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Sample records for erbium tellurides

  1. Doping of germanium telluride with bismuth tellurides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrikosov, N.Kh.; Karpinskij, O.G.; Makalatiya, T.Sh.; Shelimova, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of germanium telluride doping with bismuth fellurides (Bi 2 Te 3 ; BiTe; Bi 2 Te) on phase transition temperature, lattice parameters and electrophysical properties of alloys is studied. It is shown that in alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 (BiTe)(Bi 2 Te) cross sections solid solution of GeTe with Bi 2 Te 3 , characterized by deviation from stoichiometry, and germanium in the second phase the quantity of which increases during the transition from GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section to GeTe-Bi 2 Te are in equilibrium. Lower values of holes concentration and of electric conductivity and higher values of thermo e.m.f. coefficient in comparison with alloys of GeTe-Bi 2 Te 3 cross section with the same bismuth content are characterized for GeTe-Bi 2 Te cross section alloys. It is shown that in the range of GeTe-base solid solution the α→γ phase transformation which runs trough the two-phase region (α→γ) is observed with tellurium content increase. Extension of α-phase existence region widens with the bismuth content increase. Peculiarities of interatomic interaction in GeTe-base solid solutions with isovalent and heterovalent cation substitution are considered [ru

  2. Progress on erbium-doped waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Berendt, Martin Ole; Broeng, Jes

    1997-01-01

    The recent development in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, and fiber lasers is reviewed. Also the latest results on planar erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and high erbium concentration characterisation methods are presented...

  3. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  4. Interaction of water vapor with erbium and erbium dideuteride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.M.; Swartz, W.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of water vapor with erbium and erbium dideuteride thin films was studied by x-ray diffraction, mass spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. The data indicate that significant reactions take place above 573 K forming both the hydride and the oxide. The data also indicate that isotopic displacement occurs. These are important considerations in hydrogen storage applications

  5. Magnetic Structure of Erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob; Axe, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    We present a synchrotron x-ray scattering study of the magnetic phases of erbium. In addition to the magnetic scattering located at the fundamental wave vector τm we also observe scattering from magnetoelastically induced charge modulations at the fundamental wave vector, at twice the fundamental......, and at positions split symmetrically about the fundamental. As the temperature is lowered below 52 K the charge and magnetic scattering display a sequence of lock-in transitions to rational wave vectors. A spin-slip description of the magnetic structure is presented which explains the wave vectors...

  6. Erbium diffusion in titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Basse

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The diffusivity of erbium in the anatase phase of titanium dioxide (TiO2 has been studied for various temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1, 000 °C. Samples of TiO2, with a 10 nm thick buried layer containing 0.5 at% erbium, were fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and subsequently heat treated. The erbium concentration profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, allowing for determination of the temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients. These were found to follow an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of ( 2.1 ± 0.2 eV. X-ray diffraction revealed that the TiO2 films consisted of polycrystalline grains of size ≈ 100 nm.

  7. Dipolar quantum gases of erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the preparation of the first Bose-Einstein condensate about two decades ago and the first degenerate Fermi gas following four years later a plethora of fascinating quantum phenomena have been explored. The vast majority of experiments focused on quantum degenerate atomic gases with short-range contact interaction between particles. Atomic species with large magnetic dipole moments, such as chromium, dysprosium, and erbium, offer unique possibilities to investigate phenomena arising from dipolar interaction. This kind of interaction is not only long-range but also anisotropic in character and imprints qualitatively novel features on the system. Prominent examples are the d-wave collapse of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate of chromium atoms realized by the group in Stuttgart, the spin magnetization and demagnetization dynamics observed by groups in Stuttgart, Paris, and Stanford, and the deformation of the Fermi surface observed by our group in Innsbruck. This thesis reports on the creation and study of the first Bose-Einstein condensate and degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms. Erbium belongs to the lanthanide group of elements and has a large magnetic moment of seven Bohr magneton. In particular, this thesis describes the experimental apparatus and the sequence for producing a dipolar quantum gas. There is an emphasis on the production of the narrow-line magneto-optical trap of erbium since this represents a very efficient and robust laser-cooling scheme that greatly simplifies the experimental procedure. After describing the experimental setup this thesis focuses on several fundamental questions related to the dipolar character of erbium and to its lanthanide nature. A first set of studies centers on the scattering properties of ultracold erbium atoms, including the elastic and the inelastic cross section and the spectrum of Feshbach resonances. Specifically, we observe that identical dipolar fermions do collide and rethermalize even at low temperatures

  8. Preparation of Erbium-169 (169Er) Using Natural Erbium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmairit Aziz; Nana Suherman

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals which is labelled by β-particle emission are now increasingly used in nuclear medicine. Erbium-169 ('1 69 Er) is one of radioisotopes that can be used for radiation synovectomy (radio synovectomy) in the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases (arthritis) due to its β- particle emission (T 1/2 =9.4 days, E β maximum =0.34 MeV). The preliminary study on preparation of 169 Er by using natural erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) target irradiated at TRIGA 2000 Bandung reactor has been carried out. The irradiated target was dissolved in hydrochloric acid solution and gentle warming. The optimum condition of 169 Er preparation was obtained by dissolution of 169 Er 2 O 3 by using 1N HCl solution. The radiochemical purity of 169 ErCl 3 was determined by paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography and paper electrophoresis techniques. The solution of 169 ErCl 3 formed was obtained with the pH of 1.5 – 2, clear, with the specific activity of 0.48 – 0.71 MBq/mg Er. The solution has the radiochemical purity of 98.32 ± 1.28% and the radionuclide purity of 99.98%. Study on the stability of 169 ErCl 3 solution showed that the solution was still stable for 4 days at room temperature with the radiochemical purity more than 95%. (author)

  9. Systems of erbium chloride- carbamide- water and erbium nitrate- carbamide- water at 30 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtimbetov, K.; Sulajmankulov, K.S.; Batyuk, A.G.; Ismailov, M.

    1975-01-01

    The systems erbium chloride - carbamide - water and erbium nitrate - carbamide - water were studied by solubility method at 30 deg C. In the system erbium chloride - carbamide - water three compounds were detected: ErClsub(3).6CO(NHsub(2))sub(2), ErClsub(3).4CO(NHsub(2))sub(2), ErClsub(3).2CO(NHsub(2))sub2.6Hsub(2)O. In the system erbium nitrate -carbamide - water two new compounds were found: Er(NOsub(3))sub(3).4CO(NHsub(2))sub2, Er(NOsub(3) )sub(3)

  10. Erbium Doped Fiber Optic Gravimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Sánchez, G G; Pérez-Torres, J R; Flores-Bravo, J A; Álvarez-Chávez, J A; Martínez-Piñón, F

    2017-01-01

    Gravimeters are devices that can be used in a wide range of applications, such as mining, seismology, geodesy, archeology, geophysics and many others. These devices have great sensibility, which makes them susceptible to external vibrations like electromagnetic waves. There are several technologies regarding gravimeters that are of use in industrial metrology. Optical fiber is immune to electromagnetic interference, and together with long period gratings can form high sensibility sensors of small size, offering advantages over other systems with different technologies. This paper shows the development of an optical fiber gravimeter doped with Erbium that was characterized optically for loads going from 1 to 10 kg in a bandwidth between 1590nm to 1960nm, displaying a weight linear response against power. Later on this paper, the experimental results show that the previous described behavior can be modeled as characteristic function of the sensor. (paper)

  11. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  12. Perioral Rejuvenation With Ablative Erbium Resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the scanning full-field erbium laser, misconceptions regarding ablative erbium resurfacing have resulted in its being largely overshadowed by ablative fractional resurfacing. This case report illustrates the appropriateness of full-field erbium ablation for perioral resurfacing. A patient with profoundly severe perioral photodamage etched-in lines underwent full-field ablative perioral resurfacing with an erbium laser (Contour TRL, Sciton Inc., Palo Alto, CA) that allows separate control of ablation and coagulation. The pre-procedure consultations included evaluation of the severity of etched-in lines, and discussion of patient goals, expectations, and appropriate treatment options, as well as a review of patient photos and post-treatment care required. The author generally avoids full-field erbium ablation in patients with Fitzpatrick type IV and above. For each of 2 treatment sessions (separated by approximately 4 months), the patient received (12 cc plain 2% lidodaine) sulcus blocks before undergoing 4 passes with the erbium laser at 150 μ ablation, no coagulation, and then some very focal 30 μ ablation to areas of residual lines still visualized through the pinpoint bleeding. Similarly, full-field ablative resurfacing can be very reliable for significant wrinkles and creping in the lower eyelid skin--where often a single treatment of 80 μ ablation, 50 μ coagulation can lead to a nice improvement. Standardized digital imaging revealed significant improvement in deeply etched rhytides without significant adverse events. For appropriately selected patients requiring perioral (or periorbital) rejuvenation, full-field ablative erbium resurfacing is safe, efficacious and merits consideration.

  13. Occurency and aqueous processing of tellurides from Sonora (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, S.; Perez, E.; Ecinas, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Tellurium production is limited mainly to that obtained from the treatment of electrolyte muds from copper refineries. however, there are several other sources from which the precious metal tellurides are potentially attractive. This work presents a review of the main localitiesin Sonora (Mexico), where tellurides have been found. In addition, based upon the physical chemistry fundamentals for tellurium and precious metal tellurides, the aqueous extraction and recovery routes are discussed. (Author) 51 refs

  14. Polyurethane doped with low-concentration erbium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciobanu, C.; Stoica, E.; Cascaval, C.N.; Rosu, D.; Rosu, L.; State, M.; Emandi, A.; Nemes, I.; Petrescu, F.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Polyurethane (PU) with lactate structures inits conformation can be used as a biological and biodegradablepolymer. Polyurethane lactate (PUL) was dopedwith small quantities of an erbium (Er3þ) complex, whichhindered the N¼N group. 2,20-Dihydroxyazobenzene wasused as a ligand for the Er3þ

  15. Magnetic structures of erbium under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawano, S.; Lebech, B.; Achiwa, N.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of the magnetic structures of erbium metal at 4.5 K and 11.5 kbar hydrostatic pressure have revealed that the transition to a conical structure at low temperatures is suppressed and that the cycloidal structure, with modulation vector Q congruent-to (2/7 2pi/c)c persists...

  16. Luminescence of porous silicon doped by erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.P.; Vorozov, N.N.; Dolgij, L.N.; Dorofeev, A.M.; Kazyuchits, N.M.; Leshok, A.A.; Troyanova, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the 1.54 μm intensive luminescence in the silicon dense porous layers, doped by erbium, with various structures is shown. Low-porous materials of both porous type on the p-type silicon and porous silicon with wood-like structure on the n + type silicon may be used for formation of light-emitting structures

  17. Tellurium self-diffusion and point defects in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simirskij, Yu.N.; Firsova, L.P.

    1982-01-01

    Method of radioactive indicators was used to determine factors of tellurium self-diffusion in lead telluride with different deviation of the composition from stoichiometric in the range of enrichment by tellurium. It was found that at 973 K factors of tellurium self-diffusion in lead telluride depend slightly on the vapor pressure of tellurium equilibrium with solid phase

  18. Development of planar waveguides in zinc telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, Serge

    1977-02-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is one of the most attractive semi-conductors for monolithic integrated optics. In this study, the general characteristics of the planar optical waveguides achieved by implantation of light ions in ZnTe are investigated. Different aspects of prism-coupling and coherent light guiding have been taken up theoretically and experimentally. Some assumptions about the physical origin of these structures are discussed in order to explain all these results and the weak losses which have been measured. [fr

  19. The growth of crystals of erbium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, J.A.; Spooner, F.J.; Wilson, C.G.; McQuillan, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Crystals of the rare-earth hydride ErH 2 have been produced with face areas greater than a square millimetre and corresponding volumes exceeding those of earlier crystals by orders of magnitude. The hydride, which was produced in bulk polycrystalline form by hydriding erbium metal at 950 0 C, has been examined by optical and X-ray techniques. For material of composition ErH 2 and ErHsub(1.8) the size of the grains and their degree of strain appears to depend more on oxygen contamination during formation and on the subsequent cooling procedure, than on the size of erbium metal crystals in the starting material. (author)

  20. Noise in distributed erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical limits in noise figure for a long-haul transmission line based on lumped amplification are contrasted with distributed amplification. The latter results in a reduction of approximately 60% of the required number of pump power stations. The distributed optical amplification is provided...... by an erbium-doped fiber and comparisons of aluminum and germanium as codopant materials are shown. The pump power consumption and noise figure are analyzed with respect to the background loss...

  1. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO 3 solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er 3+ ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

  2. Mercury telluride as a zero-gap semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berchenko, N.N.; Pashkovskij, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of main properties of mercury telluride which is a representative of a new class of substances - gapless semiconductors. The causes leading to the appearance of a gapless state in mercury chalcogenides are considered; it is demonstrated that the main role in the formation of the inverse band structure belongs to relativistic corrections. The specific properties of mercury telluride are associated with the zero forbidden band, p-like nature of electron states of the conduction band and its nonparabolicity, resonance states of impurities and anomalies of dielectric permittivity. Conditions of forbidden band appearing in mercury telluride under the effect external factors are analyzed

  3. Detailed design analysis of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1991-01-01

    When pumping the erbium-doped fiber amplifier at 0.98 and 1.48 mu m, the optimum cutoff wavelength for step profiles with arbitrary numerical aperture is shown to be 0.80 and 0.90 mu m, respectively. The use of a confined erbium profile can improve the gain coefficient up to 45%. The index raising...

  4. Synthesis of erbium oxide nanosheets and up-conversion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X. B.; Wang, Cen; Hu, X.R.

    2011-01-01

    A novel erbium-based compound as well as Er2O3 nanosheets have been synthesized through a simple hydrothermal route. The nanosheets are of 200 nm width and 10–15 nm thickness. It is suggested that this erbium-based compound has a possible formula of Er2O5H4 with a primitive tetragonal structure (...

  5. Precipitate coarsening and self organization in erbium-doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sckerl, Mads W.; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Poulsen, Mogens Rysholt

    1999-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment at and above 1100 degrees C on thin erbium-rich silica layers embedded in silica has been studied experimentally by secondary ion-mass spectrometry and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Redistribution of erbium atoms is observed at these temperature...

  6. ytterbium- & erbium-doped silica for planar waveguide lasers & amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate ytterbium doped planar components and investigate the possibilities of making erbium/ytterbium codoped planar waveguides in germano-silica glass. Furthermore, tools for modelling lasers and erbium/ytterbium doped amplifiers. The planar waveguides were...

  7. Long distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    High bit rate, all-optical long-distance transmission could be created through the combined use of loss-compensating gain in erbium-doped fibers and solitons. A detailed analysis of the distributed erbium-doped fiber, including the spectral-gain dependency, is combined with an optimum design...... of the transmission fiber and general bit-error-rate calculations. Changes in wavenumber, group velocity, and fiber dispersion due to erbium doping in a single-mode fiber are evaluated, and a reduction in bit-error rates due to the erbium spectral-gain profile is shown. Transmission through distributed erbium......-doped fiber with 100-km separation between each pump-power station is shown, with a total bit-rate distance product of 55 Gb/s · Mm...

  8. Studies of antimony telluride and copper telluride films electrodeposition from choline chloride containing ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Sin, Ion [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Cotarta, Adina [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocaru, Anca, E-mail: a_cojocaru@chim.upb.ro [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Visan, Teodor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-29

    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the deposition of antimony telluride or copper telluride from ionic liquid consisting in mixture of choline chloride with oxalic acid. In addition, the cathodic process during copper telluride formation was studied in the mixture of choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The results indicate that the Pt electrode is first covered with a Te layer, and then the more negative polarisation leads to the deposition of Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} or Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} semiconductor compounds. Thin films were deposited on copper and carbon steel at 60–70 °C and were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their stoichiometry depends on the bath composition and applied potential. EDS and XRD patterns indicate the possible synthesis of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase and Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases, respectively, by controlling the ratio of ion concentrations in ionic liquid electrolytes and deposition potential. - Highlights: • Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} and Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} films electrodeposited from choline-chloride-based ionic liquids. • The stoichiometry of film depends on the bath composition and deposition potential. • Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases were identified in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  9. Telluride School, Telluride, Colorado solar-energy-system performance evaluation, February 1982-April 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Telluride School solar site is an elementary/junior-senior high school in Colorado with a passive/active hybrid solar energy system designed to supply 40% of the heating load. It is equipped with a 1428 square foot, double glazed Trombe wall, a 1392 square foot greenhouse with collection tube, and an auxiliary oil-fired boiler. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the Trombe wall, greenhouse, and greenhouse storage. System operation is illustrated by graphs of typical Trombe wall insolation and temperatures and typical greenhouse insolation and temperatures. (LEW)

  10. Optical properties of erbium-doped porous silicon waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)]. E-mail: joel.charier@univ-rennes1.fr; Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Lorrain, N. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Elhouichet, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Planar and buried channel porous silicon waveguides (WG) were prepared from p{sup +}-type silicon substrate by a two-step anodization process. Erbium ions were incorporated into pores of the porous silicon layers by an electrochemical method using ErCl{sub 3}-saturated solution. Erbium concentration of around 10{sup 20} at/cm{sup 3} was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis performed on SEM cross-section. The luminescence properties of erbium ions in the IR range were determined and a luminescence time decay of 420 {mu}s was measured. Optical losses were studied on these WG. The increased losses after doping were discussed.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of lead telluride/bismuth antimony telluride nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Zhou, Chen; Morelli, Donald; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous nanocomposites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 2- xSb xTe 3) with lead telluride (PbTe) nanoinclusions have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation approach. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured from 80 to 380 K in order to investigate the influence of PbTe nanoparticles on the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposites. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of nanocomposites decrease with increasing PbTe nanoparticle concentration due to an increased hole concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of PbTe nanoparticles but the total thermal conductivity increases due to the increased electronic thermal conductivity. We conclude that the presence of nanosized PbTe in the bulk Bi 2- xSb xTe 3 matrix results in a collateral doping effect, which dominates transport properties. This study underscores the need for immiscible systems to achieve the decreased thermal transport properties possible from nanostructuring without compromising the electronic properties.

  12. Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Zinc Telluride Films for Back Contact to Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Tushar M.; Drayton, Jennifer; Swanson, Drew E.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2017-08-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) films have been deposited onto uncoated glass superstrates by reactive radiofrequency (RF) sputtering with different amounts of nitrogen introduced into the process gas, and the structural and electronic transport properties of the resulting nitrogen-doped ZnTe (ZnTe:N) films characterized. Based on transmission and x-ray diffraction measurements, it was observed that the crystalline quality of the ZnTe:N films decreased with increasing nitrogen in the deposition process. The bulk carrier concentration of the ZnTe:N films determined from Hall-effect measurements showed a slight decrease at 4% nitrogen flow rate. The effect of ZnTe:N films as back contact to cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells was also investigated. ZnTe:N films were deposited before or after CdCl2 passivation on CdTe/CdS samples. Small-area devices were characterized for their electronic properties. Glancing-angle x-ray diffraction measurements and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed substantial loss of zinc from the samples where CdCl2 passivation was carried out after ZnTe:N film deposition.

  13. Rate equation modelling of erbium luminescence dynamics in erbium-doped silicon-rich-silicon-oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Miraj, E-mail: m.shah@ee.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Wojdak, Maciej; Kenyon, Anthony J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Halsall, Matthew P.; Li, Hang; Crowe, Iain F. [Photon Science Institute and School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville St Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Erbium doped silicon-rich silica offers broad band and very efficient excitation of erbium photoluminescence (PL) due to a sensitization effect attributed to silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc), which grow during thermal treatment. PL decay lifetime measurements of sensitised Er{sup 3+} ions are usually reported to be stretched or multi exponential, very different to those that are directly excited, which usually show a single exponential decay component. In this paper, we report on SiO{sub 2} thin films doped with Si-nc's and erbium. Time resolved PL measurements reveal two distinct 1.54 {mu}m Er decay components; a fast microsecond component, and a relatively long lifetime component (10 ms). We also study the structural properties of these samples through TEM measurements, and reveal the formation of Er clusters. We propose that these Er clusters are responsible for the fast {mu}s decay component, and we develop rate equation models that reproduce the experimental transient observations, and can explain some of the reported transient behaviour in previously published literature.

  14. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  15. Erbium: alternative poison? stabilisation additive? what future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Asou, M.

    2001-01-01

    Erbium was proposed as alternative poison to gadolinium at a very early stage. The potential interest of this poison compared to gadolinium is that it presents a relatively low ( 167 Er) absorption cross section in the thermal range and a non-negligible resonance integral that lead to a relatively slow consumption kinetic rather adapted to long or even very long cycles. The poisoning mode adapted to this poison, homogeneous in low concentration (< 3 %), does not downgrade the power distribution, on the one hand, as the absorption is low and spatially homogeneous, and the thermal conductivity, on the other hand, as the addition in the fuel oxide is in low quantity. A review of knowledge acquired as regards Er, from the 1960's to now, is presented. (authors)

  16. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te and bismuth (Bi were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to show granular growth.

  17. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical stability of lead telluride (PbTe), trying to vary its mechanical properties independently from its thermoelectric properties. Thus the influence of material preparation as well as different dopants on the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of lead telluride is being analysed. When using appropriately set process parameters, milling and sintering of lead telluride increases the material's hardness. With sintering temperatures exceeding 300 C stable material of high relative density can be achieved. Milling lead telluride generates lattice defects leading to a reduction of the material's charge carrier density. These defects can be reduced by increased sintering temperatures. Contamination of the powder due to the milling process leads to bloating during thermal cycling and thus reduced density of the sintered material. In addition to that, evaporation of tellurium at elevated temperatures causes instability of the material's thermoelectric properties. Based on the experimental results obtained in this work, the best thermoelectric and mechanical properties can be obtained by sintering coarse powders at around 400 C. Within this work a concept was developed to vary the mechanical properties of lead telluride via synthesis of PbTe with electrically nondoping elements, which thus may keep the thermoelectric properties unchanged. Therefore, the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of Pb 1-x Ca x Te were investigated. Doping pure PbTe with calcium causes a significant increase of the material's hardness while only slightly decreasing the charge carrier density and thus keeping the thermoelectric properties apart from a slight reduction of the electrical conductivity nearly unchanged. The abovementioned concept is proven using sodium doped lead telluride, as it is used for thermoelectric generators: The additional doping with calcium again increases the material's hardness while its thermoelectric properties

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of lead telluride/bismuth antimony telluride nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Zhou Chen; Morelli, Donald; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Uher, Ctirad; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous nanocomposites of p-type bismuth antimony telluride (Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 ) with lead telluride (PbTe) nanoinclusions have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation approach. The Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and Hall coefficient were measured from 80 to 380 K in order to investigate the influence of PbTe nanoparticles on the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposites. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of nanocomposites decrease with increasing PbTe nanoparticle concentration due to an increased hole concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity decreases with the addition of PbTe nanoparticles but the total thermal conductivity increases due to the increased electronic thermal conductivity. We conclude that the presence of nanosized PbTe in the bulk Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 matrix results in a collateral doping effect, which dominates transport properties. This study underscores the need for immiscible systems to achieve the decreased thermal transport properties possible from nanostructuring without compromising the electronic properties. - Graphical abstract: PbTe nanoparticles introduced into p-type Bi 2 Te 3 by incipient wetness results in decreased lattice thermal conductivity, but also acts as an electronic dopant, resulting in an overall decrease in thermoelectric performance. Highlights: ► Composites of PbTe nanoparticles in Bi 2−x Sb x Te 3 were formed by incipient wetness. ► PbTe nanoparticles leads to decreased κ l , consistent with phonon scattering. ► PbTe nanoparticles lead to decreased S and ρ, due to increased carriers. ► Collateral doping from PbTe leads to decreased ZT with increasing concentration. ► Immiscible systems are preferred for improved ZT.

  19. Erbium diffusion from erbium metal or erbium oxide layers deposited on the surface of various LiNbO3 cuts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Cajzl, J.; Švecová, B.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Vacík, Jiří; Spirkova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2013), s. 402-407 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA TA ČR TA01010237 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : lithium niobate * erbium * erbium oxide * diffusion doping * luminescent materials Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.075, year: 2013

  20. High-temperature thermoelectric behavior of lead telluride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The central problem in thermoelectric material research is the selection of ... temperature range (400–1000 K), and bismuth telluride-based materials .... parent from the results that band non-parabolicity has a significant effect on the .... M P Singh thankfully acknowledges financial assistance from the Council of Scien-.

  1. Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...

  2. Compact erbium lasers in the IR photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baining; Eichler, Hans J.; Sperlich, O.; Holschbach, A.; Kayser, M.

    1996-09-01

    Erbium lasers deliver laser radiation near 3 micrometers and are a promising alternative to excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (UV-PRK). In addition to easier handling due to all solid state technology, especially when operated in the fundamental mode, IR-PRK eliminates the potential of mutagenic side effects associated with UV-PRK. However, a successful IR-PRK for the clinic treatment in the near future demands both technological development of erbium lasers in different operation modes and clinical investigation of interaction between 3 micrometers radiation and human corneas. The excellent cooperation between university, company and hospital makes this possible. Uncoated thin plates made from infrared materials were found to be effective etalon reflectors with high damage threshold as high as 1 GW/cm2 for erbium lasers. Four kinds of such reflectors were successfully tested in Q-switched Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 micrometers and Er:Cr:YSGG-laser at 2.80 micrometers. Very stable operation of our erbium lasers with high output energy both in free-running and Q-switched modes is realized. First infrared photorefractive keratectomy (IR-PRK) for myopic correction in human corneas by a free-running erbium laser based on our new construction concepts was achieved.

  3. Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Snow, Clark S.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  4. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  5. Post-CMOS FinFET integration of bismuth telluride and antimony telluride thin-film-based thermoelectric devices on SoI substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan; Ghafouri, Niloufar; Smith, Casey; Peterson, Rebecca Lorenz; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Najafi, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports, for the first time, heterogeneous integration of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb 2Te3) thin-film-based thermoelectric ffect transistors) via a characterized TE-film coevaporationand shadow-mask patterning

  6. Synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium silicate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miritello, Maria; Lo Savio, Roberto; Iacona, Fabio; Franzo, Giorgia; Bongiorno, Corrado; Priolo, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the structure and the room temperature luminescence of erbium silicate thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. Films deposited on silicon oxide layers are characterized by good structural properties and excellent stability. The optical properties of these films are strongly improved by rapid thermal annealing processes performed in the range of temperature 800-1250 deg. C. In fact through the reduction of the defect density of the material, a very efficient room temperature photoluminescence at 1535 nm is obtained. We have also investigated the influence of the annealing ambient, by finding that treatments in O 2 atmosphere are significantly more efficient in improving the optical properties of the material with respect to processes in N 2 . Upconversion effects become effective only when erbium silicate is excited with high pump powers. The evidence that all Er atoms (about 10 22 cm -3 ) in erbium silicate films are optically active suggests interesting perspectives for optoelectronic applications of this material

  7. Dysprosium (holmium) determination in the presence of erbium and dysprosium (holmium, erbium) determination in the presence of cerium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolubara, A.I.; Kochubej, A.I.; Usatenko, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    Effect of salicylic acid upon complex formation in the systems REE - boronsulfoalizarinate, REE - oxine and REE - boronsulfoalizarinate - oxine is investigated. Comparison of optical characteristics of the above systems in the absence and in the presence of salicylic acid is carried out. It is established that in all the cases the effect of salicylic acid depends both on the nature of REE and the ratio of all the components of the system. Under certain conditions the given dependence is observed only for erbium complexes. Extraction-photometric methods of dysprosium and holmium determination in the presence of equal erbium amounts, as well as holmium and erbium determination in the presence of cerium equal amounts is developed

  8. Dysprosium (holmium) determination in the presence of erbium and dysprosium (holmium, erbium) determination in the presence of cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolubara, A I; Kochubei, A I; Usatenko, Yu I

    1978-01-01

    Effect of salicylic acid upon complex formation in the systems REE - boronsulfoalizarinate, REE - oxine and REE - boronsulfoalizarinate - oxine is investigated. Comparison of optical characteristics of the above systems in the absence and in the presence of salicylic acid is carried out. It is established that in all the cases the effect of salicylic acid depends both on the nature of REE and the ratio of all the components of the system. Under certain conditions the given dependence is observed only for erbium complexes. Extraction-photometric methods of dysprosium and holmium determination in the presence of equal erbium amounts, as well as holmium and erbium determination in the presence of cerium equal amounts is developed.

  9. About thermo-electric properties of bismuth telluride doped by gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akperov, M.M.; Ismailov, Sh.S.; Shukyurova, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of study of the Gd impurities effect on the bismuth telluride thermo-electric properties are presented. The experiment was carried out within the temperature range T=300-700 K. It is determined, that at temperature increase the energy level is appreciably closing up to bismuth telluride forbidden zone which makes up 0.16-0.24 eV. Such anomalous energy properties of gadolinium in telluride affect on material thermoelectric properties

  10. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  11. Scientific/Technical Report: Improvement in compensation and crystal growth of cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelvin G. Lynn; Kelly A. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of actual accomplishments with goals and objectives: (1) Growth of 12 ingots--Washington State University (WSU) more than met this goal for the project by growing 12 final ingots for the year. Nine of the twelve crystal growth ingots resolved gamma radiation at room temperature. The other three ingots where resistivity of ∼ 3 x 10 8 Ohm*cm for CG32a, CG36, and CG42 lower than expected, however none of these were tried with blocking contacts. All ingots were evaluated from tip to heel. In these three cases, the group III, dopant Aluminum (Al) was not detected to a level to compensate the Cd vacancies in the cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) thus the ingots were lower resistivity. The nine ingots that were successful radiation detectors averaged a bulk resistivity of 1.25 x 10 10 Ohm*cm and with a average μτ product for electrons of ∼ 2 x 10 -4 cm 2 /V with a 1/4 microsecond shaping time with samples ∼2 mm in thickness. (2) Attempt new compensations techniques--WSU also met this goal. Several doping schemes were attempted and investigated with various amounts of excess Tellurium added to the growth. The combination of Al and Erbium (Er) were first attempted for these ingots and subsequently CG34 was grown with Al, Er and Holmium. These compensation techniques produced radiation detectors and are currently under investigation. These growths were made with significant different doping levels to determine the affect of the dopants. CG43 was doped with Indium and Er. Indium was introduced instead of Al to determine if Indium is more soluble than Al for CZT and was less oxidized. This may decrease the amount of low resistivity ingots grown by doping with Indium instead of Al. (3) Grow large single crystals--Several changes in approach occurred in the crystal growth furnace. Steps were taken to maximize the crystal growth interface during growth by modifying liners, quartz, heat sinks, crucibles and various growth steps and temperature profiles. CG39 ingot

  12. Erbium-doped integrated waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradley, J.; Pollnau, Markus

    Erbium-doped fiber devices have been extraordinarily successful due to their broad optical gain around 1.5–1.6 μm. Er-doped fiber amplifiers enable efficient, stable amplification of high-speed, wavelength-division-multiplexed signals, thus continue to dominate as part of the backbone of longhaul

  13. Spectroscopic properties of Pr -doped erbium oxalate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic properties of praseodymium ions-doped erbium oxalate ... solution with specific gravity 1.04 g/cm3 was mixed homogeneously with 0.5 M oxalic ... of concentrated nitric acid were transferred carefully and gently through the wall ...

  14. Gettering of carbon dioxide by erbium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrhoff, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of carbon dioxide and erbium thin films is characterized at 300 to 900 0 C and 5 x 10 -7 torr. Temperature ramp experiments with thin erbium films indicated a significant reaction above 300 0 C, preceded by desorption of water vapor, hydrogen and nitrogen and/or carbon monoxide from the film surface. The sticking coefficients were plotted as a function of Langmuirs of carbon dioxide exposure. Between 400 and 600 0 C, the length of the exposure was found to be more important than the temperature of the exposure in determining the sticking coefficient. Some evolution of carbon monoxide was noted particularly in the 400 to 500 0 C region. An 80% conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide was measured at 500 0 C. The film pumping speeds were compared with published vapor pressure data for erbium. This comparison indicated that a significant portion of the pumping action observed at temperatures of 800 0 C and above was due to evaporation of erbium metal

  15. Method of Creating Micro-scale Silver Telluride Grains Covered with Bismuth Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Lee, Kunik (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Provided is a method of enhancing thermoelectric performance by surrounding crystalline semiconductors with nanoparticles by contacting a bismuth telluride material with a silver salt under a substantially inert atmosphere and a temperature approximately near the silver salt decomposition temperature; and recovering a metallic bismuth decorated material comprising silver telluride crystal grains.

  16. Effect of temperature on the active properties of erbium-doped optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, L V [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ignat' ev, A D [FORC - Photonics group, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the effect of heating on the performance of erbium-doped fibre based devices and determined temperaturedependent absorption and emission cross sections of the erbium ion in silica glass. The results demonstrate that heating of fibres in claddingpumped high-power (∼100 W) erbium-doped fibre lasers causes no significant decrease in their efficiency. In contrast, superluminescent sources operating in the long-wavelength region (1565 – 1610 nm) are extremely sensitive to temperature changes. (fiber optics)

  17. Electrical properties of cadmium telluride films doped with antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atdaev, B.S.; Garyagdyev, G.; Grin', V.F.; Noskov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of cadmium telluride doping with antimony on electric and photoelectric properties is investigated. Temperature dependence of dark (σ d ) and photoconductivity (σ p ) during excitation from the range of proper absorption in the temperature range 77-300 K and spectral distribution of photoconductivity at 300 K are investigated. It is shown that in the process of doping antimony diffusses intensively over CdTe grain boundaries, decreasing potential barriers between them and due to diffusion into CdTe grains it changes their electrical properties. The acceptor character of antimony impurity can be caused by antimony diffusion into tellurium sublattice owing to proximity of their ionic and covalent radii

  18. XAFS studies of nickel-doped lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisavljevic, Ivana; Novakovic, Nikola; Ivanovic, Nenad; Romcevic, Nebojsa; Manasijevic, Miodrag; Mahnke, Heinz-Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    The problem of impurities and defect states in lead telluride-based semiconductors is of crucial importance for their practical applications. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques are capable to address some of the key issues regarding impurities position, their valent state, as well as the local structural changes of the host lattice in the immediate surrounding of the impurity atoms. In this paper we present the results of the Ni K-absorption edge XAFS studies of Ni-doped PbTe at different temperatures. Analysis of near edge and extended XAFS regions of the measured spectra provided information about exact local environment and lattice ordering around Ni atoms.

  19. Gettering of carbon dioxide by erbium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrhoff, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of carbon dioxide and erbium thin films is characterized for temperatures in the region of 300 to 900 0 C and partial pressure of carbon dioxide near 5 x 10 -7 Torr. Dynamic film pumping speeds were measured against a mercury diffusion pump of known pumping speed and conductance. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to monitor the carbon dioxide flow which originated from a calibrated leak in the 10 -6 standard cm 3 /s range. Data reduction was via a dedicated minicomputer with associated printer/plotter. Temperature ramp experiments with thin erbium films indicated a significant reaction above 300 0 C. The reaction was preceded by the desorption of water vapor, hydrogen and nitrogen and/or carbon monoxide from the film surface

  20. Erbium-doped fiber lasers as deep-sea hydrophones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.E.; Beverini, N.; Bouhadef, B.; Castorina, E.; Falchini, E.; Falciai, R.; Flaminio, V.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Sorrentino, F.; Stefani, F.; Trono, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a hydrophone prototype for deep-sea acoustic detection. The base-sensitive element is a single-mode erbium-doped fiber laser. The high sensitivity of these sensors makes them particularly suitable for a wide range of deep-sea acoustic applications, including geological and marine mammals surveys and above all as acoustic detectors in under-water telescopes for high-energy neutrinos

  1. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Cajzl, J.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Kolitsch, A.; Špirková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 652-659 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation * Luminescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  2. Method for measuring deuterium in erbium deuteride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brangan, J.R.; Thornberg, S.M.; Keenan, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    Determining the quantity of deuterium in an erbium deuteride (ErD 2 ) film is essential for assessing the quality of the hydriding process but is a challenging measurement to make. First, the ideal gas law cannot be applied directly due to high temperature (950 degrees C) and low temperature (25 degrees C) regions in the same manifold. Additionally, the metal hydride does not release all of the deuterium rapidly upon heating and metal evaporation occurs during extended heating periods. Therefore, the method developed must provide a means to compensate for temperature inhomogeneities and the amount of deuterium retained in the metal film while heating for a minimal duration. This paper presents two thermal desorption methods used to evaluate the kinetics and equilibria of the deuterium desorption process at high temperatures (950 degrees C). Of primary concern is the evaluation of the quantity of deuterium remaining in these films at the high temperature. A multiple volume expansion technique provided insight into the kinetics of the deuterium evolution and metal evaporation from the film. Finally a repeated pump-down approach yielded data that indicated approximately 10% of the deuterium is retained in the metal film at 950 degrees C and approximately 1 Torr pressure. When the total moles of deuterium determined by this method were divided by the moles of erbium determined by ICP/AES, nearly stochiometric values of 2:1 were obtained for several erbium dideuteride films. Although this work presents data for erbium and deuterium, these methods are applicable to other metal hydrides as well

  3. Study of the densification of uranium-erbium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Artur C.; Carvalho, Elita F.U.

    2017-01-01

    The sintering process of UO 2 -Er 2 O 3 pellets has been investigated because of its importance in the nuclear industry and the complex behavior during sintering. The present study includes the development of nuclear fuel for power reactor in order to increase the efficiency of the fuel trough longer refueling intervals. The erbium is indicated for longer cycles, which means less stops to refueling and less waste. In this work, we studied the use of erbium oxide by varying the concentrations in the range of 1-9.8%, which was added to UO 2 powder through mechanical mixing, aiming to check the rate of densification and a possible sintering blockage. The powders were pressed and sintered at 1700°C under hydrogen atmosphere. The results show a sintering blockage in the UO 2 -Er 2 O 3 system that occurs in the range of 1500-1700°C temperature. Dilatometric tests indicate a retraction of 21.87% when used Er 2 O 3 at 1% mass concentration. This shrinkage is greater than is observed with higher concentrations or even without the addition of the burnable poison, providing with a better degree of incorporation of the element erbium, resulting in pellets with density suitable for use as nuclear fuel. (author)

  4. Study of the densification of uranium-erbium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Artur C.; Carvalho, Elita F.U., E-mail: artur.freitas@ipen.br, E-mail: elitaucf@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The sintering process of UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets has been investigated because of its importance in the nuclear industry and the complex behavior during sintering. The present study includes the development of nuclear fuel for power reactor in order to increase the efficiency of the fuel trough longer refueling intervals. The erbium is indicated for longer cycles, which means less stops to refueling and less waste. In this work, we studied the use of erbium oxide by varying the concentrations in the range of 1-9.8%, which was added to UO{sub 2} powder through mechanical mixing, aiming to check the rate of densification and a possible sintering blockage. The powders were pressed and sintered at 1700°C under hydrogen atmosphere. The results show a sintering blockage in the UO{sub 2}-Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} system that occurs in the range of 1500-1700°C temperature. Dilatometric tests indicate a retraction of 21.87% when used Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 1% mass concentration. This shrinkage is greater than is observed with higher concentrations or even without the addition of the burnable poison, providing with a better degree of incorporation of the element erbium, resulting in pellets with density suitable for use as nuclear fuel. (author)

  5. Application of cadmium telluride detectors to high energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.; Thomas, G.; Cuzin, M.; Verger, L.

    1991-01-01

    15 years ago, Cadmium Telluride detectors have been investigated in our laboratory as possible detectors for medical scanners [1]. Today most of these machines are using high pressure Xenon gas as multicells detectors, BGO or CdWO 4 scintillators for industrial computerized tomography. Xenon gas detectors are well suited for detection of 100 KeV X-rays and enables to build 1000 cells homogeneous detector with a dynamic range of 3 decades. BGO and CdWO 4 scintillators, associated with photomultipliers or photodiodes are used for higher energy (400 KeV). They present a low afterglow and a dynamic range of 4 to 5 decades. Non destructive testing of very absorbing objects (eg 2 m diameter solid rocket motor) by X-ray tomography requires much higher energy X-rays (16 MeV) and doses up to 12000 rads/min at 1 meter. For this application Cadmium Telluride detectors operating as photoconductors are well suited. A prototype of tomograph machine, able to scan 0.5 m diameter high density objects has been realized with 25 CdTe detectors (25x15x0.8 mm 3 ). It produces good quality 1024x1024 tomographic images

  6. Kelvin probe studies of cesium telluride photocathode for AWA photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, Eric E., E-mail: ewisniew@anl.gov [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Velazquez, Daniel [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Yusof, Zikri, E-mail: zyusof@hawk.iit.edu [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Spentzouris, Linda; Terry, Jeff [Physics Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3300 South Federal Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Sarkar, Tapash J. [Rice University, 6100 Main, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Harkay, Katherine [Accelerator Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-05-21

    Cesium telluride is an important photocathode as an electron source for particle accelerators. It has a relatively high quantum efficiency (>1%), is sufficiently robust in a photoinjector, and has a long lifetime. This photocathode is grown in-house for a new Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) beamline to produce high charge per bunch (≈50nC) in a long bunch train. Here, we present a study of the work function of cesium telluride photocathode using the Kelvin probe technique. The study includes an investigation of the correlation between the quantum efficiency and the work function, the effect of photocathode aging, the effect of UV exposure on the work function, and the evolution of the work function during and after photocathode rejuvenation via heating. -- Highlights: ► The correlation between Quantum Efficiency (QE) and work function. ► How QE and work function evolve together. ► Rejuvenation of the photocathode via heating and the effect on work function. ► The effects on the work function due to exposure to UV light.

  7. Magneto-photoconductivity of three dimensional topological insulator bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bingchen; Eginligil, Mustafa; Yu, Ting

    2018-03-01

    Magnetic field dependence of the photocurrent in a 3D topological insulator is studied. Among the 3D topological insulators bismuth telluride has unique hexagonal warping and spin texture which has been studied by photoemission, scanning tunnelling microscopy and transport. Here, we report on low temperature magneto-photoconductivity, up to 7 T, of two metallic bismuth telluride topological insulator samples with 68 and 110 nm thicknesses excited by 2.33 eV photon energy along the magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane. At 4 K, both samples exhibit negative magneto-photoconductance below 4 T, which is as a result of weak-antilocalization of Dirac fermions similar to the previous observations in electrical transport. However the thinner sample shows positive magneto-photoconductance above 4 T. This can be attributed to the coupling of surface states. On the other hand, the thicker sample shows no positive magneto-photoconductance up to 7 T since there is only one surface state at play. By fitting the magneto-photoconductivity data of the thicker sample to the localization formula, we obtain weak antilocalization behaviour at 4, 10, and 20 K, as expected; however, weak localization behaviour at 30 K, which is a sign of surface states masked by bulk states. Also, from the temperature dependence of phase coherence length bulk carrier-carrier interaction is identified separately from the surface states. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish surface states by magneto-photoconductivity at low temperature, even in metallic samples.

  8. Study on erbium loading method to improve reactivity coefficients for low radiotoxic spent fuel HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Y., E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Goto, M.; Nishihara, T.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We attempted and optimized erbium loading methods to improve reactivity coefficients for LRSF-HTGR. • We elucidated the mechanism of the improvements for each erbium loading method by using the Bondarenko approach. • We concluded the erbium loading method by embedding into graphite shaft is preferable. - Abstract: Erbium loading methods are investigated to improve reactivity coefficients of Low Radiotoxic Spent Fuel High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (LRSF-HTGR). Highly enriched uranium is used for fuel to reduce the generation of toxicity from uranium-238. The power coefficients are positive without the use of any additive. Then, the erbium is loaded into the core to obtain negative reactivity coefficients owing to the large resonance the peak of neutron capture reaction of erbium-167. The loading methods are attempted to find the suitable method for LRSF-HTGR. The erbium is mixed in a CPF fuel kernel, loaded by binary packing with fuel particles and erbium particles, and embedded into the graphite shaft deployed in the center of the fuel compact. It is found that erbium loading causes negative reactivity as moderator temperature reactivity, and from the viewpoint of heat transfer, it should be loaded into fuel pin elements for pin-in-block type fuel. Moreover, the erbium should be incinerated slowly to obtain negative reactivity coefficients even at the End Of Cycle (EOC). A loading method that effectively causes self-shielding should be selected to avoid incineration with burn-up. The incineration mechanism is elucidated using the Bondarenko approach. As a result, it is concluded that erbium embedded into graphite shaft is preferable for LRSF-HTGR to ensure that the reactivity coefficients remain negative at EOC.

  9. Cadmium Telluride-Titanium Dioxide Nanocomposite for Photodegradation of Organic Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontam, Areeporn; Khaorapapong, Nithima; Ogawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium telluride-titanium dioxide nanocomposite was prepared by hydrothermal reaction of sol-gel derived titanium dioxide and organically modified cadmium telluride. The crystallinity of titanium dioxide in the nanocomposite was higher than that of pure titanium dioxide obtained by the reaction under the same temperature and pressure conditions, showing that cadmium telluride induced the crystallization of titanium dioxide. Diffuse reflectance spectrum of the nanocomposite showed the higher absorption efficiency in the UV-visible region due to band-gap excitation of titanium dioxide. The nanocomposite significantly showed the improvement of photocatalytic activity for 4-chlorophenol with UV light.

  10. High gain L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with two-stage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stage erbium-doped fiber amplifier; amplified spontaneous emission. Abstract. An experiment on gain enhancement in the long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band EDFA) is demonstrated using dual forward pumping scheme ...

  11. Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Galmiche, G.; Eznaveh, Z. Sanjabi; Antonio-Lopez, J.E.; Benitez, A. M. Velazquez; Rodriguez-Asomoza, Jorge; Mondragon, J. J. Sanchez; Gonnet, C.; Sillard, P.; Li, G.; Schülzgen, A.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Amezcua Correa, R.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier employing a mode-selective photonic lantern for controlling the modal content of the pump light. Amplification of six spatial modes in a 5 m long erbium-doped fiber to x223C;6.2x2009;x2009;dBm average power is obtained while maintaining high

  12. High-performace cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Vechkanov, N N; Guryanov, Aleksei N

    2012-01-01

    We report cladding-pumped erbium-doped fibre laser and amplifier configurations. Through fibre design optimisation, we have achieved a record-high laser slope efficiency, 40 % with respect to absorbed pump power (λ = 976 nm), and an output power of 7.5 W. The erbium-doped fibre amplifier efficiency reaches 32 %.

  13. Optical properties of ion beam modified waveguide materials doped with erbium and silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strohhöfer, C. (Christof)

    2001-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we investigate codoping of erbium-doped waveguide materials with different ions in order to increase the efficiency of erbium-doped optical amplifiers. Codoping with ytterbium can overcome the limitations due to the small absorption cross section of Er3+ in Al2O3 at

  14. Electrochemical Studies of Lead Telluride Behavior in Acidic Nitrate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

  15. Effect of thallium impurity on hole scattering in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdanov, V.I.; Nemov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hole mobility in PbTe monocrystalline specimens in the temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K has been investigated. Detected is a sharp increase in scattering cross section of light and heavy holes in the specimens having the Hall hole concentration p approximately (5+-9)x10 19 cm -3 explained by resonant scattering into a band of quasilocal states of thallium located lower than the ceiling of heavy carrier zone by 0.01+-0.01 eV. Very large differences in resonant scattering of current carriers into the quasilocal states of In and Tl in PbTe result from the inertial polarizability of a crystal. The same mechanism is used to explain long-lived relaxation of zone electron concentration in lead telluride and Pbsub(1-x)Snsub(x)Te doped with indium [ru

  16. Study on thermal annealing of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Fochuk, P.M.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Horace, J.; McCall, B.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Kopach, O.V.; James, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has attracted increasing interest with its promising potential as a room-temperature nuclear-radiation-detector material. However, different defects in CZT crystals, especially Te inclusions and dislocations, can degrade the performance of CZT detectors. Post-growth annealing is a good approach potentially to eliminate the deleterious influence of these defects. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we built up different facilities for investigating post-growth annealing of CZT. Here, we report our latest experimental results. Cd-vapor annealing reduces the density of Te inclusions, while large temperature gradient promotes the migration of small-size Te inclusions. Simultaneously, the annealing lowers the density of dislocations. However, only-Cd-vapor annealing decreases the resistivity, possibly reflecting the introduction of extra Cd in the lattice. Subsequent Te-vapor annealing is needed to ensure the recovery of the resistivity after removing the Te inclusions.

  17. Megapixel mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays for infrared imaging out to 12 microns, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the fabrication of large format, long wave infrared (LWIR) mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe or MCT) detector arrays where the cutoff wavelength is...

  18. Development of solvent extraction process for erbium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    Erbium an important heavy rare earth (HRE) finds valuable application in space and nuclear energy technology. High purity erbium oxide is used as coating material for test blanket module of fusion reactor to prevent the tritium permeation. The total concentration of HRE (including Er) in only proven resource of rare earths in Indian monazite mineral is < 0.05%. Its separation from such a low concentration and also from host of other chemically similar elements like Y, Dy, Ho, Yb, Tm etc is quite difficult and challenging. A solvent extraction process employing PC88A and Aliquat336 has been developed for the purification of erbium oxide from two types of HRE fractions having % composition; (i) Y 2 O 3 : 0.18, Tb 4 O 7 : 0.28, Dy 2 CO 2 : 47.07, Er 2 O 3 : 35.03, HO 2 O 3 : 10.11, Yb 2 O 3 : 5.88, Tm 2 O 3 : 1.43 and (ii) Dy 2 O 3 : 6.39, Er 2 O 3 : 49.43, HO 2 O 3 : 10.43, Tm 2 O 3 : 2.7, Y 2 O 3 : 24.08, Yb 2 O 3 : 6.96. PC88A was used to process low Y content concentrate from chloride medium whereas Aliquat336 was found to be suitable in thiocynate medium to treat the concentrate with high Y content. Effects of process variables such as acidity, extractant concentration, total oxide concentration in feed, number of stages, phase ratio, scrubbing agent were investigated for both the systems

  19. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P; McCallum, J C [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P.; McCallum, J.C. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Resonance magnetic x-ray scattering study of erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, M.K.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, J.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic phases of erbium have been studied by resonance x-ray-scattering techniques. When the incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L(III) absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering are observed above 18 K. We have measured the energy and polarization dependence...... of this magnetic scattering and analyzed it using a simple model based on electric dipole and quadrupole transitions among atomic orbitals. The line shapes can be fitted to a magnetic structure combining both c-axis-modulated and basal-plane components. Below 18 K, we have observed unusual behavior of the magnetic...

  2. Optimum position of isolators within erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Ole; Schüsler, Kim; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    An isolator is used as an amplified spontaneous emission suppressing component within an erbium-doped fiber. The optimum isolator placement is both experimentally and theoretically determined and found to be slightly dependent upon pump power. Improvements of 4 dB in gain and 2 dB in noise figure...... are measured for the optimum isolator location at 25% of the fiber length when the fiber is pumped with 60 mW of pump power at 1.48 μm...

  3. NEW ERBIUM DOPED ANTIMONY GLASSES FOR LASER AND GLASS AMPLIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tioua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. In this poster will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.

  4. Erbium Salts as Non-Toxic Catalysts Compatible with Alternative Reaction Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oliverio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Green catalysts must be non-toxic, easy to manage, able to be recovered and reused, active under alternative reaction conditions and cheap. Erbium salts meet all the previously listed characteristics and today they are emerging as a valuable catalytic solution to a number of organic transformations needing a Lewis acid catalyst in wet conditions or under alternative heating sources. This review aims to summarize the application of erbium salts in green organic transformations, with particular emphasis on their versatility under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The erbium salts’ role in bifunctional catalysis is also presented.

  5. Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, Maria; Sih, Vanessa; Vuckovic, Jelena; Warga, Joe; Li Rui; Dal Negro, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are fabricated in silicon membranes covered by thermally annealed silicon-rich nitride films with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals. Silicon nitride films were deposited by sputtering on top of silicon on insulator wafers. The nanocavities were carefully designed in order to enhance emission from the nanocrystal sensitized Erbium at the 1540 nm wavelength. Experimentally measured quality factors of ∼6000 were found to be consistent theoretical predictions. The Purcell factor of 1.4 was estimated from the observed 20-fold enhancement of Erbium luminescence

  6. The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, A.J.; Bhamber, S.S.; Pitt, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    We have exploited the interaction between erbium ions and silicon nanoclusters to probe the photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in the spectral region around 1.5 μm. We have produced an MOS device in which the oxide layer has been implanted with both erbium and silicon and annealed to produce silicon nanocrystals. Upon illumination with a 1480 nm laser diode, interaction between the nanocrystals and the rare-earth ions results in a modification of the conductivity of the oxide that enables a current to flow when a voltage is applied across the oxide layer

  7. Characterization of an erbium doped fiber amplifier starting from its experimental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello J, M.; Kuzin, E.A.; Ibarra E, B.; Tellez G, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method to characterize the gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) through the numerical simulation of the signal beam along the amplifier. The simulation is based on a model constituted by the propagation and rate equations for an erbium-doped fiber. The manipulation of these equations allows us to regroup the parameters present in an EDFA, which we have named the A, B, C, D parameters, and they can be obtained experimentally from an erbium-doped fiber. Experimental results show that the measurement of these parameters allow us to estimate with very good correspondence the amplifier gain. (Author)

  8. A cadmium-zinc-telluride crystal array spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, H. R.; Quam, W.; DeVore, T.; Vogle, R.; Weslowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gamma detector employing an array of eight cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystals configured as a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. This detector is part of a more complex instrument that identifies the isotope,displays this information, and records the gamma spectrum. Various alarms and other operator features are incorporated in this battery operated rugged instrument. The CZT detector is the key component of this instrument and will be described in detail in this paper. We have made extensive spectral measurements of the usual laboratory gamma sources, common medical isotopes, and various Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) with this detector. Some of these data will be presented as spectra. We will also present energy resolution and detection efficiency for the basic 8-crystal array. Additional data will also be presented for a 32-crystal array. The basic 8-crystal array development was completed two years ago, and the system electronic design has been imp roved recently. This has resulted in significantly improved noise performance. We expect to have a much smaller detector package, using 8 crystals, in a few months. This package will use flip-chip packaging to reduce the electronics physical size by a factor of 5

  9. Preliminary uranium enrichment analysis results using cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Paulus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and EG ampersand G ORTEC have jointly developed a portable ambient-temperature detection system that can be used in a number of application scenarios. The detection system uses a planar cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector with custom-designed detector support electronics developed at LLNL and is based on the recently released MicroNOMAD multichannel analyzer (MCA) produced by ORTEC. Spectral analysis is performed using software developed at LLNL that was originally designed for use with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems. In one application, the CZT detection system determines uranium enrichments ranging from less than 3% to over 75% to within accuracies of 20%. The analysis was performed using sample sizes of 200 g or larger and acquisition times of 30 min. The authors have demonstrated the capabilities of this system by analyzing the spectra gathered by the CZT detection system from uranium sources of several enrichments. These experiments demonstrate that current CZT detectors can, in some cases, approach performance criteria that were previously the exclusive domain of larger HPGe detector systems

  10. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  11. Theoretical study of bismuth-doped cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Proupin, E.; Rios-Gonzalez, J. A.; Pena, J. L.

    Cadmium telluride heavily doped with bismuth has been proposed as an absorber with an intermediate band for solar cells. Increase in the photocurrent has been shown recently, although the overall cell efficiency has not improved. In this work, we study the electronic structure and the formation energies of the defects associated to bismuth impurities. We have performed electronic structure calculations within generalized density functional theory, using the exchange-correlation functional HSE(w) , where the range-separation parameter w has been tuned to reproduce the CdTe bandgap. Improving upon previous reports, we have included the spin-orbit interaction, which modifies the structure of the valence band and the energy levels of bismuth. We have found that interstitial Bi (Bii) tends to occupy Cd vacancies, cadmium substitution (BiCd) creates single donor level, while tellurium substitution (BiTe) is a shallow single acceptor. We investigate the interaction between these point defects and how can they be combined to create a partially filled intermediate band. Supported by FONDECYT Grant 1130437, CONACYT-SENER SUSTENTABILIDAD ENERGETICA/project CeMIE-Sol PY-207450/25 and PY-207450/26. JARG acknowledges CONACYT fellowship for research visit. Powered@NLHPC (ECM-02).

