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Sample records for erc starting independent

  1. Indicators for constructing scientific excellence: ‘Independence’ in the ERC Starting Grant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffbaenker, H.; Holzinger, F.

    2016-07-01

    Scientific excellence is of increasing relevance for assessing and funding research. Yet the definition of excellence is unclear and excellence difficult to measure. Classical indicators like scientific outcome and impact have been identified to have various limitations, in particular from a gender perspective. So other indicators are applied, like independence. In this paper we discuss various aspects of applying independence as indicator for excellence in ERC peer review panels. In core we analyse how independence is formally defined and how it is applied in practice, with focus on its gendered effects. Further, potential and limitations of independence as criterion for excellence are discussed. (Author)

  2. ERC rewards CERN researchers

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    The European Research Council (ERC) has awarded starting grants to Magdalena Kowalska, a member of the ISOLDE physics team, and Claude Duhr, CERN Theory Division. The funding will enable them to build their own research teams at CERN, engaging postdocs and PhD students.   Magdalena Kowalska and Claude Duhr. The ERC fosters scientific excellence in Europe through competitive funding. Its grants are awarded to projects headed by researchers – both beginning-of-career and established – via an open, peer-reviewed competition. In December 2014, Magdalena Kowalska and Claude Duhr were awarded grants to pursue research in ultra-sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in liquids and mathematical structures in scattering amplitudes, respectively. “Our research project aims to apply an ultra-sensitive NMR technique using radioisotopes to liquids in order to study the interaction of metal ions with biological molecules such as proteins, DNA or RNA,” says Mag...

  3. Advanced practice nurses: starting an independent practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, V A; Lambert, C E

    1996-01-01

    Independent or private practice is the delivery of nursing services provided by nurses over which nurses have full control. With a changing healthcare system, nurses are in a prime position to negotiate the delivery of appropriate, acceptable, and cost-effective health care as independent practitioners. This article addresses the mission and goals of independent practice, community need, business structure of the practice, housing the practice, legal considerations, financing the practice, marketing issues, clientele, record keeping, and reimbursement.

  4. ERC Vision & Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing (ERC ) ** Bringing Sustainability to Semiconductor Manufacturing ** A multi-university research center leading the way to environmentally friendly semiconductor manufacturing, sponsored by the Semiconductor Research

  5. Identification and characterization of novel ERC-55 interacting proteins: evidence for the existence of several ERC-55 splicing variants; including the cytosolic ERC-55-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsen, Maja; Jacobsen, Christian; Maunsbach, Arvid B; Honoré, Bent

    2009-12-01

    ERC-55, encoded from RCN2, is localized in the ER and belongs to the CREC protein family. ERC-55 is involved in various diseases and abnormal cell behavior, however, the function is not well defined and it has controversially been reported to interact with a cytosolic protein, the vitamin D receptor. We have used a number of proteomic techniques to further our functional understanding of ERC-55. By affinity purification, we observed interaction with a large variety of proteins, including those secreted and localized outside of the secretory pathway, in the cytosol and also in various organelles. We confirm the existence of several ERC-55 splicing variants including ERC-55-C localized in the cytosol in association with the cytoskeleton. Localization was verified by immunoelectron microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation. Interaction of lactoferrin, S100P, calcyclin (S100A6), peroxiredoxin-6, kininogen and lysozyme with ERC-55 was further studied in vitro by SPR experiments. Interaction of S100P requires [Ca(2+)] of approximately 10(-7) M or greater, while calcyclin interaction requires [Ca(2+)] of >10(-5) M. Interaction with peroxiredoxin-6 is independent of Ca(2+). Co-localization of lactoferrin, S100P and calcyclin with ERC-55 in the perinuclear area was analyzed by fluorescence confocal microscopy. The functional variety of the interacting proteins indicates a broad spectrum of ERC-55 activities such as immunity, redox homeostasis, cell cycle regulation and coagulation.

  6. ERC supports antihydrogen research

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    As part of a Europe-wide effort to promote high-level research, the European Research Council (ERC) has awarded a €2.14 million grant to ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst, which will further the collaboration’s study of the antihydrogen spectrum. The grant will be used to purchase laser spectroscopy equipment for the new ALPHA-2 set-up.   ALPHA Spokesperson, Jeffrey Hangst, in front of the new ALPHA-2 set-up. The incorporation of lasers into ALPHA-2 will allow the team to take precise measurements of trapped antihydrogen. Among the new equipment financed by the grant will be a high-precision laser and stabilisation system to study the transition from the ground state to the first excited state in antihydrogen. As this spectral line is very well known in hydrogen, its study in antihydrogen will provide essential data for matter/antimatter symmetry investigations. “The grant has come at a perfect time for us,” says Jeffrey Hangst. “We wil...

  7. New body starts independent advisory work for EU Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The new European Science and Technology Assembly (ESTA) had its first General Assembly on 6-7 September in Brussels. According to Commissioner A. Ruberti, the European Union's 'Minister' for science, technology and higher education, who has been largely responsible for ESTA's creation, the tasks of the new and independent Assembly of Scientists are to give opinions and advice and to help the European Commission implement the EU research policy

  8. [An urban EMS at the start of a cross-sectoral quality management system: prioritized implementation of the 2010 ERC recommendations and long-term survival after cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Harding, Ulf; Gietzelt, Matthias; Gradaus, Frank; Tute, Erik; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Due to limited resources, the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines could not be fully implemented in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) of Brunswick, Germany. This is why implementation was prioritized according to local conditions. Thus, prehospital therapeutic hypothermia, mechanical chest compression and feedback systems were not established. Clinical data and long-term results were assessed by a QM system and room for improvement was identified. All attempted resuscitations from 2011 until 2014 were recorded and compared against the German Resuscitation Registry. Outcomes of adult patients following non-traumatic cardiac arrest were analyzed by year. 812 resuscitations were attempted (incidence 81.2/100,000 inhabitants/year). In the two years following full implementation since 2013 the discharge rate from hospital was 16.4 %, the discharge rate with a favorable neurologic outcome was 14.1 %, the 1-year survival rate was 14.4 % in 2013. A significant improvement of risk-adjusted ROSC rate during the investigation period was demonstrated. The discharge rates remained unchanged; the increase in the discharge rates paralleled the increase in CPR incidence. EMS response times were remarkably shorter. The implementation of the ERC guidelines chosen appears to be generally safe. Fast EMS response contributed to superior results. All links of the chain of survival showed room for improvement, especially the proportion of lay rescuer CPR and telephone-assisted CPR. The high CPR incidence might indicate room for improvement in prevention. Access to resuscitation care can hardly be evaluated. Age-related access to pre-hospital resuscitation seems to be appropriate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Secretion of N-ERC/mesothelin and expression of C-ERC/mesothelin in human pancreatic ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Koichi; Kajino, Kazunori; Abe, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Suyama, Masafumi; Watanabe, Sumio; Hino, Okio

    2008-12-01

    ERC/mesothelin gene (MSLN) encodes a precursor protein, which is cleaved by proteases to generate N-ERC/mesothelin and C-ERC/mesothelin. N-ERC/mesothelin is a soluble protein, also known as megakaryocyte-potentiating factor, which is released into extracellular space. N-ERC/mesothelin is known to be a serum marker of mesothelioma. We have previously developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for N-ERC/mesothelin, which can detect mesothelioma. C-ERC/mesothelin is expressed in normal mesothelial cell, pancreatic cancers, ovarian cancers, mesotheliomas and some other cancers. Pancreatic ductal carcinoma remains a fatal disease because its diagnosis often occurs very late. In this study, we examined ERC/mesothelin expression in human pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIA-PaCa2, PK-1, KP-3, TCC-PAN2, PK-59 and PK-45H) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting and N-ERC/mesothelin concentration in the supernatant of cultured cancer cells by the ELISA system. We also investigated C-ERC/mesothlein expression in human pancreatic ductal carcinoma tissues by immunostaining using 5B2 anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody and N-ERC/mesothelin concentration in sera obtained from patients with pancreatic ductal carcinoma via ELISA. In vitro, N-ERC/mesothelin concentration in cell culture medium nearly correlated with the expression level of C-ERC/mesothelin. Although C-ERC/mesothelin was frequently expressed in human pancreatic ductal carcinoma, serum N-ERC/mesothelin concentration of cancer patients was equivalent to healthy controls. N-ERC/mesothelin was not useful as a serum marker of pancreatic ductal carcinoma, but because of frequent expression, C-ERC/mesothelin might be useful as a target of molecular imaging and immunotherapy.

  10. Gendered dimensions in ERC grant selection - gendERC : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffbaenker, Helene; van den Besselaar, P.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    To explain lower success rates of female applicants in ERC grants, we collected data about past performance of the applicants and interviewed panel members about how selection criteria are practiced in general and specifically for female vs. male applicants. Controlling for past performance, we

  11. The geography of new firm formation: Evidence from independent start-ups and new subsidiaries in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.; van Stel, A.; Suddle, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent determinants of the rate of independent start-ups and the rate of new subsidiaries are different. Using a regional database for the Netherlands over the period 1988-2002, we investigate the impact of two types of agglomeration effects, localization and

  12. The 2010 Guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation (AHA, ERC, ILCOR): similarities and differences--what progress has been made since 2005?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehr, C C; Hansmann, G; Hoehn, T; Bührer, C

    2011-09-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association (AHA), the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) issued new guidelines on newborn resuscitation. The new recommendations include: (1) pulse-oximetry for patient assessment during newborn resuscitation; (2) to start resuscitation of term infants with an FiO (2) of 0.21; (3) cardio-respiratory resuscitation with a 3:1 chest compression/inflation ratio for a heart rate ERC and ILCOR used nearly identical literature for their evidence evaluation process. While the AHA and ILCOR guidelines are almost identical, the ERC guidelines differ slightly from the latter with regards to (i) promoting sustained inflations at birth, (ii) promoting a wider range in applied inflations during resuscitation, and (iii) to suction the airways in infants born from meconium stained amniotic fluid, before inflations are given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Evaluation of the Even Start--Padres y Progreso Program in the Houston Independent School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Even Start-Padres y Progreso program is a nationally funded program designed to prepare young children to enter school by not only offering early childhood education, but also assisting their families with adult literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), parenting-skills training, and employment-skills training. An evaluation of the…

  14. Firms Started As Franchises Have Lower Survival Rates Than Independent Small Business Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Bates

    1994-01-01

    Aspiring entrepreneurs choosing to become franchisees certainly expect to improve their chances of survival during the turbulent early years of business startup and operation. Alignment with a franchiser parent company offers the franchisee managerial assistance, access to financial capital, and access to markets via the right to utilize the parent company trademark. This study examines survival patterns among franchise and nonfranchise small firms started between 1984 and 1987: survival thro...

  15. An update of ERC's carbonate fuel cell development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.; Steinfeld, G.; O'Shea, T.

    1992-01-01

    ERC has made significant accomplishments in stack height scale-up, resolved issues relevant to attainment of a long useful life for the carbonate fuel cell, and progressed towards addressing organizational and financial aspects of power plant demonstration

  16. ERC/mesothelin is expressed in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    ITO, TOMOAKI; KAJINO, KAZUNORI; ABE, MASAAKI; SATO, KOICHI; MAEKAWA, HIROSHI; SAKURADA, MUTSUMI; ORITA, HAJIME; WADA, RYO; KAJIYAMA, YOSHIAKI; HINO, OKIO

    2013-01-01

    ERC/mesothelin is expressed in mesothelioma and other malignancies. The ERC/mesothelin gene (MSLN) encodes a 71-kDa precursor protein, which is cleaved to yield 31-kDa N-terminal (N-ERC/mesothelin) and 40-kDa C-terminal (C-ERC/mesothelin) proteins. N-ERC/mesothelin is a soluble protein and has been reported to be a diagnostic serum marker of mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Gastric cancer tissue also expresses C-ERC/mesothelin, but the significance of serum N-ERC levels for diagnosing gastric...

  17. The Adder Phenomenon Emerges from Independent Control of Pre- and Post-Start Phases of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Brown, Devon; Schmoller, Kurt M; Winetraub, Yonatan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-09-25

    Although it has long been clear that cells actively regulate their size, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation have remained poorly understood. In budding yeast, cell size primarily modulates the duration of the cell-division cycle by controlling the G1/S transition known as Start. We have recently shown that the rate of progression through Start increases with cell size, because cell growth dilutes the cell-cycle inhibitor Whi5 in G1. Recent phenomenological studies in yeast and bacteria have shown that these cells add an approximately constant volume during each complete cell cycle, independent of their size at birth. These results seem to be in conflict, as the phenomenological studies suggest that cells measure the amount they grow, rather than their size, and that size control acts over the whole cell cycle, rather than specifically in G1. Here, we propose an integrated model that unifies the adder phenomenology with the molecular mechanism of G1/S cell-size control. We use single-cell microscopy to parameterize a full cell-cycle model based on independent control of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods. We find that our model predicts the size-independent amount of cell growth during the full cell cycle. This suggests that the adder phenomenon is an emergent property of the independent regulation of pre- and post-Start cell-cycle periods rather than the consequence of an underlying molecular mechanism measuring a fixed amount of growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An analysis of the introduction and efficacy of a novel training programme for ERC basic life support assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Christopher J; Jones, Christopher M; Harvey, Philip; Hulme, Jonathan; Owen, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Existing ERC BLS/AED accreditation procedures allow BLS instructors to assess the capability of BLS/AED providers, without undergoing additional training as an assessor. The reliability of instructor-based assessment has been questioned. This study sought to determine the efficacy of a simple training programme for BLS/AED instructors aimed at standardising assessment decisions. An Assessment Training Programme (ATP) which provides additional, assessment-focused tuition for BLS instructors was introduced. Eighteen ERC accredited instructors participated in the study. Nine received standard ERC training (instructors); nine received additional training through the ATP (assessors). The assessment of 73 students' BLS/AED capabilities was carried out by an assessor, ERC instructor and ERC instructor trainer concurrently. Participants independently completed an ERC assessment form. Decisions for instructors and assessors were compared to the instructor trainers' decisions; those not agreeing were deemed to be incorrect. Instructors (49.3%) had lower raw pass rates than assessors (67.1%) and instructor trainers (64.4%). There was a significant difference in overall decisions between instructors and instructor trainers (p=0.035), and instructors and assessors (p=0.015). There was no difference between assessors and instructor trainers (p=0.824). Instructors were more prone to incorrectly failing candidates than assessors (sensitivities of 80.5% and 63.8% respectively, p=0.077). AED-capability decisions were significantly different from instructor trainers in both the instructor (p=0.007) and assessor groups (p=0.031). BLS instructors incorrectly fail candidates for reasons that should not normally constitute a true assessment failure. The ATP is an effective intervention to reduce false-failure rates and improve compliance with an experienced instructor trainer's decision. Consideration should be made to integrate such programmes into current BLS instructor accreditation

  19. Serum level of expressed in renal carcinoma (ERC)/ mesothelin in rats with mesothelial proliferative lesions induced by multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Dai, Nakae; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Kanako; Ohashi, Norio; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Akihiko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Hino, Okio; Ogata, Akio

    2010-04-01

    Expressed in renal carcinoma (ERC)/mesothelin is a good biomarker for human mesothelioma and has been investigated for its mechanistic rationale during the mesothelioma development. Studies are thus ongoing in our laboratories to assess expression of ERC/mesothelin in sera and normal/proliferative/neoplastic mesothelial tissues of animals untreated or given potentially mesothelioma-inducible xenobiotics, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for N- and C-(terminal fragments of) ERC/mesothelin and immunohistochemistry for C-ERC/mesothelin. In the present paper, we intend to communicate our preliminary data, because this is the first report to show how and from what stage the ERC/mesothelin expression changes during the chemical induction of mesothelial proliferative/neoplatic lesions. Serum N-ERC/mesothelin levels were 51.4 +/- 5.6 ng/ml in control male Fischer 344 rats, increased to 83.6 +/- 11.2 ng/ml in rats given a single intrascrotal administration of 1 mg/kg body weight of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and bearing mesothelial hyperplasia 52 weeks thereafter, and further elevated to 180 +/- 77 ng/ml in rats similarly treated and becoming moribund 40 weeks thereafter, or killed as scheduled at the end of week 52, bearing mesothelioma. While C-ERC/mesothelin was expressed in normal and hyperplastic mesothelia, the protein was detected only in epithelioid mesothelioma cells at the most superficial layer. It is thus suggested that ERC/mesothelin can be used as a biomarker of mesothelial proliferative lesions also in animals, and that the increase of levels may start from the early stage and be enhanced by the progression of the mesothelioma development.

  20. C-ERC/mesothelin provokes lymphatic invasion of colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Futoshi; Homma, Shigenori; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Einama, Takahiro; Kato, Yasutaka; Tsuda, Masumi; Tanaka, Shinya; Maeda, Masahiro; Kajino, Kazunori; Hino, Okio; Takahashi, Norihiko; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Akinobu; Todo, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a key event of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Mesothelin is expressed in various types of malignant tumor and associated with an unfavorable prognosis. The full-length mesothelin (Full-ERC) is cleaved by protease into membrane-bound C-ERC/mesothelin and N-ERC/mesothelin which is secreted into the blood. The aim of this study was to examine the biological role of mesothelin in CRC by clinicopathological analysis and in vitro lymphatic invasion assay. Ninety-one cases of CRC specimens were immunohistochemically examined and the localization of mesothelin in luminal membrane and/or cytoplasm was also evaluated. Lymphatic invasion assay was also performed using the human CRC cell line, WiDr, which was transfected with Full-, N- and C-ERC/mesothelin expression plasmids (Full-WiDr, N-WiDr and C-WiDr). Immunohistochemically, "luminal membrane positive" of mesothelin was identified in 37.4 %, and correlated with lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis, but not with patients' prognosis. Interestingly, among the patients with lymph node metastasis (N = 38), "luminal membrane positive" of mesothelin significantly correlated with unfavorable patients' outcome. In addition, lymphatic invasion assay revealed that Full-WiDr and C-WiDr more significantly invaded human lymphatic endothelial cells than the Mock-WiDr (P ERC/mesothelin associated with lymphatic invasion of cancer in vitro.

  1. Prophylaxis of post-ERC infectious complications in patients with biliary obstruction by adding antimicrobial agents into ERC contrast media- a single center retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobser, Hella; Gunesch, Agnetha; Klebl, Frank

    2017-01-13

    Patients with biliary obstruction are at high risk to develop septic complications after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). We evaluated the benefits of local application of antimicrobial agents into ERC contrast media in preventing post-ERC infectious complications in a high-risk study population. Patients undergoing ERC at our tertiary referral center were retrospectively included. Addition of vancomycin, gentamicin and fluconazol into ERC contrast media was evaluated in a case-control design. Outcomes comprised infectious complications within 3 days after ERC. In total, 84 ERC cases were analyzed. Primarily indications for ERC were sclerosing cholangitis (75%) and malignant stenosis (9.5%). Microbial testing of collected bile fluid in the treatment group was positive in 91.4%. Detected organisms were sensitive to the administered antimicrobials in 93%. The use of antimicrobials in contrast media was associated with a significant decrease in post-ERC infectious complications compared to non-use (14.3% vs. 33.3%; odds ratio [OR]: 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.114-0.978). After adjusting for the variables acute cholangitis prior to ERC and incomplete biliary drainage, the beneficial effect of intraductal antibiotic prophylaxis was even more evident (OR = 0.153; 95% CI: 0.039-0.598, p = 0.007). Patients profiting most obviously from intraductal antimicrobials were those with secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Local application of a combination of antibiotic and antimycotic agents to ERC contrast media efficiently reduced post-ERC infectious events in patients with biliary obstruction. This is the first study that evaluates ERC-related infectious complications in patients with secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Our first clinical results should now be prospectively evaluated in a larger patient cohort to improve the safety of ERC, especially in patients with secondary sclerosing cholangitis.

  2. Deficiency of the Erc/mesothelin gene ameliorates renal carcinogenesis in Tsc2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danqing; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Tetsuo; Kanenishi, Kenji; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masaaki; Okura, Hidehiro; Hamano, Yoshitomo; Sun, Guodong; Maeda, Masahiro; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Hino, Okio

    2011-04-01

    Genetic crossing experiments were performed between tuberous sclerosis-2 (Tsc2) KO and expressed in renal carcinoma (Erc) KO mice to analyze the function of the Erc/mesothelin gene in renal carcinogenesis. We found the number and size of renal tumors were significantly less in Tsc2+/-;Erc-/- mice than in Tsc2+/-;Erc+/+ and Tsc2+/-;Erc+/- mice. Tumors from Tsc2+/-;Erc-/- mice exhibited reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67) and TUNEL analysis, respectively. Adhesion to collagen-coated plates in vitro was enhanced in Erc-restored cells and decreased in Erc-suppressed cells with siRNA. Tumor formation by Tsc2-deficient cells in nude mice was remarkably suppressed by stable knockdown of Erc with shRNA. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3 were weaker in Erc-deficient/suppressed cells compared with Erc-expressed cells. These results indicate that deficiency of the Erc/mesothelin gene ameliorates renal carcinogenesis in Tsc2 KO mice and inhibits the phosphorylation of several kinases of cell adhesion mechanism. This suggests that Erc/mesothelin may have an important role in the promotion and/or maintenance of carcinogenesis by influencing cell-substrate adhesion via the integrin-related signal pathway. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. ERC/mesothelin is expressed in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoaki; Kajino, Kazunori; Abe, Masaaki; Sato, Koichi; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Sakurada, Mutsumi; Orita, Hajime; Wada, Ryo; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Hino, Okio

    2014-01-01

    ERC/mesothelin is expressed in mesothelioma and other malignancies. The ERC/mesothelin gene (MSLN) encodes a 71-kDa precursor protein, which is cleaved to yield 31-kDa N-terminal (N-ERC/mesothelin) and 40-kDa C-terminal (C-ERC/mesothelin) proteins. N-ERC/mesothelin is a soluble protein and has been reported to be a diagnostic serum marker of mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Gastric cancer tissue also expresses C-ERC/mesothelin, but the significance of serum N-ERC levels for diagnosing gastric cancer has not yet been studied. We examined the latter issue in the present study as well as C-ERC/mesothelin expression in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. We immunohistochemically examined C-ERC/mesothelin expression in tissue samples from 50 cases of gastric cancer, and we also assessed the C-ERC/mesothelin expression in 6 gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-1, MKN-7, MKN-74, NUGC-3, NUGC-4 and TMK-1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We also examined the N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations in the supernatants of cultured cells and in the sera of gastric cancer patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). N-ERC/mesothelin was detected in the supernatants of 3 gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-1, NUGC-4 and TMK-1) by ELISA, but its concentration in the sera of gastric cancer patients was almost same as that observed in the sera of the normal controls. In the gastric cancer tissues, C-ERC/mesothelin expression was associated with lymphatic invasion. N-ERC/mesothelin was secreted into the supernatants of gastric cancer cell lines, but does not appear to be a useful serum marker of gastric cancer.

  4. Suppression of cell death by the secretory form of N-terminal ERC/mesothelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tegexibaiyin; Kajino, Kazunori; Abe, Masaaki; Tan, Ke; Maruo, Masumi; Sun, Guodong; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Hino, Okio

    2010-08-01

    ERC/mesothelin is highly expressed in malignant mesothelioma, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer. It is cleaved to a 30 kDa N-terminal secretory form (N-ERC) and a 40 kDa C-terminal membranous form (C-ERC). Several functions have been reported for full-length ERC (full-ERC) and C-ERC/mesothelin, such as in cell adhesion and invasion, stimulation of cell proliferation, and the suppression of cell death. However, there have been no studies to date on the function of secretory N-ERC, despite the fact that it is abundantly secreted into the sera of mesothelioma patients. In this study, we investigated whether N-ERC could function as a secretory factor to stimulate tumor progression. Full-, N, or C-ERC was overexpressed in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh7 that lacks endogenous expression of ERC/mesothelin. Changes in the rates of cell proliferation and cell death were determined, and the state of signal transducers was examined using various endpoints: total cell counts, trypan blue exclusion rate, BrdU incorporation rate, TUNEL assay, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Stat3. In cells overexpressing N-ERC, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was enhanced and the rate of cell death decreased, leading to the increase of cell number. The culture medium containing the secretory N-ERC also had the activity to increase the number of cells. Our data suggested that one of the full-ERC functions reported previously was mediated by the secretory N-ERC.

  5. The utility of serum N-ERC/mesothelin as a biomarker of ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Harumi; Hashizume, Akane; Izumi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Fujihiko; Ishi, Kazuhisa; Nojima, Michio; Maeda, Masahiro; Hino, Okio

    2012-10-01

    Ovarian carcinoma has been difficult to diagnose at an early stage. Recently, it has been recognized that the measurement of blood N-ERC/mesothelin levels aids early detection in and postoperative therapeutic monitoring of patients with mesothelioma, who have been exposed to asbestos. ERC/mesothelin has also been reported to be expressed in ovarian carcinoma. We determined serum N-ERC/mesothelin levels in patients with ovarian carcinoma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, we immunohistochemically evaluated surgically resected specimens for C-ERC/mesothelin expression. As a result, of the 32 patients with ovarian tumors (18 carcinoma, 2 borderline tumors), one patient with serous adenocarcinoma showed increased N-ERC/ mesothelin levels. Immunohistochemically, of the 20 ovarian tumor (carcinoma and borderline tumor) specimens evaluated for serum N-ERC/mesothelin, 9 (45.0%) were positive for C-ERC/mesothelin. The C-ERC/mesothelin-positive specimens were found to be serous and clear cell adenocarcinomas. If serum N-ERC/mesothelin, which is considered useful for early detection in and therapeutic monitoring of patients with mesothelioma, may also be used for ovarian carcinoma monitoring, it may be a valuable serum tumor marker for the early detection of ovarian carcinoma.

  6. Radiological diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis: value of ERC and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmann, F.D.; Maeurer, J.; Hintze, R.E.; Adler, A.; Veltzke, W.; Lohmann, R.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the use of computed tomography (CT) in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as compared to endoscopic-retrograde cholangiography (ERC), imaging studies of 24 patients were reviewed. 19 patients were studied by ERC, 19 by CT and 14 by both. In 17 cases, ERC confirmed PSC. One cholangiogram suggested a tumor. CT reflected PSC in only 11 cases, while three patients displayed a mass lesion. Thus, ERC remains the standard imaging technique for diagnosing PSC, whereas CT proves beneficial in excluding hepatic masses. (orig.) [de

  7. Diagnostic imaging of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: preoperative evaluation of ERC, MRC and PTC in comparison with histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaneehsen, B.; Mainz Univ.; Otto, G.; Lohse, A.W.; Bittinger, F.; Herber, S.; Oberholzer, K.; Pitton, M.B.; Thelen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the results of the preoperative workup consisting of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC), and percutaneous resonance cholangiography (PTC) with the tumor extent of the surgical specimen in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (hilCC). Materials and Methods: Between 9/1997 and 12/2002. 59 patients with hilCC tumor underwent surgical resection. Preoperative ERC, MRC, and PTC were analyzed, blinded for the identity of the patient, and compared with the surgical specimen. For this retrospective analysis, 55 of the initial 59 ERCs, 39 of the initial 40 MRCs and 32 of the initial 38 PTCs were available. Most of the ERCs and MRCs had been performed at referring institutions by various investigators. In 20 patients, all three imaging modalities were available for direct comparison. Results: The mean scores of the visualization of the bile ducts and tumor differ considerably for ERC, MRC and PTC, with PTC visualizing the bile ducts better than ERC (p<0.001) and MRC (p=0.019). The tumor classification according to Bismuth and Corlette was correctly predicted by ERC in 29%, by MRC in 36% and by PTC in 53%. The tumor extent was overestimated in 40% (ERC), 41% (MRC) and 31% (PTC) and underestimated in less than 10% for all modalities. Twenty patients, who underwent all three imaging modalities, were included in an additional analysis for a direct comparison of ERC, MRC and PTC. PTC provided correct or acceptable information on tumor extent in 19 of 20 patients, MRC in 15 of 20 patients, and ERC in only 11 of 20 patients. The statistical analysis revealed a significant superiority of PTC to ERC (McNemar test: p<0.01) but not to MRC (p=0.22). (orig.)

  8. Action Plan and Timetable for the Implementation of the ERC's Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Following the External Review Committee's (ERC) Report (CERN/2444) and Council's statement after the discussions in the June 2002 Committees, the Management presents in this document an Action Plan and a time table, aiming at coherent detailing and implementation of the recommendations of the ERC.

  9. Action Plan and Timetable for the Implementation of the ERC's Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Following the External Review Committee's (ERC) Report (CERN/2444) and Council's statement after the discussions in the June 2002 Committees, the Management presents in this document an Action Plan and a time table, aiming at coherent detailing and implementation of the recommendations of the ERC

  10. Impact of renal failure on the tumor markers of mesothelioma, N-ERC/mesothelin and osteopontin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Kazu; Shiomi, Satoko; Ishinaga, Yuji; Sakuraba, Motoki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Miyashita, Kazuya; Maeda, Masahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Hino, Okio

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics and effective use of tumour markers for mesothelioma is essential for early-stage diagnosis of mesothelioma. We examined whether renal dysfunction influences blood concentrations of promising new tumour markers, N-ERC/mesothelin (N-ERC) and osteopontin (OPN), to an important degree. Levels of serum N-ERC and plasma OPN in 32 patients with chronic renal dysfunction, 22 of whom were on hemodialysis (CKD group), and 102 healthy volunteers were measured. Serum concentrations of N-ERC and plasma concentrations of OPN in the CKD group were significantly higher than those in volunteers, regardless of diabetes status and age. Blood concentrations of these markers increased as renal function decreased. N-ERC and OPN concentrations are significantly influenced by renal function. Therefore, the extent of renal failure must be considered when inferring the existence of tumours and chemotherapeutic response from the values of these markers in routine practice.

  11. From zero to the ERC starting grant and what is next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajcmanova, Lucie

    2016-04-01

    A decision to follow the academic path and to stay on that path is sometimes adventurous. Working in academy has, as every job, its pros and cons. On one hand, it gives us a certain working flexibility and on the other hand a successful academic path commonly requires mobility without a guarantee of a permanent job. In my contribution, I would like to share briefly how the path was for me. How did I decide to become a scientist? What were the key steps and what were the downs and ups for me during my academic career? What is my main driving force for staying in science? Furthermore, I will touch briefly why my way of working is different from most of my colleagues. I will also mention why mentoring was important for me and why I am actively involved in the mentoring of the young generation. I would also like to share what is my opinion on gender issues in academic field and what, I think, would help to improve it.

  12. The effectiveness of ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses for the retention of ALS knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Strunk, Guido; Neuhold, Stephanie; Kiblböck, Daniel; Trimmel, Helmut; Baubin, Michael; Domanovits, Hans; Maurer, Claudia; Greif, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Out-of-hospital emergency physicians in Austria need mandatory emergency physician training, followed by biennial refresher courses. Currently, both standardized ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses and conventional refresher courses are offered. This study aimed to compare the retention of ALS-knowledge of out-of-hospital emergency physicians depending on whether they had or had not participated in an ERC-ALS provider course since 2005. Participants (n=807) from 19 refresher courses for out-of-hospital emergency physicians answered eight multiple-choice questions (MCQ) about ALS based on the 2005 ERC guidelines. The pass score was 75% correct answers. A multivariate logistic regression analyzed differences in passing scores between those who had previously participated in an ERC-ALS provider course and those who had not. Age, gender, regularity of working as an out-of-hospital emergency physician and the self-reported number of real resuscitation efforts within the last 6months were entered as control variables. Out-of-hospital emergency physicians who had previously attended an ERC-ALS provider course had a significantly higher chance of passing the MCQ test (OR=1.60, p=0.015). Younger age (OR=0.95, pERC-ALS provider course since 2005 had a higher retention of ALS knowledge compared to non-ERC-ALS course participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC "VOICE" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-06-22

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the "VOICE" ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the "voices" having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app.

  14. An emergency response centre (ERC) for the preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirement for a state of the art Emergency Response Centre (ERC) to be developed and kept in readiness for the quick response to any nuclear or radiological emergencies. For an effective response to any major nuclear emergency an ERC having the facilities of i) environmental dose rate monitoring network established using both mobile and fixed units ii) on-line meteorological data collection and information station iii) on-line computation and prediction of isodose curves in real time and iv) properly developed and tested monitoring methodologies are essential. Vehicles with on-line data transfer facility to the ERC and equipped with different type of monitoring systems can function as Mobile Monitoring Laboratories (MMLs) and can help in quick decision making even during a radiological emergency far away from the ERC. (author)

  15. ERC analysis: web-based inference of gene function via evolutionary rate covariation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Nicholas W; Clark, Nathan L

    2015-12-01

    The recent explosion of comparative genomics data presents an unprecedented opportunity to construct gene networks via the evolutionary rate covariation (ERC) signature. ERC is used to identify genes that experienced similar evolutionary histories, and thereby draws functional associations between them. The ERC Analysis website allows researchers to exploit genome-wide datasets to infer novel genes in any biological function and to explore deep evolutionary connections between distinct pathways and complexes. The website provides five analytical methods, graphical output, statistical support and access to an increasing number of taxonomic groups. Analyses and data at http://csb.pitt.edu/erc_analysis/ nclark@pitt.edu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Novel Technology for Wide-Area Screening of ERC-Contaminated Soils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Long-term use of high explosives (HE) on DoD training ranges and other defense installations has in some cases resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater with residues of HE and explosive-related compounds (ERCs...

  17. ERC Safety and Hygiene Programs functional organization structure and mission statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a description of the functions, structure, commitments, and goals of the Environmental Restoration Contractor Safety and Hygiene Program. The current structure of the ERC Safety and Hygiene organization is described herein

  18. The N-ERC index is a novel monitoring and prognostic marker for advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takanori; Tajima, Ken; Hirama, Michihiro; Sato, Tadashi; Kido, Kenji; Iwakami, Shin-Ichiro; Sasaki, Shinichi; Iwase, Akihiko; Shiomi, Kazu; Maeda, Masahiro; Hino, Okio; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2013-04-01

    Although N-ERC/mesothelin (N-ERC) is an attractive diagnostic and treatment monitoring biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), its clinical utility for predicting the prognosis has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the serum N-ERC level can accurately predict the outcome in patients with MPM. Twenty-six patients with MPM were enrolled. Serum N-ERC level was measured before and after chemotherapy. The N-ERC index was determined by the logarithm of the division of the N-ERC level after two courses of chemotherapy by the prior level. The median N-ERC index in the partial response (PR) group was significantly lower than that in patients with the stable disease (SD) plus the progressive disease (PD) group. The overall survival in the group whose median N-ERC index was lower than its median value was significantly longer than the group whose median N-ERC index was higher than its median value. The N-ERC index is therefore considered to be a useful biomarker for predicting not only the chemotherapeutic response, but also the prognosis in patients with advanced MPM.

