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Sample records for ergonomics society 50th

  1. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  2. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  3. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary! (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. International Ergonomics Association Activities and Constituent Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    of Psychology: Ergonomics Section J. Mallart Instituto Nacional de Psicologia , Aplicada y Psiotechnia Juan Huarte de San Juan Ciudad Universitaria...Israel ITALY Bagnara, Sebastino CNR Instituto Di Psicologia via Dei Monti Tiburtini 509 00517 Roma Italy Buti, Luigi Bandini SEA via Valtorta 21 20127...Francesco Olivetti Centro di Psicologia via Jervis 77 Ivrea Italy Ruggeri, Remigio Politecnico, Dip. di Meccanica, sez Ergotecnica Ind. Piazza L de

  5. 50th anniversary

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN's 50th anniversary Official Ceremony Tuesday 19 October 2004 2.00 p.m. - 5.00 p.m. The event will be broadcast by closed-circuit television in the Council Chamber, the Main Auditorium, and the Auditoria of AB Department (Prévessin) and AT Department (Building 30).

  6. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  7. Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between you and your job conditions. Examples of ergonomic changes to your work might include Adjusting the position of your computer ... you are safe, comfortable, and less prone to work-related injuries.

  8. Ergonomics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available whether trends exist across jobs that use similar equipment, tools or processes. 23.4.4 Limitations An effective ergonomics hazard identification and risk assessment process should facilitate the classification of possible high risk jobs in a mining... to review the data available, which identify a shop or workplace as a potential ergonomics problem area. It is also useful to become familiar with the processes and job activities that are performed in each work area. Step 2: Conduct a workplace/ work...

  9. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  10. 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

    CERN Document Server

    Duckwitz, Sönke; Flemisch, Frank; Frenz, Martin; Kuz, Sinem; Mertens, Alexander; Mütze-Niewöhner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2-4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering. This volume addresses human factors and safety specialists, industrial engineers, work and organizational psychologists, occupational medicines as well as production planners and design engineers.

  11. Lithos 50th anniversary editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of the first issue of Lithos. The journal was established in 1968 by the National Councils for Scientific Research in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Lithos was launched along with a sister journal, Lethaia, that focussed on palaeontology and stratigraphy. From the beginning Lithos was promoted as an international journal and this is borne out by the selection of papers published in the first issue that ranged from pyroxenes in meteorites, to cookeite from Mozambique, to the behaviour of zirconium in artificial magmas, to geochemistry of deep-crustal rocks from the Australian shield, to the genesis of the Norra Kärr alkaline body in southern Sweden.

  12. [50th anniversary of cisplatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancoule, Chloé; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Vallard, Alexis; Ben Mrad, Majed; Rehailia, Amel; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    We have just celebrated the 50th anniversary of cisplatin cytotoxic potential discovery. It is time to take stock… and it seems mainly positive. This drug, that revolutionized the treatment of many cancer types, continues to be the most widely prescribed chemotherapy. Despite significant toxicities, resistance mechanisms associated with treatment failures, and unresolved questions about its mechanism of action, the use of this cytotoxic agent remains unwavering. The interest concerning this "old" invincible drug has not yet abated. Indeed many research axes are in the news. New platinum salts agents are tested, new cisplatin formulations are developed to target tumor cells more efficiently, and new combinations are established to increase the cytotoxic potency of cisplatin or overcome the resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The good, the bad, and the future: on the archaeology of ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Neville

    2008-06-01

    This article places the 50th anniversary edition of the Human Factors journal in a historical context. It is appropriate to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of Human Factors and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, but in so doing, we celebrate only the recent history of ergonomics. By digging into the history of ergonomics, we can better understand the evolution of method, practice, and concepts in the human factors discipline. One develops a greater admiration for early practitioners of human factors and ergonomics, as well as the importance of history. Some satisfaction about the rise, evolution, and fall of ergonomic ideas is justified. "If I have seen further..." We can better define the starting point for the next 50 years.

  14. Red carpet for CERN's 50th

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Scientists, heads of state, and representatives from many countries came to CERN's Official 50th Anniversary Ceremony 19 October to celebrate the Organization's 50th anniversary, and to praise its contributions to human knowledge while also fostering cooperation between scientists and their countries, across Europe and beyond.

  15. 50th birthday of Christian von Ferber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 15, 2011 Christian von Ferber - member of the Editorial Board of "Condensed Matter Physics" and renowned expert in the fields of soft matter physics and complex systems - celebrated his 50th birthday. The Editorial board of CMP, colleagues and friends warmy congratulate Christian von Ferber and wish him and his family continuing good health and to enjoy many adventures and discoveries in his future scientific travels!

  16. ESA 86: proceedings for the second annual conference of the Ergonomics Society of Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings contain presentations from ESA 86 which reflect most of the major areas of Ergonomics as it is researched and practised internationally. Highlights include presentations dealing with transport and computer system ergonomics, office furniture and other consumer products, safety at work and executive health. One seminar 'Ergonomics and nuclear power generation', looks at the control systems and its safety in a nuclear power plant. Ergonomics is concerned with the relationship between people and technology: specifically the design of the user interface. Its objective is to enhance efficiency, usability and safety and it is applied to the design of a wide range of industrial and consumer products. However not the least consideration is to achieve as near as possible total wellbeing for the Human Factor

  17. 12th Quadrennial Congress of the International Association for Radiation Research incorporating the 50th Annual Meeting of Radiation Research Society, RANZCR Radiation Oncology Annual Scientific Meeting and AINSE Radiation Science Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The 12th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR2003), for the first time held in the Southern Hemisphere under the auspices of the International Association of Radiation Research (IARR). The Australian affiliate of IARR is the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE). As with recent Congresses, the annual scientific meeting of the Radiation Research Society will be incorporated into the program. The Congress will be further enhanced by the integration of the annual scientific meeting of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the AINSE Radiation Science Conference. An exciting programme was presented with the main threads being radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation chemistry/physics, radiation protection and the environment. Items in INIS scope have been separately indexed

  18. The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, Karen

    2014-03-26

    The 50th Annual Maize Genetics Conference was held February 27 - March 2, 2008 at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C. As the golden anniversary of the Conference and coinciding with the release of a draft of the maize genome sequence, this was a special meeting. To publicize this unique occasion, meeting organizers hosted a press conference, which was attended by members of the press representing science and non-science publications, and an evening reception at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, where the draft sequence was announced and awards were presented to Dr. Mary Clutter and Senator Kit Bond to thank them for their outstanding contributions to maize genetics and genomics research. As usual, the Conference provided an invigorating forum for exchange of recent research results in many areas of maize genetics, e.g., cytogenetics, development, molecular genetics, transposable element biology, biochemical genetics, and genomics. Results were shared via both oral and poster presentations. Invited talks were given by four distinguished geneticists: Vicki Chandler, University of Arizona; John Doebley, University of Wisconsin; Susan Wessler, University of Georgia; and Richard Wilson, Washington University. There were 46 short talks and 241 poster presentations. The Conference was attended by over 500 participants. This included a large number of first-time participants in the meeting and an increasingly visible presence by individuals from underrepresented groups. Although we do not have concrete counts, there seem to be more African American, African and Hispanic/Latino attendees coming to the meeting than in years past. In addition, this meeting attracted many participants from outside the U.S. Student participation continues to be hallmark of the spirit of free exchange and cooperation characteristic of the maize genetics community. With the generous support provided by DOE, USDA NSF, and corporate/private donors, organizers were

  19. AIP 50th anniversary: Physics vade mecum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. L.

    This compendium is intended to be of use to the wide spectrum of physicists associated with the AIP through its member societies. Twenty-two subjects broadly representative of physics as a whole are discussed. Each subeditor was charged to compile within 10 pages the most useful information, formulas, numerical data, definitions, and references most physicists would like to have at hand. The General Section is a compilation of the fundamental constants, the SI units and prefixes, conversion factors, magnitudes, basic mathematical and physics formulas, formulas useful in practical physics applications, and a list of physics data centers. The particular fields considered are: acoustics, astronomy and astrophysics, atomic collision properties, atomic spectroscopy, biological physics, cryogenics, crystallography, elementary particles, energy demand, energy supply, fluid dynamics, high polymer physics, medical physics, molecular spectroscopy and structure, nuclear physics, optics, plasma physics, rheology, solid state physics, surface physics, and thermophysics.

  20. Carbon monoxide, industry, and performance. Third joint meeting of the British Occupational Hygiene Society, the Ergonomics Research Society, and the Society of Occupational Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-01

    This meeting, held at Swansea in September 1974, covered the following aspects: arterial disease among blast furnace workers; threshold limit values (TLVs) under conditions of continuous exposure (closed environment of nuclear submarines); discussion of TLV for CO; methods of CO determination in air (Harrison N.); the infrared gas analysis; electrochemical CO sensors based on the metallised membrane electrode; solid state detectors; measurement of CO in blood (comparative review of methods); warning levels and alarm instrumentation; also: ergonomics of aircrew respiratory apparatus.

  1. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  2. 50th IMO - 50 Years of International Mathematical Olympiads

    CERN Document Server

    Gronau, Hans-Dietrich; Schleicher, Dierk

    2011-01-01

    In July 2009 Germany hosted the 50th International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO). For the very first time the number of participating countries exceeded 100, with 104 countries from all continents. Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the IMO provides an ideal opportunity to look back over the past five decades and to review its development to become a worldwide event. This book is a report about the 50th IMO as well as the IMO history. A lot of data about all the 50 IMOs are included. We list the most successful contestants, the results of the 50 Olympiads and the 112 countries that have ever ta

  3. International School of Subnuclear Physics 50th Course

    CERN Document Server

    What we would like LHC to give us; ISSP 2012

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the International School of Subnuclear Physics, ISSP 2012, 50th Course — ERICE, 23 June 2013 — 2 July 2012. This course was devoted to the celebrations of the 50th Anniversary of the Subnuclear Physics School which was started in 1961 by Antonino Zichichi with John Bell at CERN and formally established in 1962 by Bell, Blackett, Weisskopf, Rabi and Zichichi in Geneva (CERN). The lectures covered the latest and most significant achievements in theoretical and in experimental subnuclear physics. Readership: Directed to experts and advanced-level students in the field of Theoretical and Experimental Subnuclear Physics.

  4. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  5. On the 50th Anniversary of the Transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassen, Flemming

    1997-01-01

    This paper celebrates the 50th anniversary of the invention of the bipolar transistor in 1947. Combined with the inventions of integration and planar technology, the invention of the transistor marks the beginning of a period of unprecedented growth, the industrialization of electronics....

  6. A rugby tournament for CERN's 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 4 April the rugby pitch at the Meyrin sports centre will be the venue for the Swiss Rugby Schools' tournament, organised by the CERN-Meyrin-St Genis Rugby Club. The organisers will be unmistakable, kitted out in CERN Staff Association t-shirts specially dedicated to the CERN clubs for the Organization's 50th anniversary. Come along and cheer on the 250 players from Switzerland and neighbouring France, aged from 6 to 18, who will do battle on the rugby field over the course of 50 matches from 11.00 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. At the end of the tournament, the winners will be presented with 50th anniversary memorabilia by the Mayor and a CERN representative who will say a few words about the Laboratory.

  7. Signing the golden book on CERN's 50th Anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez; Michel Blanc

    2004-01-01

    CERN's 50th Anniversary Official Celebration: one of the high moments of the day was the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain, Juan Carlos; the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss. Spanning the Franco-Swiss border and formed just after the Second World War, CERN heavily relies on international cooperation at every level.

  8. US industry optimistic on fission's 50th anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The United States (US) nuclear industry is looking to the future even as it prepares to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the first fission chain reaction - that momentous event which took place on a cold 2 December 1942 morning below the stands of a football field at the University of Chicago. Plans to incorporate nuclear power into US energy policy are well advanced. (Author)

  9. Signing the golden book on CERN's 50th Anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez; Michel Blanc

    2004-01-01

    CERN's 50th Anniversary Official Celebration: one of the high moments of the day, the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain, Juan Carlos; the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss. Spanning the Franco-Swiss border, and formed soon after the Second World War, CERN relies heavily on international cooperation at every level.

  10. Ergonomics policy in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarjo, Untung S

    2007-12-01

    Workers' conditions in accordance with their place of work are different from one area to another, especially in this reformation era where there are immense alterations in politics shown from the centralized government shifting to decentralization and district autonomy. Ergonomics problems in Indonesia are reviewed. In home industries, workers have to adjust themselves to their jobs, and ergonomic improvement may face significant impediments especially in small-scale industries. It is necessary to create or identify the most plausible model to be implemented in accordance with the conditions of districts, including low awareness about the relation between ergonomics and workers' productivity in producing goods and services and working processes scattered often at their own houses. As conditions conducive to ergonomics programs, district-level willingness to improve and increase the wealth of their society, recognition by businesses about the impacts of ergonomics on productivity and reduction of medical treatment costs may be mentioned. Labor unions support ergonomic improvements at production processes, and professionals and academicians are ready to assist, whereas national banks and foreign investment may encourage new technologies including ergonomics aspects. It is important to strengthen ergonomic improvement efforts in Indonesia through establishing district ergonomics improvement networks and ergonomics peer leaders with the support of continual training starting from the training of core leaders at the province level and extending to peer leaders at district level. This training should be made as simple as possible in order to facilitate innovations toward changes. Finally assistance is needed by the mentor teams in order to periodically monitor the improvements undertaken.

  11. The ACS-NUCL Division 50th Anniversary: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-10

    The ACS Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was initiated in 1955 as a subdivision of the Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Probationary divisional status was lifted in 1965. The Division’s first symposium was held in Denver in 1964 and it is fitting that we kicked-off the 50th Anniversary in Denver in the spring of 2015. Listed as a small ACS Division with only about 1,000 members, NUCL’s impact over the past fifty years has been remarkable. National ACS meetings have had many symposia sponsored or cosponsored by NUCL that included Nobel Laureates, U.S. Senators, other high-ranking officials and many students as speakers. The range of subjects has been exceptional as are the various prestigious awards established by the Division. Of major impact has been the past 30 years of the NUCL Nuclear Chemistry Summer Schools to help fill the void of qualified nuclear scientists and technicians. In celebrating the 50th Anniversary we honor the past, celebrate the present and shape the future of the Division and nuclear science and technology. To celebrate this auspicious occasion a commemorative lapel pin has been designed for distribution to NUCL Division members.

  12. Ergonomics, Engineering, and Business: Repairing a Tricky Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa; Broberg, Ole; Møller, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the ergonomics community can contribute to make ergonomics a strategic element in business decisions on strategy and implementation of strategy. The ergonomics community is seen as a heterogeneous entity made up of educational and research activities in universities......, ergonomists and engineers with ergonomic skills, professional ergonomics and engineering societies, and the complex of occupational health and safety regulation. This community interacts in different ways with companies and hereby influences how companies are dealing with ergonomics. The paper argues...

  13. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  14. Proceedings of the 50th KURRI scientific meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) has held a scientific meeting about late January every year. The purpose of the meeting is to inform the public as well as researchers in and outside the institute mainly of several results of joint usage and collaborative researches performed in the institute. The 50th KURRI Scientific Meeting will be held for two days on January 27th and 28th, 2016. The contents of the meeting are as follows (the numbers of the right column are those of the presentations): 1) Topic lectures (3), 2) New corner lectures (2), 3) Presentations of the results of the project researches terminating this fiscal year (2), 4) Special lectures given by retiring faculty members (3), 5) Poster presentations (41). We hope that this proceedings book will contribute to keep records of and let the public know of research activities in the institute. (author)

  15. Golden Jubilee photos: Mobilization for the 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN people mobilize for the 50th anniversary of CERN. About 50 people are involved in teams, to organise the programme, ranging from the day of festivities and design of «souvenir» objects to special edition publications. On 20 January in Divonne-Les-Bains, the main co-ordinators gathered for the project launch meeting. Present at the meeting: Lorenza Accusani (Sponsoring), Jean-Luc Baldy (Globe of Innovation), Elena Battistin (Open Day), Maurizio Bona (Steering Commitee, General Security), Jean-Luc Caron (Webmaster), Paola Catapano (Project Leader), Bernard Denis (Meeting Moderator), Claude Ducastel (Site Security), Friedemann Eder (Host State Relations), Chris Fabjan (Steering Commitee), Federico Ferrini (Events in the Member States), Adolfo Fucci (Events in the Host States), Chris Griggs (Security), Wendy Korda (Official Day, 19 October), Danièle Lajust (Events in Host States), Rolf Landua (Steering Commitee), Annick Lyraud (Director General's Assistant), Robert Magnin (Technical Co-ordinator), Rafael...

  16. A review and exploration of sociotechnical ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkse van Schalkwyk, Riaan; Steenkamp, Rigard J

    2017-09-01

    A holistic review of ergonomic history shows that science remains important for general occupational health and safety (OSH), the broad society, culture, politics and the design of everyday things. Science provides an unconventional and multifaceted viewpoint exploring ergonomics from a social, corporate and OSH perspective. Ergonomic solutions from this mindset may redefine the science, and it will change with companies that change within this socially hyper-connected world. Authentic corporate social responsibility will counter 'misleadership' by not approaching ergonomics with an afterthought. The review concludes that ergonomics will be stronger with social respect and ergonomic thinking based on the optimisation of anthropometric data, digital human models, computer-aided tools, self-empowerment, job enrichment, work enlargement, physiology, industrial psychology, cybernetic ergonomics, operations design, ergonomic-friendly process technologies, ergonomic empowerment, behaviour-based safety, outcome-based employee wellness and fatigue risk management solutions, to mention a few.

  17. Green ergonomics: definition and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.

  18. Gala Concert for the 50th Anniversary of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN 50th Anniversary celebrations will wrap up with music on 18 December with a Gala Concert by the Philharmonic Orchestra of London in Victoria Hall, Geneva. The orchestra will be directed by Tommaso Placidi, a young talented conductor, and will also enjoy the presence of Maxim Vengerov as first violin. This evening is organised by Mrs Suzanne Hurter, with the support of private companies as well as of the city and the canton of Geneva. The concert will begin with the Overture of Wagner's Flying Dutchman. Maxim Vengerov will then interpret Beethoven's Concert for violin and orchestra. The second part of the concert will be devoted to Tschaikovsky's Fourth Symphony. Tickets cost between 35CHF and 140 CHF according to the seat. People working at CERN will have a 10% discount. You may buy your tickets at the Kiosque FK inside the building Pfister Meubles in Meyrin (ch de Rianbosson 5-9) and get your discount by showing your CERN card. Find out more about the seats available, go to the Resaplus Ticket Book...

  19. 50th Anniversary International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) History Working Group and Its Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A; Mihalas, George; Greenes, Robert; Yacubsohn, Valerio; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2017-01-01

    The IMIA History Working Group has as its first goal the editing of a volume of contributions from pioneers and leaders in the field of biomedical and health informatics (BMHI) to commemorate the 50th anniversary of IMIA's predecessor IFIP-TC4. This paper describes how the IMIA History WG evolved from an earlier Taskforce, and has focused on producing the edited book of original contributions. We describe its proposed outline of objectives for the personal stories, and national and regional society narratives, together with some comments on the evolution of Medinfo meeting contributions over the years, to provide a reference source for the early motivations of the scientific, clinical, educational, and professional changes that have influenced the historical course of our field.

  20. Ergonomics Considerations in Microcomputing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Andrew G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…

  1. 77 FR 32873 - Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the 50th Anniversary of the Vietnam War Proclamation 8830--National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2012... Anniversary of the Vietnam War By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As we observe the 50th anniversary of the Vietnam War, we reflect with solemn reverence upon the valor of a...

  2. On 50th Anniversary of the Global Carbon Dioxide Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimann Martin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 50-year global CO2 record led the way in establishing a scientific fact: modern civilization is changing important properties of the global atmosphere, oceans and biosphere. The evidence on which this scientific fact is based will be refined further, but the next challenge for scientists is broader. In addition to its traditional role in providing discovery, diagnosis, and prediction of the changes that are taking place on our planet, science has now also a role in helping society mitigate emissions by objectively quantifying them, and in helping adaptation by providing environmental forecasts on regional scales. Science is also expected to provide new options for society to tackle the transition to a new energy system, and to provide thorough environmental evaluation of all such options. This is what the meeting recognized as planetary responsibilities for scientists in the next 50 years.

  3. 50th Annual Technical Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science (SES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-15

    2:00 PM 30 Sess Micr Tuesda ion Chai omecha y 8:00 - 8 rs: Dimit nics and S Georg :50 Salom ris Lagou ome Asp C e Weng ( Tuesday Award on 101...College of New York), Shahab Shojaei-Zadeh (Rutgers University), Kevin Connington (The Levich Institute), Jeffrey Morris (Levich Institute and Dept. of...Duisburg-Essen) MECHANICS OF FLUIDS AND THERMAL SYSTEMS Complex Fluids: Suspensions, Emulsions, and Gels Barus-Holley 160 Session Chairs Jeffrey Morris

  4. 75 FR 33995 - Safety Zone; Michigan Orthopaedic Society 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Lake Huron, Mackinac Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... yards south of Biddle Point, at position 45[deg]50'32.82'' N., 084[deg]37'03.18'' W: [DATUM: NAD 83... fireworks launch site, approximately 460 yards south of Biddle Point, at position 45[deg]50'32.82'' N, 084...

  5. Ergonomics SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Ergonomics SA (esa) provides a medium for publication of material relevant to occupational conditions and needs in Southern Africa at a time of change unparalleled in history. To this end the journal accepts articles in the following categories: research papers, review articles, conceptual theories, ...

  6. Elementary Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    What's the number 1 threat to young students using computers today? According to Dan Odell, Microsoft's in-house ergonomist, when he asked parents this very question, "the things they were most concerned about were online predators and people taking advantage of their kids. Ergonomics was fairly far down the list." Unfortunately, that…

  7. Physical ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we

  8. USDOT at 50 : The Early Years Compiled for the 50th anniversary, April 1, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The essays and recollections appearing here have been assembled in the History Committee of the Transportation Research Board and will be housed in the US DOTs National Transportation Library on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the opening ...

  9. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  10. Ergonomic Chairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Findings published in the NASA Anthropometric Source Book by Johnson Space Center helped BodyBilt, Inc. to fashion controlled comfort chairs that lessen the harmful effects of gravity on seated workers. Crew members living aboard NASA's Skylab noted that in space the human posture differs from the normal posture caused by the tug of one gravity. There has been an alarming increase in back pain and muscle fatigue in workers, along with a dramatic escalation in repetitive stress injuries. BodyBilt's ergonomically-correct line of office chairs are targeted for the average worker that sits for prolonged periods, be it in the classroom or boardroom. Their roster of national clients lists such organizations as IBM, Microsoft, Texas Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, Eastman-Kodak, Boeing, Motorola, and Walt Disney Studios.

  11. Learning by Doing: Teaching Multimedia Journalism through Coverage of the 50th Anniversary of "Freedom Summer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Paromita; Masullo Chen, Gina; Campbell, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    In-depth qualitative interviews with participants of a high school journalism workshop reveal that immersing students in coverage of a historically important news event enhances learning of multimedia journalism. Study explores how using a team-based approach to coverage of the 50th anniversary of "Freedom Summer," a key event in…

  12. Golden Girl: Mary Lai Reflects as She Marks Her 50th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowski, Jay

    1996-01-01

    The career and administrative style of Mary M. Lai, who celebrates her 50th year as chief financial officer at Long Island University (New York), are discussed. Her perspectives on change in higher education and in the institution during that time, the administrator's role, current challenges for financial officers, and the college environment as…

  13. Celebrating Human Rights: The 50th Anniversary of the U.N. Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Carol E.

    1998-01-01

    Responds to the 50th anniversary of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) by arguing that elementary school is an appropriate place to begin teaching about human rights. Outlines the rights enumerated in the UDHR, provides related activities for primary and intermediate grades, and suggests related Web sites. (DSK)

  14. Digest of Education Statistics 2014, 50th Edition. NCES 2016-006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Thomas D.; de Brey, Cristobal; Dillow, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the "Digest of Education Statistics" is the 50th in a series of publications initiated in 1962. The Digest has been issued annually except for combined editions for the years 1977-78, 1983-84, and 1985-86. Its primary purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American…

  15. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)

  16. Marine Fisheries History: The 50th Anniversay Issue of the Marine Fisheries Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hobart, Willis L.

    1988-01-01

    The 1980's seems to have been the decade for conservation anniversaries. Celebrating centennials have been the U.S. Fishery Bulletin (1981), NMFS Woods Hole Laboratory (1985), Journal of the Marine Biological Association (1987) and the Association itself (1984), Pacific halibut fishery (1988), Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass. (1988), and England's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (1989). While the U. S. Department of Commerce turned 75 (1988), 50th anniversa...

  17. From phase transitions to dynamics of liquids: on the 50-th anniversary of Ihor Mryglod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this Special issue of "Condensed Matter Physics" was to get together in one volume contributions from research fields that encompass I.Mryglod's interests over the last 25 years. The Editorial Board of "Condensed Matter Physics" expresses sincere gratitude to all I.Mryglod's colleagues from Ukraine and abroad who accepted the invitation to this Special issue in honor of the 50-th anniversary of Ihor Mryglod.

  18. Meeting diversity in ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, R.N.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Settels, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Key Features: Offers the conceptual tools for creating more adaptable ergonomic designs to meet the needs of diverse human populations, Unlock the strategic business value found in ergonomically safe and comfortable products, Learn from in-depth case studies how ergonomic intervention was

  19. Green ergonomics: combining sustainability and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilczuk, Davana; Barefield, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    When discussing ergonomics, the term 'sustainability' usually refers to the preservation of the human workforce. However, in 2010 Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation made a conscious effort to combine ergonomics and environmental sustainability in order to increase employee engagement for both programs. They introduced a companywide campaign called Green Ergo which is the idea of creating ergonomic solutions from scrap material found on site. This concept embraced the true meaning of 'green' and encouraged engineers and employees all across the company to design innovative green ergonomic solutions. The idea generated over 35 new ergo solutions, reduced waste production, and solved over 700 ergo problems for a fraction of the cost of newly purchased items. The demand for these items grew large enough that the company outsourced their manufacturing to a local non-profit. The Green Ergo campaign has changed the culture of the company and has increased the level of buy-in for both the ergonomics and sustainability programs.

  20. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  1. Web sites for ergonomics support

    OpenAIRE

    Fafejta, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is survey of computer classrooms from the ergonomic point of view and show ergonomic rules to internet community in accessible form. Theoretic knowledge was gain from literature connected with ergonomic and work hygiene. Main relevance was given to use of computer and ergonomic of computer classroom. Several schools was evaluates in practical part with focus on ergonomic suitability. The conclusions of this thesis are websites contains ergonomics rules and ...

  2. Ergonomics and information technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ergonomics are an essential safety factor in controlling automated processes. It has to be taken into account in three stages: information presentation, information perception and information treatment

  3. State of Science: ergonomics and global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Waterson, Patrick; Todd, Andrew; Moray, Neville

    2018-02-01

    In his 1993 IEA keynote address, Neville Moray urged the ergonomics discipline to face up to the global problems facing humanity and consider how ergonomics might help find some of the solutions. In this State of Science article we critically evaluate what the ergonomics discipline has achieved in the last two and a half decades to help create a secure future for humanity. Moray's challenges for ergonomics included deriving a value structure that moves us beyond a Westernised view of worker-organisation-technology fit, taking a multidisciplinary approach which engages with other social and biological sciences, considering the gross cross-cultural factors that determine how different societies function, paying more attention to mindful consumption, and embracing the complexity of our interconnected world. This article takes a socio-historical approach by considering the factors that influence what has been achieved since Moray's keynote address. We conclude with our own set of predictions for the future and priorities for addressing the challenges that we are likely to face. Practitioner Summary: We critically reflect on what has been achieved by the ergonomics profession in addressing the global challenges raised by Moray's 1993 keynote address to the International Ergonomics Association. Apart from healthcare, the response has largely been weak and disorganised. We make suggestions for priority research and practice that is required to facilitate a sustainable future for humanity.

  4. Air Force Host and Tenant Agreements Between the 50th Space Wing, the Joint National Integration Center, and Tenants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... The 50th Space Wing makes available by permit two buildings on the base's real property records, 720 and 730, to the Joint National Integration Center, a Component of the Missile Defense Agency...

  5. The IMIA History Working Group: Inception through the IMIA History Taskforce, and Major Events Leading Up to the 50th Anniversary of IMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, C A; Mihalas, G; Greenes, R A; Yacubsohn, V; Park, H-A

    2017-08-01

    Background: The 50th Anniversary of IMIA will be celebrated in 2017 at the World Congress of Medical Informatics in China. This takes place 50 years after the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Societies approved the formation of a new Technical Committee (TC) 4 on Medical Information Processing, which was the predecessor of IMIA, under the leadership of Dr. Francois Grémy. The IMIA History Working Group (WG) was approved in 2014 to document and write about the history of the field and its organizations. Objectives: The goals of this paper are to describe how the IMIA History WG arose and developed, including its meetings and projects, leading to the forthcoming 50th Anniversary of IMIA. Methods: We give a chronology of major developments leading up to the current work of the IMIA History WG and how it has stimulated writing on the international history of biomedical and health informatics, sponsoring the systematic compilation and writing of articles and stories from pioneers and leaders in the field, and the organization of workshops and panels over the past six years, leading towards the publication of the contributed volume on the 50th IMIA Anniversary History as an eBook by IOS Press. Conclusions: This article leads up to the IMIA History eBook which will contain original autobiographical retrospectives by pioneers and leaders in the field, together with professional organizational histories of the national and regional societies and working groups of IMIA, with commentary on the main themes and topics which have evolved as scientific and clinical practices have changed under the influence of new insights, technologies, and the changing socio-economic, cultural and professional circumstances around the globe over the past 50 years. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  6. 50(th) Anniversary of the Central Dental Library of School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borić, Vesna

    2014-12-01

    Libraries have an exceptional place in the history, culture, education and scientific life of a nation. They collect all aspects of our linguistics and literacy, all out theoretical assumptions as well as all the results of experience and practice. The importance of a library is not mirrored only in the national and historical role and heritage, but in a more permanent, informational role, since a modern library must, above all, be an effective information system. Since a library of a university operates as a part of its matrix, it is easily shadowed by other forms of educational and scientific infrastructure. 50(th) anniversary of the Central Dental Library of the School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb is an excellent opportunity to make a call to the institution and public to its unique and irreplaceable role.

  7. Action in Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training Officer, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A discussion with James Crowley of British Steel Corporation on the changing face of ergonomics in practice today and yesterday examines the influence of experimental psychology on the method of study and data collection. The broadening scope of ergonomics from only safety concerns to cost effectiveness and the computer are analyzed. (Author/JB)

  8. Ergonomics in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargahi H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materials and Methods: This study reviewed the role and effectiveness of Ergonomics in dental profession. We used related journals, books and ergonomics websites to write this article. Conclusion: Many of researchers believe that awkward body posture and low movement are the sources of occupational disorders. Therefore, knowledge of ergonomics risk factors in dental office design is very important. Dentist's body posture and dental equipment evaluations are important factors in dental ergonomics. The most logical approach to design dental equipment for utilizing ergonomics principles is consideration of the dentist posture and type of movements and activities. In conclusion, dentists should be informed about dental ergonomics regulation and its different aspects. Furthermore, academic developments and research projects can be useful in this area.

  9. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, ...

  10. 50 Div in Normandy: A Critical Analysis of the British 50th (Northumbrian) Division on D-Day and in the Battle of Normandy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Ethan R

    2007-01-01

    ...: the 50th's prior combat experiences in France, North Africa, and Sicily; the 50th's overall readiness for war during the period before the invasion, including pre-invasion training; and the performance of the 50th Division in specific combat engagements in Normandy.

  11. Injury risk curves for the WorldSID 50th male dummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, Audrey; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Irwin, Annette; Hassan, Joe; Praxl, Norbert

    2009-11-01

    The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonised dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria). In 2008, the ACEA- Dummy Task Force (TFD) decided to contribute to this work and offered resources for a project manager to coordinate of the effort of a group of volunteer biomechanical experts from international institutions (ISO, EEVC, VRTC/NHTSA, JARI, Transport Canada), car manufacturers (ACEA, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Toyota, Chrysler) and universities (Wayne State University, Ohio State University, John Hopkins University, Medical College of Wisconsin) to develop harmonized injury risk curves. An in-depth literature review was conducted. All the available PMHS datasets were identified, the test configurations and the quality of the results were checked. Criteria were developed for inclusion or exclusion of PMHS tests in the development of the injury risk curves. Data were processed to account for differences in mass and age of the subjects. Finally, injury risk curves were developed using the following statistical techniques, the certainty method, the Mertz/Weber method, the

  12. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries.

  13. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! •\tErgonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 •\tErgonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive an invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  14. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive and invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  15. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will be invited by email after your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  16. 50th anniversary of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine--a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Friedrich; Plebani, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Joachim Brugsch, one of the founders of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) (then Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie), had the idea to found a journal in the upcoming field of clinical chemistry. He approached Ernst Schütte, who was associated with the De Gruyter publishing house through another journal, to participate, and Schütte thus became the second founder of this Journal. The aim was to create a vehicle allowing the experts to express their opinions and raise their voices more clearly than they could in a journal that publishes only original experimental papers, a laborious and difficult, but important endeavor, as the profession of clinical chemistry was still in the early stages of development at this time. The first issue of this Journal was published in early 1963, and today, we are proud to celebrate the 50th anniversary of CCLM. This review describes the development of this Journal in light of the political situation of the time when it was founded, the situation of the publisher Walter De Gruyter after the erection of the Berlin Wall, and the development of clinical chemistry, and later on, laboratory medicine as a well-acknowledged discipline and profession.

