(3)=2, v(6)=1 Fermi-interacting levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ceausu-Velcescu, A.; Pracna, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 295, JAN 2014 (2014), s. 31-36 ISSN 0022-2852 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : deuterated fluoroform * combination bands * Fermi interaction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.482, year: 2014

  1. Aesthetic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Petersen, M.G.; Iversen, O.

    2004-01-01

    , as it promotes aesthetics of use, rather than aesthetics of appearance. We coin this approach in the perspective of aesthetic interaction. Finally we make the point that aesthetics is not re-defining everything known about interactive systems. We provide a framework placing this perspective among other...

  2. TIDE-TSUNAMI INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate important dynamics defining tsunami enhancement in the coastal regions and related to interaction with tides. Observations and computations of the Indian Ocean Tsunami usually show amplifications of the tsunami in the near-shore regions due to water shoaling. Additionally, numerous observations depicted quite long ringing of tsunami oscillations in the coastal regions, suggesting either local resonance or the local trapping of the tsunami energy. In the real ocean, the short-period tsunami wave rides on the longer-period tides. The question is whether these two waves can be superposed linearly for the purpose of determining the resulting sea surface height (SSH or rather in the shallow water they interact nonlinearly, enhancing/reducing the total sea level and currents. Since the near–shore bathymetry is important for the run-up computation, Weisz and Winter (2005 demonstrated that the changes of depth caused by tides should not be neglected in tsunami run-up considerations. On the other hand, we hypothesize that much more significant effect of the tsunami-tide interaction should be observed through the tidal and tsunami currents. In order to test this hypothesis we apply a simple set of 1-D equations of motion and continuity to demonstrate the dynamics of tsunami and tide interaction in the vicinity of the shelf break for two coastal domains: shallow waters of an elongated inlet and narrow shelf typical for deep waters of the Gulf of Alaska.

  3. desarrollo regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor B. Fletes Ocón

    2006-01-01

    trabajo se adhiere a tal planteamiento para subrayar la importancia de una perspectiva de cadenas, redes y actores de la agroindustria en el contexto de la globalización. Se analiza la no linealidad y la incertidumbre de los procesos de cambio regional y de transformación de la agroindustria.

  4. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development systematic organization of education is necessary. That is to say that to achieve the desired target, ... centralization, which opposed the currently advocated democratic principles (Neleson et al., 1993). - .... Thus, from the eleven administrative zones of the Amhara region five zones were selected using cluster ...

  5. The Region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and parlance, consists of the four linguistic states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. The linguistic specificities are also manifest in the Geological as well as geographical variations which significantly influenced the emergence of human settlements right from the prehistoric times in all these regions.

  6. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  7. Collocated Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Fischer, Joel; Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    , and wearable technologies, spaces and spatial interaction, and those interested in the social aspects of interaction, such as conversation analysis and ethnomethodology. These communities have matured considerably, and produced significant exemplars of systems, methods, and studies concerned with collocated...... interactions. Yet, new challenges abound as people wear and carry more devices than ever, creating fragmented device ecologies at work, and changing the ways we socialise with each other. In this workshop we seek to start a dialogue to look back as well as forward, review best practices, discuss and design...

  8. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  9. Superficial disposition of the N-terminal region of the surfactant protein SP-C and the absence of specific SP-B-SP-C interactions in phospholipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; Casals, C

    2001-01-01

    A dansylated form of porcine surfactant-associated protein C (Dns-SP-C), bearing a single dansyl group at its N-terminal end, has been used to characterize the lipid-protein and protein-protein interactions of SP-C reconstituted in phospholipid bilayers, using fluorescence spectroscopy...... of the N-terminal segment of the protein into less polar environments that originate during protein lateral segregation. This suggests that conformation and interactions of the N-terminal segment of SP-C could be important in regulating the lateral distribution of the protein in surfactant bilayers...

  10. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

  11. Embarrassing Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deterding, Sebastian; Lucero, Andrés; Holopainen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Wherever the rapid evolution of interactive technologies disrupts standing situational norms, creates new, often unclear situational audiences, or crosses cultural boundaries, embarrassment is likely. This makes embarrassment a fundamental adoption and engagement hurdle, but also a creative design...

  12. Interaction Widget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced...... in the pattern. The intended audience of the pattern is developers and researchers within the field of human computer interaction....