  19. Pengaruh Luas Ungkapan Sukarela dalam Laporan Tahunan terhadap Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjanti Widiastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report affects the relation between current stock return and contemporaneous annual earnings. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variances in corporate disclosure level published in annual report of companies listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange (the JSX affects the value-relevance of earnings information proxied by earnings response coefficient (the ERC. This study is preliminary attempt to combine two research issues: the informativeness of earnings (ERC and the informativeness of disclosures, which have been separately investigated by previous studies. The findings are expected to give preliminary evidence about cross-sectional differences in current ERC associated with voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report. It is hypothesized that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report has a negative effect on the ERC. To test the hypothesis, current stock returns are regressed against current earnings changes. The sample consists of 67 of annual reports of companies listed on the JSX as of December 31, 1995. The study finds evidence that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report have a statistically positive effect on the ERC at 0.10 significant levels. This result remains consistent after controlling for other factors that have been shown to influence the earnings response coefficient. The result does not support the hypothesis that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report has a negative effect on the ERC. The possible reason is that disclosures in annual report insufficiently reveal the information about companies’ future prospect. However, the result of sensitivity analysis using fundamental return model shows that voluntary corporate disclosure level published in annual report has a negative effect on the ERC, but not statistically significant.

  20. ERC/mesothelin as a marker for chemotherapeutic response in patients with mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Ken; Hirama, Michihiro; Shiomi, Kazu; Ishiwata, Toshiji; Yoshioka, Masataka; Iwase, Akihiko; Iwakami, Shinichiro; Yamazaki, Mariko; Toba, Michie; Tobino, Kazunori; Sugano, Koji; Ichikawa, Masako; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Hino, Okio

    2008-01-01

    It has been recently reported that soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP), serum mesothelin, and osteopontin (OPN) are considered as relevant biomarkers for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum N-ERC/mesothelin, an NH3-terminal fragment of mesothelin, and plasma OPN reflect chemotherapeutic effect in patients with mesothelioma. Serum N-ERC/mesothelin and plasma osteopontin were determined with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system. The average N-ERC ratio, determined by dividing the N-ERC levels following chemotherapy by those prior to chemotherapy, in the partial response (PR) group was significantly lower than that of the stable disease (SD)/progressive disease (PD) group. In contrast, the average OPN ratio, determined by dividing the OPN levels following chemotherapy by those prior to chemotherapy, in the PR group was not statistically different from that of the SD/PD group. N-ERC/mesothelin is considered as relevant in monitoring chemotherapeutic response in patients with mesothelioma.

  1. Color Image Encryption Algorithm Based on TD-ERCS System and Wavelet Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the security problem of transmission image across public networks, a new image encryption algorithm based on TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network is proposed in this paper. According to the permutation process and the binary XOR operation from the chaotic series by producing TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network, it can achieve image encryption. This encryption algorithm is a reversible algorithm, and it can achieve original image in the rule inverse process of encryption algorithm. Finally, through computer simulation, the experiment results show that the new chaotic encryption algorithm based on TD-ERCS system and wavelet neural network is valid and has higher security.

  2. Surveillance of primary sclerosing cholangitis with ERC and brush cytology: risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sonja; Mustonen, Harri; Tenca, Andrea; Jokelainen, Kalle; Arola, Johanna; Färkkilä, Martti A

    2017-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease leading to bile duct strictures and fibrosis, and predisposing to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Biliary dysplasia is a known precursor of CCA. In our unit, PSC patients undergo regular surveillance with ERC and brush cytology (BC), and liver transplantation is an option in case with biliary dysplasia. We evaluated the risk factors for biliary dysplasia and CCA based on ERC imaging, BC and liver function tests. Seven hundred and eighty-eight ERCs were performed with BC for 447 PSC patients. ERC images were evaluated using the modified Amsterdam score, neutrophilic inflammation was assessed in BC, and liver function tests were collected. Ploidy analysis with DNA flow cytometry was performed in cases with advanced PSC or previous suspicious BC/aneuploidy. The endpoint was either a benign disease course (follow-up for ≥2.4 years after the latest ERC), benign histology, biliary dysplasia or CCA. Benign disease course was seen in 424/447 (including 23 cases with biliary dysplasia), and CCA in 17 (3.8%) patients. Gallbladder carcinoma/carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in three patients. Advanced ERC findings, male gender, suspicious BC, aneuploidy in flow cytometry, inflammation, and elevation of ALP, bilirubin, ALT, AST, GGT, CEA and CA19-9 represented significant risk factors for CCA in univariate analysis. PSC patients with advanced bile duct disease and elevated liver enzymes, CEA or CA19-9, inflammation or suspicious BC are most likely to develop CCA. These patients may benefit from surveillance with BC if early liver transplantation is possible.

  3. Rat N-ERC/mesothelin as a marker for in vivo screening of drugs against pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Katsumi; Iigo, Masaaki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Shibata, Koji; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Alexander, David B; Hino, Okio; Suzui, Masumi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly lethal disease, which is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage. We have established transgenic rats carrying a mutated K-ras gene controlled by Cre/loxP activation. The animals develop PDA which is histopathologically similar to that in humans. Previously, we reported that serum levels of N-ERC/mesothelin were significantly higher in rats bearing PDA than in controls. In the present study, to determine whether serum levels of N-ERC/mesothelin correlated with tumor size, we measured N-ERC/mesothelin levels in rats bearing PDA. Increased serum levels of N-ERC/mesothelin correlated with increased tumor size. This result indicates an interrelationship between the serum level of N-ERC/mesothelin and tumor size. We next investigated the effect of chemotherapy on serum N-ERC/mesothelin levels. Rat pancreatic cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into the flank of NOD-SCID mice. In the mice treated with 200 mg/kg gemcitabine, tumor weight and the serum level of N-ERC/mesothelin were significantly decreased compared to controls. These results suggest that serum N-ERC/mesothelin measurements might be useful for monitoring response to therapy.

  4. Translation of ERC resuscitation guidelines into clinical practice by emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Bachmann, Kaspar; Strunk, Guido; Neuhold, Stephanie; Zapletal, Bernhard; Maurer, Claudia; Fast, Andrea; Stumpf, Dominik; Greif, Robert

    2014-01-30

    Austrian out-of-hospital emergency physicians (OOHEP) undergo mandatory biannual emergency physician refresher courses to maintain their licence. The purpose of this study was to compare different reported emergency skills and knowledge, recommended by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines, between OOHEP who work regularly at an out-of-hospital emergency service and those who do not currently work as OOHEP but are licenced. We obtained data from 854 participants from 19 refresher courses. Demographics, questions about their practice and multiple-choice questions about ALS-knowledge were answered and analysed. We particularly explored the application of therapeutic hypothermia, intraosseous access, pocket guide use and knowledge about the participants' defibrillator in use. A multivariate logistic regression analysed differences between both groups of OOHEP. Age, gender, years of clinical experience, ERC-ALS provider course attendance and the self-reported number of resuscitations were control variables. Licenced OOHEP who are currently employed in emergency service are significantly more likely to initiate intraosseous access (OR = 4.013, p ERC-ALS provider course since 2005 have initiated more mild therapeutic hypothermia after successful resuscitation (OR = 1.670, p ERC guidelines better into clinical practice, but more training on life-saving rescue techniques needs to be done to improve knowledge and to raise these rates of application.

  5. MESOMARK kit detects C-ERC/mesothelin, but not SMRP with C-terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Aoki, Naoko; Maeda, Masahiro; Shiomi, Kazu; Hino, Okio

    2008-05-09

    ERC/mesothelin is expressed on the normal mesothelium and some cancers such as mesothelioma or ovarian carcinoma. A splicing isoform of ERC/mesothelin (known as SMRP), which has an 82-bp insertion and codes for a C-terminus with a hydrophilic, presumably soluble, tail instead of a GPI-anchoring signal, has been reported as a useful marker for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. However, the existence of SMRP has not yet been demonstrated in the serum of mesothelioma patients. To elucidate the existence of SMRP, we have established a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for SMRP. The ELISA study revealed that N- and C-ERC/mesothelin were detected in sera from mesothelioma patients, but not SMRP, even in these samples. This result showed that the SMRP detected with MESOMARK kit should be lack of soluble C-terminus and indistinguishable from C-ERC/mesothelin. Further study might be necessary to demonstrate the relationship between SMRP and mesothelin.

  6. Antitumor activity of anti-C-ERC/mesothelin monoclonal antibody in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Koichi; Abe, Masaaki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Segawa, Tatsuya; Suyama, Masafumi; Watanabe, Sumio; Hino, Okio

    2010-04-01

    Mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer often caused by chronic asbestos exposure, and its prognosis is very poor despite the therapies currently used. Due to the long latency period between asbestos exposure and tumor development, the worldwide incidence will increase substantially in the next decades. Thus, novel effective therapies are warranted to improve the prognosis. The ERC/mesothelin gene (MSLN) is expressed in wide variety of human cancers, including mesotheliomas, and encodes a precursor protein cleaved by proteases to generate C-ERC/mesothelin and N-ERC/mesothelin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of C-ERC/mesothelin-specific mouse monoclonal antibody, 22A31, against tumors derived from a human mesothelioma cell line, ACC-MESO-4, in a xenograft experimental model using female BALB/c athymic nude mice. Treatment with 22A31 did not inhibit cell proliferation of ACC-MESO-4 in vitro; however, therapeutic treatment with 22A31 drastically inhibited tumor growth in vivo. 22A31 induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by natural killer (NK) cells, but not macrophages, in vitro. Consistently, the F(ab')(2) fragment of 22A31 did not inhibit tumor growth in vivo, nor did it induce antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. Moreover, NK cell depletion diminished the antitumor effect of 22A31. Thus, 22A31 induced NK cell-mediated ADCC and exerted antitumor activity in vivo. 22A31 could have potential as a therapeutic tool to treat C-ERC/mesothelin-expressing cancers including mesothelioma.

  7. Integrated absolute dating approach for terrestrial records of past climate using trapped charge methods (INTERTRAP) - the blessing and turmoil of implementing for the first time an ERC grant at a Romanian university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-04-01

    This year marks European Research Council`s (ERC) 10th anniversary. Romania is celebrating as well 10 years as a member state of the European Union. Over the past decade Romania has made significant progress in supporting research development at the national level. However, when it comes to excellent frontier research as supported by the ERC, Romania`s involvement and visibility at a European level remains very low. Considering only young researchers, according to ERC statistics only 142 proposals hosted by institutions in Romania have been submitted in the Starting and Consolidator Grant schemes in the last 3 years (2014-2016). For corresponding funding schemes at a national level Romania`s Executive Agency for Financing Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI) received over 2000 applications only in 2016. The success rate of ERC proposals hosted by Romania is even more concerning (less than 3%) with only 4 projects out of 142 being granted. In 2015, Dr Alida Timar-Gabor was awarded an ERC starting grant (grant agreement No [678106]; INTERTRAP) which is the first ERC project to be implemented in a Romanian university. In the INTERTRAP project Dr Timar-Gabor and her team aims to achieve significant improvement in quartz based luminescence dating and to develop new absolute dating techniques for Quaternary sediments. During the implementation of the project a new state-of-the-art luminescence and electron spin resonance laboratory, unique in Eastern Europe and one of the only two or three in the world, will be set up. Dr. Alida Timar-Gabor, PI of INTERTRAP, is the founder and leader of the only absolute dating laboratory in Romania that was founded in 2008. She has defended her PhD in 2010 and supervised and co-supervised 10 other PhD students since then. She holds various national and international awards. Her career path has been significantly influenced by a strong network of international collaborations. In this presentation she will give an overview of

  8. European Resuscitation Council (ERC) - the Network to fight against cardiac arrest in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffay, Violetta

    2013-09-01

    The ideas of collaboration and formation of scientific societies and registries for cardiac arrest were developed in the 18th century. The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) was formed in 1990. Nowadays, the ERC network consists of 30 National Resuscitation Councils (NRCs), which have an obligation to ensure that effective resuscitation services are provided and to promote education, training, and research in all aspects of resuscitation science. The central role of NRCs in decreasing the incidence of cardiac arrest may be highlighted and enhanced by the incorporation and implementation of the following suggestions. NRCs should emphasize and actively participate in acute care training of healthcare professionals and of lay rescuers. Implementation of current resuscitation guidelines should be a priority of each NRC and identification of the weakest link in the chain of survival should be a priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Usefulness of preoperative three dimensional CT in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Especially, its comparison to ERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Hiromichi; Nakaya, Yuzou; Kojima, Kojirou

    1996-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of three dimensional helical CT (3D-CT) combined with drip infusion cholangiography for determining the application of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and evaluating the cholecyst severity. The subjects were 56 patients who underwent LC with preoperative 3D-CT. Particularly, in 42 patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and 3D-CT simultaneously, the results with both methods were compared. The detection rates of the original site, forward and backward direction, and left and right direction in the confluence form of the cystic duct by means of 3D-CT versus ERC were 100% vs. 92.9% 92.9% vs. 71.4%, and 92.9% vs. 88.1%, respectively. Abnormal biliary distribution was visualized in 5 cases and all of them were depicted by 3D-CT. The 3D-CT was superior to ERC in terms of X-ray dose and cost. These results indicate the usefulness of 3D-CT as a LC preoperative examination. (author)

  10. Use of ERC-1671 Vaccine in a Patient with Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme after Progression during Bevacizumab Therapy: First Published Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bota, Daniela A; Alexandru-Abrams, Daniela; Pretto, Chrystel; Hofman, Florence M; Chen, Thomas C; Fu, Beverly; Carrillo, Jose A; Schijns, Virgil Ejc; Stathopoulos, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highy aggressive tumor that recurs despite resection, focal beam radiation, and temozolamide chemotherapy. ERC-1671 is an experimental treatment strategy that uses the patient's own immune system to attack the tumor cells. The authors report preliminary data on the first human administration of ERC-1671 vaccination under a single-patient, compassionate-use protocol. The patient survived for ten months after the vaccine administration without any other adjuvant therapy and died of complications related to his previous chemotherapies.

  11. Establishment of novel mAb to human ERC/mesothelin useful for study and diagnosis of ERC/mesothelin-expressing cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Segawa, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Abe, Masaaki; Hino, Okio

    2009-03-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor of the serosal cavity that arises from the mesothelial cells of the pleura, peritoneum, or pericardium. The immunohistochemical diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma from biopsy or surgically resected specimens has been actively pursued, using markers such as mesothelin. Several markers have indeed been helpful for confirming the diagnosis of mesothelioma and distinguishing between mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma. The authors have developed a novel mAb to human C-ERC/mesothelin, which performed well when used in western blotting, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, and which therefore will be useful in studying the molecular biology of mesothelin, in addition to improving the diagnosis and therapy of mesothelin-expressing cancers.

  12. Analysis of the Amendments to the Independent Auditor's Report Starting with the Auditing of the Financial Statements as at 31.12.2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortură Laura-Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    One such example is the amendment of the International Standards on Auditing in 2015, applicable in our country starting with the auditing of the financial statements on 31.12.2016, being an effect of the last economic and financial crisis. Changes have been made following the projects initiated by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB, aiming at identifying ways to improve the International Standards on Auditing in order to restore the confidence of the intended users in the work of auditors.

  13. Rescuer fatigue under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and its effect on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine H; Heggie, James; Jones, Christopher M; Thorne, Christopher J; Hulme, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Updated life-support guidelines were published by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in 2010, increasing the required depth and rate of chest compression delivery. This study sought to determine the impact of these guidelines on rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. 62 Health science students performed 5 min of conventional CPR in accordance with the 2010 ERC guidelines. A SkillReporter manikin was used to objectively assess temporal change in determinants of CPR quality. Participants subjectively reported their end-fatigue levels, using a visual analogue scale, and the point at which they believed fatigue was affecting CPR delivery. 49 (79%) participants reported that fatigue affected their CPR performance, at an average of 167 s. End fatigue averaged 49.5/100 (range 0-95). The proportion of chest compressions delivered correctly decreased from 52% in min 1 to 39% in min 5, approaching significance (p=0.071). A significant decline in chest compressions reaching the recommended depth occurred between the first (53%) and fifth (38%) min (p=0.012). Almost half this decline (6%) was between the first and second minutes of CPR. Neither chest compression rate, nor rescue breath volume, were affected by rescuer fatigue. Fatigue affects chest compression delivery within the second minute of CPR under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and is poorly judged by rescuers. Rescuers should, therefore, be encouraged to interchange after 2 min of CPR delivery. Team leaders should be advised to not rely on rescuers to self-report fatigue, and should, instead, monitor for its effects.

  14. Neutron Crystal-Field Spectroscopy and Susceptibility in ErcY1-cA1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heer, H.; Furrer, A.; Walker, E.

    1974-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments and susceptibility measurements have been carried out on polycrystalline ErcY1-cAl2. A least-squares fitting procedure has been applied to the neutron data which favours four sets of crystal-field parameters. The results are compared with the measured...... susceptibility and other bulk magnetic properties. From this it is concluded that the crystal-field parameters x=-0.54 and W=-0.018 meV are the most probable ones....

  15. Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. Results We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p  Conclusions The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.

  16. DESENVOLVIMENTO E VALIDAÇÃO FATORIAL DA ESCALA DE RELACIONAMENTO COM CLIENTES (ERC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Demo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância do desenvolvimento do relacionamento entre as empresas e seus clientes, este trabalho tem por objetivo validar um instrumento científico capaz de mensurar tal relacionamento, destacando a satisfação e a lealdade como pressupostos para a sua construção e manutenção. A pesquisa, de natureza quantitativa, utilizou-se de Análise Fatorial Exploratória para a validação experimental do instrumento e de uma amostra de 627 clientes de diversas empresas. Os resultados encontrados mostram que a Escala de Relacionamento com o Cliente (ERC possui uma estrutura unifatorial, explicando cerca de 64% da variância e com confiabilidade de 0,92 (α de Cronbach. O trabalho contribui com a produção científica nas áreas de marketing e afins, uma vez que a ERC pode ser utilizada em estudos diagnósticos e relacionais. Ademais, a contribuição do estudo estende-se à área organizacional, visto que o instrumento pode auxiliar gestores no sentido de incrementar o relacionamento que desenvolvem com seus clientes e melhorar os resultados organizacionais.

  17. Why START?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Barring some major unexpected downturn in US-Soviet relations, it seems likely that the long-awaited Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty will be signed sometime in 1991. Under negotiation for the past nine years, public acceptance and Senate approval of a START treaty will be facilitated by the generally less confrontational East-West relationship which has evolved over that time, by the growing constraints on the US defense budget, and by the obvious merits of the treaty itself. Not only will the nearly complete START treaty be an extremely useful and powerful arms control agreement, it is also decidedly advantageous to US security interests. First and foremost, a START treaty will cap and reduce the steady buildup of nuclear weapons that has characterized the last 30 years of the US-Soviet strategic relationship. As a result of the basic outline originally agreed to at the Reykjavik summit, START will take a 25 to 35 percent bite out of existing nuclear arsenals, impose approximately a 50 percent cut in overall Soviet ballistic missile warheads and throw-weight (lifting power or payload capacity), and produce an exact 50 percent cut in Soviet SS-18 missiles

  18. Food-stimulated cholescintigraphy as a supplement to ERC in patients with suspected bile flow obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.H.; Toftgaard, C.; Rokkjor, M.J.; Kruse, A.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Municipal Hospital, Aarhus

    1990-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy after food stimulation was carried out in 40 patients (13 patients with biliary enteric bypass, 14 patients with bile duct stenosis, demonstrated by ERC, 5 patients with endoprothesis and 8 patients with clinically suspected post-cholecystectomy syndrome). Biliary-bowel transit time of one hour or less was considered to be normal. It is concluded that in patients with biliary enteric bypass (hepatico-jejunostomia) or biliary strictures a biliary-bowel transit time of one hour will be discriminatory between normal and abnormal conditions. This is in contrast to patients with endoprothesis and suspected sphincter of Oddi dysmotility, where a transit time of one hour only will have limited predictive value. (orig.) [de

  19. Bechtel Hanford, Inc./ERC team health and safety plan Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, S.R.

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive safety and health program is essential for reducing work-related injuries and illnesses while maintaining a safe and health work environment. This document establishes Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI)/Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) team requirements, policies, and procedures and provides preliminary guidance to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) subcontractor for use in preparing essential safety and health documents. This health and safety plan (HASP) defines potential safety and health issues associated with operating and maintaining the ERDF. A site-specific HASP shall be developed by the ERDF subcontractor and shall be implemented before operations and maintenance work can proceed. An activity hazard analysis (AHA) shall also be developed to provide procedures to identify, assess, and control hazards or potential incidents associated with specific operations and maintenance activities

  20. Newly established ELISA for N-ERC/mesothelin improves diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Yohei; Mori, Takanori; Maeda, Masahiro; Abe, Masaaki; Hino, Okio; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-10-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor, commonly caused by exposure to asbestos. The prognosis of mesothelioma remains disappointing despite multimodal treatment. We reported previously that N-ERC/mesothelin could be a useful biomarker for the early diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for its detection. However, the reproducibility of our previous 7-16 ELISA system has been revealed to be unsatisfactory. To measure N-ERC/mesothelin more precisely, we developed a new 7-20 ELISA system. The subjects of this study were patients who were referred to our department with suspected pleural mesothelioma. The current study demonstrated that the newly established 7-20 ELISA system improved the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing pleural mesothelioma compared with the previous system. Moreover, the 7-20 ELISA system showed better reproducibility and displayed the tendency of both higher sensitivity and higher specificity in plasma than in serum. Particularly for the epithelioid type, the area under the curve (AUC) and the diagnostic accuracy of N-ERC/mesothelin were excellent; the AUC was 0.91, the sensitivity was 0.95, and the specificity was 0.76 in plasma. In conclusion, assessment of N-ERC/mesothelin with our newly established 7-20 ELISA system is clinically useful for the precise diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison of the errors in basic life support performance after training using the 2000 and 2005 ERC guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Andrew; Kocierz, Laura; Aggarwal, Naresh; Hulme, Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    The importance of immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation after cardiac arrest is established. The 2005 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines were altered to try to improve survival after cardiac arrest. This observational study compares the errors in basic life support (BLS) performance after training using the 2000 or 2005 guidelines. First-year healthcare students at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, were taught adult BLS in a standardised 8-h course: an historical group with previous ERC guidelines (Old), the other with 2005 ERC guidelines (New). 2537 (Old 1773; New 764) students were trained and assessed in BLS. There was no difference in overall error rate between Old and New (5.53% vs. 6.70% (p>0.05)) or adherence to the sequence of the respective BLS algorithm. The New group ("hands in centre of the chest") had significantly more erroneous hand positions compared to the Old group (5.23% vs. 1.64%, pERC guidelines do not significantly improve correct BLS performance. Removal of hand placement measurement results in a significant increase in hand position errors. The clinical benefit of an increased number of compressions impaired by worsened hand positioning is unknown and requires further study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Starting out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ans Merens; Freek Bucx

    2018-01-01

    Original title: Werken aan de start Women in the Netherlands have been outperforming men in education for many years now. However, this superior educational achievement does not translate into a better position on the labour market. More women work today than in the past, but still fewer than men.

  3. Comparison of the quality of basic life support provided by rescuers trained using the 2005 or 2010 ERC guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Owen, Andrew; Thorne, Christopher J; Hulme, Jonathan

    2012-08-09

    Effective delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and prompt defibrillation following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is vital. Updated guidelines for adult basic life support (BLS) were published in 2010 by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in an effort to improve survival following SCA. There has been little assessment of the ability of rescuers to meet the standards outlined within these new guidelines. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the performance of first year healthcare students trained and assessed using either the new 2010 ERC guidelines or their 2005 predecessor, within the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom. All students were trained as lay rescuers during a standardised eight hour ERC-accredited adult BLS course. We analysed the examination records of 1091 students. Of these, 561 were trained and assessed using the old 2005 ERC guidelines and 530 using the new 2010 guidelines. A significantly greater proportion of candidates failed in the new guideline group (16.04% vs. 11.05%; p < 0.05), reflecting a significantly greater proportion of lay-rescuers performing chest compressions at too fast a rate when trained and assessed with the 2010 rather than 2005 guidelines (6.04% vs. 2.67%; p < 0.05). Error rates for other skills did not differ between guideline groups. The new ERC guidelines lead to a greater proportion of lay rescuers performing chest compressions at an erroneously fast rate and may therefore worsen BLS efficacy. Additional study is required in order to define the clinical impact of compressions performed to a greater depth and at too fast a rate.

  4. Diagnostic Utility of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography/Intraductal Ultrasound (ERC/IDUS) in Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Bile Duct Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Lu, Yi; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Bie, Like; Xia, Lu; Gong, Biao

    2016-02-01

    Accurately differentiating malignant diseases from benign ones in patients having bile duct obstruction is of significant importance and remains a major clinical problem. This study investigated the diagnostic yield of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography/intraductal ultrasound (ERC/IDUS) in distinguishing malignant from benign bile duct obstruction and assessed some image findings from ERC/IDUS which might be useful in differentiation. From January 2008 to January 2015, patients who underwent ERC/IDUS for bile duct obstruction were enrolled. Patient's ERC/IDUS diagnosis was compared with the final diagnosis determined by pathologic findings and/or clinical outcome of follow-up. One hundred and ninety-three patients with bile duct obstruction were included. IDUS correctly identified 94 of 97 malignant diseases and 76 of 96 benign diseases with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate of 96.91, 79.17, and 88.08 %, respectively. Additionally, the accuracy rate of IDUS for diagnosis of proximal bile duct obstruction was higher than that of distal bile duct obstruction (98.08 vs. 82.73 %, p = 0.006). Besides, there was a significant difference in the length at the obstruction site between benign and malignant diseases (13.76 ± 7.37 vs. 19.97 ± 11.37 mm, p 7 mm without extrinsic compression had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100 % for including malignancy, while length ≧20 mm demonstrated a PPV of 93.44 %. ERC/IDUS is effective in distinguishing malignant from benign bile duct obstruction, thus helping in further clinical management.

  5. Press Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level sets the stage for the design philosophy called “Triadic Game Design” (TGD). This design philosophy can be summarized with the following sentence: it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Before the philosophy is further explained, this level will first delve into what is meant by a meaningful game or a game with a purpose. Many terms and definitions have seen the light and in this book I will specifically orient at digital games that aim to have an effect beyond the context of the game itself. Subsequently, a historical overview is given of the usage of games with a serious purpose which starts from the moment we human beings started to walk on our feet till our contemporary society. It turns out that we have been using games for all kinds of non-entertainment purposes for already quite a long time. With this introductory material in the back of our minds, I will explain the concept of TGD by means of a puzzle. After that, the protagonist of this book, the game Levee Patroller, is introduced. Based on the development of this game, the idea of TGD, which stresses to balance three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play, came into being. Interested? Then I suggest to quickly “press start!”

  6. Development of positron emission tomography imaging by 64Cu-labeled Fab for detecting ERC/mesothelin in a mesothelioma mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chisato; Sogawa, Chizuru; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sudo, Hitomi; Sugyo, Aya; Uehara, Tomoya; Hino, Okio; Yoshii, Yukie; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Arano, Yasushi; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-05-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive form of cancer. Curative surgery is the only effective therapy for mesothelioma, and therefore early diagnosis is important. However, early diagnosis is difficult using current diagnostic imaging techniques, and a new imaging method for early diagnosis is urgently required. We evaluated the affinity of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to the C-terminal fragment of ERC/mesothelin for this purpose. In-labeled or I-labeled IgG against C-terminal fragment of ERC and its Fab fragment were evaluated in vitro by cell binding, competitive inhibition, and cellular internalization assays, and in vivo by biodistribution in mice bearing ERC-expressing tumors. Next, the Fab fragment was labeled with the positron emitter Cu and evaluated by positron emission tomography (PET). Radiolabeled IgG and Fab showed specific binding to ERC-expressing mesothelioma cells with high affinity. Both radiolabeled IgG and Fab internalized into cells after binding to ERC on the cell surface. In-labeled IgG accumulated in ERC-expressing tumors and resulted in a moderate tumor-to-blood ratio at 4 days after injection. Furthermore, PET using Cu-labeled Fab visualized the tumor at 6 h after injection. Cu-labeled Fab can be useful for ERC-specific PET imaging, and can thus facilitate improved diagnosis of patients with early-stage mesothelioma.

  7. to start

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Click here to start. Table of contents. Slide 1 · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30.

  8. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  9. ERC hazard classification matrices for above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the status of the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) process for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities currently underway for planned for fiscal year (FY) 1997. This classification process is based on current US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) guidance for the classification of facilities and activities containing radionuclide and nonradiological hazardous material inventories. The above ground structures presented in the matrices were drawn from the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project Facility List (DOE 1996), which identifies the facilities in the RL-Environmental Restoration baseline contract in 1997. This document contains the following two appendices: (1) Appendix A, which consists of a matrix identifying PHC documents that have been issued for BHI's above ground structures and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997, and (2) Appendix B, which consists of a matrix showing anticipated PHCs for above ground structures, and groundwater and soil remediation activities underway or planned for FY 1997. Appendix B also shows the schedule for finalization of PHCs for above ground structures with an anticipated classification of Nuclear

  10. Computer-Based CPR Simulation Towards Validation of AHA/ERC Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Alka Rachel; Manivannan, M; Ramakrishnan, T V

    2017-06-01

    As per the AHA 2015 and ERC 2015 guidelines for resuscitation, chest compression depth should be between 5 and 6 cm with a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. Theoretical validation of these guidelines is still elusive. We developed a computer model of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) system to validate these guidelines. A lumped element computer model of the cardiovascular system was developed to simulate cardiac arrest and CPR. Cardiac output was compared for a range of compression pressures and frequencies. It was observed from our investigation that there is an optimum compression pressure and rate. The maximum cardiac output occurred at 100 mmHg, which is approximately 5.7 cm, and in the range of 100 to 120 compressions per minute with an optimum value at 110 compressions per minute, validating the guidelines. Increasing the pressure or the depth of compression beyond the optimum, limits the blood flow by depleting the volume in the cardiac chambers and not allowing for an effective stroke volume. Similarly increasing the compression rate beyond the optimum degrades the ability of the chambers to pump blood. The results also bring out the importance of complete recoil of the chest after each compression with more than 400% increase in cardiac output from 90% recoil to 100% recoil. Our simulation predicts that the recommendation to compress harder and faster is not the best counsel as there is an optimum compression pressure and rate for high-quality CPR.

  11. Equal opportunities for men: a perspective of an ERC grantee and father of three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Equal opportunities is still regarded a "women's issue" by many. Implicit to this notion is the assumption that men are made to work and make a career. However, if we agree that life consists of more than work and sleep, and if we agree that men have the right to be with their children, equal opportunities are of course equally important for men: it means to provide opportunities for men to spend time with their families and children. In this presentation, I would like to share my personal experience as ERC grantee, father of three children, and husband of a scientist. I will highlight the importance of personal choices, but also of policies and institutional structures that promote or impede equal opportunities for men. I will make the point that providing opportunities for men to be with their children, while they pursue an academic career, will be beneficial not only for them, but also for women, and therefore constitutes a key component in work towards equal opportunities.

  12. Bucket wheel rehabilitation of ERC 1400-30/7 high-capacity excavators from lignite quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The existence of bucket wheel equipment type ERC 1400-30/7 in lignite quarries with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to rehabilitation in order to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance but also the replacement (or modernization) of subassemblies that can increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption, reducing mechanical stresses. This paper proposes an analysis of constructive solution of using a part of the classical bucket wheel, on which are located 9 cutting cups and 9 chargers cups and adding a new part so that the new redesigned bucket-wheel will contain 18 cutting-chargers cups, compared to the classical model. On the CAD model of bucket wheel was performed a static and a dynamic FEA, the results being compared with the yield strength of the material of the entire structure, were checked mechanical stresses in the overall distribution map, and were verified the first 4 vibrating modes the structure compared to real loads. Thus was verified that the redesigned bucket-wheel can accomplish the proposed goals respectively increase excavation process productivity, lowering energy consumption and reducing mechanical stresses.