  17. The 50th anniversary of the N.S. Otto Hahn. When nuclear power said 'Ahoy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    In September 1963 the construction of the only German nuclear ship to date, NS Otto Hahn, started in Kiel. For the 50 th anniversary, atw remembers an important part of nuclear technology history in Germany: The research and freight ship shows one thing above all in retrospect: The technology ran reliably. But cost pressure and reservations shattered the dream of a nuclear power shipping era. Until it was decommissioned in 1979 the ship travelled a total of 650,000 sea miles and called at 33 harbours in 22 countries. On the research level, the 'Otto Hahn' could satisfy expectations, however, it could not ring in an era of nuclear shipping - the atomic boat could never cover its operating costs with its freight trips and permission to call at foreign ports were rare. However, on the one hand, the ship's journeys, sometimes under hard weather conditions, demonstrated just how robust and durable the 'progressive pressurized water reactor' on board was, on the other hand, the 'Otto Hahn' had by all means been a prototype which under other market conditions could have been a model for nuclear container ships. In any case, it proved the performance capacity of the then still young German and European nuclear technology industry, that did not need to hide behind the Russian and American competition. (orig.)

  18. Meteorological observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, 2009 by the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhei Sugaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the results of meteorological observations carried out by the Meteorological Observation Team of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 at Syowa Station from February 2009 to January 2010. The observation methods, instruments, and statistical methods used by JARE-50 were similar to those used by JARE-49.  The most notable results are as follows.  1 Class-A blizzards, the heaviest storm class, were recorded 13 times. This frequency is the same as in 1978, which was the highest on record. A total of 29 blizzards (of various classes occurred in 2009, which is close to normal.  2 The maximum sustained wind speed of 47.4 m/s was recorded on 21 February 2009.  3 Tropospheric temperatures for May-July over Syowa Station were higher than normal, but temperatures in the lower stratosphere for August-October were lower than normal.  4 Total ozone over Syowa Station was less than 220 m atm-cm between the middle of August and the end of October. The minimum value in 2009 was 135 m atm-cm. Total ozone increased rapidly in November 2009 when the ozone-hole area decreased around Syowa Station.

  19. The Yacthing Club CERN celebrates its 50th anniversary this year

    CERN Multimedia

    YCC

    2018-01-01

    YCC 50th anniversary & Swiss SU Championship 2018, there’s a lot going on in the club! For those of you that wonder how the YCC operates at CERN the simple answer is that it is made of passionate members that care about the club’s operations. The YCC has reached almost 400 members as of the closing of 2017 and it’s looking forward to bring more members onboard to experience the adrenaline of winds! YCC is not only is the a place to learn how to sail, but it is also a community of international people that gathers during the year through other social events. There’s nothing better than spending the summer on the lake, learning how to rig and sail a boat, getting to know different people during YCC practices and getting a tan before gathering for a drink in the port!  When you’re on a boat you need to trust your crew no matter how big it is, especially during strong-wind conditions. It is thanks to this that relationships and friendships begins at Y...

  20. 50th Year Anniversary of Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertakyamanee, Jariya

    2016-05-01

    Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, has started to be a formal anesthesia division, divided from division of Surgery in 1965; hence our 50th year anniversary in 2015. Research is now a priority and mandatory mission, according to the vision of Mahidol University. Second mission is to teach and train, and we produce the highest number of states-of-the-art anesthesiologists and anesthetic nurses each year Curriculum and training are being continuously improved. From a small unit, now it is one of the largest departments and extends the service, our third mission, to more than only in the operating theaters. We look after pre-anesthesia assessment, inside and outside operating room anesthesia, post-operative pain relief Intensive Care Unit, and chronic pain management. The number of patients and their diseases increase; so do the complexities of surgeries. There are tremendous changes in drugs and equipment. There is the fourth mission on administration, IT and resource management. And the fifth mission which is corporate social responsibility. However, we still believe that compassion, responsibility and integrity are most important. We have taught and tried to live by the teaching of HRH the King's Father. And these will contribute to our progress and shine in the next 50 years.

  1. [Nursing work and ergonomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, M H; Robazzi, M L

    2000-12-01

    This text articulates empirical evidence resulting from scientific work with the intention of providing a reflection about the application of ergonomics as a methodological instrument to support improvement of the labor conditions of nursing personnel in hospitals.

  2. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

  3. What price ergonomics?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Young, MS

    1999-01-01

    Ergonomists have a say in the design of almost everything in the modern world, but there is little evidence that their methods actually work. Here is an evaluation of those methods and of the worth of ergonomics in design.

  4. Ergonomics in laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon.

  5. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  6. Ergonomics in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Dargahi H; Saraji J; Sadr J; Sadri G

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materi...

  7. Symposium--Perspectives on Motivation for Second Language Learning on the 50th Anniversary of Gardner & Lambert (1959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    With the 50th anniversary of Robert C. Gardner and Wallace Lambert's seminal paper "Motivational variables in second language acquisition" (Gardner & Lambert 1959), we paused to reflect on the contributions the work has inspired and the state of the art in the study of motivation research.

  8. Ergonomics in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, N. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nimitgoyal@doctors.org.uk; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations.

  9. Ergonomics in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, N.; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations

  10. Ergonomics in dental pratice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Quaresemin de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of ergonomics is critical so that you can get a suitable working environment for professional, it is safe, healthy and comfortable. The objective was to identify whether the dental students followed the principles of ergonomics during clinical visits, evaluating, through photographs, compliance with ergonomic principles applied in dental practice, and finally identify the most affected sites by RSI / WMSDs of students enrolled in the dental clinic of the Faculdade IMED. Snapshots were made and only considered the position of the student operator, the same taken by the researcher using the mobile device. For each clinical procedure were taken two photographs in hidden angles to the student operator so that it did not change its ergonomic position to be observed. After obtaining the photos, they were evaluated and classified in scores from 0 to 3 according to the adequacy of the work placement, and then inserted into Excel and later in a database (SPSS 15.0. The following work is a cross-sectional, observational study, they were conducted in dental clinics IMED college. Among the 66 respondents, 14 were male and 52 female. It was found that 57 (86,3% reported feeling pain somewhere in the body, being the most affected sites neck (36.4%, and consecutively lower back (30.3% and higher than the back (27.3%. The results of the 63 procedures performed by the photographic shots were classified as “inadequate” in 49 procedures, “partially adequate” in 12 and “impossible to evaluate” in 2 procedures. The research results have shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and do not follow the ergonomic principles, emphasizing the need for more attention to ergonomics of the students.

  11. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  12. Ergonomía

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Conté: 1. Fundamentos. 2. Confort y estrés térmico. La obra ofrece una visión general de los aspectos básicos de la ergonomía. Está dividida en ocho capítulos, que abordan los temas de relaciones dimensionales, relaciones informáticas y de control, relaciones ambientales, gasto energético y capacidad de trabajo físico y trabajo mental. El libro pretende ser una guía básica para aquellas personas que se inicien en el apasionante campo de la ergonomía.

  13. The 50th Anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.

    2013-12-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of the First International Conference on Permafrost (ICOP) that was held at Purdue University on 11-15 November 1963. The conference was a historic event in that it brought together for the first time the leading researchers and practitioners from North America and other countries that had diverse interests and activities in the study and applications of perennially frozen ground, cold regions engineering and related laboratory investigations. The 285 registered participants represented engineers, researchers, manufacturers and builders from the USA (231), Canada (42), the USSR (5), Sweden (3) and Argentina, Austria, Great Britain, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and West Germany. The conference was organized by the Building Research Advisory Board of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). The carefully edited volume, published in 1966 by the NAS, is considered to be the first multi-national, English-language collection of papers devoted entirely to permafrost topics. The 100 published papers followed closely the actual conference venue and panel discussions: soils and vegetation (9), massive ground ice (10), geomorphology (16), phase equilibrium and transition (8), thermal aspects (8), physico-mechanical properties (7), exploration and site selection (11), sanitary and hydraulic engineering (14), and earthwork and foundations (17). This 1963 Purdue conference essentially broke the 'ice' between East and West permafrost researchers and set the stage for the Second ICOP that was held in 1973 in Yakutsk, Siberia, and represented the first large international conference held in the restricted area of Siberia. All subsequent conferences maintained the interdisciplinary principles set forth at Purdue: two more in the United States (Fairbanks 1983, 2008), two in Canada (Edmonton 1978, Yellowknife 1998), and one in Trondheim, Norway (1988), Beijing, China (1993), and Zurich, Switzerland (2003

  14. NRAO Salutes Past, Looks to Future In 50th-Anniversary Science Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Radio telescopes now in operation or under construction will be indispensible to scientists wrestling with the big, unanswered questions of 21st-Century astrophysics. That was the conclusion of a wide-ranging scientific meeting held in Charlottesville, Virginia, June 18-21, to mark the 50th anniversary of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). 1957 Dedication Dedication of NRAO, 17 October 1957. Left to right: R.M. Emberson, L.V. Berkner, G.A. Nay, J.W. Findlay (seated in front of 140ft telescope model), N.L. Ashton, D.S. Heeschen, H. Hockenberry. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on Image for Larger File ALMA Artist's conception of completed ALMA. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/ESO Click on Image for Larger File (2.4 MB) Nearly 200 scientists from around the world heard presentations about the frontiers of astrophysics and how the challenges at those frontiers will be met. In specialties as disparate as seeking the nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that is speeding the Universe's expansion to unraveling the details of how stars and planets are formed, more than 70 presenters looked toward future research breakthroughs. "NRAO's telescopes have made landmark contributions to the vast explosion of astronomical knowledge of the past half- century, and we look eagerly to making even more important contributions in the coming decades," said Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO's director. Over the four days of the meeting, discussions ranged from recollections of radio astronomy's pioneering days of vacuum-tube equipment and paper chart recorders to the design of telescopes that will produce amounts of data that will strain today's computers. Presenters pointed out that, in the coming decades, radio telescope observations will advance not only astronomy but also fields of basic physics such as gravitational radiation, particle physics, and the fundamental physical constants. "This meeting provided a great overview of where astrophysics stands today and where the challenges and opportunities of

  15. Health Care Ergonomics: Contributions of Thomas Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole Wilson, Tiffany; Davis, Kermit G

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of Thomas Waters's work in the field of health care ergonomics and beyond. Waters's research of safe patient handling with a focus on reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in health care workers contributed to current studies and prevention strategies. He worked with several groups to share his research and assist in developing safe patient handling guidelines and curriculum for nursing students and health care workers. The citations of articles that were published by Waters in health care ergonomics were evaluated for quality and themes of conclusions. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and centrality to original research rating. Themes were documented by the type of population the citing articles were investigating. In total, 266 articles that referenced the top seven cited articles were evaluated. More than 95% of them were rated either medium or high quality. The important themes of these citing articles were as follows: (a) Safe patient handling is effective in reducing MSDs in health care workers. (b) Shift work has negative impact on nurses. (c) There is no safe way to manually lift a patient. (d) Nurse curriculums should contain safe patient handling. The research of Waters has contributed significantly to the health care ergonomics and beyond. His work, in combination with other pioneers in the field, has generated multiple initiatives, such as a standard safe patient-handling curriculum and safe patient-handling programs. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Commemorating Toxicology at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences on the Occasion of Its 50th Anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, John R.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In 1978, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established and headquartered at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. On the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the NIEHS, this article documents some of the historical and current NTP programs and scientific advances that have been made possible through this long-standing relationship. PMID:27801649

  17. Editorial | Scott | Ergonomics SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomics SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  18. ERGONOMICS AND ROAD SAFETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are

  19. Ergonomics research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  20. The impact of ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, E.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Ergonomists offer services to organizations. The goal of their work is to provide safety and health at work in combination with a sound human performance. However, the impact of ergonomics efforts is not always as good as ergonomists and human factors specialists want. This chapter aims to support

  1. Meeting diversity in ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Pikaar, R.

    2006-01-01

    The plenary lectures from the 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, Maastricht, July 10-14, 2006, have been documented in this special issue. Its theme was ‘Meeting Diversity'. The contributions, ranging from scientific papers to technical notes or short statements, cover different aspects of the

  2. Bad Enough Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Peteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes ergonomics as a social and cultural phenomenon, as something that is formulated and described by speakers in a specific social context; in a company that is specialized in producing ergonomic office furniture. Through a case study of an office chair, the article examines how ergonomics and its association with the vision of the potential users and their working spaces are constructed by the relevant actors in project meetings and individual interviews during the manufacturing process. The article is concerned with how, in the process of producing an office chair, the chair gains an identity of an aesthetic design object and how this comes to mean the reformulation of the idea of ergonomics. The empirical analysis also provides insight into how the somewhat grand discourses of soft capitalism or aesthetic economy are not abstract, but very much grounded in everyday practices of an organization. The article establishes how the vision shared by all the relevant actors invites active, flexible, and cooperative end-users and how the vision also has potential material effects. The research is an ethnographically inspired case study that draws ideas from discursive psychology.

  3. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: the role of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  5. Occupational ergonomics in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  6. A new ergonomically improved lathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, G A; Derks, P M

    1975-09-01

    Following frequent complaints of lower back pain by lathe operators, a working group from the Philips Ergonomics Department have produced a model of an ergonomically improved lathe which ensures a healthy posture for the lathe operator at work. The same healthy posture can be adopted whether the operator is sitting or standing. The operator also has a good view of his work. At least two manufacturers have undertaken to develop this ergonomic lathe.

  7. Ergonomics in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janki, Shiromani; Mulder, Evalyn E A P; IJzermans, Jan N M; Tran, T C Khe

    2017-06-01

    Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, surgeons appear to be experiencing more occupational musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the current frequency and effects of occupational musculoskeletal injuries on work absence. An online questionnaire was conducted among all surgeons affiliated to the Dutch Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery, and Surgical Oncology. In addition, this survey was conducted among surgeons, gynaecologists, and urologists of one cluster of training hospitals in the Netherlands. There were 127 respondents. Fifty-six surgeons currently suffer from musculoskeletal complaints, and 30 have previously suffered from musculoskeletal complaints with no current complaints. Frequently reported localizations were the neck (39.5 %), the erector spinae muscle (34.9 %), and the right deltoid muscle (18.6 %). Most of the musculoskeletal complaints were present while operating (41.8 %). Currently, 37.5 % uses medication and/or therapy to reduce complaints. Of surgeons with past complaints, 26.7 % required work leave and 40.0 % made intraoperative adjustments. More surgeons with a medical history of musculoskeletal complaints have current complaints (OR 6.1, 95 % CI 1.9-19.6). There were no significant differences between surgeons of different operating techniques in localizations and frequency of complaints, or work leave. Despite previous various ergonomic recommendations in the operating room, the current study demonstrated that musculoskeletal complaints and subsequent work absence are still present among surgeons, especially among surgeons with a positive medical history for musculoskeletal complaints. Even sick leave was necessary to fully recover. There were no significant differences in reported complaints between surgeons of different operating techniques. Almost half of the respondents with complaints made intraoperative ergonomic adjustments to prevent future complaints. The

  8. Ergonomics SA: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Ergonomics SA · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1010-2728. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  9. On the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of Organised Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Kovacevic, M.; Pantelic, G.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection, both as a multidisciplinary scientific discipline and as an attitude, has largely contributed to the protection of man and the environment against the potential harm of ionizing radiation, allowing its beneficial and safe use. Over the past decades, almost a century, professionals active in the domain of radiation protection have immensely contributed to the development of legislation and regulations, to monitoring and control, to prediction of consequences and to the assessment of risks. This paper summarizes evolution and achievements of the radiation protection professionals in the region known as former Yugoslavia the occasion of the fifty years of organized professional activities in the area of radiation protection. The paper covers activities related to the early days of the radiation protection association brings the information about relevant activities as organization of symposia and other meetings, participation in international organizations and publishing activities of the society.(author)

  10. Ergonomics: case study in a university library

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Capri; Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia; Adilson Luiz Pinto

    2012-01-01

    This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics wer...

  11. The 50-th anniversary of the Federal Department for Biomedical and Extreme Problems at the Ministry of Health of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reva, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the 50-th anniversary of the Federal Department for Biomedical and Extreme Problems of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, formerly the Third Main Department of the USSR Ministry of Health the, basic stages are considered of the establishment and development of this system amalgamating treatment-and-prophylactic, sanitary-and-antiepidemic, scientific and industrial institutions aimed at the health protection of personnel dealing with ionizing radiation. Organizational and staff structures are discussed as well as activities of the institutions of the Department under present economic conditions

  12. Conference of young scientists and specialists, devoted to the 50-th anniversary of VNIIKhT foundation. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The collection contains abstracts of papers submitted to the Conference of young scientists and specialists, held in Moscow on March 6, 2001 and devoted to the 50-th anniversary of foundation of the All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (VNIIKhT). The materials of the Conference cover a wide range of fuel cycle a wide range of fuel cycle process developments including those in uranium ore enrichment and leaching, spent fuel reprocessing, alpha-bearing waste solidification. Besides, techniques for the preparation of zirconium, tungsten, strontium, and rare earth compounds are presented [ru

  13. A trend analysis of ergonomic research themes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of ergonomics in Taiwan by analysing 1404 scientific articles published by 113 permanent members of the Ergonomics Society of Taiwan (EST). Each article was classified by key words and abstract content. Each article was also coded by period of publication (1971-1992 (first period), 1993-1997 (second period), 1998-2002 (third period), 2003-2007 (fourth period), and 2008-2012 (fifth period), and against 13 topic categories. The results show that rate of publication has increased by approximately 100 articles every five years since 1993.The most popular topic was ergonomics assessment and analysis techniques in the first period, force exertion-related research in the second period, product design and evaluation in the third period, occupational safety and health in the fourth period and human-computer interface in the fifth period. Each of these is highly relevant to current contemporary issues around the world. Finally, potential areas for future ergonomics research in Taiwan are discussed. This study investigates the trends in academic papers published by members of the EST. Over time, topics have shifted from ergonomics evaluation methods to occupational safety and health, and human–computer interaction. The findings should be considered as important references for planning the future of ergonomics in Taiwan.

  14. Ergonomics Contributions to Company Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W.P. Neumann (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to

  15. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  16. Ergonomic design in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V

    1999-08-01

    Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought.

  17. 50 Div in Normandy: A Critical Analysis of the British 50th (Northumbrian) Division on D-Day and in the Battle of Normandy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Ethan R

    2007-01-01

    In late 1943, the British Army ordered the veteran 7th Armored, 51st (Highland) and 50th (Northumbrian) Divisions to return to Great Britain to provide combat experienced troops for the D-Day invasion of northwest Europe...

  18. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    effective in this new environment, together with suggestions for the means to acquire and disseminate the knowledge extensions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. The 50th Anniversary of the International Indian Ocean Expedition: An Update on Current Planning Efforts and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Raleigh; D'Adamo, Nick; Burkill, Peter; Urban, Ed; Bhikajee, Mitrasen

    2014-05-01

    The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) was one of the greatest international, interdisciplinary oceanographic research efforts of all time. Planning for the IIOE began in 1959 and the project officially continued through 1965, with forty-six research vessels participating under fourteen different flags. The IIOE motivated an unprecedented number of hydrographic surveys (and repeat surveys) over the course of the expedition covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. And it was an interdisciplinary endeavor that embraced physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, meteorology, marine biology, marine geology and geophysics. The end of 2015 will mark the 50th Anniversary of the completion of the IIOE. In the 50 years since the IIOE three fundamental changes have taken place in ocean science. The first is the deployment of a broad suite of oceanographic sensors on satellites that have dramatically improved the characterization of both physical and biological oceanographic variability. The second is the emergence of new components of the ocean observing system, most notably remote sensing and Argo floats. And the third is the development of ocean modeling in all its facets from short-term forecasting to seasonal prediction to climate projections. These advances have revolutionized our understanding of the global oceans, including the Indian Ocean. Compared to the IIOE era, we now have the capacity to provide a much more integrated picture of the Indian Ocean, especially if these new technologies can be combined with targeted and well-coordinated in situ measurements. In this presentation we report on current efforts to motivate an IIOE 50th Anniversary Celebration (IIOE-2). We envision this IIOE-2 as a 5-year expedition and effort beginning in 2015 and continuing through to 2020. An important objective of our planning efforts is assessing ongoing and planned research activities in the Indian Ocean in the 2015 to 2020 time frame, with the goal of embracing and

  20. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  1. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  2. 'The perfect is the enemy of the good' - ergonomics research and practice. Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors Annual Lecture 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between research and practice in ergonomics and human factors has rarely been addressed in the literature. This presents specific problems for researchers when seeking to relate their work to the research community. Equally, practitioners are often frustrated by the lack of appropriate research to meet their needs. This paper seeks to identify current drivers for ergonomics research along with an analysis of how these are changing. Specifically, the use of bibliometric data to assess research output and its impact on a multi-disciplinary subject such as ergonomics is examined. Areas where action may be required to stimulate better research and improved practice are proposed. These include a greater role for the practitioner in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the evidence base for practice with, in particular, practitioners becoming more active in determining research priorities. It is concluded that combined effort is needed by researcher and practitioner communities to enable and promote a more effective understanding of the true impact of ergonomics across industry and society. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between ergonomics research and practice is examined. Research 'drivers' are identified, including the influence of bibliometric data. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. The role of practitioners in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the ergonomics evidence base is stressed, as is the need to promote the impact of ergonomics across society.

  3. Occupational ergonomics and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, T J

    1996-01-01

    Ergonomics is the study of people at work. The current focus is on the prevention of work-induced musculoskeletal injuries through the application of sound ergonomic principles. This chapter has briefly outlined ergonomics and its history, has described low back pain and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders from an ergonomic perspective, and has discussed control and prevention approaches for a few scenarios. Ergonomic principles are based on a combination of science and engineering and a thorough understanding of human capabilities and limitations. When these principles are applied to the design of a job, task, process, or procedure, the incidence and severity of musculoskeletal injuries decrease. In many cases productivity and morale also improve. Workers are spared suffering, and employers are spared costs. It is hoped that this discussion will encourage more health, safety, and business professionals to learn about and apply ergonomics in their workplaces for the improvement of the worker, product, and business. Finally, many additional epidemiologic studies on the individual and joint effects of the CTD risk factors are needed. The knowledge gained from these studies will promote the more effective application of ergonomic principles to reduce worker suffering, improve products, and reduce costs.

  4. Does a robotic surgery approach offer optimal ergonomics to gynecologic surgeons?: a comprehensive ergonomics survey study in gynecologic robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mija Ruth; Lee, Gyusung Isaiah

    2017-09-01

    To better understand the ergonomics associated with robotic surgery including physical discomfort and symptoms, factors influencing symptom reporting, and robotic surgery systems components recommended to be improved. The anonymous survey included 20 questions regarding demographics, systems, ergonomics, and physical symptoms and was completed by experienced robotic surgeons online through American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) and Society of Robotic Surgery (SRS). There were 289 (260 gynecology, 22 gynecology-oncology, and 7 urogynecology) gynecologic surgeon respondents regularly practicing robotic surgery. Statistical data analysis was performed using the t-test, χ² test, and logistic regression. One hundred fifty-six surgeons (54.0%) reported experiencing physical symptoms or discomfort. Participants with higher robotic case volume reported significantly lower physical symptom report rates (pergonomic settings not only acknowledged that the adjustments were helpful for better ergonomics but also reported a lower physical symptom rate (pergonomic settings (32.7%), took a break (33.3%) or simply ignored the problem (34%). Fingers and neck were the most common body parts with symptoms. Eye symptom complaints were significantly decreased with the Si robot (pergonomics were microphone/speaker, pedal design, and finger clutch. More than half of participants reported physical symptoms which were found to be primarily associated with confidence in managing ergonomic settings and familiarity with the system depending on the volume of robotic cases. Optimal guidelines and education on managing ergonomic settings should be implemented to maximize the ergonomic benefits of robotic surgery. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  5. Ergonomics in design or design in ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Design in Scandinavia has a long tradition of participation in the development of society. Designers in the Nordic countries have taken pride in concerning themselves with problems of everyday living and the design communities at large have been committed proponents of a socially responsible appr...

  6. Ergonomic guidelines for using notebook personal computers. Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction, International Ergonomics Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Piccoli, B; Smith, M J; Sotoyama, M; Sweitzer, G; Villanueva, M B; Yoshitake, R

    2000-10-01

    In the 1980's, the visual display terminal (VDT) was introduced in workplaces of many countries. Soon thereafter, an upsurge in reported cases of related health problems, such as musculoskeletal disorders and eyestrain, was seen. Recently, the flat panel display or notebook personal computer (PC) became the most remarkable feature in modern workplaces with VDTs and even in homes. A proactive approach must be taken to avert foreseeable ergonomic and occupational health problems from the use of this new technology. Because of its distinct physical and optical characteristics, the ergonomic requirements for notebook PCs in terms of machine layout, workstation design, lighting conditions, among others, should be different from the CRT-based computers. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) technical committee came up with a set of guidelines for notebook PC use following exploratory discussions that dwelt on its ergonomic aspects. To keep in stride with this development, the Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction under the auspices of the International Ergonomics Association worked towards the international issuance of the guidelines. This paper unveils the result of this collaborative effort.

  7. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    OpenAIRE

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a new theoretical framework for analyzing physical human robot interaction (pHRI) with exoskeletons, and (2) a clear set of design rules of how to build wearable, portable exoskeletons to easily and...

  8. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products

  9. Ergonomics in the office environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  10. '1966 and all that': Trends and developments in UK ergonomics during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick; Eason, Ken

    2009-11-01

    The 1960s represents a key decade in the expansion of ergonomics within the UK. This paper reviews trends and developments that emerged out of the 1960s and compares these with ergonomics research and practice today. The focus in particular is on the expansion of ergonomics as a discipline within industry, as well as more specific topics, such as the emergence of areas of interest, for example, computers and technology, automation and systems ergonomics and consumer ergonomics. The account is illustrated with a detailed timeline of developments, a set of industrial case studies and the contents of important publications during the decade. A key aim of the paper is to provide the opportunity to reflect on the past and the implications this may have for future directions for ergonomics within the UK. The paper provides practitioners with an insight into the development of ergonomics in the UK during one of the most important decades of its history. This is especially relevant given the fact that in 2009 the Ergonomics Society celebrates its 60th anniversary.

  11. Cultural ergonomics in interactional and experiential design: conceptual framework and case study of the Taiwanese twin cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Long; Chen, Si-Jing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Rungtai

    2016-01-01

    Cultural ergonomics is an approach that considers interaction- and experience-based variations among cultures. Designers need to develop a better understanding of cultural ergonomics not just to participate in cultural contexts but also to develop interactive experiences for users. Cultural ergonomics extends our understanding of cultural meaning and our ability to utilize such understanding for design and evaluate everyday products. This study aims to combine cultural ergonomics and interactive design to explore human-culture interaction in user experiences. The linnak is a typical Taiwanese aboriginal cultural object. This study examined the cultural meaning and operational interface of the linnak, as well as the scenarios in which it is used in interaction and user experiences. The results produced a cultural ergonomics interface for examining the manner in which designers communicate across cultures as well as the interweaving of design and culture in the design process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. 50th Anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has again been an exceedingly productive year. In addition to our ongoing activities reported extensively in this volume, we have taken this opportunity to highlight several examples of tangible, sustainable results derived out of this unique partnership – beneficial to both our parent organizations and to our Member States – and to share these with our many stakeholders around the world and at the celebratory ceremony of this partnership. The enormous contributions of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and its numerous stakeholders worldwide to meet the changing needs of Member States through the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies are today clearly demonstrated in the shared goals of our two parent organizations and in the five strategic objectives of the FAO: to help eliminate hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; to make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and sustainable; to reduce rural poverty; to enable inclusive and efficient agricultural and food systems; and to increase the resilience of livelihood to disaster

  13. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.

    2012-10-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical-digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption-decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical-digital solutions.

  14. Advanced optical correlation and digital methods for pattern matching—50th anniversary of Vander Lugt matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millán, María S

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of the 50th anniversary of Vander Lugt’s formulation for pattern matching based on matched filtering and optical correlation, we acknowledge the very intense research activity developed in the field of correlation-based pattern recognition during this period of time. The paper reviews some domains that appeared as emerging fields in the last years of the 20th century and have been developed later on in the 21st century. Such is the case of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition, biometric pattern matching, optical security and hybrid optical–digital processors. 3D object recognition is a challenging case of multidimensional image recognition because of its implications in the recognition of real-world objects independent of their perspective. Biometric recognition is essentially pattern recognition for which the personal identification is based on the authentication of a specific physiological characteristic possessed by the subject (e.g. fingerprint, face, iris, retina, and multifactor combinations). Biometric recognition often appears combined with encryption–decryption processes to secure information. The optical implementations of correlation-based pattern recognition processes still rely on the 4f-correlator, the joint transform correlator, or some of their variants. But the many applications developed in the field have been pushing the systems for a continuous improvement of their architectures and algorithms, thus leading towards merged optical–digital solutions. (review article)

  15. Activity report of the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 wintering party in 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Kadokura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 wintering party, consisting of 28 members, has conducted the third year program of the 7th four-year plan of JARE. JARE-50 took over the management of Syowa Station from JARE-49 on January 29, 2009 and handed over it to JARE-51 on February 1, 2010. Scientific observations carried out by JARE-50 were divided into the following five categories: 1. Steady Continuous Observations; 2. Long-term Monitoring; 3. Interdisciplinary Focused Projects; 4. Specific-Purpose Project on medical research; and 5. Preparatory Research for the future planned large atmospheric radar. There were many blizzards during the wintering, which required great efforts to clear snow. Sea ice conditions were stable, and almost all the planned outdoor operations were successfully performed. Various trainings and activities for safety management were carried out throughout the wintering, along with public outreach activities using the satellite communication network. Other items of note include photographing the Polar Mesospheric Cloud, voting in the Lower House election, the early arrival of five members of JARE-51 in November, and a visit by the Australian inspection team in January.

  16. Ergonomics, education and children: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, A

    2007-10-01

    Educational ergonomics - the teaching of ergonomics and the design of environments where ergonomics teaching and learning might occur - has received little attention from ergonomists. This paper first describes the roots of the author's interest and research in educational ergonomics; second it provides a personal view of the opportunities and challenges posed by the two streams of educational ergonomics; and lastly it considers the implications of teaching ergonomics to children in terms of their personal development, the design of schools and the impact such initiatives might have on wider societal problems.

  17. Aging Ergonomics: A Field with Inadequate Notice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghaneh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available World population aging is a phenomenon we are confronting with, more than past. This fact has different implications for today’s societies. One of these aspects is workforce (1. Some factors have resulted in more tendencies of workers to remain in their works including: Economic, societal, cultural factors, and social trends and laws such as increasing age of retirement in the middle twentieth century, which recently increased more (2.      Productive workforce is one of major assets of each country. So, in one hand we have older adults in our workplaces and in other hand, we are following to retain employee’s productivity at first, and then, improve it. Ergonomics as a multidisciplinary science, attempts to make balance between human capabilities and its limitations by fitting the task to the person or fitting the person to the task. In this way, workers’ fatigue and errors are minimized and productivity and well-being optimized (3.     In more developed countries like United States, approximately 66.3 percent of adults aged 55-64 years are in the workforce (4. In our country, Iran, 7.3% of populations were more than 60 yrs. in 2006 (5 which indicate our population is aging, though accurate number of those people in work is lacking. Older adults have physical and mental changes as a common result of aging. Physical changes show itself as decline in physical capabilities, and mental changes involved in sensation and perception, cognition, and motor control (6. So, it is essential to acknowledge these changes and adopt suitable strategies and accommodations for job circumstances and living environments when considering older adults.     In general, a few ergonomics studies explored the effect of aging on environmental modifications and job adaptation. To best of my knowledge, also in Iran there are few studies that presented in conferences or published in journals. Therefore, as a closing remark, it is widely needed to pay more

  18. Ergonomic analysis of microlaryngoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Melissa McCarty; Sukits, Alison L.; Redfern, Mark S.; Smith, Libby J.; Sok, John C.; Rosen, Clark A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To apply ergonomic principles in analysis of three different operative positions used in laryngeal microsurgery. Study Design Prospective case-control study. Methods Laryngologists were studied in three different microlaryngeal operative positions: a supported position in a chair with articulated arm supports, a supported position with arms resting on a Mayo stand, and a position with arms unsupported. Operative positions were uniformly photographed in three dimensions. Full body postural data was collected and analyzed using the validated Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool to calculate a risk score indicative of potential musculoskeletal misuse in each position. Joint forces were calculated for the neck and shoulder, and compression forces were calculated for the L5/S1 disc space. Results Higher-risk postures were obtained with unfavorably adjusted eyepieces and lack of any arm support during microlaryngeal surgery. Support with a Mayo stand led to more neck flexion and strain. Using a chair with articulated arm supports leads to decreased neck strain, less shoulder torque, and decreased compressive forces on the L5/S1 disc space. Ideal postures during microlaryngoscopy place the surgeon with arms and feet supported, with shoulders in an unraised, neutral anatomic position, upper arms neutrally positioned 20° to 45° from torso, lower arms neutrally positioned 60° to 100° from torso, and wrists extended or flexed postures and repetitive stress injury may lead to reduced occupationally related musculoskeletal pain and may improve microsurgical motor control. Laryngoscope, 2010 PMID:19950376

  19. An ergonomic task analysis of spinal anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajmal, Muhammad

    2009-12-01

    Ergonomics is the study of physical interaction between humans and their working environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of spinal anaesthesia in an acute hospital setting, applying ergonomic task analysis.

