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Sample records for eragrostis curvula schrad

  1. Effect of varying carbohydrate levels on the uptake and translocation of 32P in Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Steinke, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and subsequent translocation of 32 P among root, crown and leaf tissues of Eragrostis curvula were investigated in plants with varying carbohydrate levels. Plants were depleted of carbohydrates by being subjected to 3 days of continuous darkness and by defoliation. Plant roots were introduced to nutrient solutions containing 32 P, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 21 days after the depletion treatments. Initially, plants depleted of carbohydrates absorbed and translocated less 32 P than the controls. Subsequently, uptake and translocation increased probably to restore the pools of phosphate to levels prior to the depletion treatments. Increased 32 P uptake and translocation were related to an adequate supply of reserve carbohydrates [af

  2. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  3. Seasonal response of Eragrostis curvula to nitrogen | R | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the seasonal response of Eragrostis curvula to nitrogen applied as single dressings to separate plots at the beginning of each of the six months of the growing season, it is deduced that nitrogen can profitably be applied in the Ukulinga environment from early spring though to early January. Late summer and ...

  4. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly from apomictic and sexual Eragrostis curvula genotypes.

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    Ingrid Garbus

    Full Text Available A long-standing goal in plant breeding has been the ability to confer apomixis to agriculturally relevant species, which would require a deeper comprehension of the molecular basis of apomictic regulatory mechanisms. Eragrostis curvula (Schrad. Nees is a perennial grass that includes both sexual and apomictic cytotypes. The availability of a reference transcriptome for this species would constitute a very important tool toward the identification of genes controlling key steps of the apomictic pathway. Here, we used Roche/454 sequencing technologies to generate reads from inflorescences of E. curvula apomictic and sexual genotypes that were de novo assembled into a reference transcriptome. Near 90% of the 49568 assembled isotigs showed sequence similarity to sequences deposited in the public databases. A gene ontology analysis categorized 27448 isotigs into at least one of the three main GO categories. We identified 11475 SSRs, and several of them were assayed in E curvula germoplasm using SSR-based primers, providing a valuable set of molecular markers that could allow direct allele selection. The differential contribution to each library of the spliced forms of several transcripts revealed the existence of several isotigs produced via alternative splicing of single genes. The reference transcriptome presented and validated in this work will be useful for the identification of a wide range of gene(s related to agronomic traits of E. curvula, including those controlling key steps of the apomictic pathway in this species, allowing the extrapolation of the findings to other plant species.

  5. Classification of embryo sacs in the Eragrostis curvula Complex

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    T. B. Vorster

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available At each of 17 collecting points between Johannesburg and Brits in the Transvaal, three plants which belong to the  Eragrostis curvula Complex were collected and studied. A total o f 3 902 embryo sacs was examined in this sample. Of the embryo sacs examined, 3 306 were apomictic by means of diplospory, whereas 99 were sexual monosporic Polygonum-type embryo sacs. One hundred and nineteen embryo sacs were abnormal or divergent, and 378 were degenerated. There are indications that seasonal climatic fluctuations may be responsible for embryo sacs developing abnormally or degenerating. Simple and multiple correlations confirmed that sexual embryo sacs usually do not develop abnormally or degenerate during the later developmental stages. This finding lends credence to both the system of classification of individual embryo sacs and to the validity of the estimate of the proportion of sexuality of the plants sampled at each sampling point.

  6. Investigation on resistance to drought and efficiency of water usage in two range species, Dactylis glomerata and Eragrostis curvula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, M.; Saiedian, F.; Heydari, H.; Azarnayvand, H.; Farzaneh, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Determination of water efficiency and resistance to drought in range plants are important factors that have essential role in selection of range development methods. As there is not any comprehensive study in resistance to drought, present research was done with selection of two range species. Selected species were two kinds of Gramineae, namely Dactylis glomerata and Eragrostis curvula. Some parameters such as used water, length, width and number of leaves, dry mass of leaves were studies. Obtained results showed that length and width of leaves were not under stress in irrigation periods, but number of leaves, dry mass of leaf and stem decreased under drought stress. Amount of decrease in Eragrostis curvula was less than Dactylis glomerata Increment of irrigation periods, increased root growth rather than stem, but root growth in Dactylis glomerata was more than Eragrostis curvula for production of dry matter, Dactylis glomerata species has less water requirement and higher water usage efficiency in terms of amount of water usage. In terms of resistance to drought, Eragrostis curvula has more resistance rather than Dactylis glomerata because of high water potential and lower witt ing point