  12. Niobium and zirconium telluride thin films prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.; Pailharey, D.; Mathey, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A versatile procedure of sputter deposition, well adapted for getting a large of Te/M ratios (with M = Zr or Nb), has led to the synthesis of several highly anisotropic zirconium and niobium poly tellurides in thin film form. Upon tuning the two key parameters of the process, i.e., the Te percentage in the target and the substrate temperature during the deposition, preparation of systems ranging from ZrTe 0 .72 to ZrTe 6 .7, on the one hand, and from NbTe 1 .28 to NbTe 7 .84, on the other, has been achieved. Besides their amorphous or crystalline (with or without preferential orientations) behavior and their relationship to known structural types, the most striking feature of these films is their large departure from the stoichiometry of the bulk Mte x reference compounds. This peculiarity, together with the possible changes of composition under annealing, are described and interpreted in terms of variable of Te and M atoms trapped or intercalated within the parent structures. (author)

  13. Precision timing detectors with cadmium-telluride sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornheim, A.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Precision timing detectors for high energy physics experiments with temporal resolutions of a few 10 ps are of pivotal importance to master the challenges posed by the highest energy particle accelerators such as the LHC. Calorimetric timing measurements have been a focus of recent research, enabled by exploiting the temporal coherence of electromagnetic showers. Scintillating crystals with high light yield as well as silicon sensors are viable sensitive materials for sampling calorimeters. Silicon sensors have very high efficiency for charged particles. However, their sensitivity to photons, which comprise a large fraction of the electromagnetic shower, is limited. To enhance the efficiency of detecting photons, materials with higher atomic numbers than silicon are preferable. In this paper we present test beam measurements with a Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) sensor as the active element of a secondary emission calorimeter with focus on the timing performance of the detector. A Schottky type CdTe sensor with an active area of 1cm2 and a thickness of 1 mm is used in an arrangement with tungsten and lead absorbers. Measurements are performed with electron beams in the energy range from 2 GeV to 200 GeV. A timing resolution of 20 ps is achieved under the best conditions.

  14. Selective and low temperature transition metal intercalation in layered tellurides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Takeshi; Koshiko, Masaki; Zhang, Yaoqing; Oguchi, Tamio; Yu, Wen; Kato, Daichi; Kobayashi, Yoji; Orikasa, Yuki; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Green, Mark A.; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Layered materials embrace rich intercalation reactions to accommodate high concentrations of foreign species within their structures, and find many applications spanning from energy storage, ion exchange to secondary batteries. Light alkali metals are generally most easily intercalated due to their light mass, high charge/volume ratio and in many cases strong reducing properties. An evolving area of materials chemistry, however, is to capture metals selectively, which is of technological and environmental significance but rather unexplored. Here we show that the layered telluride T2PTe2 (T=Ti, Zr) displays exclusive insertion of transition metals (for example, Cd, Zn) as opposed to alkali cations, with tetrahedral coordination preference to tellurium. Interestingly, the intercalation reactions proceed in solid state and at surprisingly low temperatures (for example, 80 °C for cadmium in Ti2PTe2). The current method of controlling selectivity provides opportunities in the search for new materials for various applications that used to be possible only in a liquid. PMID:27966540

  15. Development of a cadmium telluride pixel detector for astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Walter R.; Mao, Peter H.; Rana, Vikram R.; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Ushio, Masayoshi; Aono, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Shin; Sato, Goro; Kokubun, Motohide; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2009-08-01

    We are developing imaging Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) pixel detectors optimized for astrophysical hard X-ray applications. Our hybrid detector consist of a CdTe crystal 1mm thick and 2cm × 2cm in area with segmented anode contacts directly bonded to a custom low-noise application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The CdTe sensor, fabricated by ACRORAD (Okinawa, Japan), has Schottky blocking contacts on a 605 micron pitch in a 32 × 32 array, providing low leakage current and enabling readout of the anode side. The detector is bonded using epoxy-gold stud interconnects to a custom low noise, low power ASIC circuit developed by Caltech's Space Radiation Laboratory. We have achieved very good energy resolution over a wide energy range (0.62keV FWHM @ 60keV, 10.8keV FWHM @ 662keV). We observe polarization effects at room temperature, but they are suppressed if we operate the detector at or below 0°C degree. These detectors have potential application for future missions such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO).

  16. Multi-wavelength Brillouin Raman erbium-doped fiber laser generation in a linear cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M R; Harun, S W; Ahmad, H

    2014-01-01

    A multi-wavelength Brillouin Raman erbium-doped fiber laser is proposed and demonstrated. The setup uses a 7.7 km dispersion compensating fiber simultaneously as the Brillouin and Raman nonlinear gain media and operates in conjunction with a 3 m erbium-doped fiber as the linear gain medium. At a Brillouin pump (BP) wavelength of 1530 nm, where Raman and erbium gains overlap each other, 34 Brillouin Stokes lines having line spacing of 0.075 nm are created by using a Raman pump power of only 24.1 dBm, an erbium pump power of about 22.1 dBm, and a BP power of 6.5 dBm in the proposed linear cavity. The system is highly efficient and is able to generate many comparable peak-power lines at a low pump power. (paper)

  17. Studies on up-gradation of Erbium from a heavy fraction of rare earths with EHEHPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Anitha, M.; Yadav, K.K.; Kotekar, M.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Erbium is an important heavy rare earth element, which finds wide applications. Recently, use of Erbium oxide as structural coating material in fusion reactor has stimulated the interest in obtaining Erbium in pure form. The separation of Erbium from other rare earths such as Dy, Ho, Y, Yb, Tm etc is very difficult due to low separation factor owing to their similar chemical properties. Additionally due to very low concentration ( 2 O 3 : 1.09, Dy 2 O 3 : 58.07, Er 2 O 3 : 22.0, Ho 2 O 3 : 13.33, Yb 2 O 3 : 4.74, Tm 2 O 3 :0.67 is obtained during purification of Y by Aliquat 336 from thiocyanate medium. In the present investigation this HRE fraction is taken as the feed material for up-gradation of Er by an acidic extractant namely 2 ethyl hexyl - 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid (EHEHPA)

  18. Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, A. J.; Wojdak, M.; Ahmad, I.; Loh, W. H.; Oton, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the use of rate equations to analyze the sensitization of erbium luminescence by silicon nanoclusters. In applying the general form of second-order coupled rate-equations to the Si nanocluster-erbium system, we find that the photoluminescence dynamics cannot be described using a simple rate equation model. Both rise and fall times exhibit a stretched exponential behavior, which we propose arises from a combination of a strongly distance-dependent nanocluster-erbium interaction, along with the finite size distribution and indirect band gap of the silicon nanoclusters. Furthermore, the low fraction of erbium ions that can be excited nonresonantly is a result of the small number of ions coupled to nanoclusters

  19. Optical bistability of optical fiber ring doped by Erbium and quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, S.; Tofighi, S.; Bahrampour, A.; Sajad, B.; Shahshahani, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical analysis of the steady state behavior of the optical bistability in an optical fiber ring doped by Erbium and quantum dots is presented. The up and down switching power is calculated and the dependence of the switching power on different fiber ring parameters is investigated. The switching power for this type of optical bistability device is obtained much lower than the fiber ring which its half length is doped by Erbium ion.

  20. Erbium Laser Technology vs Traditional Drilling for Caries Removal: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Siying; Li, Lan; Yuan, He; Tao, Sibei; Cheng, Yiming; He, Libang; Li, Jiyao

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of erbium laser technology compared with traditional drilling for caries removal. A systematic search was conducted through Medline via PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases, CNKI till December 2016. Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, or controlled clinical trials with data comparing the efficacy of erbium laser technology versus traditional drilling for caries removal were included. Fourteen studies were selected in our meta-analysis. Erbium laser technology showed an increased time when removing caries compared with drilling (mean difference: 3.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.90-5.06, P drilling with regard to restoration loss, pulpal vitality, and postoperative sensitivity. Erbium laser technology showed an increased time for cavity preparation compared with traditional drilling. However, erbium laser technology reduced the requirement for local anesthesia. There was no significant difference between erbium laser technology and traditional drilling regarding restoration loss, pulpal vitality, and postoperative sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  2. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  3. Nanoscale nonlinear effects in Erbium-implanted Yttrium Orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukharchyk, Nadezhda, E-mail: nadezhda.kukharchyk@physik.uni-saarland.de [Experimentalphysik, Universität des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Shvarkov, Stepan [Optoelektronische Materialien und Bauelemente, Universität Paderborn, D-33098 Padeborn (Germany); Probst, Sebastian [Quantronics group, Service de Physique de l' Etat Condense, DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, CNRS UMR 3680, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Xia, Kangwei [3. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Becker, Hans-Werner [RUBION, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pal, Shovon [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); AG THz Spectroscopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Markmann, Sergej [AG THz Spectroscopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kolesov, Roman; Siyushev, Petr; Wrachtrup, Jörg [3. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ludwig, Arne [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wieck, Andreas D. [Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); and others

    2016-09-15

    Doping of substrates at desired locations is a key technology for spin-based quantum memory devices. Focused ion beam implantation is well-suited for this task due to its high spacial resolution. In this work, we investigate ion-beam implanted Erbium ensembles in Yttrium Orthosilicate crystals by means of confocal photoluminescence spectroscopy. The sample temperature and the post-implantation annealing step strongly reverberate in the properties of the implanted ions. We find that hot implantation leads to a higher activation rate of the ions. At high enough fluences, the relation between the fluence and final concentration of ions becomes non-linear. Two models are developed explaining the observed behavior.

  4. Harmonic Dark Pulse Emission in Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zian, Cheak Tiu; Arman, Zarei; Sin, Jin Tan; Harith, Ahmad; Sulaiman, Wadi Harun

    2015-01-01

    A harmonic dark pulse generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated based on a figure-of-eight configuration. It is found that the harmonic dark pulse can be shifted from the fundamental to the 5"t"h order harmonic by increasing the pump power with an appropriate polarization controller orientation. The fundamental repetition rate of 20 kHz is obtained at the pump power of 29 mW. The highest pulse energy of 42.6 nJ is obtained at the fundamental repetition rate. The operating frequency of the dark pulse trains shifts to 2"n"d, 3"r"d, 4"t"h and 5"t"h harmonic as the pump powers are increased to 34 mW, 50 mW, 59 mW and 137 mW, respectively. (paper)

  5. Mechanical properties of melt-derived erbium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, A.D.; Blacic, M.J.; Platero, M.; Romero, R.S.; McClellan, K.J.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) is a rare earth oxide that is chemically and thermally stable and has a melting point of 2,430 C. There is relatively little information available regarding single crystal growth of erbia or the properties of erbia. In this study, erbia single crystals have been grown in a Xenon Optical Floating Zone Unit (XeOFZ) capable of melting materials at temperatures up to 3,000 C. Erbia was melt synthesized in the XeOFZ unit in a container less fashion, proving for little chance of contamination. Crystals were grown in compressed air and in reducing atmospheres. A recurring problem with melt synthesis of erbia is the appearance of flakes at the edges of the melt zone during growth; these flakes disrupt the growth process. The processing details and an initial survey of the physical properties of erbia single crystals is discussed

  6. Special features of self-compensation of halogen donor action in lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdanov, V.I.; Nemov, S.A.; Ravich, Yu.I.; Dereza, A.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Specific features of self-compensation of halogen donor action in lead telluride are investigasted. Lead telluride samples with chlorine additions (with tellurium excess) and, besides, with bromine- and iodine additions were studied in order to reveal general regularities in alloyind with all halogen donor impurities. Experimental dependences of the difference between the electron and hole concentrations (n-p) in PbTe as a function of an amount of introduced halogen impurities (Ni) are presented for samples with a maximum compensation at 295 K. General features of the n-p=f(Ni) dependence are presented for all halogens. The hypothesis on the kinetic mechanism of increasing the efficiency of self-compensation of halogen donor action in lead telluride is suggested

  7. Process for obtaining oxygen doped zinc telluride monocrystals and scintillator crystals obtained by this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Maurice; Moreau, Roland; D'Haenen, J.-P.; Merenda, Pierre.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for obtaining oxygen doped zinc telluride monocrystals, for use as scintillator crystals for ionising radiation detectors. The following operations are carried out in succession: one or several zinc telluride crystals are introduced into a silica ampoule together with a ternary mixture of zinc tellurium and oxygen, as an oxide or hydroxide of these elements; the ampoule is pumped down to a high vacuum and sealed; the sealed ampoule containing the mixture and monocrystals is placed in a kiln and brought to a uniform temperature sufficient to make the mixture three-phased, depending on its composition; the zinc telluride crystalline compound remains solid; the ampoule is then tempered to bring it quickly back to ambient temperature [fr

  8. Current transport mechanisms in mercury cadmium telluride diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [Institute of Defence Scientists and Technologists, CFEES Complex, Brig. S. K. Majumdar Marg, Delhi 110054 (India); Li, Qing; He, Jiale; Hu, Weida, E-mail: vishnu-46@yahoo.com, E-mail: wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Lab for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China); He, Kai; Lin, Chun [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports the results of modelling of the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of a planar mid-wave Mercury Cadmium Telluride photodiode in a gate controlled diode experiment. It is reported that the diode exhibits nearly ideal I-V characteristics under the optimum surface potential leading to the minimal surface leakage current. Deviations from the optimum surface potential lead to non ideal I–V characteristics, indicating a strong relationship between the ideality factor of the diode with its surface leakage current. Diode's I–V characteristics have been modelled over a range of gate voltages from −9 V to −2 V. This range of gate voltages includes accumulation, flat band, and depletion and inversion conditions below the gate structure of the diode. It is shown that the I–V characteristics of the diode can be very well described by (i) thermal diffusion current, (ii) ohmic shunt current, (iii) photo-current due to background illumination, and (iv) excess current that grows by the process of avalanche multiplication in the gate voltage range from −3 V to −5 V that corresponds to the optimum surface potential. Outside the optimum gate voltage range, the origin of the excess current of the diode is associated with its high surface leakage currents. It is reported that the ohmic shunt current model applies to small surface leakage currents. The higher surface leakage currents exhibit a nonlinear shunt behaviour. It is also shown that the observed zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode over the entire gate voltage range is the sum of ohmic shunt resistance and estimated zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode from its thermal saturation current.

  9. Dissolution kinetics of lead telluride in alkali solutions of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilova, M.G.; Sveshnikova, L.L.; Stavitskaya, T.A.; Repinskij, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Dissolution kinetics of lead telluride in alkali solutions of hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Dependences of change of PbTe dissolution rate on concentration of hydrogen peroxide and alkali in the solution were obtained. It is shown that dissolution rate of lead telluride is affected by dissolution rate of lead oxide, representing the product of ReTe dissolution. The obtained regularities can be explained by change of solution structure with increase of KOH concentration and by the state of hydrogen peroxide in the solution

  10. Simulation of core-level binding energy shifts in germanium-doped lead telluride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyubin, A.S.; Dedyulin, S.N.; Yashina, L.V.; Shtanov, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    To simulate the changes in core-level binding energies in germanium-doped lead telluride, cluster calculations of the changes in the electrostatic potential at the corresponding centers have been performed. Different locations of the Ge atom in the crystal bulk have been considered: near vacancies, near another dopant site, and near the surface. For calculating the potential in the clusters that model the bulk and the surface of the lead telluride crystal (c-PbTe), the electron density obtained in the framework of the Hartree-Fock and hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods has been used [ru

  11. Post-CMOS FinFET integration of bismuth telluride and antimony telluride thin-film-based thermoelectric devices on SoI substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Aktakka, Ethem Erkan

    2013-10-01

    This letter reports, for the first time, heterogeneous integration of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) and antimony telluride (Sb 2Te3) thin-film-based thermoelectric ffect transistors) via a characterized TE-film coevaporationand shadow-mask patterning process using predeposition surface treatment methods for reduced TE-metal contact resistance. As a demonstration vehicle, a 2 × 2 mm2-sized integrated planar thermoelectric generator (TEG) is shown to harvest 0.7 μ W from 21-K temperature gradient. Transistor performance showed no significant change upon post-CMOS TEG integration, indicating, for the first time, the CMOS compatibility of the Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, which could be leveraged for realization of high-performance integrated micro-TE harvesters and coolers. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Processing and Characterization of Thin Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Anna

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) has the highest theoretical limit to conversion efficiency of single-junction photovoltaic (PV) technologies today. However, despite a maximum theoretical open-circuit voltage of 1.20 V, record devices have historically had voltages pinned around only 900 mV. Voltage losses due to high recombination rates remains to be the most complex hurdle to CdTe technology today, and the subject of on-going research in the physics PV group at Colorado State University. In this work, an ultrathin CdTe device architecture is proposed in an effort to reduce bulk recombination and boost voltages. By thinning the CdTe layer, a device's internal electric field extends fully towards the back contact. This quickly separates electrons-hole pairs throughout the bulk of the device and reduces overall recombination. Despite this advantage, very thin CdTe layers also present a unique set of optical and electrical challenges which result in performance losses not as prevalent in thicker devices. When fabricating CdTe solar cells, post-deposition treatments applied to the absorber layer are a critical step for achieving high efficiency devices. Exposure of the polycrystalline CdTe film to a chlorine species encourages the passivation of dangling bonds and larger grain formation, while copper-doping improves device uniformity and voltages. This work focuses on experiments conducted via close-space sublimation to optimize CdCl2 and CuCl treatments for thin CdTe solar cells. Sweeps of both exposure and anneal time were performed for both post-deposition treatments on CdTe devices with 1.0 mum absorber layers. The results demonstrate that thin CdTe devices require substantially less post-deposition processing than standard thicker devices as expected. Additionally, the effects of CdTe growth temperature on thin devices is briefly investigated. The results suggest that higher growth temperatures lead to both electrical and stoichiometric changes in CdTe closely associated

  13. Thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaics: ES and H issues, solutions, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, K.; Moskowitz, P.; Fthenakis, V.

    1998-02-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a growing business worldwide, with new technologies evolving towards potentially large-volume production. PV use produces no emissions, thus offsetting many potential environmental problems. However, the new PV technologies also bring unfamiliar environment, safety, and health (ES and H) challenges that require innovative solutions. This is a summary of the issues, solutions, and perspectives associated with the use of cadmium in one of the new and important PV technologies: thin-film, cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV, which is being developed and commercialized by several companies including Solar Cells Inc. (Toledo, Ohio), BP Solar (Fairfield, California), and Matsushita (Japan). The principal ES and H issue for thin-film cadmium telluride PV is the potential introduction of cadmium--a toxic heavy metal--into the air or water. The amount of cadmium in thin-film PV, however, is quite small--one nickel cadmium flashlight battery has about as much cadmium (7 g) as a square meter of PV module using current technology--and a typical cordless power tool will have 5--10 batteries. CdTe modules are also very well sealed, limiting the chance of release. Nonetheless, minimizing the amount of cadmium in cadmium telluride modules and preventing the introduction of that cadmium into the environment is a top priority for National Renewable Energy Laboratory researchers and cadmium telluride PV manufacturers

  14. Effect of Erbium Nanoparticles on Optical Properties of Zinc Borotellurite Glass System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Muhammad Noorazlan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium nanoparticles (NPs doped zinc borotellurite glasses have been prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique with the chemical composition {[(TeO20.70(B2O30.30]1-x(ZnOx}1-y(Er3O2y (where y=0.005,0.01,0.02,0.03,0.04,0.05. The structural properties of the prepared glasses were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and FTIR analysis. It was confirmed that the prepared glasses are amorphous. The bonding parameters of the glasses were analyzed by using FTIR analysis and were confirmed to be ionic in nature. The refractive index increases as the content of erbium NPs increases. The optical absorption spectra revealed that fundamental absorption edge shifts to longer wavelength as the content of erbium NPs increases. The value of band gap had been calculated and shown to be decreased with an increase content of erbium NPs. The Urbach energy was shown to be linearly increased with an increase content of erbium NPs oxides.

  15. Radiation effects on erbium doped optical fibers: on the influence of the fiber composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortech, B.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the erbium-doped fibers (EDF) sensitivity under irradiation and the induced defects. The first chapter presents the state of the art for the EDF under irradiation as well as some radiation generated silica defects. The second chapter details the radiations used in this thesis and the experimental set-ups implemented for the characterization of the fiber responses under irradiation and the radiation induced defects. In the third chapter, we present the response of several erbium-doped fibers irradiated with γ-rays, protons and pulsed X-rays. The erbium doped fibers have higher radiation induced sensitivity than the Telecom fibers (SMF28) or than erbium-doped fibers containing little aluminum. The aluminum presence in the EDF core composition is mainly responsible for the fiber performance degradation. Whatever the irradiation types, the radiation generated defects are related to the host matrix. Our studies also display that the erbium ions are only affected by the interaction with the created defects. The fourth chapter deals with the EDF under UV exposure and shows that the UV rays lead to the same effects than the gamma rays. The last chapter of this thesis presents the study of optical fiber amplifiers under γ irradiation. (author)

  16. Unconventional cells of TiO2 doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Campos, R.D.; Oliveira, A.S.; Wellen, R.; Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da

    2016-01-01

    The technology used in TiO_2 solar cells is in constant improvement, new configurations have been developed, aiming practicality and leading to efficiency increase of photovoltaic devices. This paper proposes a new technology for the production of solar cells in order to investigate a better utilization of solar spectrum of TiO2 doped with erbium (Er"3"+), proven by energetic conversion. The Ti_0_,_9Er_0_,_1O2 system was obtained by Pechini method. Nanoparticles have a crystallite size 65.30 nm and surface area 118.48 m"2/g. These characteristics are essential for the formation of the film to be deposited on the conductive glass substrate constituting the cell's photoelectrode. The other side of the cell is the platinum counter electrode. The cell will have the faces sealed by a thermoplastic and, finally the electrolyte will be inserted, then they will be electrically evaluated through energy efficiency and confronted with the literature data base. (author)

  17. Microstructures of erbium modified aluminum-copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghof-Hasselbaecher, Ellen; Schmidt, Gerald; Galetz, Mathias; Schuetze, Michael [DECHEMA-Forschungsinstitut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Masset, Patrick J. [Fraunhofer UMSICHT-ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany); Zhang, Ligang [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). ZIK Virtuhcon; Liu, Libin; Jin, Zhanpeng [Central South Univ., Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Alloying with rare earth metals improves to the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of aluminium base alloys at high temperatures. The rare earth metal erbium may be used for grain refinement. Within a project of computer-aided alloy development based on the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) method various alloys were melted on the Al-rich side of the ternary system Al-Cu-Er under argon atmosphere and their microstructures were characterized in the as-cast state or after long-term isothermal annealing (400 C/960 h) by means of different investigation techniques. As a result, the phases fcc (Al), {tau}{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Er, {theta}-CuAl{sub 2}, {eta}-CuAl, and Al{sub 3}Er were identified, their compositions and fractions were quantified, and their hardnesses were determined. The experimental obtained microstructures agree very well with the calculated solidification behaviors of the cast alloys. The knowledge gained from this work about the phase compositions and microstructures can also be utilized for the fine optimization of the phase diagram. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Wei; Chikada, Takumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along Σ13 (4–3–1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673–1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er 2 O 3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc

  19. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueff, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France); School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas [MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  20. Effects of vacuum processing erbium dideuteride/ditritide films deposited on chromium underlays on copper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provo, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Thin films of erbium dideuteride/ditritide were experimentally produced on chromium underlays deposited on copper substrates. The chromium underlay is required to prevent erbium occluder/copper substrate alloying which inhibits hydriding. Data taken has shown that vacuum processing affects the erbium/chromium/copper interaction. With an in situ process in which underlay/occluder films are vacuum deposited onto copper substrates and hydrided with no air exposure between these steps, data indicates a minimum of 1500A of chromium is required for optimum hydriding. If films are vacuum deposited as above and air-exposed before hydriding, a minimum of 3000A of chromium was shown to be required for equivalent hydriding. Data suggests that the activation step (600 0 C for 1 hour) required for hydriding the film of the second type is responsible for the difference observed. Such underlay thickness parameters are important, with regard to heat transfer considerations in thin hydride targets used for neutron generation

  1. Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium doped fiber laser in the inhomogeneous model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyvaninia, Sh.; Karvar, M.; Bahrampour, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a high concentration erbium doped fiber, the erbium ions are so closed together that the ion pairs and clusters are formed. In such fiber amplifiers, the ion pairs and clusters acting as a saturable absorber are distributed along the fiber laser. The inhomogeneous rate equations for the laser modes in a high-concentration EDFA are written. The governing equations are an uncountable system of partial differential equations. For the first time we introduced an approximation method that the system of partial differential equations is converted to a finite system of ordinary differential equations. The effects of ion pairs concentration on erbium doped fiber are analyzed that is in good agreement whit the experimental result.

  2. Sensitization of erbium in silicon-rich silica : the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.R.; Forcales, M.; Elliman, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation on the excitation cross-section and photoluminescence of erbium in silicon-rich silica. Samples were prepared by co-implantation of Si and Er into SiO 2 followed by a single thermal anneal at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 degrees C, and with or without hydrogen passivation performed at 500 degrees C. Using time-resolved photoluminescence, the effective erbium excitation cross-section is shown to increase by a factor 3, while the number of optically active erbium ions decreases by a factor of 4 with increasing annealing temperature. Hydrogen passivation is shown to increase the luminescence intensity and to shorten the luminescence lifetime at 1.54 μm only in the presence of Si nanocrystals. The implications fo these results for realizing a silicon-based optical amplifier are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  3. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.

    2009-11-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of innovative concepts for fuel cladding in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This concept implies the insertion of rare earth (erbium and gadolinium) in the zirconium fuel cladding. The determination of phase equilibria in the systems is essential prior to the implementation of such a promising solution. This study consisted in an experimental determination of the erbium-zirconium phase diagram. For this, we used many different techniques in order to obtain diagram data such as solubility limits, solidus, liquidus or invariant temperatures. These data allowed us to present a new diagram, very different from the previous one available in the literature. We also assessed the diagram using the CALPHAD approach. In the gadolinium-zirconium system, we determined experimentally the solubility limits. Those limits had never been determined before, and the values we obtained showed a very good agreement with the experimental and assessed versions of the diagram. Because these alloys are subjected to oxygen diffusion throughout their life, we focused our attention on the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems. The first system has been investigated experimentally. The alloys fabrication has been performed using powder metallurgy. In order to obtain pure raw materials, we fabricated powder from erbium and zirconium bulk metals using hydrogen absorption/desorption. The characterisation of the ternary pellets allowed the determination of two ternary isothermal sections at 800 and 1100 C. For the gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium system, we calculated the phase equilibria at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 C, using a homemade database compiled from literature assessments of the oxygen-zirconium, gadolinium-zirconium and gadolinia-zirconia systems. Finally, we determined the mechanical properties, in connexion with the microstructure, of industrial quality alloys in order to identify the influence of

  4. Indium telluride nanotubes: Solvothermal synthesis, growth mechanism, and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liyan [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Lu, Tao; Shi, Yi; Wang, Jianyu [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Fan [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2014-03-15

    hydrogen storage, compared with the nanowires. The nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm, covering the UV–visible–NIR region. This good performance of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes may enable significant advancements of new photodetection and photosensing applications. Highlights: • The In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotube device also has a broad light detection range from 300 nm to 1100 nm. • The nanotube is 137.85 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which makes it suitable for gas sensing and hydrogen storage. • A possible growth mechanism of the indium telluride nanotubes was proposed. • In addition, no In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes have been reported until now.

  5. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  6. Ternary systems, consist of erbium nitrates, water and nitrates of pyridines, quinolines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starikova, L.I.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Khalfina, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    At 25 and 50 deg C investigated is solubility of solid phases in ternary water salt systems: erbium nitrate-pyridine nitrate-water; erbium nitrate-quinoline nitrate-water. Formation of congruently soluble compounds of the Er(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 5 H 5 NxHNO 3 , Er(NO 3 ) 3 x2C 9 H 7 NxHNO 3 x4H 2 O composition is established. X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analyses have been carried out

  7. Fast and slow light property improvement in erbium-doped amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P. C.; Wu, F. K.; Kao, W. C.; Chen, J.; Lin, C. T.; Chi, S.

    2013-01-01

    This work experimentally demonstrates improvement of the fast light property in erbium-doped amplifiers at room temperature. The difference between the signal power and the pump power associated with bending loss is used to control the signal power at the different positions of the erbium-doped fiber (EDF) to improve the fast light property. Periodic bending of the EDF increases the time advance of the probe signal by over 288%. Additionally, this concept also could improve the fast light property using coherent population oscillations in semiconductor optical amplifiers.

  8. Synthesis and thermoluminescent characterization of lithium niobate doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landavazo, M.; Brown, F.; Cubillas, F.; Munoz, I.; Cruz Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Lithium niobate (Nl) is a synthetic dielectric and is mainly used in optical devices. There are reports on the thermoluminescent property of Nl monocrystals doped with rare earths and excited with X and gamma rays. In this study the Nl was synthesized and doped with erbium (Er) at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 % mol and was characterized by its Tl property. The synthesis was realized by solid state reaction at 1000 degrees C for 22 hours and the formation of Nl:Er was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis, finding a new phase (ErNbO 4 ). Was studied the dose-response gamma in a range of 1-1000 Gy, the material showed linear behavior of 1-600 Gy. The brightness curves have maxima at 185 and 285 degrees C to 1% in 183 and 301 degrees C for 2%, respectively. While for the concentration of 4% a maximum in 177 degrees C accompanied by a smaller peak at higher temperature of the glow curve was observed. The Tl response of Nl:Er 4% to 450 Gy was increased 271 times compared to pure Nl. The reproducibility of the Tl signal at ten cycles of irradiation-reading, present a standard deviation of 5%. In Nl:Er 1% Tl signal fades in 21.3% after 24 hours, while in 2 and 4% an unusual fading occurs. The Tl characteristics of Nl:Er synthesized material is of interest to gamma radiation dosimetry of high doses. (Author)

  9. Mechanism of manganese (mono and di) telluride thin-film formation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raj Kishore; Singh, Gurmeet; Shul, Yong Gun; Kim, Hansung

    2007-03-01

    Mechanistic studies on the electrocrystallization of manganese telluride (MnTe) thin film are reported using aqueous acidic solution containing MnSO 4 and TeO 2. Tartaric acid was used for the inhibition of hydrated manganese oxide anodic growth at counter electrode. A detailed study on the mechanistic aspect of electrochemical growth of MnTe using cyclic voltametry is carried out. Conditions for electrochemical growth of manganese mono and di telluride thin films have been reported using cyclic voltammetric scans for Mn 2+, Te 4+ and combined Mn 2+ and Te 4+. X-ray diffraction showed the formation of polycrystalline MnTe films with cubic, hexagonal and orthorhombic mixed phases. MnTe film morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope. Susceptibility and electrical characterization supports the anti-ferromagnetic behavior of the as-deposited MnTe thin film.

  10. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  11. Characterization of large cadmium zinc telluride crystals grown by traveling heater method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H.; Awadalla, S.A.; Iniewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions/precipitates of these c......The focus of this paper is to evaluate thick, 20 X 20 X 10 and 10 X 10 X 10 mm(3), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), Cd0.9Zn0.1Te, crystals grown using the traveling heater method (THIM). The phenomenal spectral performance and small size and low concentration of Te inclusions...

  12. Diagnostic Genesis Features of Au-Ag Selenide-Telluride Mineralization of Western Java Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Tintin Yuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.3.1.67-76The ore mineralogy of the westernmost part of West Java such as Pongkor, Cibaliung, Cikidang, Cikotok, and Cirotan are characterized by the dominance of silver-arsenic-antimony sulfosalt with silver selenides and rarely tellurides over the argentite, whereas the eastern part of West Java including Arinem and Cineam deposits are dominated by silver-gold tellurides. Mineralogy of Se-type deposits at Pongkor, Cikidang, Cibaliung, Cisungsang, and Cirotan and Te-type deposits at Arinem and Cineam shows their different geochemical characteristics. Mineralogical and geochemical differences can be explained by variation of physico-chemical conditions that existed during gold-silver deposition by applying the phase relation among sulfide, telluride, and selenide mineral association in the deposits. The relative values of ƒSe2(g, ƒTe(g, and ƒS2(g control the actual presence of selenide or telluride minerals within the West Java deposits, which also depend on their concentrations in the hydrothermal fluid. Even though the concentration of selenium in the hydrothermal fluid of Te-type deposits might have been similar or even higher than that in the Se-type, early substitution of selenium in the sulfide minerals prevents its concentration in the hydrothermal fluid to the levels for precipitating selenide minerals. Therefore, early sulfide mineral deposition from reduction fluids will not increase the ƒSe2(g/ƒS2(g ratio to form selenide minerals in Te-type deposits of Arinem and Cineam, other than selenium-bearing sulfide mineral such as Se-bearing galena or Se-bearing pyrargyrite-proustite.

  13. Donor impurity self-compensation by neutral complexes in bismuth doped lead telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravich, Yu.I.; Nemov, S.A.; Proshin, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Self-compensation is calculated of impurity doping action in semiconductors of the A 4 B 6 type by neutral complexes, consisting of a vacancy and two impurity atoms. Complexes entropy is estimated and the thermodynamic potential is minimized in the concentration of single two-charge vacancies and complexes. Calculation results are compared with experimental data, obtained when lead telluride doping by bismuth. Account for complex formation improves agreement theory with experiment. 4 refs., 1 fig

  14. Optical properties of PMMA doped with erbium(III) and ytterbium(III) complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prajzler, V.; Huttel, I.; Lyutakov, O.; Oswald, Jiří; Machovič, V.; Jerabek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 9 (2009), s. 1814-1817 ISSN 0032-3888 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : polymers * erbium * photoluminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.248, year: 2009

  15. Stability of a 500 km erbium-doped fiber amplifier cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Ole; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard

    1992-01-01

    The stability of a cascade system of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, due to pump and signal power variations, has been examined by use of a very accurate model. Even with an automatic gain control loop included, a fallout of a pump laser in the first inline amplifier is shown to produce a more than...

  16. Linear and nonlinear resonance features of an erbium-doped fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... Abstract. The continuous-wave output of a single-mode erbium-doped fibre ring laser when sub- jected to cavity-loss modulation is found to exhibit linear as well as nonlinear resonances. At sufficiently low driving amplitude, the system resembles a linear damped oscillator. At higher amplitudes, the ...

  17. Serial topology of wide-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier for WDM applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Miroslav; Menif, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9 (2001), s. 939-941 ISSN 1041-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : erbium * wavelength division multiplexing * optical fibre amplifiers * optical fibre communication Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2001

  18. Radiation hardening commercial off-the-shelf erbium doped fibers by optimal photo-annealing source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tz-Shiuan; Liu, Ren-Young; Lin, Yen-Chih; Mao, Ming-Hua; Wang, Lon A.

    2017-09-01

    Erbium doped fibers (EDFs) based devices are widely employed in space for optical communication [1], remote sensing [2], and navigation applications, e.g. interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). However, the EDF suffers severely radiation induced attenuation (RIA) in radiation environments, e.g. space applications and nuclear reactors [3].

  19. The route toward a diode-pumped 1-W erbium 3-µm fiber laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    1997-01-01

    A rate-equation analysis of the erbium 3-um ZBLAN fiber laser is performed. The computer calculation includes the longitudinal spatial resolution of the host material. It considers ground-state bleaching, excited-state absorption (ESA), interionic processes, lifetime quenching by co-doping, and

  20. Temperature Sensor Using a Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel temperature sensor is presented based on a multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser. The laser is comprised of fiber Bragg grating reflectors as the oscillation wavelength selecting filters. The performance of the temperature sensor in terms of both wavelength and laser output power was investigated, as well as the application of this system for remote temperature measurements.

  1. Saturation of the 2.71 µm laser output in erbium doped ZBLAN fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedö, S.; Pollnau, Markus; Lüthy, W.; Weber, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The saturation of the 2.71 μm laser output power has been investigated in an erbium doped ZBLAN single-mode fiber with an Er3+ concentration of 5000 ppm mol. The bleaching of the ground state, the absorption coefficient at the pump wavelength and the fluorescence intensities over a wide wavelength

  2. Erbium medium temperature localised doping into lithium niobate and sapphire: A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Peřina, Vratislav; Červená, Jarmila; Čapek, P.; Schrofel, J.; Špirková, J.; Oswald, Jiří

    90-91, - (2003), s. 559-564 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : lithium niobate * sapphire * erbium Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  3. Optimization of E r-density profile for efficient pumping and high signal gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzi, E.; Hassani, A.; Esmaili Seraji, F.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier has been shown to have a great potentiality in Fiber-Optics Communication. A model is suggested for calculating the E r-density profile, using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier, such that efficient pumping and high signal gain is achieved for different fiber waveguide structure. The result of this numerical calculation shows that the gain, compared with the gain of the existing Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier, is higher by a factor of 3.5. This model is applicable in all active waveguides and any other dopant as well

  4. Use of a Soluble Anode in Electrodeposition of Thick Bismuth Telluride Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M.; Diliberto, S.; de Vaulx, C.; Azzouz, K.; Boulanger, C.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of thermoelectric devices within an automotive heat exchanger could enable conversion of lost heat into electrical energy, contributing to improved total output from the engine. For this purpose, synthesis of thick bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) films is required. Bismuth telluride has been produced by an electrochemical method in nitric acid with a sacrificial bismuth telluride anode as the source of cations. The binary layer grows on the working electrode while the counter-electrode, a Bi2Te3 disk obtained by high frequency melting, is oxidized to BiIII and TeIV. This process leads to auto-regeneration of the solution without modification of its composition. The thickness of films deposited by use of the Bi2Te3 anode was approximately 10 times that without. To demonstrate the utility of a soluble anode in electrochemical deposition, we report characterization of the composition and morphology of the films obtained under different experimental conditions. Perfectly dense and regular Bi2Te3 films (˜400 μm) with low internal stress and uniform composition across the cross-section were prepared. Their thermoelectric properties were assessed.

  5. Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazono, Evan; Zhong, Tian; Craiciu, Ioana; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Faraon, Andrei, E-mail: faraon@caltech.edu [T. J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories.

  6. Real-time synchrotoron radiation X-ray diffraction and abnormal temperature dependence of photoluminescence from erbium silicates on SiO2/Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Omi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The erbium silicate formation processes during annealing in Ar gas were monitored by synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD in real time and the optical properties of the silicates were investigated by photoluminescence measurements in spectral and time-resolved domains. The GIXD measurements show that erbium silicates and erbium oxide are formed by interface reactions between silicon oxide and erbium oxides deposited on silicon oxide by reactive sputtering in Ar gas and O2/Ar mixture gas ambiences. The erbium silicates are formed above 1060 °C in Ar gas ambience and above 1010 °C in O2/Ar gas ambience, and erbium silicides are dominantly formed above 1250 °C. The I15/2-I13/2 Er3+ photoluminescence from the erbium oxide and erbium silicate exhibits abnormal temperature dependence, which can be explained by the phonon-assisted resonant absorption of the 532-nm excitation photons into the 2H11/2 levels of Er3+ ions of the erbium compounds.

  7. Optical study of Erbium-doped-porous silicon based planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najar, A. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France) and Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia)]. E-mail: najar.adel@laposte.net; Ajlani, H. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Charrier, J. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Lorrain, N. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Haesaert, S. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Oueslati, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Raman, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 ElManar, Tunis (Tunisia); Haji, L. [Laboratoire d' Optronique UMR 6082-FOTON, Universite de Rennes 1, 6 rue de Kerampont, B.P. 80518, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2007-06-15

    Planar waveguides were formed from porous silicon layers obtained on P{sup +} substrates. These waveguides were then doped by erbium using an electrochemical method. Erbium concentration in the range 2.2-2.5 at% was determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis performed on SEM cross sections. The refractive index of layers was studied before and after doping and thermal treatments. The photoluminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions in the IR range and the decay curve of the 1.53 {mu}m emission peak were studied as a function of the excitation power. The value of excited Er density was equal to 0.07%. Optical loss contributions were analyzed on these waveguides and the losses were equal to 1.1 dB/cm at 1.55 {mu}m after doping.

  8. Empirical multichannel power consumption model for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; de Paiva, Getulio E. R.; Argentato, Marcio Colazza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified simu......-users, it is relevant to study channel number dependent power consumption for devising EDFA power efficient control and design.......In this paper we report on the first experimental power consumption analysis and model of single and multi-stage booster erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) with automatic gain control (AGC), accounting for channel number dependency. Results show that the amount of channels being amplified...... simultaneously contributes significantly, up to 48%, to the total power consumption due to the circuitry used for controlling the EDFA. As the number of simultaneous amplified WDM channels in high capacity long and medium reach transmission links reflects closely traffic patterns generated by end...

  9. Laser Cooling without Repumping: A Magneto-Optical Trap for Erbium Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.J.; Hanssen, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel mechanism that allows for strong laser cooling of atoms that do not have a closed cycling transition. This mechanism is observed in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for erbium, an atom with a very complex energy level structure with multiple pathways for optical-pumping losses. We observe surprisingly high trap populations of over 10 6 atoms and densities of over 10 11 atoms cm -3 , despite the many potential loss channels. A model based on recycling of metastable and ground state atoms held in the quadrupole magnetic field of the trap explains the high trap population, and agrees well with time-dependent measurements of MOT fluorescence. The demonstration of trapping of a rare-earth atom such as erbium opens a wide range of new possibilities for practical applications and fundamental studies with cold atoms

  10. Light up conversion effects in Erbium doped CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokolia, Renuka; Sreenivas, K.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the rare earth doped bismuth layered structured ferroelectric (BLSF) compositions such as CaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 , SrBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 and BaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 ceramics have shown interesting light up-conversion emission effects. The observation of such novel effects has generated a lot of scientific interest, and there is a need to further improve their dielectric, piezoelectric and light up-conversion properties. In the present study, Erbium doped CaBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 (CBT), and SrBi 4 Ti 4 O 15 (SBT) ferroelectric ceramic have been prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. Formation of single phase material is confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and changes occurring in the lattice parameters with Erbium dopant are analysed. Room temperature dielectric studies and ferroelectric studies will be discussed. (author)

  11. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  12. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-01-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  13. 2-LP mode few-mode fiber amplifier employing ring-core erbium-doped fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hirotaka; Hosokawa, Tsukasa; Ichii, Kentaro; Matsuo, Shoichiro; Nasu, Hitoshi; Yamada, Makoto

    2015-10-19

    A fiber amplifier supporting 2 LP modes that employs a ring-core erbium-doped fiber (RC-EDF) is investigated to reduce differential modal gain (DMG). The inner and outer radii of the ring-core of the RC-EDF are clarified for 2-LP mode operation of the amplifier, and are optimized to reduce the DMG. It is shown that using the overlap integral between the erbium-doped core area and the signal power mode distribution is a good way to optimize the inner and outer radii of the ring-core of the RC-EDF and thus minimize the DMG. A fabricated RC-EDF and a constructed 2-LP mode EDFA are described and a small DMG of around 1 dB is realized for LP01, LP11 and LP21 pumping.

  14. Erbium-doped fiber ring resonator for resonant fiber optical gyro applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunming; Zhao, Rui; Tang, Jun; Xia, Meijing; Guo, Huiting; Xie, Chengfeng; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a fiber ring resonator with erbium-doped fiber (EDF) for resonant fiber optical gyro (RFOG). To analyze compensation mechanism of the EDF on resonator, a mathematical model of the erbium-doped fiber ring resonator (EDFRR) is established based on Jones matrix to be followed by the design and fabrication of a tunable EDFRR. The performances of the fabricated EDFRR were measured and the experimental Q-factor of 2 . 47 × 108 and resonant depth of 109% were acquired separately. Compared with the resonator without the EDF, the resonant depth and Q-factor of the proposed device are increased by 2.5 times and 14 times, respectively. A potential optimum shot noise limited resolution of 0 . 042∘ / h can be obtained for the RFOG, which is promising for low-cost and high precise detection.

  15. Feasibility of preparing patterned molybdenum coatings on bismuth telluride thermoelectric modules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Miller, Stephen Samuel; Knight, Marlene E.; LePage, William S.; Sobczak, Catherine Elizabeth.; Wesolowski, Daniel Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molybdenum electrical interconnects for thermoelectric modules were produced by air plasma spraying a 30%CE%BCm size molybdenum powder through a laser-cut Kapton tape mask. Initial feasibility demonstrations showed that the molybdenum coating exhibited excellent feature and spacing retention (~170%CE%BCm), adhered to bismuth-telluride, and exhibited electrical conductivity appropriate for use as a thermoelectric module interconnect. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize air plasma spray process conditions to produce a molybdenum coating with low electrical resistivity. Finally, a molybdenum coating was successfully produced on a fullscale thermoelectric module. After the addition of a final titanium/gold layer deposited on top of the molybdenum coating, the full scale module exhibited an electrical resistivity of 128%CE%A9, approaching the theoretical resistivity value for the 6mm module leg of 112%CE%A9. Importantly, air plasma sprayed molybdenum did not show significant chemical reaction with bismuth-telluride substrate at the coating/substrate interface. The molybdenum coating microstructure consisted of lamellar splats containing columnar grains. Air plasma sprayed molybdenum embedded deeply (several microns) into the bismuth-telluride substrate, leading to good adhesion between the coating and the substrate. Clusters of round pores (and cracks radiating from the pores) were found immediately beneath the molybdenum coating. These pores are believed to result from tellurium vaporization during the spray process where the molten molybdenum droplets (2623%C2%B0C) transferred their heat of solidification to the substrate at the moment of impact. Substrate cooling during the molybdenum deposition process was recommended to mitigate tellurium vaporization in future studies.

  16. Tiny optical fiber temperature sensor based on temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Song, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Bingsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    The temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film can be used to develop a tiny, low cost and film-coated optical fiber temperature sensor. Pulse reference-based compensation technique is used to largely reduce the background noise which makes it possible to detect the minor reflectivity change of the film in different temperatures. The temperature sensitivity is 0.0034dB/° and the background noise is measured to be 0.0005dB, so the resolution can achieve 0.2°.

  17. Cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors with a high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.A.; Dorogov, P.G.; Ivanov, V.I.; Khusainov, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility of improving the energy resolution of cadmium telluride gamma-radiation detectors through the choice of the geometry and size of the sensitive region of the detector. The optimum ratio of the product of the mobility and lifetime for electrons to the same product for holes from the point of view of energy resolution is greater than or equal to 10 2 for a detector of spherical geometry and should be less than or equal to 10 for a cylindrical geometry and approximately 1 for a planar geometry. The optimum values of the major and minor radii of a spherical detector are calculated

  18. Formation of solid solutions on the boundary of zinc oxidezinc telluride heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurkan, A.E.; Buzhor, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of ZnO x Te 1-x alloy composition on the interface of zinc oxide-zinc telluride heterojunction depending on the production conditions is investigated. A regularity in the formation of an extended area with constant alloy composition is detected. The regularity is explained by the fact that electric Peltier field conditioned by contact of two heterogeneous semiconductors participates in the solid solution formation process. Peltier field levels off the composition at the end length section. So, a possibility of creating a section with the assigned minor thickness alloy constant composition controlled in the interface of heterojunction occurs

  19. Specific features of the photoconductivity of semi-insulating cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubyatnikov, V. A.; Grigor’ev, F. I.; Lysenko, A. P., E-mail: aplysenko@hse.ru; Strogankova, N. I.; Shadov, M. B. [National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Belov, A. G. [OAO GIREDMET State Research and Design Institute of the Rare-Metal Industry (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The effect of local illumination providing a high level of free-carrier injection on the conductivity of a sample of semi-insulating cadmium telluride and on the properties of ohmic contacts to the sample is studied. It is found that, irrespective of the illumination region, the contact resistance of ohmic contacts decreases and the concentration of majority carriers in the sample grows in proportion to the illumination intensity. It is shown that inherent heterogeneities in crystals of semi-insulating semiconductors can be studied by scanning with a light probe.

  20. Iron telluride nanorods-based system for the detection of total mercury in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prathik; Lin, Zong-Hong [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liang, Chi-Te [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Huan-Tsung, E-mail: changht@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Elucidation of the detection of mercury using iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs), and dose-response curve for varying concentrations of Hg{sup 2+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs) are prepared from tellurium nanowires (Te NWs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury telluride nanorods (HgTe NRs) form by cation exchange reaction of FeTe NRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+} ions released catalyze the oxidation of ABTS by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury is effectively determined in blood with an LOD of 1.31 nM at S/N ratio 3. - Abstract: We have developed a simple, colorimetric iron telluride (FeTe) nanorods (NRs) based system for the detection of mercury, mainly based on the cation exchange reaction between FeTe NRs and Hg{sup 2+}. FeTe NRs (length, 105 {+-} 21 nm) react with Hg{sup 2+} to form HgTe NRs (length, 112 {+-} 26 nm) and consequently release Fe{sup 2+} ions that catalyzes the oxidation between a peroxidase substrate 2,2 Prime -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The concentration of Fe{sup 2+} and thereby Hg{sup 2+} can be determined by measuring the absorbance of the ABTS oxidized product at 418 nm. This approach allows the detection of Hg{sup 2+}, with a limit of detection of 1.31 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio 3 and a linear range 5-100 nM (R{sup 2} = 0.99). The low-cost, simple, sensitive, and reproducible assay has been validated for the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in a blood sample (SRM 955c), with the result being in good agreement with that provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  1. Micro-fractional ablative skin resurfacing with two novel erbium laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Christine C; Khatri, Khalil A; Tannous, Zeina S; Childs, James J; Cohen, Richard H; Erofeev, Andrei; Tabatadze, David; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2008-02-01

    Fractional ablation offers the potential benefits of full-surface ablative skin resurfacing while minimizing adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, damage profile, and efficacy of erbium fractional lasers. Histology from animal and human skin as well as clinical evaluations were conducted with erbium YAG (2,940 nm) and erbium YSGG (2,790 nm) fractional lasers varying pulse width, microbeam (microb) energy, number of passes, and stacking of pulses. Single-pulse treatment parameters from 1 to 12 mJ per 50-70 microm diameter microbeam and 0.25-5 milliseconds pulse widths produced microcolumns of ablation with border coagulation of up to 100 microm width and 450 microm depth. Stacking of pulses generated deeper microcolumns. Clinical observations and in vivo histology demonstrate rapid re-epithelization and limited adverse side effects. Facial treatments were performed in the periorbital and perioral areas using 1-8 passes of single and stacked pulses. Treatments were well-tolerated and subjects could resume their normal routine in 4 days. A statistically significant reduction in wrinkle scores at 3 months was observed for both periorbital and perioral wrinkles using blinded grading. For periorbital treatments of four passes or more, over 90% had > or =1 score wrinkle reduction (0-9 scale) and 42% had > or =2. For perioral wrinkles, over 50% had substantial improvements (> or =2). The clinical observations and histology findings demonstrate that micro-fractional ablative treatment with 2,790 and 2,940 nm erbium lasers resulted in safe and effective wrinkle reduction with minimal patient downtime. The depth and width of the ablated microcolumns and varying extent of surrounding coagulation can be controlled and used to design new treatment procedures targeted for specific indications and areas such as moderate to severe rhytides and photodamaged skin.

  2. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO 2 glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author)

  3. Fluorescence lifetime studies of MeV erbium implanted silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidgard, A.; Polman, A.; Jacobsen, D.C.; Blonder, G.E.; Kistler, R.; Poate, J.M.; Becker, P.C. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA))

    1991-05-23

    MeV erbium ion implantation into various SiO{sub 2} glasses has been studied with the aim of incorporating the rare-earth dopant as an optically active ion in the silica network. The lifetime of the excited state ranges from 1.6 to 12.8 ms, depending on base material and implantation fluence. These results have positive implications for silica-based integrated optical technology. (Author).

  4. Wavelength-selectable and steady single-mode erbium-doped fiber multiple ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a stable and selectable C-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with single-longitudinal-mode output, a multiple ring architecture is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In this work, we design a passively quadruple-ring structure in the cavity of an EDF laser to produce a Vernier effect with a mode filter for suppressing the multimode spikes significantly. In addition, the output performance and stability of the proposed EDF ring laser are discussed.

  5. Stabilization in laser wavelength semiconductor with fiber optical amplifier application doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camas, J.; Anzueto, G.; Mendoza, S.; Hernandez, H.; Garcia, C.; Vazquez, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel electronic design of a DC source, which automatically controls the temperature of a tunable laser. The temperature change in the laser is carried out by the control of DC that circulates through a cooling stage where the laser is set. The laser can be tuned in a wavelength around 1550 nm. Its application is in Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) in reflective configuration. (Author)

  6. Ion-implantation of erbium into the nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Babchenko, Oleg; Cajzl, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Prajzler, Václav; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7-8 (2016), s. 679-684 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * optical waveguides * erbium * luminescence * ion implantation * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2016

  7. Properties of epitaxial films of indium phosphides alloyed with erbium in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, V.I.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Korobkin, V.A.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Lopatin, V.V.; Lyubchenko, V.E.; Telegin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature dependences of specific resistance and free charge-carrier mobility at low temperatures for indium phosphide films grown by liquid-phase epitaxial method with erbium additions (0.01-0.1 mass%). The main mechanisms of scattering for different temperature regions: scattering on ionized impurities in the rage from 20 to 40 K and lattice scattering at the temperature above 90 K are determined. The current density dependences on applied electric field strength are presented

  8. Erbium-ion implantation into various crystallographic cuts of Al2O3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Cajzl, J.; Švecová, B.; Oswald, Jiří; Wilhelm, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 365, DEC (2015), s. 89-93 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Sapphire * Erbium * ion implantation * luminescence Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  9. Crystalline perfection and mechanical investigations on vertical Bridgman grown Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) single crystals for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Anuj; Vijayan, N.; Singh, Budhendra; Thukral, Kanika; Maurya, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric materials plays a vital role in power generation and refrigeration applications. Bismuth telluride (Bi_2Te_3) is one among them. In the present work single crystal of bismuth telluride was grown using vertical Bridgman technique. The phase of grown crystals was analysed using a powder X-ray diffractometer. Quality of the grown crystal was assessed by using high resolution X-ray diffractometer and observed that it is fairly good. Further mechanical investigations on grown crystal was carried out using nano-indentation technique and various mechanical properties like hardness, stiffness and Young’s modulus were evaluated. Observed results clearly indicate its suitability for thermoelectric applications.

  10. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators; Bleitellurid mit erhoehter mechanischer Stabilitaet fuer zylindrische thermoelektrische Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-04-30

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical stability of lead telluride (PbTe), trying to vary its mechanical properties independently from its thermoelectric properties. Thus the influence of material preparation as well as different dopants on the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of lead telluride is being analysed. When using appropriately set process parameters, milling and sintering of lead telluride increases the material's hardness. With sintering temperatures exceeding 300 C stable material of high relative density can be achieved. Milling lead telluride generates lattice defects leading to a reduction of the material's charge carrier density. These defects can be reduced by increased sintering temperatures. Contamination of the powder due to the milling process leads to bloating during thermal cycling and thus reduced density of the sintered material. In addition to that, evaporation of tellurium at elevated temperatures causes instability of the material's thermoelectric properties. Based on the experimental results obtained in this work, the best thermoelectric and mechanical properties can be obtained by sintering coarse powders at around 400 C. Within this work a concept was developed to vary the mechanical properties of lead telluride via synthesis of PbTe with electrically nondoping elements, which thus may keep the thermoelectric properties unchanged. Therefore, the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Te were investigated. Doping pure PbTe with calcium causes a significant increase of the material's hardness while only slightly decreasing the charge carrier density and thus keeping the thermoelectric properties apart from a slight reduction of the electrical conductivity nearly unchanged. The abovementioned concept is proven using sodium doped lead telluride, as it is used for thermoelectric generators: The additional doping with calcium again increases the material's hardness while its thermoelectric

  11. Spatial mapping of cadmium zinc telluride materials properties and electrical response to improve device yield and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van Scyoc, J M; Yoon, H; Gilbert, T S; Hilton, N R; Lund, J C; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride has experienced tremendous growth in its application to various radiation sensing problems over the last five years. However, there are still issues with yield, particularly of the large volume devices needed for imaging and sensitivity-critical applications. Inhomogeneities of various types and on various length scales currently prevent the fabrication of large devices of high spectral performance. This paper discusses the development of a set of characterization tools for quantifying these inhomogeneities, in order to develop improvement strategies to achieve the desired cadmium zinc telluride crystals for detector fabrication.