  20. 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This book introduces the root of Korean physics, the dawning of Korean physics, foundation and childhood of Korean physics society, growth of Korean physics society, revival of Korean physics society, corporation Korean physics society, leap of Korean physics society and challenges towards future. It also deals with 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society according to committees, special interest groups, branches in cities and provinces, branches in universities, laboratories, society bureau, and commemoration business to celebrate 50th anniversary.

  1. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  2. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 50th anniversary editorial board commentary: anatomy, basic sciences, and genetics--then and now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Mark P; Cooper, Gregory M; Marazita, Mary L

    2014-05-01

    To celebrate the 50th year of the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal we look back to where we started in 1964 and where we are now, and we speculate about directions for the future in a "Then and Now" editorial series. This editorial examines changing trends and perspectives in anatomical, basic science, and genetic studies published in this 50-year interval. In volume 1 there were 45 total papers, seven (16%) of which were peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: four in anatomy, three in craniofacial biology, and none in genetics. In contrast, in volume 50, of 113 articles there were 47 (42%) peer-reviewed basic science and genetic articles published: 30 in anatomy, five in craniofacial biology, and 12 in genetics. Topical analysis of published manuscripts then and now reveal that similar topics in anatomy and craniofacial biology are still being researched today (e.g., phenotypic variability, optimal timing of surgery, presurgical orthopedics, bone grafting); whereas, most of the more recent papers use advanced technology to address old questions. In contrast, genetic publications have clearly increased in frequency during the last 50 years, which parallels advances in the field during this time. However, all of us have noticed that the more "cutting-edge" papers in these areas are not being submitted for publication to the journal, but instead to discipline-specific journals. Concerted efforts are therefore indicated to attract and publish these cutting-edge papers in order to keep the Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal in the forefront of orofacial cleft and craniofacial anomaly research and to provide a valuable service to American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association members.

  3. Green buildings need good ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, A; Dorsey, J A

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 44 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum buildings on a US college campus is reported. The Internet survey covered a range of indoor environment and ergonomics issues. Results show that working in these buildings were a generally positive experience for their health, performance and satisfaction. However, in one building there were persistent issues of variability in air temperature, air freshness, air quality and noise that affected the perceived health and performance of the occupants. Although the buildings were energy-efficient and sustainable structures, ergonomics design issues were identified. Implications for the role of ergonomics in green buildings and in the US LEED rating system are discussed. This survey identified a number of ergonomics design issues present in the LEED Platinum energy-efficient and sustainable buildings that were studied. These results highlight the importance of integrating ergonomics design into green buildings as a component in the US LEED rating system.

  4. Speech at the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instruction on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Respected leaders, distinguished guests, venerable seniors and comrades, Today, the Meeting Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of Chairman MAO Ze-dong's Important Instructions on Western Medicine Doctors Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine was inaugurated by the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine, and it is also an important occasion to review the past and look forward to the future.

  5. The Long Good-Bye: Why B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" Is Alive and Well on the 50th Anniversary of Its Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    The year 2007 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", a book that by Skinner's own account was his most important. The received view, however, is that a devastating review by a young linguist not only rendered Skinner's interpretation of language moot but was also a major factor in ending the hegemony…

  6. French and German students at CERN in the framework of 50th anniversary of the franco-german Treaty - Microcosm garden BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    To mark the 50th anniversary of the Elysée Treaty between France and Germany, which established a basis for cooperation between the two countries in order to set the seal on a lasting peace, secondary school pupils came to CERN to research the Franco-German relationship.

  7. Ergonomic design for dental offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, David J; Sanders, Martha J; Turcotte, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the dental office environment influences productivity and workflow for dental clinicians. Advances in technology, and with it the range of products needed to provide services, have led to sprawl in operatory setups and the potential for awkward postures for dental clinicians during the delivery of oral health services. Although ergonomics often addresses the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders for specific populations of workers, concepts of workflow and productivity are integral to improved practice in work environments. This article provides suggestions for improving workflow and productivity for dental clinicians. The article applies ergonomic principles to dental practice issues such as equipment and supply management, office design, and workflow management. Implications for improved ergonomic processes and future research are explored.

  8. Ergonomic material-handling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.

    2004-08-24

    A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.

  9. Ergonomics and control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.C.; Story, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)

  10. Ergonomics Climate Assessment: A measure of operational performance and employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John

    2015-09-01

    Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The stage of change approach for implementing ergonomics advice - Translating research into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Oakman, Jodi; Tappin, David; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    The Stage of Change (SOC) approach has been proposed as a method to improve the implementation of ergonomics advice. However, despite evidence for its efficacy there is little evidence to suggest it has been adopted by ergonomics consultants. This paper investigates barriers and facilitators to the implementation, monitoring and effectiveness of ergonomics advice and the adoption of the SOC approach in a series of focus groups and a subsequent survey of members of the Human Factors Societies of Australia and New Zealand. A proposed SOC assessment tool developed for use by ergonomics practitioners is presented. Findings from this study suggest the limited application of a SOC based approach to work-related musculoskeletal injury prevention by ergonomics practitioners is due to the absence of a suitable tool in the ergonomists' repertoire, the need for training in this approach, and their limited access to relevant research findings. The final translation of the SOC assessment tool into professional ergonomics practice will require accessible demonstration of its real-world usability to practitioners and the training of ergonomics practitioners in its application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ergonomics issues in national identity card for homeland security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Paul H P; Yuen, Y Y; Loo, W H

    2013-09-01

    Ever since the 9/11 terrorist attack, many countries are considering the use of smart national identity card (SNIC) which has the ability to identify terrorists due to its biometric verification function. However, there are many ergonomics issues in the use of SNIC, e.g. card credibility. This research presents a case study survey of Malaysian users. Although most citizens (>96%) own MyKad (Malaysia SNIC), many do not carry it around and use its applications. This defeats one of its main purposes, i.e. combating terrorism. Thus, the research investigates ergonomics issues affecting the citizens' Intention to Use (ITU) MyKad for homeland security by using an extended technology acceptance model. Five hundred questionnaires were collected and analysed using structural equation modelling. Results show that perceived credibility and performance expectancy are the key issues. The findings provide many countries with insights into methods of addressing ergonomics issues and increasing adoption of SNIC for homeland security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. The Need to Reevaluate Nonresponding Ergonomic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Field, Steven A.

    1999-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Environmental Health (EH) contractor performs ergonomic evaluations under its Ergonomic Program. Any KSC employee may request one or the reviewing physician may request one for a patient during a visit to an onsite medical facility. As part of the ergonomic evaluation, recommendations are given to the patient to help reduce any ergonomic problems they experience. The recommendations, if implemented, are successful in the majority of KSC patients; however, a group of patients do not seem to improve. Those who don't improve may be identified by reevaluations, which are performed to implement maximum resolution of ergonomic problems.

  14. Ergonomics and sustainable development in the past two decades (1992-2011): Research trends and how ergonomics can contribute to sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjiyev, Ayubkhon; Qiu, Hai; Xiong, Shuping; Nam, KyungHyun

    2015-01-01

    The need for sustainable development has been widely recognized and sustainable development has become a hot topic of various disciplines even though the role of ergonomics in it is seldom reported or considered. This study conducts a systematic survey of research publications in the fields of ergonomics and sustainable development over the past two decades (1992-2011), in order to identify their research trends and convergent areas where ergonomics can play an important role in sustainable development. The results show that 'methods and techniques', 'human characteristics', 'work design and organization', 'health and safety' and 'workplace and equipment design' are the top five frequently researched areas in ergonomics. Ergonomics has an opportunity to contribute its knowledge especially to 'industrial and product design', 'architecture', 'health and safety' and 'HCI' (especially for energy reduction issues) categories of sustainable development. Typical methodologies and general guidance on how to contribute the expertise of ergonomist to sustainable development are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  16. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  17. Ergonomic design for operator flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Three Mile Island accident highlighted the importance of ergonomic design of control rooms. Emphasis has been on a reappraisal of the reactor/operator interface, but in the United Kingdom the CEGB maintains that safe efficient operation needs a centralised information system optimised for all control room staff. (author)

  18. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48983-49619.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    THE LITERATURE OF ERGONOMICS, OR BIOTECHNOLOGY, IS CLASSIFIED INTO 15 AREAS--METHODS, SYSTEMS OF MEN AND MACHINES, VISUAL AND AUDITORY AND OTHER INPUTS AND PROCESSES, INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS, DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND INTEGRATION WITH DISPLAYS, LAYOUT OF PANELS AND CONSOLES, DESIGN OF WORK SPACE, CLOTHING AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT, SPECIAL…

  19. Ergonomics: A Commonsense Activity That Can Save Schools Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Paul; Gauthier-Green, Erin

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of ergonomics to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Describes ergonomics and how to identify ergonomic problems, conduct a job hazard analysis, and develop solutions. Also lists common ergonomic errors in schools. Provides an ergonomic checklist for employees…

  20. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  1. Good ergonomic practices in a terminal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Luciana Mattos dos; Curty, Adriana Favacho [CHEMTECH, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franca, Guilherme Foerster do Monte; Jardino, Alessandro Neto [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Ergonomics is the technological design of the interplay between men, machines and environment in order to make labor activities more pleasant, profitable and functional. This article analyses the importance of ergonomic issues in process terminal plants and facilities, since the conceptual design stage until the detail engineering design. The ergonomic solutions are compared with practices that are current in engineering design plants nowadays. It will be shown how an inadequate ergonomic design often leads to accessibility problems and non-effectiveness during plant operation and dangers in emergency situations. The way perform an ergonomic design is to integrate the various disciplines that are involved in all stages of the design plant. The earlier the ergonomic design is implemented the better are the results in cost reduction, since later design modifications are more time-consuming and expensive. (author)

  2. Physical Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders: What's hot? What's cool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.J. van der; IJmker, S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses the physical ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders and summarizes the Triennial International Ergonomics Association (IEA) World Congress 2006-IEA2006-highlights on physical ergonomics and work-related MusculoSkeletal Disorders (MSDs). Two general trends are observed.

  3. Information Ergonomics A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Sandl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The variety and increasing availability of hypermedia information systems, which are used in stationary applications like operators’ consoles as well as mobile systems, e.g. driver information and navigation systems in automobiles form a foundation for the mediatization of the society. From the human engineering point of view this development and the ensuing increased importance of information systems for economic and private needs require careful deliberation of the derivation and application of ergonomics methods particularly in the field of information systems. This book consists of two closely intertwined parts. The first, theoretical part defines the concept of an information system, followed by an explanation of action regulation as well as cognitive theories to describe man information system interaction. A comprehensive description of information ergonomics concludes the theoretical approach. In the second, practically oriented part of this book authors from industry as well as from academic institu...

  4. Ergonomics content in the physical education teacher's guide in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Manobhiram; Patel, Hetal; Kabanda, Aline; Nuhu, Assuman

    2012-01-01

    An important aspect that affects the effectiveness of ergonomic programs is that inefficient mechanical functioning start at an early age and that back pain and posture problems are already evident in children. Children, from a very early age, as well as adults spend an ever increasing amount of their time in front of computer and television screens. The cumulative effect of this sedentary lifestyle leads to improper posture, as well as inefficient and harmful movement patterns and loss of basic physical skills. Physical Education course should deal not only with sports and physical activities, but also with broader aspects of life-skills and physical functionality. It should offer a solution to the modern technology-based society. Keeping this in perspective, Ergonomics content was introduced in Physical Education Teacher's Guide in Rwandan schools with an aim in preventing musculoskeletal disorder in children.

  5. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  6. Ergonomic applications to dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs," refers to musculoskeletal disorders to which the work environment contributes significantly, or to musculoskeletal disorders that are made worse or longer lasting by work conditions or workplace risk factors. In recent years, there has been an increase in reporting WMSDs for dental persons. Risk factors of WMSDs with specific reference to dentistry include - stress, poor flexibility, improper positioning, infrequent breaks, repetitive movements, weak postural muscles, prolonged awkward postures and improper adjustment of equipment. Ergonomics is the science of designing jobs, equipment and workplaces to fit workers. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. In this article, 20 strategies to prevent WMSDs in the dental operatory are discussed.

  7. Visual ergonomics in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed.

  8. Optimizing the physical ergonomics indices for the use of partial pressure suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang

    2015-03-01

    This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Avoid Workplace Injury through Ergonomics | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases

  10. Ergonomics in the context of system safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    In a complex industrial environment, ergonomics must be combined with management science and systems analysis to produce a program which can create effective change and improve safety performance. We give an overview of such an approach, namely System Safety, so that its ergonomic content may be seen

  11. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.

  12. Green ergonomics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the causes and consequences of environmental degradation presents significant challenges for humankind. This paper considers what ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) professionals can contribute to understanding and tackling some of the issues that arise through the movement towards a more environmentally sustainable economy. These issues are considered in relation to work in green industries (specifically, sustainable energy production, recycling and organic food production), and there is a need to ensure that these jobs are safe and healthy; the design of products and systems that are 'environmentally friendly' to facilitate their acceptability and use and how E/HF professionals can contribute to understanding and promoting behavioural change relating to environmental choices. The activities of some international organisations in this area are identified and the potential for E/HF involvement is considered. The implications for the E/HF profession are discussed. This paper considers how ergonomics/human factors professionals can contribute to the movement towards more sustainable and 'environmentally friendly' design and work. Potential challenges and opportunities are discussed in relation to jobs in green industries, products and systems and behaviour change.

  13. Designing for sustainability: ergonomics--carpe diem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K; Legg, S; Brown, C

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is a global issue that has worldwide attention but the role of ergonomics in designing for sustainability is poorly understood and seldom considered. An analysis of the literature on ergonomics, design and sustainability was conducted via a search of electronic databases: Scopus, Business Source Complete, Google Scholar, Emerald Publishing, Academic Search Premiere, Web of Science, Discover and Ergonomics Abstracts, for the years 1995-2012. A total of 1934 articles fulfilled the search criteria, but content analysis of the abstracts indicated that only 14 refereed articles addressed the main search criteria. Of those seven were in ergonomics journals and seven were in other journals (and were not written by ergonomists). It is concluded that the contribution of ergonomics to sustainability and sustainable design has been limited, even though the goals of sustainability and ergonomics are congruent. Ergonomists have not been at the forefront of research contributing to sustainability - and it is time for them to 'seize the day' - 'carpe diem'. This literature review shows that ergonomics contribution to sustainability is limited but since there is congruence between the disciplines it calls for ergonomists to become more involved and to seize the day - carpe diem.

  14. Ergonomics: case study in a university library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Capri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics were contextualized and linked to the library and the university library. Referring to the methodology, the Ergonomical Assessment of the Built Environment was used as a reference. The study subjects comprised a sample of 15, among students and library staff. In the results obtained, when related to the physical-environmental analysis of the library, it was found that there are some aspects that differ from the regulatory standards and that also fall short in relation to feedback from users. Aspects such as lighting and noise were cited as unsatisfactory, but the temperature factor was analyzed as satisfactory.

  15. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-tech...

  16. Ergonomic approach for pillow concept design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dengchuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is an essential factor to human beings for health. The current paper conducted four studies to provide a suitable pillow for promoting sleep quality. Study 1 investigated the natural positions of 40 subjects during sleep to derive key-points for a pillow design. The results suggested that the supine and lateral positions were alternatively 24 times a night, and the current pillows were too high for the supine position and too low for lateral positions. Study 2 measured body dimensions related to pillow design of 40 subjects to determine pillow sizes. The results suggested that the pillow height were quite different in supine position and lateral position and needed to take into consideration for a pillow design. Study 3 created a pillow design based on the results of above studies. The pillow was a U-form in the front of view in which the pillow height in the middle area was lower for the supine position, and both sides were higher for the lateral positions. Study 4 assessed sleep quality of 6 subjects by using the proposed pillows and the current pillows. The results showed that the newly designed pillow led to significantly higher sleep quality, and the new design received an innovation patent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : welcome by CERN Director General Robert Aymar to French President Jacques Chirac, to King of Spain Juan Carlos and to President of the Swiss Confederation Joseph Deiss

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez; Michel Blanc

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : welcome by CERN Director General Robert Aymar to French President Jacques Chirac, to King of Spain Juan Carlos and to President of the Swiss Confederation Joseph Deiss

  18. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : keynote speech from Professor Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Professor in the Molecular Biology at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, Former Director-General of UNESCO

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : keynote speech from Professor Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Professor in the Molecular Biology at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid, Former Director-General of UNESCO

  19. Crossing levels in systems ergonomics: a framework to support 'mesoergonomic' inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Waterson, Patrick; Holden, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we elaborate and articulate the need for what has been termed 'mesoergonomics'. In particular, we argue that the concept has the potential to bridge the gap between, and integrate, established work within the domains of micro- and macroergonomics. Mesoergonomics is defined as an open systems approach to human factors and ergonomics (HFE) theory and research whereby the relationship between variables in at least two different system levels or echelons is studied, and where the dependent variables are human factors and ergonomic constructs. We present a framework which can be used to structure a set of questions for future work and prompt further empirical and conceptual inquiry. The framework consists of four steps: (1) establishing the purpose of the mesoergonomic investigation; (2) selecting human factors and ergonomics variables; (3) selecting a specific type of mesoergonomic investigation; and (4) establishing relationships between system levels. In addition, we describe two case studies which illustrate the workings of the framework and the value of adopting a mesoergonomic perspective within HFE. The paper concludes with a set of issues which could form part of a future agenda for research within systems ergonomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups' high fidelity of room layout and affordance of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models' high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity organization. Furthermore, the study addresses the form of the identified and evaluated conditions, being either identified challenges or tangible design criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Does drywall installers' innovative idea reduce the ergonomic exposures of ceiling installation: A field case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Priyadarshini Sengupta; Punnett, Laura; Moir, Susan; Kuhn, Sarah; Buchholz, Bryan

    2016-07-01

    The study was conducted to assess an intervention suggested by the workers to reduce the physical or ergonomic exposures of the drywall installation task. The drywall installers were asked to brainstorm on innovative ideas that could reduce their ergonomic exposures during the drywall installation work. The workers proposed the idea of using a 'deadman' (narrow panel piece) to hold the panels to the ceiling while installing them. The researcher collected quantitative exposure data (PATH, 3DSSPP) at the baseline and intervention phases and compared the phases to find out any change in the exposure while using the 'deadman'. Results showed that ergonomic exposures (such as overhead arm and awkward trunk postures and heavy load handling) were reduced at the intervention phase while using the 'deadman' with an electrically operated lift. The concept of the 'deadman', which was shown to help reduce musculoskeletal exposures during ceiling installation, can be used to fabricate a permanent ergonomic tool to support the ceiling drywall panel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program . Areas that should be addressed a facility's safety and health program include: Management Leadership / Employee Participation Workplace Analysis Accident and Record Analysis Hazard Prevention and ...

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of the modified 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel as measured in a 1/50th-scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.; Naumowicz, Tim

    1987-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center were measured by using a 1/50th-scale facility. The model was configured to closely simulate the features of the full-scale facility when it became operational in 1986. The items measured include the aerodynamic effects due to changes in the total-pressure-loss characteristics of the intake and exhaust openings of the air-exchange system, total-pressure distributions in the flow field at locations around the wind tunnel circuit, the locations of the maximum total-pressure contours, and the aerodynamic changes caused by the installation of the acoustic barrier in the southwest corner of the wind tunnel. The model tests reveal the changes in the aerodynamic performance of the 1986 version of the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel compared with the performance of the 1982 configuration.

  4. Introduction to the special issue: 50th anniversary of APA Division 28: The past, present, and future of psychopharmacology and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, William W; Sigmon, Stacey C; Evans, Suzette M

    2016-08-01

    This is an introduction to the special issue "50th Anniversary of APA Division 28: The Past, Present, and Future of Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse." Taken together, the scholarly contributions included in this special issue serve as a testament to the important work conducted by our colleagues over the past five decades. Division 28 and its members have advanced and disseminated knowledge on the behavioral effects of drugs, informed efforts to prevent and treat substance abuse, and influenced education and policy issues more generally. As past and current leaders of the division, we are excited to celebrate 50 years of Division 28 and look forward to many more successful decades for our division and its members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. World War II never ended in my house: interviews of 12 Office of Strategic Services veterans of wartime espionage on the 50th anniversary of WW II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Susan

    2006-07-01

    The author conducted sociological interviews of 12 OSS spies (7 male, 5 female) who were operatives in France during World War II (WW II). The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) existed from 1941 to 1945 and was later renamed the CIA in 1947. This paper includes family studies of six close relatives of OSS vets and observation of 400 OSS veterans at the 50th anniversary of WW II. Three of the 12 OSS veterans who had been tortured by the Gestapo still suffered from PTSD-startle symptoms after 50 years; those three also suffered massive strokes in later life. The majority of OSS vets, regardless of gender, exhibited "war excitement" when talking about the war 50 years later. Most saw the war as the highpoint of their lives. War excitement needs more careful study within PTSD circles.

  6. Cognitive ergonomics of operational tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedeke, A.

    2012-01-01

    Control systems have become increasingly more powerful over the past decades. The availability of high data throughput and sophisticated graphical interactions has opened a variety of new possibilities. But has this helped to provide intuitive, easy to use applications to simplify the operation of modern large scale accelerator facilities? We will discuss what makes an application useful to operation and what is necessary to make a tool easy to use. We will show that even the implementation of a small number of simple application design rules can help to create ergonomic operational tools. The author is convinced that such tools do indeed help to achieve higher beam availability and better beam performance at all accelerator facilities. (author)

  7. Ergonomics and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, C.J.; Bogie, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms

  8. Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg

    Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes...... employed in the same company, constituted a supporting factor for the possibilities to integrate ergonomic knowledge into the engineering design processes. However, the integration activities remained discrete and only happened in some of the design projects. A major barrier was related to the business...... to the ergonomic ambitions of the clients. The ergonomists’ ability to navigate, act strategically, and compromise on ergonomic inputs is also important in relation to having an impact in the engineering design processes. Familiarity with the engineering design terminology and the setup of design projects seems...

  9. Ergonomics in nuclear and human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Schultheiss, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The work situation including man-machine-relationships in nuclear power plants is described. The overview gives only a compact summary of some important ergonomic parameters, i.e. human body dimension, human load, human characteristics and human knowledge. (DG)

  10. Corporate ergonomics programme at Ford Motor Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bradley S

    2003-01-01

    The use of ergonomic principles in automobile assembly and manufacturing operations has become an important part of a comprehensive health and safety process as well as an integral part of the engineering systems. Ford Motor Company has developed an ergonomics process to manage issues related to injury and illness (e.g., musculoskeletal diseases) and to ensure the appropriate use of human resources on the plant floor. The ergonomics programme uses joint labour and management teams to identify and evaluate jobs and develop and implement solutions. This paper summarises the efforts of the Ford Motor Company in implementing and maintaining the programme. Key strategies are outlined that provide important links to internal organisational units that are critical to fully utilise the ergonomics process. In addition, the paper outlines differences between proactive and reactive efforts and shows the importance of using the information generated by the initiatives for process improvement.

  11. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  12. ERGONOMICs IN THE COMPUTER WORKsTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... in relation to their work environment and working surroundings. ... prolonged computer usage and application of ergonomics in the workstation. Design:One hundred and .... Occupational Health and Safety Services should.

  13. Office ergonomics: deficiencies in computer workstation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and identify ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design in typical offices. Physical measurements and a questionnaire were used to study 40 workstations. Major ergonomic deficiencies were found in physical design and layout of the workstations, employee postures, work practices, and training. The consequences in terms of user health and other problems were significant. Forty-five percent of the employees used nonadjustable chairs, 48% of computers faced windows, 90% of the employees used computers more than 4 hrs/day, 45% of the employees adopted bent and unsupported back postures, and 20% used office tables for computers. Major problems reported were eyestrain (58%), shoulder pain (45%), back pain (43%), arm pain (35%), wrist pain (30%), and neck pain (30%). These results indicated serious ergonomic deficiencies in office computer workstation design, layout, and usage. Strategies to reduce or eliminate ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstation design were suggested.

  14. The ergonomics of command and control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Baber, C

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception, just after the Second World War, ergonomics research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and Control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for Ergonomics research. We take a broad view of Command and Control research, to include C2 (Command and Control), C3 (Command, Control and Communication), and C4 (Command, Control, Communication and Computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. This spe...

  15. Indonesia ergonomics roadmap: where we are going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignjosoebroto, Sritomo

    2007-12-01

    There are so many definitions for ergonomics terms such as human factors, human factors engineering, human engineering, human factors psychology, engineering psychology, applied ergonomics, occupational ergonomics, industrial ergonomics and industrial engineering. The most inclusive terms are ergonomics and human factors. Both represent the study of work and the interaction between people and their work environmental systems. The main objective is especially fitting with the need to design, develop, implement and evaluate human-machine and environment systems that are productive, comfortable, safe and satisfying to use. The work of the ergonomists in Indonesia--most of them are academicians--have one thing in common, i.e. with the appropriate type of ergonomic approaches to interventions; there would be improvements in productivity, quality of working conditions, occupational safety and health (OSH), costs reduction, better environment, and increase in profits. So many researches, training, seminars and socialization about ergonomics and OSH have been done concerning micro-to-macro themes; but it seems that we are practically still running at the same place up to now. In facts, workers are still working using their traditional or obsolete methods in poor working conditions. Accidents are still happening inside and outside industry with the main root-cause being human "unsafe behavior" and errors. Industrial products cannot compete in the global market, and so many manufacturing industries collapsed or relocated to foreign countries. This paper discusses such a roadmap and review what we ergonomists in Indonesia have done and where we are going to? This review will be treated in the field of ergonomics and OSH to take care the future Indonesia challenges. Some of the challenges faced are care for the workers, care for the people, care for the quality and productivity of work, care for the new advanced technologies, care for the environment, and last but not least

  16. Ergonomics and its application to Sizewell 'B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    The scope of the ergonomics contribution to the design and operation of power stations is described on the basis of current experience in the CEGB and in other countries. The ergonomics questions which arise in relation to Sizewell 'B' are enumerated in detail. Issues which arise from the point of view of station operation and from the complementary point of view of human behaviour are considered. (author)

  17. EDITORIAL: 50th anniversary issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoe, Alun H.

    2006-07-01

    In July 1956, 50 years ago, the first issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) was published. It was subtitled The Journal of the Hospital Physicists' Association and published in association with the Philosophical Magazine by Taylor and Francis. Subscriptions were £1 per part or £3 10s for an annual subscription. The Editor, Professor J E Roberts, prefaced the first issue with a cautious editorial noting: The appearance of a new journal is usually greeted with mixed feelings by scientific workers, a common response being that there are far too many journals already. Justification for a new publication is only possible if there is a clearly defined gap in the publishing facilities available to workers in a particular scientific field.... Professor Roberts ended by seeking support from the scientific community for the new venture. He certainly got it! From a tentative few hundred pages in four issues a year for the first few years, the journal is now issued twice monthly with nearly 8000 pages expected in volume 51. In this anniversary issue we have invited some 28 senior authors to submit papers on a range of subjects spanning the discipline. We decided that to be an author one had to be old, but age was not to be the only criterion! Indeed readers will recognize all names as major contributors to both the development of medical physics and the success of PMB. Authors were not asked to write formal topical reviews of the state-of-the-art of the sub-disciplines which make up medical physics, but rather to present short historical reviews, didactic in style, perhaps highlighting the role of PMB in the development of their fields. Nevertheless, other than a page limit (which many subsequently ignored!) no formal format was imposed on authors, so what follows is a range of contributions from the almost conversational, personal statement to the more formal and familiar scientific paper. Whatever the writing style we are confident that readers will gain some appreciation of the development of our wide-ranging discipline over the last half century. Some readers may feel that one or two subjects have not been represented, and for that I can only apologise. We did ask for contributions to several other topics (for example radiation metrology and optical techniques) but inevitably there were authors who for various reasons were unable to meet the deadline. Inevitably we will also have missed contributions from excellent potential authors (who satisfied the age criterion!). As Guest Editor I must bear the responsibility for those omissions. While page limits do not permit me to discuss the contributions to this issue individually I would like to mention the first contribution by Dr J E (Bob) Burns. Dr Burns was on the Editorial Board in the early sixties working with the second Editor, Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat. Both in his article and in personal communications Dr Burns has emphasized the important role of Professor Rotblat in the early years. I did write to Professor Rotblat seeking a contribution from him but, sadly, received a reply saying that he was not well enough to contribute `at present'; he died a few weeks later at the age of 96 years (please refer to www.pugwash.org for tributes from Mikhail Gorbachev, Kofi Annan and many others). Dr Burns wrote a short note to me shortly after his death including the following comment which is reproduced below: Although many people have contributed to the success of PMB over the last 50 years it was Rotblat's restless energy, power of persuasion and already existing fame (he was well known both scientifically and to the public at the time) that enabled him to rescue the journal from an early death. After discussions with colleagues around the UK, including Dr Burns, and with the Editorial Board, we all felt that it would be highly appropriate to dedicate this anniversary issue to the memory of Professor Rotblat. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOP) took over the publishing of PMB in 1972, firstly on behalf of the Hospital Physicists' Association and then on behalf of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). I wish to pay tribute to the staff at the IOP Publishing Office for the continuing excellent quality and short publication times for articles appearing in PMB. There can be no doubt that this contributes to the popularity with authors and readers alike. It almost goes without saying but I should also thank all the contributors, referees, Editorial Board members and International Advisory Board members who have, collectively, made PMB the success that it is. For historical interest I list below the 11 editors of PMB since its inception. Three of these editors have contributed papers to this issue. 1956-1961 Professor J E Roberts, Middlesex Hospital, London 1961-1972 Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London 1973-1978 Professor H A B Simons, Royal Free Hospital, London 1979-1982 Mr J Clifton, University College Hospital, London 1983-1985 Professor R P Parker, University of Leeds, Leeds 1986-1987 Dr M J Day, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle 1988-1991 Professor S C Lillicrap, Royal United Hospital, Bath 1992-1995 Professor B L Diffey, Dryburn Hospital, Durham 1996-1999 Professor M O Leach, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London 2000-2005 Professor A H Beddoe, University Hospital, Birmingham 2006- Professor S Webb, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London Finally, apart from noting the usual caveat that the Guest Editor, Editor-in Chief, IOP and IPEM take no responsibility for opinions expressed by authors, I would like to conclude by wishing Professor Steve Webb and future editors every success. While I may not be around for the centenary issue in July 2056 I have every reason to believe that it will be a good one.

  18. Optimization of healthcare supply chain in context of macro-ergonomics factors by a unique mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Motevali Haghighi, S; Gaeini, Z; Shabanpour, N

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an integrated approach for analyzing the impact of macro-ergonomics factors in healthcare supply chain (HCSC) by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The case of this study is the supply chain (SC) of a real hospital. Thus, healthcare standards and macro-ergonomics factors are considered to be modeled by the mathematical programming approach. Over 28 subsidiary SC divisions with parallel missions and objectives are evaluated by analyzing inputs and outputs through DEA. Each division in this HCSC is considered as decision making unit (DMU). This approach can analyze the impact of macro-ergonomics factors on supply chain management (SCM) in healthcare sector. Also, this method ranks the relevant performance efficiencies of each HCSC. In this study by using proposed method, the most effective macro-ergonomics factor on HCSC is identified as "teamwork" issue. Also, this study would help managers to identify the areas of weaknesses in their SCM system and set improvement target plan for the related SCM system in healthcare industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for macro-ergonomics optimization of HCSC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Ergonomic evaluation and comparison of wood harvesting systems in Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Sokolov, Anton

    2014-03-01

    A comparison of 14 currently applicable wood harvesting systems was assessed with respect to ergonomic point of view. For this purpose, the research method, based on the Hodges-Lehmann rule and the integrated work-severity rate of single machinery, was developed for ergonomic evaluation of cut-to-length, tree-length and full-tree harvesting systems. Altogether, about 130 different parameters of 36 units of equipment that impact on the ergonomics and work conditions were measured and estimated in interviews undertaken directly at forestry harvesting workplaces in 15 logging companies in the Republic of Karelia, Northwest Russia. Then the results were compared to the effective norms, and the degree of compliance with the stipulated values was determined. The estimates obtained for the degree of compliance were combined. This permits a direct comparison of the workload on forestry harvesting workers such as operators, lumberjacks and choker setters. In many respects, the current ergonomic standard is standard, except for the operators of cable skidders, chainsaws and choker settings. Visibility and work postures were considered to be the most critical features influencing the operator's performance. Problems still exist, despite the extensive development of cabs. The best working conditions in terms of harvesting systems were provided by "harvester + forwarder" in cut-to-length harvesting, and "feller-buncher + grapple skidder" in full-tree harvesting. The motor-manual tree-length harvesting performed with cable skidders showed the worst results in terms of ergonomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Ergonomics, design universal and fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S B; Martins, L B

    2012-01-01

    People who lie beyond the "standard" model of users often come up against barriers when using fashion products, especially clothing, the design of which ought to give special attention to comfort, security and well-being. The principles of universal design seek to extend the design process for products manufactured in bulk so as to include people who, because of their personal characteristics or physical conditions, are at an extreme end of some dimension of performance, whether this is to do with sight, hearing, reach or manipulation. Ergonomics, a discipline anchored on scientific data, regards human beings as the central focus of its operations and, consequently, offers various forms of support to applying universal design in product development. In this context, this paper sets out a reflection on applying the seven principles of universal design to fashion products and clothing with a view to targeting such principles as recommendations that will guide the early stages of developing these products, and establish strategies for market expansion, thereby increasing the volume of production and reducing prices.