  13. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani, Marie-Paule; Bertails, Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  14. The consequence of regional gradients of P-gp and CYP3A4 for drug-drug interactions by P-gp inhibitors and the P-gp/CYP3A4 interplay in the human intestine ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.; Graaf, I.A.M. de; Steeg, E. van de; Jager, M.H. de; Groothuis, G.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal P-gp and CYP3A4 work coordinately to reduce the intracellular concentration of drugs, and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) based on this interplay are of clinical importance and require pre-clinical investigation. Using precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) of human jejunum, ileum and

  15. Functional interactions of the AF-2 activation domain core region of the human androgen receptor with the amino-terminal domain and with the transcriptional coactivator TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); P. Doesburg (Paul); K. Steketee (Karine); J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies in yeast and mammalian cells showed a functional interaction between the amino-terminal domain and the carboxy-terminal, ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human androgen receptor (AR). In the present study, the AR subdomains involved in

  16. Issues of incompatibility of dipole beam separation schemes with EIC physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kiselev, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Parker, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Petti, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-17

    This report addresses the question, can the risk of an eRHIC machine be reduced by replacing the crab-cavities through a dipole field in the IR to separate the electron and hadron beams. In the following, several scenarios to integrate a separation dipole in the IR design will be described. For each of the scenarios the challenges and problems to realize this in practice will be detailed. In addition, the impact on the detector design and the EIC physics program will also be discussed. Several physics requirements need to be integrated into the interaction region design, in order to perform the physics program as described in the EIC White Paper and in the RHIC Design Study. These requirements are also described in detail on a dedicated page of the eRHIC-wiki. The main requirements are described here.

  17. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  18. Simple Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and international public. The exhibition Simple Interactions. Sound Art from Japan presents works by 9 Japanese artists at the Museum of Contemporary Art Roskilde. The exhibition mixes installations, performances and documentations, all of which examine how simple interactions can create complex systems...... and patterns. Works and performances by the following artists are presented: Yuji DOGANE - Yukio FUJIMOTO - Atsuhiro ITO - Soichiro MIHARA - Atsushi NISHIJIMA - Jio SHIMIZU - Toshiya TSUNODA - Tetsuya UMEDA - Miki YUI The book presents texts by Minoru HATANAKa; Takashi KOJIMA, Rune SØCHTING and the editors...

  19. Active region seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  20. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    , culture, history, and natural resources. The insights of this thesis are believed to be vital for understanding why certain types of local entrepreneurship prevail in certain regions. This can further our knowledge of how to foster and enable entrepreneurship in lagging regions. In addition, this study...... reveals that rural entrepreneurship is about appreciating the local, exploiting resource endowments, and engendering community support. Rural context and rural code of conduct influence the extent to which entrepreneurial activities are localized as well as influence the type of value created...... influenced by such interactions? In approaching these questions, this dissertation focuses on why entrepreneurs act (the causes of entrepreneurship, anchored in the context), how they act (the entrepreneurial practices, action, and activities), and what happens when they act (the outcomes and impact...

  1. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  2. Interactive Storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2015, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in November/December 2015. The 18 revised full papers and 13 short papers presented together with 9 posters, 9 workshop descriptions, an...

  3. Cardiopulmonary interactions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... Any treatise on cardiopulmonary interactions has at its foundation a thorough understanding of both pulmonary and cardiac physiology. Although recent articles have addressed advances in the field1 or applications to a particular subspecialty,2-5 the reader is advised to have basic physiological articles ...

  4. Hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Kolar, P.; Kundrat, V.

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain invited lectures and papers presente at the symposium. Attention was devoted to hadron interactions a high energy in QCD, to the structure and decay of hadrons, the production of hadrons and supersymmetric particles in e + e - and ep collisions, to perturbation theory in quantum field theory, and new supersymmetric extensions of relativistic algebra. (Z.J

  5. Role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) interactions in induction of neurite outgrowth and identification of a binding site for NCAM in the heel region of GDNF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne; Gotfryd, Kamil; Li, Shizhong

    2009-01-01

    The formation of appropriate neuronal circuits is an essential part of nervous system development and relies heavily on the outgrowth of axons and dendrites and their guidance to their respective targets. This process is governed by a large array of molecules, including glial cell line......-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), the interaction of which induce neurite outgrowth. In the present study the requirements for NCAM-mediated GDNF-induced neurite outgrowth were investigated in cultures of hippocampal neurons, which do not express Ret. We demonstrate...

  6. Regional mission impossible? : The Twente Region and the University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopelyan, Sofya; Nieth, Lisa Johanna

    2018-01-01

    A well-functioning regional innovation system involves a lot of communication and interaction among the actors. However, sometimes the communication and interaction create tensions impeding regional development. In order to explore the reasons behind this, this study looks at the relationships

  7. Interactive cinema : engagement and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosmeer, Mirjam; Schouten, Ben; Mitchell, Alex; Fernández-Vara, Clara; Thue, David

    2014-01-01

    Technologies that were initially developed to be applied within the domain of video games are currently being used in experiments to explore their meaning and possibilities for cinema and cinema audiences. In this position paper we examine how narrativity, interactivity and engagement are mutually

  8. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    , but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...... explore some of the more fundamental questions about governance theory. For example, although governance is talked about a great deal political science has done relatively little about how to measure this concept. Likewise, the term multi-level governance has become widely used but its important...... to understand that idea more fully and see how it functions in the context of interactive forms of governance. The authors also link governance to some very fundamental questions in political science and the social sciences more broadly. How is power exercised in interactive governance? How democratic...