  12. Lead telluride with increased mechanical stability for cylindrical thermoelectric generators; Bleitellurid mit erhoehter mechanischer Stabilitaet fuer zylindrische thermoelektrische Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Andreas

    2013-04-30

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical stability of lead telluride (PbTe), trying to vary its mechanical properties independently from its thermoelectric properties. Thus the influence of material preparation as well as different dopants on the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of lead telluride is being analysed. When using appropriately set process parameters, milling and sintering of lead telluride increases the material's hardness. With sintering temperatures exceeding 300 C stable material of high relative density can be achieved. Milling lead telluride generates lattice defects leading to a reduction of the material's charge carrier density. These defects can be reduced by increased sintering temperatures. Contamination of the powder due to the milling process leads to bloating during thermal cycling and thus reduced density of the sintered material. In addition to that, evaporation of tellurium at elevated temperatures causes instability of the material's thermoelectric properties. Based on the experimental results obtained in this work, the best thermoelectric and mechanical properties can be obtained by sintering coarse powders at around 400 C. Within this work a concept was developed to vary the mechanical properties of lead telluride via synthesis of PbTe with electrically nondoping elements, which thus may keep the thermoelectric properties unchanged. Therefore, the mechanical and thermoelectric properties of Pb{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Te were investigated. Doping pure PbTe with calcium causes a significant increase of the material's hardness while only slightly decreasing the charge carrier density and thus keeping the thermoelectric properties apart from a slight reduction of the electrical conductivity nearly unchanged. The abovementioned concept is proven using sodium doped lead telluride, as it is used for thermoelectric generators: The additional doping with calcium again increases the material's hardness while

  13. Evaluation of safety requirements of erbium laser equipment used in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Flavio Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    The erbium laser (Er:YAG) has been used in several therapeutic processes. Erbium lasers, however, operate with energies capable to produce lesions in biological tissues. Aiming the safe use, the commercialization of therapeutic laser equipment is controlled in Brazil, where the equipment should comply with quality and safety requirement prescribed in technical regulations. The objective of this work is to evaluate the quality and safety requirements of a commercial therapeutic erbium laser according to Brazilian regulations, and to discuss a risk control program intended to minimize the accidental exposition at dangerous laser radiation levels. It was verified that the analyzed laser can produce lesions in the skin and eyes, when exposed to laser radiation at distances smaller than 80 cm by 10 s or more. In these conditions, the use of protection glasses is recommended to the personnel that have access to the laser operation ambient. It was verified that the user's training and the presence of a target indicator are fundamental to avoid damages in the skin and buccal cavity. It was also verified that the knowledge and the correct use of the equipment safety devices, and the application of technical and administrative measures is efficient to minimize the risk of dangerous expositions to the laser radiation. (author)

  14. Continuously tunable S and C+L bands ultra wideband erbium-doped fiber ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q; Yu, Q X

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra wideband tunable silica-based erbium doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) that can be continuously tuned in S and C+L bands from 1475 to 1619 nm. It is the first time that a fiber ring laser's tuning range reaches 144 nm using a standard silica-based C-band erbium-doped fiber as gain media. In the laser configuration two isolators are used in the fiber loop for suppressing the ASE in C-band and elevating the lasing gain in S-band. As a result the available lasing wavelength is extended toward the shorter wavelength of the gain bandwidth. The optimized erbium-doped fiber length, output coupling ratio and pumping laser power have been obtained through experimental study. This ring fiber laser has simple configuration, low threshold, flat laser spectral distribution and high signal-to-ASE-noise ratio. The laser will have many potential applications in fiber sensor wavelength interrogation, high-resolution spectroscopy and fiber optic communications

  15. Strain effect on the heat transport properties of bismuth telluride nanofilms with a hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Chao-Chun

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the mechanical behavior of bismuth telluride nanofilms with holes by using an equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The holes had diameters of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Å. The thermal conductivity values of the nanofilms were calculated under different strains at different temperatures using a nonequilibrium MD simulation. The simulation revealed that the thermal conductivity of a bismuth telluride nanofilm with a hole decreases with an increase in hole diameter at different strains. For a film with a perfect structure at 300 K, a 48% reduction (from 0.33 to 0.17 W/m K) in the thermal conductivity was observed at a 7% tensile strain. In addition, the thermal conductivity increased by approximately 39% (from 0.33 to 0.46 W/m K) at a 7% compressive strain. A very low value (0.11 W/m K) of thermal conductivity is obtained for the nanofilm with a hole diameter of 50 Å at a 7% tensile strain at 300 K.

  16. Effect of electronic contribution on temperature-dependent thermal transport of antimony telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Yong; Park, No-Won [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji-Eun [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon-Gil, E-mail: sgyoon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jung-Hyuk [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kwon, E-mail: sangkwonlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We investigated thermal transport of the antimony telluride thin films. • The contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity increased up to ∼77% at 300 K. • We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component. - Abstract: We study the theoretical and experimental characteristics of thermal transport of 100 nm and 500 nm-thick antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was measured at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K, using four-point-probe 3-ω method. Out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film was much lesser in comparison to the bulk material in the entire temperature range, confirming that the phonon- and electron-boundary scattering are enhanced in thin films. Moreover, we found that the contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity (κ{sub e}) in total thermal conductivity (κ) linearly increased up to ∼77% at 300 K with increasing temperature. We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component of thermal conductivity towards the total thermal conductivity of the film by a modified Callaway model. Further, we find the theoretical model predictions to correspond well with the experimental results.

  17. Synthesis of ultra-long cadmium telluride nanotubes via combinational chemical transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kee-Ryung; Cho, Hong-Baek; Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of high-throughput cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanotubes with an ultra-long aspect ratio is presented via a combination process concept combined with electrospinning, electrodeposition, and cationic exchange reaction. Ultra-long sacrificial silver (Ag) nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning involving two-step calcination, and were then electrodeposited to create silver telluride nanotubes. These nanotubes underwent cationic exchange reaction in cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate solution with the aid of a ligand, tributylphosphine (TBP). Analysis showed that ultra-long pure zinc blende CdTe nanotubes were obtained with controlled dimension and uniform morphology. The thermodynamic driving force induced by the coordination of methanol solvent and TBP attributed to overcome the kinetic barrier between Ag{sub 2}Te and CdTe nanotubes, facilitating the synthesis of CdTe nanotubes. This synthetic process involving a topotactic reaction route paves a way for high-throughput extended synthesis of new chalcogenide hollow nanotubes for application in photodetectors and solar cells. - Highlights: • High throughput synthetic route of hollow CdTe nanotubes with ultra-long aspect ratio. • Chemical combination of electrospinning, electrodeposition & cation exchange reaction. • Pure zinc blende CdTe by controlled dimension & structural variation of Ag nanofibers. • Potential for the high throughput synthesis of new exotic chalcogenide nanotubes.

  18. Possible bicollinear nematic state with monoclinic lattice distortions in iron telluride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Christopher B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herbrych, Jacek W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moreo, Adriana [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Here, iron telluride (FeTe) is known to display bicollinear magnetic order at low temperatures together with a monoclinic lattice distortion. Because the bicollinear order can involve two different wave vectors (π/2,π/2) and (π/2,–π/2), symmetry considerations allow for the possible stabilization of a nematic state with short-range bicollinear order coupled to monoclinic lattice distortions at a TS higher than the temperature TN where long-range bicollinear order fully develops. As a concrete example, the three-orbital spin-fermion model for iron telluride is studied with an additional coupling ˜λ12 between the monoclinic lattice strain and an orbital-nematic order parameter with B2g symmetry. Monte Carlo simulations show that with increasing ˜λ12 the first-order transition characteristic of FeTe splits and bicollinear nematicity is stabilized in a (narrow) temperature range. In this new regime, the lattice is monoclinically distorted and short-range spin and orbital order breaks rotational invariance. A discussion of possible realizations of this exotic state is provided.

  19. The use of cadmium telluride γ spectrometers in monitoring activity deposited in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    The ability to inspect and test key components and when necessary repair or replace them is a significant factor in the safety case submitted before consent is given for construction of a nuclear reactor. A knowledge of the probable rate of deposition and isotopic composition of radioactive contamination in these areas is necessary and since it is not always practicable to take samples away to the laboratory for analysis, direct gamma ray spectroscopy in the contaminated environment is sometimes used. The experience of direct monitoring with a cadmium telluride spectrometer in two such reactor situations is reported. In the first situation, a remotely cooled intrinsic Germanium spectrometer was used in equivalent positions and spectra from both systems are presented. The relative merits of the two systems are discussed. In the second situation, measurements were made in an environment at 70 deg C in radiation levels of 10Rh -1 . An improvised cooling system was used to maintain the Cadmium Telluride at about 20 deg C and Pile-up Rejection was used to enable count rates of about 10 5 s -1 to be handled. It is noted that the usually quoted detector parameters, resolution and crystal volume, are not necessarily the most important in practical spectrometry of mixed isotopes. As with germanium detectors, the most useful parameter is probably the Peak-to-Compton ratio

  20. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles fabricated by using reverse micelle and sol-gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoyyul; Bae, Dongsik

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a reverse micelle technique combined with metal-alkoxide hydrolysis and condensation. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles could be changed by varying the molar ratio of water to surfactant. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles were examined by using a transmission electron microscope. The average size of synthesized erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles was approximately 20 - 25 nm and that of the erbium particles was 3 - 5 nm. The effects of the synthesis parameters, such as the molar ratio of water to surfactant, are discussed.

  2. Improvement of a triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, P C; Hu, H L; Wang, J B

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a simple construct of a tunable triple-wavelength fiber ring laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and an optical tunable bandpass filter. An optical tunable bandpass filter is used within the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber laser to select the lasing wavelength. Because the Fabry–Perot laser diode is in combination with the tunable bandpass filter, the erbium-doped fiber laser can stably lase three wavelengths simultaneously. Moreover, this laser is easily tuned dynamically. This triple-wavelength output performs satisfactorily, with its optical side-mode-suppression-ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. Furthermore, the wavelength tuning range of this triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is greater than 27 nm. (paper)

  3. Assessment of erbium as candidate burnable absorber for future PWR operaning cycles: A neutronic and fabrication study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asou, M.; Dehaudt, P.; Porta, J.

    1995-01-01

    Erbium begins to play a role in the control of PWR core reactivity. Generally speaking, burnable absorbers were only used to establish fresh core equilibrium. In France, since the possibility of extending irradiation cycles by 12 to 18 months, then up to 24 and 30 months, has been envisaged, there is renewed interest in burnable absorbers. The fabrication of PWR pellets has been investigated, providing high density and a good erbium homogeneity. The pellets characteristics were consistent with the specifications of PWR fuel. However, with the present process, the grain size remains small. Studies in progress now shows that erbium is not only a valuable alternative to gadolinium, for long fuel cycles (≥18 months) but also a new fuel concept. (orig.)

  4. Effect of erbium modification on the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion characteristics of binary Mg–Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharaman, Sankaranarayanan, E-mail: seetharaman.s@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Blawert, Carsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Magnesium Innovation Centre, Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-21502, Geesthacht (Germany); Ng, Baoshu Milton [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore); Wong, Wai Leong Eugene [School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, New Castle University International Singapore, 180 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8, 569830 (Singapore); Goh, Chwee Sim [ITE Technology Development Centre, ITE College Central, 2 Ang Mo Kio Drive, 567720 (Singapore); Hort, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Magnesium Innovation Centre, Max-Planck-Straße 1, D-21502, Geesthacht (Germany); Gupta, Manoj, E-mail: mpegm@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-11-05

    In this study, new erbium modified Mg–Al alloys were developed by integrating trace erbium (in the form of Al{sub 94.67}Er{sub 5.33} master alloy) into pure Mg using disintegrated melt deposition technique. The developed Er- modified Mg–Al alloys were investigated for their microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics in comparison with their unmodified counterparts. Microstructural investigation revealed (i) improved purity, (ii) (marginal) grain refinement, (iii) more uniform second phase distribution and (iv) Al{sub 3}Er phase formation due to Er modification. Mechanical property measurements revealed an overall enhancement under indentation, tension and compression loads. A remarkable improvement in tensile ductility (without adverse effects on strength) by +19%, +29%, and +58% was obtained in Mg–3Al–0.1Er, Mg–6Al–0.3Er and Mg–9Al–0.5Er when compared to Mg–3Al, Mg–6Al and Mg–9Al respectively. While the Mg–6Al–0.3Er alloy exhibited best ductility, the Mg–9Al–0.5Er has the best strength under both tension and compression loads. Corrosion characteristics evaluated by hydrogen evolution, salt spray and electrochemical impedance experiments revealed improved corrosion resistance of Er modified Mg–Al alloys by the enhanced purity levels and the formation of Al–Er phases. - Highlights: • New erbium modified Mg–Al alloys successfully synthesized using DMD method. • Erbium modification promoted Al{sub 3}Er formation and improved the purity. • Remarkable improvement in tensile ductility obtained after erbium modification. • The developed erbium modified Mg–Al alloys exhibit improved corrosion resistance.

  5. Effect of erbium modification on the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion characteristics of binary Mg–Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharaman, Sankaranarayanan; Blawert, Carsten; Ng, Baoshu Milton; Wong, Wai Leong Eugene; Goh, Chwee Sim; Hort, Norbert; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new erbium modified Mg–Al alloys were developed by integrating trace erbium (in the form of Al 94.67 Er 5.33 master alloy) into pure Mg using disintegrated melt deposition technique. The developed Er- modified Mg–Al alloys were investigated for their microstructural, mechanical and corrosion characteristics in comparison with their unmodified counterparts. Microstructural investigation revealed (i) improved purity, (ii) (marginal) grain refinement, (iii) more uniform second phase distribution and (iv) Al 3 Er phase formation due to Er modification. Mechanical property measurements revealed an overall enhancement under indentation, tension and compression loads. A remarkable improvement in tensile ductility (without adverse effects on strength) by +19%, +29%, and +58% was obtained in Mg–3Al–0.1Er, Mg–6Al–0.3Er and Mg–9Al–0.5Er when compared to Mg–3Al, Mg–6Al and Mg–9Al respectively. While the Mg–6Al–0.3Er alloy exhibited best ductility, the Mg–9Al–0.5Er has the best strength under both tension and compression loads. Corrosion characteristics evaluated by hydrogen evolution, salt spray and electrochemical impedance experiments revealed improved corrosion resistance of Er modified Mg–Al alloys by the enhanced purity levels and the formation of Al–Er phases. - Highlights: • New erbium modified Mg–Al alloys successfully synthesized using DMD method. • Erbium modification promoted Al 3 Er formation and improved the purity. • Remarkable improvement in tensile ductility obtained after erbium modification. • The developed erbium modified Mg–Al alloys exhibit improved corrosion resistance

  6. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  7. STRUCTURE FEATURES OF THE SODIUM-GERMANATE GLASSES DOPED WITH YTTERBIUM ERBIUM RETRIEVED FROM RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Sevastianova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with study of Raman spectra and luminescence spectra in the visible region of the sodium-germanate glass: 49 GeO2 – 13 Na2O – 27 Yb2O3 – 11 La2O3 - 0,25 Er2O3 and presents research results. In addition, this glass is doped with 5 mol% of the following components MgO, BaO, Al2O3, PbO, Nb2O5, TiO2, SiO2, P2O5 in order to study the effect of these additives on the structure of the glassy matrix and the anti-Stokes luminescence spectra of erbium ions. Method. Raman scatteringspectra were recorded by Renishaw inVia Raman Microscope. Excitation source is a helium neon laser (λ= 633 nm with power equal to 50Wt. Anti-Stokes luminescence of erbium ions was registered in spectral region of 450–750 nm at room temperature (excitation laser wavelength is 975 nm, power is 1Wt. Main Results. It was shown that the structure of the initial glass does not change with the introduction of niobium as Nb2O5 in any coordination plays a role of network forming, building a single mixed grid with tetrahedrons [GeO4]. Introduction of the second glass former P2O5 leads to loosening germanate structure due to the appearance of the phosphate sublattice. This leads to a redistribution of the relative intensity of up-conversion luminescence bands with maxima at 540 and 670 nm compared with the initial glass. Introduction of additives PbO, MgO, Al2O3, TiO2 results in a multicenter structure. In case of titanium oxide addition it leads to a change in the relative intensities of the erbium luminescence.

  8. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  9. Charge sharing and charge loss in a cadmium-zinc-telluride fine-pixel detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskin, J.A.; Sharma, D.P.; Ramsey, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its high atomic number, room temperature operation, low noise, and high spatial resolution a cadmium-zinc-telluride multi-pixel detector is ideal for hard X-ray astrophysical observation. As part of on-going research at MSFC to develop multi-pixel CdZnTe detectors for this purpose, we have measured charge sharing and charge loss for a 4x4 (750 μm pitch), 1 mm thick pixel array and modeled these results using a Monte-Carlo simulation. This model was then used to predict the amount of charge sharing for a much finer pixel array (with a 300 μm pitch). Future work will enable us to compare the simulated results for the finer array to measured values

  10. Structural, Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties under Pressure Effect of Rubidium Telluride: First Principle Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidai K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of rubidium telluride in cubic anti-fluorite (anti-CaF2-type structure. The calculated ground-state properties of Rb2Te compound such as equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk moduli are investigated by generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE that are based on the optimization of total energy. The elastic constants, Young’s and shear modulus, Poisson ratio, have also been calculated. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data. The pressure dependence of elastic constant and thermodynamic quantities under high pressure are also calculated and discussed.

  11. Heavily doped GaAs:Te layers grown by MOVPE using diisopropyl telluride as a source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniltsev, V. M.; Demidov, E. V.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N., E-mail: drozdyu@ipmras.ru; Kraev, S. A.; Surovegina, E. A.; Shashkin, V. I.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The capabilities of GaAs epitaxial layers extremely heavily doped with tellurium by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy using diisopropyl telluride as a source are studied. It is shown that tellurium incorporation into GaAs occurs to an atomic concentration of 10{sup 21} cm{sup –3} without appreciable diffusion and segregation effects. Good carrier concentrations (2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}) and specific contact resistances of non-alloyed ohmic contacts (1.7 × 10{sup –6} Ω cm{sup 2}) give grounds to use such layers to create non-alloyed ohmic contacts in electronic devices. A sharp decrease in the electrical activity of Te atoms, a decrease in the electron mobility, and an increase in the contact resistance at atomic concentrations above 2 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –3} are detected.

  12. Effect of ball milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Poonam; Bagwaiya, Toshi; Bhattacharaya, Shovit; Singh, Ajay; Jha, Purushottam; Shelke, Vilas

    2018-04-01

    The effect of different milling time on thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) was investigated. The nanomaterial was prepared by varying the ball milling time and followed by hot press sintering. The crystal structure and phase formation were verified by X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The experimental results show that electrical conductivity increases whereas thermal conductivity decreases with increasing milling time. The negative sign of seebeck coefficient indicate the n-type nature with majority charge carriers of electrons. A maximum figure of merit about 0.55 is achieved for l5hr ball milled Bi2Te3 sample. The present study demonstrates the simple and cost-effective method for synthesis of Bi2Te3 thermoelectric material at large scale thermoelectric applications.

  13. High pressure and doping effects on the Curie temperature in chromium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazhdankina, N.P.; Bersenev, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the effect of hydrostatic pressure (up to 12 kbars) on the Curie temperature Tsub(c) of solid CrTsub(1-x)Xsub(x) solutions (X=Se, Sb) are presented for x concentration values up to 0.5. The baric coefficients γ=Tsub(c)sup(-1)(dTsub(c)/dP) for all alloys investigated are negative. However the γ(x) dependence is determined by the X alloy component and correspondingly by the nature of the compression which may be either isotropic (X=Se) or anisotropic (X=Sb). Possible mechanisms of exchange spin coupling in the alloys investigated are discussed on the basis of the data obtained. It is concluded that two types of exchange interactions coexist in chromium telluride: indirect exchange of localized electrons via the anion and interaction between collectivized electrons in the narrow 3d band energy determines the Curie temperature

  14. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  15. Trace analysis in cadmium telluride by heavy ion induced X-ray emission and by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, C.; Stuck, R.; Siffert, P.; Cailleret, J.; Heitz, Ch.; Lagarde, G.; Tenorio, D.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities of using both selective heavy ion induced X-ray emission and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), for the identification of impurities present at low concentrations in cadmium telluride are examined. The relative concentrations of the impurities along CdTe crystals have been determined by exciting the X-ray emission of the elements in several slices with Ar and Kr ions and by comparing the relative characteristic X-ray emission yields. As a consequence of the quasimolecular inner shell ionization mechanism in heavy ion-atom collisions, Ar and Kr ions allow a strong excitation of the main impurities seen by SIMS namely Si, Cl and Ge, As, with only a minor contribution of Cd and Te. From the changes of the concentrations of the various impurities along the crystal, informations about segregation coefficients and compensation can be obtained

  16. Angular dependence of magnetization reversal in epitaxial chromium telluride thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Tanmoy, E-mail: pramanik.tanmoy@utexas.edu; Roy, Anupam, E-mail: anupam@austin.utexas.edu; Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Rai, Amritesh; Guchhait, Samaresh; Movva, Hema C.P.; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial Cr{sub 2}Te{sub 3} has been investigated. • Presence of a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution is observed. • Magnetization reversal is explained quantitatively using a 1D defect model. • Relative roles of nucleation and pinning in magnetization reversal are discussed. • Domain structures and switching process are visualized by micromagnetic simulation. - Abstract: We investigate magnetic anisotropy and magnetization reversal mechanism in chromium telluride thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report existence of strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these thin films, along with a relatively strong second order anisotropy contribution. The angular variation of the switching field observed from the magnetoresistance measurement is explained quantitatively using a one-dimensional defect model. The model reveals the relative roles of nucleation and pinning in the magnetization reversal, depending on the applied field orientation. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to visualize the domain structure and switching process.

  17. First operation of cesium telluride photocathodes in the TTF injector RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Sertore, D; Flöttmann, K; Stephan, F; Zapfe, K; Michelato, P

    2000-01-01

    During the run 1998/1999 a new injector based on a laser-driven RF gun was brought in operation at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac at DESY, in order to produce the beam structure and quality required either by TeV collider and SASE FEL experiments. High quantum efficiency cesium telluride photocathodes, prepared at Milano and transferred to DESY, have been successfully operated in the RF gun. A bunch charge of 50 nC, only limited by space charge effects, was achieved. The photocathodes have shown an operative lifetime of several months. A new cathode surface finishing has showed a promising decrease of the photocathode dark current. Measurements of dark current, quantum efficiency and lifetime are reported.

  18. Graphene Oxide-Based Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Y. K.; Harun, S. W.; Ahmad, H.; Huang, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a pulsed ring erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene oxide (GO), employing a simplified Hummer's method to synthesize the GO via chemical oxidation of graphite flakes at room temperature. By dipping a fiber ferrule end face onto the GO suspension, GO is successfully coated onto the end face, making it a simple saturable absorption device. A stable Q-switched pulsed fiber laser is achieved with a low pump threshold of 9.5 mW at 980 nm. The pulse repetition rate ranges from 16.0 to 57.0 kHz. The pulse width and the pulse energy are studied and discussed

  19. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Chengbo, E-mail: mouc1@aston.ac.uk, E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk; Turitsyn, Sergei; Rozhin, Aleksey, E-mail: mouc1@aston.ac.uk, E-mail: a.rozhin@aston.ac.uk [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Arif, Raz [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region (Iraq); Lobach, Anatoly S.; Spitsina, Nataliya G. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Ac. Semenov Av. 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation); Khudyakov, Dmitry V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Ac. Semenov Av. 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation); Physics Instrumentation Center of the Institute of General Physics A.M. Prokhorov Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation); Kazakov, Valery A. [Keldysh Center, Onezhskaya 8, Moscow 125438 (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-09

    We report poor fluorinated graphene sheets produced by thermal exfoliation embedding in carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite (GCMC) as an efficient mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser. Two GCMC mode lockers with different concentration have been fabricated. The GCMC based mode locked fiber laser shows stable soliton output pulse shaping with repetition rate of 28.5 MHz and output power of 5.5 mW was achieved with the high concentration GCMC, while a slightly higher output power of 6.9 mW was obtained using the low concentration GCMC mode locker.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of homogeneous upconversion in erbium-doped silica glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Jacob Lundgreen; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1997-01-01

    Quenching of Er3+ ions by homogeneous energy-transfer upconversion in high-concentration erbium-doped silica glasses has been theoretically investigated, The results indicate that at Er3+ concentrations of 1.0-2.0·1026 m-3 or below, the kinetic limit of strong migration is not reached, and hence...... the widely accepted quadratic upconversion model is not generally valid. Nevertheless, the results offer an explanation of the experimental observations of quadratic upconversion. Furthermore, it has been shown that at a given population inversion, the quenching rate depends on the rate of exchange...

  2. Vacuum sublimation of interaction products of neodymium and erbium dipivaloyl methanates with pivalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Z.A.; Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1993-01-01

    Processes taking place during vacuum sublimation of solid complexes of individual rare earths prepared in the systems MDpm 3 -nHPiv-hexane (M = Nd, Er, HDpm - dipivaloylmethane, HPiv - pivalic acid, n = 1, 2, 3) were studied. It is pointed out that at n = 1 in the systems considered mixed ligand complexes of the composition ErDpm 3 · HPiv and NdDpm 2 Piv are formed which disproportionate at different temperatures when heated in vacuum. It is revealed that the processes of the complexes disproportionation can be used to increase the efficiency of sublimation methods of neodymium and erbium dipivaloylmethanates mixture separation. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Utilizing wheel-ring architecture for stable and selectable single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2018-03-01

    To achieve a steady single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser, the wheel-ring architecture is proposed in the laser cavity. According to Vernier effect, the proposed wheel-ring can produce three different free spectrum ranges (FSRs) to serve as the mode-filter for suppressing the densely multi-longitudinal-mode (MLM). Here, to complete wavelength-tunable EDF laser, an optical tunable bandpass filter (OTBF) is utilized inside the cavity for tuning arbitrarily. In addition, the entire output performances of the proposed EDF wheel-ring laser are also discussed and analyzed experimentally.

  4. A model to obtain an optimum erbium desity for gain increasing in EDFA

    OpenAIRE

    E. Arzi; A. Hassani; F. E. Seraji

    2003-01-01

      In this paper, we suggest a novel model, based on input pump power and wave guidestructure, to calculate the Er-density profile in Erbium doped fiber amplifiers. This optimization is carried out for both SMF and DSF fibers. These optimized profiles have a Gaussian-like shape. Using the SMF optimized Er-density profile, high gain enhancement is obtained in a relatively short length of fibers. On the other hand, the DSF optimized profile shows small changes in the gain, which agrees with the ...

  5. Performance analysis of bi-directional broadband passive optical network using erbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalaq, Yasser; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    The broadband passive optical network (BPON) has the ability to support high-speed data, voice, and video services to home and small businesses customers. In this work, the performance of bi-directional BPON is analyzed for both down and up streams traffic cases by the help of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). The importance of BPON is reduced cost. Because PBON uses a splitter the cost of the maintenance between the providers and the customers side is suitable. In the proposed research, BPON has been tested by the use of bit error rate (BER) analyzer. BER analyzer realizes maximum Q factor, minimum bit error rate, and eye height.

  6. Fibercore AstroGain fiber: multichannel erbium doped fibers for optical space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mark; Gray, Rebecca; Hankey, Judith; Gillooly, Andy

    2014-03-01

    Fibercore have developed AstroGainTM fiber optimized for multichannel amplifiers used in optical satellite communications and control. The fiber has been designed to take full advantage of the photo-annealing effect that results from pumping in the 980nm region. The proprietary trivalent structure of the core matrix allows optimum recovery following radiation damage to the fiber, whilst also providing a market leading Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) efficiency. Direct measurements have been taken of amplifier efficiency in a multichannel assembly, which show an effective photo-annealing recovery of up to 100% of the radiation induced attenuation through excitation of point defects.

  7. A model to obtain an optimum erbium desity for gain increasing in EDFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arzi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available   In this paper, we suggest a novel model, based on input pump power and wave guidestructure, to calculate the Er-density profile in Erbium doped fiber amplifiers. This optimization is carried out for both SMF and DSF fibers. These optimized profiles have a Gaussian-like shape. Using the SMF optimized Er-density profile, high gain enhancement is obtained in a relatively short length of fibers. On the other hand, the DSF optimized profile shows small changes in the gain, which agrees with the previously report on other method of gain enhancement. This model is applicable to all active waveguides and any other dopant as well .

  8. Linear all-fiber temperature sensor based on macro-bent erbium doped fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajireza, P; Cham, C L; Kumar, D; Abdul-Rashid, H A; Emami, S D; Harun, S W

    2010-01-01

    A new all fiber temperature sensor is proposed and demonstrated based on a pair of 1 meter erbium-doped fiber (EDF), which are respectively macro-bent and straight. The sensor has a linear normalized loss (dB) response to temperature at 6.5 mm bending radius and 1580 nm input wavelength. The main advantage of this sensor is high temperature resolution (less than 1°C) and sensitivity (0.03 dB/°C) due to combination of temperature dependence of EDF and bending loss. The proposed silica based sensor, has the potential for wide range and high temperature applications in harsh environments

  9. Propagation of dispersion-nonlinearity-managed solitons in an inhomogeneous erbium-doped fiber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, A; Porsezian, K; Mani Rajan, M S; Uthayakumar, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch model with variable dispersion and nonlinearity management functions, which describes the propagation of optical pulses in an inhomogeneous erbium-doped fiber system under certain restrictive conditions, is under investigation. We derive the Lax pair with a variable spectral parameter and the exact soliton solution is generated from the Baecklund transformation. It is observed that stable solitons are possible only under a very restrictive condition for the spectral parameter and other inhomogeneous functions. For various forms of the inhomogeneous dispersion, nonlinearity and gain/loss functions, construction of different types of solitary waves like classical solitons, breathers, etc is discussed

  10. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Feizi, Shahzad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Application Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh [Yazd University, Department of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with {sup 68}Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with {sup 68}Ga NPs ({sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The {sup 68}Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the {sup 68}Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of {sup 68}Ga radionuclide, the {sup 68}Ga rate at CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  11. Novel aspects of application of cadmium telluride quantum dots nanostructures in radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Zare, Hakimeh; Karimi, Shokufeh; Rahighi, Reza; Feizi, Shahzad

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, quantum dots nanomaterials have garnered a great deal of scientific interest because of their unique properties. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorescent nanocrystals in the size range between 1 and 20 nm. Due to their structural properties, they possess distinctive properties and behave in different way from crystals in macro scale, in many branches of human life. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) were labeled with 68Ga radio nuclide for fast in vivo targeting and coincidence imaging of tumors. Using instant paper chromatography, the physicochemical properties of the Cadmium telluride quantum dots labeled with 68Ga NPs (68Ga@ CdTe QDs) were found high enough stable in organic phases, e.g., a human serum, to be reliably used in bioapplications. In vivo biodistribution of the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs nanoconposite was investigated in rats bearing fibro sarcoma tumor after various post-injection periods of time. The 68Ga NPs exhibited a rapid as well as high tumor uptake in a very short period of time (less than 10 min), resulting in an efficient tumor targeting/imaging agent. Meantime, the low lipophilicity of the 68Ga NPs caused to their fast excretion throughout the body by kidneys (as also confirmed by the urinary tract). Because of the short half-life of 68Ga radionuclide, the 68Ga@ CdTe QDs with an excellent tumor targeting/imaging and fast washing out from the body can be suggested as one of the most effective and promising nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with SMS modal interferometer for hydrogen sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Zhang, Lebin; Han, Bo; Peng, Huijie; Zhou, Tianmin; Lv, Ri-qing

    2018-06-01

    A hydrogen sensor based on erbium-doped fiber ring laser with modal interferometer is proposed. A single mode-multimode-single mode (SMS) modal interferometer structure coated with Pd/WO3 film is used as the sensing head, due to that it is easy to be fabricated and low cost. The sensing structure is inserted into an erbium-doped fiber ring laser in order to solve the problem of spectral confusion and improve the detection limit of the hydrogen sensor based on the SMS modal interferometer. The SMS sensing structure is acted as a fiber band-pass filter. When hydrogen concentration around the sensor is changed, it will induce the refractive index and strain variations of the Pd/WO3 film, and then shift the resonant spectrum of the SMS modal interferometer as well as the laser wavelength of the fiber ring laser. Therefore, the hydrogen concentration can be measured by monitoring the wavelength shift of the laser, which has high intensity and narrow full width half maximum. Experimental results demonstrate that the sensor has high sensitivity of 1.23 nm/%, low detection limit of 0.017%, good stability and excellent repeatability.

  13. Material engineering to fabricate rare earth erbium thin films for exploring nuclear energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A.; Abhilash, S. R.; Umapathy, G. R.; Kabiraj, D.; Ojha, S.; Mandal, S.

    2018-04-01

    High vacuum evaporation and cold-rolling techniques to fabricate thin films of the rare earth lanthanide-erbium have been discussed in this communication. Cold rolling has been used for the first time to successfully fabricate films of enriched and highly expensive erbium metal with areal density in the range of 0.5-1.0 mg/cm2. The fabricated films were used as target materials in an advanced nuclear physics experiment. The experiment was designed to investigate isomeric states in the heavy nuclei mass region for exploring physics related to nuclear energy sources. The films fabricated using different techniques varied in thickness as well as purity. Methods to fabricate films with thickness of the order of 0.9 mg/cm2 were different than those of 0.4 mg/cm2 areal density. All the thin films were characterized using multiple advanced techniques to accurately ascertain levels of contamination as well as to determine their exact surface density. Detailed fabrication methods as well as characterization techniques have been discussed.

  14. Treatment of dilated pores with 1410-nm fractional erbium-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong-Hye; Chang, Ka-Yeun; Lee, Sang-Jun; Song, Kye-Yong; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Shin, Min Kyung; Jeong, Ki-Heon

    2015-04-01

    Dilated pores can be an early sign of skin aging and are a significant cosmetic concern. The 1410-nm wavelength is optimal for superficial dermal treatments up to 650 μm deep. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the fractional erbium-doped fiber 1410-nm laser in the treatment of dilated pores. Fifteen patients with dilated facial pores underwent three laser treatments at 3-week intervals. Posttreatment skin responses and side effects were assessed at treatment and follow-up visits by study physicians. Clinical effectiveness of treatment was assessed by both study physicians and patients 3 months after the final laser treatment using a quartile grading scale. Histological examination was performed using biopsy samples taken at baseline (pretreatment) and 3 months after the last treatment. This study showed that greater than 51 % improvement in dilated pores was demonstrated in 14 of 15 patients after three sessions of laser treatments. Improvements in skin texture, tone, and smoothness were reported in all patients. Treatment was well tolerated in all patients, with no unanticipated side effects. This study demonstrates that the 1410-nm fractional erbium fiber laser is effective and safe for treatment of dilated facial pores in Fitzpatrick skin types III-IV.

  15. Recent progress of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and their components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Masaru; Miura, Jutaro

    2007-09-01

    The Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) are widely available in a today's commercial market, and are deployed in various optical transmission applications from terrestrial system to undersea system. Broad gain spectrum over 9 THz enabled huge growth of bandwidth usage in 1550nm region aimed at broadband Internet, and its broad gain characteristics triggered bandwidth competition on dense wavelength division multiplex (DWDM) network these ten years. At first, we briefly review the evolutional history of EDFA with previous achievements. And we will explain the primary and important key devices which compose EDFA. We will discuss design parameters, and recent trend and achievements of the devices, which cover Erbium-doped fibers (EDF), 980-nm laser diodes (LD), and gain flattening filters (GFFs). The chip structure of 980-nm LD is explained to achieve high power and to realize high reliability. These key devices enabled EDFA to prevail in commercial area. After the discussion of key components, we will introduce recent achievements of gain controlled EDFAs which are applied in conjunction with Re-configurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM). We will report the transient gain dynamics of the cascaded EDFAs with a recirculating loop experiment.

  16. Erbium-Based Perfusion Contrast Agent for Small-Animal Microvessel Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Tse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT facilitates the visualization and quantification of contrast-enhanced microvessels within intact tissue specimens, but conventional preclinical vascular contrast agents may be inadequate near dense tissue (such as bone. Typical lead-based contrast agents do not exhibit optimal X-ray absorption properties when used with X-ray tube potentials below 90 kilo-electron volts (keV. We have developed a high-atomic number lanthanide (erbium contrast agent, with a K-edge at 57.5 keV. This approach optimizes X-ray absorption in the output spectral band of conventional microfocal spot X-ray tubes. Erbium oxide nanoparticles (nominal diameter 4000 Hounsfield units, and perfusion of vessels < 10 μm in diameter was demonstrated in kidney glomeruli. The described new contrast agent facilitated the visualization and quantification of vessel density and microarchitecture, even adjacent to dense bone. Erbium’s K-edge makes this contrast agent ideally suited for both single- and dual-energy micro-CT, expanding potential preclinical research applications in models of musculoskeletal, oncological, cardiovascular, and neurovascular diseases.

  17. All fiber passively mode locked zirconium-based erbium-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Awang, N. A.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Latif, A. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    All passively mode locked erbium-doped fiber laser with a zirconium host is demonstrated. The fiber laser utilizes the Non-Linear Polarization Rotation (NPR) technique with an inexpensive fiber-based Polarization Beam Splitter (PBS) as the mode-locking element. A 2 m crystalline Zirconia-Yttria-Alumino-silicate fiber doped with erbium ions (Zr-Y-Al-EDF) acts as the gain medium and generates an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) spectrum from 1500 nm to 1650 nm. The generated mode-locked pulses have a spectrum ranging from 1548 nm to more than 1605 nm, as well as a 3-dB bandwidth of 12 nm. The mode-locked pulse train has an average output power level of 17 mW with a calculated peak power of 1.24 kW and energy per pulse of approximately 730 pJ. The spectrum also exhibits a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of 50 dB as well as a repetition rate of 23.2 MHz. The system is very stable and shows little power fluctuation, in addition to being repeatable.

  18. Broadband features of passively harmonic mode locking in dispersion-managed erbium-doped all-fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Y.; Li, L.; Shu, C. J.; Wang, Y. F.; Tang, D. Y.; Zhao, L. M.

    2018-06-01

    Broadband features of passively harmonic mode locking (HML) in dispersion-managed erbium-doped all-fiber lasers are explored. The bandwidth of HML state is generally narrower than that of fundamental mode locking before pulse breaking occurs. There exists a broadest bandwidth versus the order of HML. HML state with bandwidth up to 61.5 nm is obtained.

  19. Modification of erbium photoluminescence excitation spectra for the emission wavelength 1.54 μm in mesoscopic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, N.V.; Unuchak, D.M.; Mudryi, A.V.; Malyarevich, G.K.; Gusev, O.B.; Stepikhova, M.V.; Krasilnikova, L.V.; Stupak, A.P.; Kleshcheva, S.M.; Samoilovich, M.I.; Tsvetkov, M.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra for the emission wavelength 1.54 μm were studied for erbium-doped xerogels embedded in artificial opals and porous anodic alumina films. Opals were chosen with photonic stop-band in green spectral range, where excitation of 1.54 μm occurs most efficiently. In comparison to the structure erbium-doped titania xerogel/porous anodic alumina/silicon the photoluminescence excitation spectra for 1.54 μm emission wavelength significantly changes for the same xerogels embedded in artificial opals. Enhancement of erbium-related 1.54 μm emission was observed from the structure Fe 2 O 3 xerogel/porous anodic alumina fabricated on silicon, having some incompletely anodized aluminium, under excitation with either the lasing source at 532 nm or xenon lamp. Evident difference in PLE spectra for erbium doped TiO 2 and Fe 2 O 3 xerogels in porous anodic alumina is observed

  20. Erbium trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed Friedel–Crafts acylation using aromatic carboxylic acids as acylating agents under monomode-microwave irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Hansen, Poul Erik; Nguyen, Hai Truong

    2015-01-01

    Erbium trifluoromethanesulfonate is found to be a good catalyst for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of arenes containing electron-donating substituents using aromatic carboxylic acids as the acylating agents under microwave irradiation. An effective, rapid and waste-free method allows the preparation...... of a wide range of aryl ketones in good yields and in short reaction times with minimum amounts of waste...

  1. The efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne scars or acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang-Ting; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Ya-Ni; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cai, Jin-Hui; Wu, Yan-Hong; Xiang, Xiao-Fei; Shan, Gui-Qiu; Cheng, Biao

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with erbium fractional laser therapy for facial acne or acne scars. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy was used for the treatment of 22 patients, including 16 patients who suffered from facial acne scars and 6 patients who suffered from acne scars concomitant with acne. Whole blood (40 ml) was collected from each patient, and following differential centrifugation, PRP was harvested. After using an erbium fractional laser, we applied PRP to the entire face of every patient. Digital photos were taken before and after the treatment for evaluation by dermatologists and the patients rated the efficacy on a 5-point scale. The erythema was moderate or mild, while its total duration was 50%, and 91% of the patients were satisfied; no acne inflammation was observed after treatment. PRP combined with erbium fractional laser therapy is an effective and safe approach for treating acne scars or acne, with minimal side-effects, and it simultaneously enhanced the recovery of laser-damaged skin.

  2. 32-core erbium/ytterbium-doped multicore fiber amplifier for next generation space-division multiplexed transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Saurabh; Castro, Carlos; Jung, Yongmin

    2017-01-01

    We present a high-core-count 32-core multicore erbium/ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier (32c-MC-EYDFA) in a cladding pumped configuration. A side pumping technique is employed for ease of pump coupling in this monolithic all-fiber amplifier. A minimum gain of >17 dB and an average noise figure (NF)...

  3. Enhancement of Spontaneous Erbium Emission near the Photonic Band Edge of Distributed Bragg Reflectors Based on a-Si:H/a-SiOx:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, A.V.; Feoktistov, N.A.; Pevtsov, A.B.; Golubev, V.G.

    2005-01-01

    Results obtained in an experimental study of spontaneous emission from erbium ions in a spectral range corresponding to the lower photonic band edge of distributed Bragg reflectors (1D photonic crystals) are presented. The photonic crystals were constituted of alternating quarter-wave a-Si:H and a-SiO x :H layers grown by PECVD. Erbium was introduced into the a-Si:H layers by magnetron sputtering of an erbium target in the course of structure growth. The change observed in the intensity of spontaneous emission is due to the nonmonotonic behavior of the density of optical modes near the photonic band edge

  4. Characterization of an erbium doped fiber amplifier starting from its experimental parameters; Caracterizacion de un amplificador de fibra dopada con erbio a partir de sus parametros experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bello J, M.; Kuzin, E.A.; Ibarra E, B. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, TonantzintIa, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Tellez G, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No 152, Delegacion Gustavo A. Madero, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: mabello@inaoep.mx

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we describe a method to characterize the gain of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) through the numerical simulation of the signal beam along the amplifier. The simulation is based on a model constituted by the propagation and rate equations for an erbium-doped fiber. The manipulation of these equations allows us to regroup the parameters present in an EDFA, which we have named the A, B, C, D parameters, and they can be obtained experimentally from an erbium-doped fiber. Experimental results show that the measurement of these parameters allow us to estimate with very good correspondence the amplifier gain. (Author)

  5. Structure impact on the thermal and electronic properties of bismuth telluride by ab-initio and molecular dynamics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termentzidis, K; Pokropivny, A; Xiong, S-Y; Chumakov, Y; Volz, S; Woda, M; Cortona, P

    2012-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics and ab-initio methods to predict the thermal and electronic properties of new materials with high figures of merit. The simulated systems are bulk bismuth tellurides with antisite and vacancy defects. Optimizations of the materials under investigation are performed by the SIESTA code for subsequent calculations of force constants, electronic properties, and Seebeck coefficients. The prediction of the thermal conductivity is made by Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) using the LAMMPS code. The thermal conductivity of bulk bismuth telluride with different stoichiometry and with a number of substitution defects is calculated. We have found that the thermal conductivity can be decreased by 60% by introducing vacancy defects. The calculated thermal conductivities for the different structures are compared with the available experimental and theoretical results.

  6. Effects of chemical intermixing on electrical and thermal contact conductances at metallized bismuth and antimony telluride interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devender,; Mehta, Rutvik J.; Ramanath, Ganpati, E-mail: Ramanath@rpi.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lofgreen, Kelly; Mahajan, Ravi [Intel Corporation, Assembly Test and Technology Development, Chandler, Arizona 85226 (United States); Yamaguchi, Masashi [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian [Department of Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Tailoring electrical and thermal contact conductivities (Σ{sub c} and Γ{sub c}) across metallized pnictogen chalcogenide interfaces is key for realizing efficient thermoelectric devices. The authors report that Cu, Ni, Ti, and Ta diffusion and interfacial telluride formation with n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and p-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} influence both Σ{sub c} and Γ{sub c}. Cu metallization yields the highest Γ{sub c} and the lowest Σ{sub c}, correlating with maximal metal diffusion and copper telluride formation. Ni diffuses less and yields the highest Σ{sub c} with Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} due to p-type nickel telluride formation, which diminishes Σ{sub c} improvement with n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} interfaces. Ta and Ti contacts yield the lowest properties similar to that in Ni-metallized structures. These correlations between interfacial diffusion and phase formation on electronic and thermal transport properties will be important for devising suitable metallization for thermoelectric devices.

  7. Diffusion of iron in β-iron telluride (Fe1.12Te) by Moessbauer spectroscopy and tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Tsuji, Toshihide; Naito, Keiji

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of iron in a β-iron telluride (Fe 1.12 Te) polycrystalline sample was measured by Moessbauer diffusional line broadening method which relates to the collapse of coherence in gamma-ray photon by the atomic jump at local sites. The diffusion coefficient of iron along the c-axis in nearly single crystal of β-iron telluride was also measured by tracer technique which shows the results of an atom transport in long distance. The activation energies for the diffusion of iron in Fe 1.12 Te obtained by the Moessbauer spectroscopy and the tracer method were 91.5±5.4 and 106±23 kJ/mol, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of iron in β-iron telluride obtained by Moessbauer line broadening are in fair agreement with the values averaged from that along c-axis obtained by tracer method and that along a- and b-axes obtained from reaction rate constant between iron and tellurium by the previous study of the present authors. (orig.)

  8. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride-organic hybrid films via graphene doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Airul Azha Abd; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Chen, Xiaomei; Oyama, Munetaka

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped bismuth telluride-PEDOT:PSS-glycerol (hybrid) films were investigated. Prior to the study, p-type and n-type hybrid films were prepared by doping the PEDOT:PSS-glycerol with the p- and n-type bismuth telluride. Graphene-doped hybrid films were prepared by adding graphene particles of concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 wt% into the hybrid films. Films of graphene-doped hybrid system were then prepared on a glass substrate using a spin-coating technique. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the hybrid films increases with the increasing of the graphene-dopant concentration and optimum at 0.08 wt% for both p- and n-type films, namely 400 and 195 S/cm, respectively. Further increasing in the concentration caused a decreasing in the electrical conductivity. Analysis of the thermoelectric properties of the films obtained that the p-type film exhibited significant improvement in its thermoelectric properties, where the thermoelectric properties increased with the increasing of the doping concentration. Meanwhile, for the case of n-type film, graphene doping showed a negative effect to the thermoelectrical properties, where the thermoelectric properties decreased with the increasing of doping concentration. Seebeck coefficient (and power factor) for optimum p-type and n-type hybrid thin films, i.e., doped with 0.08 wt% of graphene, is 20 μV/K (and 160 μW m -1 K -2 ) and 10 μV/K (and 19.5 μW m -1 K -2 ), respectively. The obtained electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped hybrid film are interestingly several orders higher than the pristine hybrid films. A thermocouple device fabricated utilizing the p- and n-type graphene-doped hybrid films can generate an electric voltage as high as 2.2 mV under a temperature difference between the hot-side and the cold-side terminal as only low as 55 K. This is equivalent to the output power as high as 24.2 nW (for output load as high as 50

  9. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi 2 Te 3 were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (∼500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  10. N-hydroxysuccinimide-mediated photoelectrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols based on cadmium telluride nanoparticles decorated graphene nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah

    2013-01-01

    A simple nonenzymatic electrochemical protocol is proposed for the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols using formed N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) radical cation on the graphene nanosheets/L-cysteine/cadmium telluride quantum dot (QD) nanocomposite (GNs/Cys/CdTe) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. At first, graphene oxide (GO) is chemically synthesized from graphite after which Cys is covalently functionalized to GO through formation of amide bonds between carboxylic acid groups of GO and amine groups of Cys. The resulting GNs/Cys is used as a capping agent to synthesize CdTe QD nanoparticles. After the characterization of the as-made nanocomposite which confirmed the successful attachment of CdTe nanoparticles to the GNs, the ability of the GNs/Cys/CdTe modified GC electrode toward the nonenzymatic ethanol electrooxidation is examined in the presence of NHS as an effective mediating system. Our results revealed that the proposed system possess a good activity to NHS electrooxidation and subsequently, ethanol oxidation. Moreover, the GNs/Cys/CdTe modified electrode displayed a significant photoelectrocatalytic activity toward the ethanol oxidation upon illumination by visible light. The photoactive GNs/Cys/CdTe nanohybrid presented here showing favorable photoelectrochemical features for nonenzymatic aliphatic alcohols oxidation may hold great promise to the development of electrochemical sensors and biofuel cells

  11. Low-cost cadmium zinc telluride radiation detectors based on electron-transport-only designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Lund, J.C.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lee, E.Y.; James, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to utilize a novel device design to build a compact, high resolution, room temperature operated semiconductor gamma ray sensor. This sensor was constructed from a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystal. It was able to both detect total radiation intensity and perform spectroscopy on the detected radiation. CZT detectors produced today have excellent electron charge carrier collection, but suffer from poor hole collection. For conventional gamma-ray spectrometers, both the electrons and holes must be collected with high efficiency to preserve energy resolution. The requirement to collect the hole carriers, which have relatively low lifetimes, limits the efficiency and performance of existing experimental devices. By implementing novel device designs such that the devices rely only on the electron signal for energy information, the sensitivity of the sensors for detecting radiation can be increased substantially. In this report the authors describe a project to develop a new type of electron-only CZT detector. They report on their successful efforts to design, implement and test these new radiation detectors. In addition to the design and construction of the sensors the authors also report, in considerable detail, on the electrical characteristics of the CZT crystals used to make their detectors

  12. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  13. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  14. Heart imaging by cadmium telluride gamma camera European Program 'BIOMED' consortium

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiber, C; Chambron, J; Prat, V; Kazandjan, A; Jahnke, A; Matz, R; Thomas, S; Warren, S; Hage-Hali, M; Regal, R; Siffert, P; Karman, M

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium telluride semiconductor detectors (CdTe) operating at room temperature are attractive for medical imaging because of their good energy resolution providing excellent spatial and contrast resolution. The compactness of the detection system allows the building of small light camera heads which can be used for bedside imaging. A mobile pixellated gamma camera based on 2304 CdTe (pixel size: 3x3 mm, field of view: 15 cmx15 cm) has been designed for cardiac imaging. A dedicated 16-channel integrated circuit has also been designed. The acquisition hardware is fully programmable (DSP card, personal computer-based system). Analytical calculations have shown that a commercial parallel hole collimator will fit the efficiency/resolution requirements for cardiac applications. Monte-Carlo simulations predict that the Moire effect can be reduced by a 15 deg. tilt of the collimator with respect to the detector grid. A 16x16 CdTe module has been built for the preliminary physical tests. The energy resolution was 6.16...

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Blocking Contacts for Cadmium Telluride Gamma Ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Patrick R. [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2010-01-07

    Gamma ray detectors are important in national security applications, medicine, and astronomy. Semiconductor materials with high density and atomic number, such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), offer a small device footprint, but their performance is limited by noise at room temperature; however, improved device design can decrease detector noise by reducing leakage current. This thesis characterizes and models two unique Schottky devices: one with an argon ion sputter etch before Schottky contact deposition and one without. Analysis of current versus voltage characteristics shows that thermionic emission alone does not describe these devices. This analysis points to reverse bias generation current or leakage through an inhomogeneous barrier. Modeling the devices in reverse bias with thermionic field emission and a leaky Schottky barrier yields good agreement with measurements. Also numerical modeling with a finite-element physics-based simulator suggests that reverse bias current is a combination of thermionic emission and generation. This thesis proposes further experiments to determine the correct model for reverse bias conduction. Understanding conduction mechanisms in these devices will help develop more reproducible contacts, reduce leakage current, and ultimately improve detector performance.

  16. Cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon as adsorbent for removal of sunset yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Hekmati Jah, A.; Khodadoust, S.; Sahraei, R.; Daneshfar, A.; Mihandoost, A.; Purkait, M. K.

    2012-05-01

    Adsorption is a promising technique for decolorization of effluents of textile dyeing industries but its application is limited due to requirement of high amounts of adsorbent required. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of cadmium telluride nanoparticles loaded onto activated carbon (CdTN-AC) for the removal of sunset yellow (SY) dye from aqueous solution. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch mode varying solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, CdTN-AC dose, and temperature. In order to investigate the efficiency of SY adsorption on CdTN-AC, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were studied. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better than other kinetic models with good correlation coefficient. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy, activation energy, and sticking probability were also calculated. It was found that the sorption of SY onto CdTN-AC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The proposed adsorbent is applicable for SY removal from waste of real effluents including pea-shooter, orange drink and jelly banana with efficiency more than 97%.

  17. Fluorescence Stability of Mercaptopropionic Acid Capped Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots in Various Biochemical Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Vivek; Kashikar, Adisha; Srivastava, Rohit

    2018-04-01

    Quantum dots are the semiconductor nanocrystals having unique optical and electronic properties. Quantum dots are category of fluorescent labels utilized for biological tagging, biosensing, bioassays, bioimaging and in vivo imaging as they exhibit very small size, signal brightness, photostability, tuning of light emission range, longer photoluminescence decay time as compared to organic dyes. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (MPA-CdTe QDs) using hydrothermal method. The study further reports fluorescence intensity stability of quantum dots suspended in different buffers of varying concentration (1-100 mM), stored at various photophysical conditions. Fluorescence intensity values were reduced with increase in buffer concentration. When the samples were stored at room temperature in ambient light condition the quantum dots suspended in different buffers lost the fluorescence intensity after day 15 (except TRIS II). Fluorescence intensity values were found stable for more than 30 days when the samples were stored in dark condition. Samples stored in refrigerator displayed modest fluorescence intensity even after 300 days of storage. Thus, storage of MPA-CdTe QDs in refrigerator may be the suitable choice to maintain its fluorescence stability for longer time for further application.

  18. Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector for epithermal neutron spectroscopy--pulse height response characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Bracco, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Resonance Detector Spectrometer was recently revised for neutron spectroscopic studies in the eV energy region. In this technique one makes use of a photon detector to record the gamma emission from analyser foils used as neutron-gamma converters. The pulse-height response of a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector to neutron capture emission from 238 U and 197 Au analyser foils was characterised in the neutron energy range 1-200 eV. The experiment was performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS neutron-pulsed source. A biparametric data acquisition, specifically developed for these measurements, allowed the simultaneous measurements of both the neutron time of flight and γ pulse-height spectra. Through the analysis of the γ pulse-height spectra the main components of the signal associated with resonant and non-resonant neutron absorption were identified. It was also shown that, in principle, energy discrimination can be used to improve the signal to background ratio of the neutron time-of-flight measurement

  19. Effect of reducing agent strength on the growth and thermoelectric performance of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Asmaa; Hassan, Nazly; Refaat, Heba M.; Soliman, Hesham M. A.; El-Dissouky, A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel combination of Trizma, as an environmentally friendly chelating agent, with either weak or strong reducing agent was used to produce n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanocrystals via water-based chemical route. The synthesized powders were consolidated into pellets utilizing spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintered n-type pellets exhibited potentially high electrical conductivities (5.29 × 105 and 5.23 × 105 S.m‑1) and low lattice thermal conductivities (0.12 and 0.25 Wm‑1K‑1) respectively. These thermoelectric (TE) properties suggested that the partially coherent boundaries permitted significant phonons scattering and electrons transfer. These led to an enhanced figure-of-merit (ZT) values (0.52 and 0.97), which are considered to be significant among the reported ZT values at room-temperature for the undoped synthesized n-type Bi2Te3 nanoparticles. Therefore, the current investigation displayed an efficient method to improve ZT of TE materials via nanostructure orchestrating, resulting in a worthy candidate n-type nanostructured Bi2Te3 for room-temperature TE applications.

  20. Investigation of the Electronic Properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) Detectors using a Nuclear Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRUNETT, BRUCE A.; DOYLE, BARNEY L.; JAMES, RALPH B.; VIZKELETHY, GYORGY; WALSH, DAVID S.

    1999-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) determine the charge collection efficiency (i.e. the signal quality) of CZT detectors. These properties vary on both macroscopic and microscopic scale and depend on the presence of impurities and defects introduced during the crystal growth. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) is a proven method to measure the charge collection efficiency. Using an ion microbeam, the charge collection efficiency can be mapped with submicron resolution, and the map of electronic properties (such as drift length) can be calculated from the measurement. A more sophisticated version of IBICC, the Time Resolved IBICC (TRIBICC) allows them to determine the mobility and the life time of the charge carriers by recording and analyzing the transient waveform of the detector signal. Furthermore, lateral IBICC and TRIBICC can provide information how the charge collection efficiency depends on the depth where the charge carriers are generated. This allows one to deduce information on the distribution of the electric field and transport properties of the charge carriers along the detector axis. IBICC and TRIBICC were used at the Sandia microbeam facility to image electronic properties of several CZT detectors. From the lateral TRIBICC measurement the electron and hole drift length profiles were calculated

  1. Effect of the interface on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of bismuth telluride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tang-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Fang, Te-Hua; Huang, Chao-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a type of thermoelectric material used for energy generation that does not cause pollution. Increasing the thermoelectric conversion efficiency (ZT) is one of the most important steps in the development of thermoelectric components. In this study, we use molecular dynamics to investigate the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of quintuple layers of Bi2Te3 nanofilms with different atomic arrangements at the interface and study the effects of varying layers, angles, and grain boundaries. The results indicate that the Bi2Te3 nanofilm perfect substrate has the ideal Young’s modulus and thermal conductivity, and the maximum yield stress is observed for a thickness of ∼90 Å. As the interface changed, the structural disorder of atomic arrangement affected the mechanical properties; moreover, the phonons encounter lattice disordered atomic region will produce scattering reduce heat conduction. The results of this investigation are helpful for the application of Bi2Te3 nanofilms as thermoelectric materials.

  2. Investigation of the electrochemical deposition of thick layers of cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, J.