  1. A report from the European Association for the Study of the Liver's 50th International Liver Congress (April 22-26 - Vienna, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasseda, X

    2015-04-01

    While Vienna's Prater park offers a varied selection of options, from theme parks to lush gardens and prairies to enjoy the sun, the nearby Messe Wien convention center was the focus of attention in April 2015 for all the scientists, researchers and clinicians interested in viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma and a variety of other liver diseases. Treatments and potential new therapeutic strategies for these hepatopathies were discussed during the 50th International Liver Congress organized by the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Echoing epidemiological facts and a high social interest for hepatitis C virus infection, new findings with investigational and potential new therapies for the disease centered much of the attention at the conference. Nevertheless, new research was also reported related to potential improvements in how other liver diseases, particularly hepatitis B virus infection, hepatocellular carcinoma and a range of inflammatory and immune-mediated liver diseases, including rare hereditary diseases that should never be forgotten. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  2. Is a participatory approach effective to stimulate using ergonomic measures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, H.F. van der; Sluiter, J.K.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Vink, P.; Duivenbooden, J.C. van; Holman, R.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a participatory ergonomics (PE) implementation strategy on the use of ergonomic measures reducing the physical work demands of construction work. The ergonomic measures consisted of adjusting working height (two measures) and mechanising the

  3. Ergonomic measures in construction work: enhancing evidence-based implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the development and availability of ergonomic measures in the construction industry, the number of construction workers reporting high physical work demands remains high. A reduction of the high physical work demands can be achieved by using ergonomic measures. However, these ergonomic

  4. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.

  5. Work in corporate sustainability policies: the contribution of ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, I; Brunoro, C M; Sznelwar, L I

    2014-01-01

    By introducing policies for sustainability and social responsibility, companies declare their interest in caring for all stakeholders, including workers. To analyze how and which themes related to work practices and to workers are approached in the discourse of corporations are considered sustainable and socially responsible. Based on ergonomic principles, more elements are brought into this discussion, viewed from a strategic perspective for the development of corporations and society. Data collected from 20 corporations considered more sustainable according to an assessment made by the Corporate Knights organization. Multiple-case study, based on the analysis of secondary sources content (websites and reports). Analysis of websites and reports by their content, and their classification according to the aspects present in the thematic of work practices and of human rights elaborated by standard ISO 26000. Corporations show that the worker is one of the stakeholders to be considered in their sustainability and social responsibility policies. However, it's not possible using this method to obtain effective evidences related to actual programs performed by companies in order to demonstrate the real importance of workers in sustainable polices. The discipline of ergonomics could be active in improving the implementation of corporate social responsibility policies, especially by emphasizing the social dimension of these policies.

  6. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B [ed.; Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    1990-01-01

    135 papers were presented at the conference in 20 sessions with the following headings: aging and industrial performance; back injury and rehabilitation; bioinstrumentation and electromyography; cumulative trauma disorders; engineering anthropometry; equipment design and ergonomics; human computer interaction; human performance and worker satisfaction; human strength and testing; industrial accidents and prevention; industrial biomechanics; injuries in health care; manual materials handling; noise and vibration effects; occupational health and safety; robotics and agricultural machinery safety; statistics and modelling in ergonomics; work environment; workplace safety analysis; and workstation design. Papers are included entitled: A model for analyzing mining machine illumination systems' by R.L. Unger, A.F. Glowacki and E.W. Rossi, 'Ergonomic design guidelines for underground coal mining equipment by E.J. Conway and R. Unger, and Hot work environment and human strain - a relation proposed by K. Bhattacharya and S. Raja.

  7. Finding ergonomic solutions--participatory approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignett, Sue; Wilson, John R; Morris, Wendy

    2005-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the theory of participatory ergonomics interventions and summary examples from a range of industries, including health care, military, manufacturing, production and processing, services, construction and transport. The definition of participatory approaches includes interventions at macro (organizational, systems) levels as well as micro (individual), where workers are given the opportunity and power to use their knowledge to address ergonomic problems relating to their own working activities. Examples are given where a cost-effective benefit has been measured using musculoskeletal sickness absence and compensation costs. Other examples, using different outcome measures, also showed improvements, for example, an increase in productivity, improved communication between staff and management, reduction in risk factors, the development of new processes and new designs for work environments and activities. Three cases are described from Canada and Japan where the participatory project was led by occupational health teams, suggesting that occupational health practitioners can have an important role to play in participatory ergonomics projects.

  8. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B. (ed.) (Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Industrial Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    135 papers were presented at the conference in 20 sessions with the following headings: aging and industrial performance; back injury and rehabilitation; bioinstrumentation and electromyography; cumulative trauma disorders; engineering anthropometry; equipment design and ergonomics; human computer interaction; human performance and worker satisfaction; human strength and testing; industrial accidents and prevention; industrial biomechanics; injuries in health care; manual materials handling; noise and vibration effects; occupational health and safety; robotics and agricultural machinery safety; statistics and modelling in ergonomics; work environment; workplace safety analysis; and workstation design. Papers are included entitled: A model for analyzing mining machine illumination systems' by R.L. Unger, A.F. Glowacki and E.W. Rossi, 'Ergonomic design guidelines for underground coal mining equipment by E.J. Conway and R. Unger, and Hot work environment and human strain - a relation proposed by K. Bhattacharya and S. Raja.

  9. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...

  10. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  11. Ergonomics as a missing part of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic-Veselinovic, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, terms such as sustainable development, environmental protection, and sustainable design have been widely exploited, often without justification. Does ergonomics have a legitimate need or right to use these terms and to be the part of the process to which they refer? This paper discusses the relationship between ergonomics and the concept of sustainable development and its three elements of sustainability (environmental, social and economic), as the steps ergonomists need to take to secure and strengthen the influence in sustainability topics.

  12. Ergonomía. Vol. 1, Fundamentos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel; Gregori Torada, Enrique; Barrau Bombardó, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    La obra ofrece una visión general de los aspectos básicos de la ergonomía. Está dividida en ocho capítulos, que abordan los temas de relaciones dimensionales, relaciones informáticas y de control, relaciones ambientales, gasto energético y capacidad de trabajo físico y trabajo mental. El libro pretende ser una guía básica para aquellas personas que se inicien en el apasionante campo de la ergonomía.

  13. Sir Ronald A. Fisher and the International Biometric Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the death of Sir Ronald A. Fisher, one of the two Fathers of Statistics and a Founder of the International Biometric Society (the "Society"). To celebrate the extraordinary genius of Fisher and the far-sighted vision of Fisher and Chester Bliss in organizing and promoting the formation of the Society, this article looks at the origins and growth of the Society, some of the key players and events, and especially the roles played by Fisher himself as the First President. A fresh look at Fisher, the man rather than the scientific genius is also presented. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  14. The implementation of ergonomics advice and the stage of change approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Karnon, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the implementation of injury prevention advice tailored according to the Stage of Change (SOC) approach. The managers of 25 workgroups, drawn from medium to large companies across a wide range of occupational sectors were allocated to receive either standard ergonomics advice or ergonomics advice tailored according to the workgroup SOC. Twelve months after the advice was provided, semi-structured interviews were conducted with each manager. In a multivariate model, managers who had received tailored advice were found to have implemented significantly more of the recommended changes (IRR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.07-2.63) and more "additional" changes (IRR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.12-3.20). Qualitative analysis identified that the key barriers and facilitators to the implementation of changes were largely related to worker resistance to change and the attitudes of senior managers towards health and safety. The findings from this study suggest that the implementation of ergonomics recommendations may be improved by the tailoring of advice according to SOC principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Ergonomics in gynecologists' daily practice: A nationwide survey in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleblas, Chantal C J; Formanoy, Margriet A G; Könemann, Reinier; Radder, Celine M; Huirne, Judith A; Nieboer, Theodoor E

    2016-01-01

    Gynecologists are exposed to multiple risk factors for developing physical complaints. To enhance the workplace ergonomics in gynecological practice, a more detailed insight about job content and associated demands is necessary to subsequently decrease the exposure to risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of physical complaints and the presence of ergonomic constraints in Dutch gynecological practice. A questionnaire was distributed among the 1200 members of the Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. It consisted of 52 Dutch questions derived from the validated Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. A total of 227 respondents completed the questionnaire (response rate 18.9%). Overall, 99.5% of the respondents rated their health status as reasonable or good. However, the twelve-month prevalence of physical complaints in one or more body part was 89.4%. Sustained adverse body postures were particularly reported for performing abdominal, and endoscopic surgery, and for assisting in vaginal surgery. Limited workspace, instruments, and patient size were reported by more than 60% of the respondents as constraints for adopting a neutral body posture during vaginal, endoscopic and abdominal surgery respectively. The results emphasize the necessity of enhancing ergonomics in gynecological practice. Better ergonomic circumstances will most likely benefit both the health of the gynecologists as well as the quality of surgical care.

  16. Sustainable Ergonomic Program - Basic Condition for Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Petra; Beňo, Rastislav; Hatiar, Karol

    2012-12-01

    Gradually increasing pressure on companies to start to behave socially responsible is a response to social, environmental and economic requirements. The society faces a period of changes that have occurred since the beginning of the crisis and revealing weaknesses in the economy. We become witnesses of rapid changes and challenges posed by globalization, lack of resources, demographic structure and innovation. Objective necessity becomes a corporate social responsibility (CSR) already at the companies’ level, which is supported by the approach of the EU institutions and the Slovak Republic. One of the possible appliance through which we can contribute to the sustainability of CSR are sustainable ergonomic programs. When we want to talk about sustainable ergonomic program is important to focus on three key areas. The first area is the Impact of technic and technology to employees at work, the second area is the Importance and impact of socially responsible HR in ergonomics and last area is the Creation of the work environment in relation to environmental sustainability. Ergonomic programs sustainability requires to apply appropriate methods for evaluation of their cost benefit and health effect.

  17. Ergonomics in thoracoscopic surgery: results of a survey among thoracic surgeons†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcker, Katrin; Kesieme, Emeka B.; Internullo, Eveline; Kranenburg van Koppen, Laura J.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The frequent and prolonged use of thoracoscopic equipment raises ergonomic risks which may cause physical distress. We aimed to determine the relationship between ergonomic problems encountered in thoracoscopic surgery and physical distress among thoracic surgeons. METHODS An online questionnaire which investigated personal factors, product factors, interaction factors and physical discomfort was sent to all members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS). RESULTS Of the respondents, 2.4% indicated that a one arm's length should be the optimal distance between the surgeon and the monitor. Only 2.4% indicated that the monitor should be positioned below the eye level of the surgeon. Most of the respondents agreed, partially to fully, that they experienced neck discomfort because of inappropriate monitor height, bad monitor position and bad table height. Most respondents experienced numb fingers and shoulder discomfort due to instrument manipulation. Most of the respondents (77.1%) experienced muscle fatigue to some extent due to a static posture during thoracoscopic surgery. The majority of respondents (81.9, 76.3 and 83.2% respectively) indicated that they had varying degrees of discomfort mainly in the neck, shoulder and back. Some 94.4% of respondents were unaware of any guidelines concerning table height, monitor and instrument placement for endoscopic surgery. CONCLUSIONS Most thoracic surgeons in Europe are unaware of ergonomic guidelines and do not practise them, hence they suffer varying degrees of physical discomfort arising from ergonomic issues. PMID:22586071

  18. ADVANCES IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS. International Symposium Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Institutional Physics Research in Romania. Abstracts of invited talks, oral contributions and posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Enulescu, A.; Stoica, S.

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the Abstracts of the invited talks, oral contributions and posters presented in the International Symposium Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Institutional Physics Research in Romania. Horia Hulubei was born in November 15, 1896 in Iassy and died in November 22, 1972. He graduated in 1926 and in 1927 went in Paris and worked with the Physical Chemistry Laboratory of Sorbonne and took his PhD in 1933 with Professor Jean Perrin in the field of X-ray spectroscopy, a domain in which he became one of the best specialists of the time. His papers treated a large area of subjects from the multiple Compton effects, predicted and experimentally discovered by him, Raman spectra, the X-ray spectra of gases obtained in collaboration with Yvette Cauchois, the identification of elements by X-ray spectroscopy, etc. Winner of two prises of Paris Academy of Sciences, he was elected Corresponding Member of this prestigious French institution. He was also a Directeur de Recherches at the French National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS). In Romania, he founded in 1949 at Bucharest, the Institute of Atomic Physics, a realization of his dream to build a modern institution of Western type in his own country, tightly connected with the rest of scientific world by international cooperation. The lectures given at this symposium will be published by World Scientific Publishing Co. while the oral contributions and posters will be published in Romanian Journal of Physics. The abstracts of all these communications are dealing with current research conducted in the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in the field of nuclear structure, elementary particle and fields, applications of isotopes and radiation, etc. A number of these communications have been presented by invited prominent scientists of abroad, many of them working in collaboration with the scientific staff of the Romanian institutes and universities

  19. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  20. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet

    2016-10-17

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  1. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mallory

    2014-01-01

    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  2. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.

  3. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R

    2006-07-01

    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  4. Statement to the 39th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 18 September 1995. Statement to the 50th session of the United Nations General Assembly 1 November 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1995-11-01

    In the Statement to the 39th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA main directions of IAEA activities for 1994 and plans for the future are outlined. In the Statement to the 50th Session of the United Nations General Assembly main achievements and challenges facing the international community in the field of IAEA competence are discussed

  5. Statement to the 39th session of the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency 18 September 1995. Statement to the 50th session of the United Nations General Assembly 1 November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H

    1995-11-01

    In the Statement to the 39th Session of the General Conference of the IAEA main directions of IAEA activities for 1994 and plans for the future are outlined. In the Statement to the 50th Session of the United Nations General Assembly main achievements and challenges facing the international community in the field of IAEA competence are discussed.

  6. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% ... contribute to achievement of organizational goals.[3] Improving .... poor culture of application of ergonomics by participants as knowledge of benefit of ...

  7. Ergonomics SA publishing requirements and submission guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rhodes

    handling tasks of Indian nurses. Smaranika Goswami. M.Sc. Ergonomics and ... manual patient handling, nurses in India and other developing countries frequently experience awkward postures during work. ..... technique and availability of lifting devices was one of the reasons for WMSDs. Awkward postures were also a ...

  8. Kaizen and ergonomics: the perfect marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Martin Antonio; Lopez, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an approach of how Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Ergonomics could be implemented in the field of work. The Toyota's Team Members are the owners of this job, applying tools and techniques to improve work conditions using the Kaizen Philosophy in a QCC Activity (Quality Control Circle).

  9. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This cross‑sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, ...

  10. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazet, A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1971-01-01

    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most

  11. Ergonomics SA - Vol 24, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a Modular Test Stand for the Measuring of Dynamic Muscular Strain of Test Persons for the Simulation in Digital Human Models · EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Ergonomic intervention for reducing the exposure to musculoskeletal disorders risk factors in pharmaceutical production centre · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  12. Learning without Pain: Ergonomics Prevents Injuries. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Ergonomics" is a body of knowledge about human abilities and limitations and how these abilities and limitations should be applied to the design of equipment, machinery, and other devices to ensure safe, comfortable and effective use. Most homes and schools today are equipped with computers for student use. Backpacks have become the…

  13. Ergonomics intervention in manual handling of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motamedzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.

  14. Ergonomics SA publishing requirements and submission guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rhodes

    This study assessed the ergonomic risk factors, and occupational health and ... health hazards such as increased mortality, dermal contamination, depression in cholinesterase level, fetal abnormalities spontaneous abortion among pregnant women ..... Another study in China showed the correlation between pesticide in ...

  15. Ergonomics SA - Vol 21, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomics study on Musculoskeletal Disorders among female agricultural workers of West Bengal, India · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Gangopadhyay, B Das, T Das, G Ghoshal, T Ghosh, T Ara, S Dev, 11-22 ...

  16. Ergonomics SA publishing requirements and submission guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rhodes

    researchers take the time to read the work that is coming out of these developing regions to better understand things such as technology transfer and the like. I am increasingly of the opinion that there are a large number of Human Factors and Ergonomics researchers and practitioners who are not fully aware of the work in ...

  17. Implantation of an ergonomics administration system in a company: report of an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Berla; Andrade, Valéria Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe step-by-step the implementation of an ergonomics administration system in a company from March 2009 till March 2011 by an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics based on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines and the Regulatory Norms 17 manual. The process began with the definition of five requisites with bases on the manual of application of the Regulatory Norms 17: survey; materials individual transportation and discharge; workplace furniture; workplace equipments; work environment and organization of the work to be managed with bases on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines. The following steps were established: sensitization of the company high administration, elaboration and institution of an ergonomics politics, development of ergonomics committees, ergonomics analysis of the work with recommendation of ergonomic improvements, implantation of improvements and evaluation or the results. This research experiment suggests the importance not only of a guiding axle but also of a professional qualification and participation of the company on the implementation of an ergonomics management system.

  18. A field intervention examining the impact of an office ergonomics training and a highly adjustable chair on visual symptoms in a public sector organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Benjamin C; Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Bazzani, Lianna; Robertson, Michelle; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Moore, Anne

    2012-05-01

    Examine the effect of a multi-component office ergonomics intervention on visual symptom reductions. Office workers were assigned to either a group receiving a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training (CWT), a training-only group (TO) or a control group (C). A work environment and health questionnaire was administered 2 and 1 month(s) pre-intervention and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Multi-level statistical models tested hypotheses. The CWT intervention lowered daily visual symptoms (p office ergonomics training had reduced visual symptoms and the effect was maintained through twelve months post-intervention. The lack of a training-only group effect supports implementing training in conjunction with the highly adjustable chair to reduce visual symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Commemoration of 50th anniversary of 'Atoms for Peace'. Ceremony for dedication of bust of Eisenhower, 4 December 2003, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' vision, and the creation of the IAEA as a practical manifestation of that vision, came at a time when the horrifying images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were still fresh, and when fears of the rush to acquire nuclear weapons were well-founded. 'Atoms for Peace' was a recognition of the double edged sword inherent in the atom, and invoked a solemn commitment to the ideal that nuclear science and technology should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. In rereading Eisenhower's memorable speech to the UN General Assembly, I was struck by a number of concepts and ideas in the speech: The first is that: 'Clearly, if the people of the world are to conduct an intelligent search for peace, they must be armed with the significant facts of today's existence'; In other words, the vision of 'Atoms for Peace' must be a dynamic one, a vision that is carried out in a manner that is adjustable to current challenges. The second is the plan for implementing the vision: To encourage global investigation into the most effective peaceful uses of nuclear material; To 'allow all peoples of all nations to see that, in this enlightened age, the great powers of the earth, both of the East and of the West, are interested in human aspirations first rather than building up the armaments of war'; To open up a new channel for dialogue and develop new approaches for solving problems of global fear and insecurity; and To begin to diminish the destructive power of existing stockpiles. This 'plan for action', was clearly prescient and though a work in progress, is still as valid today as in 1953: co-operative development of peaceful technologies, active efforts to achieve nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, clear commitment to the rights of all people to live in peace, and continued dialogue in seeking solutions for our fears and insecurities. As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of 'Atoms for Peace', it is appropriate here at the Agency - the

  20. Office ergonomics training and a sit-stand workstation: effects on musculoskeletal and visual symptoms and performance of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; Ciriello, Vincent M; Garabet, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) among office workers with intensive computer use is widespread and the prevalence of symptoms is growing. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an office ergonomics training combined with a sit-stand workstation on musculoskeletal and visual discomfort, behaviors and performance. Participants performed a lab-based customer service job for 8 h per day, over 15 days and were assigned to: Ergonomics Trained (n = 11) or Minimally Trained (n = 11). The training consisted of: a 1.5-h interactive instruction, a sit/stand practice period, and ergonomic reminders. Ergonomics Trained participants experienced minimal musculoskeletal and visual discomfort across the 15 days, varied their postures, with significantly higher performance compared to the Minimally Trained group who had a significantly higher number of symptoms, suggesting that training plays a critical role. The ability to mitigate symptoms, change behaviors and enhance performance through training combined with a sit-stand workstation has implications for preventing discomforts in office workers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Ergonomics in the operating room: protecting the surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Peter L; McKinney, Jessica; Adams, Sonia R

    2013-01-01

    To review elements of an ergonomic operating room environment and describe common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture during laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Descriptive video based on clinical experience and a review of the literature (Canadian Task Force classification III). Community teaching hospital affiliated with a major teaching hospital. Gynecologic surgeons. Demonstration of surgical ergonomic principles and common errors in surgical ergonomics by a physical therapist and surgeon. The physical nature of surgery necessitates awareness of ergonomic principles. The literature has identified ergonomic awareness to be grossly lacking among practicing surgeons, and video has not been documented as a teaching tool for this population. Taking this into account, we created a video that demonstrates proper positioning of monitors and equipment, and incorrect and correct ergonomic positions during surgery. Also presented are 3 common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture: forward head position, improper shoulder elevation, and pelvic girdle asymmetry. Postural reset and motion strategies are demonstrated to help the surgeon learn techniques to counterbalance the sustained and awkward positions common during surgery that lead to muscle fatigue, pain, and degenerative changes. Correct ergonomics is a learned and practiced behavior. We believe that video is a useful way to facilitate improvement in ergonomic behaviors. We suggest that consideration of operating room setup, proper posture, and practice of postural resets are necessary components for a longer, healthier, and pain-free surgical career. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heart to heart - a custodian journal on grassroots ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D. M., LLNL

    1998-03-04

    When we first requested to speak at the American Society of Safety Engineer`s Professional Development Conference in Seattle, Washington, the theme we had in mind for this program paper was quite different. It definitely was not anything like our title, `Heart to Heart` implies. It was more formal and traditional. Give you figures, diagrams and the like. But two years later, we have come to another conclusion, to tell you the story about how a group of custodians and health & safety professionals dreamed big dreams and they came true. In order to understand what occurred, we first need to start at the very beginning with the Custodian Quality Improvement Team (CQIT). This group had been formed by the Plant Engineering Department at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) located in Livermore, California. LLNL is operated by the University of California for The U.S.Department of Energy. It is the premier applied physics research laboratory in the world. Plant Engineering (PE) is much like a Public Works Department. PE has all of the crafts, such as plumbers and electricians, who do maintenance-type work, as well as the engineering and construction employees. PE maintain the utilities, constructs new buildings and takes care of old ones. They take of the roads and clean the buildings and landscape the campus. So the Custodian Shop and its some 150 employees is a member of the PE family so to speak. The CQIT had decided to investigate ways they could reduce the number of injuries they were having. They invited health and safety professionals, David Zalk (an Industrial Hygienist) and Jack Tolley (Safety Engineer) to consult with them about this. They are both Hazards Control Team 4 members at LLNL. They were both interested in ergonomics and suggested that an approach to reducing their injuries might lie in studying how the custodians actually do their work. David has extensive training in ergonomics, and Jack simply had a long-time interest in ergonomics for

  3. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  4. The concept of contradiction in ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanael, Dimitris; Zarboutis, Nikos; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The present communication deals with the methodology of the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes an operationalized version of work analysis in terms of contradictions. The aim is to demonstrate that such a dialectic tool and method of representation may assist the ergonomist to frame the essence of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs (i) contradiction as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory and (ii) regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented and a discussion is made on further developments and possible pitfalls.

  5. Introduction to ergonomics for healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare workers who handle and move patients as part of their jobs suffer a disproportionately high number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The majority of reported work-related MSDs are back pain cases that result in significant numbers of lost work days. It is likely that these lost workdays have a substantial impact on the quality and cost of health care. Patient care ergonomics can reduce the risk of work-related MSDs by helping safety experts design the work so it can be safely performed by most workers. This article provides a general overview of ergonomics--what it is, how it can be used to help design safe work, and why all healthcare workers and administrators should know and understand how excessive work demands can lead to increased risk of work-related MSDs. The article will also explain technological solutions that can be implemented to reduce the risk of work-related MSDs for healthcare workers.

  6. Ergonomics influence on control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfiel, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, human factors has become an important aspect of the design of work places. Since the control room in a nuclear power plant is a work place, too, its layout is also influenced by ergonomics. With the KWU control room concept for the 1300 MW PWR as an example, we show how assured and applicable ergonomic findings enter into the control room design. On the basis of general design principles for work places, specific methods for control room planning have been developed. By working with these methods a concept that makes it possible to build a man-machine interface able to fulfill the process control tasks with all their underlying conditions has been derived. (author)

  7. Casting an ergonomic eye on university libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Nicole; Villarouco, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Research in the field of Ergonomics of the Built Environment has been developed with a view to consolidating studies in this area, the objective of which is to provide evidence that the joint participation of users and designers on drawing up projects is important. In this context, the theme of this study is to investigate the interactions between users and the environment in a university library. To do so, well-established techniques from Ergonomics, Architecture and Environmental Psychology were used to make a functional and behavioral evaluation to identify the level of user satisfaction in six libraries in the various study centers of the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, northeast Brazil, so as to identify the strengths and also weaknesses in these spatial structures.

  8. A brief essay on ergonomics in graphic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, André N F; van der Linden, Júlio C S; Fonseca, Tania M G

    2012-01-01

    Through Brazilian publication revision on the relations amongst Ergonomics and Design, we observed the tendency towards an approach focusing on product design. However, it is our duty to question which would be the influences of ergonomics in the graphic design. As a methodology, we considered the identification that the practices derived from ergonomics as epistemic system found in the main bibliography related to graphic design.

  9. Re-education of good ergonomics in nursing for Suomikoti

    OpenAIRE

    Isoheiko, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to promote and “refresh” the good ergonomics in nursing for Suomikoti in Sweden. The author noticed the need for re-education or “refreshment” of the nursing ergonomics among the permanent personnel as well updating knowledge of functioning of the existing assistive devices. Suomikoti has already a good and comprehensive transfer and ergonomics education and practical training for new employees arranged by their own physiotherapist and occupational therapist. It cov...

  10. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Henrijs Kaļķis

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  11. Ergonomics: A bridge between fundamentals and applied research

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Subrata; Bagchi, Anandi; Sen, Devashish; Bandyopadhyay, Pathikrit

    2011-01-01

    Ergonomics is becoming a subject of applying fundamentals on anthropocentric dimensions for holistic welfare. The so-called conflict between Basic science and Applied research finds one of its edges in Ergonomics. Be it cutting-edge technology or frontiers of scientific innovation-all start from understanding basic scientific aptitude and skill, and the best way to get familiar with the situation is practicing basic science again and again at a regular basis. Ergonomics is diversified in such...

  12. Bad Enough Ergonomics: A Case Study of an Office Chair

    OpenAIRE

    Peteri, Virve

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes ergonomics as a social and cultural phenomenon, as something that is formulated and described by speakers in a specific social context; in a company that is specialized in producing ergonomic office furniture. Through a case study of an office chair, the article examines how ergonomics and its association with the vision of the potential users and their working spaces are constructed by the relevant actors in project meetings and individual interviews during the manufactu...

  13. Ergonomics, design and reliability of body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Celia H.

    2011-01-01

    The wearing of body amour has become a necessity for many professions and much work has gone into the optimisation of the mechanics of protection. In the present study a broader view of the effects of ergonomics, design, reliability and protection has been taken. Three background topics are examined by reference to the literature. First, as an example of the threats and injury mechanisms that prevail in modern conflicts, the effects of blast injury to the head are investigat...

  14. Ergonomics: an aid to system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, the engineering community has recognized that ergonomics can make significant contributions to system design. Working together engineers and ergonomists can create designs that effectively meet system goals. By considering the role of humans and technology in the context of systems and by reducing the potential for errors, gains can be made in overall system reliability. Such efforts can reduce the need for costly backfits and increase system efficiency. (author)

  15. Practical use of ergonomics in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Six lectures deal with new developments in the application of ergonomic knowledge, in particular to nuclear technology. All contributions have in common the aspects of analysis and structure of man-machine-systems in which human operators have to process information and have to make decisions. Quoting a lot of examples from a variety of industrial sectors, the article discusses complexes of problems and ways of solving them concerning questions requiring the answer 'yes' or 'no', concerning the dialogue man-computer, the organization of central control mechanisms, the avoidance of human errors, influence of man on system safety, and the rational incorporation of ergonomics in system planning. This publication is meant to be a contribution to extend the knowledge on the organization of work from an ergonomic and engineer/psychological point of view. It is to show how the knowledge of the nature of man can be applied as a systems component in order to make industrial processes safer and more economical, and to entrust man with purposeful and satisfying tasks. (orig./LN) [de

  16. Ergonomic analysis of radiopharmaceuticals samples preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Luciene Betzler C.; Santos, Isaac Luquetti dos; Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Rebelo, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)

  17. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  18. Ergonomic Conditions in Small Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Shikdar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomic conditions in small manufacturing industries were investigated. Twenty seven managers of small manufacturing industries participated in the study. Old equipment and machines, poorly designed workplaces, lack of systematic planning, layout and organization, unsafe working conditions and poor environment were found common to these industries. Fifty-nine percent of companies indicated having equipment older than 15 years. Fifty-two percent of company managers reported receiving complaints of fatigue from their workforce, 41% complaints of back pain, and 33% complaints of upper-body pain. Seventy eight percent of companies reported a noisy environment (above 90 dBA while 63% reported a hot environment. Management in 44% of the companies acknowledged failure to ensure safety rules and 48% did not provide training on manual material handling. Lack of skills in ergonomics and training, communication and resources are believed to be some of the factors contributing to the poor ergonomic conditions in a sample of small manufacturing industries in Malaysia.

  19. How can ergonomic practitioners learn to practice a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Seim, Rikke; Andersen, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    How can a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia be “transferred” to ergonomic practitioners and become a new work practice? The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon experiences from an interactive research program in which this transferral was tested by two consecutive approaches......” with the researchers and other practitioners; 3) paying attention to the organizational settings of the ergonomic practitioner to make sure that a new work practice is implemented in the organization and not only by a single practitioner....... and interpretation of results when applying the new concept to a real case in a company; 2) the concept is introduced to practitioners, after which they try to practice the concept in a normal consultancy situation, and afterwards have the opportunity to reflect upon their experiences in a “learning space...

  20. Strategies and arguments of ergonomic design for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Antonio; Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Rossi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Referring to the discussion recently promoted by the Sub-Technical Committee n°4 "Ergonomics and design for sustainability", in this paper will be shown the early results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability. In particular, the research is based on the comparison between the common thematic structure characterizing Ergonomics, with the principles of Sustainable Development and with criteria adopted from other disciplines already oriented toward Sustainability. The paper identifies an early logical-interpretative model and describes possible and relevant Strategies of Ergonomic design for sustainability, which are connected in a series of specific Sustainable Arguments.

  1. Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...

  2. Using ergonomics checkpoints to support a participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz

    2009-01-01

    To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country.

  3. Determinants of business sustainability: an ergonomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-03-01

    There is a need to integrate both macro- and micro-ergonomic approaches for the effective implementation of interventions designed to improve the root causes of problems such as work safety, quality and productivity in the enterprise system. The objective of this study was to explore from an ergonomics perspective the concept of business sustainability through optimising the worker-work environment interface. The specific aims were: (a) to assess the working conditions of a production department work process with the goal to jointly optimise work safety, quality and quantity; (b) to evaluate the enterprise-wide work process at the system level as a social entity in an attempt to trace the root causes of ergonomic issues impacting employees throughout the work process. The Work Compatibility Model was deployed to examine the experiences of workers (that is, effort, perceived risk/benefit, performance and satisfaction/dissatisfaction or psychological impact) and their associations with the complex domains of the work environment (task content, physical and non-physical work environment and conditions for learning/growth/development). This was followed by assessment of the enterprise system through detailed interviews with department managers and lead workers. A system diagnostic instrument was also constructed from information derived from the published literature to evaluate the enterprise system performance. The investigation of the production department indicated that the stress and musculoskeletal pain experienced by workers (particularly on the day shift) were derived from sources elsewhere in the work process. The enterprise system evaluation and detailed interviews allowed the research team to chart the feed-forward and feedback stress propagation loops in the work system. System improvement strategies were extracted on the basis of tacit/explicit knowledge obtained from department managers and lead workers. In certain situations concerning workplace human

  4. Translating concepts of complexity to the field of ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P; Rafferty, Laura

    2010-10-01

    Since 1958 more than 80 journal papers from the mainstream ergonomics literature have used either the words 'complex' or 'complexity' in their titles. Of those, more than 90% have been published in only the past 20 years. This observation communicates something interesting about the way in which contemporary ergonomics problems are being understood. The study of complexity itself derives from non-linear mathematics but many of its core concepts have found analogies in numerous non-mathematical domains. Set against this cross-disciplinary background, the current paper aims to provide a similar initial mapping to the field of ergonomics. In it, the ergonomics problem space, complexity metrics and powerful concepts such as emergence raise complexity to the status of an important contingency factor in achieving a match between ergonomics problems and ergonomics methods. The concept of relative predictive efficiency is used to illustrate how this match could be achieved in practice. What is clear overall is that a major source of, and solution to, complexity are the humans in systems. Understanding complexity on its own terms offers the potential to leverage disproportionate effects from ergonomics interventions and to tighten up the often loose usage of the term in the titles of ergonomics papers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews and discusses concepts from the study of complexity and maps them to ergonomics problems and methods. It concludes that humans are a major source of and solution to complexity in systems and that complexity is a powerful contingency factor, which should be considered to ensure that ergonomics approaches match the true nature of ergonomics problems.