  7. Effect of supplementing or treating Eragrostis curvula hay with urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    2017-02-06

    Feb 6, 2017 ... sealed with a rubber stopper and crimp seal cap. For each incubation run, ..... Science and Technology and National Research Foundation, South Africa. The corresponding ... USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 379. pp. 1-20.

  8. maize silage and/or eragrostis curvula hay for wintering pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    end of mating and the rate of conception. As the body mass of the cows at the end of the breeding season decreased from 435 kg (silage) to 378 kg (veld) reconception de- creased from 87,5 %to 25%(Table I). This tends to substan- tiate the fmdings of Lamond (1970), who refers to a criti- calor target mass before conception.

  9. Physiological response of selected eragrostis species to water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological response of selected eragrostis species to water-deficit stress. ... performing crop variety of Eragrostis tef under this stress, the responses of two varieties, ... Comparative study of closely related plant species might be a better ...

  10. On seed physiology, biomechanics and plant phenology in Eragrostis tef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van S.H.

    2011-01-01

    • Key words: Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter), germination, temperature, model, leaf appearance, phyllochron, development rate, lodging, biomechanics, safety factor, flowering, heading, day length, photoperiod.

    • Background Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter) is a C4 annual

  11. Three new labdanes isolated from Eragrostis viscosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiao, N' Soki N. [Chemistry Department, Agostinho Neto University, Luanda (Angola); Fernandes, Nelson; Vieira, Liliana; Mendonca, Dina I.M.D. de [Textile and Paper Materials Center and Chemistry Department, University of Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Mendonca, Antonio J.G. [CICS-UBI - Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior, Covilha, (Portugal); Gaspar, Jorge F.; Martins, Celia; Rueff, Jose, E-mail: disabel@ubi.pt [Genetics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, New University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Diakanamwa, Carlos [Biology Department, Agostinho Neto University, Luanda (Angola)

    2012-10-15

    Three new labdanes with 8{alpha},15-epoxy ring [methyl 8{alpha},15-epoxylabdan-16{beta}-oate, 8{alpha},15-epoxylabdan-16{beta}-ol and 8{alpha},15-epoxy-16-norlabdan-13{beta}-ol] and five known compounds [8{alpha},15-epoxy-16-norlabdan-13-one, 8{alpha},15-epoxylabdan-16{beta}-oic acid, 3{beta}-(3''4''dihydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyloxylup-20(29)-ene, 3-(2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-{beta}-sitosterol and 16-acetoxy-8{alpha},15-epoxylabdane] were isolated from toluene and dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of Eragrostis viscosa. The structures of all the compounds were established based on their spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis of 8{alpha},15-epoxylabdan-16{beta}-ol. It was also studied the genotoxicity of E. viscosa, particularly compounds 16-acetoxy-8{alpha},15-epoxylabdane, 8{alpha},15-epoxy-16-norlabdan-13-one and 8{alpha},15-epoxilabdan-16{beta}-ol, using a cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and the Ames test to assess mutagenicity. Both assays were negative. Cytotoxicity was also analyzed using an MTT assay, and 8{alpha},15-epoxy-16{beta}-ol was shown to be the most cytotoxic of the compounds tested. E. viscosa extracts were also tested to determine their antioxidant capacities, peroxide values and total phenolic contents. (author)