  9. Interactive Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guilmi, Corrado; Gallegati, Mauro; Landini, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Preface; List of tables; List of figures, 1. Introduction; Part I. Methodological Notes and Tools: 2. The state space notion; 3. The master equation; Part II. Applications to HIA Based Models: 4. Financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics I: heterogeneity and interaction; 5. Financial fragility and macroeconomic Dynamics II: learning; Part III. Conclusions: 6. Conclusive remarks; Part IV. Appendices and Complements: Appendix A: Complements to Chapter 3; Appendix B: Solving the ME to solve the ABM; Appendix C: Specifying transition rates; Index.

  10. Regional Highlights of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; J.M. Wolken; Teresa Hollingsworth; Christian Giardina; J.S. Littell; Linda Joyce; Chris Swanston; Stephen Handler; Lindsey Rustad; Steve McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Climatic extremes, ecological disturbance, and their interactions are expected to have major effects on ecosystems and social systems in most regions of the United States in the coming decades. In Alaska, where the largest temperature increases have occurred, permafrost is melting, carbon is being released, and fire regimes are changing, leading to a...

  11. Are weak and electromagnetic interactions unified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines how well the standard electroweak model agrees with experiment. Attempts to explain to a nonparticle physicist why weak and electromagnetic interactions are unified. Discusses the Glashow model (unified SU(2)xU(1)); some basic questions; an alternative viewpoint; unified theories; non-unified theories; and weak interactions as strong interactions. Concludes that SU(2)xU(1) is a good phenomenological model for weak and electromagnetic interactions in the energy region accessible to experiment

  12. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  13. Interactive Workspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    augmented reality, interactive building elements, and mobile devices to support new ways of working in a diversity of application domains with work situations ranging from individual work, through local collaboration, to distributed collaboration. The work situations may take place in offices/project rooms...... computer user interfaces, on the one hand imploding them into small devices and appliances, and on the other hand exploding them onto large scale walls, buildings and furniture. The goal of this research area is to provide an experimental environment for pervasive computing projects aiming at utilizing...

  14. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  15. Gamma ray interaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Gamma ray detection in the energy region above 1 keV involves measurements of the energy exchange or energy loss between the gamma ray and the mass of the detector. In most cases of interest, it is the kinetic energy imparted to charged particles by the gamma ray which is lost in the detector and measured in order to obtain spectral knowledge between the incident gamma ray photon and the direction of the secondary particles contains important energy information. The interaction gamma ray removal processes in matter are considered. This interaction removal process is characterized by the fact that each gamma ray is removed individually from the incident beam. The number of photons removed in this manner is proportional to the thickness of matter traversed

  16. Sibling interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2013-01-01

    Sibling interactions traditionally were conceived psychoanalytically in "vertical" and parentified oedipal terms and overlooked in their own right, for complicated reasons (Colonna and Newman 1983). Important work has been done to right this, from the 1980s and onward, with conferences and writings. Juliet Mitchell's 2000 and, in particular, her 2003 books, for example, have brought "lateral" sibling relations forcefully to the forefront of insights, especially about sex and violence, with the added interdisciplinary impact of illuminating upheaval in global community interactions as well as having implications for clinicians. A clinical example from the analysis of an adult woman with a ten-years-younger sister will show here how we need both concepts to help us understand complex individual psychic life. The newer "lateral" sibling emphasis, including Mitchell's "Law of the Mother" and "seriality," can be used to inform the older "vertical" take, to enrich the full dimensions of intersubjective oedipal and preoedipal reciprocities that have been foundational in shaping that particular analysand's inner landscape. Some technical recommendations for heightening sensitivity to the import of these dynamics will be offered along the way here, by invoking Hans Loewald's useful metaphor of the analytic situation as theater.

  17. 78 FR 41033 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region, Southeast Region, North Pacific Region, Pacific Region...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC399 Fisheries of the Northeast Region, Southeast Region, North Pacific Region, Pacific Region; Western Pacific Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  18. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  19. Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense in the Casco Bay region of the western Gulf of Maine: Advection from offshore source populations and interactions with the Kennebec River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keafer, Bruce A.; Churchill, James H.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2005-09-01

    The Casco Bay region, an embayment adjacent to the Kennebec River, has been suggested as a source region for Alexandrium fundyense bloom development in the western Gulf of Maine (GOM). In this study, shipboard observations were acquired within Casco Bay and the nearby coastal waters during the spring of 1998 and 2000. In the early bloom season, low A. fundyense abundances (500 cells l -1) were observed within Casco Bay, they were contiguous with coastal populations observed within the Kennebec/Penobscot river plume and within offshore waters of the western segment of the Maine Coastal Current (WMCC). This general distributional pattern occurred during both study years. Wind directly affected the pathway of the incoming coastal populations. Downwelling-favorable winds generally facilitated bloom formation (and outbreaks of shellfish toxicity) within Casco Bay by enhancing the connection with offshore populations via alongshore and onshore transport of cells from the upstream coastal waters. In contrast, persistent upwelling-favorable winds were associated with low A. fundyense cell abundances (and shellfish toxicity) in Casco Bay by slowing the advance of the coastal population and shifting it offshore with the Kennebec plume front. The striking difference between late season (June) population abundances of the two study years can be explained by a combination of the wind pre-history and interannual differences in large-scale (Gulf-wide) circulation patterns, as evidenced by higher salinities in the coastal waters in 2000 vs. 1998. Advection of A. fundyense cells into Casco Bay and retention, not local growth within the Bay, are likely the dominant processes that typically result in the accumulation of high populations and shellfish toxicity in the Bay. A variety of mechanisms (e.g., circulation underneath or steerage around the Kennebec plume) promote the transfer of cells across the Kennebec/Penobscot plume barrier and into the Bay. These dynamics are complex