  5. Ergonomics smoke machine for indigenous people in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmianto Eko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A participatory process is used in the design of a user-centered smoke machine, resulting in lasting benefits to the community. This program of IbM (Science and Technology for Society has designed fish fumes that are mobile, portable and environmentally ergonomic, applying appropriate technology about fumigation so as to increase knowledge to the community. This program improve people skills especially in smoked fish production, increase employment in the field of fishery products processing business. With this activity can grow the interest of the community to entrepreneurship for those who have not started a business and will increase its business for those who have started the processing business of fishery processing. Benefits derived from IbM (Science and Technology for Society program are, among others, reduced air pollution caused by open fish curing system so that air quality environment, especially around fish processing SMEs to be better, can support and strengthen fish processing industry in the coastal area that began to grow and especially support local SMEs, increase the quantity and quality of patents that can be generated from community service activities funded by Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Technology Research and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia.

  6. Ergonomic behaviour of learners in a digitally driven school environment: Modification using an ergonomic intervention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid V. Sellschop

    2018-04-01

    Clinical implications: The clinical contribution of this study to our healthcare system is that through the early identification and intervention of the poor ergonomics in a school environment, a positive impact on reducing poor postural behaviour amongst learners can be achieved.

  7. Validating a framework for participatory ergonomics (the PEF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, H.; Wilson, J.R.; Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.

    2002-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics is reported in an increasing number of case studies, but there is little evidence of emerging supportive theory and relatively little generic advice or guidance. The paper describes an effort to provide clarity and organization to the field of participatory ergonomics. A

  8. 30 years of ergonomics at 3M: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, N; Wick, H

    2012-01-01

    The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of ergonomic interventions in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.P.A.; Fritzsche, L.; O'Sullivan, L.; Levizzari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ergonomic measures to reduce or eliminate the risks for developing musculoskeletal disorders, usually affects the performance at work as well, e.g. productivity or quality. The costs and benefits that can be associated with ergonomic measures are highly diverse in nature. Prior to investing in any

  10. Assessment of office furniture and knowledge of work ergonomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Poor posture when maintained for a long period can result in musculoskeletal injuries and deformities. Aims: This study aimed at investigating the knowledge of work ergonomics among bank workers, and the ergonomic compliance of office furniture used in some banks, in Enugu metropolis. Methods: This is a ...

  11. Ergonomics observation: Harvesting tasks at oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri, Mohd Tamrin; Irwan Syah, Md Yusoff; Mori, Ippei; Hashim, Zailina

    2014-01-01

    Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.

  12. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.

  13. The Physical Demands and Ergonomics of Working with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne; King, Phyllis; Scheuer, Gina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the physical demands and ergonomic concerns within child care settings. Discusses problem areas and ergonomic recommendations for room design and staff training. Presents important implications for writing job descriptions, determining essential job functions, orienting and training staff, and committing to improving the child care work…

  14. Participatory ergonomics and new work: reducing neck complaints in assembling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migueza, S.A.; Hallbeck, M.S.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation.

  15. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics intervention in a textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Natale, Julianne

    2013-05-01

    In this study we report on the economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process undertaken at a clothing manufacturer in Southwestern Ontario, Canada that employs approximately 300 workers. We undertake a cost-benefit analysis from the company perspective. Intervention costs amounted to $65,787 and intervention benefits $360,614 (2011 Canadian dollars). The net present value was $294,827, suggesting that the intervention was worth undertaking based on the costs and consequences over the measurement period spanning more than four years. Based on these costs and benefits, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 5.5. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that participatory ergonomics interventions can be cost beneficial from the company perspective. Even though the changes were typically low-cost and low-tech interventions implemented by the plant mechanics and maintenance personnel, benefits were realized on both the health and financial fronts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. The ambivalence of the work of the hotel managers: an approach to ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gois Leite, Cyntia Maria; de Carvalho, Ricardo Josématos

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the contributions of ergonomics to understand the work performed by hotel managers. The concern to understand the job of managers is something new in the ergonomics and few studies address this issue, especially in what concerns the work of hotel managers and its aspects of performance and health, which is the focus of this article. Through a literature review on the subject, it is sought to understand the managers' work activity, the impacts on their health and their organizational performance, as managers take an ambivalent position in organizations, since they have to deal directly with the demands of upper and lower hierarchies in a context of high competition, organizational changes and user requirements. It is then inferred there is a risk of increased work density for managers, bringing negative consequences to their health and organizational performance. This phenomenon, still poorly covered by ergonomics, contributes to a certain invisibility of the manager's work in society as a whole, when the manager may suffer from health problems, which are also common in certain populations of workers who do not take the managerial function.

  18. A visual ergonomics intervention in mail sorting facilities: effects on eyes, muscles and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Hillevi; Eklund, Jörgen

    2012-01-01

    Visual requirements are high when sorting mail. The purpose of this visual ergonomics intervention study was to evaluate the visual environment in mail sorting facilities and to explore opportunities for improving the work situation by reducing visual strain, improving the visual work environment and reducing mail sorting time. Twenty-seven postmen/women participated in a pre-intervention study, which included questionnaires on their experiences of light, visual ergonomics, health, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Measurements of lighting conditions and productivity were also performed along with eye examinations of the postmen/women. The results from the pre-intervention study showed that the postmen/women who suffered from eyestrain had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and sorted slower, than those without eyestrain. Illuminance and illuminance uniformity improved as a result of the intervention. The two post-intervention follow-ups showed a higher prevalence of MSD among the postmen/women with eyestrain than among those without. The previous differences in sorting time for employees with and without eyestrain disappeared. After the intervention, the postmen/women felt better in general, experienced less work induced stress, and considered that the total general lighting had improved. The most pronounced decreases in eyestrain, MSD, and mail sorting time were seen among the younger participants of the group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Sit-stand desks in call centres: associations of use and ergonomics awareness with sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon; Abbott, Rebecca A; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Toomingas, Allan

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether or not use of sit-stand desks and awareness of the importance of postural variation and breaks are associated with the pattern of sedentary behavior in office workers. The data came from a cross-sectional observation study of Swedish call centre workers. Inclinometers recorded 'seated' or 'standing/walking' episodes of 131 operators over a full work shift. Differences in sedentary behavior based on desk type and awareness of the importance of posture variation and breaks were assessed by non-parametric analyses. 90 (68.7%) operators worked at a sit-stand desk. Working at a sit-stand desk, as opposed to a sit desk, was associated with less time seated (78.5 vs 83.8%, p = 0.010), and less time taken to accumulate 5 min of standing/walking (36.2 vs 46.3 min, p = 0.022), but no significant difference to sitting episode length or the number of switches between sitting and standing/walking per hour. Ergonomics awareness was not associated with any sedentary pattern variable among those using a sit-stand desk. Use of sit-stand desks was associated with better sedentary behavior in call centre workers, however ergonomics awareness did not enhance the effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the Ergonomics of Flexible Ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Wesley W; Lee, Gyusung; Ziemba, Justin B; Ko, Joan S; Matlaga, Brian R

    2017-10-01

    To date, the ergonomics of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) have not been well described. We performed a study to assess the biomechanical stresses on urologists performing URS and to investigate the effect of ureteroscope type on these parameters. Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activation level of muscle groups involved in URS. Surface EMG electrodes (Delsys, Boston, MA) were placed on the right and left thenar, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), biceps, triceps, and deltoid. Three endoscopes were studied: single-use digital (Boston Scientific LithoVue), reusable digital (Karl Storz Flex-X c ), and reusable fiber-optic (Karl Storz Flex-X 2 ). Each ureteroscope was used to perform a set sequence of navigation and procedural tasks in a training model. EMG data were processed and normalized to compare the maximum voluntary contractions between muscle groups. Cumulative muscular workload (CMW) and average muscular work per second (AWS) were used for comparative analysis. For navigational tasks, CMW and AWS were greatest for the ECU, followed in descending order by right and left thenar, FCU, biceps, deltoid, and triceps. For procedural tasks, CMW and AWS were greatest for the right thenar, followed in descending order by the left thenar, ECU, FCU, triceps, biceps, and deltoid. During navigational tasks, both LithoVue and Flex-X c had lower CMWs for every muscle group than Flex-X 2 (p ergonomics of URS. Both the single-use and reusable digital ureteroscopes have similar profiles, and both have significantly better ergonomic metrics than the reusable fiber-optic ureteroscope.

  1. Somatic disorders and ergonomic considerations in computer use among the employees of a University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Tirgar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Purpose: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and computer work are common in majority of the society and both show an increasing trend. This study was conducted to survey on Somatic disorders, MSDs frequency and ergonomic considerations awareness regarding computer use among the employees of Babol University of Medical Sciences (North of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 128 administrative staff of medical, dental and paramedical faculties in 2012. The samples were collected by simple method the data were gathered by means of a tailor-made data collection sheet that consisted of 5 open and 13 closed-ended questions. The data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistical indexes. Results: According to our data, the mean age of employees was 38.16±7.78 years, 55.5% were females and 63.3% were in bachelor’s degree. More than fifty percent of the samples spend 2 hours or more on their computer a day. Seventy two percent of the staff reported experiencing one or more MSDs symptoms and less than 10% of them were aware of ergonomic considerations in this regard. Chi-square test result showed that a significant statistical difference between MSDs with duration of using computer. (p<0.05 Conclusion: Our results indicated that more than fifty percent of the administrative staff complains of MSDs, most of them were unaware of ergonomics considerations, and many of the employees were eager to learn about the related subject. So, ergonomic interventions and training courses to prevent MSDs are recommended.

  2. Ergonomic suitability of educational furniture and possible health implications in a university setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunaiya, Nse A; Owonuwa, Dolapo D; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomically unsuitable school furniture is frequently considered one of the major causes of severe posture problems in adulthood. This study was designed to determine the ergonomic suitability of educational furniture in the lecture theaters at the University of Ibadan to serve as a case study. Sample of convenience was used to select participants for this study. The lecture theaters were selected based on their capacity, design, and dimension. A total of 240 students (120 males and 120 females) participated in this study. The ergonomic suitability of lecture theaters was determined by analyzing the mismatches between student anthropometric dimensions and furniture dimensions, and also by analyzing the design and orientation of the lecture theaters. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, range, and median. The results showed that there was a significant difference in height between males and females but no significant difference between other anthropometric variables measured. About 20% of the participants had a fitting seat height, while seat height was unsuitable for the remaining 80.4%. On the other hand, 23.3% had a fitting seat depth, while it was unsuitable for 76.7% of the participants, and 99.6% of the participants had fitting desk clearance but 0.4% found it unsuitable. A total of 25.8% of the participants had a fitting desk height, while 74.2% of the students found it unsuitable. It was concluded that the furniture in the lecture theaters at the university studied was not ergonomically suitable for the students. Hence it is recommended that further studies, including more universities across a wide spectrum of society, should be performed to determine the effect of furniture on student health, and the need to adopt the use of adjustable furniture in lecture theaters to prevent health hazards that may occur secondary to the use of unsuitable furniture. PMID:24511247

  3. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, A. (ed.) (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ergonomics Research Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    125 papers are presented under the session headings: industrial ergonomics - programs and applications; applied work physiology; occupational biomechanics; engineering anthropometry; work and protective clothing; hand tools; human-computer interface; theory and practice of industrial safety; human perception and performance; human strengths; industrial noise and vibration; machine guarding and industrial machine safety; manual materials handling; modelling for safety and health; occupational injuries and health problems; policies and standards; quality control and inspection; rehabilitation and designing for the disabled; work duration and fatigue; and work and work place design. Includes papers on static and dynamic back strength of underground coal miners, and slip and fall accidents during equipment maintenance in the surface mining industry.

  4. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way...

  6. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  7. Stay@Work : Participatory Ergonomics to prevent low back and neck pain among workers : Design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Anema, J.R.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J.van der

    2008-01-01

    Background. Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are a major public health problem with considerable costs for individuals, companies and society. Therefore, prevention is imperative. The Stay@Work study investigates the (cost-)effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics (PE) to prevent LBP and NP

  8. Stay@Work: Participatory Ergonomics to prevent low back and neck pain among workers: design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Anema, J.R.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are a major public health problem with considerable costs for individuals, companies and society. Therefore, prevention is imperative. The Stay@Work study investigates the (cost-)effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics (PE) to prevent LBP and NP

  9. Ergonomía y Terapia Ocupacional = Ergonomics and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman Suárez, Olga Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn éste artículo se dan a conocer algunas de las aplicaciones más importantes de la ergonomía en Terapia Ocupacional, puesto que a pesar de tener un gran reconocimiento en el sector trabajo, en donde hay un mayor predominio de estudio por parte de la ergonomía, aún se desconocen muchas de las actividades que pueden ser realizadas por éstos profesionales. Terapia Ocupacional abarca el estudio de todas las etapas de la vida del individuo, en cuanto a su desempeño ocupacional se refiere, lo cual garantiza un amplio campo de actuación profesional, que permite profundizar e investigar en diversas áreas, para que desde su experiencia y resultados se facilite el aporte a muchos proyectos de investigación que requieren de conceptos que son transversales a diferentes disciplinas y que pueden constituirse en conocimiento nuevo para la sociedad científica. Con la creación del Grupo de Salud Ocupacional y Ergonomía en la Universidad Manuela Beltrán, se pretende “Desarrollar proyectos de investigación en el campo de la ergonomía, aplicables en los contextos: laboral, escolar, social y familiar; que permitan la adaptación de diferentes entornos al ser humano y a su vez mejorar condiciones tendientes al logro de un óptimo desempeño y productividad”[1]. De esta manera, se inician proyectos de investigación con estudiantes de Terapia Ocupacional, cuyos avances han permitido escribir el presente articulo, se espera además la vinculación de otras áreas para su fortalecimiento. ABSTRACTIn this article they bring themselves to light some of the most important applications of the ergonomics in occupational therapy, since in spite of having a great recognition in the work sector, where there is a greater predominance of study on the part of the ergonomics, still many of the activities they do not know themselves that can be carried out for these professionals. The occupational therapy covers the study of all the phases of the life of

  10. Ergonomic positioning or equipment for treating carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Denise; Page, Matthew J; Marshall, Shawn C; Massy-Westropp, Nicola

    2012-01-18

    Non-surgical treatment, including ergonomic positioning or equipment, are sometimes offered to people experiencing mild to moderate symptoms from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The effectiveness and duration of benefit from ergonomic positioning or equipment interventions for treating CTS are unknown. To assess the effects of ergonomic positioning or equipment compared with no treatment, a placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (14 June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 2, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL Plus (1937 to June 2011), and AMED (1985 to June 2011). We also reviewed the reference lists of randomised or quasi-randomised trials identified from the electronic search. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing ergonomic positioning or equipment with no treatment, placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the primary and secondary outcomes. We pooled results of clinically and statistically homogeneous trials, where possible, to provide estimates of the effect of ergonomic positioning or equipment. We included two trials (105 participants) comparing ergonomic versus placebo keyboards. Neither trial assessed the primary outcome (short-term overall improvement) or adverse effects of interventions. In one small trial (25 participants) an ergonomic keyboard significantly reduced pain after 12 weeks (MD -2.40; 95% CI -4.45 to -0.35) but not six weeks (MD -0.20; 95% CI -1.51 to 1.11). In this same study, there was no difference between ergonomic and standard keyboards in hand function at six or 12 weeks or palm

  11. The Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations for Injury Prevention : Examples from the building construction and health care industries

    OpenAIRE

    Glimskär, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A good work environment is important for the individual, for industry and for society. The work environment research has, predominantly, targeted identification of problems and the measurement of the size of these problems. Innovations to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal disorder, MSD, have been introduced in different branches of industry, but with limited success. Few of the ergonomic innovations developed for the building and construction industry have reached a sufficient level of ...

  12. An online learning course in Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi; Jermias-Cohen, Tali; Josman, Naomi

    2004-01-01

    For the past two years, the Department of Occupational Therapy at the University of Haifa has offered an online course to third year occupational therapists on the topic of Ergonomics for Health Care Professionals. The development and implementation of this course was funded by the Israeli Ministry of Education. Unique teaching materials, developed and uploaded to the University's server via "High Learn", included interactive and self-directed documents containing graphics, animations, and video clips. Extensive use was made of the discussion forum and survey tools, and students submitted all assignments online. For the final topic, an expert in ergonomics from Boston University delivered a lecture via two-way videoconferencing. The course site included comprehensive library listings in which all bibliographic materials were made available online. Students accessed course materials at the University in a computer classroom and at home via modem. In an accompanying research study, the frequency of student usage of the various online tools was tracked and extensive data were collected via questionnaires documenting students' demographic background, preferred learning style, prior usage of technology, satisfaction with the course and academic achievement. This paper focuses on the results of the research study that examined how the students responded to and coped with teaching material presented and accessed in this format.

  13. Ergonomics evaluation of a government office building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikis, John; Lopez, Mary S; Thomas, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    An ergonomics team from the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive medicine evaluated 465 video display terminal (VDT) workstations in a Government office building over an 18-day period. Each workstation evaluation involved an assessment of the worker, the chair, the desk, the keyboard, the pointing device, the monitor, and the office environmental conditions. The team also collected worker pain and injury information. The problems seen during the evaluation were characteristic of most office environments where VDT workstation furniture was purchased before the advent of mouse-driven software. The majority of furniture evaluated was not designed to meet the demands of intensive mouse use for prolonged periods of time. Much of the workstation furniture was not adjustable, chairs lacked adequate back support, and workers assumed non-neutral postures. As a result, more than 35% of the workers evaluated complained of on-the-job pain. New office furniture that is adjustable, adequate desk space and storage space were among the solutions recommended by the ergonomics team.

  14. Anthropometric change: implications for office ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Claire C; Bradtmiller, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Well-designed office workspaces require good anthropometric data in order to accommodate variability in the worker population. The recent obesity epidemic carries with it a number of anthropometric changes that have significant impact on design. We examine anthropometric change among US civilians over the last 50 years, and then examine that change in a subset of the US population--the US military--as military data sets often have more ergonomic dimensions than civilian ones. The civilian mean stature increased throughout the period 1962 to 2006 for both males and females. However, the rate of increase in mean weight was considerably faster. As a result, the male obesity rate changed from 10.7% in 1962 to 31.3% in 2006. The female change for the same period was 15.8% to 33.2%. In the Army, the proportion of obesity increased from 3.6% to 20.9%, in males. In the absence of national US ergonomic data, we demonstrate one approach to tracking civilian change in these dimensions, applying military height/weight regression equations to the civilian population estimates. This approach is useful for population monitoring but is not suitable for establishing new design limits, as regression estimates likely underestimate the change at the ends of the distribution.

  15. Ergonomics and sustainability: towards an embrace of complexity and emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Sidney W A; Hancock, Peter A; Wilkin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Technology offers a promising route to a sustainable future, and ergonomics can serve a vital role. The argument of this article is that the lasting success of sustainability initiatives in ergonomics hinges on an examination of ergonomics' own epistemology and ethics. The epistemology of ergonomics is fundamentally empiricist and positivist. This places practical constraints on its ability to address important issues such as sustainability, emergence and complexity. The implicit ethical position of ergonomics is one of neutrality, and its positivist epistemology generally puts value-laden questions outside the parameters of what it sees as scientific practice. We argue, by contrast, that a discipline that deals with both technology and human beings cannot avoid engaging with questions of complexity and emergence and seeking innovative ways of addressing these issues. Ergonomics has largely modelled its research on a reductive science, studying parts and problems to fix. In sustainability efforts, this can lead to mere local adaptations with a negative effect on global sustainability. Ergonomics must consider quality of life globally, appreciating complexity and emergent effects of local relationships.

  16. Dental Hygiene Students' Self-Assessment of Ergonomics Utilizing Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partido, Brian B

    2017-10-01

    Due to postural demands, dental professionals are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Dental clinicians' lack of ergonomic awareness may impede the clinical application of recommendations to improve their posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental hygiene students' ergonomic scores and accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. The study involved a randomized control design and used a convenience sample of all 32 junior-year dental hygiene students enrolled in the autumn 2016 term in The Ohio State University baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Sixteen students were randomly assigned to each of two groups (control and training). At weeks one and four, all participants were photographed and completed ergonomic self-evaluations using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks two and three, participants in the training group were photographed again and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were given ergonomic scores by three raters. Students' self-assessments in the control group and faculty evaluations of the training group showed significant improvement in scores over time (F(1,60)=4.25, p<0.05). In addition, the accuracy of self-assessment significantly improved for students in the training group (F(1,30)=8.29, p<0.01). In this study, dental hygiene students' self-assessments using photographs resulted in improvements in their ergonomic scores and increased accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. Any improvement in ergonomic score or awareness can help reduce the risks for WMSDs, especially among dental clinicians.

  17. Application of a mathematical model for ergonomics in lean manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article "Integrating ergonomics and lean manufacturing principles in a hybrid assembly line" (Botti et al., 2017) [1]. The results refer to the application of the mathematical model for the design of lean processes in hybrid assembly lines, meeting both the lean principles and the ergonomic requirements for safe assembly work. Data show that the success of a lean strategy is possible when ergonomics of workers is a parameter of the assembly process design.

  18. Using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to improve ergonomics programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Vicente Forestieri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology to improve the strategic view of ergonomics inside the organizations. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of investing on an ergonomic program to obtain good results in quality and production, as well as health maintenance. It is explained the basics of balanced scorecard, and how ergonomists could use this to work with strategic enterprises demand. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new methodology for ergonomics strategy views are offered.

  19. Building a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Successful integration of ergonomics into continuous improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kimberly; Fick, Faye; Joshi, Madina

    2012-01-01

    Process improvement initiatives are receiving renewed attention by large corporations as they attempt to reduce manufacturing costs and stay competitive in the global marketplace. These initiatives include 5S, Six Sigma, and Lean. These programs often take up a large amount of available time and budget resources. More often than not, existing ergonomics processes are considered separate initiatives by upper management and struggle to gain a seat at the table. To effectively maintain their programs, ergonomics program managers need to overcome those obstacles and demonstrate how ergonomics initiatives are a natural fit with continuous improvement philosophies.

  1. Positive outcomes of office ergonomics in terms of higher productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terek Edit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.

  2. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  3. Ergonomic risk assessment by REBA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hassanzadeh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Awkward posture has been recognized as one of the important risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD. The current study aimed at determining ergonomic risk level, WMSDs ratio and exploring working postures contribution to WMSD. During the study, working postures were phased and then they were scored using the REBAtool from observing the work.   Methods   To perform the study, workers of a home appliances manufacturing factory were  assessed. In order to collecting required data, each part of the body was scored and work frequency,  load/force, coupling were considered to achieve a REBA score. Nordic Questionnaire was used  to determining WMSD ratio and its relationship whit REBA score. 231 working phases were  assessed and 13761 questions using Nordic Questionnaire were answered. Percentage of the workers in press, spot welding, grinding, cutting, assembling, and painting was 15.8, 21.6, 25.9, 34.5, 89.9%, respectively. Workers were 18-54 years old and their work recording average was 52  month.   Results   REBAscore was 4-13 in under study tasks. REBA score = 9 had the most frequency  (20% and REBA score =13 had the least frequency (1.4%. Risk level in press, cutting, and  painting was high (25.5, 100, 68.2% cases. This shows that cutting has the highest risk level. On the other hand 38.5% of the workers in past 12 month had problem in different parts of their body. Totally 11.7% of the workers had problem in neck, 19.4$ in leg, 10.7% in foot, 82.5% in lower back,  87.6% in upper back and 7.8% in shoulders.10.7% of the workers had previous illness that 8.7%  of them were non occupational and 1.9% were caused their previous jobs. The REBAscore mean  and ergonomic risk level is not equal in tasks (p-value0. Action level was necessary  soon in others.   Conclusion   Risk level should be reduced specially in cutting. The heavy workload and  working height poor design, awkward

  4. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  5. Ergonomic office design and aging: a quasi-experimental field study of employee reactions to an ergonomics intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Douglas R; Reed, Kendra; Schwoerer, Catherine E; Potter, Paul

    2004-04-01

    A naturally occurring quasi-experimental longitudinal field study of 87 municipal employees using pretest and posttest measures investigated the effects of an office workstation ergonomics intervention program on employees' perceptions of their workstation characteristics, levels of persistent pain, eyestrain, and workstation satisfaction. The study examined whether reactions differed between younger and older employees. Results revealed that workstation improvements were associated with enhanced perceptions of the workstation's ergonomic qualities, less upper back pain, and greater workstation satisfaction. Among those experiencing an improvement, the perceptions of workstation ergonomic qualities increased more for younger than older employees, supporting the "impressionable years" framework in the psychological literature on aging. Implications for human resources managers are discussed.

  6. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  7. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  8. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  9. Problems of ergonomics in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuaba, A

    1976-12-01

    Development in Indonesia, particularly in Bali, has been planned and done through several stages of the Five-Year Development Programs, which started in 1969, and emphasized intensification of agriculture and extensification of industries related to potential resources available in the region. In the process, industrialization, being regarded as a prerequisite to higher living standards, brought with it problems concerning safety, health, and work conditions, especially with respect to transfer of technology. As examples, experiences and data, related particularly to ergonomics in the sectors of agriculture, hotel business, textile mills, transportation, and others in Bali, Indonesia, are reported. In dealing with such possible consequences of development, efforts to find fundamental solutions should be given the highest priority. It is necessary to make use of all the existing institutions having potential functions and roles in the policy of development planning, and to take into consideration the factors of safety, health, and work conditions in specifying technical and financial development projects for industrialization.

  10. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.

  11. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  12. Toward a transdisciplinary approach of ergonomic design for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Marano, Antonio; Rossi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability previously developed from the authors, this paper shows the early results of a study that tries to apply them to actual operational and conceptual apparatuses of Ergonomics. In particular, the research aims to verify the possibility for Ergonomics to initiate an update of its current theoretical and procedural tools, towards new design solutions of "sustainable well-being", trying to look for new declinations of its several fields of application. The paper identifies new paradigms and definitions for one of the central themes of ergonomic design, as well as one among the most established and investigated: the usability of products and services.

  13. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among teachers and their ergonomic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Costa Branco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and evaluate ergonomic conditions among teachers. Methods: A quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study held in the city of Pelotas-RS, Brazil, in the period of November to December 2009. The sample was composed by 320 teachers in 6 schools. Research was accomplished by means of a socialdemographic questionnaire, a check-list for ergonomic evaluation, and the Nordic questionnaire, applied in order to evaluate the ostheomuscular symptoms. Results:287 (89,7% teachers referred some symptom in the last 12 months. The most affected areas were: shoulders 177 (61,6%, thoracic column 173 (60,2% and cervical spine 163 (56,7%. Ergonomic condition of the workplace was considered unsatisfactory by the teachers. Conclusion: Ostheomuscular symptoms were found in high prevalence among teachersin Pelotas, whose ergonomic conditions are considered inappropriate, standing out the vertebral column as the most affected body part.

  14. Human Factors And Ergonomics In The Planning Of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå

    2002-01-01

    For year’s integration of ergonomics into the planning of new production processes has been an ideal for regulating agencies supported by ergonomic experts. But the ideal appears to be difficult to live up to. A development of tools both by agencies and by groups of researchers has been seen...... of organizational conditions for giving ergonomics a stronger position in the firm. Ergonomists have to tackle these issues, but it implies a new understanding of their roles, which goes beyond the traditional discussion of expert versus facilitator. The paper is based on an evaluation of a Swedish research......-programme of a new approach to intervention studies on musculosceletaldiseases, on a major Danish research programme on integrating ergonomics (working environment) into the planning activities of the enterprises and on discussions with the staff of the Danish mandatory occupational health and safety services...

  15. The influence of architectural designers on construction ergonomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the construction process generates a disproportionate number of fatalities, injuries and disease and both the direct and indirect costs contribute to the cumulative cost of construction. Designers influence construction ergonomics directly and ...

  16. Ergonomic assessments of three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory cafeterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.

  17. Ergonomic assessments of three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory cafeterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG&G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG&G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.

  18. Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic Upper ... they are associated with a complex relationship between individual, work-related and ... in chronic upper quadrant musculoskeletal dysfunction and work productivity ...

  19. Ergonomic evaluation model of operational room based on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhiyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical calculation model based on the ergonomic evaluation of team performance was proposed in order to carry out the ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station in a multitasking operational room. This model was constructed in order to calculate and compare the theoretical value of team performance in multiple layout schemes by considering such substantial influential factors as frequency of communication, distance, angle, importance, human cognitive characteristics and so on. An experiment was finally conducted to verify the proposed model under the criteria of completion time and accuracy rating. As illustrated by the experiment results,the proposed approach is conductive to the prediction and ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station during early design stages,and provides a new theoretical method for the ergonomic evaluation,selection and optimization design of layout design schemes.

  20. System ergonomics as an approach to improve human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of system technics on ergonomical problems is called system ergonomics. This enables improvements of human reliability by design measures. The precondition for this is the knowledge of how information processing is performed by man and machine. By a separate consideration of sensory processing, cognitive processing, and motory processing it is possible to have a more exact idea of the system element 'man'. The system element 'machine' is well described by differential equations which allow an ergonomical assessment of the manouverability. The knowledge of information processing of man and machine enables a task analysis. This makes appear on one hand the human boundaries depending on the different properties of the task and on the other hand suitable ergonomical solution proposals which improve the reliability of the total system. It is a disadvantage, however, that the change of human reliability by such measures may not be quoted numerically at the moment. (orig.)

  1. Ergonomic Enhancement for Older Readers with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gale R.; Ramsey, Vincent; De l'Aune, William; Elk, Arona

    2004-01-01

    This study found that the provision of ergonomic workstations for 12 older persons with age-related macular degeneration who used low vision devices significantly increased the participants' reading speed and decreased their discomfort when reading.

  2. Facilitators & Barriers to the Adoption of Ergonomic Solutions in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Welch, Laura; Barnidge, Ellen; Weaver, Nancy; Evanoff, Bradley A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rates of musculoskeletal disorders in construction remain high. Few studies have described barriers and facilitators to the use of available ergonomic solutions. This paper describes these barriers and facilitators and their relationship to the level of adoption. Methods Three analysts rated 16 proposed ergonomic solutions from a participatory ergonomics study and assessed the level of adoption, six adoption characteristics, and identified the category of adoption from a theoretical model. Results Twelve solutions were always or intermittently used and were rated positively for characteristics of relative advantage, compatibility with existing work processes, and trialability. Locus of control (worker vs. contractor) was not related to adoption. Simple solutions faced fewer barriers to adoption than those rated as complex. Conclusions Specific adoption characteristics can help predict the use of new ergonomic solutions in construction. Adoption of complex solutions must involve multiple stakeholders, more time, and shifts in culture or work systems. PMID:28195660

  3. A study on the ergonomic assessment in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; Low, Eugene; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    Ergonomics has gained attention and take into consideration by the workers in the different fields of works recently. It has given a huge impact on the workers comfort which directly affects the work efficiency and productivity. The workers have claimed to suffer from the painful postures and injuries in their workplace. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is the most common problem frequently reported by the workers. This problem occurs due to the lack of knowledge and alertness from the workers to the ergonomic in their surroundings. This paper intends to review the approaches and instruments used by the previous works of the researchers in the evaluation of the ergonomics. The two main assessment methods often used for ergonomic evaluation are Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Popular devices are Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and Microsoft Kinect.

  4. Ergonomics: Putting the Human Element back into Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training Officer, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The four conditions of ergonomics, a new technology that has emerged to investigate and improve man's relationship with his working environment, are discussed. Its main task is adapting work to fit the needs of man. (Author/BP)

  5. Toward improved construction health, safety, and ergonomics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    involved in architectural CPD programmes take 'upstream design ownership' and use the model as a ... health and safety (H&S), inclusive of construction ergonomics, the responsibility for ...... Santiago, Chile, 18-20 January. Rotterdam: CIB ...

  6. Hands-on lessons in ergonomics for youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K

    2005-09-29

    Ergonomics risk factors apply to everybody. Numerous adults have experienced disabling injuries related to use of computers and other forms of technology. Now children are using technology even more than adults. Increasingly ergonomics risk factors are being recognized as present in the world of children. Outreach to schools and the surrounding community by employers may help protect the future work force. A growing body of researchers believe that children can benefit from the early introduction of ergonomics awareness and preventative measures. While individual representatives of the educational system may embrace the concept of introducing ergonomics into the classroom, a number of barriers can prevent implementation of integrated programs. Some of the barriers to introducing ergonomics in schools have been absence of a tie to educational standards, the existing demands on teaching hours, and the absence of easily executable lesson plans. Ergonomics is rarely included in teacher training and professional ergonomics expertise is needed for the development of a class-based program. As part of Strategic Vision plan for 2025, a National Laboratory identified community outreach and the future workforces as key areas for initiatives. A series of hands-on interactive modules have been developed by professional ergonomics specialists. They are being tested with elementary, middle and high school students. Where possible, the content has been tied to the educational standards in the State of California in the USA. Currently the modules include grip strength, effective breathing, optimal keyboard and mouse positions, optimizing chairs, posture and movement, backpack safety and safe lifting. Each module takes the students through a related activity or experience. An individual worksheet asks them questions about the experience and guides them to consider implications in their activities of daily living. A module on hearing is under development. The goal is to have a

  7. Influence of Ergonomics on Traffic Safety and Economy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As an interdisciplinary science, ergonomics needs to makethe operating of traffic safer, faster and more reliable, for thesake of higher profitability and generally improved economiceffects. This is achieved by adapting and shaping the workplace,machines, transport means, equipment, physical environment,working process etc. according to experience abouthuman anatomic physica~ sociologica~ intellectual and otherminimal, average or maximal capabilities. Therefore, it is necessaryto analyse ergonomics from the standpoint of better productivenessof humans, greater safety (comfort and security ingeneral.