  12. Three new labdanes isolated from Eragrostis viscosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastiao, N'Soki N.; Fernandes, Nelson; Vieira, Liliana; Mendonca, Dina I.M.D. de; Mendonca, Antonio J.G.; Gaspar, Jorge F.; Martins, Celia; Rueff, Jose; Diakanamwa, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Three new labdanes with 8α,15-epoxy ring [methyl 8α,15-epoxylabdan-16β-oate, 8α,15-epoxylabdan-16β-ol and 8α,15-epoxy-16-norlabdan-13β-ol] and five known compounds [8α,15-epoxy-16-norlabdan-13-one, 8α,15-epoxylabdan-16β-oic acid, 3β-(3''4''dihydroxy)-(E)-cinnamoyloxylup-20(29)-ene, 3-(2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-β-sitosterol and 16-acetoxy-8α,15-epoxylabdane] were isolated from toluene and dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of Eragrostis viscosa. The structures of all the compounds were established based on their spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis of 8α,15-epoxylabdan-16β-ol. It was also studied the genotoxicity of E. viscosa, particularly compounds 16-acetoxy-8α,15-epoxylabdane, 8α,15-epoxy-16-norlabdan-13-one and 8α,15-epoxilabdan-16β-ol, using a cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and the Ames test to assess mutagenicity. Both assays were negative. Cytotoxicity was also analyzed using an MTT assay, and 8α,15-epoxy-16β-ol was shown to be the most cytotoxic of the compounds tested. E. viscosa extracts were also tested to determine their antioxidant capacities, peroxide values and total phenolic contents. (author)

  13. Celulose monossulfito a partir de Bambusa vulgaris schrad Alkaline monosulphite pulping of Bambusa vulgaris schrad

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    Anísio Azzini

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Em condições de laboratório foram produzidas pastas celulósicas pelo processo alcalino monossulfito, com várias concentrações dos reagentes químicos, sulfito de sódio e licor-verde sulfato. As propriedades dessas celuloses foram comparadas com aquelas da celulose obtida pelo processo sulfato (kraft de uso generalizado pela indústria de celulose e papel. As características físico-mecânicas e ópticas das celuloses monossulfito e sulfato foram satisfatórias e semelhantes, com exceção da resistência ao rasgo, que na celulose sulfato foi maior. Os cavacos utilizados, nas dimensões de 5,5 x 0,8 x 0,5cm, respectivamente para comprimento, largura e espessura, foram adequados ao processo sulfato e inadequados às condições do processo monossulfito, que produziu celulose com menor rendimento depurado, maior porcentagem de rejeitos e maior teor de lignina residual nas fibras, determinado pelo número kappa. A densidade básica e as dimensões das fibras variaram no sentido radial do colmo, principalmente a densidade básica, cujos valores decresceram acentuadamente da camada externa para a interna.Pulps in laboratory conditions were obtained from Bambusa vulgaris Schrad by the alkaline monosulphite process, with various concentrations of the cooking chemicals. The strength properties of these pulps were compared to those obtained by the sulphate process. The results showed that both pulps were similar, excepting the tear resistance that was higher in the sulphate one. It was observed that chips with 5.5 x 0.8 x 0.5cm, respectively to the length, width and thickness were appropriated to the sulphate process but not to the conditions of the alkaline monosulphate process, which produced pulps with low values in terms of screening yield, percentage of screenings and kappa number. The variability of bamboo culm in the radial direction was also determined regarding basic density and fiber dimensions. The results showed variations in those

  14. Attachment study of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to tef [ Eragrostis tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens attachment as a factor in transformation was investigated in tef (Eragrostis tef) zygotic embryos, seeds, seedlings, leaf bases and embryogenic callus; leaf discs of yam species (Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea caynensis and Dioscorea alata); and leaf discs of tobacco (Nicotina tabaccum).

  15. Condensed tannin in Eragrostis chloromelas leaves deters feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the feeding responses of a generalist grasshopper, the brown locust(Locusta pardalina), to leaves of the grass Eragrostis chloromelas differing in polyphenol content. For three specimens of E. chloromelas, the presence of condensed tannin in epidermal cells was confirmed by histochemical staining, while ...