  20. Cosmic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    An image based on data taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope reveals a triplet of galaxies intertwined in a cosmic dance. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The three galaxies, catalogued as NGC 7173 (top), 7174 (bottom right) and 7176 (bottom left), are located 106 million light-years away towards the constellation of Piscis Austrinus (the 'Southern Fish'). NGC 7173 and 7176 are elliptical galaxies, while NGC 7174 is a spiral galaxy with quite disturbed dust lanes and a long, twisted tail. This seems to indicate that the two bottom galaxies - whose combined shape bears some resemblance to that of a sleeping baby - are currently interacting, with NGC 7176 providing fresh material to NGC 7174. Matter present in great quantity around the triplet's members also points to the fact that NGC 7176 and NGC 7173 have interacted in the past. Astronomers have suggested that the three galaxies will finally merge into a giant 'island universe', tens to hundreds of times as massive as our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 02/08 ESO PR Photo 02b/08 NGC 7173, 7174, and 7176 The triplet is part of a so-called 'Compact Group', as compiled by Canadian astronomer Paul Hickson in the early 1980s. The group, which is the 90th entry in the catalogue and is therefore known as HCG 90, actually contains four major members. One of them - NGC 7192 - lies above the trio, outside of this image, and is another peculiar spiral galaxy. Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of typically four to ten galaxies in close proximity to one another. Another striking example is Robert's Quartet. Compact groups are excellent laboratories for the study of galaxy interactions and their effects, in particular the formation of stars. As the striking image reveals, there are many other galaxies in the field. Some are distant ones, while others seem to be part of the family. Studies made with other telescopes have indeed revealed that the HCG 90 group contains 16 members

  1. Electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  2. Electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidt, D.; Pietschmann, H.

    1988-01-01

    This volume aims at a consistent presentation of the relevant experimental data in the theoretical context of Quantum Flavor Dynamics (QFD). QFD stems from research in the last 15 years and describes successfully all phenomena of so-called electroweak interactions. This allows for a natural and efficient ordering of the vast body of data resulting from many different types of experiments. After an outline of the theoretical foundations, several chapters deal with the three sectors of QFD, i.e. fermions, gauge bosons and Higgs bosons as far as their properties (quantum numbers, lifetime etc.) are concerned. The largest chapter examines the structure of the electromagnetic, the weak neutral and the weak charged currents. Best values for the basic parameters of QFD are suggested, and open questions and new directions are discussed

  3. Electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W +- or Z 0 does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data

  4. Audiovisual Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros

    importance of each modality with respect to the overall quality evaluation. The results show that this was not due to specific interactions between stimuli but rather because the auditory modality dominated over the visual modality. Furthermore, for all experiments where less than optimal stimuli......Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. This results in an accurate representation of the product in a singular modality - usually the one primarily associated with the product's main function. However, any...... given product is rarely perceived in isolation, but rather judged within a global context which includes information from all modalities (senses). This PhD thesis investigates the relative importance of audio and visual information in subjective evaluations of a product. A multimodal setup was developed...

  5. Inclusive particle production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions in the 6 and 7 GeV center-of-mass energy regions. [Cross sections, branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badtke, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    This dissertation describes a portion of the results from experiment SP19 conducted by the Maryland-Pavia-Princeton (MP/sup 2/) collaboration at the e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring SPEAR II at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The inclusive measurements described were obtained in the 6 and 7 GeV center-of-mass energy regions using a small solid angle (..delta cap omega../sub MAX/ = 0.085 sr) magnetic spectrometer situated at 90/sup 0/ +- 13/sup 0/ with respect to the beams. The spectrometer and a conjugate detector opposite the spectrometer were used to measure back-to-back Bhabhas and muons, and the latter were used to normalize results. The inclusive muon signal at <..sqrt..3> = 7.3 GeV with observed multiplicity n/sub CH/ = 2, acoplanarity par. delta/sub A/ > 20/sup 0/ and momentum p > 1.15 GeV/c is found to be in excess of QED and expected backgrounds. The background subtracted inclusive cross section is 10.1 +- 5.4 pb/sr. Both the momentum spectrum and the muon branching ratio of b/sub mu/ = 0.17 +- 0.09 are found to be consistent with the tau. An excess of events above expected backgrounds is also observed in those muons with n/sub CH/ > 2 and p > 1.15 GeV/c. The inclusive background subtracted cross section at <..sqrt..3> = 7.3 GeV of 19.0 +- 6.3 pb/sr cannot be explained by the tau and may indicate the weak decays of charmed mesons. 5 references.