  8. Conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Ergonomics considerations at the stage of product development in industry is a major strategy for prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses among employees at the time of manufacture of new products. This study elucidates some important conditions and possibilities for integrating...... such considerations during the product development process. Special attention is paid to the role of design and production engineers. Based on different understandings of the product development process four approaches to integration of ergonomics are outlined....

  9. Ergonomics and sustainability in the design of everyday use products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness.

  10. ERGONOMIC DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON AN ACTUAL CHAINSAW DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaljun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.

  11. Developing measures for information ergonomics in knowledge work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssila, Heljä; Okkonen, Jussi; Savolainen, Reijo

    2016-03-01

    Information ergonomics is an evolving application domain of ergonomics focusing on the management of workload in the real-world contexts of information-intensive tasks. This study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, five key dimensions of information ergonomics were identified: contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity. In total, 24 measures focusing on the above dimensions were constructed. The measures include, for example, the number of fragmented work tasks per work day. The measures were preliminarily tested in two Finnish organisations, making use of empirical data gathered by interviews, electronic questionnaires and log data applications tracking work processes on personal computers. The measures are applicable to the evaluation of information ergonomics, even though individual measures vary with regard to the amount of work and time needed for data analysis. Practitioner Summary: The study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, 24 measures were constructed and tested empirically. The measures focus on contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity.

  12. Process and implementation of participatory ergonomic interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eerd, Dwayne; Cole, Donald; Irvin, Emma; Mahood, Quenby; Keown, Kiera; Theberge, Nancy; Village, Judy; St Vincent, Marie; Cullen, Kim

    2010-10-01

    Participatory ergonomic (PE) interventions may vary in implementation. A systematic review was done to determine the evidence regarding context, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of participatory ergonomic interventions in workplaces. In total, 17 electronic databases were searched. Data on PE process and implementation were extracted from documents meeting content and quality criteria and synthesised. The search yielded 2151 references. Of these, 190 documents were relevant and 52 met content and quality criteria. Different ergonomic teams were described in the documents as were the type, duration and content of ergonomic training. PE interventions tended to focus on physical and work process changes and report positive impacts. Resources, programme support, ergonomic training, organisational training and communication were the most often noted facilitators or barriers. Successful PE interventions require the right people to be involved, appropriate ergonomic training and clear responsibilities. Addressing key facilitators and barriers such as programme support, resources, and communication is paramount. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: A recent systematic review has suggested that PE has some effect on reducing symptoms, lost days of work and claims. Systematic reviews of effectiveness provide practitioners with the desire to implement but do not provide clear information about how. This article reviews the literature on process and implementation of PE.

  13. Implementation of ergonomics in a service unit: challenges and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Eliane Villas Bôas de Freitas; de França, Maria Goretti; Ramalhoto, Ana Maria de Brito; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Machado, Bruno Rangel Cortoppassi; Genipapeiro, Joana Angélica Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implementation of ergonomics in a service unit of a major company in the energy sector. From the perspective of management, it analyses the process of implementation of ergonomics programmes in four operational areas. The objective was to diagnose the level of implementation of ergonomics. The study is descriptive, undertaken through the interaction with the technical staff of the operational areas involved, incorporating the perception of these role players concerning their work routines. The results indicated significant differences in the level of implementation of the programmes, especially those concerning structural conditions. Important conquests were registered, such as the investment in the training of specialists, the establishment of a facilitator network and the improvement of the standard for the directioning and alignment of the execution of initiatives. The linking in of the programmes with those of occupational health management emphasises its contribution to the safety and well-being of the workforce through interventions aimed mainly at eliminating and reducing ergonomic biomechanical risks. However, the need to broaden and deepen the ergonomic approach regarding organizational and cognitive aspects, as well as the insertion of ergonomics in project design of new work spaces and processes were also identified.

  14. Assessment of relationship between Macro Ergonomic conditions and employees work satisfaction Touse-eh and Omran factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rismanchian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Background and aim: Macro ergonomics is a social - technical attitude which in the manner of top down proceeds to look at organization planning , work- system and also planning of human - machine , human -environmental , human- job interaction and emphasizes on employees participation and make plenty use of it.   Methods   This descriptive - analytical study is of cross - sectional type. Data gathering method  is based on observation and questionnaire. The society under study includes 83 personnel (employees of a factory which is a subsidiary of Iran Khodro. We used two questionnaires in this  study. One is questionnaire to verify macro ergonomic situation which planned and consisted of  30 questions that investigated different factors in working environment and was verified in terms  of stability and reliability (cronbach alpha = 0.72 and the other one was Minnesota job satisfaction  questionnaire which was distributed among people.   Results   This research shows over 1,500 extended hour's male workers, 69 percent of whom  reported "Chronic or Frequent" back pain, while 52 percent reported "Chronic or Frequent" wrist  pain. Sleep deprivation could possibly be damaging in terms of muscle, ligament, or tendon  injury. With the average extended-hours employee sleeping only 5.1 hours to 5.5 hours each day when working a night shift, they could face an increased risk of ergonomic injuries. The mean age of people under investigation is 30.8. Most people are in age group of 26-30 (44.6% most  individuals have 4 to 7 years working experience (56.6%. Macro ergonomic mean score in total  society under study was obtained as 59.8. The highest score of job satisfaction has been related to middle managers (69.2. Pearson correlation test showed that there was a direct relationship between general domain of macro ergonomic and job satisfaction.   Conclusion   There is a consistency between main enhanced

  15. Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  16. Workplace ergonomics in lean production environments: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, Pedro M; Dinis-Carvalho, José; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Lean Production Systems (LPS) have become very popular among manufacturing industries, services and large commercial areas. A LPS must develop and consider a set of work features to bring compatibility with workplace ergonomics, namely at a muscular, cognitive and emotional demands level. Identify the most relevant impacts of the adoption of LPS from the ergonomics point of view and summarizes some possible drawbacks for workplace ergonomics due to a flawed application of the LPS. The impacts identified are focused in four dimensions: work pace, intensity and load; worker motivation, satisfaction and stress; autonomy and participation; and health outcome. This paper also discusses the influence that the work organization model has on workplace ergonomics and on the waste elimination previewed by LPS. Literature review focused LPS and its impact on occupational ergonomics conditions, as well as on the Health and Safety of workers. The main focus of this research is on LPS implementations in industrial environments and mainly in manufacturing industry workplaces. This is followed by a discussion including the authors' experience (and previous research). From the reviewed literature it seems that there is no consensus on how Lean principles affect the workplace ergonomics since most authors found positive (advantages) and negative (disadvantages) impacts. The negative impacts or disadvantages of LPS implementations reviewed may result from the misunderstanding of the Lean principles. Possibly, they also happen due to partial Lean implementations (when only one or two tools were implemented) that may be effective in a specific work context but not suitable to all possible situations as the principles of LPS should not lead, by definition, to any of the reported drawbacks in terms of workplace ergonomics.

  17. Evolution of Human Body Height and Its Implications in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet DUYAR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Body height is an crucial variable in the design and production of all physical spaces, primarily in the manifacturing of clothes and means of transportation. Having such an ergonomic significance, the height of the human being has constantly changed during the course of history. There exist strong data suggesting that this change is still continue. To find out stages of evolution of human height throughout the ages up to the present will help us to illuminate the human-environment relations, and to predict the possible changes that the human height might be subjected to in the future. In view of these reasons, the changes that has occured in human height from the period at which hominids appeared until humans’ transition into settled life have been closely examined. The study was carried out on the basis of the data obtained from the earlier studies in literature. These data, when considered as a whole, reveal that the human height did not continuously increase in a linear fashion in its evolutionary path but recorded some increases and decreases at different stages. The difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism has not shown a steady decrease either; instead, it has exhibited an oscillating pattern. The modern humans as a species is not unique in terms of their height; as a matter of fact, two million years ago hominids had existed at approximately the same height as the Homo sapiens. Although the average height had shown some decrease in Homo erectus, its distribution pattern was not much different than the one observed in the modern human societies. In the findings dated to the early stages of the Upper Paleolithic Age, height showed a tendency to increase again

  18. CERN Courier celebrates 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    "(…) An information paper intended to help every staff member to feel at home in the Organization and to maintain the ideal of European co-operation and the team spirit which are essential to the achievement of our final aim: scientific research on an international scale." This quote is taken from the preface of the first issue of the CERN Courier, published in August 1959. "In 50 years, the CERN Courier has changed a lot. It has broadened its scope to become an international magazine on high-energy physics and its readership has grown from a few thousand internal readers to more than 25 000 readers across the world", says Christine Sutton, the present editor of the magazine. The CERN Courier is commemorating its anniversary with a special July/August issue celebrating the past 50 years. "We’ve reproduced the original edition in its entirety", explains Sutton. "It’s amazing to me how much the first editor, Roger Anthoine, achieved in jus...

  19. 50th birthday of Yurij Holovatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is easy to write about Yurij Holovatch. As easy as to communicate with him, who is always open, friendly and sincere. It is hard to believe that he is getting 50, we would say, a mature scientific age, as some much younger colleagues could be jealous or dream about his easiness in perceiving novel ideas. On the other hand, his achievements in various fields of theoretical physics make us feel that Prof. Holovatch has been actively working in science considerably longer! More than 70 journal publications, about the same number of conference talks, a supervisor to a dozen of Ph.D. students, editor of six proceedings and scientific books speak for themselves. We are not going to reveal the secret of how he managed all this, but rather leave it for the reader to guess.

  20. Ergonomic Redesign of an Industrial Control Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raeisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Operator's role in industrial control centers takes place in time, which is one of the most important determinants of whether an expected action is going to be successful or not. In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult. This study was conducted to identify ergonomic issues with a specific industrial control panel, and redesign its layout and elements to enhance its usability. Task and link analysis methodologies were implemented. All essential functions and supporting operations were identified at the required trivial levels. Next, the weight of any possible link between the elements of the panel was computed as a composite index of frequency and importance. Finally, all components were rearranged within a new layout, and a computerized mockup was generated. A total of 8 primary tasks was identified, including 4 system failure handling tasks, switching between manual and automated modes, and 3 types of routine vigilance and control tasks. These tasks were broken down into 28 functions and 145 supporting operations, accordingly. Higher link values were observed between hand rest position and 2 elements. Also, 6 other components showed robust linkages. In conclusion, computer modeling can reduce the likelihood of accidents and near misses in industrial control rooms by considering the operators' misperception or mental burden and correcting poor design of the panels and inappropriate task allocation.

  1. Ergonomics and nursing in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Buckheit, Kathleen; Ostendorf, Judith

    2013-10-01

    This study describes workplace conditions, the environment, and activities that may contribute to musculoskeletal injuries among nurses, as well as identifies solutions to decrease these risks and improve work-related conditions. The study used a mixed-methods design. Participants included nurses and stakeholders from five hospitals. Several focus groups were held with nurses, walk-throughs of clinical units were conducted, and stakeholder interviews with key occupational health and safety personnel were conducted in each of the five hospitals, as well as with representatives from the American Nurses Association, Veterans Health Administration hospital, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Several key contributing factors, including the physical environment (e.g., layout and organization of work stations), work organization and culture (e.g., heavy workload, inadequate staffing, lack of education), and work activities (e.g., manual lifting of patients, lack of assistive devices), were identified. Recommendations included the need for a multifaceted and comprehensive approach to developing a sound ergonomics program. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Ergonomics issues in conceiving an accessible project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A L; Coura, P V; Gomes, M M A; Peregrino, Y R; Sarmento, B R; Sousa, R A

    2012-01-01

    Public space is endowed with undeniable social relevance, thus becoming a defining element of integration and interaction among its users. Aware of this importance the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), linked to the Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC), develops the project "UFPB para todos: eliminando barreiras'' (UFPB for all: removing barriers) that aims to conceive an architectural design of an accessible rout to UFPB's campus I, and execute a pilot stretch of this route. This article aims to subsidize the preprojectual phase by understanding the needs of this campus' users, through the concepts of ergonomics and universal design. Was performed out direct observation of the space, and the methods of interviews and observation of user behavior were applied to a group of students with disabilities, through the techniques of assisted walking, photographic and video recording. Based on those, projective guidelines have been defined, which will contribute to the final project's quality, so that this is not a simple application of the rule, but works free of segregating barriers.

  3. Ergonomic Interventions in Manual Handling of Carpets to the retail sellers in a textile company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Darvishi

    2015-04-01

    .Conclusion: By implementing ergonomics interventions in carpet delivery sites, the risk factors of MSDs, induced by manual carpet handling, were reduced and safety and ergonomic conditions of the retailers were improved, compared to the previous conditions.

  4. Designing an Ergonomically Correct CNC Workstation on a Shoe String Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, Stan

    2001-01-01

    Describes research to design and construct ergonomically correct work stations for Computer Numerical Control machine tools. By designing ergonomically correct work stations, industrial technology teachers help protect students from repetitive motion injuries. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  5. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  6. A Review of the Ergonomic Issues in the Laparoscopic Operating Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang D. Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses the ergonomic challenges associated with laparoscopy in the operating room (OR and summarizes the practical ergonomic solutions. The literature search was conducted in the fields of laparoscopy and applied ergonomics. Findings indicated that laparoscopic OR staff (surgeons, perioperative nurses and technicians commonly experienced physical and mental ergonomic risks while working in prolonged static and awkward body positions. This study highlighted the need for more ergonomic interventions in OR environment in order to improve the efficiency of laparoscopy. Ergonomic solutions included utilizing adjustable equipment, placing computer peripherals in optimal locations, providing ergonomic instruments, and improving communication. Understanding the job- or task-related ergonomic risks and hazards could help identify intervention requirements to meet the challenges associated with increased dependency on advanced high technology in the OR.

  7. A case study detailing key considerations for implementing a telehealth approach to office ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Catherine L W; Miller, Linda L; Antle, David M

    2017-01-01

    Telehealth approaches to delivering ergonomics assessment hold great potential to improve service delivery in rural and remote settings. This case study describes a telehealth-based ergonomics service delivery process, and compares in-person and telehealth-based ergonomics approaches at an Alberta-based non-profit advocacy group. This project demonstrates that telehealth approaches to ergonomics do not lead to significantly different scoring outcomes for assessment of ergonomics issues, when compared to in-person assessments. This project also outlines the importance of live real-time video conferencing to improving communication, attaining key assessment information, and demonstrating ergonomic adjustments. However, some key considerations of bandwidth and hardware capabilities need to be taken into account. Key communication strategies are outlined to improve rapport, maintain employee confidentiality, and reduce client anxiety around telehealth ergonomics assessments. This project provides further support for telehealth approaches to office ergonomics, and outlines some key implementation strategies and barriers that should be considered.

  8. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  9. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  10. SME Worker Affective (SWA) index based on environmental ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushada, M.; Kusuma Aji, G.; Okayama, T.; Khidir, M.

    2018-04-01

    Small-Medium sized (SME) is a focal type of Indonesian industry which contributes to national emerging economies. Indonesian goverment has developed employee social security system (BPJS Ketenagakerjaan) to support worker quality of life. However, there were limited research which could assist BPJS Ketenagakerjaan in evaluating worker quality of life. Worker quality of life could be categorized as the highest worker needs or affective states. SME Worker Affective (SWA) index is being concerned as a basic tool to make balance between worker performance and quality of life in workstation of SMEs. The research objectives are: 1) To optimize the environmental ergonomics in SMEs; 2) To quantify SME Worker Affective (SWA) index based on optimized environmental ergonomics. The research advantage is to support Indonesian goverment in monitoring SMEs good practices to its worker quality of life. Simulated annealing optimized the heart rate and environmental ergonomics parameters. SWA index was determined based on comparison between optimized heart rate and environmental ergonomics parameters. SWA index were quantified for 380 data of worker. The evaluation indicated 51.3% worker in affective and 48.7% in non-affective condition. Research results indicated that stakeholders of SMEs should put more attention on environmental ergonomics and worker affective.

  11. Development of an ergonomics guideline for the furniture manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirka, Gary A

    2005-03-01

    Industry-specific ergonomics guidelines are an important component in the four-pronged approach to workplace ergonomics currently pursued by the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The American Furniture Manufacturers Association has taken the initiative of developing such a guideline for its members. The result of this effort is the "AFMA Voluntary Ergonomics Guideline for the Furniture Manufacturing Industry", a document that includes basic information about ergonomics program components as well as a compilation of work-proven, ergonomics best practices as submitted by members of the furniture manufacturing community. This guideline was developed through an industry-research-government partnership and made strategic use of the unique attributes that each sector brought to this effort. Outlined in this paper are some of the characteristics of this partnership including, the roles played by each, the different motivations for pursuing the guideline, the challenges faced during the development of the document, the successes experienced in this process, as well as a proposed outline for measuring the effectiveness of this effort. The hope is that this summary, and some of the lessons learned contained herein, would be helpful to others considering the prospect of developing such a guideline for their industry.

  12. Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan

    2017-02-01

    Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.

  13. Evaluation of an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Stewart, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers, using electromyography and questionnaire survey techniques. Nicaraguan researchers were involved in the study so that they could gain hands-on experience with ergonomics research and applications, and eventually be the specialists conducting ergonomics interventions in Nicaraguan workplaces. Coffee harvesting activities were studied individually and physical hazards were identified accordingly. The results showed decreased muscle loading on the erector spinae muscle and improved comfort reporting in the back region compared to the commonly used baskets. This fulfils the design objective of a newly developed bag that was used in the intervention to reduce physical workload on the coffee harvesting workers. Workers' opinion survey results showed some issues related to the size of the new bag and the lumbar-shoulder belt mechanism. This information can be used in the modification of the bag in the next design. Key players in the process have been identified. Stimulating ergonomics activities in developing countries is suggested by many experts. This study provided an example from coffee workers in Nicaragua. Commonly used job evaluation procedures and physical load quantification methods were used. Ergonomics researchers and practitioners in developing countries may do similar projects on their own in the future.

  14. Ergonomic intervention for employed persons with rheumatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Saralynn J; Backman, Catherine L; Alheresh, Rawan; Baker, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    Prior articles in this series on employment and arthritis have documented the major impact arthritis and other rheumatic conditions have on employment. As expected, physically demanding job tasks, including hand use, are substantial risk factors for work limitation. Computer use has been increasing. People with arthritis may choose occupations involving extensive computer use to avoid occupations with other physical demands. But studies show many people with arthritis conditions have difficulty using computers.Ergonomic assessment and implementation helps relieve the physical and other demands of jobs. The Ergonomic Assessment Tool for Arthritis (EATA) is specifically for people with arthritis conditions. Since the EATA can be conducted off worksite, it is feasible to use with workers not wishing to disclose their condition to their employer. Available research supports the effectiveness of ergonomic intervention as a viable method to reduce work limitation for persons with arthritis. Some workers will need additional vocational intervention to remain employed long term. However, ergonomic intervention is a useful first step, as it promotes awareness of arthritis effects on work activities. Assisting workers with arthritis or other rheumatic conditions to use ergonomics to enhance their ability to work well should be an important aspect of managing these conditions.

  15. Ergonomic analysis of primary and assistant surgical roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihni, Ahmed M; Cavallo, Jaime A; Ray, Shuddhadeb; Ohu, Ikechukwu; Cho, Sohyung; Awad, Michael M

    2016-06-15

    Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a high degree of ergonomic stress. However, the stress associated with surgical assisting is not known. In this study, we compare the ergonomic stress associated with primary and assistant surgical roles during laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesize that higher ergonomic stress will be detected in the primary operating surgeon when compared with the surgical assistant. One right-hand dominant attending surgeon performed 698 min of laparoscopic surgery over 13 procedures (222 min primary and 476 min assisting), whereas electromyography data were collected from bilateral biceps, triceps, deltoids, and trapezius muscles. Data were analyzed in 1-min segments. Average muscle activation as quantified by maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) was calculated for each muscle group during primary surgery and assisting. We compared mean %MVC values with unpaired t-tests. Activation of right (R) biceps and triceps muscle groups is significantly elevated while operating when compared with assisting (R biceps primary: 5.47 ± 0.21 %MVC, assistant: 3.93 ± 0.11, P ergonomic differences between operating and assisting. Surgical assisting was associated with similar and occasionally higher levels of muscle activation compared with primary operating. These findings suggest that surgical assistants face significant ergonomic stress, just as operating surgeons do. Steps must be taken to recognize and mitigate this stress in both operating surgeons and assistants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Participatory ergonomics among female cashiers from a department store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, María Yanire León

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.

  17. Evolutionary adaptations: theoretical and practical implications for visual ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.

  18. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.

  19. The development and validation of an ergonomics index for assessing tractor operator work place

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Juan Paulo; Schlosser, José Fernando; Farias, Marcelo Silveira de; Negri, Giácomo Müller; Oliveira, Luis Fernando Vargas de

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate an ergonomics index for the operator workplace assessment of agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market. To develop the ergonomics index, the operator work places were assessed for compliance with current, national and international, safety and ergonomics standards. The following standards were analyzed to develop ergonomics index: ISO 15077 (1996), which regulates the position of operator controls; ABNT NBR ISO 4254-1(2015) and ABNT ...

  20. Effect of systematic ergonomic hazard identification and control implementation on musculoskeletal disorder and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Taiwo, Oyebode A; Galusha, Deron; Barbour, Russell; Slade, Martin D; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of an ergonomic hazard control (HC) initiative, undertaken as part of a company ergonomics standard, on worker injury risk. Using the company's ergonomic hazards database to identify jobs with and without ergonomic HC implementation and linking to individual job and injury histories, injury risk among person-jobs with HC implementation (the HC group) was compared to those without HC (NoHC group) using random coefficient models. Further analysis of the HC group was conducted to determine the effect of additional ergonomic hazards controlled on injury risk. Among 123 jobs at 17 plant locations, 347 ergonomic hazards were quantitatively identified during the study period. HC were implemented for 204 quantified ergonomic hazards in 84 jobs, impacting 10 385 persons (12 967 person-jobs). No HC were implemented for quantified ergonomic hazards in the remaining 39 jobs affecting 4155 persons (5046 person-jobs). Adjusting for age, sex, plant origin, and year to control for any temporal trend in injury risk, the relative risk (RR) for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) was 0.85 and the RR for any injury or MSD was 0.92 in the HC compared to NoHC group. Among the HC group, each ergonomic hazard controlled was associated with risk reduction for MSD and acute injury outcomes (RR 0.93). Systematic ergonomic HC through participatory ergonomics, as part of a mandatory company ergonomics standard, is associated with MSD and injury risk reduction among workers in jobs with HC implemented.

  1. Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); H.J. de Vries (Henk); S. Verschoof (Sandra); W. Eveleens (Wietske); A. Feilzer (Albert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational

  2. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Advantages of shift changeovers with meetings: ergonomic analysis of shift supervisors' activity in aircraft building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bris, Valérie; Barthe, Béatrice; Marquié, Jean-Claude; Kerguelen, Alain; Aubert, Sophie; Bernadou, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Good shift changeovers contribute to ensuring continuity and reliability in shift work. In situations where production is not maintained 24 h a day, changeovers with meetings (SCM) between the two work teams (written plus oral face-to-face handovers) alternate with changeovers without meetings (SCnM; written handovers only). An ergonomic work analysis on an aircraft assembly line showed that (1) incoming and outgoing operators met during the overlap time allotted by the company, and (2) the content of the exchanges was richer for SCMs than for SCnMs. SCMs enabled the operators to pass on and process more aspects of their work than SCnMs did. SCMs also allowed incoming operators to validate their predictions, and enabled both outgoing and incoming operators to update their mental models and work together on peripheral aspects of the technical process over a greater time span. The findings highlight the importance of allowing overlap time in shift work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  5. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Ergonomic footwear for Sri Lankan primary schoolchildren: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettigama, I S; Punchihewa, H K G; Heenkenda, N K

    2016-10-17

    Foot ailments are common among schoolchildren, some of which may be attributed to wearing ill-fitting footwear. As schoolchildren often participate in athletic activity, they are doubly vulnerable to foot ailments, and are particularly vulnerable to conditions such as hallux valgus, Achilles tendonitis, athlete's foot, corns and calluses. Thus, there is an acute need for the design and manufacture of ergonomic footwear for this target group. While research on appropriate footwear for children has been carried out in relation to child populations in other societies, research on the circumstances of Sri Lankan schoolchildren is lacking. Neither the requisite design know-how nor the information for design is available to footwear manufacturers. This review of the literature is aimed at confirming the need for ergonomic footwear from the point of view of the effects of wearing ill-fitting shoes and at identifying the requirements in terms of design information, especially for schoolchildren of the age group five to ten years, to empower footwear manufacturers. PubMed, Google scholar and Science Direct were used for the literature search. 208 publications were read in full, 94 of which are referenced in this review. The review shows morphological measurements, behavior and activity patterns of schoolchildren and environmental conditions they are exposed to should be determined to formulate design information.

  7. PREVALENCE OF LOW BACK PAIN AND BACK ERGONOMICS AWARENESS AMONG TEACHERS OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANO METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Garba Sumaila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP is regarded as the commonest musculoskeletal problem in the world which affects people across various strata of the society from lay men on the street to teachers as well as health care providers in health institutions. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of low back pain and back education awareness among secondary school teachers in Kano Metropolis. Methodos: 200 questionnaires were distributed and only 157 were retrieved, one out of which 4 were invalid because of incomplete data so that only 153 were relevant and used for analysis giving a return rate of 76.5%. The study revealed that 96 out of 153 respondents have low back pain implying 62.7% prevalence. The level of back ergonomic awareness on the other hand was found to be moderate (43.1%. Results: Based on the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that there is a high prevalence of low back pain among secondary school teachers in Kano metropolis. However, the level of back ergonomic awareness is moderate. Conclusion: Therefore proper intervention to prevent exposure to LBP among school teachers should be enhanced and teachers should be well educated on the importance of ergonomic intervention in their working environments.

  8. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  9. SUCCESS FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING ERGONOMICS TO ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taylor's University School of Engineering (Malaysia is a project-based-learning school that puts a conscious effort to educate engineers on the importance of applying ergonomic principles at the conceiving and designing stages of a product life cycle. This paper reports on an innovative approach to teaching ergonomics using the SUCCESS framework (Simple, Unexpected, Credible, Concrete, Emotions, Story, and Simulation. This teaching technique was adopted to engage the hearts and minds of the students and get them to embrace ergonomics as an important skill for engineers. Comparing students’ module evaluation and feedback, both before and after the adoption of the SUCCESS framework showed that students enjoyed the new approach of teaching and found it more fulfilling.

  10. Ergonomics intervention on an alternative design of a spinal board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Susanti, Lusi; Rahmayanti, Dina

    2017-09-01

    A spinal board is the evacuation tool of first aid to help the injured spinal cord. The existing spinal board has several weaknesses, both in terms of user comfort and the effectiveness and efficiency of the evacuation process. This study designs an ergonomic spinal board using the quality function deployment approach. A preliminary survey was conducted through direct observation and interviews with volunteers from the Indonesian Red Cross. Data gathered were translated into a questionnaire and answered by 47 participants in West Sumatra. The results indicate that the selection of materials, the application of strap systems as well as the addition of features are very important in designing an ergonomic spinal board. The data were used in designing an ergonomic spinal board. The use of anthropometric data ensures that this product can accommodate safety and comfort when immobilized, as well as the flexibility and speed of the rescue evacuation process.

  11. Multilevel Comprehensive Evaluation and Decision Making of Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the improvement of living standards, higher level of ergonomic performance is required for the products. As a result, the ergonomic evaluation has become one of the key points in the decisions making of modern products, especially the complex products. Aiming at improving the situation that the methods for ergonomic evaluation and decision making are one-sided and discrete, this paper proposed several methods for measuring multiply factors and data format of products and built a comprehensive evaluation and decision making system. In this system, the data supplied by soft hardware and specialists were calculated separately to gain the preliminary scores, and the preliminary scores were processed to get the final results for the decision making using the AHP-GRA analytic hierarchy process-gray relational analysis method proposed in this paper.

  12. Ergonomics in dentistry: experiences of the practice by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P P N S; Gottardello, A C A; Wajngarten, D; Presoto, C D; Campos, J A D B

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the experiences of students enrolled in the last year of dentistry school with ergonomic practice. This is a qualitative, observational and cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample design. The sample comprised students enrolled in the last year of dentistry in Araraquara-UNESP (n = 29). The data were collected by means of open semi-structured and individual interviews, captured by a digital voice recorder. The students were interviewed in their own university at a time that was previously scheduled, and care was taken to provide a private and welcoming environment to carry out the interviews. A script containing questions related to practices in ergonomics was prepared at the university. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitative-quantitative Collective Subject Discourse technique with the aid of Qualiquantisoft ® software program. It was found that more than half of the students (58.6%) believe that adopting an ergonomic posture is important to prevent future problems, pain and occupational diseases, and 62.1% of the students confirm having difficulties in adopting ergonomic postures due to the types of treatment required and the regions of the mouth being treated. The main reasons stated for the fact that their colleagues do not adopt ergonomic postures are lack of attention, practice and forgetfulness (44.8%) and difficulty in visualising the operatory field or the procedure performed (27.6%). It is possible to conclude that the students interviewed know ergonomic principles and their importance in occupational health. However, they found it difficult to put these principles into practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Software Support of Modelling using Ergonomic Tools in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Dupláková

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the preconditions for correct development of industrial production is continuous interconnecting of virtual reality and real world by computer software. Computer software are used for product modelling, creation of technical documentation, scheduling, management and optimization of manufacturing processes, and efficiency increase of human work in manufacturing plants. This article describes the frequent used ergonomic software which helping to increase of human work by error rate reducing, risks factors of working environment, injury in workplaces and elimination of arising occupational diseases. They are categorized in the field of micro ergonomics and they are applicable at the manufacturing level with flexible approach in solving of established problems.

  14. Ergonomic solutions to support forced static positions at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suszyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the available ergonomic constructions used for the support of the musculoskeletal system during static, prolonged work performed in forced positions. Possible evaluation methods are presented as well as ergonomic considerations of work performed in inclined positions, where there is no possibility of influencing the working plane. As a result of the presented work, a set of criteria has been proposed and the requirements for methods which can be used to evaluate the technical constructions supporting the worker during tasks performed in forced and static positions.

  15. Design of control rooms and ergonomics in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    Modern power plant control rooms are characterized by automation of protection and control functions, subdivision according to functions, computer-aided information processing, and ergonomic design. Automation relieves the personnel of stress. Subdivision according to functions permits optimized procedures. Computer-aided information processing results in variable information output tailored to the actual needs. Ergonomic design assures qualified man-machine interaction. Of course, these characteristics will vary between power plants in dependence of unit power, mode of operation, and safety and availability requirements. (orig.) [de

  16. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...

  17. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  18. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julitta S. Boschman

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures.

  19. Cryptozoology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  20. Implementing ergonomics in large-scale engineering design. Communicating and negotiating requirements in an organizational context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, Ingrid Anette

    1997-12-31

    This thesis investigates under what conditions ergonomic criteria are being adhered to in engineering design. Specifically, the thesis discusses (1) the ergonomic criteria implementation process, (2) designer recognition of ergonomic requirements and the organization of ergonomics, (3) issues important for the implementation of ergonomic requirements, (4) how different means for experience transfer in design and operation are evaluated by the designers, (5) how designers ensure usability of offshore work places, and (6) how project members experience and cope with the large amount of documentation in large-scale engineering. 84 refs., 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5(th), 50(th), and 95(th) Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture using Multi-Modality Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ashley R; Gayzik, F Scott; Moreno, Daniel P; Martin, R Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D

    The purpose of this study was to use data from a multi-modality image set of males and females representing the 5(th), 50(th), and 95(th) percentile (n=6) to examine abdominal organ location, morphology, and rib coverage variations between supine and seated postures. Medical images were acquired from volunteers in three image modalities including Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and upright MRI (uMRI). A manual and semi-automated segmentation method was used to acquire data and a registration technique was employed to conduct a comparative analysis between abdominal organs (liver, spleen, and kidneys) in both postures. Location of abdominal organs, defined by center of gravity movement, varied between postures and was found to be significant (p=0.002 to p=0.04) in multiple directions for each organ. In addition, morphology changes, including compression and expansion, were seen in each organ as a result of postural changes. Rib coverage, defined as the projected area of the ribs onto the abdominal organs, was measured in frontal, lateral, and posterior projections, and also varied between postures. A significant change in rib coverage between postures was measured for the spleen and right kidney (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The results indicate that posture affects the location, morphology and rib coverage area of abdominal organs and these implications should be noted in computational modeling efforts focused on a seated posture.