  13. Endoscopic Treatment of Biliary Stenosis in Patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis – Report of 7 Consecutive Patients with Serial ERC Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marija; Junghanss, Thomas; Veeser, Mira; Weber, Tim F.; Sauer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Biliary vessel pathology due to alveolar echicococcosis (AE) results in variable combinations of stenosis, necrosis and inflammation. Modern management strategies for patients with cholestasis are desperately needed. The aim is proof of principle of serial ERC (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) balloon dilation for AE biliary pathology. Methods Retrospective case series of seven consecutive patients with AE-associated biliary pathology and ERC treatment in an interdisciplinary endoscopy unit at a University Hospital which hosts a national echinococcosis treatment center. The AE patient cohort consists of 106 patients with AE of the liver of which 13 presented with cholestasis. 6/13 received bilio-digestive anastomosis and 7/13 patients were treated by ERC and are reported here. Biliary stricture balloon dilation was performed with 18-Fr balloons at the initial and with 24-Fr balloons at subsequent interventions. If indicated 10 Fr plastic stents were placed. Results Six patients were treated by repeated balloon dilation and stenting, one by stenting only. After an acute phase of 6 months with repeated balloon dilation, three patients showed “sustained clinical success” and four patients “assisted therapeutic success,” of which one has not yet reached the six month endpoint. In one patient, sustained success could not be achieved despite repeated insertion of plastic stents and balloon dilation, but with temporary insertion of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS). There was no loss to follow up. No major complications were observed. Conclusions Serial endoscopic dilation is a standard tool in the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Serial endoscopic intervention with balloon dilation combined with benzimidazole treatment can re-establish and maintain biliary duct patency in AE associated pathology and probably contributes to avoid or postpone bilio-digestive anastomosis. This approach is in accordance with current

  14. Endoscopic Treatment of Biliary Stenosis in Patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis--Report of 7 Consecutive Patients with Serial ERC Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Stojkovic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biliary vessel pathology due to alveolar echicococcosis (AE results in variable combinations of stenosis, necrosis and inflammation. Modern management strategies for patients with cholestasis are desperately needed. The aim is proof of principle of serial ERC (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography balloon dilation for AE biliary pathology.Retrospective case series of seven consecutive patients with AE-associated biliary pathology and ERC treatment in an interdisciplinary endoscopy unit at a University Hospital which hosts a national echinococcosis treatment center. The AE patient cohort consists of 106 patients with AE of the liver of which 13 presented with cholestasis. 6/13 received bilio-digestive anastomosis and 7/13 patients were treated by ERC and are reported here. Biliary stricture balloon dilation was performed with 18-Fr balloons at the initial and with 24-Fr balloons at subsequent interventions. If indicated 10 Fr plastic stents were placed.Six patients were treated by repeated balloon dilation and stenting, one by stenting only. After an acute phase of 6 months with repeated balloon dilation, three patients showed "sustained clinical success" and four patients "assisted therapeutic success," of which one has not yet reached the six month endpoint. In one patient, sustained success could not be achieved despite repeated insertion of plastic stents and balloon dilation, but with temporary insertion of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS. There was no loss to follow up. No major complications were observed.Serial endoscopic dilation is a standard tool in the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Serial endoscopic intervention with balloon dilation combined with benzimidazole treatment can re-establish and maintain biliary duct patency in AE associated pathology and probably contributes to avoid or postpone bilio-digestive anastomosis. This approach is in accordance with current ERC guidelines and is minimally disruptive

  15. Endoscopic Treatment of Biliary Stenosis in Patients with Alveolar Echinococcosis--Report of 7 Consecutive Patients with Serial ERC Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Marija; Junghanss, Thomas; Veeser, Mira; Weber, Tim F; Sauer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Biliary vessel pathology due to alveolar echicococcosis (AE) results in variable combinations of stenosis, necrosis and inflammation. Modern management strategies for patients with cholestasis are desperately needed. The aim is proof of principle of serial ERC (endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) balloon dilation for AE biliary pathology. Retrospective case series of seven consecutive patients with AE-associated biliary pathology and ERC treatment in an interdisciplinary endoscopy unit at a University Hospital which hosts a national echinococcosis treatment center. The AE patient cohort consists of 106 patients with AE of the liver of which 13 presented with cholestasis. 6/13 received bilio-digestive anastomosis and 7/13 patients were treated by ERC and are reported here. Biliary stricture balloon dilation was performed with 18-Fr balloons at the initial and with 24-Fr balloons at subsequent interventions. If indicated 10 Fr plastic stents were placed. Six patients were treated by repeated balloon dilation and stenting, one by stenting only. After an acute phase of 6 months with repeated balloon dilation, three patients showed "sustained clinical success" and four patients "assisted therapeutic success," of which one has not yet reached the six month endpoint. In one patient, sustained success could not be achieved despite repeated insertion of plastic stents and balloon dilation, but with temporary insertion of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS). There was no loss to follow up. No major complications were observed. Serial endoscopic dilation is a standard tool in the treatment of benign biliary strictures. Serial endoscopic intervention with balloon dilation combined with benzimidazole treatment can re-establish and maintain biliary duct patency in AE associated pathology and probably contributes to avoid or postpone bilio-digestive anastomosis. This approach is in accordance with current ERC guidelines and is minimally disruptive for patients.

  16. DAE emergency response centre (ERC) at Kalpakkam for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies in public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, V.; Rajagopal, V.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Subramanian, V.; Rajaram, S.; Somayaji, K.M.; Kannan, V.; Rajagopalan, H.

    2008-01-01

    In India, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has been identified as the nodal agency/authority in respect of providing the necessary technical inputs in the event of any radiation emergency that may occur in public domain. The overall system takes into consideration statutory requirements, executive decisions as well as National and International obligations. This paper highlights the details about the strength of the Kalpakkam ERC and other essential requisites and their compliance since its formation

  17. Comparison between double-balloon and single-balloon enteroscopy in therapeutic ERC after Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A

    2010-09-16

    To compare the efficacy of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) and single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in patients with Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis. Retrospective analysis of our patient cohort revealed 4 patients with enterobiliary anastomosis and Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis who underwent repeated ERC with DBE and SBE because of recurrent cholangitis. A total of 38 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures were performed in 25 patients with Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis. DBE was used in 29 procedures and SBE in 9. The 4 patients who underwent repeated ERC with DBE and SBE suffered from recurrent cholangitis due to stenosis of the enterobiliary anastomosis. ERC was performed repeatedly to achieve balloon dilation with/without biliary stone extraction and multiple stent placement at the level of the enterobiliary anastomosis. In all 4 patients DBE and SBE were equally successful. Compared to DBE, SBE was equally effective in passing the Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis, reaching the enterobiliary anastomosis and performing therapeutic ERC. This retrospective comparison shows that DBE and SBE are equally successful in the performance of therapeutic ERC at the level of the enterobiliary anastomosis after Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis.

  18. The effects of changes to the ERC resuscitation guidelines on no flow time and cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: a randomised controlled study on manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, H; Kuisma, M; Uusaro, A

    2007-11-01

    The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines changed in 2005. We investigated the impact of these changes on no flow time and on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Simulated cardiac arrest (CA) scenarios were managed randomly in manikins using ERC 2000 or 2005 guidelines. Pairs of paramedics/paramedic students treated 34 scenarios with 10min of continuous ventricular fibrillation. The rhythm was analysed and defibrillation shocks were delivered with a semi-automatic defibrillator, and breathing was assisted with a bag-valve-mask; no intravenous medication was given. Time factors related to human intervention and time factors related to device, rhythm analysis, charging and defibrillation were analysed for their contribution to no flow time (time without chest compression). Chest compression quality was also analysed. No flow time (mean+/-S.D.) was 66+/-3% of CA time with ERC 2000 and 32+/-4% with ERC 2005 guidelines (PERC 2000) versus 107+/-4s (ERC 2005) during 600-s scenarios (P=0.237). Device factor interventions took longer using ERC 2000 guidelines: 290+/-19s versus 92+/-15s (PERC 2005 guidelines (808+/-92s versus 458+/-90s, P<0.001), but the quality of CPR did not differ between the groups. The use of a single shock sequence with guidelines 2005 has decreased the no flow time during CPR when compared with guidelines 2000 with multiple shocks.

  19. Gene ercA, encoding a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase, is involved in regulation of ethanol utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut; Mern, Demissew S

    2013-09-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported.

  20. ERC 2010 guidelines for adult and pediatric resuscitation: summary of major changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroni, C; Nolan, J

    2011-02-01

    The new European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) published on October 18th, 2010, replace those published in 2005 and are based on the latest International Consensus on CPR Science with Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR). For both adult and pediatric resuscitation, the most important general changes include: the introduction of chest compression-only CPR in primary cardiac arrest as an option for rescuers who are unable or unwilling to perform expired-air ventilation; increased emphasis on uninterrupted, good-quality CPR and minimisation of both pre- and post-shock pauses during defibrillation. For adult resuscitation, the recommended chest compression depth and rate are 5-6 cm and 100-120 compressions per minute, respectively. Both a specific period of CPR before defibrillation during out-of-hospital resuscitation and use of endotracheal route for drug delivery during advanced life support are no longer recommended. During postresuscitation care, inspired oxygen should be titrated to obtain an arterial oxygen saturation of 94-98%, to avoid possible damage from hyperoxemia. In pediatric resuscitation, the role of pulse palpation for the diagnosis of cardiac arrest has been de-emphasised. The compression-to-ventilation ratio depends on the number of rescuers available, and a 30:2 ratio is acceptable even for rescuers with a duty to respond if they are alone. Chest compression depth should be at least 1/3 of the anterior-posterior chest diameter. The use of automated external defibrillators for children under one year of age should be considered.

  1. Scheduling with target start times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  2. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  3. Hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin as key biomarkers in a specific two-step model to predict pleural malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Filip; Nilsonne, Gustav; Arslan, Sertaç; Csürös, Karola; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Yildirim, Huseyin; Metintas, Muzaffer; Dobra, Katalin; Hjerpe, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is challenging. The first available diagnostic material is often an effusion and biochemical analysis of soluble markers may provide additional diagnostic information. This study aimed to establish a predictive model using biomarkers from pleural effusions, to allow early and accurate diagnosis. Effusions were collected prospectively from 190 consecutive patients at a regional referral centre. Hyaluronan, N-ERC/mesothelin, C-ERC/mesothelin, osteopontin, syndecan-1, syndecan-2, and thioredoxin were measured using ELISA and HPLC. A predictive model was generated and validated using a second prospective set of 375 effusions collected consecutively at a different referral centre. Biochemical markers significantly associated with mesothelioma were hyaluronan (odds ratio, 95% CI: 8.82, 4.82-20.39), N-ERC/mesothelin (4.81, 3.19-7.93), CERC/mesothelin (3.58, 2.43-5.59) and syndecan-1 (1.34, 1.03-1.77). A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin, and combining a threshold decision rule with logistic regression, yielded good discrimination with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00) in the model generation dataset and 0.83 (0.74-0.91) in the validation dataset, respectively. A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin predicts mesothelioma with high specificity. This method can be performed on the first available effusion and could be a useful adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of mesothelioma.

  4. siRNA-mediated Erc gene silencing suppresses tumor growth in Tsc2 mutant renal carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Osamu; Okada, Hiroaki; Takashima, Yuuki; Zhang, Danqing; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Hino, Okio

    2008-09-18

    Silencing of gene expression by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for genetic analysis and represents a potential strategy for therapeutic product development. However, there are no reports of systemic delivery of siRNAs for stable treatment except short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). On the other hand, there are many reports of systemic delivery of siRNAs for transient treatment using liposome carriers and others. With regard to shRNAs, a report showed fatality in mice due to oversaturation of cellular microRNA/short hairpin RNA pathways. Therefore, we decided to use original siRNA microspheres instead of shRNA for stable treatment of disease. In this study, we designed rat-specific siRNA sequences for Erc/mesothelin, which is a tumor-specific gene expressed in the Eker (Tsc2 mutant) rat model of hereditary renal cancer and confirmed the efficacy of gene silencing in vitro. Then, by using siRNA microspheres, we found that the suppression of Erc/mesothelin caused growth inhibition of Tsc2 mutant renal carcinoma cells in tumor implantation experiments in mice.

  5. Feasibility of large-scale screening using N-ERC/mesothelin levels in the blood for the early diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashimizu, Kohta; Shiomi, Kazu; Maeda, Masahiro; Aoki, Naoko; Igarashi, Kiyoko; Suzuki, Fumio; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Kenji; Hino, Okio

    2011-05-01

    A large-scale screening involving the measurement of N-ERC/mesothelin levels in blood using an ELISA system for the early diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM) was carried out in individuals with a history of employment at construction sites. Approximately 30,000 subjects were screened. Of the 80 subjects with high-risk values, one male patient was diagnosed as having MM based on a PET study and histopathology. This is the first report of the pre-clinical diagnosis of MM based on blood test screening. In addition, plasma levels of N-ERC/mesothelin may be effectively used for monitoring relapse after surgery.

  6. SDCCAG8 Interacts with RAB Effector Proteins RABEP2 and ERC1 and Is Required for Hedgehog Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airik, Rannar; Schueler, Markus; Airik, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Recessive mutations in the SDCCAG8 gene cause a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy with Bardet-Biedl syndrome-like features in humans. Our previous characterization of the orthologous Sdccag8gt/gt mouse model recapitulated the retinal-renal disease phenotypes and identified impaired DNA damage...... response signaling as an underlying disease mechanism in the kidney. However, several other phenotypic and mechanistic features of Sdccag8gt/gt mice remained unexplored. Here we show that Sdccag8gt/gt mice exhibit developmental and structural abnormalities of the skeleton and limbs, suggesting impaired...... Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Indeed, cell culture studies demonstrate the requirement of SDCCAG8 for ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. Using an affinity proteomics approach, we demonstrate that SDCCAG8 interacts with proteins of the centriolar satellites (OFD1, AZI1), of the endosomal sorting complex (RABEP2, ERC...

  7. Quality assurance and assessment of preparedness at DAE-ERCs for handling radiological emergencies in public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Murali, S.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The radiological emergencies are very rare in occurrence the mechanism to improve the preparedness can be ensured through conducting mock exercises/drills. Emergency kit comprises of adequate number of radiation monitoring equipments and PPEs required for response is kept in readiness at ERC. There is a need of training modules on radiological emergencies for all stake holders e.g. district officials, Local Police, Medical professionals and National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) to improve the knowledge and response capability. The adaptability to situations is important for ERTs based on the lessons learned from emergency at Mayapuri, Delhi. The role and responsibility of different agencies have been identified and drafted in the preparedness plan to meet the challenges during response

  8. Establishment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to detect the amino terminal secretory form of rat Erc/Mesothelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaishi, Masayuki; Kajino, Kazunori; Ikesue, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Kuwahara, Maki; Mitani, Hiroaki; Horikoshi-Sakuraba, Yuko; Segawa, Tatsuya; Kon, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Wang, Tegexibaiyin; Abe, Masaaki; Yokoyama, Masayoshi; Hino, Okio

    2007-05-01

    By representational difference analysis, we previously identified the rat Erc (Expressed in renal carcinoma) gene that was more abundantly expressed in the renal carcinoma tissues of Eker rats than in the rat normal kidney. In this study, we raised antibodies against the amino-terminal portion of the rat Erc, and demonstrated the existence of a approximately 30-kDa secretory form in the supernatant of cultured cells derived from rat renal carcinoma. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system using these antibodies detected high concentrations of this form in the sera of Eker rats bearing renal carcinomas, and in the sera of rats transplanted with mesothelioma cells. Mesothelin, a human homolog of the rat Erc, was recently reported to be a serum marker of malignant mesothelioma. The prognosis of mesothelioma is poor and there is no effective treatment at present. There are several rat model systems of mesothelioma that may be promising tools in the development of an antimesothelioma treatment. We hope our ELISA to detect the soluble form of rat Erc/Mesothelin is useful in the rat model system to exploit the antimesothelioma therapy to be used in human cases.

  9. The use of the laryngeal tube disposable (LT-D) by paramedics during out-of-hospital resuscitation-an observational study concerning ERC guidelines 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, C H R; Semmel, T; Müller, J U; Bahr, J; Ocker, H; Graf, B M

    2009-02-01

    In the current guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC), tracheal intubation, as an instrument for securing the airway during resuscitation, has become less important for persons not trained in this method. For those persons, different supraglottic airway devices are recommended by the ERC. The present investigation deals with the application of the laryngeal tube disposable (LT-D) during pre-hospital resuscitation by paramedics. During a period of 2 years (2006-2008), we registered all cardiac arrest situations in which the LT-D had been applied according to the ERC guidelines 2005. Therefore, we investigated one emergency medical system in Germany. During the defined period, 92 resuscitation attempts, recorded on standardised data sheets, were included. The LT-D was used in 46% of all cardiac arrest situations. Overall, the LT-D was successfully inserted in more than 90% of all cases on first attempt. In 95% of all cases, no problems concerning ventilation of the patient were described. As an alternative airway device recommended by the ERC in 2005, the LT-D may enable airway control rapidly and effectively. Additionally, by using the LT-D, a reduced "no-flow-time" and a better outcome may be possible.

  10. Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC) Research Agenda: Impacting Education and Changing Lives through Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Lumina Foundation, the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) has launched HACU's Hispanic Higher Education Research Collective (H3ERC). The first major task of this virtual gathering of researchers and practitioners in Hispanic higher education has been to assess the state of our knowledge of the key issues…

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis Strain ERC_G2224 Isolated from the Semen of a Lipizzaner Stallion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Catherine E; Schulman, Martin L; Howell, Peter G; Lourens, Carina W; Gouws, Johan; Joone, Christopher; Monyai, Mpho S; le Grange, Misha; Bezuidt, Oliver K I; Harper, Cindy K; Guthrie, Alan J

    2015-10-15

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We report here the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain ERC_G2224, isolated in 2015 from a semen sample collected in 1996 from a Lipizzaner stallion in South Africa. Copyright © 2015 May et al.

  12. Hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin as key biomarkers in a specific two-step model to predict pleural malignant mesothelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Mundt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is challenging. The first available diagnostic material is often an effusion and biochemical analysis of soluble markers may provide additional diagnostic information. This study aimed to establish a predictive model using biomarkers from pleural effusions, to allow early and accurate diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Effusions were collected prospectively from 190 consecutive patients at a regional referral centre. Hyaluronan, N-ERC/mesothelin, C-ERC/mesothelin, osteopontin, syndecan-1, syndecan-2, and thioredoxin were measured using ELISA and HPLC. A predictive model was generated and validated using a second prospective set of 375 effusions collected consecutively at a different referral centre. RESULTS: Biochemical markers significantly associated with mesothelioma were hyaluronan (odds ratio, 95% CI: 8.82, 4.82-20.39, N-ERC/mesothelin (4.81, 3.19-7.93, CERC/mesothelin (3.58, 2.43-5.59 and syndecan-1 (1.34, 1.03-1.77. A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin, and combining a threshold decision rule with logistic regression, yielded good discrimination with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00 in the model generation dataset and 0.83 (0.74-0.91 in the validation dataset, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin predicts mesothelioma with high specificity. This method can be performed on the first available effusion and could be a useful adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of mesothelioma.

  13. 12p13.33 microdeletion including ELKS/ERC1, a new locus associated with childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Julien; Callier, Patrick; Andrieux, Joris; Delobel, Bruno; David, Albert; Sukno, Sylvie; Minot, Delphine; Mosca Anne, Laure; Marle, Nathalie; Sanlaville, Damien; Bonnet, Marlène; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Levy, Fabienne; Gaunt, Lorraine; Farrell, Sandra; Le Caignec, Cédric; Toutain, Annick; Carmignac, Virginie; Mugneret, Francine; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Faivre, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Speech sound disorders are heterogeneous conditions, and sporadic and familial cases have been described. However, monogenic inheritance explains only a small proportion of such disorders, in particular in cases with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Deletions of Speech delay was found in all patients, which could be defined as CAS when patients had been evaluated by a speech therapist (5/9 patients). Intellectual deficiency was found in 5/9 patients only, and often associated with psychiatric manifestations of various severity. Two such deletions were inherited from an apparently healthy parent, but reevaluation revealed abnormal speech production at least in childhood, suggesting variable expressivity. The ELKS/ERC1 gene, which encodes for a synaptic factor, is found in the smallest region of overlap. These results reinforce the hypothesis that deletions of the 12p13.33 locus may be responsible for variable phenotypes including CAS associated with neurobehavioural troubles and that the presence of CAS justifies a genetic work-up.

  14. [Chest compression without ventilation during basic life support? Confirmation of the validity of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeier, U; Dirks, B; Arntz, R; Bahr, J; Goldschmidt, P; Roessler, M; Sasse, M; Toursarkissian, M

    2008-08-01

    Basic life support (BLS) refers to maintaining airway patency and supporting breathing and the circulation, without the use of equipment other than infection protection measures. The scientific advisory committee of the American Heart Association (AHA) published recommendations (online-first) on March 31 2008, which promote a call to action for bystanders who are not or not sufficiently trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and witness an adult out-of-hospital sudden collapse probably of cardiac origin. These bystanders should provide chest compression without ventilation (so-called compression-only CPR). If bystanders were previously trained and thus confident with CPR, they should decide between conventional CPR (chest compression plus ventilation at a ratio of 30:2) and chest compression alone. However, considering current evidence-based medicine and latest scientific data both the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the German Resuscitation Council (GRC) do not at present intend to change or supplement the current resuscitation guidelines "Basic life support for adults". Both organisations do not see any need for change or amendments in central European practice and continue to recommend that only those lay rescuers that are not willing or unable to give mouth-to-mouth ventilation should provide CPR solely by uninterrupted chest compressions until professional help arrives. It is also stressed that the training of young people especially teenagers as lay rescuers should be promoted and the establishment of training programs through emergency medical organizations and in schools should be encouraged.

  15. SDCCAG8 Interacts with RAB Effector Proteins RABEP2 and ERC1 and Is Required for Hedgehog Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannar Airik

    Full Text Available Recessive mutations in the SDCCAG8 gene cause a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy with Bardet-Biedl syndrome-like features in humans. Our previous characterization of the orthologous Sdccag8gt/gt mouse model recapitulated the retinal-renal disease phenotypes and identified impaired DNA damage response signaling as an underlying disease mechanism in the kidney. However, several other phenotypic and mechanistic features of Sdccag8gt/gt mice remained unexplored. Here we show that Sdccag8gt/gt mice exhibit developmental and structural abnormalities of the skeleton and limbs, suggesting impaired Hedgehog (Hh signaling. Indeed, cell culture studies demonstrate the requirement of SDCCAG8 for ciliogenesis and Hh signaling. Using an affinity proteomics approach, we demonstrate that SDCCAG8 interacts with proteins of the centriolar satellites (OFD1, AZI1, of the endosomal sorting complex (RABEP2, ERC1, and with non-muscle myosin motor proteins (MYH9, MYH10, MYH14 at the centrosome. Furthermore, we show that RABEP2 localization at the centrosome is regulated by SDCCAG8. siRNA mediated RABEP2 knockdown in hTERT-RPE1 cells leads to defective ciliogenesis, indicating a critical role for RABEP2 in this process. Together, this study identifies several centrosome-associated proteins as novel SDCCAG8 interaction partners, and provides new insights into the function of SDCCAG8 at this structure.

  16. Development of the ERC cold-cathode ion source for use on the PR-30 ion-implantation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, H.M.B.; Flemming, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The ERC cold-cathode ion source has been in routine production use on several PR-30 systems for the past three years. This source has been further developed to improve target current, lifetime, and stability. The ion-optical lens has been changed from circular to elliptical geometry in order to provide an asymmetric beam for entry into the PR-30 analyzing magnet. This measure, as well as the use of higher extraction voltages, provides higher beam currents on the PR-30 target wafers. Beam steering in the nondispersive direction has been provided to correct the effects of minor machine misalignments, further enhancing target current. The discharge chamber has been modified to increase source lifetime. A new gas-feed control system and a new method of oven temperature control have been devised to provide good source and ion beam stability. The source operates with only occasional attention by unskilled personnel, and has been used principally for boron and arsenic implants. Target currents of 1-mA boron and 4-mA arsenic can be obtained routinely. Lifetimes are of the order of 40--80 h, depending on ion species. The source has also been used to provide 5-mA phosphorus, 4-mA argon, 3-mA helium and neon, and 0.3-mA nickel and palladium ion beams

  17. Lean start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The ma...... and the final business model. In other words: The start-up must first nail the problem together with the customers, then develop the solution and test, and then in the end scale it to a full-grown business model.......The risk of launching new products and starting new firms is known to be extremely high. The Lean Start-up approach is a way of reducing these risks and enhancing the chances for success by validating the products and services in the market with customers before launching it in full scale. The main...

  18. Use of cardiocerebral resuscitation or AHA/ERC 2005 Guidelines is associated with improved survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmen, Marcus; Ewy, Gordon A; Sasson, Comilla

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the use of cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR) or AHA/ERC 2005 Resuscitation Guidelines improved patient outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) compared to older guidelines. Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases. We also hand-searched study references and consulted experts. Design: randomised controlled trials and observational studies. OHCA patients, age >17 years. 'Control' protocol versus 'Study' protocol. 'Control' protocol defined as AHA/ERC 2000 Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). 'Study' protocol defined as AHA/ERC 2005 Guidelines for CPR, or a CCR protocol. Survival to hospital discharge. High-quality or medium-quality studies, as measured by the Newcastle Ottawa Scale using predefined categories. Twelve observational studies met inclusion criteria. All the three studies using CCR demonstrated significantly improved survival compared to use of AHA 2000 Guidelines, as did five of the nine studies using AHA/ERC 2005 Guidelines. Pooled data demonstrate that use of a CCR protocol has an unadjusted OR of 2.26 (95% CI 1.64 to 3.12) for survival to hospital discharge among all cardiac arrest patients. Among witnessed ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) patients, CCR increased survival by an OR of 2.98 (95% CI 1.92 to 4.62). Studies using AHA/ERC 2005 Guidelines showed an overall trend towards increased survival, but significant heterogeneity existed among these studies. We demonstrate an association with improved survival from OHCA when CCR protocols or AHA/ERC 2005 Guidelines are compared to use of older guidelines. In the subgroup of patients with witnessed VF/VT, there was a threefold increase in OHCA survival when CCR was used. CCR appears to be a promising resuscitation protocol for Emergency Medical Services providers in increasing survival from OHCA. Future research will need to be conducted to directly compare AHA/ERC 2010

  19. Starting an aphasia center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Roberta J

    2011-08-01

    Starting an aphasia center can be an enormous challenge. This article provides initial issues to review and consider when deciding whether starting a new organization is right for you. Determining the need for the program in your community, the best size and possible affiliation for the organization, and available resources, as well as developing a business plan, marketing the program, and building awareness in the community, are some of the factors that are discussed. Specific examples related to starting the Aphasia Center of California are provided. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. ERC Radiological Glovebag Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellesen, A.L.

    1997-07-01

    This document establishes the requirements and responsibilities for the standardized methods for installation, use, and dismantlement of glovebags within the Hanford Site Environmental Contractor Radiological Glovebag Program. This document addresses the following topics: Containment selection and fabrication, Glovebag fabrication, Containment installation and inspection, General glovebag containment work practices, Emergency situations, and Containment removal

  1. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  2. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  3. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  4. Getting started with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Felicia, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Unity is written in an easy-to-follow tutorial format.""Getting Started with Unity"" is for[ 3D game developers[/color] who would like to learn how to use Unity3D and become familiar with its core features. This book is also suitable for intermediate users who would like to improve their skills. No prior knowledge of Unity3D is required.

  5. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  6. Getting started with Go

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    No, not the Chinese boardgame, the programming language that ironically Google made difficult to google for. You may have heard of Golang, and are wondering whether you should learn it. The answer is that of course you should, and this talk should explain why and point you at the best resources to get started.

  7. The renaissance starts here

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedderman, John.

    1997-01-01

    The Asian Pacific Basin region has the highest rate of growth of anywhere in the world and its need for electricity is staggering. This is leading, noted a senior Korean official speaking at the 10th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, to a ''renaissance of nuclear power'' in Asia. Judging by the optimism in evidence at the conference, perhaps it has already started. (Author)

  8. Smart Start Evaluation Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donna; Burchinal, Margaret; Buysse, Virginia; Kotch, Jonathan; Maxwell, Kelly; Neenan, Peter; Noblit, George; Orthner, Dennis; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen; Telfair, Joseph

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years of age and their families. This report describes the comprehensive plan to evaluate the state and local goals and objectives of the program, focusing on the components addressing the…

  9. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1 March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day.

  10. Getting started with UDOO

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer who wants to learn how to use UDOO to build Android applications that are capable of interacting with their surrounding environment, then this book is ideal for you. Learning UDOO is the next great step to start building your first real-world prototypes powered by the Android operating system.

  11. Starting up the upstarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J

    1997-12-20

    Venture capitalists pour $1 billion a year into health care--and that investment may be the most overlooked indicator of new business opportunities. Signs show that companies focused on consolidation and cost-cutting are off the A list for risk capital. Instead, venture capitalists are targeting start-ups that save money on the front lines by truly managing care.

  12. Getting started with Simulink

    CERN Document Server

    Zamboni, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This practical and easy-to-understand learning tutorial is one big exciting exercise for students and engineers that are always short on their schedules and want to regain some lost time with the help of Simulink.This book is aimed at students and engineers who need a quick start with Simulink. Though it's not required in order to understand how Simulink works, knowledge of physics will help the reader to understand the exercises described.

  13. Getting started with JUCE

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    his book is a fast-paced, practical guide full of step-by-step examples which are easy to follow and implement.This book is for programmers with a basic grasp of C++. The examples start at a basic level, making few assumptions beyond fundamental C++ concepts. Those without any experience with C++ should be able to follow and construct the examples, although you may need further support to understand the fundamental concepts.

  14. Getting started with Hazelcast

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Mat

    2013-01-01

    Written as a step-by-step guide, Getting Started with Hazelcast will teach you all you need to know to make your application data scalable.This book is a great introduction for Java developers, software architects, or developers looking to enable scalable and agile data within their applications. You should have programming knowledge of Java and a general familiarity with concepts like data caching and clustering.

  15. Start-up procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchl, A.; Krebs, W.D.; Aleite, W.

    1975-01-01

    The start-up procedure will be shown on a pressurized water reactor, although most of the activities will occur similarly in other reactor types. The commissioning time can be divided into 5 sections, the phases A to E together lasting 26 months. Subsequently there are a test run of one month and the handling-over of the plant to the operator. A survey of the commissioning sections with several important main events is shown. (orig./TK) [de

  16. Jump Starting Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana; Smith, Pernille; Frederiksen, Lars

    How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming an entrep......How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming...... an entrepreneur emerges before the discovery of a profitable opportunity. We empirically examine this question on the unique setting of a corporate entrepreneurship program. In the midst of a corporate crisis, Nokia supported laid-off employees to start their own ventures under favorable conditions. We...... persevered in their endeavors and eventually became comfortable with their new career prospects. We discuss the psychological factors that impact career transition after organizational closure and theorize weather they encourage or discourage entrepreneurship....

  17. Dynamics of large-scale cortical interactions at high gamma frequencies during word production: event related causality (ERC) analysis of human electrocorticography (ECoG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewska, Anna; Franaszczuk, Piotr J; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Kuś, Rafał; Crone, Nathan E

    2011-06-15

    Intracranial EEG studies in humans have shown that functional brain activation in a variety of functional-anatomic domains of human cortex is associated with an increase in power at a broad range of high gamma (>60Hz) frequencies. Although these electrophysiological responses are highly specific for the location and timing of cortical processing and in animal recordings are highly correlated with increased population firing rates, there has been little direct empirical evidence for causal interactions between different recording sites at high gamma frequencies. Such causal interactions are hypothesized to occur during cognitive tasks that activate multiple brain regions. To determine whether such causal interactions occur at high gamma frequencies and to investigate their functional significance, we used event-related causality (ERC) analysis to estimate the dynamics, directionality, and magnitude of event-related causal interactions using subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) recorded during two word production tasks: picture naming and auditory word repetition. A clinical subject who had normal hearing but was skilled in American Signed Language (ASL) provided a unique opportunity to test our hypothesis with reference to a predictable pattern of causal interactions, i.e. that language cortex interacts with different areas of sensorimotor cortex during spoken vs. signed responses. Our ERC analyses confirmed this prediction. During word production with spoken responses, perisylvian language sites had prominent causal interactions with mouth/tongue areas of motor cortex, and when responses were gestured in sign language, the most prominent interactions involved hand and arm areas of motor cortex. Furthermore, we found that the sites from which the most numerous and prominent causal interactions originated, i.e. sites with a pattern of ERC "divergence", were also sites where high gamma power increases were most prominent and where electrocortical stimulation mapping

  18. Starting a nursing consultation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, L

    1999-03-01

    Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice.

  19. En god start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    I Danmark er det muligt at afvige fra reglen om, at barnet skal starte i skole det kalenderår, hvor barnet fylder 6 år. Det gør 10-15 procent af en årgang, mens 80-90 procent af børnene følger normen, og 2-3 procent starter i skole et år tidligere end normen, viser en analyse baseret på børn født i...

  20. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  1. Getting started with Arduino

    CERN Document Server

    Banzi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that's taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here! Inside, you'll learn about: Interaction design and physical computingThe Arduino hardware and software development environmentBasics of electricity and electronicsPrototyping on a solderless breadboardDrawing a schematic diagram Getting started

  2. Getting Started with Netduino

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Start building electronics projects with Netduino, the popular open source hardware platform that's captured the imagination of makers and hobbyists worldwide. This easy-to-follow book provides the step-by-step guidance you need to experiment with Netduino and the .NET Micro Framework. Through a set of simple projects, you'll learn how to create electronic gadgets-including networked devices that communicate over TCP/IP. Along the way, hobbyists will pick up the basics of .NET programming, and programmers will discover how to work with electronics and microcontrollers. Follow the projects in

  3. Análisis de ítems y evidencias de fiabilidad de la Escala sobre Representación Cognitiva de la Enfermedad (ERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena De los Santos-Roig

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La Escala sobre Representación Cognitiva de la Enfermedad, ERCE (De los Santos-Roig, 2009 ha sido elaborada para evaluar las creencias de los pacientes sobre su enfermedad. El modelo de Sentido Común, donde se inserta el constructo, ha sido puesto a prueba en numerosas ocasiones, encontrándose evidencia sobre la importancia de la Representación Cognitiva en los procesos de adaptación a la enfermedad (Hagger y Orbell, 2003; Leventhal et al., 1997. Su medida en nuestro ámbito cultural es necesaria, tanto desde un punto de vista teórico, como desde una perspectiva aplicada. Lo que aquí se muestra es la continuación a un trabajo previo (De los Santos-Roig, 2009; De los Santos-Roig y Pérez-Meléndez, 2013 donde se concretó la definición semántica del constructo RCE y las Tablas de Especificaciones del Test y de los Ítems, que finalmente culminó con la presentación de los primeros ítems construidos. Siguiendo con lo establecido en los estándares (AERA, APA y NCME, 1999, se muestran ahora los resultados del análisis estadístico de los ítems correspondientes a las cinco escalas que componen la ERCE, así como los obtenidos sobre sus evidencias de fiabilidad. Al final, se concluye sobre la idoneidad de los ítems que conforman la escala.

  4. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  5. LEP dismantling starts

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of November, various teams have been getting stuck into dismantling the LEP accelerator and its four experiments. After making the installations safe, the dismantling and removal of 40,000 tonnes of equipment is underway. Down in the tunnel, it is a solemn moment. It is 10 o'clock on 13 December and Daniel Regin, one of those heading the dismantling work, moves in on a magnet, armed with a hydraulic machine. Surrounded by teams gathered there for a course in dismantling, he makes the first cut into LEP. The great deconstruction has begun. In little over than a year, the accelerator will have been cleared away to make room for its successor, the LHC. The start of the operation goes back to 27 November. Because before setting about the machine with hydraulic shears and monkey wrenches, LEP had first to be made safe - it was important to make sure the machine could be taken apart without risk. All the SPS beam injection systems to LEP were cut off. The fluids used for cooling the magnets and superc...

  6. An impressive start

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    This has been an excellent week for the LHC, with a succession of fills rapidly increasing the number of proton bunches to 194 per beam. This has allowed the experiments to reach a peak luminosity of 2.5 × 1032 cm-2s-1, thereby surpassing the record for 2010 where we reached 2.0 × 1032 cm-2s-1. At the time of writing, the integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2011 is around 28 inverse picobarns, which is already more than half of the total 2010 dataset.   These are impressive numbers, but what impresses me most is how quickly the LHC operators are now able to turn the machine around between fills, and how well LHC running has been incorporated into the overall operation of CERN’s accelerator complex. The flexibility of the LHC was illustrated on Thursday when we started a short phase of running at 1.38 TeV per beam, equivalent to the energy-per-nucleon of a lead-ion run. This lower energy data will be used by the experiments, in particular by ALICE, to compare...