  6. Growth hormone pharmacogenetics: the interactive effect of a microsatellite in the IGF1 promoter region with the GHR-exon 3 and -202 A/C IGFBP3 variants on treatment outcomes of children with severe GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalonga, E F; Antonini, S R R; Guerra, G; Coletta, R R D; Franca, M M; Braz, A F; Mendonca, B B; Arnhold, I J P; Jorge, A A L

    2012-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1) is a mediator of growth hormone (GH) action, and therefore, IGF1 is a candidate gene for recombinant human GH (rhGH) pharmacogenetics. Lower serum IGF1 levels were found in adults homozygous for 19 cytosine-adenosine (CA) repeats in the IGF1 promoter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of (CA)n IGF1 polymorphism, alone or in combination with GH receptor (GHR)-exon 3 and -202 A/C insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) polymorphisms, on the growth response to rhGH therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) patients. Eighty-four severe GHD patients were genotyped for (CA)n IGF1, -202 A/C IGFBP3 and GHR-exon 3 polymorphisms. Multiple linear regressions were performed to estimate the effect of each genotype, after adjustment for other influential factors. We assessed the influence of genotypes on the first year growth velocity (1st y GV) (n=84) and adult height standard deviation score (SDS) adjusted for target-height SDS (AH-TH SDS) after rhGH therapy (n=37). Homozygosity for the IGF1 19CA repeat allele was negatively correlated with 1st y GV (P=0.03) and AH-TH SDS (P=0.002) in multiple linear regression analysis. In conjunction with clinical factors, IGF1 and IGFBP3 genotypes explain 29% of the 1st y GV variability, whereas IGF1 and GHR polymorphisms explain 59% of final height-target-height SDS variability. We conclude that homozygosity for IGF1 (CA)19 allele is associated with less favorable short- and long-term growth outcomes after rhGH treatment in patients with severe GHD. Furthermore, this polymorphism exhibits a non-additive interaction with -202 A/C IGFBP3 genotype on the 1st y GV and with GHR-exon 3 genotype on adult height.

  7. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...

  8. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  10. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  11. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  12. σ-Hole Interactions: Perspectives and Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Politzer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After a brief discussion of the σ-hole concept and the significance of molecular electrostatic potentials in noncovalent interactions, we draw attention to some common misconceptions that are encountered in that context: (1 Since the electrostatic potential reflects the contributions of both the nuclei and the electrons, it cannot be assumed that negative potentials correspond to “electron-rich” regions and positive potentials to “electron-poor” ones; (2 The electrostatic potential in a given region is determined not only by the electrons and nuclei in that region, but also by those in other portions of the molecule, especially neighboring ones; (3 A σ-hole is a region of lower electronic density on the extension of a covalent bond, not an electrostatic potential; (4 Noncovalent interactions are between positive and negative regions, which are not necessarily associated with specific atoms, so that “close contacts” between atoms do not always indicate the actual interactions.

  13. REGIONAL FEATURES OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF REGION IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Lavrikova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In clause the methodical approach to typology of spatial development of economy of the regions, considering position of region in national geoeconomic space, orientation to the global markets and character of interactions (network or integrated managing subjects in region is considered. Regional features of spatial development of regions of the Ural federal district are allocated. Directions of perfection of a level of the organization of spatial development of economy of regions in conditions of instability from positions of theories of unbalanced growth are offered.

  14. Interaction of cationic drugs with liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Brett A; Chauhan, Anuj

    2009-10-20

    Interactions between cationic drugs and anionic liposomes were studied by measuring binding of drugs and the effect of binding on liposome permeability. The measurements were analyzed in the context of a continuum model based on electrostatic interactions and a Langmuir isotherm. Experiments and modeling indicate that, although electrostatic interactions are important, the fraction of drug sequestered in the double-layer is negligible. The majority of drug enters the bilayer with the charged regions interacting with the charged lipid head groups and the lipophilic regions associated with the bilayer. The partitioning of the drug can be described by a Langmuir isotherm with the electrostatic interactions increasing the sublayer concentration of the drug. The binding isotherms are similar for all tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). Bupivacaine (BUP) binds significantly less compared to TCA because its structure is such that the charged region has minimal interactions with the lipid heads once the BUP molecule partitions inside the bilayer. Conversely, the TCAs are linear with distinct hydrophilic and lipophilic regions, allowing the lipophilic regions to lie inside the bilayer and the hydrophilic regions to protrude out. This conformation maximizes the permeability of the bilayer, leading to an increased release of a hydrophilic fluorescent dye from liposomes.