    2007-04-01

    This research thesis deals with the problem of electrochemical deposition of thick layers of cadmium telluride (CdTe) meeting the requirements of high energy radiation detection. The author first recalls the physicochemical properties of CdTe and the basic principles of radiology. He details the different criteria which define a material for X ray detection. He describes the experimental conditions, the nature and preparation of substrates, and the different electrochemical systems used in this research. He studies the impact of the applied potential on the material properties, and compares previously obtained results available in the literature with those obtained in the chosen pool conditions. He discusses the synthesis of CdTe thick layers for which different methods are tested: static in potential, static in intensity, pulsed. The coatings obtained with a given potential and then with a given current are investigated. Finally, the influence of a thermal treatment in presence or absence of a sintering agent on the morphology, the chemical composition, and the crystalline and electric properties of the deposited material is discussed, and the results of the behaviour under X rays of a electrodeposited layer are presented

  3. The first example of erbium triple-stranded helicates displaying SMM behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyński, Adam; Kubicki, Maciej; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Pełka, Robert; Patroniak, Violetta; Podgajny, Robert

    2015-10-14

    A series of isostructural C3-symmetrical triple stranded dinuclear lanthanide [Ln2L3](NO3)3 molecules have been synthesized using subcomponent self-assembly of Ln(NO3)3 with 2-(methylhydrazino)benzimidazole and 4-tert-butyl-2,6-diformylphenol, where Ln = Tb (1), Dy (2), Ho (3), Er (4), Tm (5), and Yb (6). The temperature dependent and field dependent magnetic properties of 1-6 were modeled using the van Vleck approximation including the crystal field term HCF, the super-exchange term HSE and the Zeeman term HZE. Ferromagnetic interactions were found in 1, 2, 4 and 6, while antiferromagnetic interactions were found in 3 and 5. The erbium analogue reveals field induced SMM behaviour.

  4. Effects of erbium modification on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.M., E-mail: shizm@imut.edu.cn; Wang, Q.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, R.Y.

    2015-02-25

    The effects of erbium (Er) modification on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 aluminum alloys were investigated using optical microscope, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscope and mechanical testing. Experimental results show that additions of Er refined the α-Al grains and eutectic Si phases in its as-cast state; the addition of 0.3 wt% of Er has the best effects on them. The Fe-containing Al{sub 3}Er phases were introduced by the modifications; by a T6 treatment, the eutectic Si phases were further sphereodized; the large Al{sub 3}Er and β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phases were changed into fine particles and short rods; which enhanced the hardness of the alloys. The highest strength and elongation were obtained for the 0.3 wt% of Er-modified and T6-treated A356 alloy.

  5. Modeling of Mid-IR Amplifier Based on an Erbium-Doped Chalcogenide Microsphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical amplifier based on a tapered fiber and an Er3+-doped chalcogenide microsphere is designed and optimized. A dedicated 3D numerical model, which exploits the coupled mode theory and the rate equations, is used. The main transitions among the erbium energy levels, the amplified spontaneous emission, and the most important secondary transitions pertaining to the ion-ion interactions have been considered. Both the pump and signal beams are efficiently injected and obtained by a suitable design of the taper angle and the fiber-microsphere gap. Moreover, a good overlapping between the optical signals and the rare-earth-doped region is also obtained. In order to evaluate the amplifier performance in reduced computational time, the doped area is partitioned in sectors. The obtained simulation results highlight that a high-efficiency midinfrared amplification can be obtained by using a quite small microsphere.

  6. Practical Method for engineering Erbium-doped fiber lasers from step-like pulse excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causado-Buelvas, J D; Gomez-Cardona, N D; Torres, P

    2011-01-01

    A simple method, known as 'easy points', has been applied to the characterization of Erbium-doped fibers, aiming for the engineering of fiber lasers. Using low- optical-power flattop pulse excitations it has been possible to determine both the attenuation coefficients and the intrinsic saturation powers of doped single-mode fibers at 980 and 1550 nm. Laser systems have been projected for which the optimal fiber length and output power have been determined as a function of the input power. Ring and linear laser cavities have been set up, and the characteristics of the output laser have been obtained and compared with the theoretical predictions based on the 'easy points' parameters.

  7. Novel methotrexate soft nanocarrier/fractional erbium YAG laser combination for clinical treatment of plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramez, Shahenda A; Soliman, Mona M; Fadel, Maha; Nour El-Deen, Faisal; Nasr, Maha; Youness, Eman R; Aboel-Fadl, Dalea M

    2018-02-15

    Psoriasis is a commonly encountered chronic dermatological disease, presenting with inflammatory symptoms in patients. Systemic treatment of psoriasis is associated with several adverse effects, therefore the development of a customized topical treatment modality for psoriasis would be an interesting alternative to systemic delivery. The therapeutic modality explored in this article was the comparative treatment of psoriatic patients using nanoparticulated methotrexate in the form of jojoba oil-based microemulsion with or without fractional erbium YAG laser. Assessment parameters included follow-up photography for up to 8 weeks of treatment, estimation of the psoriasis severity [TES (thickness, erythema, scales)] score, and histopathological skin evaluation. The prepared methotrexate microemulsion was clinically beneficial and safe in treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. The concomitant use of the fractional laser provided improvement in the psoriatic plaques within shorter time duration (3 weeks compared to 8 weeks of treatment), presenting an alternative topical treatment modality for psoriasis vulgaris.

  8. Electroluminescence of erbium in Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, I.O.; Kuznetsov, A.N.; Pak, P.E.; Terukov, E.I.; Granitsyna, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    It is informed for the first time on the observation of the erbium intensive electroluminescence from the amorphous hydrated silicon layer by application of the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure in the direct shift mode. The above structure is the n-p-heterostructure with the barrier values of 0.3-0.4 eV for the electrons and 0.9-1.1 eV for the holes. The electroluminescence efficiency is evaluated at the level ∼ 2 x 10 -5 . The electroluminescence effect in the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure is connected with the hole tunneling from the crystal silicon by the amorphous silicon localized states with the subsequent release into the valent zone [ru

  9. Redistribution of erbium during the crystallization of buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, O.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Sobolev, N.A.; Sakharov, V.I.; Serenkov, I.T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.A.

    1999-01-01

    The redistribution of Er during its implantation in silicon at doses close to the amorphization threshold and its subsequent solid-phase epitaxial (SPE) crystallization is investigated. The formation of a buried amorphous (a) layer is discovered at Er doses equal to 5x10 13 and 1x10 14 cm -2 using Rutherford backscattering. The segregation of Er in this case takes place inwardly from the two directions corresponding to the upper and lower boundaries of the buried αlayer and leads to the formation of a concentration peak at the meeting place of the two crystallization fronts. A method for calculating the coordinate dependence of the segregation coefficient k from the distribution profiles of the erbium impurity before and after annealing is proposed. The k(x) curve exhibits a drop, whose width increases with decreasing Er implantation dose. Its appearance is attributed to the nonequilibrium nature of the segregation process at the beginning of SPE crystallization

  10. Tungsten diselenide for mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with short pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Mengli; OuYang, Yuyi; Hou, Huanran; Ma, Guoli; Lei, Ming; Wei, Zhiyi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a WSe2 film prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a tapered fiber, and a WSe2 saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated. In order to measure the third-order optical nonlinearity of the WSe2, the Z-scan technique is applied. The modulation depth of the WSe2 SA is measured as being 21.89%. Taking advantage of the remarkable nonlinear absorption characteristic of the WSe2 SA, a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated at 1557.4 nm with a bandwidth of 25.8 nm and signal to noise ratio of 96 dB. To the best of our knowledge, the pulse duration of 163.5 fs is confirmed to be the shortest compared with previous mode-locked fiber lasers based on transition-metal dichalcogenides SAs. These results indicate that WSe2 is a powerful competitor in the application of ultrashort pulse lasers.

  11. Accelerated two-wave mixing response in erbium-doped fibers with saturable optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Eliseo; Stepanov, Serguei; Plata Sanchez, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    The contribution of the spatially uniform variation of average optical absorption to the dynamics of the transient two-wave mixing (TWM) response is considered. It is shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that this transient effect, via dynamic population gratings in erbium-doped fibers (EDFs) can ensure a response nearly two times faster in such gratings as compared to the growth rate of fluorescence uniformly excited under similar conditions, and can also result in an additional overshot in the tail of the TWM response. This additional ‘accelerating’ contribution is of even type, and does not influence the odd transient TWM response for the refractive index component of such gratings in the EDFs reported earlier. It is also shown that this effect can be utilized to monitor the formation of the dynamic grating with an auxiliary probe wave of the essentially different non-Bragg wavelength.

  12. A Continuously Tunable Erbium-Doped Fibre Laser Using Tunable Fibre Bragg Gratings and Optical Circulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Liu; Feng-Ping, Yan; Jian, Li; Lin, Wang; Ti-Gang, Ning; Tao-Rong, Gong; Shui-Sheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    A continuously tunable erbium-doped fibre laser (TEDFL) based on tunable fibre Bragger grating (TFBG) and a three-port optical circulator (OC) is proposed and demonstrated. The OC acts as a 100%-reflective mirror. A strain-induced uniform fibre Bragger grating (FBG) which functions as a partial-reflecting mirror is implemented in the linear cavity. By applying axial strain onto the TFBG, a continuously tunable lasing output can be realized. The wavelength tuning range covers approximately 7.00nm in C band (from 1543.6161 to 1550.3307nm). The side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is better than 50 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is less than 0.01 nm. Moreover, an array waveguide grating (AWG) is inserted into the cavity for wavelength preselecting, and a 50 km transmission experiment was performed using our TEDFL at a 10Gb/s modulation rate

  13. Giant Pulse Phenomena in a High Gain Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Stephen X.; Merritt, Scott; Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    High gain Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs) are vulnerable to optical damage when unseeded, e.g. due to nonlinear effects that produce random, spontaneous Q-switched (SQS) pulses with high peak power, i.e. giant pulses. Giant pulses can damage either the components within a high gain EDFA or external components and systems coupled to the EDFA. We explore the conditions under which a reflective, polarization-maintaining (PM), core-pumped high gain EDFA generates giant pulses, provide details on the evolution of normal pulses into giant pulses, and provide results on the transient effects of giant pulses on an amplifier's fused-fiber couplers, an effect which we call Fiber Overload Induced Leakage (FOIL). While FOIL's effect on fused-fiber couplers is temporary, its damage to forward pump lasers in a high gain EDFA can be permanent.

  14. Microtensile bond strength of composite resin to human enamel prepared using erbium: Yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Carina Sinclér; Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2007-02-01

    The Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) laser used for preparation of cavity can alter the substrate and it could influence the bond strength of enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser's energy using microtensile bond test. Three groups were obtained (cavity preparation) and each group was divided into two subgroups (adhesive system). After that the adhesive protocol was performed, sections with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm2 (+/-0.2 mm2) were obtained. The specimens were mounted in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength for lased groups (p adhesive system was used the laser 300 mJ subgroup showed higher bond strength compared to the laser 250 mJ (p adhesive procedures than conventional bur-cut cavities. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with a Carbon Nanotube Based Saturable Absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S. W.; Ismail, M. A.; Ahmad, F.; Ismail, M. F.; Nor, R. M.; Zulkepely, N. R.; Ahmad, H.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple, compact and low cost Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) using single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a saturable absorber for possible applications in metrology, sensing, and medical diagnostics. The EDFL operates at around 1560 nm with repetition rates of 16.1 kHz and 6.4 kHz with saturable absorbers SA1 and SA2 at a pump power of 120 mW. The absorbers are constructed by optically driven deposition and normal deposition techniques. It is observed that the optical deposition method produces a Q-switched EDFL with a lower threshold of 70 mW and better Q-switching performance compared to that of the normal deposition method. The EDFL also has pulse energy of 90.3 nJ and pulse width of 11.6 μs at 120 mW pump power

  16. Raman scattering in semiconductor structures based on monophthalocyanine and triphthalocyanine molecules incorporating erbium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Breusova, M. O.; Pushkarev, V. E.; Zoteev, A. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor structures of the type of butyl-substituted erbium monophthalocyanine and triphthalocyanine are studied by Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that, when the sandwich-like structure of the molecule incorporating two complexing atoms between the ligands is considered instead of the planar molecular structure with one ligand and one metal atom, a series of lines appears in the Raman spectrum. In this series, the wave numbers of the lines represent an arithmetic progression with the arithmetical ratio ∼80 cm -1 . It is suggested that this feature is due to the larger number of organic molecules per metal atom in the triphthalocyanine complex, and the four Raman peaks at the frequencies 122, 208, 280, and 362 cm -1 are the manifestation of slight out-of-plane vibrations of the phthalocyanine ligands

  17. Addition effect of erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate in the homopolymerization kinetics of a DGEBA resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.J.; Ramis, X.; Serra, A.; Suay, J.

    2006-01-01

    Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin of medium molecular weight was cured using a Lewis acid initiator (erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate) in three different proportions (0.5, 1 and 2 phr). A kinetic study was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The complete kinetic triplet was determined (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and integral function of the deg.ree of conversion) for each system. A kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (model-free), and the kinetic model was determined both with the Coats-Redfern method (the obtained isoconversional E value being accepted as the effective activation energy) and through the compensation effect. All the systems followed the same isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal ones. The 'nucleation and growth' Avrami kinetic model A 3/2 has been proposed as the polymerization kinetic model. The addition of initiator accelerated the reaction having higher influence when low temperatures were applied

  18. Experimental erbium: YAG laser photoablation of trabecular meshwork in rabbits: an in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, T S; Jacobi, P C; Schröder, R; Krieglstein, G K

    1997-05-01

    Photoablative laser trabecular surgery has been proposed as an outflow-enhancing treatment for open-angle glaucoma. The aim of the study was to investigate the time course of repair response following low-thermal Erbium: YAG laser trabecular ablation. In 20 anaesthetized rabbits gonioscopically controlled ab-interno photoablation of the ligamenta pectinata and underlying trabecular meshwork (TM) was performed with a single-pulsed (200 microseconds) Erbium: YAG (2.94 microns) laser. The right eye received 12-15 single laser pulses (2 mJ) delivered through an articulated zirconium fluoride fiberoptic and a 200 microns (core diameter) quartz fiber tip, the left unoperated eye served as control. At time intervals of 30 minutes, 2, 10, 30, and 60 days after laser treatment, eyes were processed for light- and scanning electron microscopy. The applied energy density of 6-4 J cm-2 resulted in visible dissection of the ligamenta pectinata and reproducible microperforations of the TM exposing scleral tissue accompanied by blood reflux from the aqueous plexus. The initial ablation zones measured 154 +/- 36 microns in depth and 45 +/- 6 microns in width. Collateral thermal damage zones were 22 +/- 8 microns. At two days post-operative, ablation craters were still blood- and fibrin-filled. The inner surface of the craters were covered with granulocytes. No cellular infiltration of the collateral thermal damage zone was observed. At 10 days post-operative, progressive fibroblastic proliferation was observed, resulting in dense scar tissue formation with anterior synechiae, proliferating capillaries and loss of intertrabecular spaces inside the range of former laser treatment at 60 days post-operative. Trabecular microperforations were closed 60 days after laser treatment in all rabbits. IOP in treated and contralateral eyes did not significantly change its level during whole period of observation. Low-thermal infrared laser energy with minimal thermal damage to collateral

  19. Luminescence properties of erbium doped sodium barium borate glass with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshree Patwari, D.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-02-01

    Alteration in the absorption features of rare earth (RE) doped glasses with silver nanoparticles is ever-challenging in photonics. Erbium (Er3+) doped glasses with composition (60-x-y)B2O3-30Na2CO3-10BaO-xEr2O3-yAgCl where (x=0.5, 1.0 and y=1.0 mol %) are synthesized using melt-quenching method. The density is determined by Archimedes principle and molar volumes are calculated. Glass samples were characterized by XRD and UV-Visible spectroscopy. UV-Visible spectra shows eleven prominent absorption peaks centred around 366, 378, 408, 442, 452, 489, 521, 547, 652, 800 and 977 nm equivalent to the rare earth (Er3+) ion transitions. The sample without rare earth shows no peaks which specifies that rare earth ion plays a spirited role in the glass matrix. The glass samples with silver and without rare earth ion shows plasmon peak on heat treatment. The energy band gap values calculated for direct and indirect transitions are in the range of 3.126-3.440eV and 2.58-3.177eV respectively. The refractive indices and Urbach energies are also determined. Photoluminescence spectra are recorded and studied for excitation of the most intense peaks of wavelengths 378 and 521nm. The luminescence of erbium ion is enhanced by the presence of silver when the concentration of rare earth ion is less than that of silver.

  20. The effect of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, W-S

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of hair loss in women, and its prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and social withdrawal. A variety of laser and light sources have been tried for treatment of hair loss, and some success has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in treatment of female pattern hair loss. Twenty eight ethnic South Korean patients with varying degrees of FPHL were enrolled in the study. Patients received ten treatments with a 1550 nm fractional Er:Glass Laser (Mosaic, Lutronic Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) at 2-weeks intervals using the same parameters (5-10 mm tip, 6 mJ pulse energy, 800 spot/cm(2) density, static mode). Phototrichogram and global photographs were taken at baseline and at the end of laser treatment, and analysed for changes in hair density and hair shaft diameter. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists using a 7-point scale. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. All adverse effects were reported during the study. Twenty seven patients completed a 5-month schedule of laser treatment. One patient was excluded during treatment due to occurrence of alopecia areata. At the initial visit, mean hair density was 100 ± 14/cm(2) , and mean hair thickness was 58 ± 12 μm. After 5 months of laser treatment, hair density showed a marked increase to 157 ± 28/cm(2) (P laser treatment; however, these resolved within 2 h. A 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser irradiation may be an effective and safe treatment option for women with female pattern hair loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Corneal photoablation in vivo with the erbium:YAG laser: first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Benedikt J.; Bende, Thomas; Matallana, Michael; Kriegerowski, Martin

    1995-05-01

    As an alternative to far-UV lasers for corneal refractive surgery, the Erbium:YAG laser may be used in TEM00 mode. The resulting gaussian beam profile leads to a certain amount of myopic correction per laser pulse. Although animal data suggest that the clinical outcome should be comparable to the UV-lasers, no human data were available until now. We performed Erbium:YAG laser areal ablation in 5 blind human eyes. In TEM00 mode, the laser parameters were: effective diameter of laser spot equals 3.4 mm, fluence equals 380 mJ/cm2, pulse duration equals 250 microsecond(s) , Repetition rate equals 4 Hz, Number of applied laser pulses equals 15. Four patients with no light perception, one with intact light projection on one eye (some of them scheduled for enucleation) were treated under topical anaesthesia. Patient selection and informed consent were agreed to by the University's independent Ethics Committee. Prior to laser irradiation, corneal epithelium was removed. A postoperative silicone cast of the cornea was analyzed with a confocal laser micro-topometer for the ablation profile. The eyes were treated with antibiotic ointment until the epithelium was closed. Clinical appearance and, where possible, profilometry of the ablated area was observed. The ablation profile in cornea was gaussian shaped with a maximal depth of 30 micrometers . During laser treatment, the corneal surface becomes opaque, clearing in a matter of seconds. Epithelial healing and clinical appearance was similar to excimer laser treatment. However, during the first week, the irradiated area shows subepithelial irregularities, resembling small bubbles, disappearing thereafter.

  2. Effects of 1,540-nm Fractional Nonablative Erbium and 2,940-nm Fractional Ablative Erbium on p53 Epidermal Expression After 3 months: A Split-Face Interventional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano; Araújo, Luciana; de Oliveira, Rodrigo P B; Manela-Azulay, Monica

    2018-04-16

    Expression of p53 by keratinocytes may be important in the pathogenesis of skin cancer induced by ultraviolet light. We used side-by-side nonablative and ablative erbium fractional laser resurfacing to assess the effects on expression of p53 by facial keratinocytes. Ten female patients (age range, 50-63 years) with Fitzpatrick skin Types I-IV and clinical signs of photoaging underwent erbium fractional laser resurfacing (nonablative, 1,540-nm; ablative, 2,940-nm) on opposite sides of the face. Skin biopsies were obtained before treatment and 3 months after treatment for comparison with control biopsies of face and inner arm, quantifying p53 in immunostained tissue sections. Only ablative (2,940-nm) treatments produced a statistically significant reduction in p53 scoring after 3 months. The histologic appearance of skin after ablative resurfacing more closely resembled inner arm skin (rather than facial skin) of control subjects. Epidermal repopulation with p53-negative keratinocytes through ablative erbium fractional laser resurfacing may diminish the risk of eventual malignancy in photoaged skin.

  3. Simultaneous determination of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in high purity rare earth oxides by second order derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbu, M.; Prasada Rao, T.; Iyer, C. S. P.; Damodaran, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    High purity individual rare earth oxides are increasingly used as major components in lasers (Y 2 O 3 ), phosphors (YVO 3 , Eu 2 O 3 ), magnetic bubble memory films (Gd 2 O 3 ) and refractive-index lenses and fibre optics (La 2 O 3 ). The determination of individual lanthanides in high purity rare earth oxides is a more important and difficult task. This paper reports the utilization of higher order derivative spectrophotometry for the simultaneous determination of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in high purity rare earth oxides. The developed procedure is simple, reliable and allows the determination of 0.001 to 0.2% of dysprosium, holmium and erbium in several rare earth. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Influence on the anticorrosive properties of the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator in an epoxy powder clearcoat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.J.; Suay, J.

    2007-01-01

    New low curing temperature epoxy powder coatings cured cationically by the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator have been formulated. Their curing kinetics and anticorrosive properties have been studied and compared with a system commonly used in industry (o-tolylbiguanide/epoxy resin). Three different tests of anticorrosive properties (EIS, AC/DC/AC, and salt fog spray) have been used together with an adherence test, in order to establish the optimal system. Results show that a system employing 1 phr of erbium triflate presents good anticorrosive properties. The technique AC/DC/AC has shown its ability to evaluate properly, much faster, and in accordance to anticorrosive properties results' of powder coatings obtained by other techniques

  5. Performance Comparison of Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Nonlinear Polarization Rotation and Saturable Absorber Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M. A.; Tan, S. J.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Harun, S. W.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.

    2012-01-01

    A mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using a highly concentrated erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as the gain medium in a ring configuration with and without a saturable absorber (SA). Without the SA, the proposed laser generates soliton pulses with a repetition rate of 12 MHz, pulse width of 1.11 ps and energy pulse of 1.6 pJ. By incorporating SA in the ring cavity, the optical output of the laser changes from soliton to stretched pulses due to the slight change in the group velocity dispersion. With the SA, a cleaner pulse is obtained with a repetition rate of 11.3 MHz, a pulse width of 0.58 ps and a pulse energy of 2.3 pJ. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  6. Influence on the anticorrosive properties of the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator in an epoxy powder clearcoat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.J. [Centro de Biomateriales, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: sangares@upvnet.upv.es; Suay, J. [Centro de Biomateriales, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    New low curing temperature epoxy powder coatings cured cationically by the use of erbium (III) trifluoromethanesulfonate as initiator have been formulated. Their curing kinetics and anticorrosive properties have been studied and compared with a system commonly used in industry (o-tolylbiguanide/epoxy resin). Three different tests of anticorrosive properties (EIS, AC/DC/AC, and salt fog spray) have been used together with an adherence test, in order to establish the optimal system. Results show that a system employing 1 phr of erbium triflate presents good anticorrosive properties. The technique AC/DC/AC has shown its ability to evaluate properly, much faster, and in accordance to anticorrosive properties results' of powder coatings obtained by other techniques.

  7. Double cascade erbium fiber laser at 1.7 µm, 2.7 µm, and 1.6 µm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, J.; Frerichs, Ch.; Carbonnier, C.; Unrau, U.B.; Pollnau, Markus; Lüthy, W.; Weber, H.P.

    The output power of the erbium laser at 2.7 um (4I11/2 -> 4I13/2) is enhanced due to simultaneous laser action at 1.7 um (4S3/2 -> 4I9/2) and 1.6 um (4I13/2 -> 4I15/2) in an Er3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber. The laser cascade overwhelms the saturation effect for the transition at 2.7 um by

  8. Erbium-ion implantation into various crystallographic cuts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekvindova, P. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mackova, A.; Malinsky, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Cajzl, J.; Svecova, B. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Oswald, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic); Wilhelm, R.A. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    This paper reports on the importance of crystallographic cuts with a different orientation on the luminescent properties and structural changes of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} implanted with Er{sup +} ions at 190 keV and with a fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. Post-implantation annealing at 1000 °C in oxygen atmosphere was also done. The chemical compositions and erbium concentration-depth profiles of implanted layers were studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and compared to SRIM simulations. The same value of the maximum erbium concentration (up to 2 at.%) was observed at a depth of about 40 nm for all crystallographic cuts. The structural properties of the prepared layers were characterised by RBS/channelling. The relative amount of disordered atoms of 70–80% was observed in the prepared implanted layers and discussed for various cuts. It has been found that erbium is positioned randomly in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystalline matrix, and no preferential positions appeared even after the annealing procedure. Erbium luminescence properties were measured in the wavelength range of 1440–1650 nm for all samples. As-implanted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples had a significant luminescence band at 1530 nm. The best luminescence was repeatedly observed in the 〈0 0 0 1〉 cut of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The annealing procedure significantly improved the luminescent properties.

  9. Effects of non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser treatment on gene regulation in human three-dimensional skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Philipp M; Marquardt, Yvonne; Steiner, Timm; Hölzle, Frank; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Heise, Ruth; Baron, Jens M

    2016-04-01

    Clinical experiences with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser therapy have demonstrated promising results for dermal remodelling and for the indications of striae, surgical scars and acne scars. So far, molecular effects on human skin following treatment with these laser systems have not been elucidated. Our aim was to investigate laser-induced effects on skin morphology and to analyse molecular effects on gene regulation. Therefore, human three-dimensional (3D) organotypic skin models were irradiated with non-ablative fractional erbium glass laser systems enabling qRT-PCR, microarray and histological studies at same and different time points. A decreased mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 3 and 9 was observed 3 days after treatment. MMP3 also remained downregulated on protein level, whereas the expression of other MMPs like MMP9 was recovered or even upregulated 5 days after irradiation. Inflammatory gene regulatory responses measured by the expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (CXCL1, 2, 5, 6) and interleukin expression (IL8) were predominantly reduced. Epidermal differentiation markers such as loricrin, filaggrin-1 and filaggrin-2 were upregulated by both tested laser optics, indicating a potential epidermal involvement. These effects were also shown on protein level in the immunofluorescence analysis. This novel standardised laser-treated human 3D skin model proves useful for monitoring time-dependent ex vivo effects of various laser systems on gene expression and human skin morphology. Our study reveals erbium glass laser-induced regulations of MMP and interleukin expression. We speculate that these alterations on gene expression level could play a role for dermal remodelling, anti-inflammatory effects and increased epidermal differentiation. Our finding may have implications for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of erbium glass laser-induced effects on human skin.

  10. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and polarization controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X M; Lin, A; Zhao, W; Lu, K Q; Wang, Y S; Zhang, T Y; Chung, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser by using two polarization controllers and a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating(SC-FBG). On the assistance of SC-FBG, the proposed fiber lasers with excellent stability and uniformity are tunable and switchable by adjusting the polarization controllers. Our laser can stably lase two waves and up to eight waves simultaneously at room temperature

  11. Processing and characterization of new oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses in the Ge-Sb-Te-S-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Jackson, J.; Petit, L.; Rivero-Baleine, C.; Richardson, K.

    2010-01-01

    New oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses have been prepared in the Ge-Sb-Te-S-O system employing a two-step melting process which involves the processing of a chalcogenide glass (ChG) and subsequent melting with TeO 2 or Sb 2 O 3 . The progressive incorporation of O at the expense of S was found to increase the density and the glass transition temperature and to decrease the molar volume of the investigated oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses. We also observed a shift of the vis-NIR cut-off wavelength to longer wavelength probably due to changes in Sb coordination within the glass matrix and overall matrix polarizability. Using Raman spectroscopy, correlations have been shown between the formation of Ge- and Sb-based oxysulfide structural units and the S/O ratio. Lastly, two glasses with similar composition (Ge 20 Sb 6 S 64 Te 3 O 7 ) processed by melting the Ge 23 Sb 7 S 70 glass with TeO 2 or the Ge 23 Sb 2 S 72 Te 4 glass with Sb 2 O 3 were found to have slightly different physical, thermal, optical and structural properties. These changes are thought to result mainly from the higher moisture content and sensitivity of the TeO 2 starting materials as compared to that of the Sb 2 O 3 . - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we discuss our most recent findings on the processing and characterization of new ChG glasses prepared with small levels of Te, melted either with TeO 2 or Sb 2 O 3 powders. We explain how these new oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses are prepared and we correlate the physical, thermal and optical properties of the investigated glasses to the structure changes induced by the addition of oxygen in the Ge-Sb-S-Te glass network.

  12. Wideband and flat-gain amplifier based on high concentration erbium-doped fibres in parallel double-pass configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamida, B A; Cheng, X S; Harun, S W; Naji, A W; Arof, H; Al-Khateeb, W; Khan, S; Ahmad, H

    2012-01-01

    A wideband and flat gain erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated using a hybrid gain medium of a zirconiabased erbium-doped fibre (Zr-EDF) and a high concentration erbium-doped fibre (EDF). The amplifier has two stages comprising a 2-m-long ZEDF and 9-m-long EDF optimised for C- and L-band operations, respectively, in a double-pass parallel configuration. A chirp fibre Bragg grating (CFBG) is used in both stages to ensure double propagation of the signal and thus to increase the attainable gain in both C- and L-band regions. At an input signal power of 0 dBm, a flat gain of 15 dB is achieved with a gain variation of less than 0.5 dB within a wide wavelength range from 1530 to 1605 nm. The corresponding noise figure varies from 6.2 to 10.8 dB within this wavelength region.

  13. Influence of annealing temperature on erbium ion electroluminescence in Si : (Er,O) diodes with (111) substrate orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolev, N A; Nikolaev, Y A

    2001-01-01

    A study has been made of the influence of temperature of the second annealing that promotes formation of optically and electrically active centers o the erbium ion electroluminescence at lambda approx = 1.54 mu m wavelength in (111) Si : (Er,O) diodes. Doping has been performed by implantation of erbium and oxygen ions at 2.0, 1.6 MeV and 0.28, 0.22 MeV energies and 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 and 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2 doses, respectively. The room temperature electroluminescence intensity under the breakdown regime increases with increasing annealing temperature from 700 to 950 deg C. After annealing in the range of 975-1100 deg C, erbium electroluminescence under the breakdown regime is not observed due to appearance of microplasmas. The injection electroluminescence intensity at 80 K decreases with increasing temperature from 700 to 1100 deg C

  14. Investigations of portable cadmium telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors for clinical studies with radioactive indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The combination of small, portable γ-radiation-sensitive Cadmium Telluride (CdTE(Cl)) crystal detectors and portable solid state data storage memories makes it feasible to extend the measuring period in a number of clinical investigations based on the use of various radioisotopes and external detection. Blood sampling can be avoided in some cases. Continuous ambulatory monitoring of relevant physiological parameters is practicable, e.g. kidney function (GFR), left ventricular ejection fraction, subcutaneous blood flow, muscle blood flow and insulin absorption in diabetic patients. In the present methodological study the applicability of the 133-Xe washout technique to subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue blood flow (SBF) has been investigated and adapted to the use of CdTe(Cl) detectors attached to the skin surface for the measurement of local 133-Xe-disappearance rate constants (k). Physical characterization of CdTe(Cl) detectors as γ-sensitive devices has been performed, and adequate counting sensitivities were found without detector energy-resolution properties. The CdTe(Cl) detectors are therefore suitable for single indicator studies. The measuring geometry of CdTe(Cl) detectors was studied and compared with that of stationary Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors in both phantom and in vivo investigations. The spatial properties of CdTe(Cl) detectors could to some extent be adjusted by pulse height discrimination and lead collimation. When long-term measurements were complicated by for instance physical activity of the patients, the small CdTe(Cl) detectors in general showed equal or better performance than the heavy and voluminous NaI(Tl) detectors. The free movement of the ambulatory patient and the avoidance of cable connections to stationary data-collecting systems gave improved possibilities for measurements of the relevant parameters. From this point of view, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors must be considered an important advance for radioactivity studies in

  15. A Fumonisins Immunosensor Based on Polyanilino-Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Palladium Telluride Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masikini, Milua; Mailu, Stephen N.; Tsegaye, Abebaw; Njomo, Njagi; Molapo, Kerileng M.; Ikpo, Chinwe O.; Sunday, Christopher Edozie; Rassie, Candice; Wilson, Lindsay; Baker, Priscilla G. L.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2015-01-01

    An impedimetric immunosensor for fumonisins was developed based on poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes doped with palladium telluride quantum dots onto a glassy carbon surface. The composite was assembled by a layer-by-layer method to form a multilayer film of quantum dots (QDs) and poly(2,5-dimethoxyaniline)-multi-wall carbon nanotubes (PDMA-MWCNT). Preparation of the electrochemical immunosensor for fumonisins involved drop-coating of fumonisins antibody onto the composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy response of the FB1 immunosensor (GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT/anti-Fms-BSA) gave a linear range of 7 to 49 ng L−1 and the corresponding sensitivity and detection limits were 0.0162 kΩ L ng−1 and 0.46 pg L−1, respectively, hence the limit of detection of the GCE/PT-PDMA-MWCNT immunosensor for fumonisins in corn certified material was calculated to be 0.014 and 0.011 ppm for FB1, and FB2 and FB3, respectively. These results are lower than those obtained by ELISA, a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins (the sum of FB1, FB2, and FB3) established by the Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives and contaminants of 2 μg kg−1 and the maximum level recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for protection of human consumption (2–4 mg L−1). PMID:25558993

  16. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  17. Spark plasma sintered bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric materials incorporating dispersed boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.R., E-mail: hugo.williams@leicester.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ambrosi, R.M. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chen, K. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Friedman, U. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ning, H.; Reece, M.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Robbins, M.C.; Simpson, K. [European Thermodynamics Ltd., 8 Priory Business Park, Wistow Road, Kibworth LE8 0R (United Kingdom); Stephenson, K. [European Space Agency, ESTEC TEC-EP, Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Nano-B{sub 4}C reinforced Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} p-type thermoelectric produced by SPS. • Addition of B{sub 4}C up to 0.2 vol% to SPS’d material has little effect on zT. • Vickers hardness improved by 27% by adding 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C. • Fracture toughness of SPS material: K{sub IC} = 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by SEVNB. • Mechanical properties much better than commercial directionally solidified material. - Abstract: The mechanical properties of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric materials have received much less attention in the literature than their thermoelectric properties. Polycrystalline p-type Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} materials were produced from powder using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The effects of nano-B{sub 4}C addition on the thermoelectric performance, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were measured. Addition of 0.2 vol% B{sub 4}C was found to have little effect on zT but increased hardness by approximately 27% when compared to polycrystalline material without B{sub 4}C. The K{sub IC} fracture toughness of these compositions was measured as 0.80 MPa m{sup 1/2} by Single-Edge V-Notched Beam (SEVNB). The machinability of polycrystalline materials produced by SPS was significantly better than commercially available directionally solidified materials because the latter is limited by cleavage along the crystallographic plane parallel to the direction of solidification.

  18. Spectroscopic, microscopic, and internal stress analysis in cadmium telluride grown by close-space sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Diaz, Aryzbe; Quinones, Stella A.

    2015-01-01

    High quality materials with excellent ordered structure are needed for developing photovoltaic and infrared devices. With this end in mind, the results of our research prove the importance of a detailed, comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic analysis in assessing cadmium telluride (CdTe) characteristics. The goal of this work is to examine not only material crystallinity and morphology, but also induced stress in the deposit material. A uniform, selective growth of polycrystalline CdTe by close-space sublimation on patterned Si(111) and Si(211) substrates is demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy images. Besides good crystallinity of the samples, as revealed by both Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared absorption investigations, the far-infrared transmission data also show the presence of surface optical phonon modes, which is direct evidence of confinement in such a material. The qualitative identification of the induced stress was achieved by performing confocal Raman mapping microscopy on sample surfaces and by monitoring the existence of the rock-salt and zinc-blende structural phases of CdTe, which were associated with strained and unstrained morphologies, respectively. Although the induced stress in the material is still largely due to the high lattice mismatch between CdTe and the Si substrate, the current results provide a direct visualization of its partial release through the relaxation effect at crystallite boundaries and of preferential growth directions of less strain. Our study, thus offers significant value for improvement of material properties, by targeting the needed adjustments in the growth processes. - Highlights: • Assessing the characteristics of CdTe deposited on patterned Si substrates • Proving the utility of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring the induced stress • Confirming the partial stress release through the grain boundary relaxation effect • Demonstrating the phonon confinement effect in low

  19. The crystal structures and powder diffraction patterns of the uranium tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, R.L. (State Univ. of New York, Alfred, NY (USA). Inst. of Ceramic Superconductivity); Nichols, M.C.; Boehme, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1990-10-03

    A critical review of all of the reported structures and powder diffraction patterns in the uranium telluride system has been undertaken. Structures that are correct: Cubic -- UTe: no experimental pattern exists. Retain calculated 15--865. Cubic --U{sub 3}Te{sub 4}: retain the poor quality 12--610 but adopt the pattern calculated here. Cubic U{sub 2}Te{sub 3}: no experimental pattern exists. Adopt pattern calculated here. Orthorhombic UTe{sub 2}: Adopt the new pattern of Boehme et al. Monoclinic {alpha}UTe{sub 3} Adopt the new pattern of Boehme et al. Monoclinic {alpha}UTe{sub 3} Adopt the new pattern of Boehme et al. Orthorhombic {beta}UTe{sub 3}: Adopt pattern calculated here. Orthorhombic UTe{sub 5}: Adopt the new pattern of Boehme et al. Structures in need of refinement: Orthorhombic U{sub 2}Te{sub 3}:Adopt pattern calculated here over 34--807. Hexagonal U{sub 7}Te{sub 12}: Adopt pattern calculated here but retain 24--1368. Orthorhombic UTe{sub 1.78}: Adopt pattern calculated here and retain our modified 21--1404 reported for U{sub 4}Te{sub 7}. Orthorhombic UTe{sub 2.5}: Adopt pattern calculated here. Orthorhombic UTe{sub 3.4}: Accept recent pattern of Boehme et al. Phases for which no structures or reliable patterns exist: Orthorhombic U{sub 3}Te{sub 4}: no published pattern. Tetragonal U{sub 3}Te{sub 5}: three patterns 21--1407, 34--766 and 34--896 exit but all are of very poor quality. Phases which probably do not exist: Tetragonal UTe{sub 1.78}, Tetragonal UTe{sub 2}, Cubic UTe{sub 2} U{sub 3}Te{sub 7}(21--1402), U{sub 3}Te{sub 8}(21--1406).

  20. Laser Photolysis and Thermolysis of Organic Selenides and Tellurides for Chemical Gas-phase Deposition of Nanostructured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Pola

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser radiation-induced decomposition of gaseous organic selenides and tellurides resulting in chemical deposition of nanostructured materials on cold surfaces is reviewed with regard to the mechanism of the gas-phase decomposition and properties of the deposited materials. The laser photolysis and laser thermolysis of the Se and Te precursors leading to chalcogen deposition can also serve as a useful approach to nanostructured chalcogen composites and IVA group (Si, Ge, Sn element chalcogenides provided that it is carried out simultaneously with laser photolysis or thermolysis of polymer and IVA group element precursor.

  1. Reaction of 1-bromo-3-chloropropane with tellurium and dimethyl telluride in the system of hydrazine hydrate-alkali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russavskaya, N.V.; Levanova, E.P.; Sukhomazova, Eh.N.; Grabel'nykh, V.A.; Elaev, A.V.; Klyba, L.V.; Zhanchipova, E.R.; Albanov, A.I.; Korotaeva, I.M.; Toryashinova, D.S.D.; Korchevin, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis of oligomeric substance of thiocol type, the poly(trimethyleneditelluride), from 1-bromo-3-chloropropane and elemental tellurium is performed using a hydrazine hydrate-alkali system. Reductive splitting of the tellurocol followed by alkylation with methyl iodide give rise to preparation of bis(methyltelluro)propane, which was synthesized also from dimethyl telluride and 1,3-dihalopropanes using the N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O/KOH system. The reaction products were characterized by elementary analysis, NMR, and IR spectra. Mass spectra of the synthesized low molecular weight organotellurium compounds are considered [ru

  2. Molecular and ionic associates in the saturated vapor over erbium trichloride and the ErCl3 - DyCl3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnoj, A.M.; Motalov, V.B.; Kuznetsov, A.Yu.; Kudin, L.S.; Khasanshin, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the work are: determination of sublimation enthalpies of erbium trichloride as molecular associates, refinement of sublimation enthalpies in the form of monomer molecules and recovery of thermochemical characteristics and ion components of vapor over the erbium trichloride and the ErCl 3 - DyCl 3 system. The high temperature (969 - 1097 K) mass spectrometry was used for the investigation into the composition of saturated vapor over the erbium trichloride and ErCl 3 - DyCl 3 system, the partial pressures of the neutral components of the vapor were determined. The results of the calculations of the erbium trichloride sublimation enthalpies as monomer, dimer and trimer molecules are demonstrated. The formation enthalpies of the molecules were determined based on the obtained sublimation enthalpies and the formation enthalpies of the erbium trichloride in condensed state. The formation enthalpies of the ions were determined on the basis of enthalpies of ion-molecular reactions. The formation enthalpies of the dimer, trimer mixed molecules and ion associates were determined for the first time [ru

  3. Computational analysis of interfacial attachment kinetics and transport phenomena during liquid phase epitaxy of mercury cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, Igal; Brandon, Simon [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ben Dov, Anne; Grimberg, Ilana; Klin, Olga; Weiss, Eliezer [SCD-Semi-Conductor Devices, P.O. Box 2250/99, Haifa 31021 (Israel)

    2010-07-01

    Deposition of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) thin films, on lattice matched cadmium zinc telluride substrates, is often achieved via Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE). The yield and quality of these films, required for the production of infrared detector devices, is to a large extent limited by lack of knowledge regarding details of physical phenomena underlying the deposition process. Improving the understanding of these phenomena and their impact on the quality of the resultant films is therefore an important goal which can be achieved through relevant computational and/or experimental studies. We present a combined computational and experimental effort aimed at elucidating physical phenomena underlying the LPE of MCT via a slider growth process. The focus of the presentation will be results generated by a time-dependent three-dimensional model of mass transport, fluid flow, and interfacial attachment kinetics, which we have developed and applied in the analysis of this LPE process. These results, combined with experimental analyses, lead to an improved understanding of the role of different transport and kinetic phenomena underlying this growth process.

  4. Inhibition of autophagy contributes to the toxicity of cadmium telluride quantum dots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Junpeng Fan,1–4 Ming Shao,1–4 Lu Lai,3–5 Yi Liu,3–5 Zhixiong Xie1–4,6 1College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, 2Hubei Provincial Cooperative Innovation Center of Industrial Fermentation,3State Key Laboratory of Virology, 4Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE, 5College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 6School of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs are used as near-infrared probes in biologic and medical applications, but their cytological effects and mechanism of potential toxicity are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of CdTe QDs of different sizes and investigated their mechanism of toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A growth inhibition assay revealed that orange-emitting CdTe (O-CdTe QDs (half inhibitory concentration [IC50] =59.44±12.02 nmol/L were more toxic than green-emitting CdTe QDs (IC50 =186.61±19.74 nmol/L to S. cerevisiae. Further studies on toxicity mechanisms using a transmission electron microscope and green fluorescent protein tagged Atg8 processing assay revealed that O-CdTe QDs could partially inhibit autophagy at a late stage, which differs from the results reported in mammalian cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibited at a late stage by O-CdTe QDs could be partially recovered by enhancing autophagy with rapamycin (an autophagy activator, combined with an increased number of living cells. These results indicate that inhibition of autophagy acts as a toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in S. cerevisiae. This work reports a novel toxicity mechanism of CdTe QDs in yeast and provides valuable information on the effect of CdTe QDs on the processes of living cells. Keywords: CdTe quantum dots, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxicity, autophagy

  5. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of metal film on bismuth telluride-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Wen Hsuan; Chen, Yi Ray; Tseng, Shih Chun; Yang, Ping Hsing; Wu, Ren Jye; Hwang, Jenn Yeu

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion barriers have a significant influence on the reliability and life time of thermoelectric modules. Although nickel is commonly used as a diffusion barrier in commercial thermoelectric modules, several studies have verified that Ni migrates to bismuth telluride-based material during high temperature cycles and causes a loss in efficacy. In this paper, the influence of metal layers coated to p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 on the interface characterization and thermoelectric property is studied using a RF magnetron sputtering. The findings from this study demonstrate the structural and thermoelectric properties of p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 coated with different metal layers. The crystalline phase and compositional change of the interface between the Bi 2 Te 3 materials and the metal layers were determined using an X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Formation of NiTe was observed in the sample of Ni/p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based films post-annealed in an N 2 atmosphere at 200 °C. In contrast, no Co x Te y was formed in the sample of Co/p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based films post-annealed at 200 °C. For as-deposited Ni/p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 based legs, the Ni slightly diffused into the Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. A similar phenomenon also occurred in the as-deposited Co/p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. The Seebeck coefficients of the Co contacts on the Bi 2 Te 3 based material displayed better behavior than those of the Ni contacts on the Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. Thus Co could be a suitable diffusion barrier for bulk Bi 2 Te 3 based material. The observed effects on the thermoelectric and structural properties of metal/Bi 2 Te 3 based material are crucial for understanding the interface between the diffusion barrier and thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • Interface characterization of metal coated to p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 is studied. • We examined the phase transformation of metal/Bi 2 Te 3 based films

  6. Thermodynamics of post-growth annealing of cadmium zinc telluride nuclear radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron Lee

    Nuclear Radiation Detectors are used for detecting, tracking, and identifying radioactive materials which emit high-energy gamma and X-rays. The use of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is particularly attractive because of the detector's ability to operate at room temperature and measure the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources with a high resolution, typically less than 1% at 662 keV. While CdZnTe detectors are acceptable imperfections in the crystals limit their full market potential. One of the major imperfections are Tellurium inclusions generated during the crystal growth process by the retrograde solubility of Tellurium and Tellurium-rich melt trapped at the growth interface. Tellurium inclusions trap charge carriers generated by gamma and X-ray photons and thus reduce the portion of generated charge carriers that reach the electrodes for collection and conversion into a readable signal which is representative of the ionizing radiation's energy and intensity. One approach in resolving this problem is post-growth annealing which has the potential of removing the Tellurium inclusions and associated impurities. The goal of this project is to use experimental techniques to study the thermodynamics of Tellurium inclusion migration in post-growth annealing of CdZnTe nuclear detectors with the temperature gradient zone migration (TGZM) technique. Systematic experiments will be carried out to provide adequate thermodynamic data that will inform the engineering community of the optimum annealing parameters. Additionally, multivariable correlations that involve the Tellurium diffusion coefficient, annealing parameters, and CdZnTe properties will be analyzed. The experimental approach will involve systematic annealing experiments (in Cd vapor overpressure) on different sizes of CdZnTe crystals at varying temperature gradients ranging from 0 to 60°C/mm (used to migrate the Tellurium inclusion to one side of the crystal), and at annealing temperatures ranging

  7. Dark solitons in erbium-doped fiber lasers based on indium tin oxide as saturable absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Zhang, Huanian; Li, Zhen; Sheng, Yingqiang; Guo, Quanxin; Han, Xile; Liu, Yanjun; Man, Baoyuan; Ning, Tingyin; Jiang, Shouzhen

    2018-04-01

    Dark solitons, which have good stability, long transmission distance and strong anti-interference ability. By using a coprecipitation method, the high quality indium tin oxide (ITO) were prepared with an average diameter of 34.1 nm. We used a typical Z-scan scheme involving a balanced twin-detector measurement system to investigated nonlinear optical properties of the ITO nanoparticles. The saturation intensity and modulation depths are 13.21 MW/cm2 and 0.48%, respectively. In an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers, we using the ITO nanoparticles as saturable absorber (SA), and the formation of dark soliton is experimentally demonstrated. The generated dark solitons are centered at the wavelength of 1561.1 nm with a repetition rate of 22.06 MHz. Besides, the pulse width and pulse-to-pulse interval of the dark solitons is ∼1.33ns and 45.11 ns, respectively. These results indicate that the ITO nanoparticles is a promising nanomaterial for ultrafast photonics.

  8. Pure antimony film as saturable absorber for Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. F. A.; Zhalilah, M. Z.; Latiff, A. A.; Rosol, A. H. A.; Lokman, M. Q.; Bushroa, A. R.; Dimyati, K.; Harun, S. W.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on the use of Antimony (Sb) polymer film to generate stable Q-switching pulses in Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity. The SA is fabricated by coating a thin layer of Sb on a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film through physical vapour deposition (PVD) process. A 1 × 1 mm area of the film SA is cut and integrated into between two fiber ferrules inside the laser cavity for intra-cavity loss modulation. Self-starting and stable Q-switched pulses are obtained within a pump power range from 60 to 142 mW. Within this range, the repetition rate increases from 70.82 to 98.04 kHz, while pulse width decreases from 7.42 to 5.36 μs. The fundamental frequency signal-to-noise ratio of the pulse signal is 74 dB, which indicates the excellent stability of the pulses. The maximum output power and pulse energy are 8.45 mW and 86.19 nJ, respectively. Our demonstration shows that Sb film SA capable of generating stable pulses train operating at 1.55-micron region.

  9. Optimized radiation-hardened erbium doped fiber amplifiers for long space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladaci, A.; Girard, S.; Mescia, L.; Robin, T.; Laurent, A.; Cadier, B.; Boutillier, M.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we developed and exploited simulation tools to optimize the performances of rare earth doped fiber amplifiers (REDFAs) for space missions. To describe these systems, a state-of-the-art model based on the rate equations and the particle swarm optimization technique is developed in which we also consider the main radiation effect on REDFA: the radiation induced attenuation (RIA). After the validation of this tool set by confrontation between theoretical and experimental results, we investigate how the deleterious radiation effects on the amplifier performance can be mitigated following adequate strategies to conceive the REDFA architecture. The tool set was validated by comparing the calculated Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain degradation under X-rays at ˜300 krad(SiO2) with the corresponding experimental results. Two versions of the same fibers were used in this work, a standard optical fiber and a radiation hardened fiber, obtained by loading the previous fiber with hydrogen gas. Based on these fibers, standard and radiation hardened EDFAs were manufactured and tested in different operating configurations, and the obtained data were compared with simulation data done considering the same EDFA structure and fiber properties. This comparison reveals a good agreement between simulated gain and experimental data (vulnerability in terms of gain. The presented approach is a complementary and effective tool for hardening by device techniques and opens new perspectives for the applications of REDFAs and lasers in harsh environments.

  10. Sorption of lanthanum and erbium from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwad, N.S.; Gad, H.M.H.; Ahmad, M.I.; Aly, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    A biomass agricultural waste material, rice husk (RH) was used for preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid. The effect of various factors, e.g. time, ph, initial concentration and temperature of carbon on the adsorption capacity of lanthanum and erbium were quantitatively determined. It was found that the monolayer capacity is 175.4 mg/g for La(III) and 250 mg/g for Er(III) . The calculated activation energy of La(III) adsorption on the activated carbon derived from rice husk was equal to 5.84 kJ/ mol while 14.6 kJ/ mol for Er(III), which confirm that the reaction is mainly particle-diffusion controlled. The kinetics of sorption was described by a model of a pseudo-second-order. External diffusion and intra-particular diffusion were examined. The experimental data show that the external diffusion and intra-particular diffusion are significant in the determination of the sorption rate. Therefore, the developed sorbent is considered as a better replacement technology for removal of La (III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous solution due to its low cost and good efficiency, fast kinetics, as well as easy to handle and thus no or small amount of secondary sludge is obtained in this application

  11. High-power microcavity lasers based on highly erbium-doped sol-gel aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc Chung; Chu Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen Thu Trang; Pham Thu Nga; Pham Van Hoi; Bui Van Thien

    2006-01-01

    High-power whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasing from highly erbium-doped sol-gel aluminosilicate microsphere cavity coupled to a half-tapered optical fiber is presented. The lasing output power as high as 0.45 mW (-3.5 dBm) was obtained from sol-gel glass microsphere cavity with diameters in the range of 40-150 μm. The sol-gel method for making highly concentration Er-doped aluminosilicate glasses with Er-ion concentrations from 0.125 to 0.65 mol% of Er 3+ is described. Controlling collected lasing wavelength at each WGM is possible by adjusting the distance between the half-taper fiber and the microcavity and by diameter of the waist of half-taper fiber. Using the analytic formulas we calculated the TE and TM lasing modes and it is shown that the experimental results are in good agreement with the calculation prediction

  12. Band gap and polarizability of boro-tellurite glass: Influence of erbium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said Mahraz, Zahra Ashur; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the influence of rare earth ions in improving the structural and optical properties of inorganic glasses are the key issues. Er3+-doped zinc boro-tellurite glasses with composition 30B2O3-10ZnO-(60-x) TeO2-xEr2O3 are prepared (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol%) using melt quenching technique. The physical and optical characterizations are measured by density and UV-Vis-IR absorption spectroscopy. The color of the glass changed from light yellow to deep pink due to the introduction of Er3+ ions. The maximum density is found to be ∼4.73 g cm-3 for 1 mol% of Er3+ doping. The variations in the polarizability (6.7-6.8 cm3) and the molar volume (27.987-28.827 cm3 mol-1) with dopant concentration are ascribed to the formation of non-bridging oxygen. This observation is consistent with the alteration of number of bonds per unit volume. The direct and indirect optical band gaps are increased while the phonon cut-off wavelength and Urbach energy decreased with the increase of erbium content. A high density and wide transparency range in VIS-IR area are achieved. Our results on high refractive index (∼2.416) and polarizability suggest that these glasses are potential for photonics, solid state lasers and communications devices.

  13. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Based Gain Controller for Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUCEL, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA must have a flat gain profile which is a very important parameter such as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM and dense WDM (DWDM applications for long-haul optical communication systems and networks. For this reason, it is crucial to hold a stable signal power per optical channel. For the purpose of overcoming performance decline of optical networks and long-haul optical systems, the gain of the EDFA must be controlled for it to be fixed at a high speed. In this study, due to the signal power attenuation in long-haul fiber optic communication systems and non-equal signal amplification in each channel, an automatic gain controller (AGC is designed based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for EDFAs. The intelligent gain controller is implemented and the performance of this new electronic control method is demonstrated. The proposed ANFIS-based AGC-EDFA uses the experimental dataset to produce the ANFIS-based sets and the rule base. Laser diode currents are predicted within the accuracy rating over 98 percent with the proposed ANFIS-based system. Upon comparing ANFIS-based AGC-EDFA and experimental results, they were found to be very close and compatible.

  14. Visible and infrared photoluminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals produced by rf sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, M.F.; Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Losurdo, M. [Plasma Chemistry Research Center, CNR, Bari (Italy); Monteiro, T.; Soares, M.J.; Peres, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Stepikova, M. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603600 Nizhnij Novgorod GSP-105 (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    Erbium-doped low-dimensional Si films with different microstructures were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on glass substrates by varying the hydrogen flow rate during deposition. Amorphous, micro- and nanocrystalline samples, consisting of Si nanocrystalls embedded in silicon-based matrices with different structures, were achieved with optical properties in the visible and IR depending on nanocrystalline fraction and matrix structure and chemical composition. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction in the grazing incidence geometry and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical composition was studied using RBS/ERD techniques. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was combined with the previous techniques to further resolve the film microstructure and composition. In particular, the distribution along the film thickness of the volume fractions of nanocrystalline/amorphous silicon and SiO{sub x} phases has been obtained. In this contribution we discuss visible and infrared photoluminescence as a function of sample microstructure and of the oxygen/hydrogen concentration ratio present in the matrix. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Synthesis and optical properties of a new fluorinated erbium complex/polymer composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Limei; Wang Jianshe; Hu Jin; Liu Xinhou; Zhen Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A new fluorinated erbium complex with pentafluorobenzoate groups and triphenylphosphine oxide ligands, Er(PFBZ) 3 (TPPO) 2 (PFBZ: pentafluorobenzoate, TPPO: triphenylphosphine oxide), was synthesized and characterized. And Er(PFBZ) 3 (TPPO) 2 /PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) composite material was made by bulk polymerization. Both emission properties of the pure complex in the solid and that embedded in PMMA matrix were investigated upon excitation at different wavelengths. The luminescent intensity of the complex embedded in PMMA was enhanced strongly through the indirect excitation of the ligands absorption. Judd-Ofelt theory is used to analyze the absorption spectrum of Er 3+ in PMMA matrix and obtain the intensity parameters: Ω 2 = 11.343 x 10 -20 cm 2 , Ω 4 = 1.474 x 10 -20 cm 2 and Ω 6 = 1.001 x 10 -20 cm 2 . Based on these parameters, the radiative lifetime of the excited 4 I 13/2 level and the stimulated emission cross-section for the 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 transition are also evaluated

  16. Erbium(III) in aqueous solution: an ab initio molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Lorenz R; Sakwarathorn, Theerathad; Rode, Bernd M; Messner, Christoph B; Lutz, Oliver M D; Bonn, Günther K

    2013-12-05

    Structural and dynamical properties of the erbium(III) ion in water have been obtained by means of ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) simulations for the ground state and an excited state. The quality of the simulations has been monitored by recording UV/vis and Raman spectra of dilute solutions of ErCl3 and Er(NO3)3 in water and by comparison with EXAFS data from literature. Slight deviations between these data can be mainly attributed to relativistic effects, which are not sufficiently considered by the methodological framework. In both simulations, a mixture of coordination numbers eight and nine and a ligand exchange on the picosecond range are observed. The strength of the Er-ligand bond is considerably lower than that of trivalent transition metal ions but higher than that for La(III) and Ce(III) in aqueous solution. The main difference between ground state and excited state is the ligand exchange rate of the first shell. The second hydration shell is stable in both cases but with significantly different properties.