  7. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  8. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  9. From Head Start to Sure Start: Reflections on Policy Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, John

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the history of debates over the US Head Start programme (1965), Early Head Start (1994) and the UK Sure Start initiative (1998), as a window on to policy transfer. In all the three, the aim was that early intervention could offer a means of boosting children's educational attainment and of countering the wider effects of poverty…

  10. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  11. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate at 3.0 T: Comparison of endorectal coil (ERC) MRI and phased-array coil (PAC) MRI—The impact of SNR on ADC measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaheri, Yousef; Vargas, H. Alberto; Nyman, Gregory; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Akin, Oguz; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ADC values measured from diffusion-weighted MR (DW-MR) images of the prostate obtained with both endorectal and phased-array coils (ERC + PAC) to those from DW-MRI images obtained with an eight-channel torso phased-array coil (PAC) at 3.0 T. Methods: The institutional review board issued a waiver of informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant study. Twenty-five patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent standard 3-T MRI using 2 different coil arrangements (ERC + PAC and PAC only) in the same session. DW-MRI at five b-values (0, 600, 1000, 1200, and 1500 s/mm 2 ) were acquired using both coil arrangements. On b = 0 images, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured as the ratio of the mean signal from PZ and TZ ROIs to the standard deviation from the mean signal in an artifact-free ROI in the rectum. Matching regions-of-interest (ROIs) were identified in the peripheral zone and transition zone on ERC-MRI and PAC-MRI. For each ROI, mean ADC values for all zero and non-zero b-value combinations were computed. Results: Mean SNR with ERC-MRI at PZ (66.33 ± 27.07) and TZ (32.69 ± 12.52) was 9.27 and 5.52 times higher than with PAC-MRI ((7.32 ± 2.30) and (6.13 ± 1.56), respectively) (P < 0.0001 for both). ADCs from DW-MR images obtained with all b-values in the PZ and TZ were significantly lower with PAC-MRI than with ERC-MRI (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusion: Lower SNR of DW-MR images of the prostate obtained with a PAC can significantly decrease ADC values at higher b-values compared to similar measurements obtained using the ERC. To address these requirements, clinical MR systems should have image processing capabilities which incorporate the noise distribution

  12. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  13. Research nuclear reactor start-up simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo Haro, M.; Cantero, P.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the design and FPGA implementation of a research nuclear reactor start-up simulator. Its aim is to generate a set of signals that allow replacing the neutron detector for stimulated signals, to feed the measurement electronic of the start-up channels, to check its operation, together with the start-up security logic. The simulator presented can be configured on three independent channels and adjust the shape of the output pulses. Furthermore, each channel can be configured in 'rate' mode, where you can specify the growth rate of the pulse frequency in %/s. Result and details of the implementation on FPGA of the different functional blocks are given. (author)

  14. School Starting Age and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper investigates the effects of school starting age on crime while relying on variation in school starting age induced by administrative rules; we exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in children......’s school starting age. Analyses are carried out using register-based Danish data. We find that higher age at school start lowers the propensity to commit crime, but that this reduction is caused by incapacitation while human capital accumulation is unaffected. Importantly, we also find that the individuals...

  15. Evaluación de la función renal en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) sin tratamiento sustitutorio, tras un programa de intervención nutricional (PIN): estudio aleatorizado

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán López, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    La Enfermedad Renal Crónica (ERC) se define como la disminución de la función renal, donde se reduce el filtrado glomerular (FG) estimado < 60 ml/min/1,73m2 o como la presencia de daño renal de forma persistente durante al menos tres meses. La enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) es una patología progresiva que afecta cada vez más a la población, el daño renal aumenta con el paso del tiempo, siendo su resultado el tratamiento renal sustitutivo, trasplante o incluso la muerte, el gran problema es qu...

  16. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Jeanne; Pan, Meihui; Chin, Harvey F; Lund, Frederik W; Maxfield, Frederick R; Breslow, Jan L

    2012-12-01

    STARD4, a member of the evolutionarily conserved START gene family, has been implicated in the nonvesicular intracellular transport of cholesterol. However, the direction of transport and the membranes with which this protein interacts are not clear. We present studies of STARD4 function using small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels were increased and decreased, respectively. We also observed a decrease in NPC1 protein expression, suggesting the induction of compensatory pathways to maintain cholesterol balance. These data indicate a role for STARD4 in nonvesicular transport of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment to the endoplasmic reticulum and perhaps other intracellular compartments as well.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate at 3.0 T: comparison of endorectal coil (ERC) MRI and phased-array coil (PAC) MRI-The impact of SNR on ADC measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Yousef; Vargas, H Alberto; Nyman, Gregory; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Akin, Oguz; Hricak, Hedvig

    2013-10-01

    To compare ADC values measured from diffusion-weighted MR (DW-MR) images of the prostate obtained with both endorectal and phased-array coils (ERC+PAC) to those from DW-MRI images obtained with an eight-channel torso phased-array coil (PAC) at 3.0 T. The institutional review board issued a waiver of informed consent for this HIPAA-compliant study. Twenty-five patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent standard 3-T MRI using 2 different coil arrangements (ERC+PAC and PAC only) in the same session. DW-MRI at five b-values (0, 600, 1000, 1200, and 1500 s/mm(2)) were acquired using both coil arrangements. On b=0 images, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured as the ratio of the mean signal from PZ and TZ ROIs to the standard deviation from the mean signal in an artifact-free ROI in the rectum. Matching regions-of-interest (ROIs) were identified in the peripheral zone and transition zone on ERC-MRI and PAC-MRI. For each ROI, mean ADC values for all zero and non-zero b-value combinations were computed. Mean SNR with ERC-MRI at PZ (66.33 ± 27.07) and TZ (32.69 ± 12.52) was 9.27 and 5.52 times higher than with PAC-MRI ((7.32 ± 2.30) and (6.13 ± 1.56), respectively) (PERC-MRI (PERC. To address these requirements, clinical MR systems should have image processing capabilities which incorporate the noise distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, Kinetic Study, and Biological Distribution of Iodine-125-N-[3-(4 morpholino) propyl] -N-methyl-2-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-methylbenzylamine (ERC-9): A Possible Melanoma Therapeutic Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Ghany, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study describe the labeling of N-[3-(4-morpholino) propyl] -N-methyl-2 hydroxy-5-iodo-3-methylbenzylamine (ERC-9) with iodine-125 in liquid and ill melt states .The labeling in liquid state was controlled by many factors such as the ratio of radioiodine to the molar concentration of ERC-9, This test was carried out using iodine-131 instead of iodine-125 due to high activity required, and the maximum yield of 131 I ERC-9 was obtained at 90 - 277 MBq NaI 131 to 19.9 m M of ERC-9. The labeling reaction was preceded well at ph 3,5. Acetic acid was the most suitable solvent for the labeling reaction. One mg of cuprous chloride was catalyzed the reaction and reduced the reaction time from 45 min to 20 min. The molarity of sodium hydroxide played an important role in the labeling reaction, as the labeling yield was maximum at 0,01 M NaOH. The labeling in melt state using ammonium acetate as catalyst produced 92 % radiochemical yield. The labeling in melt state was fast, easy, and done in one-step. The biological studies reflected that the tracer was lipophilic, as high liver uptake (39.4 ± 2,1 %) was observed at 1 h post injection. The tracer was excreted to some extent via the kidneys. Activation energy required for the reaction completion in the presence of cuprous chloride was 31.4 KJ/ mol when the reaction was preceded at 80 degree C for 80 min

  19. Later Start, Longer Sleep: Implications of Middle School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah A.; Princiotta, Daniel; Ryberg, Renee; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although adolescents generally get less than the recommended 9 hours of sleep per night, research and effort to delay school start times have generally focused on high schools. This study assesses the relation between school start times and sleep in middle school students while accounting for potentially confounding demographic…

  20. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  1. A Rab11A/myosin Vb/Rab11-FIP2 complex frames two late recycling steps of langerin from the ERC to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidon, Alexandre; Bardin, Sabine; Cinquin, Bertrand; Boulanger, Jerome; Waharte, François; Heliot, Laurent; de la Salle, Henri; Hanau, Daniel; Kervrann, Charles; Goud, Bruno; Salamero, Jean

    2012-06-01

    A large body of knowledge relating to the constitution of Rab GTPase/Rab effector complexes and their impact on both membrane domain organization and overall membrane trafficking has been built up in recent years. However in the context of the live cell there are still many questions that remain to be answered, such as where and when these complexes assemble and where they perform their primary function(s). We describe here the dynamic processes that take place in the final steps of the Rab11A dependent recycling pathway, in the context of the membrane platform constituted by Myosin Vb, Rab11A, and Rab11-FIP2. We first confirm that a series of previously reported observations obtained during the study of a number of trafficking cargoes also apply to langerin. Langerin is a cargo molecule that traffics through Rab11A-positive membrane domains of the endosomal recycling pathway. In order to explore the relative dynamics of this set of partners, we make extensive use of a combinatory approach of Live-FRET, fast FRAP video, fast confocal and TIRF microscopy modalities. Our data show that the Myosin Vb/Rab11A/Rab11-FIP2 platform is spatially involved in the regulation of langerin trafficking at two distinct sites within live cells, first at the sorting site in the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) where transport vesicles are formed, and subsequently, in a strict time-defined order, at the very late stage of docking/tethering and fusion of these langerin recycling vesicles to the plasma membrane. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Identifying indications for percutaneous (PTC) vs. endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)- guided "rendezvous" procedure in biliary obstruction and incomplete endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J G; Finkelmeier, F; Friedrich-Rust, M; Kronenberger, B; Trojan, J; Zeuzem, S; Sarrazin, C

    2014-10-01

    The variety of rendezvous (RV) procedures has recently been extended by EUS- and PTCD-guided procedures as a complementary means to conventional ERCP. We have identified indication criteria and the potential of biliary PTCD-guided vs. EUS-guided RV. Consecutive patients with bile duct obstruction who underwent RV were included. In all, ERCP alone was unable to achieve treatment success. Indication, technical success, and outcome in PTCD- vs. EUS-guided RV were retrospectively compared to identify criteria that indicate preference of RV technique. Site of obstruction, clinical scenario (stenosis with abscess vs. no abscess) and reason for previous failure of ERC were evaluated. In 32 patients, three different indications for RV procedures were identified: First, a one-step access to assist in failed ERCP (type 1, intra-ductal RV); second, temporary drainage for prolonged treatment of complex biliary disease (type 2, intra-ductal RV), and drainage of cholangio-abscess with re-establishing bile outflow (type 3, intra-abscess RV). Indication of PTCD- vs. EUS-guided rendezvous was competitive in type 1, but exclusive in favor of PTCD in types 2 and 3. The site of biliary obstruction indicated the anatomic location of RV procedures. This classification may help to define inclusion criteria for prospective studies on biliary RV procedures. Choice of therapeutic strategy depends on the anatomic location of the biliary obstruction and the type of the biliary lesion. PTCD-guided RV might improve outcome in cholangio-abscess. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  4. STARTing Again: What Happens After START I Expires?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Eastman, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I), a seminal arms control agreement that substantially reduced the levels of deployed strategic nuclear arms in the United States and Russia, will expire in December 2009. At this time, it is unclear what - if anything - will replace it. While the treaty remains relevant, more than a simple extension is appropriate. Instead the authors advocate for a successor regime that builds on the START I legacy but does not rely on the traditional tools of arms control. This paper examines the strategic context in which a successor regime would be developed and proposes several recommendations for future action

  5. Role of the ERC motif in the proximal part of the second intracellular loop and the C-terminal domain of the human prostaglandin F2alpha receptor (hFP-R) in G-protein coupling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathe-Neuschäfer-Rube, Andrea; Neuschäfer-Rube, Frank; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2005-05-15

    The human FP-R (F2alpha prostaglandin receptor) is a Gq-coupled heptahelical ectoreceptor, which is of significant medical interest, since it is a potential target for the treatment of glaucoma and preterm labour. On agonist exposure, it mediates an increase in intracellular inositol phosphate formation. Little is known about the structures that govern the agonist-dependent receptor activation. In other prostanoid receptors, the C-terminal domain has been inferred in the control of agonist-dependent receptor activation. A DRY motif at the beginning of the second intracellular loop is highly conserved throughout the G-protein-coupled receptor family and appears to be crucial for controlling agonist-dependent receptor activation. It is replaced by an ERC motif in the FP-R and no evidence for the relevance of this motif in ligand-dependent activation of prostanoid receptors has been provided so far. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential role of the C-terminal domain and the ERC motif in agonist-controlled intracellular signalling in FP-R mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that substitution of the acidic Glu(132) in the ERC motif by a threonine residue led to full constitutive activation, whereas truncation of the receptor's C-terminal domain led to partial constitutive activation of all three intracellular signal pathways that had previously been shown to be activated by the FP-R, i.e. inositol trisphosphate formation, focal adhesion kinase activation and T-cell factor signalling. Inositol trisphosphate formation and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation were further enhanced by ligand binding in cells expressing the truncation mutant but not the E132T (Glu132-->Thr) mutant. Thus C-terminal truncation appeared to result in a receptor with partial constitutive activation, whereas substitution of Glu132 by threonine apparently resulted in a receptor with full constitutive activity.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA(®)) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child's development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA(®) to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C(®). Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted.

  7. Start Where Your Students Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robyn R.

    2010-01-01

    Starting where your students are means understanding how currencies are negotiated and traded in the classroom. Any behavior that students use to acquire the knowledge and skills needed in the classroom functions as currency. Teachers communicate the kinds of currencies they accept in their classrooms, such as getting good grades; students do…

  8. Start-up of Rapsodie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, R.

    1967-01-01

    After giving a general description of Rapsodie this report presents the conditions in which the start-up occurred and in which the tests were carried out. A chronological account is given of the operations and of the main events which occurred. The modifications made to the reactor during this period are described and a synthesis of the results obtained is presented. (author) [fr

  9. When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illnesses and coinfections Recent HIV infection Pregnancy All pregnant women with HIV should take HIV medicines to prevent mother-to- ... protect the health of the pregnant woman. All pregnant women with HIV should start taking HIV medicines as soon as ...

  10. Head Start Center Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This guide contains suggested criteria for planning, designing, and renovating Head Start centers so that they are safe, child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally sensitive, and functional. The content is based on the U.S. General Services Administration's Child Care Center Design Guide, PBS-P140, which was intended…

  11. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  12. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  13. School start times for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes insufficient sleep in adolescents as an important public health issue that significantly affects the health and safety, as well as the academic success, of our nation's middle and high school students. Although a number of factors, including biological changes in sleep associated with puberty, lifestyle choices, and academic demands, negatively affect middle and high school students' ability to obtain sufficient sleep, the evidence strongly implicates earlier school start times (ie, before 8:30 am) as a key modifiable contributor to insufficient sleep, as well as circadian rhythm disruption, in this population. Furthermore, a substantial body of research has now demonstrated that delaying school start times is an effective countermeasure to chronic sleep loss and has a wide range of potential benefits to students with regard to physical and mental health, safety, and academic achievement. The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the efforts of school districts to optimize sleep in students and urges high schools and middle schools to aim for start times that allow students the opportunity to achieve optimal levels of sleep (8.5-9.5 hours) and to improve physical (eg, reduced obesity risk) and mental (eg, lower rates of depression) health, safety (eg, drowsy driving crashes), academic performance, and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Personality Traits and the Evaluation of Start-up Subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caliendo, M.; Künn, Steffen; M., Weißenberger,

    2016-01-01

    Many countries support business start-ups to spur economic growth and reduce unemployment with different programmes. Evaluation studies of such programmes commonly rely on the conditional independence assumption (CIA), allowing a causal interpretation of the results only if all relevant variables

  15. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  16. Starting of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotyza, V.

    1988-01-01

    The procedure is briefly characterized of jobs in nuclear power plant start-up and the differences are pointed out from those used in conventional power generation. Pressure tests are described oriented to tightness, tests of the secondary circuit and of the individual nodes and facilities. The possibility is shown of increased efficiency of such jobs on an example of the hydraulic tests of the second unit of the Dukovany nuclear power plant where the second and the third stages were combined in the so-colled integrated hydraulic test. (Z.M.). 5 figs

  17. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

  18. Predicting emergency diesel starting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBey, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy effort to extend the operational lives of commercial nuclear power plants has examined methods for predicting the performance of specific equipment. This effort focuses on performance prediction as a means for reducing equipment surveillance, maintenance, and outages. Realizing these goals will result in nuclear plants that are more reliable, have lower maintenance costs, and have longer lives. This paper describes a monitoring system that has been developed to predict starting performance in emergency diesels. A prototype system has been built and tested on an engine at Sandia National Laboratories. 2 refs

  19. The start of the harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The first major particle physics summer conference has just started this week in Grenoble. After the Quark-Matter conference, the Europhysics Conference on High-Energy Physics marks the start of a promising harvest for the LHC experiments.   For the first time, the collaborations will be presenting their latest results based on all luminosity taken until end of June, which will provide more precise measurements in many areas. Thanks to the excellent performance of the LHC, the experiments have already accumulated a substantial quantity of data allowing them to push back the known limits and refine measurements in many fields ranging from b physics to the search for the Higgs boson and for dark matter. At the time of writing, the LHC collaborations are about to present these new results in an energy range which has never previously been explored. I have congratulated all the teams involved in getting the LHC into operation in record time with great efficiency. Today I would like to acknowledge the...

  20. Density and starting-energy dependent effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Norio; Nagata, Sinobu; Kasuga, Teruo

    1979-01-01

    A new effective potential constructed from the reaction matrix calculation of nuclear matters is proposed, taking three-body effects into account. Starting from the two-body scattering equation for nuclear matters, an equation with averaged momentum is introduced as the definition of effective interaction. The parameters in the equation are the Fermi momentum and the starting energy. The nuclear density dependence and the starting energy dependence are independently treated in the potential. The effective interactions including three-body effects were calculated. The dependence on the starting energy is large. The effective interaction is more attractive in the triplet E state, and assures overall saturation without any artificial renormalization. The reaction matrix calculation can be well reproduced by the calculation with this effective potential. The results of calculation for the binding energy of He-4 and O-16 and the shell model matrix elements of O-16 are represented. (Kato, T.)

  1. 30 CFR 75.1913 - Starting aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting aid...

  2. Distributed Large Independent Sets in One Round On Bounded-independence Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Halldorsson , Magnus M.; Konrad , Christian

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a randomized one-round, single-bit messages, distributed algorithm for the maximum independent set problem in polynomially bounded-independence graphs with poly-logarithmic approximation factor. Bounded-independence graphs capture various models of wireless networks such as the unit disc graphs model and the quasi unit disc graphs model. For instance, on unit disc graphs, our achieved approximation ratio is O((log(n)/log(log(n)))^2).A starting point of our w...

  3. Starting up the Saturne synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvat, M.

    1958-02-01

    Illustrated by many drawings and graphs, this report describes and comments all operations and measurements to be performed for starting up the Saturne synchrotron until particle acceleration exclusively. The author reports the study of beam as it goes out of the Van de Graaff: experiment of position and stability of the beam axis, study of beam current and geometric characteristics (calibration of the induction probe), experiment of mass separation and proton percentage, and adjustment of regulation and Van de Graaff fall law. In a second part, he reports the optics alignment and the study of optics property (installation of the different sectors, study of inflector end voltage, and influence of inflector position in the chamber). The third part addresses the examination of phenomena associated with injection: injection method and definition of the initial instant, search for injection optimum conditions, study of particle lifetime and of phenomena on the inner probe. The fourth part proposes theoretical additional elements regarding the movement of particles at the injection in the useful area, and phenomena occurring on targets and on the inner probe

  4. START: An essential step in a new era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, D.

    1991-01-01

    After more than nine years of negotiations, the US and the Soviet Union signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in Moscow on July 31, 1991. While the world has changed dramatically since 1982 when the START negotiations began, the treaty remains very much in the US interest. START exacts deep cuts in the most destabilizing and dangerous US and Soviet strategic weapons, and will lead to substantial overall reductions in the strategic nuclear forces of both sides. Moreover, the agreement will create a formal, structured, and predictable strategic environment. It will also impose on the Soviet Union or its successors a legally binding set of obligations that will be in effect for many years, regardless of changes in leadership or form of government. START, with its extensive series of intrusive, cooperative, and technical verification measures, will greatly enhance US knowledge about Soviet strategic nuclear forces and activities. The force reductions, predictability, and transparency that START will lock in will be especially valuable if the Soviet Union breaks into independent states or if there is a resurgence of hard-line political forces in Moscow. In addition, START will provide a framework for deeper reductions that could further reduce the risk of nuclear war, stimulate an increasingly cooperative relationship between the US and the Soviet Union or its successors, and save tens of billions of dollars. Finally, by demonstrating a US and Soviet commitment to reversing the arms race, START should reinforce efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear weapons among both newly independent Soviet republics and nuclear threshold states, and to ensure success at the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) extension conference in 1995

  5. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  6. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  7. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...

  8. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  9. What Happens at the Lesson Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…

  10. Health Coordination Manual. Head Start Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    Part 1 of this manual on coordinating health care services for Head Start children provides an overview of what Head Start health staff should do to meet the medical, mental health, nutritional, and/or dental needs of Head Start children, staff, and family members. Offering examples, lists, action steps, and charts for clarification, part 2…

  11. Teaching iSTART to Understand Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Soto, Christian M.; Allen, Laura K.; Dai, Jianmin; Guerrero, Tricia A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2017-01-01

    iSTART is a web-based reading comprehension tutor. A recent translation of iSTART from English to Spanish has made the system available to a new audience. In this paper, we outline several challenges that arose during the development process, specifically focusing on the algorithms that drive the feedback. Several iSTART activities encourage…

  12. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  13. Pre-start timing information is used to set final linear speed in a C-start manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinel, Caroline; Schuster, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    In their unique hunting behaviour, archerfish use a complex motor decision to secure their prey: based solely on how dislodged prey initially falls, they select an adapted C-start manoeuvre that turns the fish right towards the point on the water surface where their prey will later land. Furthermore, they take off at a speed that is set so as to arrive in time. We show here that the C-start manoeuvre and not subsequent tail beating is necessary and sufficient for setting this adaptive level of speed. Furthermore, the C-start pattern is adjusted to independently determine both the turning angle and the take-off speed. The selection of both aspects requires no a priori information and is done based on information sampled from the onset of target motion until the C-start is launched. Fin strokes can occur right after the C-start manoeuvre but are not required to fine-tune take-off speed, but rather to maintain it. By probing the way in which the fish set their take-off speed in a wide range of conditions in which distance from the later catching point and time until impact varied widely and unpredictably, we found that the C-start manoeuvre is programmed based on pre-C-start estimates of distance and time until impact. Our study hence provides the first evidence for a C-start that is fine-tuned to produce an adaptive speed level. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  15. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty

  16. Starting a business through a franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Mahaček; Maja Martinko Lihtar

    2013-01-01

    A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may ...

  17. From START to NEW START. The dilemma and future of nuclear disarmament; Von START zu NEW START. Das Dilemma und die Zukunft der Nuklearen Abruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plettenberg, Lars

    2012-07-01

    The report describes the existing four agreements on nuclear disarmament: START I (1991). START II (1993), SORT (2002) and NEW START (2010). The chapter on the dependence between nuclear disarmament and strategic stability covers the issues mutual assured destruction (MAD), credibility, overkill capacity; the role of nuclear weapons in the national strategies of the USA and NATO, Russia, Great Britain, France, China and the other nuclear states. Ways out of MAD include disarmament, de-alerting and mutual assured protection (MAP).

  18. Opening A New Independent Pharmacy 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Elabed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Opening an independent pharmacy is a process that involves multiple components. The rationale of this project is to discuss different issues that must be investigated prior to opening a new independency pharmacy. This includes the location, structure of the corporation, start-up cost, picking a wholesaler, fulfilling state board requirements and Philadelphia requirements, having a valid license, making professional relationships, and knowing basic marketing research. Methods used include using the knowledge and expertise from an independent pharmacy owner, visiting pharmacies, and interviewing neighbors for basic marketing research. Many aspects of opening an independent pharmacy differ significantly from a retail pharmacy, as there are various issues within the pharmacy and outside the pharmacy that must be extensively researched prior to opening in order to be successful.   Type: Student Project

  19. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  20. Getting started with SBT for Scala

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Shiti

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide, Getting Started with SBT for Scala walks you through the setup of Scala projects in SBT with sample code for common as well as critical scenarios.Getting Started with SBT for Scala is for developers working on Scala projects who are interested in learning and utilizing Simple Build Tool to manage the build process.

  1. Families & the North Carolina Smart Start Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Betsy; Bryant, Donna; Zolotor, Adam

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under 6 years and their families. This study examined characteristics of families participating in Smart Start, their child care arrangements and family activities, and their need for and use of community…

  2. Start-up analysis for marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Baloff, N

    1984-01-01

    The complex start-up effect on utilization of health care services is too often overlooked or underestimated by marketing planners, leading to a range of negative consequences for both the users of services and the provider organization. Start-up analysis allows accurate estimation of these utilization effects for coordinated strategic planning among marketing finance, and operations.

  3. Head Start Impact Study. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed to provide technical detail to support the analysis and findings presented in the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2010). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Head Start Impact Study and its findings. Chapter 2 provides technical information on the…

  4. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush`s historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R&D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  5. Start 2: Thinking one move ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1991-11-01

    At their summit meeting in the spring of 1990, Presidents Bush and Gorbachev issued a joint statement expressing their intentions to continue the process of strategic arms control beyond the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was eventually signed in July 1991, toward agreement on further reductions. They set general goals for negotiation of a follow-on treaty to START, which has been called START II. President Bush's historic speech on September 27, 1991, reinforced those goals and specified several actions the US would take. It is the purpose of this report to examine possible provisions of START II and the implications of those provisions for achievement of the goals set at the 1990 summit, for verifiability, and for US force planning. This look ahead will contribute to advance planning of appropriate negotiating positions, verification research and development (R D), and force modernization and restructuring. This report describes the goals for a START II treaty and possible means for achieving them. It postulates one set of provisions for such a treaty, while it examines force structures for the US that could result from adoption of a treaty with these provisions. The adequacy of methods for verifying START II are examined and the implications of a START II treaty are postulated.

  6. Madness and sanity at the time of Indian independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev; Murthy, Pratima; Sarin, Alok

    2016-01-01

    The backdrop of the Indian Independence offers glimpses of many ‘metaphors of madness’. In this article, we explore this through a few instances, starting from 1857, around the time of the First War of Independence, to 1947, when India became an independent nation. Such metaphors have their parallels both in historical as well as in contemporary times, where instances of one man's imagination becoming another's concept of irrationality and insanity continue. PMID:28066017

  7. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  9. A Healthy Start Can Begin Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy pregnancy begins before you ever become pregnant. Give yourself the best chance for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby before you start down the road to motherhood. If you smoke, now’s a great time to quit.

  10. The physics of tokamak start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.

    2013-01-01

    Tokamak start-up on present-day devices usually relies on inductively induced voltage from a central solenoid. In some cases, inductive startup is assisted with auxiliary power from electron cyclotron radio frequency heating. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade and JT60, now under construction, will make use of the understanding gained from present-day devices to ensure successful start-up. Design of a spherical tokamak (ST) with DT capability for nuclear component testing would require an alternative to a central solenoid because the small central column in an ST has insufficient space to provide shielding for the insulators in the solenoid. Alternative start-up techniques such as induction using outer poloidal field coils, electron Bernstein wave start-up, coaxial helicity injection, and point source helicity injection have been used with success, but require demonstration of scaling to higher plasma current

  11. Start small and build toward business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sean; Robertson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To use business intelligence effectively, healthcare organizations should start small, align organizationally, and leverage success. Organizations should determine which measures they need and how to present them. Organizations should reinvest savings to continually improve.

  12. Lean Start-up in Established Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester

    2018-01-01

    Lean start-up is an emergent perspective on how entrepreneurs can bring new products and services to the market. This approach challenges the dominant role of lengthy business plans, linear product development processes, and seeking complete overview of the potential of the new products....../services before market launch. Instead it suggests that start-ups could benefit from a ‘minimum-viable product’ approach where products and services are launched when they contain critical features. The emphasis in the lean start-up approach is on business models rather than the elaborate business plan...... at the companies (strategy meetings, development workshops etc.). The aim is to shed light on the implications for companies that seek to employ lean start-up. These implications will be aimed at aspects like innovation management, organizational structure, customer relations etc....

  13. 76 FR 37174 - Capital Investment Program-New Starts and Small Starts Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Capital Investment Program--New Starts... apportionment of the FY 2011 Capital Investment (New Starts and Small Starts) program funds. The funds will be... FY 2011, $1,596,800,000 was appropriated for the Capital Investments Grant Account, which includes...

  14. START: the creation of a spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Alan

    1992-01-01

    The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) plasma fusion experiment is now operational at AEA Fusion's Culham Laboratory. It is the world's first experiment to explore an extreme limit of the tokamak - the Spherical Tokamak - which theoretical studies predict may have substantial advantages in the search for economic fusion power. The Head of the START project, describes the concept, some of the initial experimental results and the possibility of developing a spherical tokamak power reactor. (author)

  15. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    just contain a list of strings, one for each line, whereas the structure of models is defined by their meta models. There are tools available which are able to compute the diff between two models, e.g. RSA or EMF Compare. However, their diff is not model-independent, i.e. it refers to the models...

  16. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  17. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  18. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Weinstock, E.V.; Carew, J.F.; Cerbone, R.J.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  19. The impact of dry-land sprint start training on the short track speed skating start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, William B; Drinkwater, Eric J; Cicero, Nicholas J; Barthell, J Anthony; Chapman, Dale W

    2017-05-05

    This investigation sought to determine the effects of dry-land sprint start training on short track speed skating (STSS) start performance. Nine highly trained short track athletes completed a control period of normal STSS training followed by a four-week training intervention. Before and after the control and intervention periods, athletes performed three electronically timed dry-land and on-ice 14.43 m maximal sprint start efforts. The intervention consisted of two sprint sessions per week consisting of nine electronically timed 14.43 m dry-land sprint starts in addition to normal STSS training. The control period resulted in no substantial change in on-ice start performance (Mean Δ: -0.01 s, 95% Confidence Limits (CL): -0.08 to 0.05 s; Effect Size (ES): -0.05; Trivial) however, a small change was observed in dry-land start performance (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.02 s; ES: -0.49). Following brief specific dry-land sprint start training a small improvement was observed in both on-ice (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.01 s; ES: -0.33) and dry-land (Mean Δ: -0.04 s, 95% CL: -0.09 to 0.00 s; ES: -0.29) start performance. This investigation suggests STSS start performance can be improved through a brief dry-land sprint start training program.

  20. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  1. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  2. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  3. Guidelines for starting today's private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz ED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Starting a new practice may seem like a daunting task. The purpose of this article is to demystify the process of creating a new practice from the beginning. The cardinal rule is to keep costs low and not to outsource work that can easily be performed by any competent physician and staff. You do not need a manager, lawyer, business partner, coder or biller individually; you may be able to perform many of these services yourself. What you do need is a commitment to making your practice a success. Do not spend too much on your office space, furnishings or equipment. Start with the bare essentials. Immediately start applying to all insurance companies especially Medicare. Request an employer identification number. Set up a basic business banking account and submit the account number to the insurance companies you plan to work with. You can purchase an entire electronic healthcare record (EHR …

  4. Starting a business through a franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may arise. Profitable operation is possible only if this business has up-to-date products and no outstanding liabilities. This paper discusses franchising business opportunities and the requisite investments and costs, which will bring success if they are accompanied by franchisee’s efforts. The paper aims to present the main characteristics of a franchise business, the necessary investment and the costs which arise in the process, as well as advantages, disadvantages and experiences with this kind of business

  5. Smart or Diverse Start-up Teams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between cognitive abilities and team performance in a start-up setting. We argue that performance in this setting hinges on three tasks: opportunity recognition, problem solving, and implementation. We theorize that cognitive ability at the individual level has...... others can be assigned to tasks that impose a greater cognitive load (problem solving or opportunity recognition). We present the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams started up and managed real companies. We ensured exogenous variation in—otherwise random—team composition...... by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performed a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of start-up teams first increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. Strikingly, average...

  6. Realizing a desired family size: when should couples start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbema, J Dik F; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Leridon, Henri; te Velde, Egbert R

    2015-09-01

    Until what age can couples wait to start a family without compromising their chances of realizing the desired number of children? The latest female age at which a couple should start trying to become pregnant strongly depends on the importance attached to achieving a desired family size and on whether or not IVF is an acceptable option in case no natural pregnancy occurs. It is well established that the treatment-independent and treatment-dependent chances of pregnancy decline with female age. However, research on the effect of age has focused on the chance of a first pregnancy and not on realizing more than one child. An established computer simulation model of fertility, updated with recent IVF success rates, was used to simulate a cohort of 10 000 couples in order to assess the chances of realizing a one-, two- or three-child family, for different female ages at which the couple starts trying to conceive. The model uses treatment-independent pregnancy chances and pregnancy chances after IVF/ICSI. In order to focus the discussion, we single out three levels of importance that couples could attach to realizing a desired family size: (i) Very important (equated with aiming for at least a 90% success chance). (ii) Important but not at all costs (equated with a 75% success chance) (iii) Good to have children, but a life without children is also fine (equated with a 50% success chance). In order to have a chance of at least 90% to realize a one-child family, couples should start trying to conceive when the female partner is 35 years of age or younger, in case IVF is an acceptable option. For two children, the latest starting age is 31 years, and for three children 28 years. Without IVF, couples should start no later than age 32 years for a one-child family, at 27 years for a two-child family, and at 23 years for three children. When couples accept 75% or lower chances of family completion, they can start 4-11 years later. The results appeared to be robust for

  7. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  8. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  9. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  10. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  11. Two-Man Bobsled Push Start Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Alexandre Dias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of push start times on bobsled performance was evidenced by some studies, but at this moment there is no article to the authors’ knowledge that describes the bobsled push start. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the two-man bobsled push start, analyze the differences between teams, and estimate the most important variable analyzed. We hypothesized that the pilot and brakeman athletes’ movement patterns during a bobsled pushing start can be described. The images used in this study were obtained during the men’s two-man XIV World Championship of Bobsled (2004. Fifteen best teams participating in the championship were recorded, and four start runs for each team were analyzed. The videos were captured by two digital video cameras. The pilot athletes were analyzed during the moment that they touched the lateral push bar of the sled, and the brakemen were analyzed during the first take-off and first landing. The teams were pooled in three groups of five teams using the final ranking of pushing time. We concluded that there was a distinct pattern movement for pilots and brakemen. The initial position of the majority of the pilots was localized slightly behind the bar. After touching the lateral bar, the pilots remained in a semi-squat position, pushing the sled forward in a pattern of marching movement. All brakemen used the board attached to the track as a support for both feet at the start. The brakeman gave the greatest contribution to break the inertia of the sled. There was no significant difference of movement between the three groups analyzed for the pilot and the brakeman.