  16. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

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    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  17. Meiosis in untreated and irradiated cyperus eragrostis vahl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A cytological investigation of meiosis is seed irradiated Cyperus eragrostis has shown that the diffuse centromeric type of chromosome organisation leads to the formation of inviable chromosome complements, in which complex configurations resulting from stickiness as well as pairing of homologous regions, and numerous fragments, persist to the formation of pollen grains. At the higher doses, however, there is complete sterility, and low fertility even at the lower doses. The small numbers of M 2 and M 3 plants produced at lower doses show much reduced chromosomal abnormalities, indicating severe selection among the gametes and zygotes formed. There is little advantage in terms of survival from radiation damage, resulting from the possession of the diffuse centromere. (auth.)

  18. Genetic diversity in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc. Trotter

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    Kebebew eAssefa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc. Trotter] is a cereal crop resilient to adverse climatic and soil conditions, and possessing desirable storage properties. Although tef provides high quality food and grows under marginal conditions unsuitable for other cereals, it is considered to be an orphan crop because it has benefited little from genetic improvement. Hence, unlike other cereals such as maize and wheat, the productivity of tef is extremely low. In spite of the low productivity, tef is widely cultivated by over six million small-scale farmers in Ethiopia where it is annually grown on more than three million hectares of land, accounting for over 30% of the total cereal acreage. Tef, a tetraploid with 40 chromosomes (2n=4x=40, belongs to the Family Poaceae and, together with finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn, to the Subfamily Chloridoideae. It was believed to have originated in Ethiopia. There are about 350 Eragrostis species of which E. tef is the only species cultivated for human consumption. At the present time, the gene bank in Ethiopia holds over five thousand tef accessions collected from geographical regions diverse in terms of climate and elevation. These germplasm accessions appear to have huge variability with regard to key agronomic and nutritional traits. In order to properly utilize the variability in developing new tef cultivars, various techniques have been implemented to catalog the extent and unravel the patterns of genetic diversity. In this review, we show some recent initiatives investigating the diversity of tef using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics and discuss the prospect of these efforts in providing molecular resources that can aid modern tef breeding.

  19. Cyperus eragrostis - a new alien species for the Czech flora and the history of its invasion of Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřík, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 75, - (2003), s. 17-28 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA AV ČR IAA6005202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyperus eragrostis * alien species * casual Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. Nieuwe vondsten van Eragrostis minor Host, E. pilosa (L.) Beauv. en andere van oorsprong adventieve grassen in 1982

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongepier, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    As additions to a previous paper by the same author (Jongepier, 1982) some new localities, mostly in the province of Zeeland, are given for Eragrostis minor Host, E. pilosa (L.)Beauv., Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv., S. verlicillata (L.) Beauv. and Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., based on records during

  1. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. immature fruit and seed organic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, B; Marzouk, Z; Fenina, N; Bouraoui, A; Aouni, M

    2011-06-01

    Inflammations and immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis are widespread in the entire globe. The treatment of these illnesses is mainly based on the use of synthetic and biotechnological drugs, in recent years. Tunisian traditional medicine is a potential source of new remedies namely Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae): endemic in southern Tunisia and used in folk medicine to treat many inflammation disorders. Our goal was to assess the in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Tunisian Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed organic extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and finely methanol extract). Yields of prepared organic extracts are gravimetrically determined. For the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, we have used respectively, the acetic acid writhing test in mice and the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay in rats. All extracts displayed an important analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at different doses without inducing any side effects. This study has demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrullus colocynthis immature fruit and seed extracts. Experiment results provide scientific insight into the ancient practice of utilizing Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. as analgesic and as anti-inflammatory agents.

  2. Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. - uma Cucurbitaceae pouco conhecida na alimentação humana Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. (Cucurbitaceae[ign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gomes Klein

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available São mencionados os diversos usos como alimento dos frutos de Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn., além de sua descrição morfológica e de seus nomes vulgares, objetivando um melhor conhecimento e ou divulgação dessa nova opção entre as fontes já bastantes conhecidas de alimentos.On mention here the food uses of the fruits of "Cyclanthera pedata (L. var. edulis (Naud. Cogn. besides the its morphology description and common families having in view the knowing or else the divulgation of new options among the sourrées already wellknown.