  17. Temperature-Insensitive Bend Sensor Using Entirely Centered Erbium Doping in the Fiber Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A fiber based bend sensor using a uniquely designed Bend-Sensitive Erbium Doped Fiber (BSEDF is proposed and demonstrated. The BSEDF has two core regions, namely an undoped outer region with a diameter of about 9.38 μm encompassing a doped, inner core region with a diameter of 4.00 μm. The doped core region has about 400 ppm of an Er2O3 dopant. Pumping the BSEDF with a conventional 980 nm laser diode gives an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE spectrum spanning from 1,510 nm to over 1,560 nm at the output power level of about −58 dBm. The ASE spectrum has a peak power of −52 dBm at a central wavelength of 1,533 nm when not spooled. Spooling the BSEDF with diameters of 10 cm to 2 cm yields decreasing peak powers from −57.0 dBm to −61.8 dBm, while the central wavelength remains unchanged. The output is highly stable over time, with a low temperature sensitivity of around ~0.005 dBm/°C, thus allowing for the development of a highly stable sensor system based in the change of the peak power alone.

  18. Amplification of 12 OAM Modes in an air-core erbium doped fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qiongyue; Gregg, Patrick; Jung, Yongmin; Lim, Ee Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Ramachandran, Siddharth; Richardson, David J

    2015-11-02

    We theoretically propose an air-core erbium doped fiber amplifier capable of providing relatively uniform gain for 12 orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes (|L| = 5, 6 and 7, where |L| is the OAM mode order) over the C-band. Amplifier performance under core pumping conditions for a uniformly doped core for each of the supported pump modes (110 in total) was separately assessed. The differential modal gain (DMG) was found to vary significantly depending on the pump mode used, and the minimum DMG was found to be 0.25 dB at 1550 nm provided by the OAM (8,1) pump mode. A tailored confined doping profile can help to reduce the pump mode dependency for core pumped operation and help to increase the number of pump modes that can support a DMG below 1 dB. For the more practical case of cladding-pumped operation, where the pump mode dependency is almost removed, a DMG of 0.25 dB and a small signal gain of >20 dB can be achieved for the 12 OAM modes across the full C-band.

  19. Self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zhi-Xu; Yao, Chuan-Fei; Kang, Zhe; Qin, Guan-Shi; Qin, Wei-Ping; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-01-01

    We reported self-Q-switching behavior of erbium-doped tellurite microstructured fiber (EDTMF) lasers and further demonstrated a self-Q-switched EDTMF laser with a high repetition rate of more than 1 MHz. A 14 cm EDTMF was used as the gain medium. Upon a pump power of ∼705 mW at 1480 nm, output pulses with a lasing wavelength of ∼1558 nm, a repetition rate of ∼1.14 MHz, and a pulse width of ∼282 ns were generated from the fiber by employing a linear cavity. The maximum output power was ∼316 mW and the slope efficiency was about 72.6% before the saturation of the laser power. Moreover, the influence of the fiber length on laser performances was investigated. The results showed that self-Q-switching behavior in our experiments was caused by the re-absorption originated from the ineffectively pumped part of the active fiber.

  20. Addition effect of erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate in the homopolymerization kinetics of a DGEBA resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.J. [Area de Ciencia de los Materiales, Departament d' Enginyeria de Sistemes Industrials i Disseny, Universitat Jaume I, Avda. Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castellon (Spain)]. E-mail: espallar@sg.uji.es; Ramis, X. [Laboratori de Termodinamica, Escola Tecnica Superior Enginyeria Industrial Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Serra, A. [Departament de Q. Analitica i Q. Organica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Suay, J. [Centro de Biomateriales, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin of medium molecular weight was cured using a Lewis acid initiator (erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate) in three different proportions (0.5, 1 and 2 phr). A kinetic study was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The complete kinetic triplet was determined (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and integral function of the deg.ree of conversion) for each system. A kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (model-free), and the kinetic model was determined both with the Coats-Redfern method (the obtained isoconversional E value being accepted as the effective activation energy) and through the compensation effect. All the systems followed the same isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal ones. The 'nucleation and growth' Avrami kinetic model A {sub 3/2} has been proposed as the polymerization kinetic model. The addition of initiator accelerated the reaction having higher influence when low temperatures were applied.

  1. Control of p-type and n-type thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride thin films by combinatorial sputter coating technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Michiko; Xu, Yibin; Zhan, Tianzhuo; Isoda, Yukihiro; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS) while changing only one of the experimental conditions, the RF power. • The dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was optimized by the technique. • The fabrication of a Π-structured TE device was demonstrated. - Abstract: p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized by using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS). The crystal structure and crystal preferred orientation of the thin films were changed by controlling the coating condition of the radio frequency (RF) power during the sputter coating. As a result, the p- and n-type films and their dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) were optimized by the technique. The properties of the thin films such as the crystal structure, crystal preferred orientation, material composition and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Also, the thermoelectric properties of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were measured. ZT for n- and p-type bismuth telluride thin films was found to be 0.27 and 0.40 at RF powers of 90 and 120 W, respectively. The proposed technology can be used to fabricate thermoelectric p–n modules of bismuth telluride without any doping process.

  2. Control of p-type and n-type thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride thin films by combinatorial sputter coating technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masahiro, E-mail: goto.masahiro@nims.go.jp [Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Green Research on Energy and Environmental Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sasaki, Michiko [Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Xu, Yibin [Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Materials Database Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhan, Tianzhuo [Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Isoda, Yukihiro [Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Green Research on Energy and Environmental Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Shinohara, Yoshikazu [Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Green Research on Energy and Environmental Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information Integration (CMI2), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS) while changing only one of the experimental conditions, the RF power. • The dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was optimized by the technique. • The fabrication of a Π-structured TE device was demonstrated. - Abstract: p- and n-type bismuth telluride thin films have been synthesized by using a combinatorial sputter coating system (COSCOS). The crystal structure and crystal preferred orientation of the thin films were changed by controlling the coating condition of the radio frequency (RF) power during the sputter coating. As a result, the p- and n-type films and their dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) were optimized by the technique. The properties of the thin films such as the crystal structure, crystal preferred orientation, material composition and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Also, the thermoelectric properties of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were measured. ZT for n- and p-type bismuth telluride thin films was found to be 0.27 and 0.40 at RF powers of 90 and 120 W, respectively. The proposed technology can be used to fabricate thermoelectric p–n modules of bismuth telluride without any doping process.

  3. Thermodynamic characteristics of sorption extraction and chromatographic separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B on weakly basic anionite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisina, O. V.; Ponomareva, M. A.; Sagdiev, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    The adsorption of anionic complexes of erbium with Trilon B on D-403 anionite is studied at ionic strengths of 1 and 2 mol/kg (NaNO3) and temperatures of 298 and 343 K. The values of the stability constants of complex ions of REE with Trilon B and the Gibbs energies of complexation are calculated. The values of the Gibbs energy and the enthalpy and entropy of ion exchange are determined. Using the obtained thermo-dynamic and sorption characteristics, the possible separation of anionic complexes of erbium and cerium with Trilon B is demonstrated via frontal ion-exchange chromatography. A series of sorption capacities of anionic complexes of cerium, yttrium, and erbium is presented using the values of the Gibbs energy of ion exchange.

  4. Gain claming in single-pass and double-pass L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, S.W.; Ahmad, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gain clamping is demonstrated in single-pass and double-pass long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. A C/L-band wavelength division multiplexing coupler is used in single-pass system to generate a laser at 1566 nm. The gain for the amplifier is clamped at 15.5 dB with gain variation of less than 0.2 dB from input signal power of -40 to -14 dBm with almost negligible noise figure penalty. However, the flatness of gain spectrum is slightly degraded due to the un-optimisation of erbium-doped fiber length. The advantage of this configuration is that the oscillating light does not appear at the output of the amplifier. A highly efficient gain-clamped long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with improved noise figure characteristic is demonstrated by simply adding a broadband conventional band fiber Bragg grating in double pass system. The combination of the fiber Bragg grating and optical circulator has created laser in the cavity for gain clamping. By adjusting the power combination of pumps 1 and 2, the clamped gain level can be controlled. The amplifier gain is clamped at 28.1 dB from -40 to -25 dBm with gain variation of less than 0.5 dB by setting the pumps 1 and 2 at 59.5 and 50.6 mW, respectively. The gain is also flat from 1574 nm to 1604 nm with gain variation of less than 3 dB. The corresponding noise figure varies from 5.6 to 7.6 dB, which is 0.8 to 2.6 dB reduced compared to those of unclamped amplifier (Authors)

  5. Erbium:ytterbium fiber-laser system delivering watt-level femtosecond pulses using divided pulse amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Robert; Zach, Armin

    2015-03-01

    We present an Erbium:Ytterbium codoped fiber-amplifer system based on Divided-Pulses-Amplification (DPA) for ultrashort pulses. The output from a saturable-absorber mode-locked polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber oscillator is amplified in a PM normal-dispersion Erbium-doped fiber. After this stage the pulses are positively chirped and have a duration of 2.0 ps at an average power of 93 mW. A stack of 5 birefringent Yttrium-Vanadate crystals divides these pulses 32 times. We amplify these pulses using a double-clad Erbium:Ytterbium codoped fiber pumped through a multimode fiber combiner. The pulses double pass the amplifier and recombine in the crystals using non-reciprocal polarization 90° rotation by a Faraday rotating mirror. Pulses with a duration of 144 fs are obtained after separation from the input beam using a polarizing beam splitter cube. These pulses have an average power of 1.85 W at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The generation of femtosecond pulses directly from the amplifier was enabled by a positively chirped seed pulse, normally dispersive Yttrium-Vanadate crystals, and anomalously dispersive amplifier fibers. Efficient frequency doubling to 780 nm with an average power of 725 mW and a pulse duration of 156 fs is demonstrated. In summary we show a DPA setup that enables the generation of femtosecond pulses at watt-level at 1560 nm without the need for further external dechirping and demonstrate a good pulse quality by efficient frequency doubling. Due to the use of PM fiber components and a Faraday rotator the setup is environmentally stable.

  6. Use of 1540nm fractionated erbium:glass laser for split skin graft resurfacing: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinesingh, S; Lewis, S; Nayak, B S

    2013-09-01

    The field of laser skin resurfacing has evolved rapidly over the past two decades from ablative lasers, to nonablative systems using near-infrared, intense-pulsed light and radio-frequency systems, and most recently fractional laser resurfacing. Although fractional thermolysis is still in its infancy, its efficacy in in the treatment of skin disorders have been clearly demonstrated. Here we present a case report on the safety and efficacy of a 1540nm erbium:glass laser in the treatment of the waffle pattern of a meshed skin graft in a 38-year-old patient with type V skin in the Caribbean.

  7. 75 W 40% efficiency single-mode all-fiber erbium-doped laser cladding pumped at 976 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, L V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Medvedkov, O I; Yashkov, M V; Guryanov, A N; Lhermite, J; Février, S; Cormier, E

    2013-07-01

    Optimization of Yb-free Er-doped fiber for lasers and amplifiers cladding pumped at 976 nm was performed in this Letter. The single-mode fiber design includes an increased core diameter of 34 μm and properly chosen erbium and co-dopant concentrations. We demonstrate an all-fiber high power laser and power amplifier based on this fiber with the record slope efficiency of 40%. To the best of our knowledge, the achieved output power of 75 W is the highest power reported for such lasers.

  8. Hard-magnetic surface layer effect on the erbium orthoferrite plate domain structure in the region of gradual spin reorientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, A.I.; Vojtsenya, S.V.; Yur'ev, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Rearrangement of domain structures in the erbium orthoferrite plates with hard-magnetic surface layer is investigated during gradual spin reorientation. This phenomenon is explained by means of the proposed physical models. It is shown that in these plates an approach to the temperature interval of spin reorientation causes a decrease in the density of energy of domain walls separating the internal and surface domains. This decrease results in transition to the domain structure which are close to equilibrium ones inside the crystal. 30 refs.; 4 figs

  9. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin Theodore [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 1016 protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 1012 protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH3 coatings on 5 μm gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH1.7. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 ± 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 1019W/cm2. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 1010. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 1020 W/cm2. In this experiment 1012 protons were seen from both erbium hydride and

  10. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer Amezaga, S.

    1963-01-01

    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs

  11. Irradiation-induced doping of Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischau, Carl Willem

    2014-01-01

    Bismuth Telluride Bi 2 Te 3 has attracted enormous attention because of its thermoelectric and topological insulator properties. Regarding its bulk band structure Bi 2 Te 3 is a band insulator with an energy gap of around 150-170 meV. However, the native anti-site defects that are present in real samples always dope this band insulator and shift the chemical potential into the valence or conduction band. In this PhD, the Fermi surface of as-grown and electron irradiated p-type Bi 2 Te 3 single crystals has been investigated extensively using electrical transport experiments. For moderate hole concentrations (p ∼< 5 x 10 18 cm -3 ), it is confirmed that electrical transport can be explained by a six-valley model and the presence of strong Zeeman-splitting. At high doping levels (p≅5 x 10 18 cm -3 ), the hole concentrations determined from Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect differ significantly which is attributed to an impurity/defect band introduced by the anti-site defects. In this work, we show that it is possible to dope p-type Bi 2 Te 3 in a very controlled manner using electron-irradiation by performing detailed in- and ex-situ electrical transport studies on samples irradiated at room and at low temperatures with 2.5 MeV electrons. These studies show that the defects induced at both irradiation temperatures act as electron donors and can thus be used to convert the conduction from p- to n-type. The point of optimal compensation is accompanied by an increase of the low-temperature resistivity by several orders of magnitude. Irradiation at room temperature showed that both the p-type samples obtained after irradiation to intermediate doses as well as the samples in which the conduction has been converted to n-type by irradiation, still have a well defined Fermi surface as evidenced by SdH oscillations. By studying the Hall coefficient in-situ during low temperature electron irradiation, the coexistence of electron- and hole-type carriers was evidenced

  12. The long-term effect of 1550 nm erbium:glass fractional laser in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yale; Zeng, Weihui; Hu, Die; Jha, Smita; Ge, Qin; Geng, Songmei; Xiao, Shengxiang; Hu, Guanglei; Wang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the short-term and long-term effects of the 1550 nm erbium:glass (Er:glass) fractional laser in the treatment of facial acne vulgaris. Forty-five (9 male and 36 female) acne patients were treated 4 times at 4-week intervals with the following parameters: 169 spot density and 15-30 mJ/cm(2) fluence. There was no control group. The laser spots were adjustable (maximum overlap: 20%) according to the treatment area, and delivered in rows in order to cover all the face. Clinical photographs were taken. The IGA scores and lesion counts were performed for each treatment. Their current state was obtained by phone call follow-up to determine the long-term effect and photographs were offered by themselves or taken in hospital. After four treatments, all patients had an obvious reduction of lesion counts and IGA score and the peak lesion counts decreased to 67.7% after the initial four treatment sessions. For long-term effect, 8 patients lost follow-up, hence 37 patients were followed-up. 8 patients were 2-year follow up, 27 at the 1-year follow-up, and all patients at the half-year follow-up. The mean percent reduction was 72% at the half-year follow-up, 79 at the 1-year follow-up and 75% at the 2-year follow-up. Side effects and complications were limited to transient erythema and edema, and few patients suffered from transient acne flare-ups and sensitivity. All patients responded that their skin was less prone to oiliness. In conclusion, acne can be successfully treated by 1550 nm Er:glass fractional laser, with few side effects and prolonged acne clearing.

  13. A pilot study of treatment of striae distensae with variable square pulse Erbium: YAG laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Meeprathom, Walailak; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2017-12-01

    Striae distensae (SD) are a frequent skin condition for which treatment remains a challenge. Various laser treatments have been employed to remove the epidermis and cause dermal wound and heating with subsequent dermal collagen remodeling. To determine the efficacy and safety of a variable square pulse Erbium: YAG (VSP Er:YAG) laser for the treatment of striae in skin phototypes III-IV. Twenty-one women with SD were treated monthly for 2 months with VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing using a 7-mm spot size. One side of their striae was randomly treated with one pass of 400 mJ in short pulse (SP) mode with 50% overlapping and one pass of 2.2 J/cm 2 in smooth (SM) mode with nonoverlapping. The other side of their striae was treated with two passes of 400 mJ in SP mode with 50% overlapping. Objective and subjective assessments were obtained at baseline and 1-, 3-, and 6-month after treatment. In both SP&SM and SP only group, volume of SD measured by Visioscan VC98 reduced significantly at 6-month follow-up visit (P=.017 and P=.034, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in skin roughness (SER), skin smoothness (SESM), and surface measured by Visioscan VC98. Transient postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the common side effect found in patients with darker skin tone even in nonsun exposure areas and can last as long as 6 months. VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing is a promising treatment option for SD. Lower fluence should be used in patients with darker skin phototype to avoid the risk of PIH. In addition, pre- and post-treatment with topical preparations for PIH prevention may be needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fractional versus ablative erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser resurfacing for facial rejuvenation: an objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; Abd-El-Raheem, Talal; Abdel-Wahab, Hossam; Medhat, Walid; Hosam, Wael; El-Fakahany, Hasan; Al Anwer, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Laser is one of the main tools for skin resurfacing. Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) was the second ablative laser, after carbon dioxide, emitting wavelength of 2940 nm. Fractional laser resurfacing has been developed to overcome the drawbacks of ablative lasers. We aimed to objectively evaluate the histopathological and immunohistochemical effects of Er:YAG 2940-nm laser for facial rejuvenation (multiple sessions of fractional vs single session of ablative Er:YAG laser). Facial resurfacing with single-session ablative Er:YAG laser was performed on 6 volunteers. Another 6 were resurfaced using fractional Er:YAG laser (4 sessions). Histopathological (hematoxylin-eosin, orcein, Masson trichrome, and picrosirius red stains) and immunohistochemical assessment for skin biopsy specimens were done before laser resurfacing and after 1 and 6 months. Histometry for epidermal thickness and quantitative assessment for neocollagen formation; collagen I, III, and VII; elastin; and tropoelastin were done for all skin biopsy specimens. Both lasers resulted in increased epidermal thickness. Dermal collagen showed increased neocollagen formation with increased concentration of collagen types I, III, and VII. Dermal elastic tissue studies revealed decreased elastin whereas tropoelastin concentration increased after laser resurfacing. Neither laser showed significant difference between their effects clinically and on dermal collagen. Changes in epidermal thickness, elastin, and tropoelastin were significantly more marked after ablative laser. The small number of patients is a limitation, yet the results show significant improvement. Multiple sessions of fractional laser have comparable effects to a single session of ablative Er:YAG laser on dermal collagen but ablative laser has more effect on elastic tissue and epidermis. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple minimally invasive Erbium:YAG laser mini-peels for skin rejuvenation: An objective assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Domyati, Moetaz; El-Ammawi, Tarek S.; Medhat, Walid; Moawad, Osama; Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Uitto, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background As the demand for minimally invasive rejuvenation is increasing, micro-peel resurfacing using Erbium:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG ) laser 2940 nm has been reported for the treatment of photoaged skin without ablation of the epidermis. However, little is known about the efficacy and underlying histologic changes associated with this type of treatment. Aims The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effect and objectively quantify the histological changes in response to multiple sessions of Er:YAG laser 2940 nm mini-peels. Patients and methods Six female volunteers of Fitzpatrick skin type III-IV and Glogau’s class I-III wrinkles were subjected to six microresurfacing peels at 2-week intervals using Er:YAG 2940 nm laser at sub-ablative fluences of 2 - 3 J/cm2 to treat periorbital rhytides. Quantitative evaluation of collagen types I, III and VII, newly synthesized collagen, total elastin and tropoelastin was performed by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry coupled with computerized morphometric analysis at base line, end of treatment, and three months post treatment. Results Compared to the base line, evaluation of volunteers revealed obvious clinical improvement in response to Er:YAG mini-peels. Collagen types I, III, and VII, as well as newly synthesized collagen, together with tropoelastin showed a statistically significant increase in response to treatment, while the mean level of total elastin was significantly decreased in response to treatment. However, this was followed by regression of improvement at 3 months post treatment, but was still better than baseline. Conclusions The present study revealed that multiple Er:YAG mini-peels is a promising treatment option for photoaging as it reverses the signs of photoaged skin with little downtime and side effects. However, to maintain the short term improvement achieved after treatment, continued Er:YAG 2940 nm laser mini-peels is required. PMID:22672276

  16. Structural characterization, optical properties and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous erbium-doped hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Akram, Muhammed; Goh, Yi-Fan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdolahi, Ahmad [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Phase pure nano-sized Er doped hydroxyapatite has been prepared. • TEM micrograph confirmed formation of mesoporous material. • Increased Er doping resulted in blue shift with slight increase in energy band gab. • Er-HA showed better dissolution behavior in SBF comparing with pure HA. • Er doping of HA resulted in formation of apatite layer in SBF with Ca/P ratio of 1.72. - Abstract: We report the successful synthesis of mesoporous erbium doped hydroxyapatite (Er-HA, Ca{sub 10−x}Er{sub 2x/3}□{sub x/3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}) by using a rapid and efficient microwave assisted wet precipitation method. Characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine lattice parameters, particle size, degree of crystallinity, elemental composition, surface area and morphology of Er-HA. Results confirmed the formation of crystalline Er-HA having crystallite size of 25 nm with spherical and rod like morphology, while the TEM analysis confirmed the mesoporous nature of the particles. Optical spectra of Er-HA contained seven electron transitions, whereas blue shift in the energy band gap (E{sub g}) was observed upon increase in Er{sup 3+} content. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra contained green and red emissions. In vitro bioactivity study conducted in SBF revealed that the incorporation of Er{sup 3+} ions into HA structure lead to the faster discharge of Er{sup 3+} ions resulting in intense growth of apatite grains on the surface of the Er-HA pellets with Ca/P ratio of 1.72.

  17. Determination of the stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, europium, erbium and lutetium complexes with chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez R, E.

    2008-01-01

    The stability constants of La 3+ , Pr 3+ , Eu 3+ , Er 3+ and Lu 3+ chloride complexes were determined in perchloric acid media using a liquid-liquid extraction method. The dinonyl napthalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanide (Ln) concentrations were measured by a radiochemical (Eu and Lu) and a spectrophotometric (La, Pr, and Er) methods. In the last method, xylenol orange was used for the determinations at ph 6. The stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, erbium and lutetium chloride complexes were determined in 2, 3 and 4 M ionic strength and europium in 1, 2 and 3 M, at 303 K. The fitting of experimental data to the equations for the calculation of the stability constants, was carry out considering both one chemical species (LnCl 2+ ) or two chemical species (LnCl 2+ and LnCl 2 + ). The Specific Ion Interaction Theory was applied to the values of log β I Ln , Cl and the first stability constants at zero ionic strength were calculated by extrapolation. The same theory could not be applied to the log β I Ln , 2Cl , due to its low abundance and the values determined for the stability constants were similar. The distribution diagrams of the chemical species were obtained using the program MEDUSA and considering log β I Ln , CI , log β I Ln , 2CI values obtained in this work and the hydrolysis constants taken from the literature. The lanthanide chloride complexes are present in solution at specific conditions of ionic strength, concentration and in the absence of hydrolysis. The log β I Ln , Cl data were related to the charge density and the corresponding equations were obtained. These equations could be used to determine the stability constants along the lanthanide series. (Author)

  18. Quantum chaos in ultracold collisions of gas-phase erbium atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Albert; Mark, Michael; Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Ferlaino, Francesca; Bohn, John L; Makrides, Constantinos; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-03-27

    Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below one microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating the interactions between their constituent particles. As a result of this resolution, atoms can be made to scatter resonantly on demand, through the precise control of a magnetic field. For simple atoms, such as alkalis, scattering resonances are extremely well characterized. However, ultracold physics is now poised to enter a new regime, where much more complex species can be cooled and studied, including magnetic lanthanide atoms and even molecules. For molecules, it has been speculated that a dense set of resonances in ultracold collision cross-sections will probably exhibit essentially random fluctuations, much as the observed energy spectra of nuclear scattering do. According to the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture, such fluctuations would imply chaotic dynamics of the underlying classical motion driving the collision. This would necessitate new ways of looking at the fundamental interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular systems, as well as perhaps new chaos-driven states of ultracold matter. Here we describe the experimental demonstration that random spectra are indeed found at ultralow temperatures. In the experiment, an ultracold gas of erbium atoms is shown to exhibit many Fano-Feshbach resonances, of the order of three per gauss for bosons. Analysis of their statistics verifies that their distribution of nearest-neighbour spacings is what one would expect from random matrix theory. The density and statistics of these resonances are explained by fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations that locate their origin in the anisotropy of the atoms' potential energy surface. Our results therefore reveal chaotic behaviour in the native interaction between ultracold atoms.

  19. Measurement and Analysis of Activation Induced in Lanthanum, Erbium and Tantalum by Fusion Peak Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klix, A.; Eichin, R.; Freiesleben, H.; Schomburg, K.; Seidel, K.; Unholzer, S.; Forrest, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The large fluxes of neutrons in the materials of a fusion device during operation produce activation that is relevant to operational safety and decommissioning. Nuclides with a broad range of half-lives have to be included in the corresponding analyses. The activity with decay times ranging from the order of magnitude of minutes to weeks is of interest with respect to heat production and shut-down dose rates, whereas the long-term activity determines the waste management. The activity is mainly produced by two components of the neutron flux spectrum, by thermal neutrons and by the 14-MeV D-T fusion neutrons. Analyses of the material activation rely on calculations with inventory codes and libraries containing activation and decay data. To gain trust in the results of such calculations data and codes have to be validated experimentally. In the present work, the European Activation System (EASY, inventory code FISPACT and data library EAF) was tested in benchmark experiments on Lanthanum, Erbium and Tantalum. They are constituents of fusion reactor structural materials such as EUROFER and insulating coatings for liquid breeder systems. Small samples of the materials were irradiated in a D-T neutron field. The gamma-radioactivity following irradiation was measured several times during decay and nuclide activities were derived. For each of the measured activities the corresponding value was calculated with EASY, and the calculated-to-experimental ratios (C/E) were determined. The nuclear reactions producing the activities were also analysed. The C/E ratios obtained for the individual activities will be used for discussing the activation performance and the contact dose rate of the materials at fusion power plant conditions. (author)

  20. {sup 3}He retention and structural evolution in erbium tritides: Phase and aging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.S., E-mail: zlxs77@163.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Thin Film Centre, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.; Wang, W.D.; Liu, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Peng, S.M., E-mail: pengshuming@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ding, W.; Long, X.G.; Cheng, G.J.; Liang, J.H. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Fu, Y.Q. [Thin Film Centre, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Effects of phase changes on {sup 3}He retention of Er tritide films were investigated. • The α phase in Er tritide films had no apparent effect on {sup 3}He release/retention. • Tritium content in the β phase showed significant effects on {sup 3}He retention. • Evolution of {sup 3}He in the β phase was apparently influenced by the γ phase. • Effects of phase changes on structure evolution of Er tritides were investigated. - Abstract: Effects of phase changes on {sup 3}He release/retention and crystal lattice evolution during aging of erbium (Er) tritide films were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The contents of α phase and γ phase in the Er tritide films showed significant different effects on {sup 3}He release/retention. The initial tritium stoichiometry or excess tritium atoms accommodated in the octahedral sites and the microstructure (i.e., the texture and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide inclusions) played an important role for the {sup 3}He release and the evolution of {sup 3}He bubbles in the β phase Er tritide films. In the β + γ region, evolution of {sup 3}He in the β phase was apparently influenced by the γ phase, which could result in a strongly anisotropic lattice dilation and an earlier inflection point of the expansion rate of (1 1 1) lattice parameter. A preferred occupation of {sup 3}He in basal plane of the hexagonal γ phase and the lattice expansion along the hexagonal direction were identified.

  1. Thermoluminescence property of LiMgF{sub 3} erbium activated phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, I.C. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 130, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Favalli, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Furetta, C. [Touro University Rome, Division of Touro College New York, Circne Gianicolense 15-17, 00153 Rome (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    The perovskite-like LiMgF{sub 3}:ErF{sub 3} pellets were obtained from the melt formed by LiF and MgF{sub 2} mixed salts in the stoichiometric ratio. The perovskite material was doped with 1, 2 and 4 mol% of ErF{sub 3} impurity. The pellets samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated and their thermoluminescence (TL) properties were analyzed, i.e., dose-response, fading at RT and under UV irradiation, TL signal reproducibility, and kinetic parameters. The intensity of the TL response against irradiation dose was increased remarkably by the high concentration of impurity, and a linear dose-response was observed in the range of 1-10 Gy. The fading observed at RT was about 10-30% after 24 h from irradiation. All samples were exposed from 1 to 200 Gy gamma dose range. The TL glow peaks were found around 367-376, 438-447, 509-521, and 594-611 K, when the doped samples were 1, 2 and 4 mol% of the erbium impurity concentration. The thermoluminescence kinetics parameters of the glow curves have been analyzed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perovskite-like LiMgF{sub 3} pellets were doped with 1, 2, and 4 mol% of ErF{sub 3} impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoluminescence properties and kinetics parameters were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dose-response, fading at RT and under UV irradiation and reproducibility are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four TL glow peaks were observed between 367 and 611 K, for all samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glow curves have been analyzed using the CGCD method.

  2. Optical switching and photoluminescence in erbium-implanted vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Herianto, E-mail: mail@heriantolim.com; Stavrias, Nikolas; Johnson, Brett C.; McCallum, Jeffrey C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37240 (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) is under intensive consideration for optical switching due to its reversible phase transition, which features a drastic and rapid shift in infrared reflectivity. Classified as an insulator–to–metal transition, the phase transition in VO{sub 2} can be induced thermally, electrically, and optically. When induced optically, the transition can occur on sub-picosecond time scales. It is interesting to dope VO{sub 2} with erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) and observe their combined properties. The first excited-state luminescence of Er{sup 3+} lies within the wavelength window of minimal transmission-loss in silicon and has been widely utilized for signal amplification and generation in silicon photonics. The incorporation of Er{sup 3+} into VO{sub 2} could therefore result in a novel photonic material capable of simultaneous optical switching and amplification. In this work, we investigate the optical switching and photoluminescence in Er-implanted VO{sub 2} thin films. Thermally driven optical switching is demonstrated in the Er-implanted VO{sub 2} by infrared reflectometry. Photoluminescence is observed in the thin films annealed at ∼800 °C or above. In addition, Raman spectroscopy and a statistical analysis of switching hysteresis are carried out to assess the effects of the ion implantation on the VO{sub 2} thin films. We conclude that Er-implanted VO{sub 2} can function as an optical switch and amplifier, but with reduced switching quality compared to pure VO{sub 2}.

  3. Erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation ameliorates skin permeation and follicular delivery of antialopecia drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-11-01

    Alopecia usually cannot be cured because of the available drug therapy being unsatisfactory. To improve the efficiency of treatment, erbium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er-YAG) laser treatment was conducted to facilitate skin permeation of antialopecia drugs such as minoxidil (MXD), diphencyprone (DPCP), and peptide. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption experiments were carried out by using nude mouse skin and porcine skin as permeation barriers. Fluorescence and confocal microscopies were used to visualize distribution of permeants within the skin. Laser ablation at a depth of 6 and 10 μm enhanced MXD skin accumulation twofold to ninefold depending on the skin barriers selected. DPCP absorption showed less enhancement by laser irradiation as compared with MXD. An ablation depth of 10 μm could increase the peptide flux from zero to 4.99 and 0.33 μg cm(-2) h(-1) for nude mouse skin and porcine skin, respectively. The laser treatment also promoted drug uptake in the hair follicles, with DPCP demonstrating the greatest enhancement (sixfold compared with the control). The imaging of skin examined by microscopies provided evidence of follicular and intercellular delivery assisted by the Er-YAG laser. Besides the ablative effect of removing the stratum corneum, the laser may interact with sebum to break up the barrier function, increasing the skin delivery of antialopecia drugs. The minimally invasive, well-controlled approach of laser-mediated drug permeation offers a potential way to treat alopecia. This study's findings provide the basis for the first report on laser-assisted delivery of antialopecia drugs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. All-polarization maintaining erbium fiber laser based on carbon nanowalls saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Shintaro; Izawa, Jun; Kawaguchi, Norihito

    2018-02-01

    We report a soliton mode locked femtosecond oscillation with all-polarization maintaining erbuim doped fiber laser based on Carbon Nanowalls saturable absorber (CNWs SA). To improve the stability and the capability of the oscillator, the all-polarization maintaining(all-PM) fiber is generally used since PM fiber is tolerant of stretches and bends. The saturable absorber is an optical device that placed in a laser cavity to suppress continuous wave operation to promote cooperation between many modes to sustain ultrashort pulse operation. We apply CNWs for the material of SAs in our oscillator. CNWs are one of the nanocarbon materials, which are a high-aspect-ratio structure in the cross-section, where, although their width and height range in a few micrometers, the thickness is as small as ten nanometers or so. A sheet of CNWs is made up of nano-size graphite grain aggregates. Then CNWs structure is expected to have a high absorption to the incident light and large modulation depth due to a small number of carbon layers as well as CNT and Graphene. With this all-PM fiber laser oscillator based on CNWs SA, the soliton mode-locked laser oscillated with 66.3MHz repetition frequency and its spectrum width is 5.6nm in FWHM. Average output power is 8.1mW with 122.5mW laser diode pump power. In addition, the laser amplification system with erbium-doped fiber is constructed and amplifies the femtosecond pulse laser into 268.2mW and 3000mW pumping power.

  5. Thermal effects from modified endodontic laser tips used in the apical third of root canals with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the temperature changes occurring on the apical third of root surfaces when erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser energy was delivered with a tube etched, laterally emitting conical tip and a conventional bare design optical fiber tip. Thermal effects of root canal laser treatments on periodontal ligament cells and alveolar bone are of concern in terms of safety. A total of 64 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared 1 mm short of the working length using rotary nickel-titanium Pro-Taper files to an apical size corresponding to a F5 Pro-Taper instrument. A thermocouple located 2 mm from the apex was used to record temperature changes arising from delivery of laser energy through laterally emitting conical tips or plain tips, using an Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG laser. For the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG systems, conical fibers showed greater lateral emissions (452 + 69% and 443 + 64%) and corresponding lower forward emissions (48 + 5% and 49 + 5%) than conventional plain-fiber tips. All four combinations of laser system and fiber design elicited temperature increases less than 2.5 degrees C during lasing. The use of water irrigation attenuated completely the thermal effects of individual lasing cycles. Laterally emitting conical fiber tips can be used safely under defined conditions for intracanal irradiation without harmful thermal effects on the periodontal apparatus.

  6. Integrated cladding-pumped multicore few-mode erbium-doped fibre amplifier for space-division-multiplexed communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Jin, C.; Huang, B.; Fontaine, N. K.; Ryf, R.; Shang, K.; Grégoire, N.; Morency, S.; Essiambre, R.-J.; Li, G.; Messaddeq, Y.; Larochelle, S.

    2016-08-01

    Space-division multiplexing (SDM), whereby multiple spatial channels in multimode and multicore optical fibres are used to increase the total transmission capacity per fibre, is being investigated to avert a data capacity crunch and reduce the cost per transmitted bit. With the number of channels employed in SDM transmission experiments continuing to rise, there is a requirement for integrated SDM components that are scalable. Here, we demonstrate a cladding-pumped SDM erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) that consists of six uncoupled multimode erbium-doped cores. Each core supports three spatial modes, which enables the EDFA to amplify a total of 18 spatial channels (six cores × three modes) simultaneously with a single pump diode and a complexity similar to a single-mode EDFA. The amplifier delivers >20 dBm total output power per core and <7 dB noise figure over the C-band. This cladding-pumped EDFA enables combined space-division and wavelength-division multiplexed transmission over multiple multimode fibre spans.

  7. A Pilot Study of Skin Resurfacing Using the 2,790-nm Erbium:YSGG Laser System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Jong Won; Shim, Jeong Su; Choi, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    The erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser differs from other laser techniques by having a faster and higher cure rate. Since the Er:YSGG laser causes an appropriate proportion of ablation and coagulation, it has advantages over the conventional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, including heating tendencies and explosive vaporization. This research was conducted to explore the effects and safety of the Er:YSGG laser. Twenty patients participated in the pilot study of a resurfacing system using a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. All patients received facial treatment by the 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser system (Cutera) twice with a 4-week interval. Wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture were measured. Study subjects included 15 women and five men. Re-epithelization occurred in all subjects 3 to 4 days after treatment, and wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture within 6 months of treatment. The 2,790-nm YSGG laser technique had fewer complications and was effective in the improvement of scars, pores, wrinkles, and skin tone and color with one or two treatments. We expect this method to be effective for people with acne scars, pore scars, deep wrinkles, and uneven skin texture and color.

  8. A Filmy Black-Phosphorus Polyimide Saturable Absorber for Q-Switched Operation in an Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxian Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively Q-switched by a black-phosphorus polyimide film. The multi-layer black-phosphorus (BP nanosheets were prepared via a liquid exfoliation approach exploiting N-methylpyrrolidone as the dispersion liquid. By mixing the BP nanosheets with polyimide (PI, a piece of BP–PI film was obtained after evaporating the mixture in a petri dish. The BP–PI saturable absorber had a modulation depth of 0.47% and was inserted into an erbium-doped fiber laser to realize passive Q-switched operations. The repetition rate of the Q-switched laser increased from 5.73 kHz to 31.07 kHz when the laser pump was enhanced from 31.78 mW to 231.46 mW. Our results show that PI is an excellent host material to protect BP from oxidation, and the BP–PI film can act as a promising nonlinear optical device for laser applications.

  9. Er2S[SiO4]: An erbium sulfide ortho-oxosilicate with unusual sulfide anion coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartenbach, Ingo; Lauxmann, Petra; Schleid, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    During the reaction of cadmium sulfide with erbium and sulfur in evacuated silica ampoules pink lath-shaped crystals of Er 2 S[SiO 4 ] occur as by-product which were characterized by X-ray single crystal structure analysis. The title compound crystallizes orthorhombically in the space group Cmce (a = 1070.02(8), b = 1235.48(9), c = 683.64(6) pm) with eight formula units per unit cell. Besides isolated ortho-oxosilicate units [SiO 4 ] 4- , the crystal structure contains two crystallographically independent Er 3+ cations which are both eightfold coordinated by six oxygen and two sulfur atoms. The sulfide anions are surrounded by four erbium cations each in the shape of very distorted tetrahedra. These excentric [SEr 4 ] 10+ tetrahedra build up layers according to 2 ∞ [SEr 4/2 ] 4+ by vertex- and edge-connection. They are piled parallel to (010) and separated by the isolated ortho-oxosilicate tetrahedra. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  10. Synthesis, structure, theoretical studies and luminescent properties of a ternary erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone and bathophenanthroline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Ramos, Pablo [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Silva, Pedro S. Pereira, E-mail: psidonio@pollux.fis.uc.pt [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Chamorro-Posada, Pedro [Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Silva, Manuela Ramos [CEMDRX, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Milne, Bruce F. [Centre for Computational Physics, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Donostia International Physics Centre, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Nogueira, Fernando [Centre for Computational Physics, Department of Physics, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Martín-Gil, Jesús [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    A novel erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone (Hacac) and bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bath) ligands, formulated as [Er(acac){sub 3}(bath)], has been characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the theoretical part of this study, semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3, PM6 and PM7 models have been employed to predict the structure of the complex, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with spectroscopic data using INDO/S-CI calculations. Real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) has also been used to calculate the optical absorption spectrum of the complex in the gas phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of a new erbium(III) β-diketonate complex. • TDDFT used for the first time to calculate the optical absorption spectrum. • Complex show strong near-infrared luminescence at 1.53 µm due to antenna effect.

  11. Synthesis, structure, theoretical studies and luminescent properties of a ternary erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone and bathophenanthroline ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Silva, Pedro S. Pereira; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Milne, Bruce F.; Nogueira, Fernando; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    A novel erbium(III) complex with acetylacetone (Hacac) and bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, bath) ligands, formulated as [Er(acac) 3 (bath)], has been characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, absorption and emission spectroscopies. In the theoretical part of this study, semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods using AM1, PM3, PM6 and PM7 models have been employed to predict the structure of the complex, calculate the geometric and crystallographic parameters, and make comparisons with spectroscopic data using INDO/S-CI calculations. Real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) has also been used to calculate the optical absorption spectrum of the complex in the gas phase. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of a new erbium(III) β-diketonate complex. • TDDFT used for the first time to calculate the optical absorption spectrum. • Complex show strong near-infrared luminescence at 1.53 µm due to antenna effect

  12. Stable single longitudinal mode erbium-doped silica fiber laser based on an asymmetric linear three-cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ting; Yan Feng-Ping; Li Qi; Peng Wan-Jing; Feng Su-Chun; Tan Si-Yu; Wen Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    We present a stable linear-cavity single longitudinal mode (SLM) erbium-doped silica fiber laser. It consists of four fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) directly written in a section of photosensitive erbium-doped fiber (EDF) to form an asymmetric three-cavity structure. The stable SLM operation at a wavelength of 1545.112 nm with a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.012 nm and an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of about 60 dB is verified experimentally. Under laboratory conditions, the performance of a power fluctuation of less than 0.05 dB observed from the power meter for 6 h and a wavelength variation of less than 0.01 nm obtained from the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) for about 1.5 h are demonstrated. The gain fiber length is no longer limited to only several centimeters for SLM operation because of the excellent mode-selecting ability of the asymmetric three-cavity structure. The proposed scheme provides a simple and cost-effective approach to realizing a stable SLM fiber laser. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. A study on fractional erbium glass laser therapy versus chemical peeling for the treatment of melasma in female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melasma is a commonly acquired hypermelanosis and a common dermatologic skin disease that occurs on sun-exposed areas of face. Aims: To assess the efficacy and safety of non-ablative 1,550 nm Erbium glass fractional laser therapy and compare results with those obtained with chemical peeling. Materials and Methods: We selected 30 patients of melasma aged between 20 years and 50 years for the study. The patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Group I patients were subjected to four sessions of 1,550 nm Erbium glass non-ablative fractional laser at 3 weeks interval. In group II patients, four sessions of chemical peeling with 70% glycolic acid was performed. Results: After 12 weeks of treatment, percentage reduction in Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI score was seen in 62.9% in the laser group and 58.7% in the peels group. Conclusion: It was observed that 1,550 nm fractional laser is as effective as 70% glycolic acid peel in reducing MASI score in patients with melasma.

  14. A Pilot Study of Skin Resurfacing Using the 2,790-nm Erbium:YSGG Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Rhie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG laser differs from other laser techniques by having a faster and higher cure rate. Since the Er:YSGG laser causes an appropriate proportion of ablation and coagulation, it has advantages over the conventional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser and the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser, including heating tendencies and explosive vaporization. This research was conducted to explore the effects and safety of the Er:YSGG laser.MethodsTwenty patients participated in the pilot study of a resurfacing system using a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. All patients received facial treatment by the 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser system (Cutera twice with a 4-week interval. Wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture were measured.ResultsStudy subjects included 15 women and five men. Re-epithelization occurred in all subjects 3 to 4 days after treatment, and wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture within 6 months of treatment.ConclusionsThe 2,790-nm YSGG laser technique had fewer complications and was effective in the improvement of scars, pores, wrinkles, and skin tone and color with one or two treatments. We expect this method to be effective for people with acne scars, pore scars, deep wrinkles, and uneven skin texture and color.

  15. A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, T; Yan, F P; Li, Q; Peng, W J; Tan, S Y; Feng, S C; Wen, X D; Liu, P

    2013-01-01

    We report the configuration and operation of a wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a stable and high optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) laser output. A narrow-band fiber Bragg grating (NBFBG), a FBG-based Fabry–Perot (FP) filter, a polarization controller (PC) and an unpumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as a saturable absorber (SA) are employed to realize stable single frequency lasing operation. An all-fiber polarizer (AFP) is introduced to suppress mode hopping and ensure the single polarization mode operation. By adjusting the length of the NBFBG using a stress adjustment module (SAM), four stable single frequency and single polarization laser outputs at wavelengths of 1544.946, 1545.038, 1545.118 and 1545.182 nm are obtained. At room temperature, performance with an OSNR of larger than 60 dB, power fluctuation of less than 0.04 dB, wavelength variation of less than 0.01 nm for about 5 h measurement, and degree of polarization (DOP) of close to 100% has been experimentally demonstrated for the fiber laser operating at these four wavelengths. (paper)

  16. Transverse UV-laser irradiation-induced defects and absorption in a single-mode erbium-doped optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortech, B.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Meunier, J. P.; Girard, S.; Van Uffelen, M.; Berghmans, F.; Regnier, E.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.

    2009-01-01

    Near UV-visible absorption coefficients of an erbium-doped optical fiber were investigated through an original technique based on a transverse cw UV-laser irradiation operating at 244 nm. Such irradiation leads to the generation of a quite intense guided luminescence signal in near UV spectral range. This photoluminescence probe source combined with a longitudinal translation of the fiber sample (at a constant velocity) along the UV-laser irradiation, presents several major advantages: (i) we bypass and avoid the procedures classically used to study the radiation induced attenuation which are not adapted to our case mainly because the samples present a very strong absorption with significant difficulties due to the injection of adequate UV-light levels in a small fiber diameter: (ii) the influence of the laser irradiation on the host matrix of the optical fiber is directly correlated to the evolution of the generated photoluminescence signal and (iii) in our experimental conditions, short fiber sample lengths (typically 20-30 cm) suffice to determine the associated absorption coefficients over the entire studied spectral domain. The generated photoluminescence signal is also used to characterize the absorption of the erbium ions in the same wavelength range with no cut-back method needed. (authors)

  17. Ablative Fractional 10 600 nm Carbon Dioxide Laser Versus Non-ablative Fractional 1540 nm Erbium-Glass Laser in Egyptian Post-acne Scar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L; Ibrahim, Shady M; Saudi, Wael

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Non-ablative fractional erbium-doped glass 1540 nm and fractional ablative 10600 nm carbon dioxide lasers are regarded as effective modalities for treating acne atrophic scars. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of fractional CO 2 laser and fractional nonablative 1540 nm erbium doped glass laser in treating post acne atrophic scars in Egyptian patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients complaining of moderate and severe acne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 2 groups of 29 patients each. Both groups were subjected to 4 treatment sessions with 3 weeks interval and were followed up for 3 months. In group A, enrolled patient sreceived C2 laser, while in group B, patients were treated with 1540 nm erbium glass fractional laser. Results: Clinical assessment revealed that the mean grades of progress and improvement were higher with fractional 10600 nm CO2 laser but with non-significant difference between both treatments ( P = 0.1). The overall patients' satisfaction with both lasers were not significantly different ( P = 0.44). Conclusion: Both fractional ablative CO2 and fractional non-ablative erbium glass lasers are good modalities for treating acne scars with a high efficacy and safety profile and good patient satisfaction. The fractional ablative laser showed higher efficacy while non-ablative laser offered less pain and shorter downtime.

  18. Low coordinated mononuclear erbium(iii) single-molecule magnets with C3v symmetry: a method for altering single-molecule magnet properties by incorporating hard and soft donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Nakanishi, Ryo; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2018-01-02

    Structures and magnetic characteristics of two three-coordinate erbium(iii) compounds with C 3v geometry, tris(2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresolate)erbium, Er(dbpc) 3 (1) and tris(bis(trimethylsilyl)methyl)erbium, Er(btmsm) 3 (2), were determined. Both underwent temperature-dependent slow magnetic relaxation processes in the absence of an external magnetic field. As a result of the differences in the coordination environment, they exhibit different energy barriers and quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) constants.

  19. Crystalline perfection and mechanical investigations on vertical Bridgman grown Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) single crystals for thermoelectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, Anuj [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Vijayan, N., E-mail: nvijayan@nplindia.org [X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Budhendra [TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department and Aveiro Institute of Nanotechnology (AIN), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Thukral, Kanika [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR- National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Maurya, K.K. [X-ray Analysis and Crystal Growth Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-03-07

    High efficiency thermoelectric materials plays a vital role in power generation and refrigeration applications. Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) is one among them. In the present work single crystal of bismuth telluride was grown using vertical Bridgman technique. The phase of grown crystals was analysed using a powder X-ray diffractometer. Quality of the grown crystal was assessed by using high resolution X-ray diffractometer and observed that it is fairly good. Further mechanical investigations on grown crystal was carried out using nano-indentation technique and various mechanical properties like hardness, stiffness and Young’s modulus were evaluated. Observed results clearly indicate its suitability for thermoelectric applications.

  20. Influence of the radiation type on properties of silicon doped by erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazyrov, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: It is known that on effectiveness of formation and kinetics of annealing of radiation damages presence causing, uncontrollable electrical of fissile or inactive impurities, the concentration and position in a lattice of the semiconductor strongly influence. From this point of view, the impurities of group of rare earths elements (REE) represent major interest, since interacting with primary radiation imperfections they create electrical passive complexes such as 'impurity + defect', thus raising radiation stability of silicon. The purpose of sectional operation was the investigations of influence such as radiation exposures: in γ-quanta 60 Co and high-velocity electrons with an energy 3,5 MeV on properties of silicon doped REE-erbium. The doping of silicon REE was carried out during cultivation. The concentration REE in silicon, on sectional of a neutron-activation analysis was equaled 10 14 10 18 cm -3 . As control is model the monocrystalline silicon such as KEP-15 50 was investigation. The experimental outcomes are obtained through methods DLTS, IRC, and also at examination of a Hall effect and conductance is model, measuring of concentration optically active of centers of oxygen and carbon. In samples irradiated in the γ-quanta 60 Co in an interval of doses 10 16 -5·10 18 cm -2 and high-velocity electrons from 5·10 13 up to 10 18 el.·cm -2 the formation various DL in a forbidden region is revealed, which parameters are well-known A- and, E-centres etc. Depending on a radiation dose in an energy distribution of radiation imperfections in Si of essential concentration modifications is not observed. The comparison doses of associations detected DL in irradiated n-Si with similar associations in control samples shows, that a velocity of introduction of radiation imperfections (A- and E-centres) and imperfection with a deep level Ec-0,32 eV) in samples containing REE much lower, than in control samples. The lifetime of non-equilibrium charge carriers

  1. Ag-tellurides at the site Treibolc near the village Hodrusa-Hamre; Ag-teluridy na lokalite Treibolc pri obci Hodrusa-Hamre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, J [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra mineralogie a petrologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Ag-tellurides were described in association with galenite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and bornite samples during examining hydrothermal mineralization of Stiavnica stratovolcano (Hodrusa-Hamre settlement) in heavily silicified sediments of Permian age. They were found and confirmed by WDS analysis. Their presence on the site is very unique with no economic use. Paragenesis originated at 250-270 grad C in the presence of fluid and zero salinity. (authors)

  2. Er2O3 coating by reactive magnetron sputtering: Effect of oxygen supply and erbium pre-layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Rayjada

    2016-12-01

    The film grows in mixed phase of cubic and monoclinic structures when erbium metal pre-layer is deposited on the P91 steel substrate and in pure monoclinic phase in absence of the pre-layer. Post annealing seems to partially convert monoclinic into cubic phase in the mixed phase coating. Better crystallization and slightly more surface roughness is observed in the sample processed with higher oxygen to argon ratio. DC resistivity is found in 1015Ω*cm range and it is marginally more in the sample processed with more oxygen. The spectroscopic ellipsometry on these films to obtain optical dielectric properties gives encouraging results in terms of close match of the thickness and roughness values with those obtained from SEM and AFM respectively. Systematic study of optical dielectric property suggests a trend consistent with DC resistivity.

  3. A nonuniform-polarization high-energy ultra-broadband laser with a long erbium-doped fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Dong

    2013-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated nonuniformly polarized broadband high-energy pulses delivered from a mode-locked laser with an ultra-long erbium-doped fiber (EDF). The pulses exhibit a broadband spectrum of ∼73 nm and can avoid optical wave breaking at high-pump regimes. The polarization states of the pulses evolve from uniform to nonuniform at each round trip in the oscillator, which is distinct from other pulses. Remarkably, the output pulses broaden in anomalous- or normal-dispersion regimes while they can be shortened with an EDF amplifier external to the cavity. Our results suggest that the long EDF results in a nonuniform-polarization state and plays a decisive role in the formation of high-energy pulses. (paper)

  4. Femtosecond laser direct writing of gratings and waveguides in high quantum efficiency erbium-doped Baccarat glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnubhatla, K C; Kumar, R Sai Santosh; Rao, D Narayana; Rao, S Venugopal; Osellame, R; Ramponi, R; Bhaktha, S N B; Mattarelli, M; Montagna, M; Turrell, S; Chiappini, A; Chiasera, A; Ferrari, M; Righini, G C

    2009-01-01

    The femtosecond laser direct writing technique was employed to inscribe gratings and waveguides in high quantum efficiency erbium-doped Baccarat glass. Using the butt coupling technique, a systematic study of waveguide loss with respect to input pulse energy and writing speed was performed to achieve the best waveguide with low propagation loss (PL). By pumping at 980 nm, we observed signal enhancement in these active waveguides in the telecom spectral region. The refractive index change was smooth and we estimated it to be ∼10 -3 . The high quantum efficiency (∼80%) and a best PL of ∼0.9 dB cm -1 combined with signal enhancement makes Baccarat glass a potential candidate for application in photonics.

  5. Enhanced local piezoelectric response in the erbium-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zamiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure and erbium (Er doped ZnO nanostructures were prepared by simple and cost effective wet chemical precipitation method. The successful doping with phase purity of prepared ZnO nanostructure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and their Rietveld analysis. The change in structural morphology of nanoscale features of prepared ZnO nanopowders on Er doping was observed from their scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The presence of Er in prepared ZnO nanopowder was further confirmed from corresponding energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX spectra of scanned SEM images. Piezoelectric properties of before (green samples and after sintering of consolidated compact of synthesized nanopowders were successfully measured. The out-of-plane (effective longitudinal and in-plane (effective shear coefficients of the samples were estimated from the local piezoresponse.

  6. Stable Dual-Wavelength Fibre Laser with Bragg Gratings Fabricated in a Polarization-Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wang; Feng-Ping, Yan; Xiang-Qiao, Mao; Shui-Sheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    A new polarization-independent dual-wavelength fibre laser by fabricating a uniform FBG and a chirped FBG in a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre (PM-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The wavelength spacing is 0.18nm and the optical signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 50dB with pump power of 246mW. Chirped FBG is used to make the reflectivity wavelengths of two PM-FBGs match easier. Since both EDF and FBGs are polarization-maintaining without splices and the two wavelengths are polarization-independent, the maximum amplitude variation and wavelength shifts for both lasing wavelength with 3-min intervals over a period of six hours are less than 0.2 dB and 0.005 nm, respectively, which shows stable dual-wavelength output

  7. Modelling of illuminated current–voltage characteristics to evaluate leakage currents in long wavelength infrared mercury cadmium telluride photovoltaic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Vishnu; Qiu, WeiCheng; Hu, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The current–voltage characteristics of long wavelength mercury cadmium telluride infrared detectors have been studied using a recently suggested method for modelling of illuminated photovoltaic detectors. Diodes fabricated on in-house grown arsenic and vacancy doped epitaxial layers were evaluated for their leakage currents. The thermal diffusion, generation–recombination (g-r), and ohmic currents were found as principal components of diode current besides a component of photocurrent due to illumination. In addition, both types of diodes exhibited an excess current component whose growth with the applied bias voltage did not match the expected growth of trap-assisted-tunnelling current. Instead, it was found to be the best described by an exponential function of the type, I excess  = I r0  + K 1 exp (K 2 V), where I r0 , K 1 , and K 2 are fitting parameters and V is the applied bias voltage. A study of the temperature dependence of the diode current components and the excess current provided the useful clues about the source of origin of excess current. It was found that the excess current in diodes fabricated on arsenic doped epitaxial layers has its origin in the source of ohmic shunt currents. Whereas, the source of excess current in diodes fabricated on vacancy doped epitaxial layers appeared to be the avalanche multiplication of photocurrent. The difference in the behaviour of two types of diodes has been attributed to the difference in the quality of epitaxial layers

  8. Growth of Bi doped cadmium zinc telluride single crystals by Bridgman oscillation method and its structural, optical, and electrical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcelen, V.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; Dieguez, E.; Hidalgo, P.