  15. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  16. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  17. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  18. The spin-orbit interaction in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis previously made of the average nuclear potential has been extended to consideration of the spin-orbit interactions. It has not been possible to find a satisfactory two-body interaction consistent with all the data; that suggested by the phase-shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is just within the region of possible forms. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  19. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  20. Spectral fingerprints of large-scale neuronal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, M.; Donner, T.H.; Engel, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cognition results from interactions among functionally specialized but widely distributed brain regions; however, neuroscience has so far largely focused on characterizing the function of individual brain regions and neurons therein. Here we discuss recent studies that have instead investigated the

  1. The interaction region of the large detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    design to study alternatives, e.g. the surface assembly of the detector. References. [1] T Behnke et al, Eds., TESLA Technical Design Report Part IV, DESY 2001-011, 2001. [2] The LDC Working Group: Detector outline document for the large detector concept, http://www.ilcldc.org/documents/dod/ (2006). Pramana – J. Phys.

  2. Interaction region considerations for a B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeStaebler, H.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of the project is to observe CP violation in the bar BB system. This machine is supposed to be a factory for high energy physics, not an R ampersand D project for accelerator physics. There are a number of interrelated design issues arising from the different desires of the detector and the machine, some of which are listed in this paper. A number of background and beampipe issues are mentioned. The emphasis is on calculations. Any satisfactory design will combine measurements on existing machines with calculations pertaining to the measurement conditions as well as to the proposed machine. 57 refs

  3. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez Claros, Carmen

    2012-06-08

    Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average) belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  4. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    related to inaccurate land surface modelling, e.g. enhanced warm bias in warm dry summer months. Coupling the regional climate model to a hydrological model shows the potential of improving the surface flux simulations in dry periods and the 2 m air temperature in general. In the dry periods......The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...

  5. Multibaryon interactions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Having discussed the basic notions and quantities used when considering multibaryon interactions in the relativistic range, attention is focussed on particle production in the region of limiting fragmentation of nuclei which is kinematically forbidden for one-nucleon collisions (the cumulative region). Multibaryon configurations responsible for the cumulative effect are examined with especial reference to the possible existence of metastable multiquark systems, for example of dibaryons. Finally the present status and perspectives of studies in the field of relativistic nuclear physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are discussed. (UK)

  6. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  7. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  8. Yoink: An interaction-based partitioning API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Waller, Mark P

    2018-05-15

    Herein, we describe the implementation details of our interaction-based partitioning API (application programming interface) called Yoink for QM/MM modeling and fragment-based quantum chemistry studies. Interactions are detected by computing density descriptors such as reduced density gradient, density overlap regions indicator, and single exponential decay detector. Only molecules having an interaction with a user-definable QM core are added to the QM region of a hybrid QM/MM calculation. Moreover, a set of molecule pairs having density-based interactions within a molecular system can be computed in Yoink, and an interaction graph can then be constructed. Standard graph clustering methods can then be applied to construct fragments for further quantum chemical calculations. The Yoink API is licensed under Apache 2.0 and can be accessed via yoink.wallerlab.org. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multibaryon interactions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The studies of interactions of high energy particles and nuclei with nuclei are summarised. One-particle distributions are mainly considered. A special attention is paid to the cumulative effect - the particle production in the region of limiting fragmentation of nuclei which is forbidden for one-nucleon collisions. A large amount of experimental information on multi-nucleon interactions has been obtained during the last two years: the range of an approximate validity of the limiting fragmentation of nuclei has been clarified; the universal energy dependence of cross sections in the cumulative region have been elucidated; data on angular distributions and polarization of the cumulative particles have been obtained; strong A-dependences have been observed in the cumulative effect; production of particles with large perpendicular momentum has been established on nuclei along with some dependences of the cumulative particle production on the quantum numbers in the production of hadron jets. The study of different manifestations of quark plasmons (fluctuons) in nuclei and multibaryon resonances predicted by quark models is an important and extensively developed trend of high energy physics. The possibility of studying the space-time picture of development of the strong interaction process by means of hadron-nucleus interaction and the particle formation length concept needs further theoretical and experimental grounds

  10. Regional regularities for the even-even nuclei in intermediate mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Mani; Singh, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, Yuvraj; Gupta, K.K.; Bihari, Chhail; Sharma, Aparna; Varshney, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of experimental techniques more and more nuclear data are accumulated and compiled for over five decades. The proton neutron interaction has been considered the key ingredient in the development of collectivity and ultimately the deformation in atomic nuclei. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the growth of R4/2 in different mass regions. The rate of growth regions in regions having proton number Z = 38, 54, 60 and 76 with changing neutron number where the interaction between particle - particle, particle - hole and hole - hole

  11. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  12. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  13. Regional Community and International Relations: the Volgograd Region Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danakari Richard A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the complex and controversial problems of the new regional communities’ formation and the impact of the interethnic relations sphere on them. The author notes that the processes of interaction between representatives of different cultures and civilizations, ethnic groups and religions have become increasingly controversial and tense in the context of continuous social dynamics. Similarly to the Russian society as a whole, regional communities are in a state of transitivity. They get transformed, they acquire new qualities such as multicasting and heterogeneity, multi-ethnicity and multi-confessionalism, fragmentarity and multiculturality. This fact increases the risks and uncertainties, problematizes future prospects. National non-governmental organizations are increasingly positioning themselves as civil society institutions at the present stage of social development at the regional level. They perform a difficult dual task: on the one hand, they ensure the preservation and development of history, native language, culture, ethnic traditions, and on the other hand, they work on the integration, on the common identity and the Russian nation formation. On the territory of the Volgograd region, largely due to the active cooperation of regional authorities and local authorities with national public associations, international and inter-confessional relations are stable. The basis of such activity is respect for history, native language, culture, tradition, religion, national dignity of all people in the region, regardless of their belonging to a certain ethnic group or religion. Over two decades of accumulated considerable experience of joint inter-ethnic dialogue and cooperation, provided tolerance and peace, harmony and mutual understanding between people of different ethnicities and religions in the country.