  3. Proposal to conserve the name Juncus micranthus Schrad. ex E. Mey. against J. micranthus Desv. (Juncaceae), with a note on J. validus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Drábková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2007), s. 602-603 ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GP206/07/P147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : nomenclature * Juncus micranthus Schrad. ex E. Mey. * J. micranthus Desv. Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2007

  4. A Proteomic Approach to Investigate the Drought Response in the Orphan Crop Eragrostis tef

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    Rizqah Kamies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef, was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions. Validation of the iTRAQ dataset was done with selected stress-related proteins, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA and the protective antioxidant proteins, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR and peroxidase (POX. Western blot analyses confirmed protein presence and showed increased protein abundance levels during water deficit while enzymatic activity for FBA, MDHAR and POX increased at selected RWC points. Gene ontology (GO-term enrichment and analysis revealed terms involved in biotic and abiotic stress response, signaling, transport, cellular homeostasis and pentose metabolic processes, to be enriched in tef upregulated proteins, while terms linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS-producing processes under water-deficit, such as photosynthesis and associated light harvesting reactions, manganese transport and homeostasis, the synthesis of sugars and cell wall catabolism and modification, to be enriched in tef downregulated proteins.

  5. A Proteomic Approach to Investigate the Drought Response in the Orphan Crop Eragrostis tef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamies, Rizqah; Farrant, Jill M; Tadele, Zerihun; Cannarozzi, Gina; Rafudeen, Mohammed Suhail

    2017-11-15

    The orphan crop, Eragrostis tef , was subjected to controlled drought conditions to observe the physiological parameters and proteins changing in response to dehydration stress. Physiological measurements involving electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll fluorescence and ultra-structural analysis showed tef plants tolerated water loss to 50% relative water content (RWC) before adverse effects in leaf tissues were observed. Proteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) mass spectrometry and appropriate database searching enabled the detection of 5727 proteins, of which 211 proteins, including a number of spliced variants, were found to be differentially regulated with the imposed stress conditions. Validation of the iTRAQ dataset was done with selected stress-related proteins, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and the protective antioxidant proteins, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and peroxidase (POX). Western blot analyses confirmed protein presence and showed increased protein abundance levels during water deficit while enzymatic activity for FBA, MDHAR and POX increased at selected RWC points. Gene ontology (GO)-term enrichment and analysis revealed terms involved in biotic and abiotic stress response, signaling, transport, cellular homeostasis and pentose metabolic processes, to be enriched in tef upregulated proteins, while terms linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing processes under water-deficit, such as photosynthesis and associated light harvesting reactions, manganese transport and homeostasis, the synthesis of sugars and cell wall catabolism and modification, to be enriched in tef downregulated proteins.

  6. Potencial produtivo de carvão vegetal da espécie Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. cultivado em Timon, Ma

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    J. K. B. Andrade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência da escassez de madeira para produção energética, alguns setores tem se empenhado com grandes esforços para a produção de seus próprios insumos. Uma alternativa a essa problemática é a utilização do bambu na produção de carvão vegetal, pois é uma espécie tolerante aos mais variados tipos de ambientes e apresenta boa capacidade produtiva. Nesse contexto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial produtivo de carvão vegetal de Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. cultivado em Timon, MA. As amostras foram coletadas num bambuzal de 48,56 ha dividido em quatro talhões (tratamentos, no município de Timon, MA. Em seguida, levadas ao Laboratório de Tecnologia da Madeira da UFCG/CSTR onde se determinou a densidade básica dos colmos do bambu, o rendimento em carvão, rendimento em líquido pirolenhoso, gases incondensáveis e análise química imediata. A densidade básica média do bambu foi de 490 kg/m3, não apresentando diferença significativa entre as médias dos quatro tratamentos. O rendimento médio em carvão vegetal foi de 39,05%, sendo que os tratamentos 1 e 4 apresentaram os maiores valores, com médias de 40,34% e 39,85%, entretanto não diferiram estatisticamente. O rendimento médio em gases condensáveis foi de 12,17%. A densidade aparente variou de 1,945 a 2,833 g/cm3. Os teores médios de materiais voláteis, carbono fixo e rendimento em carbono fixo foram respectivamente 28,55%, 64,11% e 25,04%, não apresentando diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. De acordo com as análises realizadas, verificou-se que o carvão vegetal produzido a partir dos colmos de Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. possui potencial para comercialização e utilização como fonte energética.Productive potential of species Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. charcoal grown in Timon, MaAs a result of the scarcity of raw material (wood for the production of energy, some sectors have committed themselves with great efforts to produce