  12. Getting started with Microsoft Lync server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    This book has a practical approach with a lot of step-by-step guides and explanations as to where and why we're doing the various operations.Getting Started with Microsoft Lync Server 2013 is a starting point for system administrators, IT pros, unified communication technicians, and decision makers in companies or in the consultancy business. For people who have never managed Lync (or a U.C. product), the book will guide you through the basic concepts and mistakes. If you are already managing a Lync deployment you will find important explanations and ideas put together in a single text. If you

  13. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredlund, Lars [Swedish State Power Board, Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, S-430 22, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1986-02-15

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  14. Soft start technique for diesel generator sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, Lars

    1986-01-01

    A diesel motor in a nuclear power plant should be of a well-proven design. It is designed for long periods of trouble-free duty, but not for the frequent and rapid test starts called for by the technical specifications. In order to decrease the dynamic forces and thermal stresses, a soft-start scheme has been implemented. By limiting the fuel injection the diesel generator will reach full speed in appr. 30 seconds. The fuel limiter is a pneumatic cylinder which mechanically limits the travel of the terminal shaft of the governor. (author)

  15. The Lean and Global Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    For several decades researchers have studied start-up companies with a focus on international markets, suppliers and networks from their inception and on companies that are establishing new, agile business models. This has resulted in two streams of research: The Born Global and International New...... Ventures research and research with a focus on the Lean Start-up company. It is our intention in this paper to give a short presentation of the two research streams and show how they can be merged into one with a focus on newly established technology oriented firms that are lean and global from...

  16. Entrepreneur How to Start an Online Business

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The secrets of the UK’s biggest online entrepreneurs revealed   Thinking of starting a business? Already have a business online and looking to take it to the next level? The wonderful world wide web has made creating a start-up that much easier. Thousands of people are out there reaping the rewards the web can bring. If you want to join them, you’ve come to the right place.  Profiling today’s foremost web entrepreneurs, Lucy Tobin - who meets successful business founders every week writing an enterprise column for The Evening Standard – takes us throug

  17. From START to NEW START. The dilemma and future of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettenberg, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The report describes the existing four agreements on nuclear disarmament: START I (1991). START II (1993), SORT (2002) and NEW START (2010). The chapter on the dependence between nuclear disarmament and strategic stability covers the issues mutual assured destruction (MAD), credibility, overkill capacity; the role of nuclear weapons in the national strategies of the USA and NATO, Russia, Great Britain, France, China and the other nuclear states. Ways out of MAD include disarmament, de-alerting and mutual assured protection (MAP).

  18. Radioactive starting aids for electrodeless light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proud, J.M.; Regan, R.J.; Haugsjaa, P.O.; Baird, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive sources of α particles, β particles or γ rays as aids in starting a discharge in an electrodeless light source is discussed. The advantages of siting the sources at various positions in the device are discussed. Preferred materials are 85 Kr and 241 Am. (U.K.)

  19. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  20. START to Get Ready for Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breastfeeding is a great way to give your baby the nutrients he or she needs to grow and develop. Breastfeeding also can help you and your baby form a special bond. Breastfeeding can be good for both of you if you know where to S-T-A-R-T.

  1. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop automobile starting and lighting system maintenance training manual for technical college students. Research and Development (R and D) design was adopted for the study. The population of the study is 348, comprising of 76 auto-mechanics teachers, 36 automobile supervisors and ...

  2. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  3. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  4. From Jam to Start-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Kjæhr, Emil; Lyngbye Hvid Jensen, Jane; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    the foundation for new start-up companies. There are, however, an even larger group of very creative and innovative games and artifacts with great potential that go unpublished. This potentially leads to a loss of entrepreneurial opportunities and ultimately the jobs and careers such games could have fostered...

  5. An Overview of Head Start Program Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jeanne Morris

    2017-01-01

    Johnson's "War on Poverty" administrative team campaigned for committee members to join the War on Poverty efforts to create and develop programs for children born into poverty (Zigler, 2003). Poverty based programs, such as the Head Start program, continue to put into place proactive measures to increase preschooler's cognitive…

  6. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  7. Getting started with Magento module development

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzele, Branko

    2013-01-01

    This project-based tutorial gives you a strong foundation and guides you through practical, real-world examples.This book contains valuable insights for both newbies and already established Magento developers. This book is targeted at new and intermediate PHP developers starting afresh with Magento module development.

  8. Getting started with OrientDB

    CERN Document Server

    Tesoriero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial aimed at making you an OrientDB expert, through the use of practical examples, explained in a step-by-step format.Getting Started with OrientDB 1.3.0 is great for database designers, developers, and systems engineers. It is assumed that you are familiar with NoSQL concepts, Java, and networking principles.

  9. An Alternative Starting Point for Fraction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, José Luis; Višnovská, Jana; Zúñiga, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the results of a study conducted for the purpose of assessing the viability of an alternative starting point for teaching fractions. The alternative is based on Freudenthal's insights about fraction as comparison. It involves portraying the entities that unit fractions quantify as always being apart from the reference unit, instead of…

  10. Evaluation of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Anne K.; McFarlane, Elizabeth C.; Windham, Amy M.; Rohde, Charles A.; Salkever, David S.; Fuddy, Loretta; Rosenberg, Leon A.; Buchbinder, Sharon B.; Sia, Calvin C. J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Hawaii's Healthy Start Program (HST), its ongoing evaluation study, and evaluation findings at the end of two of a planned three years of family-program participation and follow-up. HST uses home visitors to help prevent abusive and neglectful parenting. Found significant differences in program implementation among the three…

  11. Starting Up after 50. CELCEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Nicole

    Researchers are finding that older entrepreneurs are an increasing population in many Western countries. It is important to distinguish between entrepreneurs who have simply reached the age of 50 versus those who start up businesses after this age. The latter group is of particular interest because these people have presumably never faced the…

  12. Starting Small, Thinking Big - Continuum Magazine | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Thinking Big Stories NREL Helps Agencies Target New Federal Sustainability Goals Student Engagements Help solar power in the territory. Photo by Don Buchanan, VIEO Starting Small, Thinking Big NREL helps have used these actions to optimize that energy use.'" NREL's cross-organizational work supports

  13. 76 FR 70009 - Head Start Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... importance of the early years of a child's growth and development. On December 12, 2007, the Improving Head... education, serving nearly one million of our nation's most vulnerable young children and their families. It... Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Part 1307 Head Start Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register...

  14. A diagrammatic construction of formal E-independent model hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnicka, V.

    1977-01-01

    A diagrammatic construction of formal E-independent model interaction (i.e., without second-quantization formalism) is suggested. The construction starts from the quasi-degenerate Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory, in the framework of which an E-dependent model Hamiltonian is simply constructed. Applying the ''E-removing'' procedure to this E-dependent model Hamiltonian, the E-independent formal model Hamiltonian either Hermitian or non-Hermitian can diagrammatically be easily derived. For the formal E-independent model Hamiltonian the separability theorem is proved, which can be profitably used for a rather ''formalistic ''construction of a many-body E-independent model Hamiltonian

  15. African entrepreneurs: An analysis of their motivation for starting their own business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Mitchell

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the motivation of entrepreneurs for starting a business.  More specifically, it aims to identify whether entrepreneurs have common  motives for starting their own business, and whether men and women have  different reasons for becoming entrepreneurs. A motivation scale and openended  questions were used to measure motivation on a sample of more than 100  entrepreneurs. The results of a factor analysis indicate that entrepreneurs have  various reasons for starting a business, and are primarily motivated by the needs  for independence, material incentives and achievement.

  16. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present...... article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  17. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  18. ERC Maintenance Implementation Plan for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquero, R.C.

    1997-05-01

    The inactive and surplus facilities assigned to the Environmental Restoration Contractor are shut down and have no operating production processes or production materials except for residual contamination. There is a minimal number of operating systems to support surveillance and maintenance or decontamination and decommissioning activities (D ampersand D). These systems may include heating and ventilation, air conditioning, lighting, and other electrical systems. Inactive and surplus facilities will be subject to periodic long-term surveillance to ensure the integrity of structures until D ampersand D. D ampersand D projects are of relatively short duration and end with all systems deactivated. Therefore, a rigorous in-depth maintenance program such as that required for producing nuclear facilities is not required or cost effective

  19. ERC Workshop on Geometric Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Novaga, Matteo; Valdinoci, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    This book is the outcome of a conference held at the Centro De Giorgi of the Scuola Normale of Pisa in September 2012. The aim of the conference was to discuss recent results on nonlinear partial differential equations, and more specifically geometric evolutions and reaction-diffusion equations. Particular attention was paid to self-similar solutions, such as solitons and travelling waves, asymptotic behaviour, formation of singularities and qualitative properties of solutions. These problems arise in many models from Physics, Biology, Image Processing and Applied Mathematics in general, and have attracted a lot of attention in recent years.

  20. 45 CFR 1308.21 - Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... into Head Start and from Head Start to public school. 1308.21 Section 1308.21 Public Welfare... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START... Standards § 1308.21 Parent participation and transition of children into Head Start and from Head Start to...

  1. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  2. Software for physical start-up console

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbet, L.; Suchy, R.

    1991-01-01

    The physical start-up console comprises an PC AT-based control unit equipped with an 80386 processor, and information input/output units. The basic functions to be fulfilled by the control unit software include data acquisition related to the following parameters: neutron physics properties of the reactor core (neutron fluxes recorded by ionization chambers and reactivity recorded by a digital reactimeter), positions of the reactor core control elements (by the digital position meter) and reactor core control measurements, and technological quantities requisite for evaluating physical start-up tests. The measured and calculated data are shown on the control unit display. The setup of the data acquisition system and of user programs is dealt with, and characteristics of the user processes are briefly described. (Z.S.)

  3. Secondary Circuit Start Up Chemistry Optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontan, Guillaume; Morel, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    In a context of investment and renewal of equipment, Electricite De France (EDF) put enhanced efforts on operating practices during start-up of the secondary circuit, in order to improve operational performance and materials lifetime. This article focuses on the objective of optimizing the filling, the chemical conditioning and the thermal conditioning of the secondary fluid, while taking into account the following issues: - Limiting the time required to obtain a proper chemistry, - Limiting the amount of water and steam used, - Limiting the amount of effluent generated. The scope is all start-up conditions of secondary circuit, both after refuelling outage or fortuitous shutdowns of the plant. The recommendations produced are based on existing local procedures and good practices, which were collected and developed in order to propose a generic methodology understandable and useful both for operators, chemists and managers. (authors)

  4. Single start multiple stop time digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, P.A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A single start multiple stop time digitizer has been developed which can digitize the time between a start pulse and multiple stop pulses. The system has been designed as a PC add on card. The resolution of the instrument is 10 nSecs and the maximum length of time that it can measure is 1.28 milliseconds. Apart from time digitization, it can also resolve the height of the incoming pulses into 64 levels. After each input pulse the system dead time is less than 300 nSecs. The driver software for this card has been developed on DOS platform. It uses graphical user interface to provide a user friendly environment. The system is intended to be used in time of flight mass spectroscopy experiments. It can also be used for time of flight experiments in nuclear physics. (author). 2 figs

  5. Lean and global technology start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the concept of Lean Global Start-up (LGS) as a way of emphasizing the impossibility for new technology start-ups to deal separately with business development, innovation and early internationalization. For a newly established technology firm the task of being...... global and innovative at the same time should be seen as one process. The paper has two components – an introductory conceptual part and an empirical part that should be considered as basis for the preliminary validation of the conceptual insights. The research sample includes six firms – three from...... Canada and three from Denmark. The firms have had significant problems with the complexity, uncertainties and risks of being innovative on a global scale. They have however found ways of addressing these problems by a disciplined knowledge sharing and IP protection strategy and the efficient use...

  6. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Gregory M.; Dudar, Aed M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  7. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  8. Getting started with MariaDB

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on, beginner-friendly guide to installing and using MariaDB.Getting Started with MariaDB is for anyone who wants to learn more about databases in general or MariaDB in particular. No prior database experience is required. It is assumed that you have basic knowledge of software installation, editing files with a text editor, and using the command line and terminal.

  9. The 2002 Starting Artificial Intelligence Researchers Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    During the 2002 European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI-02) was introduced the Starting Artificial Intelligence Researchers Symposium STAIRS), the first-ever international symposium specifically aimed at Ph.D. students in AI. The outcome was a thorough, high-quality, and successful event, with all the features one usually finds in the best international conferences: large international committees, comprehensive coverage, published proceedings, renowned speakers and panelists, sub...

  10. The rotating converter GKN II starts operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jergas, E.

    1989-01-01

    At the beginning of 1989 the energy supply and consumption of the 110-kV-railway mains has changed considerably with starting the rotating converter of the German Federal Railways (DB) in the joint nuclear power station Neckar GmbH (GKN) block II. A description is given of the planned utilization of the rotating converters at baseload operation and possibilities for optimal energy use are shown. (orig.) [de

  11. Business Models for Start up Business

    OpenAIRE

    Boban, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    Gamingdom is a new start up venture that provides online gaming service utilising the latest cloud computing technology. The high demand, popularity and exponential growth in the number of gaming enthusiasts and the market have brought about this innovative idea. This new venture aims to provide an easy method of gaming through the internet without heavy expenses on hardware and software and also minimising the existing high rate of piracy. A business model is an essential tool for buildin...

  12. New Start of “Psychological Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The history and the mission of Psychological Thought are presented. The scientific journal “Psychological Thought” started its existence as an idea of the colleagues at the Department of Psychology at South-West University “Neofit Rilski” in 2006. Seven print issues were published from 2006 to 2009 (2 issues per year. Each issue included average ten articles published in Bulgarian or in English.

  13. Getting started with nopCommerce

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.

  14. Starting and developing a surveying business

    CERN Document Server

    Imber, Austen

    2013-01-01

    Starting and Developing a Surveying Business shows how surveyors can develop their own successful small business. For surveyors thinking of taking this step, guidance is provided on the pros and cons which will help the right decision to be made, and the key factors which help see the business through its early stages. For surveyors already running their own small business, consideration is given to factors which will help profitability and growth potential.

  15. A Fast-Starting Robotic Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya; Watts, Matthew; Conte, Joe; Hover, Franz; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2009-11-01

    We have built a simple mechanical system to emulate the fast-start performance of fish. The system consisted of a thin metal beam covered by a urethane rubber fish body. The body form of the mechanical fish in this work was modeled from a pike species, which is the most successfully studied fast-start specialist species. The mechanical fish was held in curvature and hung in water by two restraining lines, which were simultaneously released by pneumatic cutting mechanisms. The potential energy in the beam was transferred into the fluid, thereby accelerating the fish, similar to a pike. We measured the resulting velocity and acceleration, as well as the efficiency of propulsion for the mechanical fish model and also ran a series of flow visualization tests to observe the resulting flow pattern. We also studied the influence of stiffness and geometry of the tail on the efficiency of propulsion and flow pattern. The hydrodynamic efficiency of the fish, calculated by the transfer of energy, was around 10%. Flow visualization of the mechanical fast-start wake was also analyzed, showing that the acceleration is associated with the fast movement of an intense vortex in a near-lateral direction.

  16. Method of starting up PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadokami, Akira; Ueno, Ryuji; Tsuge, Ayao; Onimura, Kichiro; Ochi, Tatsuya.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To start-up a PWR type reactor so as to effectively impregnate and concentrate corrosion inhibitors in intergranular corrosive faces. Method: Upon reactor start-up, after transferring from the warm zero output state to thermal power loaded state and injecting corrosion inhibitors, thermal power is returned to zero and, subsequently, increased up to a rated power. By selecting the thermal power upon injecting the corrosion inhibitors to a steam generator body, that is, by selecting a thermal power load that starts to boil in heat conduction tubes, feedwater in the clavis portion can be formed into an appropriate boiling convection and, accordingly, the corrosion inhibitors can be penetrated to the clevis portion at a higher rate and in a greater amount as compared with those under zero power condition. Subsequently, when the thermal power is reduced, a sub-cooled state is attained in the clevis portion, in which steams present in the intergranular corrosion faces in the heat conduction tubes are condensated. As a result, the corrosion inhibitors at high concentration are impregnated into the intergranular corrosive faces to provide excellent effects. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Exercise starts and ends in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Bengt

    2003-10-01

    Classically the limit to endurance of exercise is explained in terms of metabolic capacity. Cardio-respiratory capacity and muscle fatigue are thought to set the limit and the majority of studies on factors limiting endurance exercise discuss issues such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), aerobic enzyme capacity, cardiac output, glycogen stores, etc. However, this paradigm does not explain the limitation to endurance exercise with large muscle groups at altitude, when at exhaustion exercise is ended without limb locomotor muscle fatigue and with sub-maximal cardiac output. A simple fact provides a basis for an explanation. Voluntary exercise starts and ends in the brain. It starts with spatial and temporal recruitment of motor units and ends with their de-recruitment. A conscious decision precedes a voluntary effort. The end of effort is again volitional and a forced conscious decision to stop precedes it, but it is unknown what forces the off-switch of recruitment at exhaustion although sensation of exertion certainly plays a role. An alternative model explaining the limitation of exercise endurance thus proposes that the central nervous system integrates input from various sources all related to the exercise and limits the intensity and duration of recruitment of limb skeletal muscle to prevent jeopardizing the integrity of the organism. This model acknowledges the cardio-respiratory and muscle metabolic capacities as prime actors on the performance scene, while crediting the central nervous system for its pivotal role as the ultimate site where exercise starts and ends.

  18. Key parameters of the swimming start and their relationship to start performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tor, Elaine; Pease, David L; Ball, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    The swimming start is typically broken into three sub-phases; on-block, flight, and underwater phases. While overall start performance is highly important to elite swimming, the contribution of each phase and important technical components within each phase, particularly with the new kick-start technique, has not been established. The aim of this study was to identify technical factors associated with overall start performance, with a particular focus on the underwater phase. A number of parameters were calculated from 52 starts performed by elite freestyle and butterfly swimmers. These parameters were split into above-water and underwater groupings, before factor analysis was used to reduce parameter numbers for multiple regression. For the above-water phases, 81% of variance in start performance was accounted for by take-off horizontal velocity. For the underwater water phase, 96% of variance was accounted for with time underwater in descent, time underwater in ascent and time to 10 m. Therefore, developing greater take-off horizontal velocity and focussing on the underwater phase by finding the ideal trajectory will lead to improved start performance.

  19. 46 CFR 112.50-7 - Compressed air starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed air starting. 112.50-7 Section 112.50-7... air starting. A compressed air starting system must meet the following: (a) The starting, charging... air compressors addressed in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. (b) The compressed air starting...

  20. Starting a New Language Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Early years and primary teachers have a unique opportunity to apply their strong teaching practices, classroom management and understanding of childhood literacy development to teaching a language. This paper reports on a project from Independent Schools Queensland to increase language programs in schools by retraining classroom teachers.…

  1. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  2. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  3. PPARγ-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Hogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic lung inflammation is associated with numerous important disease pathologies including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and silicosis. Lung fibroblasts are a novel and important target of anti-inflammatory therapy, as they orchestrate, respond to, and amplify inflammatory cascades and are the key cell in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ligands are small molecules that induce anti-inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues. Here, we report for the first time that PPARγ ligands have potent anti-inflammatory effects on human lung fibroblasts. 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxoolean-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 inhibit production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin (PGE2 in primary human lung fibroblasts stimulated with either IL-1β or silica. The anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules are not blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and thus are largely PPARγ independent. However, they are dependent on the presence of an electrophilic carbon. CDDO and 15d-PGJ2, but not rosiglitazone, inhibited NF-κB activity. These results demonstrate that CDDO and 15d-PGJ2 are potent attenuators of proinflammatory responses in lung fibroblasts and suggest that these molecules should be explored as the basis for novel, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies in the lung and other organs.

  4. START: an advanced radiation therapy information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, A; Valentini, V; Balducci, M; Mantello, G

    1996-01-01

    START is an advanced radiation therapy information system (RTIS) which connects direct information technology present in the devices with indirect information technology for clinical, administrative, information management integrated with the hospital information system (HIS). The following objectives are pursued: to support decision making in treatment planning and functional and information integration with the rest of the hospital; to enhance organizational efficiency of a Radiation Therapy Department; to facilitate the statistical evaluation of clinical data and managerial performance assessment; to ensure the safety and confidentiality of used data. For its development a working method based on the involvement of all operators of the Radiation Therapy Department, was applied. Its introduction in the work activity was gradual, trying to reuse and integrate the existing information applications. The START information flow identifies four major phases: admission, visit of admission, planning, therapy. The system main functionalities available to the radiotherapist are: clinical history/medical report linking function; folder function; planning function; tracking function; electronic mail and banner function; statistical function; management function. Functions available to the radiotherapy technician are: the room daily list function; management function: to the nurse the following functions are available: patient directing function; management function. START is a departmental client (pc-windows)-server (unix) developed on an integrated database of all information of interest (clinical, organizational and administrative) coherent with the standard and with a modular architecture which can evolve with additional functionalities in subsequent times. For a more thorough evaluation of its impact on the daily activity of a radiation therapy facility, a prolonged clinical validation is in progress.

  5. Getting started with Zurb Foundation 4

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The book starts with the basics of Foundation and helps you build your skills as you advance from installation to design, configuration, and customization with examples at every step.This book will be of great benefit to web architects, designers, and builders. While it helps to be a programmer, it isn't necessary for this book. You should be familiar with the basic principles of responsive web design and have a desire to create a professional website that looks great on both mobile devices and regular displays.

  6. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  7. Getting started with FortiGate

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Rosato

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial that will teach you everything you need to know about the deployment and management of FortiGate, including high availability, complex routing, various kinds of VPN working, user authentication, security rules and controls on applications, and mail and Internet access.This book is intended for network administrators, security managers, and IT pros. It is a great starting point if you have to administer or configure a FortiGate unit, especially if you have no previous experience. For people that have never managed a FortiGate unit, the book helpfully walks t

  8. Getting started with the Lazarus IDE

    CERN Document Server

    Person, Roderick

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a simple, easy-to-understand format with lots of screenshots and step-by-step explanations.This book is geared toward developers that have a familiarity with Delphi or Free Pascal and would like to start using the open source Lazarus Integrated Development Environment. You should have knowledge of creating a console and GUI applications as well as creating basic components. Example source code and projects are provided to help learn the differences between Delphi and Lazarus projects.

  9. Participation in testing and start up operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Y.S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Testing and start up operations of a nuclear power plant require careful planning. A detailed program of tests and the responsibility of implementing them is discussed. Requirement of documentation covering the tests and operating procedures is explained. The performance of the system during normal and abnomal operating conditions is analysed and required are modifications carried out. Various phases of commissioning and their significance are explained. Preparation of maintenance documentation and training of operating and maintenance staff during this period are discussed. Necessity of close liaison between the regulatory body and the operating organization is explained. (orig.) [de

  10. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...... all the six relevant greenhouse gases or only CO2 should be traded. What is the simplest and most practicable solution? We argue in favour of the latter option for three main reasons: the possible dominating global warming potential of CO2, expected future developments in CO2 emissions and the fact...

  11. Start-up tests of NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    Start up tests of the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) were carried out from June 25 to August 15, 1975. The course of tests is in three stage, i.e. critical approach and zero power, power-up and pulse operation. Performance of the reactor was shown to be in good agreement with the design specifications in both steady-state and pulse operations. Test procedures and the results are presented in four parts: (I) general, (II) zero-power tests, (III) power-up tests, and (IV) pulse operation tests. (auth.)

  12. Particle Physics at the LHC Start

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    2011-01-01

    I present a concise review of the major issues and challenges in particle physics at the start of the LHC era. After a brief overview of the Standard Model and of QCD, I will focus on the electroweak symmetry breaking problem which plays a central role in particle physics today. The Higgs sector of the minimal Standard Model is so far just a mere conjecture that needs to be verified or discarded by the LHC. Probably the reality is more complicated. I will summarize the motivation for new physics that should accompany or even replace the Higgs discovery and a number of its possible forms that could be revealed by the LHC.

  13. Getting started with ownCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Patawari, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    This is a standard, precise, and short tutorial for setting up ownCloud and includes advanced topics like encryption, user management, and server security. This ownCloud book would be an ideal starting point for anyone who wants to store their data and also share it.This book is for first time users as well as administrators who are interested or responsible for managing an ownCloud instance. You do not need any prior experience with any of the technology, including Linux/Windows, Apache/IIS, SQLite/MySQL, or even PHP. It is a beginner-friendly book, written with a first time user in mind.

  14. Starting a Chinese Sauce Company in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Bing; Shi, Jianan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis is about starting-up a Chinese sauce company in Helsinki. The introduction is about the history of Laoganma company and the missions of a branch company in Helsinki, as well as the aims of the project. The part about market research includes the current situation of Finnish sauce market and a SWOT analysis for a Finnish market entrance. Also, a successful case reflects the developed way for the company. Then, the price and location are defined in the thesis. Sales strategi...

  15. Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Arnie

    2009-01-01

    Learn fundamental Web design principles and become comfortable working in Dreamweaver's complex interface! Dreamweaver 8 is a great Web design tool for pros, but newcomers may be overwhelmed by its interface or want to know more about how to work creatively and intelligently in the program. Help is at hand in Take Control of Getting Started with Dreamweaver, which offers a detailed tutorial for making your first site in Dreamweaver. Author Arnie Keller, who teaches Web design at the University of Victoria, shows you how to style type the smart way with CSS, create a sophisticated page layout

  16. Commonwealth of (Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  17. ORGANIZING THE MUSIC CLASSES IN STARTING SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Tagiltseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of children preparation for school in so called starting schools. In author’s opinion, the arts disciplines such as music, drawing and choreography can develop the aesthetic sense, moral qualities, more optimistic world outlook and respectful  attitude; the child develops creative skills and beauty perception both in fine arts and wild life.The author looks at the problems of planning and organizing the music training of preschool children, the different requirements for and concepts of the preschool and primary school normative documents being analyzed. The paper substantiates the effectiveness of poly-artistic and activity approaches to the split-level teaching, in particular – the method of projecting the familiar actions onto some sort of artistic activities. Based on the succession of preschool and primary school training, the author specifies the goals of music classes in starting schools, and outlines the most relevant game activities of role plays, didactic plays and contests.The paper is addressed to preschool and primary school teachers, music teachers, as well as methodologists and researchers dealing with preschool teaching. 

  18. LHC Report: Rocky re-start

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Holzer for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    A rocky re-start with beam followed a successful machine development period and the first technical stop of 2012. Today, Friday 11 May, the machine began running again with 1380 bunches.   A short, two-day machine development period was successfully completed on 21-22 April. It focused on topics relevant for the 2012 physics beam operation. This was then followed by a five-day technical stop, the first of the year. The technical stop finished on time on Friday 26 April. The re-start with beam was somewhat tortuous and hampered by an unlucky succession of technical faults leading to extended periods of downtime. The planned intensity increase was put on hold for three days with the machine operating with 1092 bunches and a moderate bunch intensity of 1.3x1011 protons. This delivered a reasonable peak luminosity of 3.6x1033 cm-2s-1 to ATLAS and CMS. Higher than usual beam losses were observed in the ramp and squeeze, and time was required to investigate the causes and to implement mitigati...

  19. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Inadvertent pump start with gas expansion modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.; Harris, R.A.; Heard, F.J.; Dautel, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Previous testing demonstrated the effectiveness of gas expansion modules (GEMs) in mitigating the consequences of a loss-of-flow-without-scram transient in Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)-sized sodium cooled cores. As a result, GEMs have been included in the advance liquid-metal reactor (PRISM) design project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The PRISM design is under review at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for licensability. In the unlikely event that the reactor does not scram during a loss of low, the GEMs quickly insert sufficient negative reactivity to limit fuel and cladding temperatures to acceptable values. This is the positive benefit of the GEMs; however, the reverse situation must be considered. A primary pump could be inadvertently started from near-critical conditions resulting in a positive reactivity insertion and a power transient. One mitigating aspect of this event is that as the reactivity associated with the GEMs is inserted, the increasing flow increases core cooling. A test was conducted in the FFTF to demonstrate that the GEM and feedback reactivity are well predicted following pump start, and the reactivity transient is benign

  1. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  2. Giving start-ups a helping hand

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The French-Swiss foundation for research and technology (FFSRT) joined forces with CERN to organise an information day on setting up new businesses, at the Globe of Science and Innovation. The participants heard talks by entrepreneurs who started out at CERN, sharing their experiences and difficulties.CERN is a hot-bed of high-tech skills and know-how, and the Organization works actively to transfer this expertise to society. Some such innovations can lead to new business start-ups, but it can be extremely difficult to obtain the information and support you need to find your way through the inevitable administrative labyrinth. By opening its doors to the Fondation franco-suisse pour la recherche et la technologie (FFSRT) and hosting this "Entrepreneurial Day" on 7 March, CERN has clearly flagged its desire to assist budding entrepreneurs. The day was jointly kicked off by Olga Hooft, General Manager of the FFSRT, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN’s Se...

  3. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining......Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...

  4. Factors Associated with Unplanned Dialysis Starts in Patients followed by Nephrologists: A Retropective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Antoine Brown

    Full Text Available The number of patients starting dialysis is increasing world wide. Unplanned dialysis starts (patients urgently starting dialysis in hospital is associated with increased costs and high morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for starting dialysis urgently in hospital have not been well studied. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for unplanned dialysis starts in patients followed in a multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease (CKD clinic. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 649 advanced CKD patients followed in a multidisciplinary CKD clinic at a tertiary care hospital from January 01, 2010 to April 30, 2013. Patients were classified as unplanned start (in hospital or elective start. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with unplanned dialysis initiation. 184 patients (28.4% initiated dialysis, of which 76 patients (41.3% initiated dialysis in an unplanned fashion and 108 (58.7% starting electively. Unplanned start patients were more likely to have diabetes (68.4% versus 51.9%; p = 0.04, CAD (42.1% versus 24.1%; p = 0.02, congestive heart failure (36.8% versus 17.6%; p = 0.01, and were less likely to receive modality education (64.5% vs 89.8%; p < 0.01 or be assessed by a surgeon for access creation (40.8% vesrus 78.7% p < 0.01. On multivariable analysis, higher body mass index (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02, 1.13, and a history of congestive heart failure (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.09, 5.41 were independently associated with an unplanned start. Unplanned dialysis initiation is common among advanced CKD patients, even if they are followed in a multidisciplinary chronic kidney disease clinic. Timely education and access creation in patients at risk may lead to lower costs and less morbidity and mortality.

  5. High Time Resolution Measurements of VOCs from Vehicle Cold Starts: The Air Toxic Cold Start Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Huangfu, Y.; Vanderschelden, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Pollutants emitted during motor vehicle cold starts, especially in winter in some climates, is a significant source of winter time air pollution. While data exist for CO, NO, and total hydrocarbon emissions from federal testing procedures for vehicle emission certification, little is known about the emission rates of individual volatile organic compounds, in particular the air toxics benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde. Little is known about the VOC speciation and temperature dependence for cold starts. The US EPA vehicle emission model MOVES assumes that cold start emissions have the same speciation profile as running emissions. We examined this assumption by measuring cold start exhaust composition for 4 vehicles fueled with E10 gasoline over a temperature range of -4°C to 10°C in winter of 2015. The extra cold start emissions were determined by comparison with emissions during engine idling. In addition to CO and NOx measurements a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer was used to measure formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and C2-alkylbenzenes at high time resolution to compare with the cold start emission speciation profiles used in the EPA MOVES2014 model. The results show that after the vehicle was started, CO mixing ratios can reach a few percent of the exhaust and then drop to several ppmv within 2 minutes of idling, while NOx showed different temporal behaviors among the four vehicles. VOCs displayed elevated levels during cold start and the peak mixing ratios can be two orders higher than idling phase levels. Molar emission ratios relative to toluene were used to compare with the emission ratio used in MOVES2014 and we found the formaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratio was about 0.19, which is 5 times higher than the emission ratio used in MOVES2014 and the acetaldehyde-to-toluene emission ratios were 0.86-0.89, which is 8 times higher than the ones in MOVES2014. The C2-alkylbenzene-to-toluene ratio agreed well with moves. Our results

  6. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  7. Start of the international tokamak physics activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter comprises a summary on the start of the International Tokamak Physics activity (ITPA) by Dr. D. Campbell, Chair of the ITPA Co-ordinating Committee. As the ITER EDA drew to a close, it became clear that it was desirable to establish a new mechanism in order to promote the continued development of the physics basis for burning plasma experiments and to preserve the invaluable collaborations between the major international fusion communities which had been established through the ITER physics expert groups. As a result of the discussions of the representatives of the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States the agreed principles for conducting the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) were elaborated and ITPA topical physics groups were organized

  8. Getting started with LevelDB

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The book is a concise guide for using LevelDB. It explains database concepts and the use of C++, ranging from the basics all the way to high level topics in an easy to follow, step-by-step format.The book is meant for developers who want an embedded database for their applications. Experienced programmers can pick up on the sophisticated data mapping patterns and tuning tips.Getting Started with LevelDB requires a minimal background in programming in C++ or Objective-C for OS/X or iOS and familiarity with XCode. Therefore it teaches enough C++ to use LevelDB without presuming any C++ knowledge

  9. [How to start a neuroimaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumoto, Jin

    2012-06-01

    In order to help researchers understand how to start a neuroimaging study, several tips are described in this paper. These include 1) Choice of an imaging modality, 2) Statistical method, and 3) Interpretation of the results. 1) There are several imaging modalities available in clinical research. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality are described. 2) Statistical Parametric Mapping, which is the most common statistical software for neuroimaging analysis, is described in terms of parameter setting in normalization and level of significance. 3) In the discussion section, the region which shows a significant difference between patients and normal controls should be discussed in relation to the neurophysiology of the disease, making reference to previous reports from neuroimaging studies in normal controls, lesion studies and animal studies. A typical pattern of discussion is described.

  10. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  11. Re-starting an Arnoldi iteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehoucq, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Arnoldi iteration is an efficient procedure for approximating a subset of the eigensystem of a large sparse n x n matrix A. The iteration produces a partial orthogonal reduction of A into an upper Hessenberg matrix H{sub m} of order m. The eigenvalues of this small matrix H{sub m} are used to approximate a subset of the eigenvalues of the large matrix A. The eigenvalues of H{sub m} improve as estimates to those of A as m increases. Unfortunately, so does the cost and storage of the reduction. The idea of re-starting the Arnoldi iteration is motivated by the prohibitive cost associated with building a large factorization.