  2. Synopsis of History of American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1958-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, Gustavo S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of the history of the association of radiation oncologists in the United States, currently known as the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), with the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the organization. Methods and Materials: The history of ASTRO, from its beginning as the American Club of Therapeutic Radiologists, is the subject of a book that is to be released with the occasion of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Society in 2008. This book was prepared by members of ASTRO's History Committee and History Working Subcommittee. The source material for the book was the archives of the Society and recorded interviews, conducted by members of the subcommittee, of members of the Society and of the past and present Society staff. The book was also based on previously published material. This article used the source material used for the Society anniversary book. Results: This synopsis of the history of the Society will provide a source of reference for anyone interested in the history of the Society from its foundation in 1958 to the present, 2008

  3. Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces.

  4. Integration of human factors and ergonomics during medical device design and development: it's all about communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christopher James; Li, Yunqiu; Blandford, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers of interactive medical devices, such as infusion pumps, need to ensure that devices minimise the risk of unintended harm during use. However, development teams face challenges in incorporating Human Factors. The aim of the research reported here was to better understand the constraints under which medical device design and development take place. We report the results of a qualitative study based on 19 semi-structured interviews with professionals involved in the design, development and deployment of interactive medical devices. A thematic analysis was conducted. Multiple barriers to designing for safety and usability were identified. In particular, we identified barriers to communication both between the development organisation and the intended users and between different teams within the development organisation. We propose the use of mediating representations. Artefacts such as personas and scenarios, known to provide integration across multiple perspectives, are an essential component of designing for safety and usability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Do ergonomics improvements increase computer workers' productivity?: an intervention study in a call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J; Bayehi, Antoinette Derjani

    2003-01-15

    This paper examines whether improving physical ergonomics working conditions affects worker productivity in a call centre with computer-intensive work. A field study was conducted at a catalogue retail service organization to explore the impact of ergonomics improvements on worker production. There were three levels of ergonomics interventions, each adding incrementally to the previous one. The first level was ergonomics training for all computer users accompanied by workstation ergonomics analysis leading to specific customized adjustments to better fit each worker (Group C). The second level added specific workstation accessories to improve the worker fit if the ergonomics analysis indicated a need for them (Group B). The third level met Group B requirements plus an improved chair (Group A). Productivity data was gathered from 72 volunteer participants who received ergonomics improvements to their workstations and 370 control subjects working in the same departments. Daily company records of production outputs for each worker were taken before ergonomics intervention (baseline) and 12 months after ergonomics intervention. Productivity improvement from baseline to 12 months post-intervention was examined across all ergonomics conditions combined, and also compared to the control group. The findings showed that worker performance increased for 50% of the ergonomics improvement participants and decreased for 50%. Overall, there was a 4.87% output increase for the ergonomics improvement group as compared to a 3.46% output decrease for the control group. The level of productivity increase varied by the type of the ergonomics improvements with Group C showing the best improvement (9.43%). Even though the average production improved, caution must be used in interpreting the findings since the ergonomics interventions were not successful for one-half of the participants.

  6. Determination of an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Port Center Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christman, Marissa St John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-30

    Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.

  7. Scientific evidence suggests a changed approach in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Jørgen; Schiller, Bernt; Dellve, L.

    2017-01-01

    Ergonomic interventions have generally been unsuccessful in improving workers’ health, with concurrent rationalization efforts negating potentially successful intervention initiatives. We propose the two aims are considered simultaneously, aiming at the joint consideration of competitive performa...... to carry out such research. The present authors bring forth the vision of “a Nordic Model for development of more sustainable production systems”....

  8. Sovereignty in engineering and ergonomics; Souveraen in Technik und Ergonomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knothe, F.; Goehlich, D.; Orschel, G.; Parnow, A. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The new S-Class is taking off with a demonstrative overall concept, trendsetting safety and the highest degree of driving comfort. Agility and driving dynamics resulting from a harmonic interaction of design, technology and ergonomics provide a maximum comfort. (orig.)

  9. Some key issues in the development of ergonomic intervention tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However...

  10. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  11. REVEAL: Reconstruction, Enhancement, Visualization, and Ergonomic Assessment for Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    2007) Ergonomic risk of assisting in minimally invasive surgery, Annual conference of SAGES 2008 Park AE, Meenaghan N, Lee TH, Seagull FJ, Lee G...of NOTES techniques: a study of physical and mental workload, body movement and posture Adrian Park, Gyusung Lee, Carlos Godinez, F Jacob Seagull

  12. A framework for providing ergonomic feedback using smart cameras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Maatta, T.T.; Wong, K.; Aghajan, H.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of proper ergonomics for the health and wellbeing of office workers is being increasingly promoted by federal agencies, such as the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), which provide guidelines for

  13. Study on functional relationships between ergonomics indexes of manual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Min; Ding, Li; Chen, Shou-Ping; Yang, Chun-Xin; Yuan, Xiu-Gan

    This paper investigates functional relationships between some of the key ergonomics indexes in manual performance, and attempts to condense the ergonomics appraisal indexes system and thus evaluate hand performance wearing EVA (extravehicular activity) glove, design and improve EVA glove's performance. Four types of ergonomics indexes were studied, i.e., dexterity, tactile sensibility (TS), strength and fatigue. Two test items of insert sticks into a holes-board (ISIHB) and nuts-bolts assembly task (NBAT) were used to measure dexterity, while shape discrimination (SD) was employed for TS, and grip force (GF) for strength and fatigue. The variables measured in this investigation included accomplishing time (AT) of ISIHB and NBAT, correct rate (CR) of SD, maximal grip force (MGF), instant grip force (IGF) and endurance time of grip force (ETGF). Experiments were conducted on 31 undergraduates (eight female and 23 male) with two experiment conditions of bare-hand group and gloved hand group. Results demonstrated that dexterity and TS performance of gloved hand group declined significantly compared with those of bare-hand group (pfatigue between two conditions (p>0.05). Four effective functional relationships were developed between four pairs of ergonomics indexes in bare-hand group. In gloved hand group, in addition to above-mentioned four pairs of relationships, another formula was found, which was y^=0.02061+0.01233x ( p<0.01, dexterity and TS).

  14. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: The role of objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between...

  15. Implementation of participatory ergonomics intervention in construction companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Vink, Peter; van Duivenbooden, Cor; Holman, Rebecca; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives The effectiveness of the implementation of participatory ergonomics intervention to reduce physical work demands in construction work was studied. Methods in a cluster randomized controlled trial, 10 bricklaying companies were randomly assigned either to an intervention group (N=5) or a

  16. Implementation of participatory ergonomics intervention in construction companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, H.F. van der; Sluiter, J.K.; Vink, P.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Duivenbooden, C. van; Holman, R.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives The effectiveness of the implementation of participatory ergonomics intervention to reduce physical work demands in construction work was studied. Methods In a cluster randomized controlled trial, 10 bricklaying companies were randomly assigned either to an intervention group (N=5) or a

  17. An ergonomic evaluation of workstations in small-scale cybercafes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a survey of cybercafes in a developing country to reveal their design pitfalls and propose appropriate solutions to the observed problems based on ergonomic principles. These cybercafes provide Internet services to communities but the concern is to make the work convenient at the computer workplace ...

  18. Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange ( Citrus sinensis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange handling operation in Kano State was conducted. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, where they were found to vary with age amongst the subjects selected. 20th and 80th percentiles of the dimensions were computed and recommended for usage in design of ...

  19. Ergonomic Based Design and Survey of Elementary School Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwar; Jawalkar, Chandrashekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ergonomic aspects in designing and prototyping of desks cum chairs used in elementary schools. The procedures adopted for the assessment included: the study of existing school furniture, design analysis and development of prototypes. The design approach proposed a series of adjustable desks and chairs developed in terms of…

  20. Ergonomic workplace assessment in orthotic and prosthetic workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nodooshan, H; Koohi Booshehri, S; Daneshmandi, H; Choobineh, A R

    2016-10-17

    In Iranian orthotic and prosthetic workshops, the majority of activities are carried out by manpower and the tasks are labor-intensive. In these workshops, ergonomic aspects of working conditions are seldom considered. This study was conducted in orthotic and prosthetic workshops with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate of MSDs among employees and assessment of ergonomics working conditions. In this cross-sectional study, all employees (n = 42; 29 males and 13 females) in 11 active orthotic and prosthetic production centers of Shiraz city participated. Data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and observational technique by an ergonomics checklist for assessment of working conditions. The means (SD) of age and job tenure (years) in the study individuals were 37.26 (10.21) and 12.8 (9.39), respectively. The most prevalent MSD symptoms in the past 12 months were reported in the lower back (42.9%), shoulders (40.5%) and knees (40.5%). Working conditions assessment showed that the main ergonomic problems in the workshops studied originated from awkward working posture, improper workstation design, poorly designed hand tools and incorrect manual material handling. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should, therefore, focus on these areas.

  1. Determination of an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Port Center Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, Marissa St; Land, Whitney Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.

  2. Ergonomic evaluation of workload by milk production - a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claudilaine Caldas; Pereira Moro, Antônio Renato; Ulbricht, Leandra; Belinelli, Marjorie; de Souza, Gilberto F M; Gabriel, Michele; Zattar, Izabel Cristina

    2017-09-21

    The purpose of this study was to select in a structured manner the relevant articles with scientific recognition, and simultaneously identify the characteristics of these publications that may scientifically enrich the theme in a portfolio of papers. The theme involves ergonomics in milk production as a criterion for evaluating and improving organizational performance in the milking sector. The study used ProKnow-C as a theoretical instrument for intervention. The main results show: i) a bibliographic portfolio of 18 items aligned with the view adopted by researchers which served as a theoretical framework for this research; ii) The article entitled "Wrist positions and movements as possible risk factors during machine milking", by Marianne Stål, Gert-Åke Hansson and Ulrich Moritz in 1999 and published in the Journal of Applied Ergonomics presented the highest scientific recognition, iii) the authors highlighted in the bibliographic portfolio or in its references researching the subject are Gert-Åke Hansson, Marianne Stål and Stefan Pinzke, and iv) the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics shows the highest number of scientific articles in the bibliographic portfolio. The studies selected using the methodology indicate research in ergonomics focused on the production of milk in rural areas, specifically in the milking sector, are generally related to the health and safety of the workers.

  3. Ergonomía aplicada en podología

    OpenAIRE

    Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique; Novel Martí, Virginia; Ogalla, José Manuel; Zalacain, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    La ergonomía pretende el estudio integral del sistema, reafirmando el derecho que tiene el hombre a que su salud en el puesto de trabajo no sufra ninguna mengua, ni interfiera su integridad física ni su dignidad personal.

  4. Educational Ergonomics in Higher Education Institutions in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of works departments constituted the sample. Four research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. Data was collected using a researcher-constructed questionnaire entitled Educational Ergonomics in Higher Institutions questionnaire (EEIHIQ). An observation checklist and interview schedules were also used.

  5. Accounting for effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However...

  6. Ergonomics in the computer workstation | Karoney | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Awareness of effects of long term use of computer and application of ergonomics in the computer workstation is important for preventing musculoskeletal disorders, eyestrain and psychosocial effects. Objectives: To determine the awareness of ºphysical and psychological effects of prolonged computer usage ...

  7. Ergonomics and regulatory politics: the Washington State case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Every year in the State of Washington more than 50,000 workers experience a work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD), making up more than 30% of all worker compensation cases. In 2000, the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) adopted a workplace ergonomics rule requiring employers to reduce worker exposure to hazards that cause or contribute to WMSDs. In 2003, the ergonomics rule was repealed by a margin of 53.5-46.5 in a statewide voter initiative. The official rulemaking record of approximately 100,000 pages, along with supplementary published and unpublished material, was reviewed. The relationship between scientific deliberation and the public policy process in adopting and repealing the ergonomics rule was assessed and described. The deliberative features of the regulatory, judicial, legislative, and ballot processes were compared. The ergonomics rule was successful in the regulatory and legal arenas where the process was most transparent and open to public involvement, differing views could be presented fully, and decision makers were expected to explain their decisions in light of the record. The rule fared most poorly in the legislature and at the ballot box when these features were lost and where considered deliberation was replaced by unconstrained political conflict. Additional checks and balances are needed.

  8. An Evaluation of Signal Annoyance for a Head-Mounted Tactile Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    communications. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting; 2006 Oct 16–20; San Francisco, CA. Thousand Oaks (CA): SAGE...Computer Society; 2005:471–472. Knapp TR. Treating ordinal scales as interval scales: an attempt to resolve the controversy. Nursing Research...Gonzalez C, Baldwin CL. Perceived urgency scaling in tactile alerts. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 56th Annual Meeting

  9. Remote online ergonomic assessment in the office environment as compared to face-to-face ergonomic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Levy; Ribak, Joseph; Badihi, Yehuda

    2012-01-01

    remote online ergonomic assessment in the office environment as compared to face-to-face ergonomic assessment and examination of the applicability of remote online ergonomic assessment to office workers. 40 employees from a large Israeli hi-tech company were ergonomically assessed per the University of California computer usage checklist, according to the two assessment types (face-to-face and remote). An additional Ergonomist "assessor 2" examined the credibility of the process. Research hypothesis 1 was verified: 21 out of 22 questions (95.45%) from the checklist indicated compatibility between "assessor 1" to the "Gold Standard" at an 80% level. Research hypothesis 2: examining the credibility between the assessors with regard to remote assessment. This hypothesis was partially verified, the correlation between the assessors was measured at 0.54. Research hypothesis 3: examining the extent of deviation of natural posture between distal body parts assessment (distant from the center of the body) and proximal body parts (close to the center of the body). This hypothesis was clearly verified. It has been proven that there is statistical significance between the results. The current research has proved that there is an additional method to assess musculoskeletal disorders risk factors remotely online at office environment.

  10. Following ergonomics guidelines decreases physical and cardiovascular workload during cleaning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of ergonomics guidelines on muscular activity, postural and cardiovascular load during cleaning. Eighteen cleaners performed 10 min of cleaning tasks in two locations; three min in a laboratory and seven min in a lecture room. All participants performed the task with or without focusing on ergonomics guidelines (ergonomics/non-ergonomics session). Bipolar surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from upper trapezius and erector spinae muscles. A tri-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes, and the cardiovascular load was estimated by electrocardiogram. Ergonomics sessions resulted in lower muscular load, a more complex pattern of muscular activity, lower range of motion and angular velocity of the trunk as well as lower cardiovascular load compared with non-ergonomics sessions (p ergonomics guidelines during cleaning tasks. This study investigated the effects of following instructive ergonomics guidelines during cleaning tasks (daily curriculum of cleaning including mopping, sweeping, changing trash bins and cleaning of desks and blackboards). Following the ergonomics guidelines reduces the general workload and induces a more complex pattern of muscular activity. The study contributes with novel knowledge concerning ergonomics guidelines and work techniques.

  11. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakacs, Istvan; Czeizel, Endre; Hajdu, Janos; Marx, Gyoergy.

    1984-01-01

    The text of a round-table discussion held on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of neutron is given. The participants were the Chief Engineer of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Hungary started in November 1982, a geneticist treating the problems of genetic damages caused by nuclear and chemical effects, a nuclear physicist and a journalist interested in the social aspects of nuclear energy. They discussed the political, economical and social problems of nuclear energy in the context of its establishment in Hungary. (D.Gy.)

  12. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high momentsof the day: the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation Joseph Deiss

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high momentsof the day: the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation Joseph Deiss

  13. CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high moments of the day the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loeiz

    2004-01-01

    CERN 50th Anniversary Official Celebration : one of the high moments of the day the signing of the golden book by the King of Spain Juan Carlos, the President of the Republic of France, Jacques Chirac and the President of the Swiss Confederation, Joseph Deiss

  14. A strategy for human factors/ergonomics: developing the discipline and profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, Jan; Bruder, Ralph; Buckle, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Falzon, Pierre; Marras, William S; Wilson, John R; van der Doelen, Bas

    2012-01-01

    Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) has great potential to contribute to the design of all kinds of systems with people (work systems, product/service systems), but faces challenges in the readiness of its market and in the supply of high-quality applications. HFE has a unique combination of three fundamental characteristics: (1) it takes a systems approach (2) it is design driven and (3) it focuses on two closely related outcomes: performance and well-being. In order to contribute to future system design, HFE must demonstrate its value more successfully to the main stakeholders of system design. HFE already has a strong value proposition (mainly well-being) and interactivity with the stakeholder group of 'system actors' (employees and product/service users). However, the value proposition (mainly performance) and relationships with the stakeholder groups of 'system experts' (experts fromtechnical and social sciences involved in system design), and 'system decision makers' (managers and other decision makers involved in system design, purchase, implementation and use), who have a strong power to influence system design, need to be developed. Therefore, the first main strategic direction is to strengthen the demand for high-quality HFE by increasing awareness among powerful stakeholders of the value of high-quality HFE by communicating with stakeholders, by building partnerships and by educating stakeholders. The second main strategic direction is to strengthen the application of high-quality HFE by promoting the education of HFE specialists, by ensuring high-quality standards of HFE applications and HFE specialists, and by promoting HFE research excellence at universities and other organisations. This strategy requires cooperation between the HFE community at large, consisting of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), local (national and regional) HFE societies, and HFE specialists. We propose a joint world-wide HFE development plan, in which the IEA takes a

  15. The development and validation of an ergonomics index for assessing tractor operator work place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Paulo Barbieri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate an ergonomics index for the operator workplace assessment of agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market. To develop the ergonomics index, the operator work places were assessed for compliance with current, national and international, safety and ergonomics standards. The following standards were analyzed to develop ergonomics index: ISO 15077 (1996, which regulates the position of operator controls; ABNT NBR ISO 4254-1(2015 and ABNT NBR ISO 4252 (2011, which regulate the access to operator workplaces; and NR 12 (2010, which determines the mandatory items of operator workplaces.Thirty-four operator work places of 152 models of new agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market were analyzed in this study. Ergonomics index was developed and validated using these standards, and the findings enabled the ranking of agricultural tractors. Therefore, the proposed ergonomics index proved feasible and may be applied to other agricultural machines.

  16. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  17. Effectiveness of computer ergonomics interventions for an engineering company: a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Glenn; Landis, James; George, Christina; McGuire, Sheila; Shorter, Crystal; Sieminski, Michelle; Wilson, Tamika

    2005-01-01

    Ergonomic principles at the computer workstation may reduce the occurrence of work related injuries commonly associated with intensive computer use. A program implemented in 2001 by an occupational therapist and a physical therapist utilized these preventative measures with education about ergonomics, individualized evaluations of computer workstations, and recommendations for ergonomic and environmental changes. This study examined program outcomes and perceived effectiveness based on review of documents, interviews, and surveys of the employees and the plant manager. The program was deemed successful as shown by 59% of all therapist recommendations and 74% of ergonomic recommendations being implemented by the company, with an 85% satisfaction rate for the ergonomic interventions and an overall employee satisfaction rate of 70%. Eighty-one percent of the physical problems reported by employees were resolved to their satisfaction one year later. Successful implementation of ergonomics programs depend upon effective communication and education of the consumers, and the support, cooperation and collaboration of management and employees.

  18. Following ergonomics guidelines decreases physical and cardiovascular workload during cleaning tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of ergonomics guidelines on muscular activity, postural and cardiovascular load during cleaning. Eighteen cleaners performed 10 min of cleaning tasks in two locations; three min in a laboratory and seven min in a lecture room. All participants performed...... the task with or without focusing on ergonomics guidelines (ergonomics/non-ergonomics session). Bipolar surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from upper trapezius and erector spinae muscles. A tri-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes......, and the cardiovascular load was estimated by electrocardiogram. Ergonomics sessions resulted in lower muscular load, a more complex pattern of muscular activity, lower range of motion and angular velocity of the trunk as well as lower cardiovascular load compared with non-ergonomics sessions (p ...

  19. Promoting ergonomics in Algeria: activities of "the research and training laboratory" in the University of Oran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebarki, Bouhafs; El-Bachir, Tebboune Cheikh

    2012-01-01

    The growing need in Algeria to develop ergonomics knowledge and practice in industry was behind the initiative to develop a training and research project within the ergonomics laboratory at Oran University. Since 2005 the laboratory team is running an academic option master in work design and ergonomics. The evaluation of the academic master in 2010 revealed the acute need of the local industry for professional competences in ergonomic and work psychology. A professional training master program in "ergonomics & work psychology" was then developed in partnership with local industry, five European Universities and six Universities from three Maghreb countries. Research projects were initiated around the two training programs, in conjunction with a number of ergonomics dissemination and promotion activities. Preliminary results of the project are presented and discussed in relation to the local context, and in the light of similar cases in Industrially Developing Countries.

  20. Ergonomic adjustments on a website from the usability of functions: Can deficits impair functionalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Giovana Pagnoncelli Laperuta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current study assesses whether deficits and usability of ergonomics impair the functionality of a university website. The concepts of functionality, usability and ergonomics were foregrounded by contextualizing them within a university profile. Later, a satisfaction survey was proposed to users to measure the satisfaction in the use of the website and to map the problems in usability. In addition, an ergonomic inspection was performed on the site by applying Bastien and Scapin´s ergonomic criteria. After analyzing results by descriptive statistics and content analysis, the ergonomic and usability problems were detected, or rather, feedback deficits, minimum action (navigation, flexibility and experience impaired the excellence of website´s functionality, causing dissatisfaction or abandonment of the website by the users. After the analysis of the results, ergonomic adjustments were suggested for the website. They may be a help in new website projects or adjust products in which usability has not been incorporated to the development process.

  1. Reducing musculoskeletal discomfort: effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; O'Neill, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention on workers' knowledge and self-reported musculoskeletal pain and discomfort were investigated. An instructional systems design process was used to develop an office ergonomics training program and the evaluation tools used to measure the effectiveness of the training program on workers' office ergonomics knowledge and skills. It was hypothesized that the training and workplace intervention would allow the worker to more effectively use their workplace through increased office ergonomics knowledge and skills. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in workers' office ergonomics knowledge and awareness. Self-reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders significantly decreased for the group who had a workplace change and received ergonomic training relative to a workplace change-only group and a no intervention control group.

  2. Participatory ergonomics for psychological factors evaluation in work system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Lau, Henry Y K

    2012-01-01

    It is a well recognized understanding that workers whose voice needs to be heard should be actively encouraged as full participants and involved in the early design stages of new ergonomic work system which encompass the development and implementation of new tools, workplaces, technologies or organizations. This paper presents a novel participatory strategy to evaluate three key psychological factors which are respectively mental fatigue, spiritual stress, and emotional satisfaction in work system design based on a modified version of Participatory Ergonomics (PE). In specific, it integrates a PE technique with a formulation view by combining the parallel development of PE strategies, frameworks and functions throughout the coverage of the entire work system design process, so as to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analysis of psychological factors which can cause adverse or advantageous effects on worker's physiological and behavioral performance.

  3. The Role of Knowledge Objects in Participatory Ergonomics Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    2015-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics simulations, taking place in simulation labs, have the tendency to get detached from the surrounding design process, resulting in a knowledge gap. Few studies in the human factors and ergonomics field have applied knowledge management based object concepts in the study...... of knowledge generation and transfer over such gaps. This paper introduces the concept of knowledge object to identify the roles of objects in an exploratory case study of five participatory simulation activities. The simulations had the purpose of contributing to room design of a new Danish hospital....... The analysis showed sequences and transitions of the knowledge objects revealing the process behind the knowledge interpretations and development of the future hospital rooms. Practitioner Summary: When planning participatory simulation in a lab context, the ergonomist should consider the role of objects...

  4. Contradiction analysis: towards a dialectical approach in ergonomics field interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Nathanael

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a methodological contribution to the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes a perspective on work analysis based on the dialectics notion of contradictions. Contradiction analysis is proposed as being complementary to more established work decomposition methods. The aim of including such an analysis is to frame various heterogeneous determinants of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity and essence. Such framing is of particular value when considering alternative design solutions because it provides a practical means for anticipating the effects and side effects of proposed changes. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs: (i contradiction, as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and (ii regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of the ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented, and its usefulness, possible pitfalls and need for further developments are discussed.

  5. Ergonomics and cultural heritage: the Palatina chapel in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbaro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents results of a study that aims at the assessment of ergonomic safety conditions inside the Palatina chapel of Palermo. To reach this object, an informative questionnaire was established so as to collect visitors’ subjective judgments regarding overall ergonomic conditions in terms of accessibility, availability, safety or else environmental conditions (thermo-hygrometry; air, sound and visual quality; this stage was carried out, bearing in mind the Museum Visitors’ Rights Card that is currently under creation by the “Legambiente” group. An automatic instrument was bought to daily count the numbers of visitors; the latter element shall then be related to indoor environmental data registered thanks to a monitoring system of thermohygrometry, illuminating engineering and environmental aggressiveness.

  6. Utilization of wheel dop based on ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiasih, Wiwin; Murnawan, Hery; Setiawan, Danny

    2017-06-01

    Time is an important thing in life. People need a tool or equipment to measure time which is divided into two types, namely clock and watch. Everyone needs those kinds of tool. It becomes an opportunity for manufacturer to build a business. However, establishing a business by depending on the demand is not enough, it is necessary to take a consideration of making innovation. Innovation is a difficult thing to find out, but it is not impossible to do it. By creating an innovative product, it can be a strategy to win the competitive market. This study aimed to create an innovative product based on the ergonomic aspects, which was by utilizing wheel dop. This methodology consisted of pre-study, planning and product development, and product analysis. This product utilized wheel dop and was made based on the ergonomic aspects.

  7. Colossal Tooling Design: 3D Simulation for Ergonomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Thomas, Robert E.; Babai, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The application of high-level 3D simulation software to the design phase of colossal mandrel tooling for composite aerospace fuel tanks was accomplished to discover and resolve safety and human engineering problems. The analyses were conducted to determine safety, ergonomic and human engineering aspects of the disassembly process of the fuel tank composite shell mandrel. Three-dimensional graphics high-level software, incorporating various ergonomic analysis algorithms, was utilized to determine if the process was within safety and health boundaries for the workers carrying out these tasks. In addition, the graphical software was extremely helpful in the identification of material handling equipment and devices for the mandrel tooling assembly/disassembly process.

  8. [The role of ergonomics in occupational health - past and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    The aim of working condition and ergonomics is to control the task method and condition for the best productive activity with the highest efficiency and sustainability. The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor and its criticism by Gito Teruoka, the 1st director of The Institute for Science of Labour, are introduced for a better understanding of work condition and ergonomics in this article. Occupational physician have a duty to control working method and condition to reduce the health hazards induced by job duty. Not only the technical knowledge of medicine, but also a fundamental knowledge of manufacturing is needed for the occupational physician. The development of tools for early detection of health hazards and workload evaluation, the introduction of work management systems with cooperation between occupational physicians and technical experts of manufacturing are needed for effective control of the workplace. The strengthening of the Industrial Safety and Health Law should help to drive these improvements.

  9. Designing an Assistant System Encouraging Ergonomic Computer Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜRÜLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, people of almost every age group are users of computers and computer aided systems. Technology makes our life easier, but it can also threaten our health. In recent years, one of the main causes of the proliferation of diseases such as lower back pain, neck pain or hernia, Arthritis, visual disturbances and obesity is wrong computer usage. The widespread use of computers also increases these findings. The purpose of this study is to direct computer users to use computers more carefully in terms of ergonomics. The user-interactive system developed for this purpose controls distance of the user to the screen and calculates the look angle and the time spent looking at the screen and provides audio or text format warning when necessary. It is thought that this system will reduce the health problems caused by the frequency of computer usage by encouraging individuals to use computers ergonomically.

  10. Ergonomics on the Build Colombian Health of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Ernesto Luna García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of workers in Colombia traverses multiple challenges and difficulties, starting from the national, political and economic context, crossroads living social security system and the trends in the world of work. Faced with this situation, the ergonomics as a field of knowledge and action has multiple possibilities of contribution, which depend on not to see this disciplined reduced to a technical dimension, but encourage their contribution within a framework of action located and contextualized. Although it has emphasized the action of ergonomics in its contribu-tion to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.

  11. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  12. Ergonomic (human factors) problems in design of NPPs. A review of TMI and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiangrui; Zheng Fuyu; Gao Jia

    1994-01-01

    The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs

  13. Discussion after implementation of possible ergonomics contributions in production lines automation project

    OpenAIRE

    José Adriano Canton; Andrea Regina Martins Fontes; Isaías Torres

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysi...

  14. Ergonomics of disposable handles for minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, D; Mårvik, R; Hallabrin, B; Matern, U

    2010-05-01

    The ergonomic deficiencies of currently available minimally invasive surgery (MIS) instrument handles have been addressed in many studies. In this study, a new ergonomic pistol handle concept, realized as a prototype, and two disposable ring handles were investigated according to ergonomic properties set by new European standards. In this study, 25 volunteers performed four practical tasks to evaluate the ergonomics of the handles used in standard operating procedures (e.g., measuring a suture and cutting to length, precise maneuvering and targeting, and dissection of a gallbladder). Moreover, 20 participants underwent electromyography (EMG) tests to measure the muscle strain they experienced while carrying out the basic functions (grasp, rotate, and maneuver) in the x, y, and z axes. The data measured included the number of errors, the time required for task completion, perception of pressure areas, and EMG data. The values for usability in the test were effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction. Surveys relating to the subjective rating were completed after each task for each of the three handles tested. Each handle except the new prototype caused pressure areas and pain. Extreme differences in muscle strain could not be observed for any of the three handles. Experienced surgeons worked more quickly with the prototype when measuring and cutting a suture (approximately 20%) and during precise maneuvering and targeting (approximately 20%). On the other hand, they completed the dissection task faster with the handle manufactured by Ethicon. Fewer errors were made with the prototype in dissection of the gallbladder. In contrast to the handles available on the market, the prototype was always rated as positive by the volunteers in the subjective surveys. None of the handles could fulfil all of the requirements with top scores. Each handle had its advantages and disadvantages. In contrast to the ring handles, the volunteers could fulfil most of the tasks more

  15. Ergonomics, anthropometrics, and kinetic evaluation of gait: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rosa; Fontes, Liliana Magalhães Campos; Arezes, P.; Carvalho, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop appropriate changes in a pair of shoes in order to improve the gait of an individual selected for this case study. This analysis took into account ergonomic aspects, namely those relating to the individual’s anthropometrics. Gait analysis was done with the adapted footwear both before and after intervention.A conventional X-ray was performed, which revealed a 29-mm left lower limb shortening and possible foot adduction. The anthropometric assessment confir...

  16. Applying systems ergonomics methods in sport: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M

    2018-04-16

    As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future

  17. Ergonomics and the occupacional activities of the nursing staff

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa

    1998-01-01

    Esse trabalho discute determinadas condições ergonômicas do trabalho que causam lesões no sistema músculo-esquelético da coluna vertebral, relacionando-as com as atividades ocupacionais da equipe de enfermagem.This paper discusses some of the ergonomics conditions that contribute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders of the vertebral column and relates these conditions to the occupational activities of the nursing staff.

  18. [Evaluation of ergonomic load of clinical nursing procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, P; Zhang, L; Li, F Y; Yang, Y; Wang, Y N; Huang, A M; Dai, Y L; Yao, H

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To evaluate the ergonomic load of clinical nursing procedures and to provide evidence for the prevention and management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in nurses. Methods: Based on the nursing unit characteristics and the common departments involving patient-turning procedures, 552 nurses were selected from 6 clinical departments from July to September, 2016. The ergonomic load of four types of patient-turning procedures, i.e., turning the patient's body, changing the bed linen of in-bed patients, moving patients, and chest physiotherapy, was evaluated by the on-site inspectors and self-evaluated by the operators using the Quick Exposure Check. The exposure value, exposure level, and exposure rate of WMSDs were assessed based on the procedure-related physical loads on the back, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck, as well as the loads from work rhythm and work pressure. Results: All surveyed subjects were females who were aged mostly between 26-30 years (49.46%) , with a mean age of 29.66±5.28 years. These nurses were mainly from the Department of Infection (28.99%) and Spine Surgery (21.56%) . There were significant differences in the back, shoulders/arms, neck, work rhythm, and work pressure scores between different nursing procedures ( F =16.613, 5.884, 3.431, 3.222, and 5.085, respectively; P nursing procedures resulted in high to intermediate physical load in nurses. Procedures with high to low level of WMSDs exposure were patient turning (72.69%) , bed linen changing (67.15%) , patient transfer (65.82%) , and chest physiotherapy (58.34%) . In particular, patient turning was considered as very high-risk procedure, whereas others were considered as high-risk procedures. Conclusion: Patient-turning nursing procedures result in high ergonomic load in the operators. Therefore, more focus should be placed on the ergonomics of the caretakers and nurses.

  19. Ergonomic configuration of control rooms in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.

    1984-01-01

    Human possibilities and limits of performance can be taken into account by work configuration measures, in order to make the optimum contribution to the total output of the human being/machine system. The results of and considerations for the level ergonomic configuration of the control room, for the elements of the information carrier, for the structuring of the work field and for communication centres are introduced. (DG) [de

  20. Development of ergonomic seating for dental operator chair

    OpenAIRE

    Calles, Linus

    2017-01-01

    This report covers the examination of course Degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design MSGC12. The course is given on the Innovation and Design Program at the Faculty of Health, Science and Technology at Karlstad University. The course corresponds to 22.5 credits and extends over the spring semester in 2017. Examiner is Leo de Vin and supervisor is Kristina Gullander. The project is carried out on behalf of Support Design AB, which manufactures and distributes handmade ergonomic ...