  14. Problem of interactions: electromagnetic particles interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    The electromagnetic interactions between charged particles are derived on the basis of the particles dynamic theory, proposed in the work of Sannikov. The electromagnetic interactions exist only in the relativistic model of the bihamiltonian system, based on the Heisenberg algebra. Existence of this type of interactions is connected with the U e (1)-degeneration of the basic state of the relativistic bihamiltonian system, lying in the basis of the given theory [ru

  15. IMPROVING MANAGEMENT QUALITY BASED ON A REGIONAL INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE SAMARA REGION: ESTIMATE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Bakhtiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic ways of improving management quality via a regional innovation development based on the correlation analysis. The necessity of formation of qualitative information interaction of parts of a regional innovation system is proved. It allows creating more effective innovation process in the region.

  16. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation: Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-28

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Federal Lands Highway (FLH), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) have conducted regional alternative transportation evaluations (RATEs) in almost each of FWSs eight ...

  17. Designing for mobile interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The theme of this PhD project is designing for mobile interaction with devices and services, for the accessing, making, and sharing of information, taking into account the dynamic physical and social settings that embrace this interaction. To narrow down this theme, the whole project focuses...... on the exploitation of social interaction --- in particular among senior citizens --- to enhance and support mobile interaction....

  18. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  19. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions | Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions | Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions Share Print Almost half ...

  20. Geotourizm marketing in Lake Constance’ region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gerner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work is to evaluate factors responsible for these developments and to show chances for other regions by adopting thismarketing strategy. Besides marketing, interaction of tourism, industry and state was important. Many reasons can be found that shouldresult in a worse development of the region around the Lake of Constance . But instead, today this region has a higher populationgrowth than the average of Baden-Württemberg and is the best economic region outside of urban centers. Scientists spoke aboutan overheated economic growth during the last years that in 2008 comes to a normal but still high level. To attract high potentialworkers and engineers to support further growth, the region has one main advantage to many other regions – its environment. In caseof “Lake of Constance” region, different marketing strategies were used. The complexity of successful marketing for a region is highand finding the right combination of marketing strategies is difficult but can positively influence the development of a region, itseconomy and tourism. At the same time, the marketing for economy and tourism positively reflects degree of popularity in the region.

  1. Regional economic impact of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heen, K.; Andersen, M.

    1994-01-01

    An approach is demonstrated of coupling an environmental model to input-output analysis which aims to quantify the regional economic impact of an environmental accident. The model is implemented with the data of a potential oil spill interacting with the salmon aquaculture industry in Northern Norway. The production loss in salmon aquaculture and the regional income impact is computed and discussed. The approach used in this article could be a model for estimating the regional socio-economic impact of environmental factors like water and air pollution. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

  2. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  3. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  4. Neutron interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of nucleon interactions are discussed. Considered are the processes at energies corresponding to the regions of minimum and of the growth of total cross sections, to the regions covered by Serpuhov and Baraviya accelerators and by the accelerator with colliding rings. The np-interactions including the experiment method on neutron beams are elucidated in detail. All this is due to the fact, that accurate experiments on neutron beams have been carried out only recently, and their experimental peculiarities were not well known. Discussed are the following problems: total cross sections, elastic forward scattering, elastic backward scattering (np-overcharge) and nucleon diffraction dissociation. The equality of total np- and pp-cross sections (which was experimentally observed at energy range of Serpuhov accelerator and the elastic scatteirng proximity in diffraction region) means, from the optical point of view, that the nuclear matter distribution in neutrons and protons in peripheric regions is practically identical. The total section equality is in agreement with the dual model forecast, connected with degeneration of rho- A 2 - trajectory. Careful investigations of diffraction nucleon dissociations at high energies (Serpuhov, Bataviya and colliding rings) have been carried out recently. Found out were some peculiarities not observed before, (at energies < 30 GeV), such as backward peak in distribution by cosTHETAsub(GJ) in the Gottfrid-Jackson system, the maximum displacement in mass spectra to the region of greater masses, the section yeild on constant at high energies and some other effects. The effects observed may be explained by the Deck mechanism, provided that single-pion exchange is taken into account along with barion exchange and interference

  5. Regional disparities in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Czabán, Vera

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, exacerbating regional disparities in the European Union as well as the newly joined Eastern European states have led to a growing interest in examining the spatial embeddedness of development. Hungary, a small and very monocentric country, has experienced rapid growth in the region of its capital city and its surrounding, whereas formerly lagging regions continued to fall behind. This thesis examines growing regional disparities in Hungary in order to provide a more compr...