  12. Signal-dependent independent component analysis by tunable mother wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyung Ho

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the standard independent component analysis when applied to real-world signals. Independent component analysis starts from the assumption that signals from different physical sources are statistically independent. But real-world signals such as EEG, ECG, MEG, and fMRI signals are not statistically independent perfectly. By definition, standard independent component analysis algorithms are not able to estimate statistically dependent sources, that is, when the assumption of independence does not hold. Therefore before independent component analysis, some preprocessing stage is needed. This paper started from simple intuition that wavelet transformed source signals by 'well-tuned' mother wavelet will be simplified sufficiently, and then the source separation will show better results. By the correlation coefficient method, the tuning process between source signal and tunable mother wavelet was executed. Gamma component of raw EEG signal was set to target signal, and wavelet transform was executed by tuned mother wavelet and standard mother wavelets. Simulation results by these wavelets was shown

  13. Monitoring Start of Season in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Dubayah, R.; Sparrow, E.; Levine, E.

    2006-12-01

    In biomes that have distinct winter seasons, start of spring phenological events, specifically timing of budburst and green-up of leaves, coincides with transpiration. Seasons leave annual signatures that reflect the dynamic nature of the hydrologic cycle and link the different spheres of the Earth system. This paper evaluates whether continuity between AVHRR and MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring land surface phenology, specifically start of season (SOS), in Alaska. Additionally, two thresholds, one based on NDVI and the other on accumulated growing degree-days (GDD), are compared to determine which most accurately predicts SOS for Fairbanks. Ratio of maximum greenness at SOS was computed from biweekly AVHRR and MODIS composites for 2001 through 2004 for Anchorage and Fairbanks regions. SOS dates were determined from annual green-up observations made by GLOBE students. Results showed that different processing as well as spectral characteristics of each sensor restrict continuity between the two datasets. MODIS values were consistently higher and had less inter-annual variability during the height of the growing season than corresponding AVHRR values. Furthermore, a threshold of 131-175 accumulated GDD was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to AVHRR and MODIS datasets. The NDVI threshold was developed from biweekly AVHRR composites from 1982 through 2004 and corresponding annual green-up observations at University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF). The GDD threshold was developed from 20+ years of historic daily mean air temperature data and the same green-up observations. SOS dates computed with the GDD threshold most closely resembled actual green-up dates observed by GLOBE students and UAF researchers. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska.

  14. Hydrogen energy network start-up scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingartner, S.; Ellerbrock, H.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrogen is widely discussed as future fuel and energy storage medium either to replace conventional fuels for automobiles, aircrafts and ships or to avoid the necessity of bulky battery systems for electricity storage, especially in connection with solar power systems. These discussions however started more than 25 years ago and up to now hydrogen has failed to achieve a major break-through towards wider application as energy storage medium in civil markets. The main reason is that other fuels are cheaper and very well implemented in our daily life. A study has been performed at Deutsche Aerospace in order to evaluate the boundary conditions, either political or economical, which would give hydrogen the necessary push, i.e. advantage over conventional fuels. The main goal of this study was to identify critical influence factors and specific start-up scenarios which would allow an economical and practically realistic use of hydrogen as fuel and energy medium in certain niche markets outside the space industry. Method and major results of this study are presented in detail in the paper. Certain niche markets could be identified, where with little initial governmental support, either by funding, tax laws or legislation, hydrogen can compete with conventional fuels. This however requires a scenario where a lot of small actions have to be taken by a high variety of institutions and industries which today are not interconnected with each other, i.e. it requires a new cooperative and proactive network between e.g. energy utilities, car industries, those who have a sound experience with hydrogen (space industry, chemical industry) and last, but certainly not the least, the government. Based on the developed scenario precise recommendations are drawn as conclusions

  15. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping...

  16. Application of intelligent soft start in asynchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue; Ye, Ying; Wang, Yuelong; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Suying

    2018-05-01

    The starting way of three phase asynchronous motor has full voltage start and step-down start. Direct starting brings large current impact, causing excessive local temperature to the power grid and larger starting torque will also impact the motor equipment and affect the service life of the motor. Aim at the problem of large current and torque caused by start-up, an intelligent soft starter is proposed. Through the application of intelligent soft start on asynchronous motor, highlights its application advantage in motor control.

  17. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, D.S.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Ponce, D.M.; Young, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H - current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Measurement of starting characteristics of a remote area Darrieus wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freere, P. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Moller, C.; Jespersen, R. [Danish Technical University, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A 17 kW Darrieus was constructed as a remote area power supply for an independent community outside Melbourne, Australia. After languishing for several years it was reconditioned, but found not to start at wind speeds up to 12 m/s. Therefore, the turbine was modelled by driving it with an electric motor at various rotational speeds over a range of wind speeds. Thus it was possible to measure the turbine starting characteristics, thereby indicating reasons for the turbine's lack of performance. (author)

  19. Device for the nuclear reactor automatic start-up and power control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, B.N.; Volkov, A.V.; Ogon'kov, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    A description and flowsheet of a reactor start-up and power-control automatic device containing no nonlinear elements with a relay characteristic are presented. The device consists of two independent channels for measuring the physical power and time (period) constant of the reactor. Requirements for the device are considered, based on the condition of a minimum permissible number of a servomechanism operations due to fluctuations of an input signal which appear because of the statistical nature of processes taking place in the reactor. It is noted that the threshold amplifier used in the device allows a considerable decrease of the reactor start-up time

  20. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  1. Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad [General Field Engineer, Halliburton Energy Services 719 Hangar Dr, New Iberia, LA 70560, United States of America (United States); Sharif, Muhammad A R; Baker, John, E-mail: abdelraouf.em@gmail.com, E-mail: msharif@eng.ua.edu, E-mail: john.baker@eng.ua.edu [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, United States of America (United States)

    2017-04-15

    A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies. (paper)

  2. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.utin@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Fabritsiev, Sergey [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Koenig, Werner [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Prebeck, Markus [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Privalova, Elena [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ranzinger, Franz [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Savrukhin, Petr [Russian Federation ITER Domestic Agency, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schiller, Thomas [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  3. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utin, Yuri; Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James; Fabritsiev, Sergey; Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio; Koenig, Werner; Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny; Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc; Prebeck, Markus; Privalova, Elena; Ranzinger, Franz; Savrukhin, Petr; Schiller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  4. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  5. Independent component analysis: recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Hyv?rinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in th...

  6. Nuclear power: time to start again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezak, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents data which support the construction and operating successes enjoyed by energy companies that operate nuclear power plants in the US. The result is that the US nuclear industry is alive and well. Perhaps it's time to start anew the building of nuclear power plants. Over 20% of the electricity generated in the United States comes from nuclear power plants. An adequate, reliable supply of reasonably priced electric energy is not a consequence of an expanding economy and gross national product; it is an absolute necessity before such expansion can occur. It is hard to imagine any aspect of our business or personal lives not, in some way, dependent upon electricity. All over the world (in over 30 countries) nuclear power is a low-cost, secure, safe, dependable, and environmentally friendly form of electric power generation. Nuclear plants in these countries are built in six to eight years using technology developed in the US, with good performance and safety records. This treatise addresses the success experienced by the US nuclear industry over the last 40 years, and makes the case that this reliable, cost-competitive source of electric power can help support the economic engine of the country and help prevent experiences like the recent crises in California and the Northeast. Successful operation of nuclear facilities is determined by examining capacity or load factors. Load factor is the percentage of design generating capacity that a power plant actually produces over the course of a year's operation. This paper makes the case that these operating performance indicators warrant renewed consideration of the nuclear option. Usage of electricity in the US now approaches total generating capacity. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has pre-approved construction and operating licenses for several nuclear plant designs. State public service commissions are beginning to understand that dramatic reform is required. The economy is recovering and inflation

  7. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  8. On independence in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    The term 'independence' is a common key word used by almost all stake holders in the field of nuclear safety regulation. The intention is to persuade the public that it can have more confidence and trust in the persons in charge, if their competence and judgment cannot be altered by any kind of political issue or personal interest. However, it is possible to discuss the reality of this claimed quality: how is it possible to verify that the organization that claim 'independence' really respect it? National expertise Institutions can show that they are independent from the industry, but can they claim total independence from the government? NGO have build a large part of their constituency on 'independence' from industry and governments, but are they independent from the ideological forces -sometimes very powerful - that support them? How can we achieve to make this noble word really meaningful? We will show through different examples, that 'independence' is by definition a fragile and versatile challenge, rather than a durable label. It has to be refreshed regularly and thoroughly. Risk communication, in that context, must respect principles which will build independence as a solid asset, and keep a certain distance with mere marketing purposes or candid wishful thinking

  9. Antargaz: 1. independent French LPG marketer; Antargaz: 1. destributeur francais independant de GPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    Francois Varagne, recently appointed President and General Manager of Antargaz, displayed on 12 April in Paris the configuration and the ambitions of the company. A major player on the French LPG market, Antargaz makes today a new start. On the basis of its 744 000 tonnes (around 400 millions gallons) sold in 2000, Antargaz ranks as the second LPG distributor in France with a share of some 24%. Antargaz is now the first independent marketer in France, ahead of the other French independent actors: Primagaz France (around 20% of the market) and Vitogaz (some 3.5%). Thus, key factors changed in the French LPG sector. If we except marketers under 5%, there were last year one large independent (Primagaz) and three LPG marketers linked to refiners: Butagaz (as Shell affiliate + BP's French LPG output), Elf Antargaz (as Elf Aquitaine's affiliate) and Totalgaz (as TotalFina's affiliate). Today, again without counting marketers under 5%, there are two LPG marketers linked to refiners (Butagaz and Totalgaz) and two large independents. Antargaz's strategy is focused on existing markets as well as new ones and new applications: in the domestic and commercial sectors, in industry, auto-gas, mains distribution, in the leisure sector, in agriculture. It has also a role to play in Europe.

  10. Desenvolvimento da dimensão educacional dos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa (CEPs Desarrollo de la dimensión educacional de los Comités de Ética en Investigación (CEPs Development of the educational dimension of ethics of research committees (ERCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Silva Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    66,7% de los investigadores participantes tuvieron alguna aproximación ética en su trayectoria académica. Estos datos indican que los CEIs necesitan mayor apoyo institucional e inversión para la consolidación de su dimensión educativo-consultiva.The importance of the educational and consulting nature of ethics of research committees (ERCs highlights the value of research which studies these dimensions in the committees. Aims: to analyze how ERCs have carried out their educational and consulting role; to learn whether advisors have some training in research ethics; to identify whether researchers had guidance about research ethics in their academic career. This is a quantitative and descriptive study approved by CEP/UESB under protocol 134/2009, carried out with 95 informants and analyzed by Software Sphinx. According to data obtained, nearly 71.5% research participants consider educational and consulting activities carried out by ERC infrequent or lacking; 60% participants have some ethical training in their academic career. These data show that ERCs need greater institutional support and funding in order to consolidate their educational-consulting dimension.

  11. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  12. Technological start of T-15 tokamak. The start-up diagnostic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notkin, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    The T-15 tokamak with superconducting toroidal winding reached the technological start-up phase. The results of the first operating tests of the main tokamak components are reported. Due to improper function of both the vacuum and the cryogenic system, the nominal parameters of the vacuum and of the toroidal magnetic field have not been achieved. The non-optimum vacuum conditions made the discharge start-up difficult even when a pre-ionizing electron beam and a gyrotron generator were used. The pre-discharge plasma parametes were studied by means of a limited set of plasma diagnostic apparatus. Due to substantially deteriorated vacuum conditions, it was not possible to repeat the only one successful discharge with a current of 100 kA, lasting for 50 ms. (J.U.)

  13. Quantifying climate risk - the starting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairweather, Helen; Luo, Qunying; Liu, De Li; Wiles, Perry

    2007-01-01

    Full text: All natural systems have evolved to their current state as a result inter alia of the climate in which they developed. Similarly, man-made systems (such as agricultural production) have developed to suit the climate experienced over the last 100 or so years. The capacity of different systems to adapt to changes in climate that are outside those that have been experienced previously is largely unknown. This results in considerable uncertainty when predicting climate change impacts. However, it is possible to quantify the relative probabilities of a range of potential impacts of climate change. Quantifying current climate risks is an effective starting point for analysing the probable impacts of future climate change and guiding the selection of appropriate adaptation strategies. For a farming system to be viable within the current climate, its profitability must be sustained and, therefore, possible adaptation strategies need to be tested for continued viability in a changed climate. The methodology outlined in this paper examines historical patterns of key climate variables (rainfall and temperature) across the season and their influence on the productivity of wheat growing in NSW. This analysis is used to identify the time of year that the system is most vulnerable to climate variation, within the constraints of the current climate. Wheat yield is used as a measure of productivity, which is also assumed to be a surrogate for profitability. A time series of wheat yields is sorted into ascending order and categorised into five percentile groupings (i.e. 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th percentiles) for each shire across NSW (-100 years). Five time series of climate data (which are aggregated daily data from the years in each percentile) are analysed to determine the period that provides the greatest climate risk to the production system. Once this period has been determined, this risk is quantified in terms of the degree of separation of the time series

  14. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  15. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  16. A simple and effective method to achieve the successful start-up of a current reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lei; Zhang Xiaoxing; Dai Yujie; Lü Yingjie; Wang Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Start-up design is a critical issue in current reference as it is very closely related to production yield. However, its function is difficult to predict using normal transaction simulations before the device is put into diffusion. In this paper, we discuss a simple and effective simulation approach which ensures a successful start-up process in a self-biased temperature independent current reference. The circuit is implemented in a class-D power amplifier with a 0.35 μm BiCMOS process and the experimental result validates that, by using this method, the start-up success rate can be greatly improved to 100%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Creating regional consensus for starting school later: a physician-driven approach in southern Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tracey Ann; Indorf, Christopher; Klak, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    In April 2016, several contiguous school districts and an independent high school academy in southern Maine voted simultaneously to start school later, beginning with the 2016-17 academic year. They became Maine's first school districts to implement the American Academy of Pediatrics' 1 and the American Medical Association's 2 health policy recommendations that middle and high schools should not start before 8:30 AM. Local physicians' presentations to school staff and parents on the medical evidence of the health benefits of a later start solidified early consensus. The action required special permission from the Maine Municipal Association to hold a joint school board vote, impacted approximately 6500 students across the region, resulted in no increase in busing costs, and took 8 months to implement after the first formal school board discussions. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multigenerational Head Start Participation: An Unexpected Marker of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Elise

    2018-01-01

    One-quarter of the Head Start population has a mother who participated in the program as a child. This study uses experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data on 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 2,849) to describe multigenerational Head Start families and their program experiences. In sharp contrast to full-sample HSIS findings, Head Start has large,…

  19. Enhancing start performance in the sport of skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    A fast start is considered to be crucial in skeleton with marginal gains in start performance perceived to make meaningful improvements to overall chances of success. Currently, knowledge surrounding the underlying determinants of start performance is sparse and training practices are based on limited scientific evidence. A series of investigations were conducted to advance this understanding.Initial observations revealed similarities between dry-land push-starts and those on ice tracks. Howe...

  20. Making a Simple Self-Starting Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok-In; Choi, Jung-In; Hong, Seok-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    A simple electric motor has a problem in that the current applied to the motor per se can rarely trigger its rotation. Usually such motors begin to rotate after the rotor is slightly turned by hand (i.e., manual starting). In a "self-starting" motor, the rotor starts to rotate spontaneously as soon as the current is applied. This paper describes…

  1. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Head Start programs provide poor children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Each year, programs are required to submit a Program Information Report (PIR) to the Office of Head Start on participating children, pregnant women, and families, as well as the staff serving the Head Start population. In 2013, the…

  2. The Role of Classroom Quality in Explaining Head Start Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Maia C.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Morris, Pamela A.; Page, Lindsay C.; Feller, Avi

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to answer the following question: Are impacts on Head Start classroom quality associated with impacts of Head Start on children's learning and development? This study employs a variety of descriptive and quasi-experimental methods to explore the role of classroom quality as a mediator or mechanism of Head Start impacts. This…

  3. Do Head Start Impacts Vary by Neighborhood Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Connors, Maia C.; McCoy, Dana Charles; Gomez, Celia J.; Yoshikawa, Hiro; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    This paper capitalizes on the addition of geocodes for Head Start centers in which children were randomly assigned to address questions about the role of neighborhood characteristics in moderating impacts of assignment to the Head Start program. Researchers explore the extent to which impacts of assignment to Head Start on outcomes for children…

  4. Head Start Instructional Professionals' Inclusion Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…

  5. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  6. Experience in the Kola NPP start-up works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S.I.; Omel'chuk, V.V.; Bodrukhin, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    Main stages and peculiar features of maintenance and start-up works at WWER-440 type reactor NPPs described. Remarks revealed during complex equipment testing, physical and power start-up will be useful for arrangement of maintenance and start-up works at newly built NPPs

  7. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with

  8. Soft-Starting Power-Factor Motor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phase power-factor controller with soft start is based on earlier version that does not control starting transients. Additional components serve to turn off "run" command signal and substitute gradual startup command signal during preset startup interval. Improved controller reduces large current surge that usually accompanies starting. Controller applies power smoothly, without causing motor vibrations.

  9. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipped with automatic chokes shall be operated according to the instructions in the manufacturer's... transmission shall be placed in gear 15 seconds after the engine is started. If necessary, braking may be... starting procedure, the engine (automatic and manual choke engines) shall be started by opening the...

  10. Considerations in Starting Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J. C. S.; Morgan, G.; Hamburg, S.; Winickoff, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many have called for climate engineering research because the growing risks of climate change and the geopolitical and national security risks of climate remediation technologies are real. As the topic of climate engineering remains highly controversial, national funding agencies should evaluate even modest outdoor climate engineering research proposals with respect to societal, legal, and risk considerations in making a decision to fund or not to fund. These concerns will be extremely difficult to coordinate internationally if they are not first considered successfully on a national basis. Assessment of a suite of proposed research projects with respect to these considerations indicates we would learn valuable lessons about how to govern research by initiating a few exemplar projects. The first time an issue arrives it can be very helpful if it there are specific cases, not a broad class of projects. A good first case should be defensible and understandable, fit within the general mandate of existing research programs, have negligible physical risk, small physical scale and short duration. By focusing on a specific case, the discussion can be held with limits and help to establish some track record in dealing with a controversial subject and developing a process for assigning appropriate scrutiny and outreach. Even at an early stage, with low risk, small-scale experiments, obtaining broad-based advice will aid in dealing with the controversies. An independent advisory body can provide guidance about a wide spectrum of physical and social risks of funding the experiment compared to societal benefit of gaining understanding. Clearly identifying the research as climate engineering research avoids sending research down a path that might violate public trust and provide an important opportunity to grow governance and public engagement at an early stage. Climate engineering research should be seen in the context of all approaches to dealing with the climate problem

  11. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C; Prevedel, R; Klimek, P

    2010-01-01

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  12. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  13. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  14. Independent production and Poisson distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The well-known statement of factorization of inclusive cross-sections in case of independent production of particles (or clusters, jets etc.) and the conclusion of Poisson distribution over their multiplicity arising from it do not follow from the probability theory in any way. Using accurately the theorem of the product of independent probabilities, quite different equations are obtained and no consequences relative to multiplicity distributions are obtained. 11 refs

  15. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Administration (FTA) to publish policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation...

  16. Entrepreneurial Attitudes: Comparing Independent Business’ Owners with Franchisees

    OpenAIRE

    João Bento Oliveira; Patricia Peghini; Juliana Moro Bueno Mendonça; Andre Carlos Martins Menck

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify opportunities is the force behind thousands of small and medium enterprises, contributing to the improvement of social and economic performance of a country. The choice between starting an independent business or becoming franchisee seems to depend on different behaviors and attitudes of the entrepreneur. This research aims verify, based on entrepreneurial behavioral characteristics and the theory of planned behavior, whether there are differences in the degree of entr...

  17. Ten common mistakes to avoid as an independent consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, M L

    1997-01-01

    1. Enthusiasm, dedication, and hard work will not guarantee success as an independent consultant. 2. Careful market research, selecting a venture that promises clients and profit, should be the basis for deciding to start a consultant business, not just enthusiasm and emotional drive. 3. Business management practices of developing a business plan, careful price setting, and managing cash flow are essential for business survival. 4. Legal considerations, including the form of the business, contracts, and essential recordkeeping, must not be overlooked.

  18. Impact of delaying school start time on adolescent sleep, mood, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Belon, Katherine; Moss, Patricia

    2010-07-01

    To examine the impact of a 30-minute delay in school start time on adolescents' sleep, mood, and behavior. Participants completed the online retrospective Sleep Habits Survey before and after a change in school start time. An independent high school in Rhode Island. Students (n = 201) in grades 9 through 12. Intervention Institution of a delay in school start time from 8 to 8:30 am. Sleep patterns and behavior, daytime sleepiness, mood, data from the Health Center, and absences/tardies. After the start time delay, mean school night sleep duration increased by 45 minutes, and average bedtime advanced by 18 minutes (95% confidence interval, 7-29 minutes [t(423) = 3.36; P students getting less than 7 hours of sleep decreased by 79.4%, and those reporting at least 8 hours of sleep increased from 16.4% to 54.7%. Students reported significantly more satisfaction with sleep and experienced improved motivation. Daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depressed mood were all reduced. Most health-related variables, including Health Center visits for fatigue-related complaints, and class attendance also improved. A modest delay in school start time was associated with significant improvements in measures of adolescent alertness, mood, and health. The results of this study support the potential benefits of adjusting school schedules to adolescents' sleep needs, circadian rhythm, and developmental stage.

  19. Are the new starting block facilities beneficial for backstroke start performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Abraldes, J Arturo; Medeiros, Alexandre Igor Araripe; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the handgrip positioning and the wedge effects on the backstroke start performance and technique. Ten swimmers completed randomly eight 15 m backstroke starts (four with hands on highest horizontal and four on vertical handgrip) performed with and without wedge. One surface and one underwater camera recorded kinematic data. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used. Handgrip positioning did not affect kinematics with and without wedge use. Handgrips horizontally positioned and feet over wedge displayed greater knee angular velocity than without it (SMD = -0.82; 95% CI: -1.56, -0.08). Hands vertically positioned and feet over wedge presented greater take-off angle (SMD = -0.81; 95% CI: -1.55, -0.07), centre of mass (CM) vertical positioning at first water contact (SMD = -0.97; 95% CI: -1.87, -0.07) and CM vertical velocity at CM immersion (SMD = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.08, 1.98) when comparing without wedge use. Swimmers extended the hip previous to the knee and ankle joints, except for the variant with hands vertically positioned without wedge (SMD = 0.75; 95% CI: -0.03, 1.53). Swimmers should preserve biomechanical advantages achieved during flight with variant with hands vertically positioned and wedge throughout entry and underwater phase.

  20. The role of independent inspection in verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerste, W.

    1982-01-01

    Independent inspection has its origin in the early Middle Ages, when kings prescribed to textile manufacturers a quality control by authorized inspectors. Independent inspection became more important with respect to the safety of workers in the industrial era beginning in the 18th century, when the high-pressure steam engines were introduced and many accidents and explosions of steam boilers occurred. Nowadays, independent inspection is of utmost importance, because the safety of the public is endangered by industrial plants located near highly populated areas. To better understand the role of independent inspection, the paper reviews its historical development in Europe from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. Most of the independent inspection associations in European countries were established after the second half of the 19th century and began with the surveillance of steam boilers. Nowadays, organizations like the TUEVs (Technical Inspection Agencies) in the Federal Republic of Germany perform expertise and inspection on behalf of the government in various fields of industrial safety. To show how independent inspection is involved in quality assurance, the methods practised in the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany are compared and future trends discussed. For developing countries starting with nuclear energy, it is important to consider the information and recommendations regarding independent inspection and its regulation as laid down in a number of publications in the IAEA NUSS Programme. (author)

  1. Later school start time is associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boergers, Julie; Gable, Christopher J; Owens, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insufficient sleep is a growing concern among adolescents and is associated with a host of adverse health consequences. Early school start times may be an environmental contributor to this problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a delay in school start time on sleep patterns, sleepiness, mood, and health-related outcomes. Boarding students (n = 197, mean age = 15.6 yr) attending an independent high school completed the School Sleep Habits Survey before and after the school start time was experimentally delayed from 8:00 a.m. to 8:25 a.m. The delay in school start time was associated with a significant (29 min) increase in sleep duration on school nights. The percentage of students receiving 8 or more hours of sleep on a school night increased to more than double, from 18% to 44%. Students in 9th and 10th grade and those with lower baseline sleep amounts were more likely to report improvements in sleep duration after the schedule change. Daytime sleepiness, depressed mood, and caffeine use were all significantly reduced after the delay in school start time. Sleep duration reverted to baseline levels when the original (earlier) school start time was reinstituted. A modest (25 min) delay in school start time was associated with significant improvements in sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, mood, and caffeine use. These findings have important implications for public policy and add to research suggesting the health benefits of modifying school schedules to more closely align with adolescents' circadian rhythms and sleep needs.

  2. Understanding start-up problems in yeast glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overal, Gosse B; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J; Hulshof, Josephus; Planqué, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Yeast glycolysis has been the focus of research for decades, yet a number of dynamical aspects of yeast glycolysis remain poorly understood at present. If nutrients are scarce, yeast will provide its catabolic and energetic needs with other pathways, but the enzymes catalysing upper glycolytic fluxes are still expressed. We conjecture that this overexpression facilitates the rapid transition to glycolysis in case of a sudden increase in nutrient concentration. However, if starved yeast is presented with abundant glucose, it can enter into an imbalanced state where glycolytic intermediates keep accumulating, leading to arrested growth and cell death. The bistability between regularly functioning and imbalanced phenotypes has been shown to depend on redox balance. We shed new light on these phenomena with a mathematical analysis of an ordinary differential equation model, including NADH to account for the redox balance. In order to gain qualitative insight, most of the analysis is parameter-free, i.e., without assigning a numerical value to any of the parameters. The model has a subtle bifurcation at the switch between an inviable equilibrium state and stable flux through glycolysis. This switch occurs if the ratio between the flux through upper glycolysis and ATP consumption rate of the cell exceeds a fixed threshold. If the enzymes of upper glycolysis would be barely expressed, our model predicts that there will be no glycolytic flux, even if external glucose would be at growth-permissable levels. The existence of the imbalanced state can be found for certain parameter conditions independent of the mentioned bifurcation. The parameter-free analysis proved too complex to directly gain insight into the imbalanced states, but the starting point of a branch of imbalanced states can be shown to exist in detail. Moreover, the analysis offers the key ingredients necessary for successful numerical continuation, which highlight the existence of this bistability and the

  3. Food Independence of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Vladimirovich Tyutyunik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with such basic definitions as food security, food independence and food self- sufficiency of the region. The author shows the ambiguity problem of interpretations of these terms in the Russian legislation, which is especially evident in the transition from the national to the regional level. Using the example of legislative acts of some of the Russian Federation’s subjects the study demonstrates the incorrect use of mentioned terms. In author’s opinion, regional authorities in the Russian Federation must introduce amendments to the legislative documents concerning food security. To be more concrete, the regional authorities should either deny the goal of food independence for a particular region, or specify that the goal of reaching food independence for the region does not mean food self-sufficiency, but just import substitution on the regional level

  4. Modelling ohmic confinement experiments on the START tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    Ohmic confinement data from the tight aspect ratio tokamak START has been analysed using the ASTRA transport simulation code. Neoclassical expressions have been modified to describe tight aspect ratio configurations, and the comparison between START data and models of anomalous transport has been made quantitative using the standard χ 2 test from statistics. Four confinement models (T11, Rebut-Lallia-Watkins, Lackner-Gottardi, and Taroni et al's Bohm model) have been compared with the START data. Three of the models are found to simulate START's electron temperature data moderately well, while Taroni et al's Bohm model overestimates electron temperatures in START by an order of magnitude. Thus comparison with START data tends to discriminate against Bohm models; these models are pessimistic or ITER. (author)

  5. Sleep, sleepiness and school start times: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Donn; Bijwadia, Jagdeep; Schilling, Dana; Applebaugh, Gwendolyn

    2003-01-01

    High school students are reported to be excessively sleepy, resulting in decreased academic performance, increased psycho-social problems and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from accidents. Early school start times have been noted to contribute to this problem. This report attempts to confirm the relationship of early school start times with decreased sleep and increased sleepiness. We examined sophomore and junior students in 2 local high schools with different start times and measured the amount of time slept and sleepiness. We found that students at the early start school reported reduced sleep time and more sleepiness than their counterparts at the later starting school. Early school start times are associated with student reports of less sleep and increased sleepiness. Further studies in larger groups are recommended in view of the potential significant impact of sleep deprivation in this age group.

  6. Linking Environmental Orientation to Start-ups’ Networking Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickel, Petra; Ritter, Thomas

    Besides for-profit start-ups, an increasing number of firms start their existence with the purpose to “do good” for society – mirrored in an increasing academic discussion of sustainable firms. Yet, there is little research on the networking activities of start-ups that do not have profit...... generation as their primary focus. Addressing this research gap, we develop hypotheses on the different networking activities of environmentally oriented start-ups arguing that their societal focus has a positive impact on the frequency of their networking and the size of their network. For empirically...... investigating such networking differences, we use data from 179 technology-based start-ups and show that start-ups with a strong external environmental orientation have significantly higher networking frequency and build larger networks. On the contrary, strong internal environmental orientation is linked...

  7. Start-up simulations of the PULSAR pulsed tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    Start-up conditions are examined for a pulsed tokamak reactor that uses only inductively driven plasma current (and bootstrap current). A zero-dimensional (profile-averaged) model containing plasma power and particle balance equations is used to study several aspects of plasma start-up, including: (1) optimization of the start-up pathway; (2) tradeoffs of auxiliary start-up heating power versus start-up time; (3) volt-second consumption; (4) thermal stability of the operating point; (5) estimates of the diverter heat flux and temperature during the start-up transient; (6) the sensitivity of the available operating space to allowed values of the H confinement factor; and (7) partial-power operations

  8. Start up testing for the secure automated fabrication line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, E.W.; Benson, E.M.; Dahl, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The secure automated fabrication (SAF) line is a remotely operated, liquid metal reactor fuel fabrication process being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy. All process and control equipment is installed and start up testing has been initiated. Start up testing is comprised of five phases, each incorporating higher degrees of equipment integration, automation, and remote control. Testing methodology for SAF line start up is described in this report

  9. How to Start Growing Beef Calves on Feed

    OpenAIRE

    ZoBell, Dale R

    2003-01-01

    Starting calves on feed takes time and effort because of the stress young calves are susceptible to at this point in their lives. The reduction of stress will result in calves consuming more feed, thus remaining healthier. To successfully start calves on feed, dry matter intake must be maximized while minimizing health problems. The following is a 5-step applied method for starting calves on a silage-based ration.

  10. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landersø, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise...... to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting age lowers the propensity to commit crime at young ages. We also find effects on the number of crimes...

  11. De-escalatory confidence-building measures after START

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    The very notion of examining de-escalatory CBMs in the context of the START negotiations appears odd. Given the immense progress in US-Soviet relations, of which the proposed START agreement is emblematic, the risk of the two nations stumbling to the brink of war seems increasingly remote. Why bother analyzing CBMs designed to help resolve such an improbable event? The obvious answer is that relations between the US and the Soviet Union - or whatever array of nations succeed it - could take an unforeseeable turn for the worse. Once ratified, the START agreement is supposed to remain in force for seven years, more than enough time for political tensions to return with a vengeance. This suggests a more prudent question: if our two nations do stumble to the brink of war, will the START agreement affect the prospect of de-escalatory CBMs? And if the US and Soviet Union pursue deeper force-reductions in a follow-on START II agreement, could that agreement be designed to facilitate more effective de-escalatory measures? This paper sets the stage for addressing such questions by outlining the START agreement and offering a brief overview of how START might affect the prospects for CBMs. Then, after examining some specific CBM proposals in light of START, an analysis will be made of the de-escalatory problems and opportunities that a Start II treaty might create

  12. Cold starting characteristics analysis of hydraulic free piston engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shuanlu; Zhao, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Changlu; Zhang, Fujun; Wang, Shan

    2017-01-01

    The cold start characteristic of hydraulic free piston diesel engine may affect its stable operation. Therefore the specific cold start characteristics, such as BDC or TDC positions, pressure in-cylinder, heat release rate, should be investigated in detail. These parameters fluctuate in some regularity in the cod start process. With the development of the free piston engine prototype and the establishment of test bench, the results are obtained. For the dynamic results, the fluctuation range of TDC and BDC positions is 8 mm and decreases with time. The thermodynamic results show that the combustion process is not stable and the pressure in-cylinder fluctuates largely in the cold start process. In addition, the combustion is rapid and knock happens inevitably. In order to investigate the reasons, a CFD model is established for temperature analysis in-cylinder and heat transfer conditions. It is found that higher start wall temperature will lead to more uniform temperature distribution. The delay period may decreases and heat release will move forward. This reason is analyzed by thermodynamic derivation based on the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, the improvement suggestions of cold start strategy are proposed. - Highlights: • The cold start behaviors of HFPE are investigated in detail. • CFD method is used for simulating temperature distribution in start process. • Thermodynamic derivation uncovers the compression temperature distribution. • The improvement suggestions of cold start strategy are proposed.

  13. School Starting Age and the Crime-Age Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Landerso, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses register-based data to investigate the effects of school starting age on crime. Through this, we provide insights into the determinants of crime-age profiles. We exploit that Danish children typically start first grade in the calendar year they turn seven, which gives rise to a discontinuity in school starting age for children born around New Year. Our analysis speaks against a simple invariant crime-age profile as is popular in criminology: we find that higher school starting...

  14. Product innovation and commercialization in lean global start-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Zijdemans, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the distinctive characteristics of product innovation and commercialization in Lean Global Start-up (LGS) – new technology firms which have adopted a lean and global path from or near to their inception. It suggests an uncertainty vs risk framework which allows integrating two...... research streams – Born Global (BG) firms and lean start-ups. In addition to its integrative theoretical value, the paper offers insights for lean start-up managers dealing with the challenges of a global start....

  15. Supplying safety and energy independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2001-03-01

    The french Observatory of the Energy wonders about the energy independence notion. Many risks are possible: physical, economical, geo-political, social and ecological risks. Because those risks are numerous, the answers for a supplying safety are also numerous. In this context the energy policy is a difficult art which the public opinion needs to be more and more aware. (A.L.B.)