    2010-01-01

    The II-VI compound semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is very useful for room temperature radiation detection applications. In the present research, we have successfully grown Bi doped CZT single crystals with two different zinc concentrations (8 and 14 at. %) by the Bridgman oscillation method, in which one experiment has been carried out with a platinum (Pt) tube as the ampoule support. Pt also acts as a cold finger and reduces the growth velocity and enhances crystalline perfection. The grown single crystals have been studied with different analysis methods. The stoichiometry was confirmed by energy dispersive by x-ray and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analyses and it was found there is no incorporation of impurities in the grown crystal. The presence of Cd and Te vacancies was determined by cathodoluminescence studies. Electrical properties were assessed by I-V analysis and indicated higher resistive value (8.53x10 8 Ω cm) for the crystal grown with higher zinc concentration (with Cd excess) compare to the other (3.71x10 5 Ω cm).

  9. A simple fast microwave-assisted synthesis of thermoelectric bismuth telluride nanoparticles from homogeneous reaction-mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Susmita [Jadavpur University, Department of Instrumentation Science (India); Das, Rashmita [Jadavpur University, Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering (India); Bhar, Radhaballabh [Jadavpur University, Department of Instrumentation Science (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Jadavpur University, Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering (India); Pramanik, Panchanan, E-mail: pramanik1946@gmail.com [GLA University, Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience (India)

    2017-02-15

    A new simple chemical method for synthesis of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) has been developed by microwave assisted reduction of homogeneous tartrate complexes of bismuth and tellurium metal ions with hydrazine. The reaction is performed at pH 10. The nano-crystallites have rhombohedral phase identified by XRD. The size distribution of nanoparticle is narrow and it ranges between 50 to 70 nm. FESEM shows that the fine powders are composed of small crystallites. The TEM micrographs show mostly deformed spherical particles and the lattice fringes are found to be 0.137 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis shows the atomic composition ratio between bismuth and tellurium is 2:3. Thermoelectric properties of the materials are studied after sintering by spark plasma sintering method (SPS). The grain size of the material after sintering is in the nanometer range. The material shows enhanced Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity value at 300 K. The figure of merit is found to be 1.18 at 300 K.

  10. Templated growth of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) nanowires using pulsed-potentials in hot non-aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, T.; Raja, K.S.; Misra, M.

    2006-01-01

    A single step non-aqueous electrodeposition of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) nanowires on nanoporous TiO 2 substrate was investigated under pulsed-potential conditions. Propylene carbonate was used as the non-aqueous medium. Cyclic voltammogram studies were carried out to understand the growth mechanism of CZT. EDAX and XRD measurements indicated formation of a compound semiconductor with a stoichiometry of Cd 1-x Zn x Te, where x varied between 0.04 and 0.2. Variation of the pulsed-cathodic potentials could modulate the composition of the CZT. More negative cathodic potentials resulted in increased Zn content. The nanowires showed an electronic band gap of about 1.6 eV. Mott-Schottky analyses indicated p-type semiconductor properties of both as-deposited and annealed CZT materials. Increase in Zn content increased the charge carrier density. Annealing of the deposits resulted in lower charge carrier densities, in the order of 10 15 cm -3

  11. Comparison of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride semiconductor and Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite scintillator as photon detectors for epithermal neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Perelli-Cippo, E.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The range of applications of epithermal neutron scattering experiments has been recently extended by the development of the Resonance Detector. In a Resonance Detector, resonant neutron absorption in an analyzer foil results in prompt emission of X- and γ-rays which are detected by a photon counter. Several combinations of analyzer foils and photon detectors have been studied and tested over the years and best results have been obtained with the combination of a natural uranium and (i) Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) semiconductor (ii) Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite (YAP) scintillators. Here we compare the performance of the CZT semiconductor and YAP scintillator as Resonance Detector units. Two Resonance Detector prototypes made of natural uranium foil viewed by CZT and YAP were tested on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The results show that both YAP and CZT can be used to detect epithermal neutrons in the energy range from 1 up to 66 eV. It was found that the signal-to-background ratio of the measurement can significantly be improved by raising the lower level discrimination threshold on the γ energy to about 600 keV. The advantages/disadvantages of the choice of a Resonance Detector based on YAP or CZT are discussed together with some potential applications

  12. CsAg{sub 5}Te{sub 3}: a new metal-rich telluride with a unique tunnel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Li [Rutgers Univ., Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chem.; Hongyou, Guo [Rutgers Univ., Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chem.; Xiang, Zhang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kanatzidis, M G [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-02-15

    The synthesis and structure of a new ternary silver telluride, CsAg{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, is described. The compound was prepared from a Cs{sub 2}Te-CaTe-Te flux but it can also be prepared from a direct combination of Cs{sub 2}Te and Ag{sub 2}Te under vacuum at 600 C. The crystal data for CsAg{sub 5}Te{sub 3} at 20 C (Mo K{alpha} radiation) are as follows: a=14.672(2) A and c=4.601(3) A; V=990.5(8) A{sup 3}; Z=4; D{sub calc}=7.075 g cm{sup -3}; space group, P4{sub 2} /mnm (No. 136); 2{theta}{sub max}=50 ; number of independent data collected, 572; number of data observed with I>3{sigma}(I), 267; number of variables, 32; {mu}=218.51 cm{sup -1}; extinction coefficient, 0.585x10{sup -7}; final R=0.040; R{sub w}=0.046; goodness of fit, 1.42. The compound features a new structure type with Cs{sup +}-filled, relatively large tunnels running through the lattice. The material is a semiconductor with a band gap of about 0.65 eV. ((orig.))

  13. Synthesis, characterization and enhanced thermoelectric performance of structurally ordered cable-like novel polyaniline–bismuth telluride nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Krishanu; Mitra, Mousumi; Banerjee, Dipali; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    Bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) nanorods and polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles have been synthesized by employing solvothermal and chemical oxidative processes, respectively. Nanocomposites, comprising structurally ordered PANI preferentially grown along the surface of a Bi 2 Te 3 nanorods template, are synthesized using in situ polymerization. X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis and Raman spectral analysis confirm the highly ordered chain structure of PANI on Bi 2 Te 3 nanorods, leading to a higher extent of doping, higher chain mobility and enhancement of the thermoelectric performance. Above 380 K, the PANI–Bi 2 Te 3 nanocomposite with a core–shell/cable-like structure exhibits a higher thermoelectric power factor than either pure PANI or Bi 2 Te 3 . At room temperature the thermal conductivity of the composite is lower than that of its pure constituents, due to selective phonon scattering by the nanointerfaces designed in the PANI–Bi 2 Te 3 nanocable structures. The figure of merit of the nanocomposite at room temperature is comparable to the values reported in the literature for bulk polymer-based composite thermoelectric materials. (paper)

  14. Bismuth telluride topological insulator nanosheet saturable absorbers for q-switched mode-locked Tm:ZBLAN waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiantao; Gross, Simon; Withford, Michael J.; Fuerbach, Alexander [Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) and MQ Photonics Research Centre, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie Univ., NSW (Australia); Zhang, Han; Guo, Zhinan [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Centre for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Key Lab. of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen Univ. (China)

    2016-08-15

    Nanosheets of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}), a topological insulator material that exhibits broadband saturable absorption due to its non-trivial Dirac-cone like energy structure, are utilized to generate short pulses from Tm:ZBLAN waveguide lasers. By depositing multiple layers of a carefully prepared Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} solution onto a glass substrate, the modulation depth and the saturation intensity of the fabricated devices can be controlled and optimized. This approach enables the realization of saturable absorbers that feature a modulation depth of 13% and a saturation intensity of 997 kW/cm{sup 2}. For the first time to our knowledge, Q-switched mode-locked operation of a linearly polarized mid-IR ZBLAN waveguide chip laser was realized in an extended cavity configuration using the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The maximum average output power of the laser is 16.3 mW and the Q-switched and mode-locked repetition rates are 44 kHz and 436 MHz, respectively. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Diagnostic performance of a novel cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera system assessed using fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Chikamori, Taishiro; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Hida, Satoshi; Igarashi, Yuko; Yamashita, Jun; Ogawa, Masashi; Shiba, Chie; Usui, Yasuhiro; Yamashina, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Although the novel cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) camera system provides excellent image quality, its diagnostic value using thallium-201 as assessed on coronary angiography (CAG) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) has not been validated. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the CZT ultrafast camera system (Discovery NM 530c), 95 patients underwent stress thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and then CAG within 3 months. Image acquisition was performed in the supine and prone positions after stress for 5 and 3 min, respectively, and in the supine position at rest for 10 min. Significant stenosis was defined as ≥90% diameter narrowing on visual estimation, or a lesion with <90% and ≥50% stenosis and FFR ≤0.75. To detect individual coronary stenosis, the respective sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 90%, 64%, and 78% for left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, 78%, 84%, and 81% for left circumflex stenosis, and 83%, 47%, and 60% for right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis. The combination of prone and supine imaging had a higher specificity for RCA disease than supine imaging alone (65% vs. 47%), with an improvement in accuracy from 60% to 72%. Using thallium-201 with short acquisition time, combined with prone imaging, CZT SPECT had a high diagnostic yield in detecting significant coronary stenosis as assessed using FFR.

  16. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted

  17. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J. [O' Brien and Gere, Ecological Sciences, E. 512 Township Line Road, Two Valley Square, Suite 120, Blue Bell, PA 19422 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted. (author)

  18. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  19. 1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W Q; Wang, P F; Ran, G Z; Ma, G L; Zhang, B R; Liu, W M; Wu, S K; Dai, L; Qin, G G

    2006-01-01

    By doping an erbium complex, erbium (III) 2, 4-pentanedionate (Er(acac) 3 ), into the ALQ layer, we fabricate a series of infrared emission organic light emitting diodes (OLED) with structures of p-Si/SiO 2 /NPB/ALQ/ ALQ:Er(acac) 3 /ALQ/Sm/Au, where p-Si is the anode and Sm/Au is the cathode. The 1.54 μm emission from Er 3+ is observed. The impact of doping level of Er(acac) 3 in ALQ on 1.54 μm electroluminescence (EL) intensity is studied, and the best mass ratio of Er(acac) 3 to ALQ is found at 1:60. A competitive EL mechanism from the ALQ and Er(acac) 3 is found and the Er 3+ ions excitations are attributed to energy transfer from the ligands to Er ions

  20. Tunable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser employing a CMFBG filter and saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Suchun; Lu, Shaohua; Peng, Wanjing; Li, Qi; Feng, Ting; Jian, Shuisheng

    2013-04-01

    A tunable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber ring laser is proposed and demonstrated. For the first time as we know, a chirped moiré fiber Bragg grating (CMFBG) filter with ultra-narrow transmission band and a uniform fiber Bragg grating (UFBG) are used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The stable SLM operation of the fiber laser is guaranteed by the combination of the CMFBG filter and 3 m unpumped erbium-doped fiber acting as a saturable absorber. The single polarization operation of the fiber laser is obtained by using an inline broadband polarizer. A tuning range of about 0.7 nm with about 0.1 nm step is achieved by stretching the uniform FBG.

  1. Evaluation of safety requirements of erbium laser equipment used in dentistry; Avaliacao de requisitos de seguranca de um equipamento a laser de erbio para fins odontologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Flavio Hamilton

    2002-07-01

    The erbium laser (Er:YAG) has been used in several therapeutic processes. Erbium lasers, however, operate with energies capable to produce lesions in biological tissues. Aiming the safe use, the commercialization of therapeutic laser equipment is controlled in Brazil, where the equipment should comply with quality and safety requirement prescribed in technical regulations. The objective of this work is to evaluate the quality and safety requirements of a commercial therapeutic erbium laser according to Brazilian regulations, and to discuss a risk control program intended to minimize the accidental exposition at dangerous laser radiation levels. It was verified that the analyzed laser can produce lesions in the skin and eyes, when exposed to laser radiation at distances smaller than 80 cm by 10 s or more. In these conditions, the use of protection glasses is recommended to the personnel that have access to the laser operation ambient. It was verified that the user's training and the presence of a target indicator are fundamental to avoid damages in the skin and buccal cavity. It was also verified that the knowledge and the correct use of the equipment safety devices, and the application of technical and administrative measures is efficient to minimize the risk of dangerous expositions to the laser radiation. (author)

  2. Evaluation of erbium:YAG and holmium:YAG laser radiation and dental hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, David Cameron

    Lasers have become increasingly established in medicine as effective alternatives or adjuncts to conventional techniques. In dentistry, several clinical laser systems have been developed and marketed, but their applications have been limited to soft tissue surgery. To date, no laser has been capable of effectively cutting or modifying the highly mineralised dental tissues of enamel and dentine. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new laser systems for use in dentistry through a series of in vitro experiments. Both generic erbium and holmium lasers have theoretically superior operating characteristics over currently established lasers for applications with dental hard tissues. The two lasers investigated in this study were pulsed Er:YAG (lambda=2.94) a.m. and Cr-Tm-Ho:YAG (lambda=2.1mu.m). Both operated with a macropulse duration of approximately 200lambdas, at pulse repetition rates of 2-8Hz and mean pulse energies up to 230mJ. Radiation was focused using CaF[2] lenses (f=50-120mm). The lasers could be operated with or without the addition of a surface water film at the interaction site. Tissue removal efficiency was expressed as a latent heat of ablation (LHA, kJ/cm[3]) using a modification of the technique described by Charlton et al. (1990). The mean LHA's for the Er:YAG laser were 6.24kJ/cm[3] and 22.99kJ/cm[3] with dentine and enamel respectively without water, and 10.07kJ/cm[3] and 18.73kJ/cm[3] for dentine and enamel with water. The Cr-Tm-Ho:YAG laser was unable to effectively remove enamel at the fluences and pulse energies available; the mean LHA's for the Cr-Tm- Ho:YAG laser with dentine were 82.79kJ/cm3 and 57.57kJ/cm3 with and without water respectively. The Cr-Tm-Ho;YAG was approximately 8-9 times less efficient for tissue removal than the Er:YAG system. Er:YAG tissue removal with water was characterised by clean "surgical" cuts, comparable in histological appearance to those obtained using conventional instrumentation. Some thermal disruption

  3. Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.B.; Lund, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Yoon, H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The material showing the greatest promise today for production of large-volume gamma-ray spectrometers operable at room temperature is cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Unfortunately, because of deficiencies in the quality of the present material, high-resolution CZT spectrometers have thus far been limited to relatively small dimensions, which makes them inefficient at detecting high photon energies and ineffective for weak radiation signals except in near proximity. To exploit CZT fully, it will be necessary to make substantial improvements in the material quality. Improving the material involves advances in the purity, crystallinity, and control of the electrical compensation mechanism. Sandia National Laboratories, California, in close collaboration with US industry and academia, has initiated efforts to develop a detailed understanding of the underlying material problems limiting the performance of large volume gamma-ray spectrometers and to overcome them through appropriate corrections therein. A variety of analytical and numerical techniques are employed to quantify impurities, compositional and stoichiometric variations, crystallinity, strain, bulk and surface defect states, carrier mobilities and lifetimes, electric field distributions, and contact chemistry. Data from these measurements are correlated with spatial maps of the gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopic response to determine improvements in the material purification, crystal growth, detector fabrication, and surface passivation procedures. The results of several analytical techniques will be discussed. The intended accomplishment of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-efficiency CZT spectrometer with an active volume of 5 cm{sup 3} and energy resolution of 1--2% (at 662 keV), which would give the US a new field capability for screening radioactive substances.

  4. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles; Djaballah, Wassila; Fourquet, Nicolas; Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique; Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique; Imbert, Laetitia; Poussier, Sylvain; Fay, Renaud; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving 201 Tl (n = 120) or 99m Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ( 99m Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ( 99m Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, 201 Tl 92 %, 99m Tc-Low 86 %, 99m Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p 201 Tl or 99m Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 ± 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 ± 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  5. Comparison between stress myocardial perfusion SPECT recorded with cadmium-zinc-telluride and Anger cameras in various study protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, Antoine; Karcher, Gilles [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Djaballah, Wassila [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Fourquet, Nicolas [Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (France); Rouzet, Francois; Le Guludec, Dominique [AP-HP, Hopital Bichat, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); INSERM U 773 Inserm and Denis Diderot University, Paris (France); Koehl, Gregoire; Roch, Veronique [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Imbert, Laetitia [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Centre Alexis Vautrin, Department of Radiotherapy, Vandoeuvre (France); Poussier, Sylvain [INSERM U947, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); Fay, Renaud [INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique CIC-P 9501, Nancy (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [CHU-Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); INSERM U961, Nancy (France); Hopital de Brabois, CHU-Nancy, Medecine Nucleaire, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-03-15

    The results of stress myocardial perfusion SPECT could be enhanced by new cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras, although differences compared to the results with conventional Anger cameras remain poorly known for most study protocols. This study was aimed at comparing the results of CZT and Anger SPECT according to various study protocols while taking into account the influence of obesity. The study population, which was from three different institutions equipped with identical CZT cameras, comprised 276 patients referred for study using protocols involving {sup 201}Tl (n = 120) or {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi injected at low dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-Low; stress/rest 1-day protocol; n = 110) or at high dose at stress ({sup 99m}Tc-High; rest/stress 1-day or 2-day protocol; n = 46). Each Anger SPECT scan was followed by a high-speed CZT SPECT scan (2 to 4 min). Agreement rates between CZT and Anger SPECT were good irrespective of the study protocol (for abnormal SPECT, {sup 201}Tl 92 %, {sup 99m}Tc-Low 86 %, {sup 99m}Tc-High 98 %), although quality scores were much higher for CZT SPECT with all study protocols. Overall correlations were high for the extent of myocardial infarction (r = 0.80) and a little lower for ischaemic areas (r = 0.72), the latter being larger on Anger SPECT (p < 0.001). This larger extent was mainly observed in 50 obese patients who were in the {sup 201}Tl or {sup 99m}Tc-Low group and in whom stress myocardial counts were particularly low with Anger SPECT (228 {+-} 101 kcounts) and dramatically enhanced with CZT SPECT (+279 {+-} 251 %). Concordance between the results of CZT and Anger SPECT is good regardless of study protocol and especially when excluding obese patients who have low-count Anger SPECT and for whom myocardial counts are dramatically enhanced on CZT SPECT. (orig.)

  6. Myocardial perfusion imaging with a cadmium zinc telluride-based gamma camera versus invasive fractional flow reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouden, Mohamed [Isala klinieken, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Isala klinieken, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Timmer, Jorik R. [Isala klinieken, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Knollema, Siert; Reiffers, Stoffer; Oostdijk, Ad H.J.; Jager, Pieter L. [Isala klinieken, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zwolle (Netherlands); Boer, Menko-Jan de [University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Department of Cardiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Recently introduced ultrafast cardiac SPECT cameras with cadmium zinc telluride-based (CZT) detectors may provide superior image quality allowing faster acquisition with reduced radiation doses. Although the level of concordance between conventional SPECT and invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement has been studied, that between FFR and CZT-based SPECT is not yet known. Therefore, we aimed to assess the level of concordance between CZT SPECT and FFR in a large patient group with stable coronary artery disease. Both invasive FFR and myocardial perfusion imaging with a CZT-based SPECT camera, using Tc-tetrofosmin as tracer, were performed in 100 patients with stable angina and intermediate grade stenosis on invasive coronary angiography. A cut-off value of <0.75 was used to define abnormal FFR. The mean age of the patients was 64 ± 11 years, and 64 % were men. SPECT demonstrated ischaemia in 31 % of the patients, and 20 % had FFR <0.75. The concordance between CZT SPECT and FFR was 73 % on a per-patient basis and 79 % on a per-vessel basis. Discordant findings were more often seen in older patients and were mainly (19 %) the result of ischaemic SPECT findings in patients with FFR ≥0.75, whereas only 8 % had an abnormal FFR without ischaemia as demonstrated by CZT SPECT. Only 20 - 30 % of patients with intermediate coronary stenoses had significant ischaemia as assessed by CZT SPECT or invasive FFR. CZT SPECT showed a modest degree of concordance with FFR, which is comparable with previous results with conventional SPECT. Further investigations are particularly necessary in patients with normal SPECT and abnormal FFR, especially to determine whether these patients should undergo revascularization. (orig.)

  7. Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.B.; Lund, J.; Yoon, H.

    1997-01-01

    The material showing the greatest promise today for production of large-volume gamma-ray spectrometers operable at room temperature is cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Unfortunately, because of deficiencies in the quality of the present material, high-resolution CZT spectrometers have thus far been limited to relatively small dimensions, which makes them inefficient at detecting high photon energies and ineffective for weak radiation signals except in near proximity. To exploit CZT fully, it will be necessary to make substantial improvements in the material quality. Improving the material involves advances in the purity, crystallinity, and control of the electrical compensation mechanism. Sandia National Laboratories, California, in close collaboration with US industry and academia, has initiated efforts to develop a detailed understanding of the underlying material problems limiting the performance of large volume gamma-ray spectrometers and to overcome them through appropriate corrections therein. A variety of analytical and numerical techniques are employed to quantify impurities, compositional and stoichiometric variations, crystallinity, strain, bulk and surface defect states, carrier mobilities and lifetimes, electric field distributions, and contact chemistry. Data from these measurements are correlated with spatial maps of the gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopic response to determine improvements in the material purification, crystal growth, detector fabrication, and surface passivation procedures. The results of several analytical techniques will be discussed. The intended accomplishment of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-efficiency CZT spectrometer with an active volume of 5 cm 3 and energy resolution of 1--2% (at 662 keV), which would give the US a new field capability for screening radioactive substances

  8. Acetic acid-confined synthesis of uniform three-dimensional (3D) bismuth telluride nanocrystals consisting of few-quintuple-layer nanoplatelets

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Qiang; Radar, Kelly; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    High-selectivity, uniform three-dimensional (3D) flower-like bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanocrystals consisting of few-quintuple-layer nanoplatelets with a thickness down to 4.5 nm were synthesized for the first time by a facile, one-pot polyol method with acetic acid as the structure-director. Micrometre-sized 2D films and honeycomb-like spheres can be obtained using the uniform 3D Bi2Te3 nanocrystals as building blocks. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  9. The effect of erbium on the adsorption and photodegradation of orange I in aqueous Er3+-TiO2 suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Chunhua; Hou Meifang; Zhou Shungui; Li Fangbai; Liu Chengshuai; Liu Tongxu; Gao Yuanxue; Wang Xugang; Lue Jialong

    2006-01-01

    Pure TiO 2 and erbium ion-doped TiO 2 (Er 3+ -TiO 2 ) catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method were characterized by means of XRD and diffusive reflectance spectra (DRS). The XRD results showed that erbium ion doping could enhance the thermal stability of TiO 2 and inhibit the increase of the crystallite size, and the DRS results showed that the optical absorption edge slightly shifted to red direction owing to erbium ion doping and the Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalysts had three typical absorption peaks located at 490, 523 and 654 nm owing to the transition of 4f electron from 4 I 15/2 to 4 F 7/2 , 2 H 11/2 and 4 F 9/2 . With a purpose of azo dyes degradation, orange I was used as a model chemical. And the adsorption isotherm, degradation and mineralization of orange I were investigated in aqueous suspension of pure TiO 2 or Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalysts. The results showed that Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalysts had higher adsorption equilibrium constants and better adsorption capacity than pure TiO 2 . The adsorption equilibrium constants (K a ) of Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalysts were about twice of that of pure TiO 2 . The maximum adsorption capacity (Q max ) of 2.0% Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalyst was 13.08 x 10 -5 mol/g, which was much higher than that of pure TiO 2 with 9.03 x 10 -5 mol/g. Among Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalysts, 2.0% Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalyst achieved the highest Q max and K a values. The kinetics of the orange I degradation using different Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalysts were also studied. The results demonstrated that the degradation and mineralization of orange I under both UV radiation and visible light were more efficient with Er 3+ -TiO 2 catalyst than with pure TiO 2 , and an optimal dosage of erbium ion at 1.5% achieved the highest degradation rate. The higher photoactivity under visible light might be attributable to the transitions of 4f electrons of Er 3+ and red shifts of the optical absorption edge of TiO 2 by erbium ion doping

  10. Erbium/ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier, its applications and effects in fiber optic communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Puneit

    Increased demand for larger bandwidth and longer inter-amplifiers distances translates to higher power budgets for fiber optic communication systems in order to overcome large splitting losses and achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios. Due to their unique design ytterbium sensitized erbium doped, double clad fiber amplifiers; offer significant increase in the output powers that can be obtained. In this thesis we investigate, a one-stage, high power erbium and ytterbium co-doped double clad fiber amplifier (DCFA) with output power of 1.4W, designed and built in our lab. Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation techniques have been used to systematically study the applications of such an amplifier and the effects of incorporating it in various fiber optic communication systems. Amplitude modulated subcarrier multiplexed (AM-SCM) CATV distribution experiment has been performed to verify the feasibility of using this amplifier in an analog/digital communication system. The applications of the amplifier as a Fabry-Perot and ring fiber laser with an all-fiber cavity, a broadband supercontinuum source and for generation of high power, short pulses at 5GHz have been experimentally demonstrated. A variety of observable nonlinear effects occur due to the high intensity of the optical powers confined in micron-sized cores of the fibers, this thesis explores in detail some of these effects caused by using the high power Er/Yb double clad fiber amplifier. A fiber optic based analog/digital CATV system experiences composite second order (CSO) distortion due to the interaction between the gain tilt---the variation of gain with wavelength, of the doped fiber amplifier and the wavelength chirp of the directly modulated semiconductor laser. Gain tilt of the Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifier has been experimentally measured and its contribution to the CSO of the system calculated. Theoretical analysis of a wavelength division multiplexed system with closely spaced

  11. Modification of the electronic properties of As2Se3 films by erbium using ion-plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhodko, O.Yu.; Sarsembinov, Sh.Sh.; Ryaguzov, A.P.; Maksimova, S.Ya.; Chuprynin, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    At present one of the vital problems of semiconductor materials studies is production of new light emitting materials for fiber optics, namely for light-emitting diode, emitting at room temperature in the range of minimum absorption of quartz optic fiber. It is well-known that heterostructures based on amorphous semiconductors, containing large concentrations of rare-earth elements have such properties. The method of ion-plasma co-sputtering (IPCM) of the original and doping materials allows us to obtain amorphous semiconductor films with large impurity concentration. This method was used to produce amorphous films of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (ChVS), doped with impurities of different chemical nature. But the capability of IPCM for ChVS doping with rare-earth elements has not been studied well yet. Therefore it is interesting to obtain amorphous films of arsenic selenide doped with erbium using IPCM and study its electronic properties. The films were produced using high frequency (13.56 MHz) ion-plasma co-sputtering of combined target of vitreous As 2 Se 3 and a metal. The sputtering of the target was conducted in argon atmosphere. Er concentration in the films varied between 0 and 4 atomic percent. Amorphism of the structure of the obtained films was monitored using X-ray diffraction methods. Electrical and optical properties of Er-doped As 2 Se 3 films and the charge carrier transportation processes were studied. It was determined that doped films significantly differ from the pure ones in the values of main electronic parameters: conductivity, energy activation of conductivity, optical band-gap, drift mobility of electrons and holes and mobility activation energy. Note that common rules of change of electronic parameters of As 2 Se 3 films affected by Er doping agree with the rules, established during modification of As 2 Se 3 films with dopes of transition metals with incomplete 3d-shell (Fe, Ni). Analysis of the obtained results showed that doing

  12. Estudo comparativo das alterações histológicas imediatas causadas pelo uso do laser de CO2 e do laser de erbium na pele de ratos wistar Comparative study of histopathological abnormalities induced by CO2 and erbium laser on the skin of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Noronha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar, do ponto de vista anatomopatológico, os efeitos térmicos encontrados na pele de ratos wistar após a aplicação do laser de CO2 e do laser erbium. Utilizaram-se oito ratos submetidos a tricotomia em toda a região toracodorsal. Selecionaram-se duas áreas separadas, as quais receberam a aplicação do laser. Na primeira foram realizadas duas passadas do laser de CO2 e na segunda, duas passadas do laser erbium. A área-controle correspondeu àquela imediatamente adjacente à área submetida ao laser. A análise microscópica da lesão causada pelo laser de CO2 revela lesão em forma de U, com ablação completa da epiderme em toda a sua extensão. A derme superficial apresenta degeneração do colágeno, correspondendo ao dano térmico residual, e a transição deste para a derme normal é bem demarcada. Na pele lesada com laser erbium observa-se também extensa área de pele lesada em forma de platô, com algumas pequenas áreas de pele não-lesada. Pode-se observar, ainda, dano do colágeno na derme superficial, porém mais discreto que aquele causado pelo CO2.The aim of this paper is to analyses the histopathology of the termal effects on the skin of Wistar rats after the application of CO2 and erbium laser. Eight rats had their flanks shaved and two areas were selected for the use of the laser. The first area received two applications of CO2 laser, and the second area two applications of the erbium laser. The skin adjacent to the laser application site was used as a control area. The microscopic analysis of the injury caused by CO2 laser revealed a complete ablation of epidermis and an injury that looked like an "U" in shape. The superficial dermis presented a degeneration of the collagen that corresponded to the residual thermal injury, to normal dermis was sharply demarcated. The injury caused by erbium laser was observed as a plateau injured area with a few small normal areas. The collagen

  13. Large-scale synthesis of lead telluride (PbTe) nanotube-based nanocomposites with tunable morphology, crystallinity and thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kee-Ryung; Cho, Hong-Baek; Song, Yoseb; Kim, Seil; Kwon, Young-Tae; Ryu, Seung Han; Lim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Woo-Jin; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2018-04-01

    A few millimeter-long lead telluride (PbTe) hollow nanofibers with thermoelectric properties was synthesized for the first time with high through manner via three-step sequential process of electrospinning, electrodeposition and cationic exchange reaction. As-synthesized electrospun Ag nanofibers with ultra-long aspect ratio of 10,000 were Te electrodeposited to obtain silver telluride nanotubes and underwent cationic exchange reaction in Pb(NO3)2 solution to obtain polycrystalline PbTe nanotubes with average diameter of 100 nm with 20 nm of wall thickness. Variation of the Ag-to-Pb ratio in the AgxTey-PbTe nanocomposites during the cationic exchange reaction enabled to control the thermoelectric properties of resulting 1D hollow nanofibers. The diameter of Ag nanofiber is the key factor to determine the final dimension of the PbTe nanotubes in the topotactic transformation and the content of Ag ion leads to the enhancement of thermoelectric properties in the AgxTey-PbTe nanocomposites. The synthesized 1D nanocomposite mats showed the highest value of Seebeck coefficient of 433 μV/K (at 300 K) when the remained Ag content was 30%, while the power factor reached highest to 0.567 μW/mK2 for the pure PbTe nanotubes. The enhancement of thermoelectric properties and the composite crystallinity are elucidated with relation to Ag contents in the resulting 1D nanocomposites.

  14. Polymorphic one-dimensional (N2H4)2ZnTe: soluble precursors for the formation of hexagonal or cubic zinc telluride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B

    2005-10-03

    Two hydrazine zinc(II) telluride polymorphs, (N2H4)2ZnTe, have been isolated, using ambient-temperature solution-based techniques, and the crystal structures determined: alpha-(N2H4)2ZnTe (1) [P21, a = 7.2157(4) Angstroms, b = 11.5439(6) Angstroms, c = 7.3909(4) Angstroms, beta = 101.296(1) degrees, Z = 4] and beta-(N2H4)2ZnTe (2) [Pn, a = 8.1301(5) Angstroms, b = 6.9580(5) Angstroms, c = 10.7380(7) Angstroms, beta = 91.703(1) degrees, Z = 4]. The zinc atoms in 1 and 2 are tetrahedrally bonded to two terminal hydrazine molecules and two bridging tellurium atoms, leading to the formation of extended one-dimensional (1-D) zinc telluride chains, with different chain conformations and packings distinguishing the two polymorphs. Thermal decomposition of (N2H4)2ZnTe first yields crystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) ZnTe at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C, followed by the more stable zinc blende (cubic) form at temperatures above 350 degrees C. The 1-D polymorphs are soluble in hydrazine and can be used as convenient precursors for the low-temperature solution processing of p-type ZnTe semiconducting films.

  15. Nonlinear Polarization Rotation-Based Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Three Switchable Operation States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiu Zian Cheak; Tan Sin Jin; Zarei Arman; Ahmad Harith; Harun Sulaiman Wadi

    2014-01-01

    A simple mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with three switchable operation states is proposed and demonstrated based on nonlinear polarization rotation. The EDFL generates a stable square pulse at a third harmonic pulse repetition rate of 87 kHz as the 1480 nm pump power increases from the threshold of 17.5 mW to 34.3 mW. The square pulse duration increases from 105 ns to 245 ns as the pump power increases within this region. The pulse operation switches to the second operation state as the pump power is varied from 48.2 mW to 116.7 mW. The laser operates at a fundamental repetition rate of 29 kHz with a fixed pulse width of 8.5 μs within the pump power region. At a pump power of 116.7 mW, the average output power is 3.84 mW, which corresponds to the pulse energy of 131.5 nJ. When the pump power continues to increase, the pulse train experiences unstable oscillation before it reaches the third stable operation state within a pump power region of 138.9 mW to 145.0 mW. Within this region, the EDFL produces a fixed pulse width of 2.8 μs and a harmonic pulse repetition rate of 58 kHz. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  16. Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser at 1600 nm for photoacoustic imaging application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Zhonglie [Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Beckman Laser Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92612 (United States); Zeng, Lvming; Chen, Zhongping, E-mail: z2chen@uci.edu, E-mail: ckim@pusan.ac.kr [Beckman Laser Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92612 (United States); Kim, Chang-Seok, E-mail: z2chen@uci.edu, E-mail: ckim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-04

    We present a nanosecond Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser system operating at 1600 nm with a tunable repetition rate from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. A compact fiber coupled, acousto-optic modulator-based EDF ring cavity was used to generate a nanosecond seed laser at 1600 nm, and a double-cladding EDF based power amplifier was applied to achieve the maximum average power of 250 mW. In addition, 12 ns laser pulses with the maximum pulse energy of 2.4 μJ were obtained at 100 kHz. Furthermore, the Stokes shift by Raman scattering over a 25 km long fiber was measured, indicating that the laser can be potentially used to generate the high repetition rate pulses at the 1.7 μm region. Finally, we detected the photoacoustic signal from a human hair at 200 kHz repetition rate with a pulse energy of 1.2 μJ, which demonstrates that a Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser can be a promising light source for the high speed functional photoacoustic imaging.

  17. Generation and characterization of erbium-Raman noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Hernandez, H; Pottiez, O; Paez-Aguirre, R; Ibarra-Villalon, H E; Tenorio-Torres, A; Duran-Sanchez, M; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Kuzin, E A; Hernandez-Garcia, J C

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental study of the noise-like pulses generated by a ∼300 m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser. Non-self-starting mode locking yields the formation of ns scale bunches of sub-ps pulses. Depending on birefringence adjustments, noise-like pulses with a variety of temporal profiles and optical spectra are obtained. In particular, for some adjustments the Raman-enhanced spectrum reaches a 10 dB bandwidth of ∼130 nm. For the first time to our knowledge, we extract information on the inner structure of the noise-like pulses, using a birefringent Sagnac interferometer as a spectral filter and a nonlinear optical loop mirror as an intensity filter. In particular we show that the different spectral components of the bunch are homogeneously distributed within the temporal envelope of the bunch, whereas the amplitude and/or the density of the sub-pulses present substantial variations along the envelope. In some cases, the analysis reveals the existence of an intermediate level of organization in the structure of the noise-like pulse, between the ns bunch and the sub-ps inner pulses, suggesting that these objects may be even more complex than previously recognized. (paper)

  18. Carbon dioxide laser versus erbium:YAG laser in treatment of epidermal verrucous nevus: a comparative randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mai Abdel Raouf; Kassab, Ahmed Nazmi

    2017-08-01

    A verrucous epidermal nevus (VEN) is a skin disorder that has been treated using different treatment modalities with varying results. Ablative lasers such as carbon dioxide laser (CO 2 ) and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser have been considered as the gold standard for the treatment of epidermal nevi. To evaluate and compare the efficacy, postoperative wound healing and side effects of pulsed CO 2 laser and Er:YAG laser for the treatment of verrucous epidermal nevi. Twenty patients with localized VEN were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was administered CO 2 laser and group 2 underwent Er:YAG laser treatment. A blinded physician evaluated the photographs and dermoscopic photomicrographs for the efficacy and possible side effects. All patients received one treatment session and were followed up over a 6-month period. Both lasers induced noticeable clinical improvement, but there were no significant differences between two lasers in treatment response, patient satisfaction, duration of erythema and side effects. The average time to re-epithelialization was 13.5 days with CO 2 and 7.9 days with Er:YAG laser (plaser group and no lesional recurrence was detected in CO 2 laser group since treatment. Apart from re-epithelialization, both lasers showed equivalent outcomes with respect to treatment response, patient satisfaction, side effects and complications.

  19. Optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with hybrid mode-locking and a broad tunable range of repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-12-01

    We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02  K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.

  20. Tunable erbium-doped fiber laser based on optical fiber Sagnac interference loop with angle shift spliced polarization maintaining fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenming; Wang, Zhaokun; Zhao, Chunliu; Wang, Dongning

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a tunable erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with Sagnac interference loop with 45° angle shift spliced polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). In the Sagnac loop, two PMFs with similar lengths. The Sagnac loop outputs a relatively complex interference spectrum since two beams transmitted in clockwise and counterclockwise encounter at the 3 dB coupler, interfere, and form two interference combs when the light transmitted in the Sagnac loop. The laser will excite and be stable when two interference lines in these two interference combs overlap together. Then by adjusting the polarization controller, the wide wavelength tuning is realized. Experimental results show that stable single wavelength laser can be realized in the wavelength range of 1585 nm-1604 nm under the pump power 157.1 mW. The side-mode suppression ratio is not less than 53.9 dB. The peak power fluctuation is less than 0.29 dB within 30 min monitor time and the side-mode suppression ratio is great than 57.49 dB when the pump power is to 222.7 mW.

  1. Femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on MoS2-PVA saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Latiff, A. A.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-08-01

    We fabricate a free-standing few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-polymer composite by liquid phase exfoliation of chemically pristine MoS2 crystals and use this to demonstrate a soliton mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). A stable self-started mode-locked soliton pulse is generated by fine-tuning the rotation of the polarization controller at a low threshold pump power of 25 mW. Its solitonic behavior is verified by the presence of Kelly sidebands in the output spectrum. The central wavelength, pulse width, and repetition rate of the laser are 1573.7 nm, 630 fs, and 27.1 MHz, respectively. The maximum pulse energy is 0.141 nJ with peak power of 210 W at pump power of 170 mW. This result contributes to the growing body of work studying the nonlinear optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides that present new opportunities for ultrafast photonic applications.

  2. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered ZBLAN fiber with a standard Erbium mode-locked fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Moselund, Peter M.; Bang, Ole

    2013-01-01

    to generate a broadband SC using direct pumping with commercially available Erbium (Er) mode-locked fiber lasers at 1550 nm. Formation of SC is manipulated both in the UV and IR by changing the fiber dispersion and nonlinearity using tapers. This has been much studied in various silica fiber designs...... and is now also becoming used in ZBLAN [2], and other soft glasses such as chalcogenide [3] and tellurite [4]. The aim of this nummerical work is to show how pumping tapered commercially available ZBLAN fibers with an Er mode-locked fiber laser can generate a broadband SC approaching the ZBLAN long....... commercially available), core diameter Dc=7 μm, and ZDW=1.5 μm, is pumped with TFWHM=10 ps and P0=10 kW pulses from an Er mode-locked laser with a 40 MHz repetition rate and 4W average power. The resulting MIR SC seen in Fig. 1(b) is based on Modulation Instability breakup of the pump pulse, which generates...

  3. Generation of Q-Switched Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Operating in Dark Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiu, Zian Cheak; Zarei, Arman; Ahmad, Harith; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a stable Q-switched mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) operating in dark regime based on the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. The EDFL produces a pulse train where the Q-switching envelope is formed by multiple dark pulses. The repetition rate of the Q-switched envelope can be increased from 0.96 kHz to 3.26 kHz, whereas the pulse width reduces from 211 μs to 86 μs. The highest pulse of 479 nJ is obtained at the pump power of 55 mW. It is also observed that the dark pulses inside the Q-switching envelope consist of two parts: square and trailing dark pulses. The shortest pulse width of the dark square pulse is obtained at 40.5 μs when the pump power is fixed at 145 mW. The repetition rate of trailing dark pulses can be increased from 27.62 kHz to 50 kHz as the pump power increases from 55 mW to 145 mW. (paper)

  4. Fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-assisted drug delivery of hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ashraf M; Osman, Mai Abdelraouf

    2018-01-01

    Background Melasma is a difficult-to-treat hyperpigmentary disorder. Ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted delivery of topically applied drugs to varied targets in the skin has been an area of ongoing study and research. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser as an assisted drug delivery for enhancing topical hydroquinone (HQ) permeation into the skin of melasma patients. Patients and methods Thirty female patients with bilateral melasma were randomly treated in a split-face controlled manner with a fractional Er:YAG laser followed by 4% HQ cream on one side and 4% HQ cream alone on the other side. All patients received six laser sessions with a 2-week interval. The efficacy of treatments was determined through photographs, dermoscopic photomicrographs and Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) score, all performed at baseline and at 12 weeks of starting therapy. The patient’s level of satisfaction was also recorded. Results Er:YAG laser + HQ showed significantly better results (plaser + HQ side vs HQ side. Minor reversible side effects were observed on both sides. Conclusion AFL-assisted delivery of HQ is a safe and effective method for the treatment of melasma. PMID:29379308

  5. Cadmium Manganese Telluride (Cd1-xMnxTe): A potential material for room-temperature radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, A.; Cui, Y.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Yang, G.; Kim, K-H.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Li, L.; Mycielski, A.; and James, R.B.

    2010-07-11

    Cadmium Manganese Telluride (CdMnTe) recently emerged as a promising material for room-temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors. It offers several potential advantages over CdZnTe. Among them is its optimal tunable band gap ranging from 1.7-2.2 eV, and its relatively low (< 50%) content of Mn compared to that of Zn in CdZnTe that assures this favorable band-gap range. Another important asset is the segregation coefficient of Mn in CdTe that is approximately unity compared to 1.35 for Zn in CdZnTe, so ensuring the homogenous distribution of Mn throughout the ingot; hence, a large-volume stoichiometric yield is attained. However, some materials issues primarily related to the growth process impede the production of large, defect-free single crystals. The high bond-ionicity of CdMnTe entails a higher propensity to crystallize into a hexagonal structure rather than to adopt the expected zinc-blend structure, which is likely to generate twins in the crystals. In addition, bulk defects generate in the as-grown crystals due to the dearth of high-purity Mn, which yields a low-resistivity material. In this presentation, we report on our observations of such material defects in current CdMnTe materials, and our evaluation of its potential as an alternative detector material to the well-known CdZnTe detectors. We characterized the bulk defects of several indium- and vanadium-doped Cd1-xMnxTe crystals by using several advanced techniques, viz., micro-scale mapping, white-beam x-ray diffraction/reflection topography, and chemical etching. Thereafter, we fabricated some detectors from selected CdMnTe crystals, characterized their electrical properties, and tested their performance as room-temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors. Our experimental results indicate that CdMnTe materials could well prove to become a viable alternative in the near future.

  6. Carrier Transport, Recombination, and the Effects of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Films for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Mohit

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), a chalcogenide semiconductor, is currently used as the absorber layer in one of the highest efficiency thin film solar cell technologies. Current efficiency records are over 22%. In 2011, CdTe solar cells accounted for 8% of all solar cells installed. This is because, in part, CdTe has a low degradation rate, high optical absorption coefficient, and high tolerance to intrinsic defects. Solar cells based on polycrystalline CdTe exhibit a higher short-circuit current, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency than their single crystal counterparts. This is despite the fact that polycrystalline CdTe devices exhibit lower open-circuit voltages. This is contrary to the observation for silicon and III-V semiconductors, where material defects cause a dramatic drop in device performance. For example, grain boundaries in covalently-bonded semiconductors (a) act as carrier recombination centers, and (b) lead to localized energy states, causing carrier trapping. Despite significant research to date, the mechanism responsible for the superior current collection properties of polycrystalline CdTe solar cells has not been conclusively answered. This dissertation focuses on the macro-scale electronic band structure, and micro scale electronic properties of grains and grain boundaries in device-grade CdTe thin films to answer this open question. My research utilized a variety of experimental techniques. Samples were obtained from leading groups fabricating the material and devices. A CdCl 2 anneal is commonly performed as part of this fabrication and its effects were also investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to study the band structure and defect states in CdTe polycrystals. Cadmium vacancy- and chlorine-related states lead to carrier recombination, as in CdTe films grown by other methods. Comparing polycrystalline and single crystal CdTe, showed that the key to explaining the improved performance of polycrystalline CdTe does

  7. Design study of a high-resolution breast-dedicated PET system built from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2010-01-01

    We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography (PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed system consists of two 4 cm thick 12 x 15 cm 2 area cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) panels with adjustable separation, which can be put in close proximity to the breast and/or axillary nodes. Unique characteristics distinguishing the proposed system from previous efforts in breast-dedicated PET instrumentation are the deployment of CZT detectors with superior spatial and energy resolution, using a cross-strip electrode readout scheme to enable 3D positioning of individual photon interaction coordinates in the CZT, which includes directly measured photon depth-of-interaction (DOI), and arranging the detector slabs edge-on with respect to incoming 511 keV photons for high photon sensitivity. The simulation results show that the proposed CZT dual-panel PET system is able to achieve superior performance in terms of photon sensitivity, noise equivalent count rate, spatial resolution and lesion visualization. The proposed system is expected to achieve ∼32% photon sensitivity for a point source at the center and a 4 cm panel separation. For a simplified breast phantom adjacent to heart and torso compartments, the peak noise equivalent count (NEC) rate is predicted to be ∼94.2 kcts s -1 (breast volume: 720 cm 3 and activity concentration: 3.7 kBq cm -3 ) for a ∼10% energy window around 511 keV and ∼8 ns coincidence time window. The system achieves 1 mm intrinsic spatial resolution anywhere between the two panels with a 4 cm panel separation if the detectors have DOI resolution less than 2 mm. For a 3 mm DOI resolution, the system exhibits excellent sphere resolution uniformity (σ rms /mean) ≤ 10%) across a 4 cm width FOV. Simulation results indicate that the system exhibits superior hot sphere visualization and is expected to visualize 2 mm diameter spheres with a 5:1 activity concentration ratio within

  8. Diaroyl Tellurides: Synthesis, Structure and NBO Analysis of (2-MeOC6H4CO2Te – Comparison with Its Sulfur and Selenium Isologues. The First Observation of [MgBr][R(C=TeO] Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Ando

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of aromatic diacyl tellurides were prepared in moderate to good yields by the reactions of sodium orpotassium arenecarbotelluroates with acyl chlorides in acetonitrile. X-ray structure analyses and theoretical calculations of 2-methoxybenzoic anhydride and bis(2-methoxybenzoyl sulfide, selenide and telluride were carried out. The two 2-MeOC6H4CO moieties of bis(2-methoxybenzoyl telluride are nearly planar and the two methoxy oxygen atoms intramolecularly coordinate to the central tellurium atom from both side of C(11-Te(11-C(22 plane. In contrast, the oxygen and sulfur isologues (2-MeOC6H4CO2E (E = O, S, show that one of the two methoxy oxygen atoms contacts with the oxygen atom of the carbonyl group connected to the same benzene ring. The structure of di(2-methoxybenzoyl selenide which was obtained by MO calculation resembles that of tellurium isologues rather than the corresponding oxygen and sulfur isologues. The reactions of di(aroyl tellurides with Grignard reagents lead to the formation of tellurocarboxylato magnesium complexes [MgBr][R(C=TeO].

  9. Switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser utilizing a dual-ring scheme with a saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Yao-Jen; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output. Here, a dual-ring (DR) structure with an unpumped EDF of 2 m is designed to achieve SLM oscillation. Five fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are applied in the laser cavity serving as the reflective element to generate different dual-wavelength outputs. In the measurement, six sets of generated dual-wavelengths with various mode-spacing (Δλ) can be achieved via the five FBGs. Additionally, the stability performance of the proposed EDF DR laser is also demonstrated.

  10. AFM observation of OMVPE-grown ErP on InP substrates using a new organometal tris(ethylcyclopentadienyl)erbium (Er(EtCp)3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akane, T.; Jinno, S.; Yang, Y.; Kuno, T.; Hirata, T.; Isogai, Y.; Watanabe, N.; Fujiwara, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Takeda, Y.

    2003-01-01

    ErP has been grown on InP(0 0 1) substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) using a new liquid organic Er source: tris(ethylcyclopentadienyl)erbium (Er(EtCp) 3 ). Morphological change of an ErP layer on InP(0 0 1) is investigated together with that of an overgrown capping InP layer. Optimum growth condition of InP causes islanding on over-monolayer-ErP. A relatively low overgrowth temperature of InP is a key factor for attaining complete capping coverage on ErP

  11. Short-wavelength multiline erbium-doped fiber ring laser by a broadband long-period fiber grating inscribed in a taper transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzueto-Sánchez, G; Martínez-Rios, A

    2014-01-01

    A stable multiwavelength all-fiber erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) based on a broadband long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed in a fiber taper transition is presented. The LPFG’s characteristics were engineered to provide a higher loss at the natural lasing wavelength of the laser cavity. The LPFG inscribed on a taper transition provided a depth greater than 25 dB, and posterior chemical etching provided a broad notch band to inhibit laser generation on the long-wavelength side of the EDF gain. Up to four simultaneous laser wavelengths are generated in the range of 1530–1535 nm. (paper)

  12. Growth and Characterization of (211)B Cadmium Telluride Buffer Layer Grown by Metal-organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy on Nanopatterned Silicon for Mercury Cadmium Telluride Based Infrared Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintri, Shashidhar S.

    Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT or Hg1-xCdxTe) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is presently the material of choice for fabricating infrared (IR) detectors used in night vision based military applications. The focus of MCT epitaxy has gradually shifted since the last decade to using Si as the starting substrate since it offers several advantages. But the ˜19 % lattice mismatch between MCT and Si generates lots of crystal defects some of which degrade the performance of MCT devices. Hence thick CdTe films are used as buffer layers on Si to accommodate the defects. However, growth of high quality single crystal CdTe on Si is challenging and to date, the best MBE CdTe/Si reportedly has defects in the mid-105 cm -2 range. There is a critical need to reduce the defect levels by at least another order of magnitude, which is the main motivation behind the present work. The use of alternate growth technique called metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) offers some advantages over MBE and in this work MOVPE has been employed to grow the various epitaxial films. In the first part of this work, conditions for obtaining high quality (211)B CdTe epitaxy on (211)Si were achieved, which also involved studying the effect of having additional intermediate buffer layers such as Ge and ZnTe and incorporation of in-situ thermal cyclic annealing (TCA) to reduce the dislocation density. A critical problem of Si cross-contamination due to 'memory effect' of different reactant species was minimized by introducing tertiarybutylArsine (TBAs) which resulted in As-passivation of (211)Si. The best 8-10 µm thick CdTe films on blanket (non-patterned) Si had dislocations around 3×105 cm-2, which are the best reported by MOVPE till date and comparable to the highest quality films available by MBE. In the second part of the work, nanopatterned (211)Si was used to study the effect of patterning on the crystal quality of epitaxial CdTe. In one such study, patterning of ˜20 nm holes in SiO2

  13. Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y-H; Lin, G-R

    2012-01-01

    The free-standing graphite nano-particle located between two FC/APC fiber connectors is employed as the saturable absorber to passively mode-lock the ring-type Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). The host-solvent-free graphite nano-particles with sizes of 300 – 500 nm induce a comparable modulation depth of 54%. The interlayer-spacing and lattice fluctuations of polished graphite nano-particles are observed from the weak 2D band of Raman spectrum and the azimuth angle shift of –0.32 ° of {002}-orientation dependent X-ray diffraction peak. The graphite nano-particles mode-locked EDFL generates a 1.67-ps pulsewidth at linearly dispersion-compensated regime with a repetition rate of 9.1 MHz. The time-bandwidth product of 0.325 obtained under a total intra-cavity group-delay-dispersion of –0.017 ps 2 is nearly transform-limited. The extremely high stability of the nano-scale graphite saturable absorber during mode-locking is observed at an intra-cavity optical energy density of 7.54 mJ/cm 2 . This can be attributed to its relatively high damage threshold (one order of magnitude higher than the graphene) on handling the optical energy density inside the EDFL cavity. The graphite nano-particle with reduced size and sufficient coverage ratio can compete with other fast saturable absorbers such as carbon nanotube or graphene to passively mode-lock fiber lasers with decreased insertion loss and lasing threshold

  14. Efficacy and safety of Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet fractional resurfacing laser for treatment of facial acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of acne scars with ablative fractional laser resurfacing has given good improvement. But, data on Indian skin are limited. A study comparing qualitative, quantitative, and subjective assessments is also lacking. Aim: Our aim was to assess the improvement of facial acne scars with Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG 2940 nm fractional laser resurfacing and its adverse effects in 25 patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: All 25 patients received four treatment sessions with Er:YAG fractional laser at 1-month interval. The laser parameters were kept constant for each of the four sittings in all patients. Qualitative and quantitative assessments were done using Goodman and Barron grading. Subjective assessment in percentage of improvement was also documented 1 month after each session. Photographs were taken before each treatment session and 1 month after the final session. Two unbiased dermatologists performed independent clinical assessments by comparing the photographs. The kappa statistics was used to monitor the agreement between the dermatologists and patients. Results: Most patients (96% showed atleast fair improvement. Rolling and superficial box scars showed higher significant improvement when compared with ice pick and deep box scars. Patient′s satisfaction of improvement was higher when compared to physician′s observations. No serious adverse effects were noted with exacerbation of acne lesions forming the majority. Conclusion: Ablative fractional photothermolysis is both effective and safe treatment for atrophic acne scars in Indian skin.Precise evaluation of acne scar treatment can be done by taking consistent digital photographs.

  15. Performance of Erbium-doped TiO2 thin film grown by physical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Rini; Ghosh, Anupam; Dwivedi, Shyam Murli Manohar Dhar; Chakrabartty, Shubhro; Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2017-09-01

    Undoped and Erbium-doped TiO2 thin films (Er:TiO2 TFs) were fabricated on the n-type Si substrate using physical vapour deposition technique. Field emission scanning electron microscope showed the morphological change in the structure of Er:TiO2 TF as compared to undoped sample. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the Er doping in the TiO2 thin film (TF). The XRD and Raman spectrum showed the presence of anatase phase TiO2 and Er2O3 in the Er:TiO2 TF. The Raman scattering depicted additional number of vibrational modes for Er:TiO2 TF due to the presence of Er as compared to the undoped TiO2 TF. The UV-Vis absorption measurement showed that Er:TiO2 TF had approximately 1.2 times more absorption over the undoped TiO2 TF in the range of 300-400 nm. The main band transition, i.e., the transition between the oxygen (2p) state and the Ti (3d) state was obtained at 3.0 eV for undoped TiO2 and at 3.2 eV for Er:TiO2 TF, respectively. The photo responsivity measurement was done on both the detectors, where Er:TiO2 TF detector showed better detectivity ( D *), noise equivalent power and temporal response as compared to undoped detector under ultra-violet illumination.

  16. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after acid-etched and erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-etched

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laser ablation has been suggested as an alternative method to acid etching; however, previous studies have obtained contrasting results. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS and fracture mode of orthodontic brackets that are bonded to enamel etched with acid and erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, buccal surfaces of 15 non-carious human premolars were divided into mesial and distal regions. Randomly, one of the regions was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s and another region irradiated with Er:YAG laser at 100 mJ energy and 20 Hz frequency for 20 s. Stainless steel brackets were then bonded using Transbond XT, following which all the samples were stored in distilled water for 24 h and then subjected to 500 thermal cycles. SBS was tested by a chisel edge, mounted on the crosshead of universal testing machine. After debonding, the teeth were examined under Χ10 magnification and adhesive remnant index (ARI score determined. SBS and ARI scores of the two groups were then compared using t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Significant level was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean SBS of the laser group (16.61 ± 7.7 MPa was not significantly different from that of the acid-etched group (18.86 ± 6.09 MPa (P = 0.41. There was no significant difference in the ARI scores between two groups (P = 0.08. However, in the laser group, more adhesive remained on the brackets, which is not suitable for orthodontic purposes. Conclusion: Laser etching at 100 mJ energy produced bond strength similar to acid etching. Therefore, Er:YAG laser may be an alternative method for conventional acid-etching.