  6. Regionalization vs. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hideaki Hirata; M. Ayhan Kose; Christopher Otrok

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Both global and regional economic linkages have strengthened substantially over the past quarter century. We employ a dynamic factor model to analyze the implications of these linkages for the evolution of global and regional business cycles. Our model allows us to assess the roles played by the global, regional, and country-specific factors in explaining business cycles in a large sample of countries and regions over the period 1960–2010. We find that, since the mid-1980s, the impo...

  7. Prototype Vacuum Chamber for ISR Intersection Region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction region had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  8. Prototype vacuum chamber for ISR intersection region

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The vacuum chambers at the ISR interaction regions had to be as transparent as possible to the secondary particles emerging from the collision points. Made from stainless steel or titanium, only a fraction of a millimeter thick, they were most delicate to handle.

  9. Globalization and Regional Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, H.J.; Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between the external opening of China and differences in innovation across Chinese regions. Controlling for locational advantages and fixed regional characteristics, for the period 1995-2010 overall we find that regions that have increased most the connections to

  10. Russian-Saudian Political Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kosach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction after the restoration (at that time of Soviet-Saudi relations of bilateral relations in September 1990. The article focuses on the role of the Russian Muslim community in shaping the Russian politics towards Riyadh in the 1990-2000s. The authors state there are both periods of “crises” and detente in the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction that were marked by events in Chechnya and former Yugoslavia in 1994-2000, “Arab Spring” 2011, the post-September 2015 era, the Russian anti-terrorist campaign in Syria. The alternation of these periods is the constant of Russian-Saudi political contacts, despite the similarity in the approaches of both sides to the ways and methods of solving crisis situations in the Middle East region, as well as the Saudi’s pro-Russian position regarding the change in the status of the Crimea and the situation in the east of Ukraine. The general attitude of both sides towards ISIS and Jabha al-Nusra as a source of terrorism, regional instability and the challenge of international security does not remove the two main contradictions that divide Moscow and Riyadh – attitude toward the official Syrian regime and the Iran’s regional policy. The study comes to the conclusion that Russia and Saudi Arabia are interested (albeit for various reasons in diversifying their foreign policy and foreign economic relations.

  11. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  12. Regions – between History and Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakk Miklós

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to give a comprehensive explanation on how regional construction took place in the European history related to the state-building processes and how the historical heritage of the European state-construction influences today the social construction of the regions. With regard to the state-building processes, the study started from Hechter’s model of ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ state and his interpretation on the relationship between core regions and peripheries. This model operates with the centralizing power of the state, but from the last decades of the 20th century it was proved via the ‘new regionalism’ that social construction processes became more relevant in shaping new subnational regions. This last aspect is described by Paasi, and the study argues for a new concept of regional identity as a territorial ‘product’ of interacting governance and local society.

  13. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  14. Interactive Pinball Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune

    2012-01-01

    to offer. This paper compares ‘tangible business models’ in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play......Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...

  15. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  16. Implicit vs explicit renormalization and effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Arriola, E., E-mail: earriola@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Szpigel, S., E-mail: szpigel@mackenzie.br [Faculdade de Computação e Informática, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (Brazil); Timóteo, V.S., E-mail: varese@ft.unicamp.br [Grupo de Óptica e Modelagem Numérica – GOMNI, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2014-01-20

    Effective interactions can be obtained from a renormalization group analysis in two complementary ways. One can either explicitly integrate out higher energy modes or impose given conditions at low energies for a cut-off theory. While the first method is numerically involved, the second one can be solved almost analytically. In both cases we compare the outcoming effective interactions for the two nucleon system as functions of the cut-off scale and find a strikingly wide energy region where both approaches overlap, corresponding to relevant scales in light nuclei Λ≲200 MeV. This amounts to a great simplification in the determination of the effective interaction parameters.

  17. Interactive segmentation techniques algorithms and performance evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jia; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on interactive segmentation techniques, which have been extensively studied in recent decades. Interactive segmentation emphasizes clear extraction of objects of interest, whose locations are roughly indicated by human interactions based on high level perception. This book will first introduce classic graph-cut segmentation algorithms and then discuss state-of-the-art techniques, including graph matching methods, region merging and label propagation, clustering methods, and segmentation methods based on edge detection. A comparative analysis of these methods will be provided

  18. Coulomb interaction in the supermultiplet basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzha, Ya.Kh.; Guseva, T.V.; Tamberg, Yu.Ya.; Vanagas, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    An approximate expression for the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction operator in the supermultiplet basis has been derived with the account for the orbitally-nonsymmetric terms. From the general expression a simplified formula for the Coulomb interaction energy has been proposed. On the basis of the expression obtained the contribution of the Coulomb interaction to the framework of a strongly restricted dynamic model in the light (4≤A≤40) and heavy (158≤A≤196) nuclei region has been studied. 19 refs.; 4 tabs

  19. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  20. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response