  16. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  17. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  19. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  20. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  1. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  2. Sleep on Long Haul Layovers and Pilot Fatigue at the Start of the Next Duty Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Jan; Wu, Lora J; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H

    2018-01-01

    Layovers are critical for pilot recovery between flights and minimum layover durations are required by regulation. However, research on the factors affecting layover sleep and safety performance indicators (SPIs) before subsequent flights is relatively sparse. The present project combined data from 6 studies, including 8 long-range and 5 ultra-long range out-and-back trips across a range of different layover destinations (299 pilots in 4-person crews, 410 layovers, 1-3 d layover duration). Sleep was monitored via actigraphy from 3 d pre-trip to at least 3 d post-trip. Pilots rated their sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS) and fatigue (Samn-Perelli scale, SP) at duty start for the inbound flight. Mixed model ANOVAs identified independent associations between fatigue and sleepiness SPIs and operational factors (domicile time of duty start for the inbound flight in six 4-h bins, layover duration, and total sleep time (TST) in the 24 h prior to inbound duty start). TST was greatest on layovers ending between 1200-1559 domicile time (time in the city from which the outbound flight departed) and TST was a significant predictor of both KSS and SP ratings at duty start for the inbound flight. TST in the 24 h prior to the inbound flight was greatest when duty start time allowed for the inclusion of a full domicile night time period. In this dataset, circadian end-time of layovers is a key determinant of pilot fatigue status at the beginning of the inbound duty period.Cosgrove J, Wu LJ, van den Berg M, Signal TL, Gander PH. Sleep on long haul layovers and pilot fatigue at the start of the next duty period. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):19-25.

  3. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  4. Head Start, 4 years After Completing the Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance, which…

  5. Starting infants on antiretroviral therapy | Clayden | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 years or more, that most start at a late stage of the disease, and that mortality in the first few months of treatment remains high.5,6 A recent study shows that starting treatment in early infancy can be lifesaving, and this has informed revisions in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines7,8 (see WHO 'Dear Health Care ...

  6. Head Start Impact Study. Final Report. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a study on the impacts of Head Start on children and families during the children's preschool, kindergarten, and 1st grade years. Its study goals were to: (1) Determine the impact of Head Start on children's school readiness, and on parental practices that support children's development; and to (2)…

  7. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  8. 46 CFR 112.50-5 - Electric starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric starting. 112.50-5 Section 112.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-5 Electric starting...

  9. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  10. 40 CFR 86.136-90 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automatic chokes shall be operated according to the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's...) The transmission shall be placed in gear 15 seconds after the engine is started. If necessary, braking... instructions in the owner's manual do not specify a warm engine starting procedure, the engine (automatic and...

  11. Start-up Costs, Taxes and Innovative Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Darnihamedani (Pourya); J.H. Block (Jörn); S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); A. Simonyan (Aram)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Prior research suggests that start-up costs and taxes negatively influence entry into entrepreneurship. Yet, no distinction is made regarding the type of entrepreneurship, particularly innovative versus non-innovative entrepreneurship. Start-up costs, being one-off

  12. 13 CFR 305.11 - Contract awards; early construction start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract awards; early construction start. 305.11 Section 305.11 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION... § 305.11 Contract awards; early construction start. EDA must determine that the award of all contracts...

  13. Beyond Intentions--What Makes a Student Start a Firm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu-Salo, Sanna; Varamäki, Elina; Viljamaa, Anmari

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurial intentions have been extensively studied in student populations, with results suggesting that higher education does not promote formation of entrepreneurial intentions (e.g. Varamäki et al., 2013). However, the gap between intending to start a business and actually doing something to start one remains. The purpose of this…

  14. Prediction of the stability of BWR reactors during the start-up process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz E, J.A.; Castillo D, R.; Blazquez M, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are susceptible of uncertainties of power when they are operated to low flows of coolant (W) and high powers (P), being presented this situation mainly in the start-up process. The start-up process could be made but sure if the operator knew the value of the stability index Decay reason (Dr) before going up power and therefore to guarantee the stability. The power and the flow are constantly measures, the index Dr could also be considered its value in real time. The index Dr depends on the power, flow and many other values, such as, the distribution of the flow axial and radial neutronic, the temperature of the feeding water, the fraction of holes and other thermohydraulic and nuclear parameters. A simple relationship of Dr is derived leaving of the pattern reduced of March-Leuba, where three independent variables are had that are the power, the flow and a parameter that it contains the rest of the phenomenology, that is to say all the other quantities that affect the value of Dr. This relationship developed work presently and verified its prediction with data of start-up of commercial reactors could be used for the design of a practical procedure practice of start-up, what would support to the operator to prevent this type of events of uncertainty. (Author)

  15. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...... is associated with CpG islands, broad and multimodal promoter structures, and imprinting. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal a new level of biologic complexity within promoters--fine-scale regulation of transcription starting events at the base pair level. These events are likely to be related to epigenetic...

  16. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    how characteristics of the economic and political milieu within each region influence the ratio of firm births. We find that knowledge spillovers from universities and firm-based R&D strongly affect the start-up rates for both high-tech firms and knowledge-intensive services firms. Further, the start......This chapter investigates how regional start-up rates in the knowledge-intensive services and high-tech industries are influenced by knowledge spillovers from both universities and firm-based R&D activities. Integrating insights from economic geography and organizational ecology into the literature......-up rate of knowledge-intensive service firms is tied more strongly to the supply of university educated individuals and the political regulatory regime within the municipality than start-ups in high-tech industries. This suggests that knowledge-intensive service-start-ups are more susceptible to both...

  17. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted...... to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. RESULTS: Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non...

  18. Field development finance for independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide, oil and gas reserves are in decline, and independents own relatively little of them, say 13 percent of the oil reserves and 22 percent of the gas reserves. Over the five years 1989-93, the oil reserves of majors declined by 4.5 percent, while those of independents rose 17 percent; each experienced a rise in gas reserves of 6-7 percent. Partly because of this gentle decline in world reserves, but much more because of the decline in oil and gas commodity prices, the value of the reserves, expressed in terms of future production, has been declining substantially. In 1993, when these data were last recorded, the discounted future net cash flows in the United States were 40 percent below their 1990 peak of $135 billion, and foreign net cash flows were 35 percent lower than the 1990 peak of $140 billion. (author)

  19. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  20. [Accreditation of Independent Ethics Committees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    According to Law 14/2007 and Royal Decree 1090/2015, biomedical research must be assessed by an Research Ethics Committee (REC), which must be accredited as an Research ethics committee for clinical trials involving medicinal products (RECm) if the opinion is issued for a clinical trial involving medicinal products or clinical research with medical devices. The aim of this study is to ascertain how IEC and IECm accreditation is regulated. National and regional legislation governing biomedical research was analysed. No clearly-defined IEC or IECm accreditation procedures exist in the national or regional legislation. Independent Ethics Committees are vital for the development of basic or clinical biomedical research, and they must be accredited by an external body in order to safeguard their independence, multidisciplinary composition and review procedures. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological aspects met in the start-up stage of entrepreneurial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gabriel DRAGOMIR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes to focus on the important psychological characteristics implied in the activity of start-up a business. At the beginning, we present the definition and the specific points of an entrepreneur and also of an entrepreneurial activity. Then we restrict the sphere to the psychological aspects connected to the start-up business activity: the courage, the self trust, the independence attitude, the intuition, the professional training and the environment knowledge, the ability of adapting, the great availability for work, the perseverance, good organiser, a good communicator, respect for the collaborators, positive thinking, socially active. In the end, we jump at the conclusions and talked about the importance and the roles of the projects financed by the European Union, the Romanian Government, the Social European Fund and Structural Instruments.

  2. Evolution of sourdough microbiota in spontaneous sourdoughs started with different plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripari, Valery; Gänzle, Michael G; Berardi, Enrico

    2016-09-02

    The preparation of sourdough in bakeries may include the use of inocula, e.g. fruits, flowers or rumen cuts to accelerate the process of selection of suitable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of these inocula on the microbial evolution in sourdoughs. First, the microbiota of nineteen traditional sourdoughs that were initially started with diverse inocula was identified. Second, de novo sourdoughs were started with plant materials and the evolution of sourdough microbiota was investigated by culture, and by high-resolution melting curve quantitative PCR (HRM-qPCR). This study developed a new protocol for HRM-qPCR analysis of yeast microbiota in sourdough, and indicates this independent culture method suitable for characterization of yeasts. Microbiota of traditional sourdoughs were largely independent from the use of inoculum, however, Acetobacter spp. were identified only in sourdoughs started with apple flowers or apple pulp. In de novo sourdoughs started with plant materials, microbiota rapidly stabilized, and were characterized by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus graminis, or Lactobacillus rossiae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as dominant species. Competition experiments revealed that the ecological fitness of L. plantarum, L. graminis, and L. rossiae in wheat or rye malt sourdoughs was lower when compared to L. sanfranciscensis, demonstrating that their presence in de novo sourdoughs reflects dispersal limitation. In conclusion, establishment of microbiota in de novo sourdoughs is dispersal limited. This study provides scientific support for the artisanal practice to inoculate de novo sourdoughs with flowers, berries, or related plant material. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. From BookStart to BookSmart : about the importance of an early start with parent-child reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Heleen van den

    2015-01-01

    BookStart has been developed to enhance parent-child verbal interactions in early childhood by promoting book sharing. Parents receive a voucher for a baby book and free access to baby books in the library. In a large-scale research, we found that if parents complied with the BookStart suggestion to

  4. RIPE [robot independent programming environment]: A robot independent programming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Lennox, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Remote manual operations in radiation environments are typically performed very slowly. Sensor-based computer-controlled robots hold great promise for increasing the speed and safety of remote operations; however, the programming of robotic systems has proven to be expensive and difficult. Generalized approaches to robot programming that reuse available software modules and employ programming languages which are independent of the specific robotic and sensory devices being used are needed to speed software development and increase overall system reliability. This paper discusses the robot independent programming environment (RIPE) developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment that facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. An architecture based on hierarchies of distributed multiprocessors provides the computing platform for a layered programming structure that models applications using software objects. These objects are designed to support model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, and robust communication

  5. Plasma-wall Interaction Studies in the Start-up Phase of TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E.; Tabares, F.L.; Tafalla, D.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present some first plasma-wall interaction studies made during the first experimental campaign of TJ-II. The different sections contain independent contributions presented orally in the fusion division of the Euratom-Ciemat association during 1998: I. Density limit during the start-up phase of TJ-II : are we limited by radiation?. II. Temporal evolution of oxygen in the plasma during an experimental day. III. The contribution of helium to the plasma electron density IV. First studies of the S.O.L. diffusion coefficient and its dependence with the boundary plasma parameters. (Author) 3 refs

  6. Tokamak start-up with electron-cyclotron heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, D J; Prager, S C; Shepard, D A; Sprott, J C [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA)

    1981-11-01

    Experiments are described in which the start-up voltage in a tokamak is reduced by about a factor of two by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for pre-ionization. The solution of the zero-dimensional start-up equations indicates that the effect is due to the high initial density which increases the rate at which the conductivity increases in the neutral-dominated initial plasma. The effect extrapolates favourably to larger tokamaks. A 50% reduction in the start-up volt-second requirement and impurity reflux is also observed.

  7. Improving NPT safeguards. Particularly at the natural uranium starting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Klerk, P. de

    1996-03-01

    According to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) all nuclear material is subject to safeguards, but according to INFCIRC/153 the full range of safeguards is only applied beyond the 'starting point of safeguards', that is: The point at which nuclear material has reached a composition and purity suitable for fuel fabrication or enrichment. This paper addresses the two questions: (a) is the starting point adequately defined, and (b) what mesures could be applied to nuclear material before the starting point? Those questions have been asked before, some of the answers in this paper are new. (orig.)

  8. Improving NPT safeguards. Particularly at the natural uranium starting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Klerk, P. de [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1996-03-01

    According to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) all nuclear material is subject to safeguards, but according to INFCIRC/153 the full range of safeguards is only applied beyond the `starting point of safeguards`, that is: The point at which nuclear material has reached a composition and purity suitable for fuel fabrication or enrichment. This paper addresses the two questions: (a) is the starting point adequately defined, and (b) what mesures could be applied to nuclear material before the starting point? Those questions have been asked before, some of the answers in this paper are new. (orig.).

  9. Tokamak start-up with electron-cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Shepard, D.A.; Sprott, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the start-up voltage in a tokamak is reduced by about a factor of two by the use of a modest amount of electron cyclotron resonance heating power for pre-ionization. The solution of the zero-dimensional start-up equations indicates that the effect is due to the high initial density which increases the rate at which the conductivity increases in the neutral-dominated initial plasma. The effect extrapolates favourably to larger tokamaks. A 50% reduction in the start-up volt-second requirement and impurity reflux is also observed. (author)

  10. Start-up of NPP Krsko; Pokusno obratovanje NE Krsko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiler, J; Aralica, J [Nuklearna elektrana Krsko, Krsko (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The report describes a review of start-up program and its realisation. There are also described some more significant start-up results with their evaluation. The most significant operation criteria are compared between NPP Krsko and other similar plants in the world. The comparison shows that after the first contractors and operation personnel efforts have been accomplished, our first nuclear power plant is a safe and reliable source of electric power. At the end there are listed NPP Krsko start-up recommendations and experience. (author)

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of the Swim-Start: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vantorre, Didier Chollet, Ludovic Seifert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review updates the swim-start state of the art from a biomechanical standpoint. We review the contribution of the swim-start to overall swimming performance, the effects of various swim-start strategies, and skill effects across the range of swim-start strategies identified in the literature. The main objective is to determine the techniques to focus on in swimming training in the contemporary context of the sport. The phases leading to key temporal events of the swim-start, like water entry, require adaptations to the swimmer’s chosen technique over the course of a performance; we thus define the swim-start as the moment when preparation for take-off begins to the moment when the swimming pattern begins. A secondary objective is to determine the role of adaptive variability as it emerges during the swim-start. Variability is contextualized as having a functional role and operating across multiple levels of analysis: inter-subject (expert versus non-expert, inter-trial or intra-subject (through repetitions of the same movement, and inter-preference (preferred versus non-preferred technique. Regarding skill effects, we assume that swim-start expertise is distinct from swim stroke expertise. Highly skilled swim-starts are distinguished in terms of several factors: reaction time from the start signal to the impulse on the block, including the control and regulation of foot force and foot orientation during take-off; appropriate amount of glide time before leg kicking commences; effective transition from leg kicking to break-out of full swimming with arm stroking; overall maximal leg and arm propulsion and minimal water resistance; and minimized energy expenditure through streamlined body position. Swimmers who are less expert at the swim-start spend more time in this phase and would benefit from training designed to reduce: (i the time between reaction to the start signal and impulse on the block, and (ii the time in transition (i

  12. Predicting start-up success with machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Francisco Ramadas da Silva Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Start-ups are becoming the motor that moves our economy. Google, Apple, or more recently Airbnb and Uber are companies with tremendous impact in worldwide economy, social interactions and government. Over the past decade, both in the US and Europe, there has been an exponential growth in start-up formation. Thus, it seems a relevant challenge understanding what makes this type of high-risk ventures successful and as such, attractive to investors and entrepreneurs. Success for a start-up is de...

  13. Remuneration Committee, Board Independence and Top Executive Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Shyan Kuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine whether the levels and structures of top executive compensation vary discernibly with different levels of board independence. We also examine how the newly mandated adoption of the remuneration committee (RC in Taiwan affects the board independence-executive pay relation. The mandatory establishment of RC for Taiwanese public firms, starting in 2011, is intended to strengthen the reasonableness and effectiveness of the executive compensation structure; thus, it is timely and of interest for practitioners and regulators to understand whether the establishment of RCs can effectively discipline top executive compensation policies. We first find that CEOs of firms that do not appoint independent directors have greater levels of annual pay than is the case for firms that have appointed independent directors, after controlling for the effect of CEO pay determinants. Second, we find that CEO pay for early RC adopters is more closely related to firm performance. Third, we find that the establishing of RCs may decrease CEO pay and enhance the pay-performance association, in particular for firms that have not appointed independent directors; however, this effect is not found to be statistically significant.

  14. The Italian START-Register on Anticoagulation with Focus on Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    START-Register – Survey on anTicoagulated pAtients RegisTer – is an independent, inception-cohort, observational, collaborative database aimed at recording prospectively the clinical history of adult patients starting anticoagulant treatment for any reason and using whatever drug. In this article we present the START-Register and give cross section baseline data focusing on non valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Participants are asked to insert prospectively consecutive patients recorded as electronic file on the web-site of the registry. Required data are: demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, associated risk factors for stroke and bleeding, laboratory routine data, clinical indication for treatment, expected therapeutic range (in cases of treatment with vitamin K antagonists -VKAs). The follow-up is carried out to record: quality of treatment (for patients on VKAs), bleeding complications, thrombotic events, and the onset of any type of associated disease. To date 5252 patients have been enrolled; 97.6% were on VKAs because direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have been available in Italy only recently. The median age was 74 years [interquartile range (IQR) 64-80]; males 53.7%. This analysis is focused on the 3209 (61.1%) NVAF patients. Mean CHADS2 score was 2.1±1.1, CHADSVASc score was 3.1±1.3;median age was 76 years (IQR 70-81); 168 patients (5.3%) had severe renal failure [Creatinine clearance (CrCl) START-Register data shows that two-third of patients who started chronic anticoagulant treatment had NVAF, one-third of them was > 80 years with high prevalence of renal failure. PMID:26001109

  15. Operative Start Time Does Not Affect Post-Operative Infection Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Christopher A; Davies, Stephen W; Willis, Rhett N; Dietch, Zachary C; Shah, Puja M; Sawyer, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Surgical care is delivered 24 h a day at most institutions. Alarmingly, some authors have found that certain operative start times are associated with greater morbidity and mortality rates. This effect has been noted in both the public and private sector. Although some of these differences may be related to process, they may also be caused by the human circadian rhythm and corresponding changes in host defenses. We hypothesized that the time of day of an operation would impact the frequency of certain post-operative outcomes significantly. Cases at a single tertiary-care center reported to the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program over a 10-year period were identified. Operative start times were divided into six-hour blocks, with 6 am to noon serving as the reference. Standard univariable techniques were applied. Multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects modeling then was used to determine the relation between operative start times and infectious outcomes, controlling for surgeon clustering. Statistical significance was set at p operative infectious complication. Seventy percent of these infections (n = 1,506) were surgical site infections. On univariable analysis considering all cases, nighttime and evening operations had higher rates of post-operative infections than those in performed during the day (9.1% from 6 am to noon; 9.7% from noon to 6 pm; 14.8% from 6 pm to midnight; and 14.4% from midnight to 6 am; p operative start time was not associated with the risk of post-operative infection, even when emergency cases were considered independently. Our data suggest that operative start times have no correlation with post-operative infectious complications. Further work is required to identify the source of the time-dependent outcome variability observed in previous studies.

  16. Independent EEG sources are dipolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Delorme

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA and blind source separation (BSS methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR effected by each decomposition, and decomposition 'dipolarity' defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA; best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison.

  17. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC), in 2007." (1 page)

  18. Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral therapy in the intensive care unit, general medical wards and outpatient HIV clinics at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

  19. Method of starting internal pumps of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagami, Shoji.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the noise effects by decreasing the invading current into the main line upon starting an internal pump type nuclear reactor adapted to forcively recycle the reactor water by a plurality of internal pumps. Method: A plurality of internal pumps are divided into several groups and, upon starting pumps belonging to the individual unit group, the starting instances for the respective pumps are deviated to reduce the surges applied to the main line and suppress the invading current lower to reduce the earth noises. As a result, effects caused to other devices or equipments can be moderated to improve the reliability. Furthermore, by actuating the respective pumps on every group units in a starting pattern along the orthogonal line, flow rate distribution in the reactor can be balanced. Then, the instability region during low rotation of pumps, that is, instability of the flow rate near the resonance frequency can be decreased. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  1. 1-D hybrid code for FRM start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    A one-D hybrid has been developed to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. The code uses a multi-group numerical model originally developed by J. Willenberg to describe fusion product dynamics in a solenoidal plasma. Earlier we described such a model for use in determining self-consistent ion currents and magnetic fields in FRM start-up. However, consideration of electron dynamics during start-up indicate that the electron current will oppose the injected ion current and may even foil the attempt to achieve reversal. For this reason, we have combined the multi-group ion (model) with a fluid treatment for electron dynamics to form the hybrid code FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up). The details of this merger, along with sample results of operation of FROST, are given

  2. Getting started with digital collections scaling to fit your organization

    CERN Document Server

    Monson, D

    2017-01-01

    This easy-to-follow guide to digitization fundamentals will ensure that readers gain a solid grasp of the knowledge and resources available for getting started on their own digital collection projects.

  3. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient ou...

  4. CERN confirms goal of 2007 start-up for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Speaking at the 131st session of CERN Council on 17 December 2004, the Director-General, Robert Aymar, confirmed that the top priority is to maintain the goal of starting up the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007.

  5. MASS TRANSIT: FTA Could Relieve New Starts Program Funding Constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Much of this investment has come through the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) New Starts program, which helps pay for certain rail, bus, and trolley projects through full-funding grant agreements...

  6. Spring 
start-up for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A new schedule for the commissioning of the LHC was presented to the Council at its Session in June. The start-up of the accelerator is scheduled for May 2008, to allow all technical problems to be resolved.

  7. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyang Zhu; Hailin Huang; Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter defi...

  8. An eigenexpansion technique for modelling plasma start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed and implemented in a computer program that allows the estimation of PF coil voltages required to start-up an axisymmetric plasma in a tokamak in the presence of eddy currents in toroidally continuous conducting structures. The algorithm makes use of an eigen-expansion technique to solve the lumped parameter circuit loop voltage equations associated with the PF coils and passive (conducting) structures. An example of start-up for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) is included

  9. University Start-ups: A Better Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    Many universities look to start-up companies as a way to attract faculty, supporting research and students as traditional federal sources become harder to come by. University affiliated start-up companies can apply for a broader suite of grants, as well as market their services to a broad customer base. Often university administrators see this as a potential panacea, but national statistics show this is not the case. Rarely do universities profit significantly from their start-ups. With a success rates of around 20%, most start-ups end up costing the university money as well as faculty-time. For the faculty, assuming they want to continue in academia, a start-up is often unattractive because it commonly leads out of academia. Running a successful business as well as maintaining a strong teaching and research load is almost impossible to do at the same time. Most business models and business professionals work outside of academia, and the models taught in business schools do not merge well in a university environment. To mitigate this a new business model is proposed where university start-ups are aligned with the academic and research missions of the university. A university start-up must work within the university, directly support research and students, and the work done maintaining the business be recognized as part of the faculty member's university obligations. This requires a complex conflict of interest management plan and for the companies to be non-profit in order to not jeopardize the university's status. This approach may not work well for all universities, but would be ideal for many to conserve resources and ensure a harmonious relationship with their start-ups and faculty.

  10. Strategic Management: Business Model Canvas for Start-Up Company

    OpenAIRE

    Sonninen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Thesis is written about development of Kakunpala as a Start-Up Company, because development processes and ideas are the key factors for future success of the company. The aim of this thesis is to understand Strategic Management of the Company and Development processes,by using the SWOT analysis before and after development and by applying Business Model Canvas template to the Start-Up Company, and by describing Customer Journey: what relations Kakunpala has with clients and its processes...

  11. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  12. Application of STOPP and START criteria: interrater reliability among pharmacists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Cristin

    2009-07-01

    Inappropriate prescribing is a well-documented problem in older people. The new screening tools, STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Peoples\\' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential errors of omissions (PEOs) in older patients. Consistent, reliable application of STOPP and START is essential for the screening tools to be used effectively by pharmacists.

  13. Dampak Mentoring Pada Keberhasilan Start-Up Business: Studi Kasus Pada Start-Up Business di Indonesia [Mentoring the Impact of Success of a Start-Up Business: A Case Study of a Start-Up Business in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yanita Setyawati

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is a highly developed science today, as well as in the world of education in Indonesia. Teaching entrepreneurship at the university level, especially at some universities in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, shows the positive impact that there were 74.03% of start-up businesses that survived and thrived in 2014. Based on the previous observation, some business start-ups are accompanied by a mentor. Mentoring is a process of forming and maintaining lasting relat...

  14. An Ultra Low Noise Self-Starting Pulse Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz.......We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz....

  15. Power start up of the Dalat nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien; Ngo Quang Huy; Vu Hai Long; Tran Khanh Mai

    1994-01-01

    After accomplishing the physical start-up of the reactor, the power start-up was carried out in February 1984. The power of the reactor has reached: 10 KW on 6/2/1984, 100 KW on 7/2/1984, 200 KW and 300 KW on 8/2/1984; 400 KW and nominal power 500 KW on 9/2/1984. The reactivity temperature coefficient and the xenon poisoning were determined. 3 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Sure start: voices of the 'hard-to-reach'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C; Gibson, A; Spencer, N; Stuttaford, M

    2008-07-01

    This research aimed to look in depth at the factors affecting the ability of four Sure Start local programmes, based in a multicultural Midlands city, to engage with 'hard-to-reach' populations. A variety of research strategies and methods were employed. Geographical information systems, participatory research methods and interviews were used in order to understand the extent of the challenge, and hear first hand, why parents may not get involved with Sure Start. The mapping exercise involved collation and mapping of postcode data with respect to boundaries and potential and actual users of Sure Start services. This made possible the identification of any geographical patterning in the distribution of service users and non-users. Participatory research methods were used with parents, enabling them to conduct short interviews within their own communities and make sense of the data collected. Interviews were also conducted with 70 parents across the city, recruited through local schools. The results indicate that parental decisions regarding Sure Start are the product of a complex interaction between numerous factors which may act as either barriers or facilitators to service utilization. The results suggest that a multi-method approach to data collection is useful and appropriate in gaining access to those parents who are non-users of the Sure Start services and enabling their voices to be heard. These findings offer some explanations and insight into the apparent ambivalent attitudes of some families toward Sure Start services. Implications for future practice are discussed.

  17. The backstroke swimming start: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2014-09-29

    As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the 'state of the art' literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers' proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ∼5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances.

  18. On Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comtois, Suzanne; de Graaf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    'Principles of judicial and quasi-judicial independence are fundamental to all democracies and yet, the notion of independence is still elusive. What is judicial and quasi-judicial independence and why is it important? From whom and what are the judiciary and other adjudicators to be independent? Is

  19. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-07-15

    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  20. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  1. Ergodic theory independence and dichotomies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the ergodic theory and topological dynamics of actions of countable groups. It is organized around the theme of probabilistic and combinatorial independence, and highlights the complementary roles of the asymptotic and the perturbative in its comprehensive treatment of the core concepts of weak mixing, compactness, entropy, and amenability. The more advanced material includes Popa's cocycle superrigidity, the Furstenberg-Zimmer structure theorem, and sofic entropy. The structure of the book is designed to be flexible enough to serve a variety of readers. The discussion of dynamics is developed from scratch assuming some rudimentary functional analysis, measure theory, and topology, and parts of the text can be used as an introductory course. Researchers in ergodic theory and related areas will also find the book valuable as a reference.

  2. Head Start at Ages 3 and 4 versus Head Start Followed by State Pre-K: Which Is More Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2016-01-01

    As policy-makers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund two, rather than one year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer one year of Head Start followed by one year of pre-k. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma…

  3. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi

    2015-02-01

    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  4. Dynamic factors and electromyographic activity in a sprint start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Čoh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the major dynamic parameters as well as the EMG activation of muscles in a sprint start as the first derivative of sprint velocity. The subject of the analysis was block velocity, the production of force in the front and rear starting blocks, the block acceleration in the first two steps and the electromyographic activity (EMG of the following muscles: the erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, vastus medialis muscle, vastus lateralis muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. One international-class female sprinter participated in the experiment. She performed eight starts in constant laboratory conditions. The 3-D kinematic analysis was made using a system of nine Smart-e 600 cameras operating at a frame rate of 60 Hz. Dynamic parameters were established by means of two separate force platforms to which the starting blocks were fixed. A 16-channel electromyograph was used to analyse electromyographic activity (EMG. It was established that the block velocity depended on the absolute force produced in the front and rear starting blocks and that it was 2.84±0.21 m.s-1. The maximal force on the rear and front blocks was 628±34 N and 1023±30 N, respectively. In view of the total impulse (210±11 Ns the force production/time ratio in the rear and front blocks was 34%:66%. The erector spinae muscle, vastus lateralis muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle generate the efficiency of the start. The block acceleration in the first two steps primarily depends on the activation of the gluteus maximus muscle, rectus femoris muscle, biceps femoris muscle and gastrocnemius–medialis muscle. A sprint start is a complex motor stereotype requiring a high degree of integration of the processes of central movement regulation and an optimal level of biomotor abilities.

  5. Stop and Restart Effects on Modern Vehicle Starting System Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windover, Paul R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Terry M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Many drivers of personal and commercial vehicles believe that turning the vehicle off and on frequently instead of idling will cause premature wear of the starter system (starter motor and starter battery). As a result, they are concerned that the replacement cost of the starter motor and/or battery due to increased manual engine cycling would be more than the cumulative cost of the fuel saved by not idling unnecessarily. A number of variables play a role in addressing this complex concern, including the number of starting cycles per day, the time between starting cycles, the intended design life of the starting system, the amount of fuel used to restart an engine, and the cumulative cost of the saved fuel. Qualitative and quantitative information from a variety of sources was used to develop a life-cycle economic model to evaluate the cost and quantify the realistic factors that are related to the permissible frequency of starter motor cycles for the average vehicle to economically minimize engine idle time. Annual cost savings can be calculated depending on shutdown duration and the number of shutdown cycles per day. Analysis shows that cost savings are realized by eliminating idling exceeding one minute by shutting down the engine and restarting it. For a typical motorist, the damage to starting system components resulting from additional daily start cycles will be negligible. Overall, it was found that starter life is mostly dependent on the total number of start cycles, while battery life is more dependent on ensuring a full charge between start events.

  6. On the background independence of two-dimensional topological gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbimbo, Camillo

    1995-04-01

    We formulate two-dimensional topological gravity in a background covariant Lagrangian framework. We derive the Ward identities which characterize the dependence of physical correlators on the background world-sheet metric defining the gauge-slice. We point out the existence of an "anomaly" in Ward identitites involving correlators of observables with higher ghost number. This "anomaly" represents an obstruction for physical correlators to be globally defined forms on moduli space which could be integrated in a background independent way. Starting from the anomalous Ward identities, we derive "descent" equations whose solutions are cocycles of the Lie algebra of the diffeomorphism group with values in the space of local forms on the moduli space. We solve the descent equations and provide explicit formulas for the cocycles, which allow for the definition of background independent integrals of physical correlators on the moduli space.

  7. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Robert D; Smith, Richard L; O'Brien, Natalie P

    2018-04-26

    Shifting school start times to 8:30 am or later has been found to improve academic performance and reduce behavior problems. Limited research suggests this may also reduce adolescent driver motor vehicle crashes. A change in the school start time from 7:30 am to 8:45 am for all public high schools in one North Carolina county presented the opportunity to address this question with greater methodologic rigor. We conducted ARIMA interrupted time-series analyses to examine motor vehicle crash rates of high school age drivers in the intervention county and 3 similar comparison counties with comparable urban-rural population distribution. To focus on crashes most likely to be affected, we limited analysis to crashes involving 16- & 17-year-old drivers occurring on days when school was in session. In the intervention county, there was a 14% downward shift in the time-series following the 75 min delay in school start times (p = .076). There was no change approaching statistical significance in any of the other three counties. Further analysis indicated marked, statistically significant shifts in hourly crash rates in the intervention county, reflecting effects of the change in school start time on young driver exposure. Crashes from 7 to 7:59 am decreased sharply (-25%, p = .008), but increased similarly from 8 to 8:59 am (21%, p = .004). Crashes from 2 to 2:59 pm declined dramatically (-48%, p = .000), then increased to a lesser degree from 3 to 3:59 pm (32%, p = .024) and non-significantly from 4 to 4:59 (19%, p = .102). There was no meaningful change in early morning or nighttime crashes, when drowsiness-induced crashes might have been expected to be most common. The small decrease in crashes among high school age drivers following the shift in school start time is consistent with the findings of other studies of teen driver crashes and school start times. All these studies, including the present one, have limitations, but the similar

  8. A novel induction motor starting method using superconduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.B.B.; Orlando, M.T.D.; Fardin, J.F.; Simonetti, D.S.; Baldan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative method for starting up induction motor. • Based on using a high-temperature superconductor. • A prototype of the limiter was constructed with a 2G-YBCO tape. • Prototype was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz. • Offers reduced current waveform distortion compared to the soft starter method. - Abstract: In this paper, an alternative method for starting up induction motors is proposed, taking into account experimental measurements. The new starting current limitation method is based on using a high-temperature superconductor. A prototype of the superconducting starting current limiter was constructed with a commercially available second-generation high-temperature superconductor YBCO tape, and this was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz three-phase power grid. Performance evaluations of the superconducting limiter method (applied to startup of the induction motor) were performed and were compared with a direct-on-line starter and an electronic soft starter. In addition, a computational model was developed and used for electromagnetic torque analysis of the system. As significant characteristics, our method offers the ability to limit the starting current of the induction motor with greater electromagnetic torque, reduced current waveform distortion and therefore lower harmonic pollution during startup when compared to the soft starter method

  9. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  10. Control device for start-up of reactor depressurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Saito, Minoru; Oda, Shingo; Miura, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Koji; Tate, Hitoshi; Fujii, Kazunobu

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns are emergency reactor core cooling system (ECCS) of a BWR type reactor and provides a control device for start-up of an automatic depressurization system. Namely, the device has an object of preventing erroneous opening of a main steam escape safety value when testing a start-up signal circuit of an automatic depressurization system for testing the automatic depressurization system. A start-up signal circuit receives both signals of a reactor container pressure high signal and a reactor pressure vessel water level low signal and outputs an automatic start-up signal for compulsorily opening a main steam escape safety valve automatically. A test switch having a self-holding circuit is disposed to a central control chamber. A test signal circuit is disposed for preventing transfer of an erroneous start-up signal to the main steam escape safety valve due to a simulation signal during output test signals by the test switch. (I.S.)