  7. Seed longevity of Eragrostis plana Nees buried in natural grassland soil

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    Renato Borges de Medeiros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the seed longevity of Eragrostis plana Nees buried at different soil depths, in a natural-grassland area in the Pampa biome (46 m altitude, 30º05´S and 51º40´W of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was a split-plot type in complete blocks with two factors: seeds buried at five different depth levels (soil surface and 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 cm and seven exhumation dates. The blocks were allocated in natural grassland grazed by cattle, allocated in a 12-m-long transection. Fifty-four permeable nylon bags filled with 100 seeds in each division, with five vertical divisions, were buried in each row. Seven exhumation dates were used: the first on October 14, 2003 and the last on January 14, 2006. The percentage of viable seeds of E. plana, collected at seven exhumation times and set at different depths in the soil horizon, were described by simple negative exponential equations. Based on the model, the percentage of viable seeds collected at the five depths, (soil surface and 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 cm, after 2.5 years of burial, were 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 7.4 and 22.1%, respectively. Increase in depth is directly associated with physical and physiological seed integrity of E. plana. Negative simple exponential equations can be used to predict seed longevity of E. plana buried in nylon bags. This invader species accumulates soil seed-bank of high longevity.

  8. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of epicatechin in Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae

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    Gisely Cristiny Lopes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, reproducible and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed. Water (0.05% TFA:acetonitrile (0.05% TFA was used as the mobile phase in a gradient system for the determination of epicatechin (EP in leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch. The analysis was performed using an RP C-18 column (5 µm as the stationary phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, at a wavelength of 210 nm for detection and determination. The main validation parameters of the method were also determined. The calibration curve was found to be linear, with a range of 10-120 µg/mL (EP. The correlation coefficient of the linear regression analysis was within 0.9988, and the detection and quantification limits were 28.61 and 86.77 µg/mL, respectively. The content of EP was successfully determined, with satisfactory reproducibility and recovery. Recovery of the EP was 99.32%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of epicatechin in leaves of M. ilicifolia. The interlaboratorial evaluation showed the reproducibility of the method with a relative standard deviation of 14.62%.

  9. Municipal sludge as source of nitrogen and phosphorus in perennial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-11

    Jul 11, 2013 ... arranged in a complete block design comprising 4 replications of 4 treatments planted to Eragrostis curvula. ... cially when they enter the food chain. For these reasons ...... Department of Ecology, Seattle, WA. HUANG XL ...

  10. The influence of roughage on the digestibility of whole maize grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as fed' basis) 25 rnm-hammermilled Eragrostis curvula hay throughout the experimental period. All animals were fed twice daily. Faeces were collected from the floor. The bulked ... to their mean individual free choice daily intake ('as fed' basis).