  1. Influence of Ergonomics on Traffic Safety and Economy Development

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Perić; Nada Štrumberger; Dean Perić

    2004-01-01

    As an interdisciplinary science, ergonomics needs to makethe operating of traffic safer, faster and more reliable, for thesake of higher profitability and generally improved economiceffects. This is achieved by adapting and shaping the workplace,machines, transport means, equipment, physical environment,working process etc. according to experience abouthuman anatomic physica~ sociologica~ intellectual and otherminimal, average or maximal capabilities. Therefore, it is necessaryto analyse ergo...

  2. Considerations concerning the ergonomics of power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    Modern control rooms for the monitoring and control of large power plants have a high degree of automation. However, it is the responsibility of the control room personnel to ensure optimum process control during all operational states. The proper ergonomic design of a control room is one of the prerequisites to ensure that the operators are able to perceive the often large flow of current information and, after processing, to respond properly. (orig.) [de

  3. Customized Body Mapping to Facilitate the Ergonomic Design of Sportswear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingliang; Li, Yi; Guo, Yueping; Yao, Lei; Pan, Zhigeng

    2016-01-01

    A successful high-performance sportswear design that considers human factors should result in a significant increase in thermal comfort and reduce energy loss. The authors describe a body-mapping approach that facilitates the effective ergonomic design of sportswear. Their general framework can be customized based on the functional requirements of various sports and sportswear, the desired combination and selection of mapping areas for the human body, and customized quantitative data distribution of target physiological indicators.

  4. Stay@Work: Participatory Ergonomics to prevent low back and neck pain among workers: design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the (cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proper Karin I

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP are a major public health problem with considerable costs for individuals, companies and society. Therefore, prevention is imperative. The Stay@Work study investigates the (cost-effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics (PE to prevent LBP and NP among workers. Methods In a randomised controlled trial (RCT, a total of 5,759 workers working at 36 departments of four companies is expected to participate in the study at baseline. The departments consisting of about 150 workers are pre-stratified and randomised. The control departments receive usual practice and the intervention departments receive PE. Within each intervention department a working group is formed including eight workers, a representative of the management, and an occupational health and safety coordinator. During a one day meeting, the working group follows the steps of PE in which the most important risk factors for LBP and NP, and the most adequate ergonomic measures are identified on the basis of group consensus. The implementation of ergonomic measures at the department is performed by the working group. To improve the implementation process, so-called 'ergocoaches' are trained. The primary outcome measure is an episode of LBP and NP. Secondary outcome measures are actual use of ergonomic measures, physical workload, psychosocial workload, intensity of pain, general health status, sick leave, and work productivity. The cost-effectiveness analysis is performed from the societal and company perspective. Outcome measures are assessed using questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Data on the primary outcome as well as on intensity of pain, sick leave, work productivity, and health care costs are collected every 3 months. Discussion Prevention of LBP and NP is beneficial for workers, employers, and society. If the intervention is proven (cost-effective, the intervention can have a major impact on LBP and NP

  5. Stay@Work: Participatory Ergonomics to prevent low back and neck pain among workers: design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Maurice T; Anema, Johannes R; Proper, Karin I; Bongers, Paulien M; Beek, Allard J van der

    2008-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are a major public health problem with considerable costs for individuals, companies and society. Therefore, prevention is imperative. The Stay@Work study investigates the (cost-)effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics (PE) to prevent LBP and NP among workers. Methods In a randomised controlled trial (RCT), a total of 5,759 workers working at 36 departments of four companies is expected to participate in the study at baseline. The departments consisting of about 150 workers are pre-stratified and randomised. The control departments receive usual practice and the intervention departments receive PE. Within each intervention department a working group is formed including eight workers, a representative of the management, and an occupational health and safety coordinator. During a one day meeting, the working group follows the steps of PE in which the most important risk factors for LBP and NP, and the most adequate ergonomic measures are identified on the basis of group consensus. The implementation of ergonomic measures at the department is performed by the working group. To improve the implementation process, so-called 'ergocoaches' are trained. The primary outcome measure is an episode of LBP and NP. Secondary outcome measures are actual use of ergonomic measures, physical workload, psychosocial workload, intensity of pain, general health status, sick leave, and work productivity. The cost-effectiveness analysis is performed from the societal and company perspective. Outcome measures are assessed using questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Data on the primary outcome as well as on intensity of pain, sick leave, work productivity, and health care costs are collected every 3 months. Discussion Prevention of LBP and NP is beneficial for workers, employers, and society. If the intervention is proven (cost-)effective, the intervention can have a major impact on LBP and NP prevention and, thereby, on

  6. A study of 6S workplace improvement in Ergonomic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, AD; Suryoputro, MR; Rahmillah, FI

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses 6S implementation in Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research is improvement project of 5S implementation in Ergonomic laboratory. Referring to the 5S implementation of the previous year, there have been improvements from environmental conditions or a more organized workplace however there is still a lack of safety aspects. There are several safeties problems such as equipment arrangement, potential hazards of room dividers that cause injury several times, placement of fire extinguisher, no evacuation path and assembly point in case of fire, as well as expired hydrant condition and lack of awareness of stakeholders related to safety. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 6S kaizen method to the Ergonomic laboratory to facilitate the work process, reduce waste, improve work safety and improve staff performance. Based on the score 6S assessment increased audit results by 32 points, before implementation is 75 point while after implementation is 107 point. This has implications for better use for mitigate people in laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials, safe workplace, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘6S’ on staff due to better and safetier working environment.

  7. Ergonomic initiatives at Inmetro: measuring occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, L; Amaral, M; Carvalheira, C

    2012-01-01

    This work studies biomechanical hazards to which the workforce of Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Industrial (Inmetro) is exposed. It suggests a model for ergonomic evaluation of work, based on the concepts of resilience engineering which take into consideration the institute's ability to manage risk and deal with its consequences. Methodology includes the stages of identification, inventory, analysis, and risk management. Diagnosis of the workplace uses as parameters the minimal criteria stated in Brazilian legislation. The approach has several prospectives and encompasses the points of view of public management, safety engineering, physical therapy and ergonomics-oriented design. The suggested solution integrates all aspects of the problem: biological, psychological, sociological and organizational. Results obtained from a pilot Project allow to build a significant sample of Inmetro's workforce, identifying problems and validating the methodology employed as a tool to be applied to the whole institution. Finally, this work intends to draw risk maps and support goals and methods based on resiliency engineering to assess environmental and ergonomic risk management.

  8. Nonlinear dynamical systems for theory and research in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) theory offers new constructs, methods and explanations for phenomena that have in turn produced new paradigms of thinking within several disciplines of the behavioural sciences. This article explores the recent developments of NDS as a paradigm in ergonomics. The exposition includes its basic axioms, the primary constructs from elementary dynamics and so-called complexity theory, an overview of its methods, and growing areas of application within ergonomics. The applications considered here include: psychophysics, iconic displays, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation in systems. Although these applications make use of different subsets of NDS constructs, several of them share the general principles of the complex adaptive system. Practitioner Summary: Nonlinear dynamical systems theory reframes problems in ergonomics that involve complex systems as they change over time. The leading applications to date include psychophysics, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, biomechanics, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation of system components.

  9. State of science: human factors and ergonomics in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignett, Sue; Carayon, Pascale; Buckle, Peter; Catchpole, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increase in the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) techniques to healthcare delivery in a broad range of contexts (domains, locations and environments). This paper provides a state of science commentary using four examples of HFE in healthcare to review and discuss analytical and implementation challenges and to identify future issues for HFE. The examples include two domain areas (occupational ergonomics and surgical safety) to illustrate a traditional application of HFE and the area that has probably received the most research attention. The other two examples show how systems and design have been addressed in healthcare with theoretical approaches for organisational and socio-technical systems and design for patient safety. Future opportunities are identified to develop and embed HFE systems thinking in healthcare including new theoretical models and long-term collaborative partnerships. HFE can contribute to systems and design initiatives for both patients and clinicians to improve everyday performance and safety, and help to reduce and control spiralling healthcare costs. There has been an increase in the application of HFE techniques to healthcare delivery in the past 10 years. This paper provides a state of science commentary using four illustrative examples (occupational ergonomics, design for patient safety, surgical safety and organisational and socio-technical systems) to review and discuss analytical and implementation challenges and identify future issues for HFE.

  10. Nanomaterials in the field of design ergonomics: present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Anirban; Sanjog, J; Reddy, Swathi Matta; Karmakar, Sougata

    2012-01-01

    Application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials is not new in the field of design, but a recent trend of extensive use of nanomaterials in product and/or workplace design is drawing attention of design researchers all over the world. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to describe the diverse use of nanomaterials in product and workplace design with special emphasis on ergonomics (occupational health and safety; thermo-regulation and work efficiency, cognitive interface design; maintenance of workplace, etc.) to popularise the new discipline 'nanoergonomics' among designers, design users and design researchers. Nanoergonomics for sustainable product and workplace design by minimising occupational health risks has been felt by the authors to be an emerging research area in coming years. Use of nanomaterials in the field of design ergonomics is less explored till date. In the present review, an attempt has been made to extend general awareness among ergonomists/designers about applications of nanomaterials/nanotechnology in the field of design ergonomics and about health implications of nanomaterials during their use.

  11. THE VALUE CHAIN AND THE BENEFITS OF ERGONOMICS PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma LÓGÓ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the most competitive companies are always innovative, renewable and able to be ‘the best’ in something. But what does one of the most important resources – the human resource – need to achieve a high level of success in his or her workplace? He needs a creative workplace environment where he feels himself in safe, has inspiration and meets challenges. Ergonomics is a human centred science. The ergonomists are focused on the interfaces of the individual person and his or her narrow or wide work environment. Ergonomists typically have not been trained in management or business administration. The business-oriented topics such as cost justification and cost–benefit analysis have not been a part of their curricula. Not surprisingly, instead of presenting the projects to the management in the language of business, they make a great effort to improve engineering design, health and safety, and the quality of work life on. Regardless of the benefits that may be realized from ergonomic improvements, managers are usually willing to provide funds for the intervention unless there is a clear economic benefit to be derived. The ergonomics projects do result in significant economic benefits if they are properly planned and implemented.

  12. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  13. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCS Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  14. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007

  15. Assessing ergonomic risks of software: Development of the SEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, S Camille; Mehta, Ranjana K; Ritchey, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing). Principal component analysis found distinct factors associated with stress (i.e., demands) and strain (i.e., response). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that participants could discriminate the different strain induced by the input methods and tasks. However, participants' ability to discriminate between the stressors associated with that strain was mixed. Further validation of the SEAT is necessary but these results indicate that the SEAT may be a viable method of assessing ergonomics risks presented by software design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.

  17. Analysis of comfort and ergonomics for clinical work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafti, Ali; Lazpita, Beatriz Urbistondo; Elhage, Oussama; Wurdemann, Helge A; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2016-08-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are a serious risk to workers' health in any work environment, and especially in clinical work places. These disorders are typically the result of prolonged exposure to non-ergonomic postures and the resulting discomfort in the workplace. Thus a continuous assessment of comfort and ergonomics is necessary. There are different techniques available to make such assessments, such as self-reports on perceived discomfort and observational scoring models based on the posture's relevant joint angles. These methods are popular in medical and industrial environments alike. However, there are uncertainties with regards to objectivity of these methods and whether they provide a full picture. This paper reports on a study about these methods and how they correlate with the activity of muscles involved in the task at hand. A wearable 4-channel electromyography (EMG) and joint angle estimation device with wireless transmission was made specifically for this study to allow continuous, long-term and real-time measurements and recording of activities. N=10 participants took part in an experiment involving a buzz-wire test at 3 different levels, with their muscle activity (EMG), joint angle scores (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment - RULA), self-reports of perceived discomfort (Borg scale) and performance score on the buzz-wire being recorded and compared. Results show that the Borg scale is not responsive to smaller changes in discomfort whereas RULA and EMG can be used to detect more detailed changes in discomfort, effort and ergonomics.

  18. Comparative ergonomic assessment of manual wheelchairs by paraplegic users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agudo, Angel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; del-Ama, Antonio J; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; de la Peña-González, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Nombela, Soraya

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe and test the reliability of a comprehensive product-centered approach to assessing functional performance and wheelchair user perceptions on device ergonomics and satisfaction of performance. A pilot study was implemented using this approach to evaluate differences among four manual wheelchairs. Six wheelchair users with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at the thoracic level and with no previous upper limbs impairment were recruited for this study. After finishing circuit tasks, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about ergonomic wheelchair characteristics (manoeuvrability, stability, comfort and ease of propulsion) and satisfaction about task performance. On the other hand, objective data were recorded during user performance as the time required to complete each test, kinetic wheelchair propulsion data obtained with two SMARTWheels® and physiological parameters (heart rate and physiological index). Kuschall Champion® and Otto Bock Voyage® wheelchairs were ranked best for most ergonomic aspects specially in manoeuvrability (p importance of looking both kinds of information, user perception and user functional performance when evaluating a wheelchair or comparing across devices.

  19. Effect of office ergonomics intervention on reducing musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, Benjamin C; Robertson, Michelle M; DeRango, Kelly; Bazzani, Lianna; Moore, Anne; Rooney, Ted; Harrist, Ron

    2003-12-15

    Office workers invited and agreeing to participate were assigned to one of three study groups: a group receiving a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training, a training-only group, and a control group receiving the training at the end of the study. To examine the effect of office ergonomics intervention in reducing musculoskeletal symptom growth over the workday and, secondarily, pain levels throughout the day. Data collection occurred 2 months and 1 month before the intervention and 2, 6, and 12 months postintervention. During each round, a short daily symptom survey was completed at the beginning, middle, and end of the workday for 5 days during a workweek to measure total bodily pain growth over the workday. Multilevel statistical models were used to test hypotheses. The chair-with-training intervention lowered symptom growth over the workday (P = 0.012) after 12 months of follow-up. No evidence suggested that training alone lowered symptom growth over the workday (P = 0.461); however, average pain levels in both intervention groups were reduced over the workday. Workers who received a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training had reduced symptom growth over the workday. The lack of a training-only group effect supports implementing training in conjunction with highly adjustable office furniture and equipment to reduce symptom growth. The ability to reduce symptom growth has implications for understanding how to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in knowledge workers.

  20. Validation of ergonomic instructions in robot-assisted surgery simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hullenaar, C D P; Mertens, A C; Ruurda, J P; Broeders, I A M J

    2018-05-01

    Training in robot-assisted surgery focusses mainly on technical skills and instrument use. Training in optimal ergonomics during robotic surgery is often lacking, while improved ergonomics can be one of the key advantages of robot-assisted surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether a brief explanation on ergonomics of the console can improve body posture and performance. A comparative study was performed with 26 surgical interns and residents using the da Vinci skills simulator (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). The intervention group received a compact instruction on ergonomic settings and coaching on clutch usage, while the control group received standard instructions for usage of the system. Participants performed two sets of five exercises. Analysis was performed on ergonomic score (RULA) and performance scores provided by the simulator. Mental and physical load scores (NASA-TLX and LED score) were also registered. The intervention group performed better in the clutch-oriented exercises, displaying less unnecessary movement and smaller deviation from the neutral position of the hands. The intervention group also scored significantly better on the RULA ergonomic score in both the exercises. No differences in overall performance scores and subjective scores were detected. The benefits of a brief instruction on ergonomics for novices are clear in this study. A single session of coaching and instruction leads to better ergonomic scores. The control group showed often inadequate ergonomic scores. No significant differences were found regarding physical discomfort, mental task load and overall performance scores.

  1. Initial experience using a robotic-driven laparoscopic needle holder with ergonomic handle: assessment of surgeons' task performance and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the surgeons' performance and ergonomics during the use of a robotic-driven needle holder in laparoscopic suturing tasks. Six right-handed laparoscopic surgeons with different levels of experience took part in this study. Participants performed a set of three different intracorporeal suturing tasks organized in ten trials during a period of five weeks. Surgeons used both conventional (Conv) and robotic (Rob) laparoscopic needle holders. Precision using the surgical needle, quality of the intracorporeal suturing performance, execution time and leakage pressure for the urethrovesical anastomosis, as well as the ergonomics of the surgeon's hand posture, were analyzed during the first, fifth and last trials. No statistically significant differences in precision and quality of suturing performance were obtained between both groups of instruments. Surgeons required more time using the robotic instrument than using the conventional needle holder to perform the urethrovesical anastomosis, but execution time was significantly reduced after training ([Formula: see text] 0.05). There were no differences in leakage pressure for the anastomoses carried out by both instruments. After training, novice surgeons significantly improved the ergonomics of the wrist ([Formula: see text] 0.05) and index finger (Conv: 36.381[Formula: see text], Rob: 30.389[Formula: see text]; p = 0.024) when using the robotic instrument compared to the conventional needle holder. Results have shown that, although both instruments offer similar technical performance, the robotic-driven instrument results in better ergonomics for the surgeon's hand posture compared to the use of a conventional laparoscopic needle holder in intracorporeal suturing.

  2. Novel ergonomic postural assessment method (NERPA) using product-process computer aided engineering for ergonomic workplace design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method's usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method.

  3. Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment Method (NERPA) Using Product-Process Computer Aided Engineering for Ergonomic Workplace Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340

  4. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. On the 50th anniversary of the L F Vereshchagin Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS (Scientific outreach session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 April 2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stishov, S M; Khvostantsev, L G; Slesarev, V N; Popova, S V; Brazhkin, V V; Dyuzheva, T I; Dzhavadov, L N; Gromnitskaya, E L; Stepanov, G N; Timofeev, Yu A; Dizhur, E M; Venttsel, V A; Voronovskii, A N; Ryzhov, V N; Barabanov, A F; Magnitskaya, M V; Tareeva, E E

    2008-01-01

    A scientific outreach session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on 23 April 2008 at the Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region. The session was devoted to the 50th anniversary of the Institute. The following reports were presented: (1) Stishov S M (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) 'The Institute for High Pressure Physics is now 50 (opening address)'; (2) Khvostantsev L G and Slesarev V N (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) 'Large-volume high-pressure devices for physical investigations'; (3) Popova S V, Brazhkin V V and Dyuzheva T I (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) 'Structural phase transitions in highly compressed substances and the synthesis of high-pressure phases'; (4) Dzhavadov L N, Gromnitskaya E L, Stepanov G N and Timofeev Yu A (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) 'Studies of the thermodynamic, elastic, superconducting, and magnetic properties of substances at high pressures'; (5) Dizhur E M, Venttsel V A and Voronovskii A N (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region), 'Quantum transport at high pressures'; (6) Ryzhov V N, Barabanov A F, Magnitskaya M V and Tareyeva E E (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) 'Theoretical studies of condensed matter'; (7) Bugakov V I, Antanovich A A, Konyaev Yu S and Slesarev V N (Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) 'Designing new construction and superhard materials and related tools'. An abridged version of reports 1-6 is presented below. The Institute for High Pressure Physics is now 50 (opening address), Stishov S M Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 10, Pages 1055-1059 . Large-volume high-pressure devices for physical investigations, Khvostantsev L G and Slesarev V N Physics-Uspekhi, 2008, Volume 51, Number 10, Pages 1059

  6. Effectivness of different teaching methods on ergonomics for 12-16 years old children working with computer

    OpenAIRE

    Jasionytė, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Effectivness of Different Teaching Methods on Ergonomics for 12-16 Years Old Children Working with Computer. Work author: Monika Jasionytė Work advisor: assistant Inga Raudonytė, Vilnius University faculty of Medicine Department of Rehabilitation, Physical and Sports Medicine. Main concept: ergonomics, children, methods. Work goal: figure out which teaching method is moust efficiant for 12-16 years old children, work with computer ergonomics Goals: 1. Figure out computer working place ergonom...

  7. Improving office work: A participatory ergonomic experiment in a naturalistic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a Department of Salary Records where VDU tasks were performed at a high work rate, a participative ergonomic study was undertaken. First, the 'old' workplace was investigated for all 45 employees. Work stations appeared to be of poor ergonomic quality. Second, 12 employees participated in an

  8. Fitting methods to paradigms: are ergonomics methods fit for systems thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Walker, Guy H; M Read, Gemma J; Goode, Natassia; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    The issues being tackled within ergonomics problem spaces are shifting. Although existing paradigms appear relevant for modern day systems, it is worth questioning whether our methods are. This paper asks whether the complexities of systems thinking, a currently ubiquitous ergonomics paradigm, are outpacing the capabilities of our methodological toolkit. This is achieved through examining the contemporary ergonomics problem space and the extent to which ergonomics methods can meet the challenges posed. Specifically, five key areas within the ergonomics paradigm of systems thinking are focused on: normal performance as a cause of accidents, accident prediction, system migration, systems concepts and ergonomics in design. The methods available for pursuing each line of inquiry are discussed, along with their ability to respond to key requirements. In doing so, a series of new methodological requirements and capabilities are identified. It is argued that further methodological development is required to provide researchers and practitioners with appropriate tools to explore both contemporary and future problems. Practitioner Summary: Ergonomics methods are the cornerstone of our discipline. This paper examines whether our current methodological toolkit is fit for purpose given the changing nature of ergonomics problems. The findings provide key research and practice requirements for methodological development.

  9. Psychological Care, Patient Education, Orthotics, Ergonomics and Prevention Strategies for Neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, Anita R; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain.......To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain....

  10. Connections between voice ergonomic risk factors and voice symptoms, voice handicap, and respiratory tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena M; Hakala, Suvi J; Holmqvist, Sofia; Sala, Eeva

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the connections between voice ergonomic risk factors found in classrooms and voice-related problems in teachers. Voice ergonomic assessment was performed in 39 classrooms in 14 elementary schools by means of a Voice Ergonomic Assessment in Work Environment--Handbook and Checklist. The voice ergonomic risk factors assessed included working culture, noise, indoor air quality, working posture, stress, and access to a sound amplifier. Teachers from the above-mentioned classrooms reported their voice symptoms, respiratory tract diseases, and completed a Voice Handicap Index (VHI). The more voice ergonomic risk factors found in the classroom the higher were the teachers' total scores on voice symptoms and VHI. Stress was the factor that correlated most strongly with voice symptoms. Poor indoor air quality increased the occurrence of laryngitis. Voice ergonomics were poor in the classrooms studied and voice ergonomic risk factors affected the voice. It is important to convey information on voice ergonomics to education administrators and those responsible for school planning and taking care of school buildings. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive outcomes of participatory ergonomics in terms of greater comfort and higher productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Molenbroek, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Ergonomics sometimes has a negative connotation, as it is seen to be connected to illness or guidelines that limit innovations. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment. It consists of a part that studies the literature on success factors

  12. Ergonomics in Healthcare system-Human Factors models: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tarzimoghadam

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: Most of the published studies emphasize on application of ergonomic models in healthcare centers since these models may reduce their problems. These ergonomics approaches support patient-centered treatment processes, user-oriented design of medical environments, efficient utilization of resources and increase motivation of clinical staff.

  13. The importance of ergonomic design in product innovation. Lessons from the development of the portable computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windrum, P.; Frenken, K.; Green, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    The article addresses the role of ergonomic design in product innovation. Designers meet users’ needs by developing solutions to complex trade-offs—reverse salients—between a product’s characteristics. The fundamental ergonomic design challenge in portable computers concerns the reverse salient

  14. Ergonomics of mining machinery and transport in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available this background, a study was conducted to assess the ergonomics of a number of mining machines and transport systems to identify the ergonomics-related hazards that could impact on the operators’ ability to work safely and efficiently....

  15. The effect of ergonomic training and intervention on reducing occupational stress among computer users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yektaee

    2014-05-01

    Result: According to covariance analysis, ergonomic training and interventions lead to reduction of occupational stress of computer users. .Conclusion: Training computer users and informing them of the ergonomic principals and also providing interventions such as correction of posture, reducing duration of work time, using armrest and footrest would have significant implication in reducing occupational stress among computer users.

  16. Ergonomic deficits in robotic gynecologic oncology surgery: a need for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Renatta; Franasiak, Jason; Mosaly, Prithima; Gehrig, Paola A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate surgeon strain using validated ergonomic assessment tools. Observational study (Canadian Task Force classification III). Academic medical center. Robotic surgeons performing gynecologic oncology surgical procedures. Videotape footage of surgeons performing robotic gynecologic oncology procedures was obtained. A human factors engineer experienced with health care ergonomics analyzed the video recordings and performed ergonomic evaluations of the surgeons. An initial evaluation was conducted using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) survey, an ergonomic assessment and prioritization method for determining posture, force, and frequency concerns with focus on the upper limbs. A more detailed analysis followed using the Strain Index (SI) method, which uses multiplicative interactions to identify jobs that are potentially hazardous. Seventeen hours of video recordings were analyzed, and descriptive data based on RULA/SI analysis were collected. Ergonomic evaluation of surgeon activity resulted in a mean RULA score of 6.46 (maximum possible RULA score, 7), indicating a need for further investigation. The mean SI grand score was 24.34. SI scores >10 suggest a potential for hazard to the operator. Thus, the current use of the surgical robot is potentially dangerous with regards to ergonomic positioning and should be modified. At a high-volume robotics center, there are ergonomics deficits that are hazardous to gynecologic surgeons and suggest the need for modification and intervention. A training strategy must be developed to address these ergonomic issues and knowledge deficiencies. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  18. Design and management of production systems: Integration of human factors and ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole; Hasle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Integration of ergonomics, human factors and occupational health and safety into design and management of pro-duction systems has for years been the major strategy for professional within the field. The traditional approach based on establishing ergonomic criteria’s to be integrated into other...

  19. The Process of Participatory Ergonomics Simulation in Hospital Work System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics simulation (PES) is a method to involve workers in simulation and design of their own future work system. Understanding of the process of PES is crucial in order to plan and facilitate the process towards creating an ergonomics work system design supporting both human well...

  20. Sources and Nature of Secondary School Teachers' Education in Computer-Related Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Fallon, Enda; Kelly, Martina; Galvin, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge of computer-related ergonomics in education will have an effect on the learning process and the work practices of their students. However little is known about teacher education in this area. The study aimed to investigate the sources and nature of secondary school teachers' education about computer-related ergonomics. It also…

  1. Effectiveness of Ergonomic Chair against Musculoskeletal Disorders in Female Batik Workers of Sragen District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiyono Sumardiyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of female batik workers uses non-ergonomic chairs (dingklik that pose risks of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to design an ergonomic chair and evaluate its effectiveness in reducing musculoskeletal disorders among the workers. This is a quasi-experimental study (using one group pre and post-test design on 50 female batik workers selected by quota sampling. Musculoskeletal disorders were measured among the samples before and after the use of the designed ergonomic chair which they were asked to use for two months. T-test, ANCOVA, Wilcoxon test, McNemar test and Chi Square test were used for the analysis. The study found statistical significant differences of risk factor against musculoskeletal disorders among the workers before and after their use of the designed ergonomic chair (p=0.000; and of musculoskeletal disorders before and after using the ergonomic chair (p= 0,035. Body Mass Index (BMI was identified as a confounding factor, and statistical significant difference of musculoskeletal disorders were also found among the workers with 25 BMI even before and after using the ergonomic chair (p=0.033 and p=0.015 respectively. By ANCOVA statistical test, after controlling BMI, another statistical difference of musculoskeletal disorders was also identified before and after using the ergonomic chair (p=0.033. It is concluded that the designed ergonomic chair is effective to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  2. A framework for using simulation methodology in ergonomics interventions in design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Duarte, Francisco; Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline a framework of simulation methodology in design processes from an ergonomics perspective......The aim of this paper is to outline a framework of simulation methodology in design processes from an ergonomics perspective...

  3. Integrating ergonomics in design processes: a case study within an engineering consultancy firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics...

  4. Global ergonomics strategy in Volkswagen: from the product construction, over the planning until the serial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The Volkswagen Group operates and coordinates the activities of ergonomics from Wolfsburg in Germany and works with its contact persons of every plant and brand of the group towards an integrated proceeding relating to ergonomics. For the ergonomic process it is very important to consider the ergonomics in the whole production process, still from the beginning the conception and construction of the vehicle in the early phases. In these phases there is a big potential to work in the preventive ergonomics and avoid correcting the workstations after start of production. Therefore, it is important to have fluently information in all this phases and identify the potential in each of them. In order to attend these items, Volkswagen has defined different activity fields: coordination of ergonomic standards and the roll-out into all the plants, introducing the ergonomic items in the product development process (PEP), considering the constant improvement of the workplaces in the Volkswagen-Way (KVP and 3P Workshops), taking care of an adequate qualification concept in ergonomics and the intern and extern information exchange within the committees. This topic is established in the industrial engineering of the production area of the group. We are working interdisciplinary with the medical services, human resources, work council and the protection of labor.

  5. Development of an ergonomics device for maintenance of hydraulic generators of Tucuruí hydropower plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, I C; Gomes, G J C; Teles, C S; Oliveira, P F; Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B; V, B; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present an ergonomic device to assist in the maintenance of the units of Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The development of this ergonomic device made possible to reduce maintenance time, reduce losses caused by billing, improve performance and reduce the physical strain for labors during the execution of services.

  6. Ergonomic assessment of musculoskeletal disorders risk among the computer users by Rapid Upper Limb Assessment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study result showed that frequency of musculoskeletal problems in the neck, back, elbow, and wrist was generally high among our subjects, and ergonomic interventions such as computer workstation redesign, users educate about ergonomic principles computer with work, reduced working hours in computers with work must be carried out.

  7. Insights into Ergonomics Among Dental Professionals of a Dental Institute and Private Practitioners in Hubli–Dharwad Twin Cities, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivardhan Kalghatgi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Participants had considerable awareness and behavior toward ergonomics in dental practice. The high attitude score indicates stronger acceptance of ergonomics principles and guidelines during routine dental procedures. The current study highlights the situation of ergonomics in dental practice in the form of knowledge, attitude, and practices.

  8. Distraction 'on the buses': a novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Ergonomics and environmental sustainability: a case study of raft fisherman activity at Ponta Negra Beach, Natal-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Joyce Elanne Mateus; Bispo, Cristina de Souza; Saldanha, Maria Christine Werba; Mattos, Karen Maria da Costa

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the significance of methods used by the Ergonomic Analysis of Work for the construction of the scenario of craft fishing with rafts, held by 42 fishermen on the beach of Ponta Negra, Natal - RN; and relate the knowledge in ergonomics to environmental aspects / impacts, aiming the sustainability in this activity. This research is characterized as a case study, of the descriptive and exploratory type and of applied nature. To collect data, we used observational methods, in order to expand information about the activity, and interaction, as conversational action and photographic/videos records to clarify points not covered by observation. It was observed problematic as the reduction of fishing productivity, alterations of the sea, difficulty in docking the rafts, and inadequate waste disposal, noting that this activity needs care regarding the use of the environment. The obtained results contributed to the organization of environmental education workshops, seeking to enhance good individual / collective environmental practices focused on the sustainability of the environment in which they live. Add the need for proposals aimed for managing the activity, involving fishermen, institutions and society, to ensure the improvement of the environment, hence the quality of life of the population.

  10. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Workstation Analysis, Ergonomic Style: Don't Despair, Teaching Ergonomic Workstation Analysis Isn't That Tough; but You Need a Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, Wayne L.; Zeimet, Denis E.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 15 principles for working safely with equipment. Describes phases of an ergonomic hazards program to identify and prevent problems and causes of cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace. (SK)

  12. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  13. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  14. Mapping ergonomics application to improve SMEs working condition in industrially developing countries: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Setia; Lawson, Glyn; Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini

    2014-01-01

    In industrially developing countries (IDC), small and medium enterprises (SMEs) account for the highest proprotion of employment. Unfortunately, the working conditions in SMEs are often very poor and expose employees to a potentially wide range of health and safety risks. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 161 articles related to ergonomics application in SMEs, using Indonesia as a case study. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent of ergonomics application and identify areas that can be improved to promote effective ergonomics for SMEs in IDC. The most urgent issue found is the need for adopting participatory approach in contrast to the commonly implemented top-down approach. Some good practices in ergonomics application were also revealed from the review, e.g. a multidisciplinary approach, unsophisticated and low-cost solutions, and recognising the importance of productivity. The review also found that more work is still required to achieve appropriate cross-cultural adaptation of ergonomics application.

  15. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.

  16. Do we need sustainability as a new approach in human factors and ergonomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.

  17. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo [University Niccolò Cusano, Rome Via Don Gnocchi,00166, Roma Italy (Italy); Elia, Valerio [Dept. of Innovation Engineering - University of Salento Via Monteroni, 73100, Lecce (Italy); Forcina, Antonio [University Parthenope, Dep. of Engineering Centro Direzionale - Isola C4 80143 - Naples - Italy (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.

  18. Ergonomic assessment for the task of repairing computers in a manufacturing company: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Realyvásquez, Arturo; Hernández, Juan Luis; García-Alcaraz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing industry workers who repair computers may be exposed to ergonomic risk factors. This project analyzes the tasks involved in the computer repair process to (1) find the risk level for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and (2) propose ergonomic interventions to address any ergonomic issues. Work procedures and main body postures were video recorded and analyzed using task analysis, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) postural method, and biomechanical analysis. High risk for MSDs was found on every subtask using REBA. Although biomechanical analysis found an acceptable mass center displacement during tasks, a hazardous level of compression on the lower back during computer's transportation was detected. This assessment found ergonomic risks mainly in the trunk, arm/forearm, and legs; the neck and hand/wrist were also compromised. Opportunities for ergonomic analyses and interventions in the design and execution of computer repair tasks are discussed.

  19. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo; Elia, Valerio; Forcina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.

  20. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo; Elia, Valerio; Forcina, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.