  11. Start-up Funding via Equity Crowdfunding in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angerer, Martin; Brem, Alexander; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types of crowdfund......Entrepreneurs often struggle to find sufficient funding for their start-ups. A relatively new way for companies to attract capital is via an internet platform, locating investors who in return receive something in return for their ventures. Equity crowdfunding is one of several types...... of crowdfunding, and is also known as crowdinvesting in the German-speaking realm. This article predominantly advances the scientific knowledge regarding the success factors of equity crowdfunding for German start-ups. The study conducted nine qualitative interviews with start-ups and crowdinvesting platforms....... Its first result is that German start-ups select crowdinvesting because (1) it is a funding opportunity and (2) it has an expected marketing effect. To organize the results of relevant success factors, the Crowdinvesting Success Model was designed by the researchers. This supports German entrepreneurs...

  12. A novel induction motor starting method using superconduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.B.B., E-mail: flaviobarcelos@ifes.edu.br [Ifes – Federal Institute of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Industrial Automation, Serra, ES 29173087 (Brazil); UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Physics, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Fardin, J.F.; Simonetti, D.S. [UFES – Federal University of Espírito Santo, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Baldan, C.A. [EEL/USP – Engineering School from Lorena/University of São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Alternative method for starting up induction motor. • Based on using a high-temperature superconductor. • A prototype of the limiter was constructed with a 2G-YBCO tape. • Prototype was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz. • Offers reduced current waveform distortion compared to the soft starter method. - Abstract: In this paper, an alternative method for starting up induction motors is proposed, taking into account experimental measurements. The new starting current limitation method is based on using a high-temperature superconductor. A prototype of the superconducting starting current limiter was constructed with a commercially available second-generation high-temperature superconductor YBCO tape, and this was tested with a 55-kW industrial induction motor in a 440-V/60-Hz three-phase power grid. Performance evaluations of the superconducting limiter method (applied to startup of the induction motor) were performed and were compared with a direct-on-line starter and an electronic soft starter. In addition, a computational model was developed and used for electromagnetic torque analysis of the system. As significant characteristics, our method offers the ability to limit the starting current of the induction motor with greater electromagnetic torque, reduced current waveform distortion and therefore lower harmonic pollution during startup when compared to the soft starter method.

  13. The Rationality and Irrationality of Financing Green Start-Ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bergset

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green start-ups contribute towards a transition to a more sustainable economy by developing sustainable and environmentally friendly innovation and bringing it to the market. Due to specific product/service characteristics, entrepreneurial motivation and company strategies that might differ from that of other start-ups, these companies might struggle even more than usual with access to finance in the early stages. This conceptual paper seeks to explain these challenges through the theoretical lenses of entrepreneurial finance and behavioural finance. While entrepreneurial finance theory contributes to a partial understanding of green start-up finance, behavioural finance is able to solve a remaining explanatory deficit produced by entrepreneurial finance theory. Although some behavioural finance theorists are suggesting that the current understanding of economic rationality underlying behavioural finance research is inadequate, most scholars have not yet challenged these assumptions, which constrict a comprehensive and realistic description of the reality of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups. The aim of the paper is thus, first, to explore the specifics of entrepreneurial finance in green start-ups and, second, to demonstrate the need for a more up-to-date conception of rationality in behavioural finance theory in order to enable realistic empirical research in this field.

  14. Central Bank Independence, Transparency and Accountability Indexes: a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin Cornel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the remarkable trend upon central bank independence and the efficient monetary policy were seriously highlighted in the monetary economics field. Starting from 1990s’ central bank independence was at the core of policy making and central banking problems, because of the widespread economical, political, personal and budgetary autonomy of the central bank. Nowadays, we can observe an increasing trend upon central bank transparency, for evaluating more accurate the central bank’s performances by the wide public, mass-media and financial markets. Consequently, a central bank must encompass a high degree of accountability and responsibility, because of the final liability in case of failure. In this paper we present, analyze and assess the construction of the most important indices regarding central bank independence, transparency and accountability in a chronological manner, presenting also the advantages and disadvantages of these indices related to actual practices of central banks. Moreover, we analyze the analytical results of the empirical testing of these indices with a considerable impact upon the developed and developing country group. In regard with the empirical results of different authors, we suggest the importance and the necessity for constructing an aggregate index for measuring central bank independence, transparency and accountability, based on de jure stipulations and the actual practices of the central banks.

  15. Chandra Independently Determines Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A critically important number that specifies the expansion rate of the Universe, the so-called Hubble constant, has been independently determined using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This new value matches recent measurements using other methods and extends their validity to greater distances, thus allowing astronomers to probe earlier epochs in the evolution of the Universe. "The reason this result is so significant is that we need the Hubble constant to tell us the size of the Universe, its age, and how much matter it contains," said Max Bonamente from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala., lead author on the paper describing the results. "Astronomers absolutely need to trust this number because we use it for countless calculations." Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Illustration of Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect The Hubble constant is calculated by measuring the speed at which objects are moving away from us and dividing by their distance. Most of the previous attempts to determine the Hubble constant have involved using a multi-step, or distance ladder, approach in which the distance to nearby galaxies is used as the basis for determining greater distances. The most common approach has been to use a well-studied type of pulsating star known as a Cepheid variable, in conjunction with more distant supernovae to trace distances across the Universe. Scientists using this method and observations from the Hubble Space Telescope were able to measure the Hubble constant to within 10%. However, only independent checks would give them the confidence they desired, considering that much of our understanding of the Universe hangs in the balance. Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 Chandra X-ray Image of MACS J1149.5+223 By combining X-ray data from Chandra with radio observations of galaxy clusters, the team determined the distances to 38 galaxy clusters ranging from 1.4 billion to 9.3 billion

  16. Start-up of spherical tokamak without a center solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    For low-aspect tokamak reactors, spherical tokamak reactors, ST-type FESF/CTFs, it is essential to remove or minimize a central solenoid (CS). Even with the minimized CS, non-inductive start up of the plasma current is required. Rapid increase in the spontaneous plasma current at the final stage of current start-up drives ignition. At the initial stage, formation of plasma and magnetic surfaces are required. As non-inductive plasma start-up scenarios, ECH/ECCD, LHCD, HHFW, DC HELICITY injection, plasma merging and NBI have been studied. In the present article, the present status and future prospect of experimental and theoretical works on these subjects. (author)

  17. Starting characteristics of direct current motors powered by solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S.; Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current motors are used in photovoltaic systems. Important characteristics of electric motors are the starting to rated current and torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of the solar cell array and are different for the various dc motor types. Discussed here is the calculation of the starting to rated current ratio and starting to rated torque ratio of the permanent magnet, and series and shunt excited motors when powered by solar cells for two cases: with and without a maximum-power-point-tracker (MPPT) included in the system. Comparing these two cases, one gets a torque magnification of about 3 for the permanent magnet motor and about 7 for other motor types. The calculation of the torques may assist the PV system designer to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system.

  18. Applying behavioral insights to delay school start times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl Malone, Susan; Ziporyn, Terra; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2017-12-01

    Healthy People 2020 established a national objective to increase the proportion of 9th-to-12th-grade students reporting sufficient sleep. A salient approach for achieving this objective is to delay middle and high school start times. Despite decades of research supporting the benefits of delayed school start times on adolescent sleep, health, and well-being, progress has been slow. Accelerating progress will require new approaches incorporating strategies that influence how school policy decisions are made. In this commentary, we introduce four strategies that influence decision-making processes and demonstrate how they can be applied to efforts aimed at changing school start time policies. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  19. Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: aerodynamics and starting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia DUMITRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas the wind is very turbulent and unstable with fast changes in direction andvelocity. In these environments, the use of small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT becomesincreasingly attractive due to several advantages over horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT.However, such designs have received much less attention than the more common propeller-typedesigns and the understanding of same aspects of their operation remains, to this day, incomplete.This is particularly true of their starting characteristics. Indeed, same authors heuristically maintainthat they cannot start without external assistance. This paper reviews the cause of the inability of thelow solidity fixed pitch vertical axis wind turbines to self-start, and investigates the way ofovercoming this draw back.

  20. Starting-up sequence of the AWEC-60 wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia, F.; Cruz, M. de la.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most critical status of the wind turbines operation is the starting-up sequence and the connection to the grid, due to the actuating loads that could be several times the loads during operation at rated conditions. Due to this fact, the control strategy is very important during the starting-up sequence in order to minimize the loads on the machine. For this purpose it is necessary to analyze the behaviour of the wind turbine during that sequence in different wind conditions and machine conditions. This report shows the graphic information about fifty starting-up sequences of the AWEC-60 wind turbine of 60 m. diameter and 1200 kW of rated power, recorded in April 1991 and cut-out wind speed. (author)

  1. Start-up processes’ efficiency of turbine jet engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowski Antoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents diagnoses of example start-up processes of drive units built in military aircraft operated in the Dęblin's “School of Eaglets” during the flight. The significance of this process is very important, especially from the point of view of flight safety, especially as it concerns the training aircraft, on which officer cadets-candidates for pilots are trained. The diagnosis of the start-up process was conducted using data from on-board flight recorders recorded during a flight training, whose aim was an emergency launch of particular drive units, and with the help of the so-called phase mapping of the selected operating parameters of the particular flight drive systems. The standard diagram of typical start-up systems was shown, while presenting their base subassemblies. At the end, the obtained results and the main problems that need intervention were commented, as well as further preventive activities were proposed.

  2. ECRH-assisted start-up in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.; Carolan, P.G.; Warrick, C.D.

    1996-07-01

    In ITER, the electric field applied for ionisation and to ramp up the plasma current may be limited to ∼ 0.3 V/m. In this case, based on established theories of the avalanche process, it is shown that ohmic breakdown in ITER is only possible over a narrow range of pressure and magnetic error field. Therefore, ECRH may be necessary to provide robust and reliable start-up. ECRH can ensure prompt breakdown over a wide range of prefill pressure and error field and can also give control over the initial time and location of breakdown. For ECRH-assisted start-up in ITER, the power and pulse length requirements are essentially determined by the need to ensure burnthrough, i.e. complete ionisation of hydrogen and the transition to high ionisation states of impurities. A 0-D code (with inclusion of some 1-D effects) has been developed to analyse burnthrough in ITER. The 0-D simulations indicate that control of the deuterium density is the key factor for ensuring successful start-up in ITER, where the effects of neutral screening and dynamic fuelling by the ex-plasma volume are also crucial. It is concluded that without ECRH, successful start-up will only be possible over a very restricted range of parameters but 3MW of absorbed ECRH power will ensure reasonably robust start-up for a broad range of conditions with beryllium impurity. In the case of carbon impurity, even with an absorbed ECRH power of 5MW one may be restricted to low prefill pressure and/or low carbon concentration for successful start-up. (Author)

  3. Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwacher, Steffen; Herrmann, Volker; Heinrich, Kai; Funken, Johannes; Strutzenberger, Gerda; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Braunstein, Björn; Brazil, Adam; Irwin, Gareth; Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs) of amputee sprinters (ASs) and non-amputee sprinters (NASs). SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58–14.00 s) and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70–12.70 s) with running specific prostheses (RSPs) were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumented starting blocks that measured the applied forces in 3D. Using the NAS dataset and a combination of factor analysis and multiple regression techniques, we explored the relationship between force characteristics and SP (quantified by normalized average horizontal block power). Start kinetics were subsequently compared between ASs and NASs who were matched based on their absolute 100 m PR and their 100 m PR relative to the world record in their starting class. In NASs, 86% of the variance in SP was shared with five latent factors on which measured parameters related to force application to the rear and front blocks and the respective push-off directions in the sagittal plane of motion were loaded. Mediolateral force application had little influence on SP. The SP of ASs was significantly reduced compared to that of NASs matched on the basis of relative 100-m PR (−33.8%; d = 2.11, p < 0.001), while a non-significant performance reduction was observed when absolute 100-m PRs were used (−17.7%; d = 0.79, p = 0.09). These results are at least partially explained by the fact that force application to the rear block was clearly impaired in the affected legs of ASs. PMID:27846241

  4. Sprint Start Kinetics of Amputee and Non-Amputee Sprinters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Willwacher

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the forces applied to the starting blocks and the start performances (SPs of amputee sprinters (ASs and non-amputee sprinters (NASs. SPs of 154 male and female NASs (100-m personal records [PRs], 9.58-14.00 s and 7 male ASs (3 unilateral above knee, 3 unilateral below knee, 1 bilateral below knee; 100 m PRs, 11.70-12.70 s with running specific prostheses (RSPs were analysed during full-effort sprint starts using instrumented starting blocks that measured the applied forces in 3D. Using the NAS dataset and a combination of factor analysis and multiple regression techniques, we explored the relationship between force characteristics and SP (quantified by normalized average horizontal block power. Start kinetics were subsequently compared between ASs and NASs who were matched based on their absolute 100 m PR and their 100 m PR relative to the world record in their starting class. In NASs, 86% of the variance in SP was shared with five latent factors on which measured parameters related to force application to the rear and front blocks and the respective push-off directions in the sagittal plane of motion were loaded. Mediolateral force application had little influence on SP. The SP of ASs was significantly reduced compared to that of NASs matched on the basis of relative 100-m PR (-33.8%; d = 2.11, p < 0.001, while a non-significant performance reduction was observed when absolute 100-m PRs were used (-17.7%; d = 0.79, p = 0.09. These results are at least partially explained by the fact that force application to the rear block was clearly impaired in the affected legs of ASs.

  5. Reliability and Validity of Digital Imagery Methodology for Measuring Starting Portions and Plate Waste from School Salad Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Raynor, Hollie A; Thornton, Laura M; Sova, Alexandra; Dunne Stewart, Mary; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2018-04-12

    Scientifically sound methods for investigating dietary consumption patterns from self-serve salad bars are needed to inform school policies and programs. To examine the reliability and validity of digital imagery for determining starting portions and plate waste of self-serve salad bar vegetables (which have variable starting portions) compared with manual weights. In a laboratory setting, 30 mock salads with 73 vegetables were made, and consumption was simulated. Each component (initial and removed portion) was weighed; photographs of weighed reference portions and pre- and post-consumption mock salads were taken. Seven trained independent raters visually assessed images to estimate starting portions to the nearest ¼ cup and percentage consumed in 20% increments. These values were converted to grams for comparison with weighed values. Intraclass correlations between weighed and digital imagery-assessed portions and plate waste were used to assess interrater reliability and validity. Pearson's correlations between weights and digital imagery assessments were also examined. Paired samples t tests were used to evaluate mean differences (in grams) between digital imagery-assessed portions and measured weights. Interrater reliabilities were excellent for starting portions and plate waste with digital imagery. For accuracy, intraclass correlations were moderate, with lower accuracy for determining starting portions of leafy greens compared with other vegetables. However, accuracy of digital imagery-assessed plate waste was excellent. Digital imagery assessments were not significantly different from measured weights for estimating overall vegetable starting portions or waste; however, digital imagery assessments slightly underestimated starting portions (by 3.5 g) and waste (by 2.1 g) of leafy greens. This investigation provides preliminary support for use of digital imagery in estimating starting portions and plate waste from school salad bars. Results might inform

  6. The start up as a phase of architectural design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iara Sousa; Lima, Francisco de Paula Antunes; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura

    2012-01-01

    Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the "moving phase", which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the "moving phase" or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage not usually included in the design process.

  7. High-inertia drive motors and their starting characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The motor for a large reactor coolant pump failed while starting. The motor-application and the motor-failure are discussed in detail. A review of applications of motors for high-inertia drives shows that a motor designed and built to today's industry-standards might be overstressed while experiencing abnormal starting conditions, even though its protection is in accord with accepted practice. The inter-relationship between motor characteristics and characteristics of various types of protection are discussed, briefly. The review concludes that motor specifications and motor standards should be augmented. 1 ref

  8. Female Hires and the Success of Start-up Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Andrea; Zulehner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between females among the first hires of start-up companies and business success. Our results show that firms with female first hires have a higher share of female workers at the end of the first year after entry. Further, we find that firms with female first hires are more successful and stay longer in the market. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that gender-diversity in leading positions is an advantage for start-up firms.

  9. Systemic Inflammation, Coagulation, and Clinical Risk in the START Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Sharma, Shweta; Grund, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial demonstrated that immediate (at CD4+ >500 cells/µL) vs deferred (to CD4+ ... available for 4299 START participants (92%). Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Higher levels of IL-6 and D-dimer were the only biomarkers associated with risk for AIDS, SNA or death, as well as the individual components of SNA and AIDS events (HRs ranged 1.37-1.41 per 2-fold higher level), even after adjustment...

  10. Start-up of plasma current by electron Bernstein wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Uehide, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Electron cyclotron current drive by electron Bernstein (EB) waves for the start-up and ramp-up of toroidal plasma current with no central solenoid in tokamaks is discussed. It is shown that high N// EB waves have ability to ramp-up the current against the counter voltage from self-induction, where N// is the parallel refractive index to the magnetic field, and they are especially suitable for initial current start-up phase where the bulk electron temperature is low enough to ensure high N// EB waves. (author)

  11. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    article-by-article analysis can be found at http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /newstart/c44126.htm. 2 For a brief summary of the original START Treaty, as...2014, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/224236.htm . The fact sheet does not display warhead subtotals for each delivery system; it only includes an...of Strategic Offensive Forces, Fact Sheet, Washington, DC, April 1, 2014, http://www.state.gov/t/ avc /rls/228652.htm. The New START Treaty: Central

  12. Start-Up of FEL Oscillator from Shot Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Krishnagopal, S.; Fawley, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    In free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators, as in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FELs, the buildup of cavity power starts from shot noise resulting from the discreteness of electronic charge. It is important to do the start-up analysis for the build-up of cavity power in order to fix the macropulse width from the electron accelerator such that the system reaches saturation. In this paper, we use the time-dependent simulation code GINGER [1]to perform this analysis. We present results of this analysis for the parameters of the Compact Ultrafast TErahertz FEL (CUTE-FEL) [2] being built at RRCAT

  13. Getting started with SQL Server 2012 cube development

    CERN Document Server

    Lidberg, Simon

    2013-01-01

    As a practical tutorial for Analysis Services, get started with developing cubes. ""Getting Started with SQL Server 2012 Cube Development"" walks you through the basics, working with SSAS to build cubes and get them up and running.Written for SQL Server developers who have not previously worked with Analysis Services. It is assumed that you have experience with relational databases, but no prior knowledge of cube development is required. You need SQL Server 2012 in order to follow along with the exercises in this book.

  14. Program of RA reactor start-up to nominal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The zero start-up program is followed by the program of RA reactor start-up to nominal power. This program is described in detail and includes the following measurements: radiation characteristics at the exit of the channels; gamma and fast neutron dose distribution in the reactor; influence of absorbers on the reactivity; temperature effect; absolute flux and calibration of ionization chambers; xenon effect; thermal and hydraulics; dosimetry around the reactor; neutron flux in the reactor core and in the reactor hall; heavy water level; thermal characteristics after shutdown. A list of measuring devices and instrumentation is included with the detailed action plan and list of responsible staff members

  15. Healthy Start vitamins—a missed opportunity: findings of a multimethod study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Alison; Green, Josephine M; McLeish, Jenny; McCormick, Felicia; Williams, Victoria; Renfrew, Mary J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and provide a real-life view of the operation of the Healthy Start vitamins scheme. Setting The study took place in primary care and community settings that served rural, urban and ethnically diverse populations, in two sentinel sites: London, and Yorkshire and the Humber. An online consultation and stakeholder workshops elicited views from across England. Participants 669 health and social care practitioners including health visitors, midwives, public health practitioners, general practitioners, paediatricians and support staff participated in focus group discussions (n=49) and an online consultation (n=620). 56 participants representing health and social care practitioners, policymakers, service commissioners, and voluntary and independent sectors took part in stakeholder workshops. Methods Three-phase multimethod study comprising focus group discussions, an online consultation and stakeholder workshops. Qualitative data were analysed thematically and quantitative data from the online survey were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Study participants were concerned about the low uptake of Healthy Start vitamin supplements and the consequences of this for health outcomes for women and young children. They experienced Healthy Start vitamin distribution as logistically complex, requiring the time, resources and creative thinking of a range of local and regional practitioners from senior strategists to administrative support workers. In the light of this, many participants argued that moving to universal provision of vitamin supplements would be more cost-effective than the current system. Conclusions There is consistency of views of health practitioners that the current targeted system of providing free vitamin supplements for low-income childbearing women and young children via the Healthy Start programme is not fulfilling its potential to address vitamin deficiencies. There is wide professional and voluntary sector support for

  16. Head Start at ages 3 and 4 versus Head Start followed by state pre-k: Which is more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2016-01-01

    As policy-makers contemplate expanding preschool opportunities for low-income children, one possibility is to fund two, rather than one year of Head Start for children at ages 3 and 4. Another option is to offer one year of Head Start followed by one year of pre-k. We ask which of these options is more effective. We use data from the Oklahoma pre-k study to examine these two ‘pathways’ into kindergarten using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of each age-4 program, and propensity score weighting to address selection. We find that children attending Head Start at age 3 develop stronger pre-reading skills in a high quality pre-kindergarten at age 4 compared with attending Head Start at age 4. Pre-k and Head Start were not differentially linked to improvements in children’s pre-writing skills or pre-math skills. This suggests that some impacts of early learning programs may be related to the sequencing of learning experiences to more academic programming. PMID:27076692

  17. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool vs. Public/Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschool students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

  18. Culture-independent discovery of natural products from soil metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Micah; Hover, Bradley M; Brady, Sean F

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial natural products have proven to be invaluable starting points in the development of many currently used therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, traditional culture-based methods for natural product discovery have been deemphasized by pharmaceutical companies due in large part to high rediscovery rates. Culture-independent, or "metagenomic," methods, which rely on the heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (eDNA), have the potential to provide access to metabolites encoded by a large fraction of the earth's microbial biosynthetic diversity. As soil is both ubiquitous and rich in bacterial diversity, it is an appealing starting point for culture-independent natural product discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of the history of soil metagenome-driven natural product discovery studies and elaborates on the recent development of new tools for sequence-based, high-throughput profiling of environmental samples used in discovering novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. We conclude with several examples of these new tools being employed to facilitate the recovery of novel secondary metabolite encoding gene clusters from soil metagenomes and the subsequent heterologous expression of these clusters to produce bioactive small molecules.

  19. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  20. Electrodeless discharge lamp is easily started, has high stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, W. E.; Bloom, A. L.

    1966-01-01

    Electrodeless discharge borosilicate glass lamp is used in various high-resolution optical systems. It is partially charged with krypton, contains small amounts of rubidium, and is enclosed in a hermetically sealed envelope that maintains the lamp at an optimum temperature during discharge. The lamp is quickly started by its excitation coil.

  1. Lessons Learned about Inclusion While Starting a New College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michelle D.

    2018-01-01

    Starting a college from scratch presents a unique opportunity to think about how to build an inclusive learning environment from the beginning by selecting people and strategies that do not carry the weight of the traditional academic model and its prejudices and assumptions about who belongs and who does not. This article documents the lessons…

  2. Steps to Successful Professional Development in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of utilizing coaching-mentoring strategies with Head Start teachers identified from the results of a study which used an evidence-based approach to professional development. Early childhood and coaching practices that formed the basis of the study are explained. Implications from the study results regarding…

  3. Trends and Tensions: Australian and International Research about Starting School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper details and compares the discernible trends observed in a wide-ranging review of the recent starting school literature in Australia and beyond. More than half of the research reviewed considers children's readiness for school. This research is critiqued through a three-way view of readiness: child readiness, school readiness and support…

  4. Mass transit : FTA could relieve New Starts program funding constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) authorized $6 billion in "guaranteed" funding for the New Starts program (full funding grant agreements to help pay certain rail, bus, and trolley projects) through fiscal year 2003. The Fed...

  5. Evaluating effectiveness of project start-ups: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Johannes I.M.; Burger, G.T.N.

    In this paper an exploratory study is reported about the effectiveness of project start-up (PSU) practices within a world-scale operating, high technology innovating and manufacturing company. The emphasis is on the focal position of both project owner and project manager. To uncover potential

  6. Path to Smoking Addiction Starts at Very Young Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PATH TO TOBACCO ADDICTION STARTS AT VERY YOUNG AGES Lifetime smoking and other tobacco use almost always begins by the time kids graduate from ... regular smoking, which typically turns into a strong addiction—well before the age of 18—that can ...

  7. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden Broeck, Renilde

    2007-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collier (LHC) in 2007. (1/2 page)

  8. CERN confident of LHC start-up in 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Delegates attending the 140th meeting of CERN Council today heard a confident report from the Laboratory about the scheduled start-up of the world's highest energy particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007." (1/2 page)

  9. Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality among patients starting dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jager, Dinanda J; Grootendorst, Diana C; Jager, Kitty J

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Cardiovascular mortality is considered the main cause of death in patients receiving dialysis and is 10 to 20 times higher in such patients than in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if high overall mortality in patients starting dialysis is a consequence of increased cardiov...

  10. Characterization study of industrial waste glass as starting material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, an industrial waste glass was characterized and the potential to assess as starting material in development of bioactive materials was investigated. A waste glass collected from the two different glass industry was grounded to fine powder. The samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ...

  11. Choosing of optimal start approximation for laplace equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate Dirichlet problem for a case of two-dimensional area with lime border, numerical scheme for solving this equation is widely knowns it finite difference method. One of the major stages in the algorithm for that numerical solution is choosing of start approximation, usually as the initial values of the unknown ...

  12. Aan de start: de arbeidsmarktpositie van recent afgestudeerden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Christoph; Bles, Per; Merens, Ans; Bucx, Freek

    2018-01-01

    Dit hoofdstuk richt zich op de start van de loopbaan. We onderzoeken hoe het jongeren vergaat anderhalf jaar nadat zij hun diploma hebben behaald. De volgende onderzoeksvragen staan centraal: – Hoe is de arbeidsmarktpositie van jongeren anderhalf jaar na hun afstuderen, en welke verschillen zijn er

  13. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  14. Construction, start-up and operation of a continuously aerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale SHARON reactor are discussed, along with the construction of the reactor. Special attention is given to the start-up in view of possible toxic effects of high nitrogen concentrations (up to 4 000 mgN·ℓ-1) on the nitrifier population and ...

  15. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  16. Our start-up could never have been successful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kranendonk, J.; De Leeuw, T.; Bonger, S.

    2014-01-01

    In July 2013, TU Delft alumnus Jan van Kranendonk and his business partner Thomas de Leeuw decided to discontinue their start-up company Sunuru. The reason was that customers were not interested in their ingenious solar project. Van Kranendonk spoke about his failure during the Failcon event in

  17. Learnings from an Entrepreneur: How to Start a Consulting Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Debra

    2013-03-01

    There are important basic learnings I have experienced in starting my own consulting practice over 7 years ago. These learnings will help you maximize your value, reduce competition and build your reputation and business income. I believe these can apply to many fields but certainly for the Life Sciences. A few of the basic I will cover are

  18. Getting started with HTML5 WebSocket programming

    CERN Document Server

    Pterneas, Vangos

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with HTML5 Websocket Programming takes a tutorial-based approach.This book is for anyone who wants to build high-performance, true, real-time web applications. Being familiar with frontend web development (HTML / XHTML, JavaScript) would be ideal.

  19. Social Capital in Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning

    This paper addresses social capital in biotechnology, medico and information communication start-ups using both quantitative and qualitative data. It shows that founding teams are primarily composed of 'trusted alters' and that networking patterns are highly influenced by the entrepreneur...

  20. Gendered career considerations consolidate from the start of medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, M.; Verdonk, P.; Bor, H.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in specialty preferences and work-related topics during the theoretical phase of Dutch medical education and the role of gender. METHODS: A cohort of medical students at Radboudumc, the Netherlands, was surveyed at start (N=612, 69.1% female) and after three years

  1. Delayed Instructional Control of Head Start Children's Free Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles H.; Risley, Todd R.

    The free play of 5 black preschool Head Start children was observed. The variables manipulated in the study were delayed instructions and reinforcement for play with selected toys, and specific versus general instructions; the correspondence between the adult's instructions and reinforcement to the children's play was assessed. The data indicated…

  2. NEW VENTURE CREATION: HOW START-UPS GROW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDIN SALAMZADEH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Start-ups, often seen as sources of innovation and change, are prone to failure and accordingly they are attracting considerable attention not least from policy makers and Government officials. However, the various new venture creation studies that have emerged since the early 1980s lack cohesiveness, and the domain remains controversial. This article not only exposes the limitations of the existing body of understanding on the topic but attempts to develop a more comprehensive and comprehendible framework for start up (new venture creation. To do so it uses the frameworks proposed by Whetten, and March and Smith to develop 11 propositions. The resultant model suggests that the creation of a start up involves the identification of an idea or opportunity by an entrepreneur who subsequently organizes a series of activities, mobilizes resources and creates competence using his/her networks in an environment in order to create value. It sheds light on the start-up (new venture creation process and has relevance for entrepreneurs, policy makers and researchers.

  3. Stepping Stones: 10 Good Reasons to Start a Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsley, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    When the author embarked on a journey to start a blog, she had no idea it would save her teaching career. After several years of teaching, she was already burned out. She was caving to the negativity that can often surround education and was just plain tired. She wasn't excited about teaching like she should be. She needed something more. She…

  4. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  5. A Boom Time for Education Start-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Harsh economic realities mean trouble for college leaders. But where administrators perceive an impending crisis, investors increasingly see opportunity. In recent years, venture capitalists have poured millions into education-technology start-ups, trying to cash in on a market they see as ripe for a digital makeover. And lately, those wagers have…

  6. Multiple problems push LHC start to next spring

    CERN Multimedia

    Guinnessy, Paul

    2007-01-01

    "In June, CERN Director general Robert Aymar announced that the $7 billion Large Hadron Collider would start up in May 2008, eight months later than planned. The delay was no surprise to accelerator and particle physicists, and it was generally blamed on a highly publicized failure related to magnets made at the US's fermilab." (1 page)

  7. Starting SCF Calculations by Superposition of Atomic Densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lenthe, J.H.; Zwaans, R.; van Dam, H.J.J.; Guest, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the procedure to start an SCF calculation of the general type from a sum of atomic electron densities, as implemented in GAMESS-UK. Although the procedure is well-known for closed-shell calculations and was already suggested when the Direct SCF procedure was proposed, the general

  8. A Mental Health Consultation Program for Project Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawin, Marjorie R.

    The Psychological Center provided a family oriented mental health consultation service to 17 delegate agencies who had contracts with Head Start programs in 1966-67. This paper presents an overview of the services which an interdisciplinary staff of 52 professionals provided to 6,780 families and 1,500 agency staff members. Gerald Caplan's (1964)…

  9. Evaluation of the Start Programme: Case-Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Shona; Sharp, Caroline; Weaving, Harriet; Smith, Robert; Wheater, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report presents five case studies of long-term partnerships (over three years) between arts organisations and schools. The Start programme enables arts venues and schools to work together to offer disadvantaged young people opportunities to engage in creative activities that inspire them and enhance their experience of the arts. It is…

  10. Delayed High School Starting Times. Information Capsule. Volume 0908

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Educators around the nation are considering pushing high school starting times back until later in the morning, based on evidence suggesting that amount of sleep and circadian rhythms play a part in adolescents' academic performance. While research confirms that adolescents do not get enough sleep and that insufficient sleep can negatively…

  11. Empowerment Starts Here: Seven Principles to Empowering Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Angela

    2011-01-01

    "Empowerment Starts Here" covers an experimental approach to social change within urban communities by way of seven distinct principles for student empowerment. Turning classroom methods into a school model, Preparatory School for Global Leadership was the first to experience student empowerment at a school-wide level. This book provides insight…

  12. Creating Start-up Companies around NCI Inventions | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Karen Surabian, Thomas Stackhouse, and Rose Freel, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer The National Cancer Institute (NCI), led by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC),  the Avon Foundation, and The Center for Advancing Innovation have partnered to create a “first-of-a-kind” Breast Cancer Start-up Challenge.

  13. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  14. Dampak Mentoring Pada Keberhasilan Start-Up Business: Studi Kasus Pada Start-Up Business di Indonesia [Mentoring the Impact of Success of a Start-Up Business: A Case Study of a Start-Up Business in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Yanita Setyawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a highly developed science today, as well as in the world of education in Indonesia. Teaching entrepreneurship at the university level, especially at some universities in Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, shows the positive impact that there were 74.03% of start-up businesses that survived and thrived in 2014. Based on the previous observation, some business start-ups are accompanied by a mentor. Mentoring is a process of forming and maintaining lasting relationships that develop intensively among seniors with juniors. The mentoring function includes career and psychosocial functions. The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship between mentoring and the success of a start-up business. This study is a quantitative descriptive study using a random sampling method to obtain 100 samples. The tool used to collect data was a questionnaire. The methodology used to analyze the quantitative description to test the hypothesis. The results of this study indicate that mentoring influences the success of a start-up business that was owned by university students in Surabaya, Indonesia by 32% and 78% was influenced by other variables.

  15. Joint kinetic determinants of starting block performance in athletic sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Adam; Exell, Timothy; Wilson, Cassie; Willwacher, Steffen; Bezodis, Ian N; Irwin, Gareth

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between lower limb joint kinetics, external force production and starting block performance (normalised average horizontal power, NAHP). Seventeen male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.67 ± 0.32 s) performed maximal block starts from instrumented starting blocks (1000 Hz) whilst 3D kinematics (250 Hz) were also recorded during the block phase. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment and power were calculated at the rear and front leg using inverse dynamics. Average horizontal force applied to the front (r = 0.46) and rear (r = 0.44) block explained 86% of the variance in NAHP. At the joint level, many "very likely" to "almost certain" relationships (r = 0.57 to 0.83) were found between joint kinetic data and the magnitude of horizontal force applied to each block although stepwise multiple regression revealed that 55% of the variance in NAHP was accounted for by rear ankle moment, front hip moment and front knee power. The current study provides novel insight into starting block performance and the relationships between lower limb joint kinetic and external kinetic data that can help inform physical and technical training practices for this skill.

  16. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  17. One Third More: Maine Head Start Expansion with State Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Jane

    The expansion of Project Head Start in Maine to the point of serving nearly 25 percent of eligible children is detailed in this report. Section I describes the expansion and some of its benefits, such as equalization of services across county boundaries and the establishment of a uniform unit cost-per-child for use in appropriating state funds.…

  18. The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both-De Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G

    Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5(1/2)-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of

  19. University–industry collaboration: Jump-starting innovation | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... In Costa Rica, researchers and business have found innovative ways to ... To jump-start these collaborations, IDRC is supporting research teams in 12 ... steel company recently tried to license a type of steel easy to mould into ...

  20. Spousal Capital as a Resource for Couples Starting a Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, Amanda E.; Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Danes, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study finds that spousal capital is an important resource for entrepreneurs starting a business because it has implications for business sustainability and couple relationship quality. Structural equation modeling supported a process whereby gender had an impact on spousal involvement in the business, which was positively…