  17. Expanding rare-earth oxidation state chemistry to molecular complexes of holmium(II) and erbium(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Matthew R; Bates, Jefferson E; Fieser, Megan E; Ziller, Joseph W; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

    2012-05-23

    The first molecular complexes of holmium and erbium in the +2 oxidation state have been generated by reducing Cp'(3)Ln [Cp' = C(5)H(4)SiMe(3); Ln = Ho (1), Er (2)] with KC(8) in the presence of 18-crown-6 in Et(2)O at -35 °C under argon. Purification and crystallization below -35 °C gave isomorphous [(18-crown-6)K][Cp'(3)Ln] [Ln = Ho (3), Er (4)]. The three Cp' ring centroids define a trigonal-planar geometry around each metal ion that is not perturbed by the location of the potassium crown cation near one ring with K-C(Cp') distances of 3.053(8)-3.078(2) Å. The metrical parameters of the three rings are indistinguishable within the error limits. In contrast to Ln(2+) complexes of Eu, Yb, Sm, Tm, Dy, and Nd, 3 and 4 have average Ln-(Cp' ring centroid) distances only 0.029 and 0.021 Å longer than those of the Ln(3+) analogues 1 and 2, a result similar to that previously reported for the 4d(1) Y(2+) complex [(18-crown-6)K][Cp'(3)Y] (5) and the 5d(1) La(2+) complex [K(18-crown-6)(Et(2)O)][Cp″(3)La] [Cp″ = 1,3-(Me(3)Si)(2)C(5)H(3)]. Surprisingly, the UV-vis spectra of 3 and 4 are also very similar to that of 5 with two broad absorptions in the visible region, suggesting that 3-5 have similar electron configurations. Density functional theory calculations on the Ho(2+) and Er(2+) species yielded HOMOs that are largely 5d(z(2)) in character and supportive of 4f(10)5d(1) and 4f(11)5d(1) ground-state configurations, respectively.

  18. Comparative study of excimer and erbium:YAG lasers for ablation of structural components of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Shi, Wei-Qiang; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Miller, J. M.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the efficiency and thermal effect of a 135 ns pulsed-stretched XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) and a free-running Erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) with 200 microsecond(s) pulse duration for ablation of knee joint structures (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon and bone). The radiant exposure used for tissue ablation ranged from 2 to 15 J/cm2 for the XeCl excimer and from 33 to 120 J/cm2 for Er:YAG. The excimer and Er:YAG lasers were operated at 4 and 5 Hz respectively. The ablative laser energy was delivered to tissue through fibers. Ablation rates of soft tissues (hyaline and fibrous cartilage, tendon) varied from 8.5 to 203 micrometers /pulse for excimer and from 8.2 to 273 micrometers /pulse for Er:YAG lasers. Ablation rates of soft tissues are linearly dependent on the radiant exposure. Within the range of parameters tested all the tissues except the bone could be rapidly ablated by both lasers. Bone ablation was much less efficient, requiring 15 J/cm2 and 110 J/cm2 radiant exposure for excimer and Er:YAG lasers to ablate 9.5 and 8.2 micrometers tissue per pulse. However, excimer laser ablation produced less thermal damage in the tissues studied compared to Er:YAG at the same laser parameters. The authors conclude that both lasers are capable of efficient knee joint tissue ablation. XeCl excimer laser requires an order of magnitude less energy than Er:YAG laser for comparable tissue ablation.

  19. Outpatient erbium:YAG (2940 nm) laser treatment for snoring: a prospective study on 40 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi, Isabelle Fini; Parker, Steven; Bovis, Francesca; Benedicenti, Stefano; Amaroli, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Snoring is a sleep phenomenon due to the partial upper airway obstruction during sleep which causes vibration of the tissues of the rhino-oro-hypopharynx and less frequently the larynx. This study evaluated the use and effectiveness of the erbium:YAG 2940-nm laser as an adjunctive in providing treatment for patients suffering from chronic snoring-related sleep disorders. A prospective study of 40 consecutive patients with snoring and sleep disorders was performed, assessing data before and after three Er:YAG laser treatment sessions. During laser treatment, the pain was almost absent. There were no side effects, except a very mild sore throat in 1 out of 40 patients. The patient's evaluation of satisfaction of the results obtained after the treatments showed that 85% of cases were very satisfied, 5 patients (12.5%) reported being fairly satisfied with the treatment and only 1 subject (2.5%) was not satisfied. Mallampati, Friedman Tongue Position, and degree of O (oropharynx) at nose oropharynx hypopharynx and larynx classification were significantly decreased after the laser sessions. The decrease of Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale for loudness of snoring, waking up during sleep because of snoring, dry mouth on waking, and choking was all statistically significant. The incidence of dreaming during the night also raised significantly; 30/40 (75%) of cases perceived less tightness in their throat and better breathing after treatment. These results were stable at 20 months follow-up (14-24 q) in 72% of cases. Nonsurgical and non-invasive Er:YAG laser treatment demonstrated to be a valid procedure in reducing the loudness of snoring.

  20. and Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    INTRODUCTION. Semiconductor nanoparticles or Quantum Dots (QDs), in particular II-VI materials, have ... the study of structural, electronic transport and optical properties of Zn doped CdTe thin films, ...... Bhattacharya, S.K & Anjali, K. 2007.

  1. Nanolithography on mercury telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, Mathias Josef

    2015-01-01

    Topological insulators belong to a new quantum state of matter that is currently one of the most recognized research fields in condensed matter physics. Strained bulk HgTe and HgTe/HgCdTe quantum well structures are currently one of few topological insulator material systems suitable to be studied in transport experiments. In addition HgTe quantum wells provide excellent requirements for the conduction of spintronic experiments. A fundamental requirement for most experiments, however, is to reliably pattern these heterostructures into advanced nano-devices. Nano-lithography on this material system proves to be challenging because of inherent temperature limitations, its high reactivity with various metals and due to its properties as a topological insulator. The current work gives an insight into why many established semiconductor lithography processes cannot be easily transferred to HgTe while providing alternative solutions. The presented developments include novel ohmic contacts, the prevention of metal sidewalls and redeposition fences in combination with low temperature (80 C) lithography and an adapted hardmask lithography process utilizing a sacrificial layer. In addition we demonstrate high resolution low energy (2.5 kV) electron beam lithography and present an alternative airbridge gating technique. The feasibility of nano-structures on HgTe quantum wells is exemplarily verified in two separate transport experiments. We are first to realize physically etched quantum point contacts in HgTe/HgCdTe high mobility 2DEGs and to prove their controllability via external top-gate electrodes. So far quantum point contacts have not been reported in TI materials. However, these constrictions are part of many proposals to probe the nature of the helical quantum spin Hall edge channels and are suggested as injector and detector devices for spin polarized currents. To confirm their functionality we performed four-terminal measurements of the point contact conductance as a function of external gate voltage. Our measurements clearly exhibit quantized conductance steps in 2e"2/h, which is a fundamental characteristic of quantum point contacts. Furthermore we conducted measurements on the formation and control of collimated electron beams, a key feature to realize an all electrical spin-optic device. In a second study several of the newly developed lithography techniques were implemented to produce arrays of nano-wires on inverted and non-inverted HgTe quantum well samples. These devices were used in order to probe and compare the weak antilocalization (WAL) in these structures as a function of magnetic field and temperature. Our measurements reveal that the WAL is almost an order of magnitude larger in inverted samples. This observation is attributed to the Dirac-like dispersion of the energy bands in HgTe quantum wells. The described lithography has already been successfully implemented and adapted in several published studies. All processes have been optimized to guarantee a minimum effect on the heterostructure's properties and the sample surface, which is especially important for probing the topological surface states of strained HgTe bulk layers. Our developments therefore serve as a base for continuous progress to further establish HgTe as a topological insulator and give access to new experiments.

  2. Neocolagenização induzida pelo resurfacing com laser erbium:YAG isolado e associado a lifting cutâneo: estudo morfométrico comparativo em ratos Comparison of single erbium:YAG laser resurfacing to a combination with cutaneous lifting: a morphometric study of neocollagenization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Noronha

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diferente do lifting, cuja tração mecânica é a responsável pelo efeito clínico de rejuvenescimento sobre rugas profundas, a fibroplasia (ou neocolagenização é a responsável direta pelo resultado final da ação do laser sobre a pele com rugas superficiais, conferindo-lhe aparência mais jovem. O uso combinado dessas duas técnicas pode ser vantajoso, pois permite um resultado estético melhor com um único procedimento anestésico e cirúrgico em um curto período de recuperação. OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo morfométrico se propõe a avaliar se ocorre alguma alteração na espessura da fibroplasia induzida pelo resurfacing a laser erbium:YAG quando este se associa ao lifting cutâneo. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 50 ratos da linhagem Wistar, divididos em dois grupos de 25, sendo que o primeiro grupo foi submetido à aplicação exclusiva de laser erbium:YAG no dorso de cada animal e o outro sofreu a aplicação de laser Erbium: YAG combinada ao lifting, o qual foi representado, no animal de experimentação, por retalho cutâneo dorsal pediculado. A fibroplasia foi avaliada nos dois grupos com medidas morfométricas lineares realizadas após o sacrifício dos animais nos dias 14, 28, 56, 84 e 112 do pós-operatório. RESULTADO: Foi observado aumento da fibroplasia em ambos os grupos estudados, porém o crescimento do colágeno foi superior no grupo submetido à terapia isolada com laser Erbium: YAG. CONCLUSÃO: A espessura da fibroplasia induzida pelo resurfacing a laser Erbium: YAG foi influenciada pela associação de um segundo procedimento cirúrgico no mesmo tempo operatório, neste caso, o lifting cutâneo.INTRODUCTION: The fibroplasia is the responsible for the final aesthetic results induced by laser resurfacing upon skin with superficial wrinkles. On the other hand, the lifting is responsible for the deeper wrinkles removal, produced by mechanic results. The use of the combination of these two rejuvenation

  3. Structure data of elements and intermetallic phases. SubVol. B. Sulfides, selenides, tellurides. Pt. 1. Ag-Al-Cd-S. Cu-Te-Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwege, K H; Hellwege, A M [eds.; Eisenmann, B; Schaefer, H

    1986-01-01

    Volume III/14 'Structure data of elements and intermetallic phases' is a supplement to and extension of Volume III/6. Since the publication of III/6 in 1971 (considering original papers up to 1967), the amount of new information for these substances has increased rapidly. Therefore the data had to be divided into several parts. The first part, III/14b1, is presented herewith. In Volume III/6, simple sulfides, selenides and tellurides were treated together with the intermetallic phases. The data are compiled in the same way as in III/6: for each substance the space group, lattice constants, their dependence on temperature and pressure, and other information is listed in the tables. In several cases, mostly for solid solutions, diagrams are given which are added in a separate chapter. Original papers containing a complete structure analysis are referred to in the tables. (orig./GSCH).

  4. Pre-chemotherapy values for left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj

    2016-01-01

    age and both left and right ventricular volumes in women (r = -0.4, P right end systolic ventricular volume in men (r = -0.3, P = .001). CONCLUSION: A set of reference values for cardiac evaluation prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients without other known cardiopulmonary......BACKGROUND: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using equilibrium radionuclide angiography is an established method for assessment of left ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data on left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction......, using cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT camera. METHODS AND RESULTS: From routine assessments of left ventricular function in 1172 patients, we included 463 subjects (194 men and 269 women) without diabetes, previous potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, known cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. The lower...

  5. Thermochemical properties of silver tellurides including empressite (AgTe) and phase diagrams for Ag-Te and Ag-Te-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Mikhail V.; Osadchii, Evgeniy G.; Brichkina, Ekaterina A.

    2017-10-01

    This study compiles original experimental and literature data on the thermodynamic properties (ΔfG°, S°, ΔfH°) of silver tellurides (α-Ag2Te, β-Ag2Te, Ag1.9Te, Ag5Te3, AgTe) obtained by the method of solid-state galvanic cell with the RbAg4I5 and AgI solid electrolytes. The thermodynamic data for empressite (AgTe, pure fraction from Empress Josephine Mine, Colorado USA) have been obtained for the first time by the electrochemical experiment with the virtual reaction Ag + Te = AgTe. The Ag-Te phase diagrams in the T - x and log fTe2 (gas) - 1/ T coordinates have been refined, and the ternary Ag-Te-O diagrams with Ag-Te-TeO2 (paratellurite) composition range have been calculated.

  6. Molecular precursors for the phase-change material germanium-antimony-telluride, Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmgarth, Nicole; Zoerner, Florian; Engelhardt, Felix; Edelmann, Frank T. [Chemisches Institut, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg (Germany); Liebing, Phil [Laboratorium fuer Anorganische Chemie, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland); Burte, Edmund P.; Silinskas, Mindaugas [Institut fuer Mikro- und Sensorsysteme, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg (Germany)

    2017-10-04

    This review provides an overview of the precursor chemistry that has been developed around the phase-change material germanium-antimony-telluride, Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Thin films of GST can be deposited by employing either chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. In both cases, the success of the layer deposition crucially depends on the proper choice of suitable molecular precursors. Previously reported processes mainly relied on simple alkoxides, alkyls, amides and halides of germanium, antimony, and tellurium. More sophisticated precursor design provided a number of promising new aziridinides and guanidinates. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Formation and acceleration of uniformly filled ellipsoidal electron bunches obtained via space-charge-driven expansion from a cesium-telluride photocathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental generation, acceleration, and characterization of a uniformly filled electron bunch obtained via space-charge-driven expansion (often referred to as “blow-out regime” in an L-band (1.3-GHz radiofrequency photoinjector. The beam is photoemitted from a cesium-telluride semiconductor photocathode using a short (<200  fs ultraviolet laser pulse. The produced electron bunches are characterized with conventional diagnostics and the signatures of their ellipsoidal character are observed. We especially demonstrate the production of ellipsoidal bunches with charges up to ∼0.5  nC corresponding to a ∼20-fold increase compared to previous experiments with metallic photocathodes.

  8. Combined up conversion, down conversion and down shifting photo-luminescence of low cost erbium-ytterbium co-doped porous silicon produced by stain etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Herrera, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Linsun Power Technology (Quanzhou) Corp. Ltd. Co., Economic Development Zone, Jinjiang 362200, Fujian (China); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A. (ITER), Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, S/N, E38600, Granadilla de Abona (Spain); Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Velazquez, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Guerrero-Lemus, R., E-mail: rglemus@ull.es [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Programa Focus-Abengoa de Energia y Cambio Climaticoi, Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, erbium and ytterbium have been incorporated into luminescent porous silicon (PS) layers by simple impregnation of the PS substrate with a saturated nitrate solution of erbium and ytterbium. The photoluminescence of the co-doped rare earth layers have been evaluated. The doping process has been designed for its potential in silicon-based solar cell production, with the aim to improve the Shockley-Queisser limit with a reasonable cost effective method for the industry, which implies a significant enhancement of the efficiency under non-concentrated sunlight irradiation. The temperature and annealing time of the doping process were selected according to industry standards in order to ease a trial adoption. The composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to characterize the doping profile. Different up-conversion and down-conversion contributions from the rare earths in the visible and IR were detected, together with the down shifting effect of the stain etched PS. There is no evidence of energy transference between the PS matrix and the rare earths.

  9. Topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bo; Yao, Yong, E-mail: yaoyong@hit.edu.cn; Yang, Yan-Fu; Yuan, Yi-Jun; Wang, Rui-Lai [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wang, Shu-Guang; Ren, Zhong-Hua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Yan, Bo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-02-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a μm-scale topological insulator: Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/Polyvinyl Alcohol film as both an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking and a high-nonlinear medium to induce a giant third order optical nonlinear effect for mitigating the mode competition of erbium-doped fiber laser and stabilizing the multi-wavelength oscillation. By properly adjusting the pump power and the polarization state, the single-, dual-, triple-, four-wavelength mode-locking pulse could be stably initiated. For the four-wavelength operation, we obtain its pulse width of ∼22 ps and a fundamental repetition rate of 8.83 MHz. The fiber laser exhibits the maximum output power of 9.7 mW with the pulse energy of 1.1 nJ and peak power of 50 W at the pump power of 155 mW. Our study shows that the simple, stable, low-cost multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser could be applied in various potential fields, such as optical communication, biomedical research, and radar system.

  10. Dynamics of laser-induced channel formation in water and influence of pulse duration on the ablation of biotissue under water with pulsed erbium-laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ith, M.; Pratisto, H.; Altermatt, H. J.; Frenz, M.; Weber, H. P.

    1994-12-01

    The ability to use fiber-delivered erbium-laser radiation for non-contact arthroscopic meniscectomy in a liquid environment was studied. The laser radiation is transmitted through a water-vapor channel created by the leading part of the laser pulse. The dynamics of the channel formation around a submerged fiber tip was investigated with time-resolved flash photography. Strong pressure transients with amplitudes up to a few hundreds of bars measured with a needle hydrophone were found to accompany the channel formation process. Additional pressure transients in the range of kbars were observed after the laser pulse associated with the collapse of the vapor channel. Transmission measurements revealed that the duration the laser-induced channel stays open, and therefore the energy transmittable through it, is substantially determined by the laser pulse duration. The optimum pulse duration was found to be in the range between 250 and 350 µS. This was confirmed by histological evaluations of the laser incisions in meniscus: Increasing the pulse duration from 300 to 800 µs leads to a decrease in the crater depth from 1600 to 300 µm. A comparison of the histological examination after laser treatment through air and through water gave information on the influence of the vapor channel on the ablation efficiency, the cutting quality and the induced thermal damage in the adjacent tissue. The study shows that the erbium laser combined with an adequate fiber delivery system represents an effective surgical instrument liable to become increasingly accepted in orthopedic surgery.

  11. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pınar Gökdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er- doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO33·5H2O in vanadium (V oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH32]3 and titanium (IV isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH32]4. Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR, thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA, and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively.

  12. Modification of erbium photoluminescence decay rate due to ITO layers on thin films of SiO{sub 2}:Er doped with Si-nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdak, M., E-mail: m.wojdak@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Jayatilleka, H. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G4 (Canada); Shah, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Kenyon, A.J., E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Gourbilleau, F.; Rizk, R. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), ENSICAEN, CNRS, CEA/IRAMIS, Université de Caen, 14050 CAEN cedex (France)

    2013-04-15

    During the fabrication of MOS light emitting devices, the thin film of active material is usually characterized by photoluminescence measurements before electrical contacts are deposited. However, the presence of a conductive contact layer can alter the luminescent properties of the active material. The local optical density of states changes due to the proximity of luminescent species to the interface with the conductive medium (the top electrode), and this modifies the radiative rate of luminescent centers within the active layer. In this paper we report enhancement of the observed erbium photoluminescence rate after deposition of indium tin oxide contacts on thin films of SiO{sub 2}:Er containing silicon nanoclusters, and relate this to Purcell enhancement of the erbium radiative rate. -- Highlights: ► We studied photoluminescence of Er in SiO{sub 2} thin films doped with Si nanoclusters. ► Presence of ITO layer on the top enhances photoluminescence decay rate of Er. ► The effect depends on the thickness of active film. ► Radiative rate change in proximity of ITO layer was calculated theoretically. ► The calculation results are compared with the experiment and discussed.

  13. Combined up conversion, down conversion and down shifting photo-luminescence of low cost erbium-ytterbium co-doped porous silicon produced by stain etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Herrera, B.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Montesdeoca-Santana, A.; Velazquez, J.J.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, erbium and ytterbium have been incorporated into luminescent porous silicon (PS) layers by simple impregnation of the PS substrate with a saturated nitrate solution of erbium and ytterbium. The photoluminescence of the co-doped rare earth layers have been evaluated. The doping process has been designed for its potential in silicon-based solar cell production, with the aim to improve the Shockley-Queisser limit with a reasonable cost effective method for the industry, which implies a significant enhancement of the efficiency under non-concentrated sunlight irradiation. The temperature and annealing time of the doping process were selected according to industry standards in order to ease a trial adoption. The composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to characterize the doping profile. Different up-conversion and down-conversion contributions from the rare earths in the visible and IR were detected, together with the down shifting effect of the stain etched PS. There is no evidence of energy transference between the PS matrix and the rare earths.

  14. Preparation and microstructural properties of erbium doped alumina–yttria oxide thin films deposited by aerosol MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, Rached, E-mail: salhi_rached@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Science et Ingénierie des MAtériaux et Procédés 1130 rue de la PiscineBP 75-F-38402 Saint Martin D’Hères Cedex 1 (France); Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS UMR 5628, INP Grenoble-Minatec, 3 parvis Louis Néel BP 257, 38 016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Jimenez, Carmen; Deschanvres, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS UMR 5628, INP Grenoble-Minatec, 3 parvis Louis Néel BP 257, 38 016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Guyot, Yannick [LPCML-UMR 5620 CNRS/UCBL Universite´ Claude Bernard Lyon 110 Rue Ada Byron 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chaix-Pluchery, Odette; Rapenne, Laetitia [Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS UMR 5628, INP Grenoble-Minatec, 3 parvis Louis Néel BP 257, 38 016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Maâlej, Ramzi [LPCML-UMR 5620 CNRS/UCBL Universite´ Claude Bernard Lyon 110 Rue Ada Byron 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Fourati, Mohieddine [Laboratoire de Chimie Industrielle, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieur de Sfax, University of Sfax BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Groupe de Physique Théorique, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, University of Sfax 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2013-10-15

    Erbium-doped aluminum–yttrium oxide films (Er: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by aerosol-UV assisted Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) at 410 °C and annealed at 1000 °C. The effects of humidity of carrier gas and UV-assistance on their structure and optical properties were investigated using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. It was found that under low air humidity and without UV-assistance the films present a low mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (10 mol%) two different structural phases are observed corresponding to the cubic and the monoclinic structures of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. When the deposition takes place under high air humidity and with UV assistance the Er:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films present a very high mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (88 mol%) and crystallize in the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) compound mixed with an amorphous phase. The Er{sup 3+} luminescence analyzed in the visible and IR regions, shows the classical green transitions. The best optical properties were obtained with the Er:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown under high air humidity with UV-assistance. Under such deposition conditions, {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} lifetimes was found to be 1.1 ms. This indicates that the deposition conditions, in particular air humidity, play an important role in the luminescent properties even after annealing. -- Highlights: • We investigate the effects of humidity and UV on the properties of Er:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Under low air humidity and without UV-assistance the films present a low mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Under high air humidity and with UV the Er:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} present high mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The film crystallize in the YAG phase mixed with an amorphous phase. • The best optical properties were obtained under high air humidity with UV-assistance.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes; Synthese und Charakterisierung niedervalenter Actinoidphosphidtelluride und ternaerer Selen-Halogenid-Komplexe des Iridiums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, Karoline

    2016-04-07

    The thesis on the synthesis and characterization of low-valence actinide phosphide tellurides and ternary selenium-halide iridium complexes includes two parts: a description of the experimental synthesis of UPTe and U2PTe2O and ThPTe and the synthesis of selenium-chloride iridium complexes and selenium-bromide iridium complexes. The characterization included X-ray diffraction and phase studies.

  16. Tunable and stable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium fiber laser with 1.3 nm mode spacing output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C H; Shih, F Y; Wang, C H; Chow, C W; Chi, S

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation, we propose and investigate a stable and tunable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with self-injected Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) scheme. By using an FP-LD incorporated with a tunable bandpass filter (TBF) within the gain cavity, the fiber laser can lase at two single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) wavelengths simultaneously due to the self-injected operation. The proposed dual-wavelength laser has a good performance of the output power and optical side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). The laser also shows a wide tuning range from 1523.08 to 1562.26 nm. Besides, the output stabilities of the fiber laser are also discussed

  17. Repetition rate stabilization of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser via opto-mechanical control of the intracavity group velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xuling; He, Boqu; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Yang; Bai, Dongbi; Wang, Chao; Liu, Geping; Luo, Daping; Liu, Fengjiang; Li, Wenxue; Zeng, Heping; Yang, Kangwen; Hao, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for stabilizing the repetition rate of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser by inserting an electronic polarization controller (EPC) in the fiber laser cavity. The device exhibited good integration, low cost, and convenient operation. Such a repetition rate stabilization may facilitate an all-fiber laser comb system with high integration. The repetition rate was phase-locked to a Rb reference more than 72 h with a low feedback voltage applied to one channel of the EPC. The repetition rate was 74.6 MHz. The standard deviation and the repetition rate linewidth were 1.4 and 1.7 mHz, respectively

  18. Tunable Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser based on metal transition oxide saturable absorber and refractive index characteristic of multimode interference effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, D. Z.; Khaleel, Wurood Abdulkhaleq; Al-Janabi, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Ferro-oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were used as a saturable absorber (SA) for a passively Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser (EDFL) with ring cavity. The Q-switching operation was achieved at a pump threshold of 80 mW. The proposed fiber laser produces stable pulses train of repetition rate ranging from 25 kHz to 80 kHz as the pump power increases from threshold to 342 mW. The minimum recorded pulse width was 2.7 μs at 342 mW. The C-band tunability operation was performed using single mode-multimode-single mode fiber (SM-MM-SM) structure. The laser exhibited a total tuning range of 7 nm, maximum sensitivity of 106.9 nm, optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of 38 dB and 3-dB linewidth of 0.06 nm.

  19. Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y. C.; Faber, A. J.; de Waal, H.; Kik, P. G.; Polman, A.

    1997-11-01

    Erbium-doped multicomponent phosphate glass waveguides were deposited by rf sputtering techniques. The Er concentration was 5.3×1020cm-3. By pumping the waveguide at 980 nm with a power of ˜21 mW, a net optical gain of 4.1 dB at 1.535 μm was achieved. This high gain per unit length at low pump power could be achieved because the Er-Er cooperative upconversion interactions in this heavily Er-doped phosphate glass are very weak [the upconversion coefficient is (2.0±0.5)×10-18 cm3/s], presumably due to the homogeneous distribution of Er in the glass and due to the high optical mode confinement in the waveguide which leads to high pump power density at low pump power.

  20. Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z Q; Wang, J Z; Zhou, M; Xu, H Y; Cai, Z P; Ye, C C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the generation of multiwavelength passively mode-locked pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field. Graphene-polymer nanocomposites in aqueous suspension are trapped by the optical evanescent light and deposited on taper region. The graphene-deposited fiber-taper device not only acts as an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking, but also induces a polarizing effect to form an artificial birefringent filter for multiwavelength selection. By simultaneously exploiting both functions of this device, four-wavelength continuous-wave mode-locking operation of an EDFL is stably initiated with a pulse width of 8.8 ps and a fundamental repetition rate of 8.034 MHz. This is the first time, to our knowledge, the mode-locked EDFL using such a new geometry of graphene-based tapered-fiber saturable absorber has been demonstrated

  1. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  2. Thermal characteristics of an end-pumped high-power ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped fiber laser under natural convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y; Baek, S; Dupriez, P; Maran, J-N; Sahu, J K; Nilsson, J; Lee, B

    2008-11-24

    We investigate the thermal characteristics of a polymer-clad fiber laser under natural convection when it is strongly pumped up to the damage point of the fiber. For this, we utilize a temperature sensing technique based on a fiber Bragg grating sensor array. We have measured the longitudinal temperature distribution of a 2.4-m length ytterbium-sensitized erbium-doped fiber laser that was end-pumped at approximately 975 nm. The measured temperature distribution decreases exponentially, approximately, decaying away from the pump-launch end. We attribute this to the heat dissipation of absorbed pump power. The maximum temperature difference between the fiber ends was approximately 190 K at the maximum pump power of 60.8 W. From this, we estimate that the core temperature reached approximately 236 degrees C.

  3. Transfer of an exfoliated monolayer graphene flake onto an optical fiber end face for erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Henrique Guimaraes; De Souza, Eunézio A Thoroh; Gomes, José Carlos Viana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, the successful transfer of exfoliated monolayer graphene flake to the optical fiber end face and alignment to its core. By fabricating and optimizing a polymeric poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) substrate, it is possible to obtain a contrast of up to 11% for green light illumination, allowing the identification of monolayer graphene flakes that were transferred to optical fiber samples and aligned to its core. With Raman spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that graphene flake completely covers the optical fiber core, and its quality remains unaltered after the transfer. The generation of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser pulses, with a duration of 672 fs, with a single-monolayer graphene flake as a saturable absorber, is demonstrated for the first time. This transfer technique is of general applicability and can be used for other two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated materials. (letter)

  4. Stable and High OSNR Compound Linear-Cavity Single-Longitudinal-Mode Erbium-Doped Silica Fiber Laser Based on an Asymmetric Four-Cavity Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ting; Yan Feng-Ping; Li Qi; Peng Wan-Jing; Feng Su-Chun; Wen Xiao-Dong; Tan Si-Yu; Liu Peng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a stable and high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) compound linear-cavity single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped silica fiber laser. It consists of three uniform fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and two fiber couplers to form a simple asymmetric four-cavity structure to select the longitudinal mode. The stable SLM operation at the wavelength of 1544.053 nm with a 3 dB bandwidth of 0.014 nm and an OSNR of ∼60 dB was verified experimentally. Under laboratory conditions, a power fluctuation performance of less than 0.05 dB for 5 h and wavelength variation of less than 0.01 nm for about 150 min is demonstrated. Finally, the characteristic of laser output power as a function of pump power is investigated. The proposed system provides a simple and cost-effective approach to realize a stable SLM fiber laser

  5. Influence of Laser Activated Irrigation with Erbium Lasers on Bond Strength of Inidividually Formed Fiber Reinforced Composite Posts to Root Canal Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Miletić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of laser activated irrigation (LAI using two erbium lasers on bond strength of individually formed fiber-reinforced composite (FRC posts to root canal dentin. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated and after post space preparation divided into three groups (n=9 per group, according to the pre-treatment of post space preparation: 1 Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI and saline; 2 Er.YAG photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS technique and saline; 3 Er,Cr:YSGG activated irrigation with RFT2 tip. Two specimens from each group were used for SEM analysis. The remaining specimens (n=7 per group received individually formed FRC post, everStick POST, luted with self-adhesive cement, G-CEM LinkAce. After cementation, the roots were perpendicularly sectioned into 1 mm thin sections and a push-out test was carried out (0.5 mm/min. The data were calculated as megapascals and were log transformed and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA at the level of significance set at 5%. Results: In the control group, the smear layer was still present. In the Er:YAG group, the smear layer was removed. In the Er,Cr:YSGG group, the smear layer was partially removed. The Er,Cr:YSGG group achieved the highest bond strength values, followed by the control group and then the Er:YAG group, but no statistically significant difference was found in bond strength values in the tested group of post space pretreatment (p=0.564. Conclusions: LAI using two erbium lasers, with PIPS or RFT2 tip, did not affect the bond strength of individually formed FRC posts to root canal dentin.

  6. Crystal structures of two erbium(III complexes with 4-aminobenzoic acid and 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two erbium(III complexes with 4-aminobenzoic acid (4-ABAH, namely bis(μ2-4-aminobenzoato-κ2O:O′bis[bis(4-aminobenzoato-κ2O,O′diaquaerbium(III] dihydrate, [Er2(C7H6NO26(H2O4]·2H2O, (I, and 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoic acid (CLNBAH, namely poly[hexakis(μ2-4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoato-κ2O:O′bis(dimethyl sulfoxide-κOdierbium(III], [Er2(C7H3ClNO46(C2H6OS2]n, (II, have been determined. In the structure of solvatomorphic compound (I, the symmetry-related irregular ErO8 coordination polyhedra in the discrete centrosymmetric dinuclear complex comprise two monodentate water molecules and six carboxylate O-atom donors, four from two bidentate carboxylate O,O′-chelate groups and two from the bis-monodentate O:O′-bridging group of the third 4-ABA anion. The Er—O bond-length range is 2.232 (3–2.478 (3 Å and the Er...Er separation in the dinuclear complex unit is 4.7527 (4 Å. One of the coordinating water molecules is involved in an intra-unit O—H...O hydrogen-bonding association with an inversion-related carboxylate O-atom acceptor. In contrast, the anhydrous compound (II is polymeric, based on centrosymmetric dinuclear repeat units comprising ErO7 coordination polyhedra which involve four O-atom donors from two bidentate O:O′-bridging carboxylate groups, one O-atom donor from the monodentate dimethyl sulfoxide ligand and two O-atom donors from the third bridging CLNBA anion. The latter provides the inter-unit link in the one-dimensional coordination polymer extending along [100]. The Er—O bond-length range in (II is 2.239 (6–2.348 (6 Å and the Er...Er separation within the dinuclear unit is 4.4620 (6 Å. In the crystal of (I, extensive inter-dimer O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions involving both the coordinating water molecules and the solvent water molecules, as well as the amine groups of the 4-ABA anions, give an overall three-dimensional network structure. Within

  7. Performance of cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera imaging in coronary artery disease: a review from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Denis; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Ben-Haim, Simona; Rouzet, Francois; Songy, Bernard; Giordano, Alessandro; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Sciagra, Roberto; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Lindner, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between resolution and count sensitivity dominates the performance of standard gamma cameras and dictates the need for relatively high doses of radioactivity of the used radiopharmaceuticals in order to limit image acquisition duration. The introduction of cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)-based cameras may overcome some of the limitations against conventional gamma cameras. CZT cameras used for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion have been shown to have a higher count sensitivity compared to conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques. CZT image quality is further improved by the development of a dedicated three-dimensional iterative reconstruction algorithm, based on maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), which corrects for the loss in spatial resolution due to line response function of the collimator. All these innovations significantly reduce imaging time and result in a lower patient's radiation exposure compared with standard SPECT. To guide current and possible future users of the CZT technique for myocardial perfusion imaging, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, has decided to examine the current literature regarding procedures and clinical data on CZT cameras. The committee hereby aims (1) to identify the main acquisitions protocols; (2) to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of CZT derived myocardial perfusion, and finally (3) to determine the impact of CZT on radiation exposure. (orig.)

  8. The influence of reaction times on structural, optical and luminescence properties of cadmium telluride nanoparticles prepared by wet-chemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiprotich, Sharon, E-mail: KiprotichS@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Ungula, Jatani [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (QwaQwa campus), Private Bag X-13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Onani, Martin O. [Departments of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains one pot synthesis of type II water soluble L-cysteine capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) core shell quantum dots using cadmium acetate, potassium tellurite and L-cysteine as the starting materials. The reaction was carried out in a single three necked flask without nitrogen under reflux at 100 °C. Results from PL show a sharp absorption excitonic band edge of the CdTe core with respect to the core shell which loses its shoulder during the growth of the shell on the core. The PL spectra indicate a drastic shift in emission window of the core which is simultaneously accompanied by an increase in emission intensity. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal phase for all samples. Some difference in absorption edges were observed due to varying synthesis time of CdTe NPs. The position of the absorption band is observed to shift towards the lower wavelength side for shorter durations of synthesis.

  9. Performance of cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride gamma camera imaging in coronary artery disease: a review from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Denis [CHU Caen and Normandy University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Normandy University, Caen (France); Marie, Pierre-Yves [University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancyclotep Experimental Imaging Platform, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, CHU Nancy, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nancy (France); University of Lorraine, Faculty of Medicine, Nancy (France); Ben-Haim, Simona [University College London, University College Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ramat Gan (Israel); Rouzet, Francois [University Hospital of Paris-Bichat, UMR 1148, Inserm et Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); UMR 1148, Inserm and Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University Paris, Paris (France); Songy, Bernard [Centre Cardiologique du Nord, Saint-Denis (France); Giordano, Alessandro [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Largo A. Gemelli, Department of Bioimages and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, UMR 1148, Inserm and Paris Diderot-Paris 7 University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Institute of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Collaboration: Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    2016-12-15

    The trade-off between resolution and count sensitivity dominates the performance of standard gamma cameras and dictates the need for relatively high doses of radioactivity of the used radiopharmaceuticals in order to limit image acquisition duration. The introduction of cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT)-based cameras may overcome some of the limitations against conventional gamma cameras. CZT cameras used for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion have been shown to have a higher count sensitivity compared to conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) techniques. CZT image quality is further improved by the development of a dedicated three-dimensional iterative reconstruction algorithm, based on maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), which corrects for the loss in spatial resolution due to line response function of the collimator. All these innovations significantly reduce imaging time and result in a lower patient's radiation exposure compared with standard SPECT. To guide current and possible future users of the CZT technique for myocardial perfusion imaging, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, has decided to examine the current literature regarding procedures and clinical data on CZT cameras. The committee hereby aims (1) to identify the main acquisitions protocols; (2) to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of CZT derived myocardial perfusion, and finally (3) to determine the impact of CZT on radiation exposure. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic Performance of a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography System With Low-Dose Technetium-99m as Assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yuko; Yamashita, Jun; Shiba, Chie; Murata, Naotaka; Hoshino, Kou; Hokama, Yohei; Yamashina, Akira

    2016-04-25

    Although stress single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) camera facilitates radiation dose reduction, only a few studies have evaluated its diagnostic accuracy in Japanese patients by applying fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. We prospectively evaluated 102 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease with a low-dose stress/rest protocol ((99m)Tc radiotracer 185/370 MBq) using CZT SPECT. Within 3 months, coronary angiography was performed and a significant stenosis was defined as ≥90% diameter narrowing on visual estimation, or as a lesion of <90% and ≥ 50% stenosis with FFR ≤0.80. To detect individual coronary stenosis, the respective sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 86%, 75%, and 82% for left anterior descending artery stenosis, 76%, 81%, and 79% for left circumflex artery stenosis, and 87%, 92%, and 90% for right coronary artery stenosis. When limited to 92 intermediate stenotic lesions in which FFR was measured, stress SPECT showed 77% sensitivity, 91% specificity, and 84% accuracy, whereas the diagnostic value decreased to 52% sensitivity, 68% specificity, and 58% accuracy based only on visual estimation of ≥75% diameter narrowing. CZT SPECT demonstrated a good diagnostic yield in detecting hemodynamically significant coronary stenoses as assessed by FFR, even when using a low-dose (99m)Tc protocol with an effective dose ≤5 mSv. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1217-1224).

  11. Rapid long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements using a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Eiei; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; D'souza, Arvind I; Decuir, Eric A; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S; Samuels, Alan C

    2015-11-20

    In this work, we develop a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5  s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region (∼5.6-10  μm). Similar to the conventional UV-Vis LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the whole 5.6-10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced microplasma or averaging a few single laser-induced microplasmas. Atomic and molecular signature emission spectra of solid inorganic and organic tablets and thin liquid films deposited on a rough asphalt surface are observed. This setup is capable of rapidly probing samples "as is" without the need of elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  12. Treatment of burn scars in Fitzpatrick phototype III patients with a combination of pulsed dye laser and non-ablative fractional resurfacing 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium laser devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Joy; Champlain, Amanda; Weddington, Charles; Moy, Lauren; Tung, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Burn scars cause cosmetic disfigurement and psychosocial distress. We present two Fitzpatrick phototype (FP) III patients with burn scars successfully treated with combination pulsed dye laser (PDL) and non-ablative fractional lasers (NAFL). A 30-year-old, FP III woman with a history of a second-degree burn injury to the bilateral arms and legs affecting 30% body surface area (BSA) presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received three treatments with 595 nm PDL (7 mm, 8 J, 6 ms), six with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and five with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). Treated burn scars improved significantly in thickness, texture and colour. A 33-year-old, FP III man with a history of a second-degree burn injury of the left neck and arm affecting 7% BSA presented for cosmetic treatment. The patient received two treatments with 595 nm PDL (5 mm, 7.5 J, 6 ms), four with the 1550 nm erbium:glass laser (30 mJ, 14% density, 4-8 passes) and two with the 1927 nm thulium laser (10 mJ, 30% density, 4-8 passes). The burn scars became thinner, smoother and more normal in pigmentation and appearance. Our patients' burn scars were treated with a combination of PDL and NAFL (two wavelengths). The PDL targets scar hypervascularity, the 1550 nm erbium:glass stimulates collagen remodelling and the 1927 nm thulium targets epidermal processes, particularly hyperpigmentation. This combination addresses scar thickness, texture and colour with a low side effect profile and is particularly advantageous in patients at higher risk of post-procedure hyperpigmentation. Our cases suggest the combination of 595nm PDL plus NAFL 1550 nm erbium:glass/1927 nm thulium device is effective and well-tolerated for burn scar treatment in skin of colour.

  13. Solution synthesis of telluride-based nano-barbell structures coated with PEDOT:PSS for spray-printed thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-05-01

    Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and the power factor of those materials can be effectively tuned over a wide range depending on the acid concentration of the treatment. The power factors of the synthesized Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrids were optimized to 60.05 μW m-1 K-2 with a Seebeck coefficient of 93.63 μV K-1 and an electrical conductivity of 69.99 S cm-1. The flexible thermoelectric generator fabricated by spray-printing Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solutions showed an open-circuit voltage of 1.54 mV with six legs at ΔT = 10 °C. This approach presents the potential for realizing printing-processable hybrid thermoelectric materials for application in flexible thermoelectric generators.Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and

  14. (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy of the hand: comparing the use of novel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and routine NaI(Tl) detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulikov, Victoria; Lerman, Hedva; Kesler, Mikhail; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced in the field of nuclear medicine in cardiology and breast imaging. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance of the novel detectors (CZT) compared to that of the routine NaI(Tl) in bone scintigraphy. A dual-headed CZT-based camera dedicated originally to breast imaging has been used, and in view of the limited size of the detectors, the hands were chosen as the organ for assessment. This is a clinical study. Fifty-eight consecutive patients (total 116 hands) referred for bone scan for suspected hand pathology gave their informed consent to have two acquisitions, using the routine camera and the CZT-based camera. The latter was divided into full-dose full-acquisition time (FD CZT) and reduced-dose short-acquisition time (RD CZT) on CZT technology, so three image sets were available for analysis. Data analysis included comparing the detection of hot lesions and identification of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 69 hot lesions were detected on the CZT image sets; of these, 61 were identified as focal sites of uptake on NaI(Tl) data. On FD CZT data, 385 joints were identified compared to 168 on NaI(Tl) data (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in delineation of joints between FD and RD CZT data as the latter identified 383 joints. Bone scintigraphy using a CZT-based gamma camera is associated with improved lesion detection and anatomic definition. The superior physical characteristics of this technique raised a potential reduction in administered dose and/or acquisition time without compromising image quality.

  15. Enhancing Thermoelectric Performances of Bismuth Antimony Telluride via Synergistic Combination of Multiscale Structuring and Band Alignment by FeTe2 Incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Weon Ho; Roh, Jong Wook; Ryu, Byungki; Chang, Hye Jung; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won Seon; Ahn, Kyunghan

    2018-01-31

    It has been a difficulty to form well-distributed nano- and mesosized inclusions in a Bi 2 Te 3 -based matrix and thereby realizing no degradation of carrier mobility at interfaces between matrix and inclusions for high thermoelectric performances. Herein, we successfully synthesize multistructured thermoelectric Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 materials with Fe-rich nanoprecipitates and sub-micron FeTe 2 inclusions by a conventional solid-state reaction followed by melt-spinning and spark plasma sintering that could be a facile preparation method for scale-up production. This study presents a bismuth antimony telluride based thermoelectric material with a multiscale structure whose lattice thermal conductivity is drastically reduced with minimal degradation on its carrier mobility. This is possible because a carefully chosen FeTe 2 incorporated in the matrix allows its interfacial valence band with the matrix to be aligned, leading to a significantly improved p-type thermoelectric power factor. Consequently, an impressively high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 1.52 is achieved at 396 K for p-type Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 -8 mol % FeTe 2 , which is a 43% enhancement in ZT compared to the pristine Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 . This work demonstrates not only the effectiveness of multiscale structuring for lowering lattice thermal conductivities, but also the importance of interfacial band alignment between matrix and inclusions for maintaining high carrier mobilities when designing high-performance thermoelectric materials.

  16. Studies on focal alveolar bone healing with technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate and gold-collimated cadmium telluride probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, M.; Hosain, F.; Engelke, W.; Zeichner, S.J.; Ruttimann, U.E.; Webber, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The benefit of using a collimator for a miniaturized cadmium telluride probe was evaluated by monitoring the bone-healing processes for 13 weeks after the induction of small iatrogenic alveolar bone lesions in one side of the mandible in beagles. Technetium (Tc)-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (200 to 300 MBq, 5.1 to 8.1 mCi, in a solution of 0.5 to 1 ml, intravenously) was used as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical. The radioactivity over the bone lesion (L) and the contralateral normal site (C) in the mandible were measured between 1.5 and 2 hours after injection of the tracer, and the activity ratio L/C served as an index of relative bone uptake. A study of six dogs revealed that the healing response to a hemispheric bone defect of 2 mm diameter in the cortical bone could not be detected by an uncollimated probe, and in a repeated study in two dogs the use of a gold collimator (5 mm in diameter, 5 mm in length) did not increase the L/C ratio significantly. A second study in six dogs with 5 mm lesions showed that although systematic trends in the time courses of the L/C ratio obtained both with and without the collimator could be demonstrated, the L/C ratio of collimated versus uncollimated measurements was significantly (p less than 0.005) increased. In three of the latter six dogs, abscesses developed after 9 weeks, leading to a second increase (p less than 0.05) of the L/C ratio with collimation compared with the noninflammation group; without collimation no significant (p greater than 0.15) difference between the two groups could be demonstrated

  17. Demonstration of iodine K-edge imaging by use of an energy-discrimination X-ray computed tomography system with a cadmium telluride detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Kameda, Masashi; Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Hitomi, Keitaro; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    An energy-discrimination K-edge X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for increasing the contrast resolution of a target region by utilizing contrast media. The CT system has a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector, and a projection curve is obtained by linear scanning with use of the CdTe detector in conjunction with an X-stage. An object is rotated by a rotation step angle with use of a turntable between the linear scans. Thus, CT is carried out by repetition of the linear scanning and the rotation of an object. Penetrating X-ray photons from the object are detected by the CdTe detector, and event signals of X-ray photons are produced with use of charge-sensitive and shaping amplifiers. Both the photon energy and the energy width are selected by use of a multi-channel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. For performing energy discrimination, a low-dose-rate X-ray generator for photon counting was developed; the maximum tube voltage and the minimum tube current were 110 kV and 1.0 microA, respectively. In energy-discrimination CT, the tube voltage and the current were 60 kV and 20.0 microA, respectively, and the X-ray intensity was 0.735 microGy/s at 1.0 m from the source and with a tube voltage of 60 kV. Demonstration of enhanced iodine K-edge X-ray CT was carried out by selection of photons with energies just beyond the iodine K-edge energy of 33.2 keV.

  18. Reaction of 1-bromo-3-chloropropane with tellurium and dimethyl telluride in the system of hydrazine hydrate-alkali; Reaktsiya 1-brom-3-khlorpropana s tellurom i dimetilditelluridom v sisteme gidrazin-gidrat-shcheloch'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russavskaya, N V; Levanova, E P; Sukhomazova, Eh N; Grabel' nykh, V A; Elaev, A V; Klyba, L V; Zhanchipova, E R; Albanov, A I; Korotaeva, I M; Toryashinova, D S.D.; Korchevin, N A [SO RAN, Irkutskij Inst. Khimii imeni A.E. Favorskogo, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    A synthesis of oligomeric substance of thiocol type, the poly(trimethyleneditelluride), from 1-bromo-3-chloropropane and elemental tellurium is performed using a hydrazine hydrate-alkali system. Reductive splitting of the tellurocol followed by alkylation with methyl iodide give rise to preparation of bis(methyltelluro)propane, which was synthesized also from dimethyl telluride and 1,3-dihalopropanes using the N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O/KOH system. The reaction products were characterized by elementary analysis, NMR, and IR spectra. Mass spectra of the synthesized low molecular weight organotellurium compounds are considered.

  19. Estudo comparativo das extensões das lesões causadas por duas e quatro passadas de laser Erbium em ratos Wistar com 0% de sobreposição dos spots Comparative study of alterations found in 2 and 4 Erbium: YAG laser passes in Wistar rats with 0% overlap of spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Noronha

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Lasers de CO2 tem sido apresentados com a finalidade de rejuvenecer a face através do resurfacing. Embora cada sistema de laser tenha o mesmo princípio básico, há significativa diferença entre os lasers que pode resultar em variações no efeito tecidual clínico e histológico. O laser Erbium:YAG que tem como característica o comprimento de onda com 10 vezes mais afinidade pela água que o laser de CO2. O propósito deste estudo experimental foi comparar as alterações morfométricas encontradas em 2 e 4 passadas com laser Erbium:YAG com sobreposição de 0% dos spots. Foi avaliada a homogeneidade da ablaçãoem comprimento e usou-se a pele do dorso de 3 ratos in vivo. Foi selecionada uma área de pele controle de cada rato. Finalmente, num período máximo de 3 horas, a pele foi ressecada e encaminhada à histopatologia para as avaliações propostas. Como resultados com 4 passadas houve mais homogeneidade da extensão da ablação do que em 2 passadas. Conclui-se que a extensão e homogeneidade de ablação foi maior com 4 passadas. A utilização de 0% de sobreposição dos spots não garante homogeneidade de ablação.CO2 lasers has been presented with the purpose of rejuvenating the face by means of resurfacing. Though each laser systems has the same base principle, there is a significant difference among lasers which could result in variations in the clinical and histological effects of the tissue. The Erbium:YAG laser has the characteristic of having the wavelength with 10 times more affinity for water than the CO2 laser. The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the morphometric alterations found in 2 and 4 Erbium:YAG laser passes with 0% overlap of spots. It was evaluated the homogeneity of ablation in length and was used the dorsal skin of 3 living mice. It was selected a control area in each mouse. Finally, in the maximum period of three hours, the skin was resected and sent to histopathology for evaluations

  20. Preparation and study of the properties of lead telluride and cadmium telluride diodes for use in nuclear spectrometry; Preparation et etude des proprietes de diodes au tellurure de plomb et au tellurure de cadmium en vue d'une utilisation en spectrometrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancon, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This work studies the possibility of using high atomic number compound semiconductors, like lead telluride and cadmium telluride as to realize nuclear radiation detectors, specially in gamma ray spectrometry because of their high absorption coefficient. The problems related to the preparation of binary compounds are exposed. Experiments on PbTe show the influence of the conditions of preparation on the electrical properties of the semiconductor which are greatly dependent on the stoichiometry of the compound. PbTe surface-barrier diodes were realized and have been used to study the surface properties of this semiconductor. These diodes cannot detect nuclear radiations because of the too weak resistivity of our material. Different types of devices made of Cd Te have been studied. One of these diodes has been used as an alpha particle detector. We explain the relative poor performances of that detector by the presence of lattice defects in Cd Te where charge carriers may recombine themselves. By analysing the properties of gold diffused Cd Te diodes we identified this defect, the cadmium vacancy, the presence of which is due to the deviation from stoichiometry during the preparation of the material. (author) [French] Ce travail etudie la possibilite d'utiliser des semiconducteurs composes d'elements a numero atomique eleve, tels que le tellurure de plomb et le tellurure de cadmium pour la realisation de detecteurs de rayonnements nucleaires, grace notamment a la section efficace de capture elevee qu'ils presentent vis-a-vis des rayons gamma. On souligne les problemes relatifs a la preparation des composes binaires. Les experiences realisees sur PbTe mettent en evidence l'influence des conditions de preparation sur les proprietes electriques du semiconducteur qui dependent fortement de la stoechiometrie du compose. Nous avons realise des diodes au PbTe a barriere de surface qui ont permis de preciser les proprietes de surface de ce semiconducteur. La trop faible

  1. Multifunctional stannum oxide compact bilayer modified by europium and erbium respectively doped ytterbium fluoride for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Jingyi; Xiao, Yaoming; Li, Yanping; Han, Gaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Multifunctional SnO 2 compact bilayer respectively modified by YbF 3 :Eu 3+ (SYEu) and YbF 3 :Er 3+ (SYEr) demonstrates three functions: 1) reducing the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs, 2) improving the utilization of sunlight, and 3) enhancing the long-term stability of the photovoltaic device. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Multifunctional SYEu/SYEr compact bilayer is designed and fabricated. •The compact bilayer exhibits a reduced electron recombination rate. •The compact bilayer shows enhanced UV and IR light response via light-conversions. •The double layer has no significant influence on arising quenching effect. -- Abstract: Multifunctional stannum oxide compact bilayer modified by europium and erbium respectively doped ytterbium fluoride (SYEu/SYEr) is designed and prepared by a convenient and low-cost spin-coating approach for dye-sensitized solar cell. The most important three functions of the compact bilayer are reducing the recombination rate of electrons as a barrier layer, enlarging the utilization of sunlight as a luminescence material both with down- and up- conversions, and enhancing the long-term stability of the device as a defender of the dye. Besides, the construction of double layer with down- and up- conversion functions has no significant influence on giving rise to quenching effect. Furthermore, these findings offer potential applications for photovoltaic device with a wide range response of sunlight via the variation in rare-earth species and cell structures.

  2. Ultrashort Generation Regimes in the All-Fiber Kerr Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser for Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Voropaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many femtosecond engineering applications require for a stable generation of ultrashort pulses. Thus, in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy a measurement error in the refractive index is strongly dependent on the pulse duration stability with allowable variation of few femtoseconds. The aim of this work is to study the ultrashort pulses (USP regimes stability in the all – fiber erbium doped ring laser with Kerr mode-locking. The study was conducted at several different values of the total resonator intra-cavity dispersion. Three laser schemes with the intra-cavity dispersion values from -1.232 ps2 to +0.008 ps2 have been studied. In the experiment there were two regimes of generation observed: the stretched pulse generation and ordinary soliton generation. Main attention is focused on the stability of regimes under study. The most stable regime was that of the stretched pulse generation with a spectrum form of sech2 , possible pulse duration of 490 fs at least, repetition rate of 2.9 MHz, and average output power of 17 mW. It is worth noting, that obtained regimes had characteristics suitable for the successful use in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The results may be useful in the following areas of science and technology: a high-precision spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, super-continuum generation, and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The future system development is expected to stabilize duration and repetition rate of the obtained regime of ultra-short pulse generation.

  3. Multi-soliton and rogue-wave solutions of the higher-order Hirota system for an erbium-doped nonlinear fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Da-Wei [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics; Shijiazhuang Tiedao University (China). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Gao, Yi-Tian; Sun, Yu-Hao; Feng, Yu-Jie; Xue, Long [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics

    2014-10-15

    The nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation appears in fluid mechanics, plasma physics, etc., while the Hirota equation, a higher-order NLS equation, has been introduced. In this paper, a higher-order Hirota system is investigated, which describes the wave propagation in an erbium-doped nonlinear fiber with higher-order dispersion. By virtue of the Darboux transformation and generalized Darboux transformation, multi-soliton solutions and higher-order rogue-wave solutions are derived, beyond the published first-order consideration. Wave propagation and interaction are analyzed: (i) Bell-shape solitons, bright- and dark-rogue waves are found; (ii) the two-soliton interaction is elastic, i.e., the amplitude and velocity of each soliton remain unchanged after the interaction; (iii) the coefficient in the system affects the direction of the soliton propagation, patterns of the soliton interaction, distance, and direction of the first-order rogue-wave propagation, as well as the range and direction of the second-order rogue-wave interaction.

  4. Switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxin; Wang, Xin; Tang, Zijuan; Lou, Shuqin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is proposed. The in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is fabricated by splicing a large-core fiber between two segments of single mode fibers, in which the first splicing point is tapered and the second splicing point is connected directly. By carefully rotating the polarization controller, switchable single-, dual-, triple- and quad-wavelength lasing outputs can be obtained with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB. The maximal peak power difference of multi-wavelength lasing is 3.67 dB, demonstrating a good power equalization performance. Furthermore, the proposed laser is proven to be very stable at room temperature. The wavelength shifts and peak power fluctuations are less than 0.02 nm and 1.3 dB over half an hour. In addition, stable quintuple-wavelength lasing with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB can also be realized when the filter length is changed.

  5. High-efficiency ytterbium-free erbium-doped all-glass double cladding silicate glass fiber for resonantly-pumped fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Zexuan; Geng, Jihong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shibin

    2014-02-01

    A highly efficient ytterbium-free erbium-doped silicate glass fiber has been developed for high-power fiber laser applications at an eye-safe wavelength near 1.55 μm. Our preliminary experiments show that high laser efficiency can be obtained from a relatively short length of the gain fiber when resonantly pumped at 1535 nm in both core- and cladding-pumping configurations. With a core-pumping configuration as high as 75%, optical-to-optical efficiency and 4 W output power were obtained at 1560 nm from a 1 m long gain fiber. When using a cladding-pumping configuration, approximately 13 W output power with 67.7% slope efficiency was demonstrated from a piece of 2 m long fiber. The lengths of silicate-based gain fiber are much shorter than their silica-based counterparts used in other experiments, which is significantly important for high-power narrow-band and/or pulsed laser applications.

  6. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido; Printemps, Tony; Licitra, Christophe; Sogne, Elisa; D’ Acapito, Francesco; Gambacorti, Narciso; Sestu, Nicola; Saba, Michele; Pinna, Elisa; Chiriu, Daniele; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Casu, Alberto; Quochi, Francesco; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Falqui, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn't be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  7. Unconventional cells of TiO2 doped with erbium; Celulas nao convencionais de TiO2 dopado com erbio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Campos, R.D.; Oliveira, A.S.; Wellen, R., E-mail: pollyana@cear.ufpb.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Diniz, V.C.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The technology used in TiO{sub 2} solar cells is in constant improvement, new configurations have been developed, aiming practicality and leading to efficiency increase of photovoltaic devices. This paper proposes a new technology for the production of solar cells in order to investigate a better utilization of solar spectrum of TiO2 doped with erbium (Er{sup 3+}), proven by energetic conversion. The Ti{sub 0,9}Er{sub 0,1}O2 system was obtained by Pechini method. Nanoparticles have a crystallite size 65.30 nm and surface area 118.48 m{sup 2}/g. These characteristics are essential for the formation of the film to be deposited on the conductive glass substrate constituting the cell's photoelectrode. The other side of the cell is the platinum counter electrode. The cell will have the faces sealed by a thermoplastic and, finally the electrolyte will be inserted, then they will be electrically evaluated through energy efficiency and confronted with the literature data base. (author)

  8. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido

    2017-07-14

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn\\'t be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  9. Comparative evaluation of surface topography of tooth prepared using erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and bur and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahesh; Kumari, Pooja; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser has been successfully used in the ablation of dental hard and soft tissues. It has been reported that this system is also useful for preparing tooth surfaces and etching, but no consensus exist in the literature regarding the advantage of lasers over conventional tooth preparation technique. Labial surfaces of 25 extracted human maxillary central incisors were divided into two halves. Right half was prepared with diamond bur and left half with Er, Cr; YSGG laser and a reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm was carried out. Topography of prepared surfaces of five teeth were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The remaining samples were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens each based on the surface treatment received: One group was acid etched and other was nonetched. Composite resin cylinders were bonded on prepared surfaces and shear bond strength was assessed using a universal testing machine. The SEM observation revealed that the laser prepared surfaces were clean, highly irregular and devoid of a smear layer. Bur prepared surfaces were relatively smooth but covered with smear layer. Highest bond strength was shown by laser prepared acid etched group, followed by bur prepared the acid etched group. The bur prepared nonacid etched group showed least bond strength. Er, Cr: YSGG laser can be used for preparing tooth and bond strength value achieved by laser preparation alone without surface treatment procedure lies in the range of clinical acceptability.

  10. A high stability wavelength-tunable narrow-linewidth and single-polarization erbium-doped fiber laser using a compound-cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ting; Yan, Fengping; Peng, Wanjing; Liu, Shuo; Tan, Siyu; Liang, Xiao; Wen, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    A high stability wavelength-tunable narrow-linewidth and single-polarization erbium-doped fiber laser using a compound-cavity structure is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The compound-cavity is composed of a main-linear-cavity and a subring-cavity. Using a pump power of 150 mW, the optical signal to noise ratio of the laser output is as high as ∼67 dB; the wavelength and output power fluctuation are 0.7 pm and 0.07 dBm respectively in an experimental period of 1 h; the linewidth of the laser output is as narrow as 650 Hz; the degree of polarization of the laser output is stable at a value of 100.8% in 15 min and the polarization extinction ratio is as high as 30.57 dB; the wavelength-tunable range is as wide as ∼8.1 nm. The proposed fiber laser can be used in areas where high stability, narrow-linewidth, single-polarization and wide wavelength-tunable range are needed. (letter)

  11. Solitons and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system in an erbium-doped fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yu, Xin; Xue, Long; Aviation Univ. of Air Force, Liaoning

    2015-01-01

    Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.

  12. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth SLM erbium-doped fiber laser based on a PM-CMFBG filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bin; Feng, Suchun; Liu, Zhibo; Bai, Yunlong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-09-22

    A tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser based on polarization-maintaining chirped moiré fiber Bragg grating (PM-CMFBG) filter is proposed and demonstrated. For the first time as we know, the CMFBG inscribed on the PM fiber is applied for the wavelength-tunable and-switchable dual-wavelength laser. The PM-CMFBG filter with ultra-narrow transmission band (0.1 pm) and a uniform polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) are used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The stable single polarization SLM operation is guaranteed by the PM-CMFBG filter and polarization controller. A tuning range of about 0.25 nm with about 0.075 nm step is achieved by stretching the uniform PM-FBG. Meanwhile, the linewidth of the fiber laser for each wavelength is approximate 6.5 and 7.1 kHz with a 20 dB linewidth, which indicates the laser linewidth is approximate 325 Hz and 355 Hz FWHM.

  13. Comparative evaluation of photoablative efficacy of erbium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet and diode laser for the treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation. A randomized split-mouth clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Marco; Formigli, Lucia; Bani, Daniele

    2014-04-01

    The use of lasers in periodontology is a matter of debate, mainly because of the lack of consensual therapeutic protocols. In this randomized, split-mouth trial, the clinical efficacy of two different photoablative dental lasers, erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) and diode, for the treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation is compared. Twenty-one patients requiring treatment for mild-to-severe gingival hyperpigmentation were enrolled. Maxillary or mandibular left or right quadrants were randomly subjected to photoablative deepithelialization with either Er:YAG or diode laser. Masked clinical assessments of each laser quadrant were made at admission and days 7, 30, and 180 postoperatively by an independent observer. Histologic examination was performed before and soon after treatment and 6 months after irradiation. Patients also compiled a subjective evaluation questionnaire. Both diode and Er:YAG lasers gave excellent results in gingival hyperpigmentation. However, Er:YAG laser induced deeper gingival tissue injury than diode laser, as judged by bleeding at surgery, delayed healing, and histopathologic analysis. The use of diode laser showed additional advantages compared to Er:YAG in terms of less postoperative discomfort and pain. This study highlights the efficacy of diode laser for photoablative deepithelialization of hyperpigmented gingiva. It is suggested that this laser can represent an effective and safe therapeutic option for gingival photoablation.

  14. The study of 80 MHz self starting passively mode-locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser via nonlinear polarization rotation with SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser, EDF L, passively mode-locked via only Nonlinear Polarization Rotation, NPR, and via NPR with Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror, SESAM, is studied. Self start single pulse train with pulse width of 114 fs and repetition rate (PRR) of 80 MHz has been obtained when 55 cm EDFL, passively mode-locked via NPR only. Inserting SESAM in EDFL cavity leads to shorten the pulse width up to 88 fs, increases the amplitude stability up to 96% and lower the phase noise jittering to around 26 fsec. Stable second harmonic self starting passively mode-locked EDFL with pulse width of 284 fs has also been observed only when SESAM was used in the cavity. Multi-pulsed system passively mode-locked via NPR for EDFL length of 80 cm with time difference between the successive multi-pulses ranged from few picoseconds to nanoseconds, has been observed. The time difference can be controlled by the polarizer controller and the half wave plate. Further controlling of the cavity polarization leads to developing the multiple mode locking pulses train to second harmonic mode-locking pulse train with PRR of 160MHz and pulse width of 156 fs. Three harmonic superposed trains of mode locked pulse have been achieved only when SESAM added to the cavity. (author)

  15. A potential method using Ge{iPrNC[N(SiMe_3)_2]NiPr}{sub 2}, (Et{sub 3}Si){sub 2}Te and anhydrous hydrazine for germanium tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Liyong; Du, Shulei; Ding, Yuqiang [School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China)

    2017-12-29

    A germanium(II)-guanidine derivative of formula Ge{iPrNC[N(SiMe_3)_2]NiPr}{sub 2} (1) was synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction method. Thermal property was also studied to identify its thermal stability and volatility. More importantly, compound 1 was synthesized to develop a new method for germanium tellurides, where anhydrous hydrazine was introduced to prompt the activity of germanium(II) guanidines (or derivatives) towards (Et{sub 3}Si){sub 2}Te. Solution reaction of compound 1, (Et{sub 3}Si){sub 2}Te, and anhydrous hydrazine was investigated to pre-identify the feasibility of this combination for ALD process. The EDS data of the black precipitate from this reaction verified the potential of this method to manufacture germanium tellurides. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Effect of preparation procedure and nanostructuring on the thermoelectric properties of the lead telluride-based material system AgPb{sub m}BiTe{sub 2+m} (BLST-m)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenbach, Oliver; Koch, Guenter; Schlecht, Sabine [Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 17, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Schmitz, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), D-51170 Cologne (Germany); Hartung, David; Klar, Peter J. [Institute of Experimental Physics I, Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dankwort, Torben; Kienle, Lorenz [Institute for Material Science, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kaiserstrasse 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Mueller, Eckhard, E-mail: Eckhard.Mueller@dlr.de [Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 17, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Institute of Materials Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), D-51170 Cologne (Germany)

    2016-06-07

    We report on the preparation and thermoelectric properties of the quaternary system AgPb{sub m}BiTe{sub 2+m} (Bismuth-Lead-Silver-Tellurium, BLST-m) that were nanostructured by mechanical alloying. Nanopowders of various compositions were compacted by three different methods: cold pressing/annealing, hot pressing, and short term sintering. The products are compared with respect to microstructure and sample density. The thermoelectric properties were measured: thermal conductivity in the temperature range from 300 K to 800 K and electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient between 100 K and 800 K. The compacting method and the composition had a substantial impact on carrier concentration and mobility as well as on the thermoelectric parameters. Room temperature Hall measurements yielded carrier concentrations in the order of 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}, slightly increasing with increasing content of the additive silver bismuth telluride to the lead telluride base. ZT values close to the ones of bulk samples were achieved. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed macroscopically homogeneous distributions of the constituting elements inside the nanopowders ensembles, indicating a solid solution. However, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed disorder on the nanoscale inside individual nanopowders grains.

  17. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid; Mecanismo de la elucion del erbio en un cambiador cationico con el acido n-hidroxietil-etilen-diamono-triacetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer Amezaga, S

    1963-07-01

    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs.

  18. Comparison on exfoliated graphene nano-sheets and triturated graphite nano-particles for mode-locking the Erbium-doped fibre lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Lun; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tsai, Din-Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2018-06-01

    Comparisons on exfoliated graphene nano-sheets and triturated graphite nano-particles for mode-locking the Erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) are performed. As opposed to the graphite nano-particles obtained by physically triturating the graphite foil, the tri-layer graphene nano-sheets is obtained by electrochemically exfoliating the graphite foil. To precisely control the size dispersion and the layer number of the exfoliated graphene nano-sheet, both the bias of electrochemical exfoliation and the speed of centrifugation are optimized. Under a threshold exfoliation bias of 3 volts and a centrifugation at 1000 rpm, graphene nano-sheets with an average diameter of 100  ±  40 nm can be obtained. The graphene nano-sheets with an area density of 15 #/µm2 are directly imprinted onto the end-face of a single-mode fiber made patchcord connector inside the EDFL cavity. Such electrochemically exfoliated graphene nano-sheets show comparable saturable absorption with standard single-graphene and perform the self-amplitude modulation better than physically triturated graphite nano-particles. The linear transmittance and modulation depth of the inserted graphene nano-sheets are 92.5% and 53%, respectively. Under the operation with a power gain of 21.5 dB, the EDFL can be passively mode-locked to deliver a pulsewidth of 454.5 fs with a spectral linewidth of 5.6 nm. The time-bandwidth product of 0.31 is close to the transform limit. The Kelly sideband frequency spacing of 1.34 THz is used to calculate the chirp coefficient as  ‑0.0015.

  19. Integrated cooling-vacuum-assisted 1540-nm erbium:glass laser is effective in treating mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Y; Levi, A; Enk, C D; Lapidoth, M

    2015-12-01

    Acne treatment by a mid-infrared laser may be unsatisfactory due to deeply situated acne-affected sebaceous glands which serve as its target. Skin manipulation by vacuum and contact cooling may improve laser-skin interaction, reduce pain sensation, and increase overall safety and efficacy. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of acne treatment using an integrated cooling-vacuum-assisted 1540-nm erbium:glass laser, a prospective interventional study was conducted. It included 12 patients (seven men and five women) suffering from mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris. The device utilizes a mid-infrared 1540-nm laser (Alma Lasers Ltd. Caesarea, Israel), which is integrated with combined cooling-vacuum-assisted technology. An acne lesion is initially manipulated upon contact by a vacuum-cooling-assisted tip, followed by three to four stacked laser pulses (500-600 mJ, 4 mm spot size, and frequency of 2 Hz). Patients underwent four to six treatment sessions with a 2-week interval and were followed-up 1 and 3 months after the last treatment. Clinical photographs were taken by high-resolution digital camera before and after treatment. Clinical evaluation was performed by two independent dermatologists, and results were graded on a scale of 0 (exacerbation) to 4 (76-100 % improvement). Patients' and physicians' satisfaction was also recorded. Pain perception and adverse effects were evaluated as well. All patients demonstrated a moderate to significant improvement (average score of 3.6 and 2.0 within 1 and 3 months, respectively, following last treatment session). No side effects, besides a transient erythema, were observed. Cooling-vacuum-assisted 1540-nm laser is safe and effective for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  20. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface

  1. Inert and stable erbium(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins bearing aryl-ether dendron for optical amplification: synthesis and emission enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Buem; Kim, Yong Hee; Nah, Min Kook; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2005-01-01

    We have developed novel inert and stable erbium (Er)(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins for optical amplification. The functionalized metalloporphyrin ligands have been designed and synthesized to provide enough coordination sites for the formation of inert and stable 9-coordinated Er(III)-cored complexes. Er 3+ ions were encapsulated by the metalloporphyrin ligands, such as Zn(II)- and Pt(II)-porphyrins. The near-infrared (IR) emission intensity of Er 3+ ion is much stronger in the Er(III)-cored complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin than Er(III)-cored complex based on Zn(II)-porphyrin. Furthermore, we have incorporated a G2-aryl-ether functionalized dendron into the Er(III)-cored complex, yielding an Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex bearing the Pt(II)-porphyrin. The Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex shows the stronger near-IR emission intensity than the corresponding complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin by seven times in solid state. The lifetimes of the emission band of Pt(II)-porphyrin ligands in the visible region were found to be 30 and 40 μs for the Er(III)-cored complex and the Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin in deoxygenated THF solution samples, respectively. Also, in both cases, the sensitized luminescence intensity is increased in deoxygenated solution. Therefore, it indicates that the energy transfer from the metalloporphyrins to Er 3+ ions takes places through the triplet state. In this paper, the synthesis and photophysical properties of novel Er(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins and Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex based on metalloporphyrin will be discussed

  2. Synthesis and thermoluminescent characterization of lithium niobate doped with erbium; Sintesis y caracterizacion termoluminiscente de niobato de litio impurificado con erbio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landavazo, M.; Brown, F.; Cubillas, F. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Munoz, I. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E., E-mail: imunoz@polimeros.uson.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Lithium niobate (Nl) is a synthetic dielectric and is mainly used in optical devices. There are reports on the thermoluminescent property of Nl monocrystals doped with rare earths and excited with X and gamma rays. In this study the Nl was synthesized and doped with erbium (Er) at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 % mol and was characterized by its Tl property. The synthesis was realized by solid state reaction at 1000 degrees C for 22 hours and the formation of Nl:Er was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis, finding a new phase (ErNbO{sub 4}). Was studied the dose-response gamma in a range of 1-1000 Gy, the material showed linear behavior of 1-600 Gy. The brightness curves have maxima at 185 and 285 degrees C to 1% in 183 and 301 degrees C for 2%, respectively. While for the concentration of 4% a maximum in 177 degrees C accompanied by a smaller peak at higher temperature of the glow curve was observed. The Tl response of Nl:Er 4% to 450 Gy was increased 271 times compared to pure Nl. The reproducibility of the Tl signal at ten cycles of irradiation-reading, present a standard deviation of 5%. In Nl:Er 1% Tl signal fades in 21.3% after 24 hours, while in 2 and 4% an unusual fading occurs. The Tl characteristics of Nl:Er synthesized material is of interest to gamma radiation dosimetry of high doses. (Author)

  3. Comparative study of the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel treated with acid etchant and erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Sulaiman Alagl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation is in vitro comparison of the shear bond strength (SBS of composite resin bonded to enamel pretreated with an acid etchant against enamel etched with erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr:YSGG laser. Materials and Methods: Sixty premolars were sectioned mesiodistally and these 120 specimens were separated into two groups of 60 each (Groups A and B. In Group A (buccal surfaces, enamel surface was etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. In Group B (lingual surfaces, enamel was laser-etched at 2W for 10 s by Er, Cr:YSGG laser operational at 2780 nm with pulse duration of 140 μs and a frequency of 20 Hz. After application of bonding agent on all test samples, a transparent plastic cylinder of 1.5 mm × 3 mm was loaded with composite and bonded by light curing for 20 s. All the samples were subjected to SBS analysis using Instron Universal testing machine. Failure modes were observed under light microscope and grouped as adhesive, cohesive, and mixed. Failure mode distributions were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: SBS values obtained for acid-etched enamel were in the range of 7.12–28.36 megapascals (MPa and for laser-etched enamel were in the range of 6.23–23.35 MPa. Mean SBS for acid-etched enamel was 15.77 ± 4.38 MPa, which was considerably greater (P < 0.01 than laser-etched enamel 11.24 ± 3.76 MPa. The Chi-square test revealed that the groups showed no statistically significant differences in bond failure modes. Conclusions: We concluded that the mean SBS of composite with acid etching is significantly higher as compared to Er, Cr: YSGG (operated at 2W for 10 s laser-etched enamel.

  4. Mechanical properties of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) processed by high pressure torsion (HPT); Propiedades mecanicas del telururo de bismuto (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) procesado mediante torsion bajo alta presion (HPT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria, J. A.; Alkorta, J.; Gil Sevillano, J.

    2013-06-01

    Bismuth telluride, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, is the main thermoelectric material currently in use for commercial cooling devices or for energy harvesting near room temperature. Because of its highly anisotropic layered structure, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is very brittle, failing by cleavage along its basal plane. Refining its grain size is expected to increase its toughness with the advantage that, simultaneously, its thermoelectric figure of merit results increased. In this work, powders of the compound have been compacted by conventional methods as well as by severe plastic deformation under high pressure (3 GPa) using high pressure torsion (HPT, one turn at room temperature). Near-theoretical density has been achieved. The hardness and toughness of the compacts have been assessed by micro and nano-indentation. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating techniques onto commercial glass substrates as a route for obtaining active GRadient-INdex materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Varela, Ana I. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Castro, Yolanda, E-mail: castro@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); De Beule, Pieter A.A. [Applied Nano-Optics Laboratory, International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Flores-Arias, María T. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Bao-Varela, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bao@usc.es [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain)

    2015-05-29

    In this work, SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dip-coating sol-gel process onto commercial glass substrates. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using atomic force microscopy, while thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and porosity of the films were determined by ellipsometric measurements in a wavelength region of 400-1000 nm. Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. The proof of principle presented in this paper is applicable to systems of different nature by tailoring the sol-gel precursors in such a way that active GRadient-INdex media described by a complex, parabolic-like refractive index distribution for beam shaping purposes is obtained. - Highlights: • Sol-gel route for preparation of active GRadient-INdex materials is proposed. • SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dipping onto commercial glasses. • Morphological and optical characterization of the samples was performed. • Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. • Refractive index diminishes with dopant content; the contrary occurs for porosity.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2-TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating techniques onto commercial glass substrates as a route for obtaining active GRadient-INdex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia; De Beule, Pieter A.A.; Flores-Arias, María T.; Bao-Varela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, SiO 2 -TiO 2 films doped with erbium were prepared by dip-coating sol-gel process onto commercial glass substrates. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using atomic force microscopy, while thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and porosity of the films were determined by ellipsometric measurements in a wavelength region of 400-1000 nm. Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. The proof of principle presented in this paper is applicable to systems of different nature by tailoring the sol-gel precursors in such a way that active GRadient-INdex media described by a complex, parabolic-like refractive index distribution for beam shaping purposes is obtained. - Highlights: • Sol-gel route for preparation of active GRadient-INdex materials is proposed. • SiO 2 -TiO 2 films doped with erbium were prepared by dipping onto commercial glasses. • Morphological and optical characterization of the samples was performed. • Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. • Refractive index diminishes with dopant content; the contrary occurs for porosity

  7. Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Triturated charcoal nano-powder directly brushed on a fiber connector end-face is used for the first time as a fast saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber-ring laser (EDFL). These dispersant-free charcoal nano-powders with a small amount of crystalline graphene phase and highly disordered carbon structure exhibit a broadened x-ray diffraction peak and their Raman spectrum shows the existence of a carbon related D-band at 1350 cm −1 and the disappearance of the 2D-band peak at 2700 cm −1 . The charcoal nano-powder exhibits a featureless linear absorbance in the infrared region with its linear transmittance of 0.66 nonlinearly saturated at 0.73 to give a ΔT/T of 10%. Picosecond mode-locking at a transform-limited condition of a low-gain EDFL is obtained by using the charcoal nano-powder. By using a commercial EDFA with a linear gain of only 17 dB at the saturated output power of 17.5 dB m required to initiate the saturable absorption of the charcoal nano-powder, the EDFL provides a pulsewidth narrowing from 3.3 to 1.36 ps associated with its spectral linewidth broadening from 0.8 to 1.83 nm on increasing the feedback ratio from 30 to 90%. This investigation indicates that all the carbon-based materials containing a crystalline graphene phase can be employed to passively mode-lock the EDFL, however, the disordered carbon structure inevitably induces a small modulation depth and a large mode-locking threshold, thus limiting the pulsewidth shortening. Nevertheless, the nanoscale charcoal passively mode-locked EDFL still shows the potential to generate picosecond pulses under a relatively low cavity gain. An appropriate cavity design can be used to compensate this defect-induced pulsewidth limitation and obtain a short pulsewidth. (letter)

  8. Erbium:YAG laser resurfacing increases skin permeability and the risk of excessive absorption of antibiotics and sunscreens: the influence of skin recovery on drug absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Li, Yi-Ching; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-06-01

    While laser skin resurfacing is expected to result in reduced barrier function and increased risk of drug absorption, the extent of the increment has not yet been systematically investigated. We aimed to establish the skin permeation profiles of tetracycline and sunscreens after exposure to the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser during postoperative periods. Physiological and histopathological examinations were carried out for 5 days after laser treatment on nude mice. Percutaneous absorption of the permeants was determined by an in vitro Franz cell. Ablation depths varied in reaching the stratum corneum (10 μm, 2.5 J/cm²) to approach the epidermis (25 μm, 6.25 J/cm²) and upper dermis (40 μm, 10 J/cm²). Reepithelialization evaluated by transepidermal water loss was complete within 2-4 days and depended on the ablation depth. Epidermal hyperplasia was observed in the 40-μm-treated group. The laser was sufficient to disrupt the skin barrier and allow the transport of the permeants into and across the skin. The laser fluence was found to play an important role in modulating skin absorption. A 25-μm ablation depth increased tetracycline flux 84-fold. A much smaller enhancement (3.3-fold) was detected for tetracycline accumulation within the skin. The laser with different fluences produced enhancement of oxybenzone skin deposition of 3.4-6.4-fold relative to the untreated group. No penetration across the skin was shown regardless of whether titanium dioxide was applied to intact or laser-treated skin. However, laser resurfacing increased the skin deposition of titanium dioxide from 46 to 109-188 ng/g. Tetracycline absorption had recovered to the level of intact skin after 5 days, while more time was required for oxybenzone absorption. The in vivo skin accumulation and plasma concentration revealed that the laser could increase tetracycline absorption 2-3-fold. The experimental results indicated that clinicians should be cautious when determining the

  9. Effect of beam expansion loss in a carbon nanotube-doped PVA film on passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with different feedback ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuang-Nan; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lo, Jui-Yung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-01-01

    The effect of beam expansion induced divergent loss in a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based ultrafast saturable absorber (SA) film thickness on the passive mode-locking (PML) performances of erbium-doped fiber lasers are demonstrated. The variation on the PML pulsewidth of the EDFL is discussed by changing the SWCNT-PVA SA film thicknesses, together with adjusting the pumping power and the intra-cavity feedback ratio. An almost 6 dB increment of divergent loss when enlarging the SWCNT-PVA based SA film thickness from 30–130 µm is observed. When shrinking the SA thickness to 30 µm at the largest pumping power of 52.5 mW, the optical spectrum red-shifts to 1558.8 nm with its 3 dB spectral linewidth broadening up to 2.7 nm, while the pulse has already entered the soliton regime with multi-order Kelly sidebands aside the spectral shoulder. The soliton pulsewidth is as short as 790 fs, which is much shorter than those obtained with other thicker SWCNT doped PVA polymer film based SAs; therefore, the peak power from the output of the PML-EDFL is significantly enlarged accompanied by a completely suppressed residual continuous-wave level to achieve the largest on/off extinction ratio. The main mechanism of pulse shortening with reducing thickness of SWCNT doped PVA polymer film based SA is attributed to the limited beam expansion as well as the enlarged modulation depth, which results in shortened soliton pulsewidth with a clean dc background, and broadened spectrum with enriched Kelly sidebands. The increase of total SWCNT amount in the thicker SA inevitably causes a higher linear absorption; hence, the mode-locking threshold also rises accordingly. By enlarging pumping power from 38.5–52.5 mW, the highest ascent on pulse extinction of up to 32 dB is observed among all kinds of feedback conditions. Nevertheless, the enlargement on the extinction slightly decays with increasing the feedback ratio from 30–90

  10. Estudo morfométrico e morfológico da cicatrização após uso do laser erbium: YAG em tecidos cutâneos de ratos Morphometrical and morphological study of cicatricial effects caused by application of laser erbium: YAG on the skin of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Noronha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o efeito da reparação cutânea do laser erbium:yttrium aluminunn garnet (YAG (Er:YAG em pele de ratos através de estudo histológico e morfométrico. Tatuaram-se duas figuras no dorso de cada animal (n = 35, denominadas controle e experimento. Na figura experimento, aplicaram-se três passadas de laser Er:YAG com parâmetros padronizados. Cinco animais foram eutanasiados nos dias 0, 7, 14, 28, 56, 84 e 112 de pós-operatório. O estudo histológico demonstrou no dia 0 dano de ablação médio de 215,24 micrômetros (mm, sendo homogêneo com vaporização da epiderme e porções superficiais da derme. O dano térmico residual foi pequeno (média de 41,45mm, observando-se áreas onde estava praticamente ausente. A fibroplasia cicatricial já estava presente no dia 7 (média de 55,58mm, aumentando rapidamente até o dia 28 (média de 209,49mm, quando atingiu um platô e se manteve até o dia 112. Não houve sinais de processo inflamatório agudo no dia 7 e a reepitelização já estava completa. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de laser na pele de ratos induz reparação cutânea ao longo de 112 dias nas condições do experimento.This study analyses the skin contracture effect of the erbium:YAG (Er:YAG laser on the skin of rats by light microscopic histological and morphometrical evaluations. Two squares of back skin were precision tattooed on each of the animals (n = 35, that were termed control and experimental skin. The experimental skin was treated with three passes of the Er:YAG laser with standardized parameters. Five animals were killed and skin specimens were analyzed at 00, 07, 14, 28, 56, 84 and 112 days. Histologic examination demonstrated a mean of 215.24 micrometers ablative damage that was homogeneous with complete vaporization of the epidermis and superficial dermis. The residual thermal damage was small (mean of 41.45 micrometers observing areas where it was absent. The cicatritial fibroplasy was present at

  11. Caractérisation expérimentale et modélisation numérique des propriétés spectroscopiques d'absorbants saturables pour le déclenchement passif de laser verre erbium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, S.; Shcherbitsky, V.; Fromager, M.; Aït Ameur, K.; Moncorgé, R.; Ferrand, B.; Montagne, J.

    2002-06-01

    Une comparaison entre différents absorbants saturables (LMA, MALO, ZnS et ZnSe dopés Col^+ et ZnSe dopé Cr^{2+}) utilisables comme interrupteur optique passif pour déclencher les sources lasers verre erbium à 1.53 μm est présentée. Des expériences de saturation en simple passage sont interprétées en tenant compte de la distribution spatiale et temporelle du laser de pompe. Cette technique permet d'obtenir des sections efficaces de saturation effectives fiables et indépendantes des conditions de mesure sans introduire artificiellement d'absorption dans l'état excité qui, en principe, n'existe pas dans ce type de système contrairement aux études effectuées jusqu'ici sur ces matériaux.

  12. Erbium environments in erbium-silicon/silica light emitting nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashtiban, R J; Bangert, U; Crowe, I F; Halsall, M P

    2011-01-01

    Co-doping of SiO 2 with Si and Er to achieve silica fibre amplifiers has resulted in encouraging levels of light emission, much above those of Er-only doped SiO 2 . However, different fabrication methods, i.e., co-implantion and sequential implantation of Er and Si, has led to several factors difference in light levels. This paper looks into the reasons for these differences by establishing structure and local stoichiometry of the created entities via analytical transmission electron microscopy. In both cases Si-nanocrystals (NCs) have formed in the SiO 2 matrix. In the former case Er-ions are co-located with /integrated within the NCs, in the latter case NCs and Er are separate. By assessing the NCs' internal and interfacial structure with the surrounding material, we attempt to identify chemical/structural Er-phases/defects and their effect on the sensitising efficiency in the Er:Si-NCs system; high resolution phase contrast- and high angle dark field imaging as well as nano-scale spatially resolved electron energy core loss- and plasmon-spectroscopy carried out in an aberration corrected dedicated STEM lend valuable support to these studies.

  13. Fractional ablative erbium YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Haak, Christina S; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2014-01-01

    laser parameters with tissue effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo pig skin was exposed to a miniaturized 2,940 nm AFXL, spot size 225 µm, density 5%, power levels 1.15-2.22 W, pulse durations 50-225 microseconds, pulse repetition rates 100-500 Hz, and 2, 20, or 50 stacked pulses, resulting in pulse......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of a variety of skin disorders with ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) is driving the development of portable AFXLs. This study measures micropore dimensions produced by a small 2,940 nm AFXL using a variety of stacked pulses, and determines a model correlating...... 190 to 347 µm. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse stacking with a small, low power 2,940 nm AFXL created reproducible shallow to deep micropores, and influenced micropore configuration. Mathematical modeling established relations between laser settings and micropore dimensions, which assists in choosing laser...

  14. Erbium implantation in Strontium Titanate

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, J P; Alves, E; Correia, J G; Monteiro, T; Soares, J; Santos, L

    2002-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Er in SrTiO$_{3}$ single crystals using the emission channeling technique. The angular distribution of conversion electrons emitted from $^{167m}$Er(T$_{1/2}$=2.27 s) was monitored with a position-sensitive detector following the room-temperature 60 keV implantation of the precursor isotope $^{167}$Tm(T$_{1/2}$=9.25 d) to a dose of 2$\\times$ 10$^{12}$ at./cm$^{2}$. The results for the sample annealed in vacuum at 610°C for 15 min provide direct evidence that Er occupies both Sr and Ti substitutional lattice sites. In addition, thermal recovery of lattice damage was also studied with RBS/C for SrTiO$_{3}$ implanted to doses of 5$\\times$ 10$^{14}$ and 5 $\\times$ 10$^{15}$ Er/cm$^{2}$. We further comment on preliminary photoluminescence results from these samples.

  15. Surface morphology of erbium silicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.S.; Pai, C.S.; Wu, C.S.; Kuech, T.F.; Liu, B.X.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of rare-earth silicides (Er, Tb, etc.), formed by the reaction of thin-film metal layers with a silicon substrate, is typically dominated by deep penetrating, regularly shaped pits. These pits may have a detrimental effect on the electronic performance of low Schottky barrier height diodes utilizing such silicides on n-type Si. This study suggests that contamination at the metal-Si or silicide-Si interface is the primary cause of surface pitting. Surface pits may be reduced in density or eliminated entirely through either the use of Si substrate surfaces prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions prior to metal deposition and silicide formation or by means of ion irradiation techniques. Silicide layers formed by these techniques possess an almost planar morphology

  16. Comparison of conventional and cadmium-zinc-telluride single-photon emission computed tomography for analysis of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: an exploratory study in normal databases for different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masaru; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Taniguchi, Yasuyo; Shibutani, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in thallium-201-chloride (thallium-201) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scans evaluated by conventional anger-type single-photon emission computed tomography (conventional SPECT) versus cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT (CZT SPECT) imaging in normal databases for different ethnic groups. MPI scans from 81 consecutive Japanese patients were examined using conventional SPECT and CZT SPECT and analyzed with the pre-installed quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS) software. We compared the summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS) for the two SPECT devices. For a normal MPI reference, we usually use Japanese databases for MPI created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, which can be used with conventional SPECT but not with CZT SPECT. In this study, we used new Japanese normal databases constructed in our institution to compare conventional and CZT SPECT. Compared with conventional SPECT, CZT SPECT showed lower SSS (p < 0.001), SRS (p = 0.001), and SDS (p = 0.189) using the pre-installed SPECT database. In contrast, CZT SPECT showed no significant difference from conventional SPECT in QPS analysis using the normal databases from our institution. Myocardial perfusion analyses by CZT SPECT should be evaluated using normal databases based on the ethnic group being evaluated.

  17. Mixed nickel-gallium tellurides Ni{sub 3−x}GaTe{sub 2} as a matrix for incorporating magnetic cations: A Ni{sub 3−x}Fe{sub x}GaTe{sub 2} series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Alexey N., E-mail: alexei@inorg.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, RAS, Leninsky pr. 31, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stroganova, Ekaterina A.; Zakharova, Elena Yu; Solopchenko, Alexander V.; Sobolev, Alexey V.; Presniakov, Igor A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1-3, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirdyankin, Denis I.; Novotortsev, Vladimir M. [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, RAS, Leninsky pr. 31, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    Using a high-temperature ampoule technique, a series of mixed nickel-iron-gallium metal-rich tellurides with layered structures, Ni{sub 3-x}Fe{sub x}GaTe{sub 2}, were prepared and characterized based on X-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data. These compounds may be regarded as a result of partial substitution of nickel by iron in the recently reported ternary Ni{sub 3-x}GaTe{sub 2} series, which are based on NiAs/Ni{sub 2}In type of structure. The compositional boundary for the substitution was found to be at x~1. According to the Mössbauer spectroscopy data, the substitution is not statistical, and iron atoms with the increase in x tend to preferentially occupy those nickel positions that are partially vacant in the initial ternary compound. Magnetic measurements data for the Ni{sub 3-x}Fe{sub x}GaTe{sub 2} series show dramatic change in behavior from temperature-independent paramagnetic properties of the initial matrix to a low-temperature (~75 K) ferromagnetic ordering in the Ni{sub 2}FeGaTe{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Ordered substitution of nickel by iron in the Ni{sub 3−x}GaTe{sub 2} series leading to ferromagnetic ordering. - Highlights: • A series of Ni{sub 3−x}Fe{sub x}GaTe{sub 2} compounds were synthesized. • They adopt the NiAs/Ni{sub 2}In type of structure with ordered iron distribution. • The distribution of iron was studied using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. • An increase in iron content leads to the strong ferromagnetic coupling.

  18. Landfill waste and recycling: Use of a screening-level risk assessment tool for end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrs, William D.; Avens, Heather J.; Capshaw, Zachary A.; Kingsbury, Robert A.; Sahmel, Jennifer; Tvermoes, Brooke E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) power is currently one of the fastest growing power-generation technologies in the world. While PV technologies provide the environmental benefit of zero emissions during use, the use of heavy metals in thin-film PV cells raises important health and environmental concerns regarding the end-of-life disposal of PV panels. To date, there is no published quantitative assessment of the potential human health risk due to cadmium leaching from cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV panels disposed in a landfill. Thus, we used a screening-level risk assessment tool to estimate possible human health risk associated with disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. In addition, we conducted a literature review of potential cadmium release from the recycling process in order to contrast the potential health risks from PV panel disposal in landfills to those from PV panel recycling. Based on the results of our literature review, a meaningful risk comparison cannot be performed at this time. Based on the human health risk estimates generated for PV panel disposal, our assessment indicated that landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes, although our results pointed to the importance of CdTe PV panel end-of-life management. - Highlights: • Analysis of possible human health risk posed by disposal of CdTe panels into landfills. • Qualitative comparison of risks associated with landfill disposal and recycling of CdTe panels. • Landfill disposal of CdTe panels does not pose a human health hazard at current production volumes. • There could be potential risks associated with recycling if not properly managed. • Factors other than concerns over toxic substances will likely drive the decisions of how to manage end-of-life PV panels

  19. Comparison of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser for treatment of cosmetic tattoos containing titanium and iron in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Yang, An-Hang; Chen, Chih-Kang; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2010-11-01

    Cosmetic tattoos contain titanium and ferric oxide and darken through reduction after Q-switched laser irradiation. The optimal treatment for removing these pigments remains unknown. To compare the effects of two Q-switched lasers and a short-pulse erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (SP Er:YAG) laser to remove cosmetic tattoos in an animal model. Rats were tattooed using white, flesh-colored, and brown inks (4 bands of each color) on their backs. For each color, one band was left untreated, and one each was treated with a Q-switched neodymium-doped YAG laser, a Q-switched alexandrite laser, and a SP Er:YAG laser every 3 weeks until the pigments were clear. The two Q-switched lasers were equally effective; all three pigments darkened initially and then resolved gradually. Up to 20, 18, and 10 sessions were required to remove white, flesh-colored, and brown tattoos, respectively. Only six sessions were required with the SP Er:YAG laser. Minimal scarring was observed with all lasers. Skin biopsies confirmed pigment granule fragmentation after Q-switched laser treatment and a decrease in the amount of pigment after SP Er:YAG laser treatment. The SP Er:YAG laser was superior to the Q-switched lasers for removing cosmetic tattoos. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  20. Tunable Terahertz Metamaterials with Germanium Telluride Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    successful inspection of the pattern under the microscope, the sample is placed under the deep- UV flood exposure lamp for 200 seconds, and then developed...state digital memory applications, and have led the ubiquity of devices such as CDs and DVDs. The general temperature profiles required to switch...manufacturing methods has led to a recent rise in its popularity [125]. There are several types of additive manufacturing processes. One of the first to be

  1. Growth and characterization of bismuth telluride nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picht, Oliver

    2010-05-26

    Polycrystalline Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires are electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Potentiostatic growth is demonstrated in templates of various thicknesses ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}m. The smallest observed nanowire diameters are 20 nm in thin membranes and approx. 140-180 nm in thicker membranes. The influence of the various deposition parameters on the nanowire growth rate is presented. Slower growth rates are attained by selective change of deposition potentials and lower temperatures. Nanowires synthesized at slower growth rates have shown to possess a higher degree of crystalline order and smoother surface contours. With respect to structural properties, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy verified the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and evidenced the stability of specific properties, e.g. grain size or preferential orientation, with regard to variations in the deposition conditions. The interdependency of the fabrication parameters, i.e. temperature, deposition potential and nanochannel diameters, is demonstrated for wires grown in 30 {mu}m thick membranes. It is visible from diffraction analysis that texture is tunable by the growth conditions but depends also on the size of the nanochannels in the template. Both (015) and (110) reflexes are observed for the nanowire arrays. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further points out that variation of nanochannel size could lead to a change in elemental composition of the nanowires. (orig.)

  2. Solid-state cadmium telluride radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Kitamoto, Hisashi; Hosomatsu, Haruo

    1984-09-01

    The growth of CdTe single crystal and its application to CdTe detector array was studied for X-ray computed tomography (XCT) equipment. A p-type CdTe single crystal with 10/sup 4/ ohm.cm specific resistivity was grown in a quartz ampoule under vapor pressure control of Cd in a vertical Bridgman furnace. An 18-element detector array was fabricated with this single crystal. The detector was operated with no bias and the sensitivity was confirmed to be between 2.8 x 10/sup -12/ and 14 x 10/sup -12/ A.h/(R.mm/sup 2/). Commercial CdTe single crystal was used to manufacture as 560-element detector array for XCT. Results show that CdTe detector is sensitive, linear and has high resolution.

  3. Growth and characterization of bismuth telluride nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picht, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline Bi 2 Te 3 nanowires are electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Potentiostatic growth is demonstrated in templates of various thicknesses ranging from 10 to 100 μm. The smallest observed nanowire diameters are 20 nm in thin membranes and approx. 140-180 nm in thicker membranes. The influence of the various deposition parameters on the nanowire growth rate is presented. Slower growth rates are attained by selective change of deposition potentials and lower temperatures. Nanowires synthesized at slower growth rates have shown to possess a higher degree of crystalline order and smoother surface contours. With respect to structural properties, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy verified the growth of Bi 2 Te 3 and evidenced the stability of specific properties, e.g. grain size or preferential orientation, with regard to variations in the deposition conditions. The interdependency of the fabrication parameters, i.e. temperature, deposition potential and nanochannel diameters, is demonstrated for wires grown in 30 μm thick membranes. It is visible from diffraction analysis that texture is tunable by the growth conditions but depends also on the size of the nanochannels in the template. Both (015) and (110) reflexes are observed for the nanowire arrays. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis further points out that variation of nanochannel size could lead to a change in elemental composition of the nanowires. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  5. Nonelastic electron scattering in mercury telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, O P

    2002-01-01

    By exact solution of the Boltzmann equation, the nonequilibrium charge carrier distribution function is obtained. In the temperature range 4.2 - 300 K, main electron scattering mechanisms are considered by taking into account the nonelastic electron interaction with optical vibrations of the crystal lattice.

  6. Left ventricular function assessment using 123I/99mTc dual-isotope acquisition with two semi-conductor cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras: a gated cardiac phantom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Blaire

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of increased energy resolution of cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT cameras on the assessment of left ventricular function under dual-isotope conditions (99mTc and 123I remains unknown. The Amsterdam-gated dynamic cardiac phantom (AGATE, Vanderwilt techniques, Boxtel, The Netherlands was successively filled with a solution of 123I alone, 99mTc alone, and a mixture of 123I and 99mTc. A total of 12 datasets was acquired with each commercially available CZT camera (DNM 530c, GE Healthcare and DSPECT, Biosensors International using both energy windows (99mTc or 123I with ejection fraction set to 33, 45, and 60 %. End-diastolic (EDV and end-systolic (ESV volumes, ejection fraction (LVEF, and regional wall motion and thickening (17-segment model were assessed using Cedars-Sinai QGS Software. Concordance between single- and dual-isotope acquisitions was tested using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and Bland–Altman plots. Results There was no significant difference between single- or simultaneous dual-isotope acquisition (123I and 99mTc for EDV, ESV, LVEF, or segmental wall motion and thickening. Myocardial volumes using single- (123I, 99mTc and dual-isotope (reconstructed using both 123I and 99mTc energy windows acquisitions were, respectively, the following: EDV (mL 88 ± 27 vs. 89 ± 27 vs. 92 ± 29 vs. 90 ± 26 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 82 ± 20 vs. 83 ± 22 vs. 79 ± 19 vs. 77 ± 20 for DSPECT (p = NS; ESV (mL 40 ± 1 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 41 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 1 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 37 ± 5 vs. 37 ± 1 vs. 35 ± 3 vs. 34 ± 2 for DSPECT (p = NS; LVEF (% 52 ± 14 vs. 51 ± 13 vs. 53 ± 13 vs. 51 ± 13 for DNM 530c (p = NS and 52 ± 16 vs. 54 ± 13 vs. 54 ± 14 vs. 54 ± 13 for DSPECT (p = NS; regional motion (mm 6.72 ± 2.82 vs. 6.58 ± 2.52 vs. 6.86 ± 2.99 vs. 6.59 ± 2

  7. Effect of increasing tellurium content on the electronic and optical properties of cadmium selenide telluride alloys CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, Ali Hussain, E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [Institute of Physical Biology-South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technical University of Czestochowa, Al. Armii Krajowej 17/19, Czestochowa (Poland); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique de la Matiere (LPQ3 M), universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Auluck, S. [National Physical Laboratory Dr. K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-06-16

    Highlights: > Theoretical study of effect of vary Te content on band structure, density of states, linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x}. > Increasing Te content leads to a decrease in the energy band gap. > Significant enhancement of the electronic properties as a function of tellurium concentration - Abstract: An all electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, within a framework of GGA (EV-GGA) approach, has been used for an ab initio theoretical study of the effect of increasing tellurium content on the band structure, density of states, and the spectral features of the linear and nonlinear optical susceptibilities of the cadmium-selenide-telluride ternary alloys CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0). Our calculations show that increasing Te content leads to a decrease in the energy band gap. We find that the band gaps are 0.95 (1.76), 0.89 (1.65), 0.83 (1.56), 0.79 (1.44) and 0.76 (1.31) eV for x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in the cubic structure. As these alloys are known to have a wurtzite structure for x less than 0.25, the energy gaps are 0.8 (1.6) eV and 0.7 (1.55) eV for the wurtzite structure (x = 0.0, 0.25) for the GGA (EV-GGA) exchange correlation potentials. This reduction in the energy gaps enhances the functionality of the CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} alloys, at least for these concentrations, leading to an increase in the effective second-order susceptibility coefficients from 16.75 pm/V (CdSe) to 18.85 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25}), 27.23 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5}), 32.25 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.25}Te{sub 0.75}), and 37.70 pm/V (CdTe) for the cubic structure and from 12.65 pm/V (CdSe) to 21.11 pm/V (CdSe{sub 0.75}Te{sub 0.25}) in the wurtzite structure. We find a nonlinear relationship between the absorption/emission energies and composition, and a significant enhancement of the electronic properties as a function of tellurium concentration. This variation will help in

  8. Determination of the stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, europium, erbium and lutetium complexes with chloride ions; Determinacion de las constantes de estabilidad de los complejos de lantano, praseodimio, europio, erbio y lutecio con iones cloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The stability constants of La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Lu{sup 3+} chloride complexes were determined in perchloric acid media using a liquid-liquid extraction method. The dinonyl napthalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanide (Ln) concentrations were measured by a radiochemical (Eu and Lu) and a spectrophotometric (La, Pr, and Er) methods. In the last method, xylenol orange was used for the determinations at ph 6. The stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, erbium and lutetium chloride complexes were determined in 2, 3 and 4 M ionic strength and europium in 1, 2 and 3 M, at 303 K. The fitting of experimental data to the equations for the calculation of the stability constants, was carry out considering both one chemical species (LnCl{sup 2+}) or two chemical species (LnCl{sup 2+} and LnCl{sub 2}{sup +}). The Specific Ion Interaction Theory was applied to the values of log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub Cl} and the first stability constants at zero ionic strength were calculated by extrapolation. The same theory could not be applied to the log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub 2Cl}, due to its low abundance and the values determined for the stability constants were similar. The distribution diagrams of the chemical species were obtained using the program MEDUSA and considering log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub CI}, log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub 2CI} values obtained in this work and the hydrolysis constants taken from the literature. The lanthanide chloride complexes are present in solution at specific conditions of ionic strength, concentration and in the absence of hydrolysis. The log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub Cl} data were related to the charge density and the corresponding equations were obtained. These equations could be used to determine the stability constants along the lanthanide series. (Author)

  9. Synthesis and vibrational spectra of cooper(II) and erbium(III) complexes with 2-diazo[2'-(oxymethyldiphenylphosphinyl)phenyl]-4-tert-butylphenol (HL) - [CuL2]·2H2O and Er(NO3)3·2HL·2H2O. Crystal structure of [CuL2]·2H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivadze, A.Yu.; Minacheva, L.Kh.; Ivanova, I.S.; Pyatova, E.N.; Sergienko, V.S.; Baulin, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    Paper describes synthesis of CuL 2 ·2H 2 O (I) complex cupric salt and of Er(NO 3 ) 3 ·2HL·2H 2 O (II) erbium nitrate complex (HL=2-diazo-[2'(oxymethyl-diphenyl-phosphinyl)phenyl]-4-tert-butylphenol). One interprets the fundamental frequencies within the IR-spectra of (I) and (II) compounds. One has performed X-ray diffraction analysis of I compound. The crystals are monoclinic ones, a=15.157(3), b=17.080(2), c=22.451(9) A, β=106.09(3) Deg, V=5584(3) A 3 , Z=4, C2/c sp.gr., R=0.0546 as to 1152 reflections with I>2σ(I). The copper atom coordination polyhedron (C 2 symmetry) may be described as a symmetrically-prolonged square bipyramid (4+2). Cu polyhedron central square is formed by substituted phenol oxygen atom and by one of diazo-group nitrogen atoms of either of two deprotonated ligands, namely: L - (Cu-N 1.969(6), Cu-O 1.899(5) A). The angles between lying opposite O and N atoms constitute 157.6 Deg, while the rest equatorial angles range within 90.6 Deg-95.9 Deg. The axial positions are occupied by O(2) and O(2A) anisole atoms (Cu-O 2.737(6) A, O(2)Cu(1)O(2A) angle constitutes 132.3 Deg). Within crystal I the complex molecules and the crystallization molecules of water are combined by by the hydrogen bond system. According to the IR-spectra data, within complex II in contrast to compound I erbium atom coordination by HL ligand involves oxygen phosphoryl atom [ru

  10. Optically active erbium centers in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przybylinska, H; Jantsch, W; SuprunBelevitch, Y; Stepikhova, M; Palmetshofer, L; Hendorfer, G; Kozanecki, A; Wilson, RJ; Sealy, BJ

    1996-01-01

    The intra-4f transition close to 1.54 mu m of Er implanted into Si shows rich fine structure due to the crystal field of different defect types. Making use of the influence of implantation and annealing parameters, additional doping, temperature, and excitation power, we identify groups of lines

  11. Transport properties of silver telluride in the solid and liquid states; Etude des proprietes de transport dans le tellurure d'argent Ag{sub 2}Te aux hautes temperatures a l'etat solide et a l'etat liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, N T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and thermoelectric power have been carried out for silver telluride over a large temperature range including both solid and liquid states. The analysis of the experimental data shows that in the solid state the transport properties are governed by an ambipolar process with an electron mobility much higher than the hole mobility ({mu}{sub n} = 10*{mu}{sub p}). It is found that the temperature dependence of the electron mobility can be represented by a T{sup -3} law. Deviations from the stoichiometric composition Ag{sub 2}Te have been studied. For all specimens, melting is accompanied by discontinuous variations in the transport properties. Above the melting point, the magnitude of the measured parameters and their temperature dependence show that liquid silver telluride behaves as a semiconductor. The contribution of Ag{sup +} ions to transport phenomena is suggested to account for the behaviour of the electrical properties. Experimental data have been analysed in terms of conventional theories. (author) [French] Les mesures de la resistivite electrique, du coefficient de Hall et du pouvoir thermoelectrique ont ete effectuees sur le tellurure d'argent dans un large domaine de temperature couvrant l'etat solide et l'etat liquide. L'analyse des resultats experimentaux obtenus a l'etat solide montre que les proprietes de transport sont gouvernees par le processus ambipolaire avec une mobilite des electrons beaucoup plus grande que celle des trous ({mu}{sub n} 10*{mu}{sub p}). On trouve que la mobilite des electrons varie avec la temperature suivant la loi T{sup -3}. Les ecarts de la composition stoechiometrique Ag{sub 2}Te ont ete etudies. Pour tous les echantillons, la fusion est caracterisee par des variations discontinues des proprietes de transport. Au dessus du point de fusion, la grandeur des parametres mesures ainsi que leur variation avec la temperature montrent que le tellurure d'argent liquide se

  12. Sputtered indium-tin oxide/cadmium telluride junctions and cadmium telluride surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courreges, F.G.; Fahrenbruch, A.L.; Bube, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/CdTe junction solar cells prepared by rf sputtering of ITO on P-doped CdTe single-crystal substrates have been investigated through measurements of the electrical and photovoltaic properties of ITO/CdTe and In/CdTe junctions, and of electron beam induced currents (EBIC) in ITO/CdTe junctions. In addition, surface properties of CdTe related to the sputtering process were investigated as a function of sputter etching and thermal oxidation using the techniques of surface photovoltage and photoluminescence. ITO/CdTe cells prepared by this sputtering method consist of an n + -ITO/n-CdTe/p-CdTe buried homojunction with about a 1-μm-thick n-type CdTe layer formed by heating of the surface of the CdTe during sputtering. Solar efficiencies up to 8% have been observed with V/sub 0c/=0.82 V and J/sub s/c=14.5 mA/cm 2 . The chief degradation mechanism involves a decrease in V/sub 0c/ with a transformation of the buried homojunction structure to an actual ITO/CdTe heterojunction

  13. Measurements of Thermal Emittance for Cesium Telluride Photocathodes at PITZ

    CERN Document Server

    Miltchev, V; Grabosch, H J; Han, J H; Krasilnikov, M; Oppelt, A; Petrosian, B; Staykov, L; Stephan, F

    2005-01-01

    The thermal emittance determines the lower emittance limit and its measurement is of high importance to understand the ultimate injector performance. In this contribution we present results of thermal emittance measurements under rf operation conditions for various Cs2Te cathodes and different accelerating gradients. Measurements of thermal emittance scaling with the cathode laser spot size are presented and analysed. The significance of the Schottky effect in the emittance formation process is discussed.

  14. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Arntz, Y; Dumitresco, B; Eclancher, B; Prat, V

    1999-01-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) wh...

  15. High-temperature thermoelectric behavior of lead telluride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usefulness of a material in thermoelectric devices is temperature specific. The central problem in thermoelectric material research is the selection of materials with high figure-of-merit in the given temperature range of operation. It is of considerable interest to know the utility range of the material, which is decided by the ...

  16. Property elucidation of vacuum-evaporated zinc telluride thin film ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J U Ahamed

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... method for the deposition of ZnTe thin film as compared to other methods. ... the advantages and disadvantages of different deposition process, it was ... by a spiral resistance heater and the temperature was measured by a ...

  17. Cadmium telluride leaching behavior: Discussion of Zeng et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parikhit

    2015-11-01

    Zeng et al. (2015) evaluate the leaching behavior and surface chemistry of II-VI semiconductor materials, CdTe and CdSe, in response to pH and O2. Under agitation in acidic and aerobic conditions, the authors found approximately 3.6%-6.4% (w/w) solubility of Cd content in CdTe in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), Waste Extraction Test (WET), and dissolution test, with lower solubility (0.56-0.58%) under agitation in acidic and anoxic conditions. This range is comparable with prior long-term transformation and dissolution testing and bio-elution testing of CdTe (2.3%-4.1% w/w solubility of Cd content in CdTe). The implications for potential leaching behavior of CdTe-containing devices require further data. Since CdTe PV modules contain approximately 0.05% Cd content by mass, the starting Cd content in the evaluation of CdTe-containing devices would be lower by three orders of magnitude than the starting Cd content in the authors' study, and leaching potential would be further limited by the monolithic glass-adhesive laminate-glass structure of the device that encapsulates the semiconductor material. Experimental evaluation of leaching potential of CdTe PV modules crushed by landfill compactor has been conducted, with results of TCLP and WET tests on the crushed material below regulatory limits for Cd. CdTe PV recycling technology has been in commercial operation since 2005 with high yields for semiconductor (95%) and glass (90%) recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deposition of antimony telluride thin film by ECALE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Xianhui; YANG; Junyou; ZHU; Wen; HOU; Jie; BAO; Siqian; FAN; Xi'an; DUAN; Xingkai

    2006-01-01

    The process of Sb2Te3 thin film growth on the Pt substrate by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (ECALE) was studied. Cyclic voltammetric scanning was performed to analyze the electrochemical behavior of Te and Sb on the Pt substrate. Sb2Te3 film was formed using an automated flow deposition system by alternately depositing Te and Sb atomic layers for 400 circles. The deposited Sb2Te3 films were characterized by XRD, EDX, FTIR and FESEM observation. Sb2Te3 compound structure was confirmed by XRD pattern and agreed well with the results of EDX quantitative analysis and coulometric analysis. FESEM micrographs showed that the deposit was composed of fine nano particles with size of about 20 nm. FESEM image of the cross section showed that the deposited films were very smooth and dense with thickness of about 190 nm. The optical band gap of the deposited Sb2Te3 film was determined as 0.42 eV by FTIR spectroscopy, and it was blue shifted in comparison with that of the bulk Sb2Te3 single crystal due to its nanocrystalline microstructure.

  19. Mechanisms of antimony interstitial penetration into cadmium telluride crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nikonyuk, E S; Zakharuk, Z I; Fochuk, P M; Rarenko, A I

    2001-01-01

    The results of electrophysical investigations of CdTe crystals, grown by Bridgman method and doped with Sb impurity in concentrations for 10 sup 1 sup 7 -3 x 10 sup 1 sup 9 cm sup - sup 3 are presented. The analysis of the temperature dependence of Hall coefficient, current carrier mobility and photoconductivity at intrinsic excitation for samples taken from different parts of ingots allows to conclude, that Sb sub T sub e , Sb sub C sub d centers and (Sb sub T sub e Sb sub C sub d) associated appear in CdTe crystal during its doping by antimony impurity. The hole conductivity in doped crystals is controlled by A sub 3 (Sb sub T sub e) acceptors, their density not exceeding 5 x 10 sup 1 sup 6 cm sup - sup 3 , and is essentially less than the real impurity content. The ionization energy of A sub 3 acceptors is (0.28 +- 0.01) eV. In non-equilibrium conditions these acceptors play the role of adhesion centers for holes (at high temperatures) and the slow recombination centers for electrons (at low temperatures)

  20. Mechanisms of component diffusion in mercury cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M.S.; Stevenson, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The component diffusion coefficients for the Hg/sub 0.8/Cd/sub 0.2/Te (MCT) system are measured using radioactive tracers. Multiple branches are observed in the tracer diffusion profiles which are related to fast and slow-diffusing components. Diffusion models for each component are proposed based on the defect chemistry of MCT, a calculation of the thermodynamic factor, and the relationship between component diffusion coefficients and the interdiffusion coefficients for pseudobinary systems. The model provides insight into the thermodynamic properties of the system, the mechanisms for diffusion, and the practical application of tracer diffusion data to interdiffusion and p-to-n conversion by Hg annealing