  11. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic

  12. ALTERNATIVA DE MODELO LINEAR PARA ESTIMAÇÃO DA BIOMASSA VERDE DE Bambusa vulgaris SCHRAD. EX J.C. WENDL NA EXISTÊNCIA DE MULTICOLINEARIDADE

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    Adriano Victor Lopes da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to use a multivariate statistical method as an alternative to estimate the green biomass of the main bamboo rod, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. i.e.: J.C. Wendl., in the presence of multicollinearity. The data came from an experiment carried out for the Agroindustrial Excelsior S. A. (Agrimex company located in the city of Goiana - PE. Quantified by their green biomass weight, 450 bamboo rods were used and 4 independent variables measured in the rod. Initially, the presence of the multicollinearity could be verified through the correlation matrix of the independent variables and the varience inflation factors, the alternative used was the regression of the principal components based on the covariate matrix. The result indicates that, when there is an interpretation to the main components, the model shows a satisfactory data adjust, and it could be used to estimate the green biomass of the main bamboo rod.

  13. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  14. Eragrostis plana Nees as a novel eco-friendly adsorbent for removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto Cezar D; Mazzocato, Ana C; Dotto, Guilherme L; Thue, Pascal S; Pavan, Flávio A

    2017-08-01

    Eragrostis plana Nees (EPN) was used as new and eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye (CV) from aqueous solution. Specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), point of zero charge (pH PZC ), and modified Boehm titration method were used to characterize the EPN material. The effects of initial pH of solution, adsorbent mass, contact time and initial dye concentration, and temperature were studied in batch adsorption mode. Kinetic data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The result exhibited that pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption kinetics of CV onto EPN. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models were used for analysis of the isothermal data. The equilibrium data of adsorption of CV onto EPN was better fitted with the Sips isotherm. Based on the Sips isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacity was 76.20 ± 1.20 mg g -1 at 333 K. A high desorption of CV from EPN was obtained using 1.00 mol L -1 of CH 3 COOH as eluent. The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic, and physical process. EPN can be used as alternative adsorbent to remove CV from aqueous solution.

  15. Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment

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    Eva Koubová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L. grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or adequate intake (AI, and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine (IOM regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6–50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements.

  16. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri extract in laboratory animals

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    Shraddha K More

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri is a diffuse herb with prickly stem, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and one in the group of daśamūla (group of ten herbs herbs commonly used drug in Ayurveda. Aims: In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. xanthocarpum whole plant. Settings and Design: The ethanol extract was evaluated at dose 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats. Materials and Methods: Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Dunnett test, P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Acute treatment didn′t show anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema. However, administration of 100 mg/kg p.o for 7 day reduced the granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma model. Conclusions: Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. xanthocarpum.

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) extract in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Shraddha K; Lande, Anirudha A; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D

    2013-04-01

    Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) is a diffuse herb with prickly stem, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and one in the group of daśamūla (group of ten herbs) herbs commonly used drug in Ayurveda. In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. xanthocarpum whole plant. The ethanol extract was evaluated at dose 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats. Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Dunnett test, P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Acute treatment didn't show anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema. However, administration of 100 mg/kg p.o for 7 day reduced the granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma model. Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. xanthocarpum.

  18. Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of an Allotetraploid Weed Species, Annual Bluegrass, with its Two Diploid Progenitor Species, Poa supina Schrad and Poa infirma Kunth

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    Shu Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual bluegrass ( L. is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind ’s wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species. Total RNA was extracted from and its two proposed diploid parents, Schrad and Kunth, and sequenced in Illumina Hiseq2000. Optimized, nonredundant transcriptome references were generated for each species using four de novo assemblers (Trinity, Velvet, SOAPdenovo, and CLC Genomics Workbench and a redundancy-reducing pipeline (CD-HIT-EST and EvidentialGene tr2aacds. Using the constructed transcriptomes together with sequencing reads, we found high similarity in nucleotide sequences and homeologous polymorphisms between and the two proposed parents. Comparison of chloroplast and mitochondrion genes further confirmed as the maternal parent. Less nucleotide percentage differences were observed between and homeologs than between and homeologs, indicating a higher nucleotide substitution rates in homeologs than in homeologs. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis suggested the more compatible cytoplasmic environment and cellular apparatus for homeologs as the major cause for this phenomenon.

  19. Co-processed extracts of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, and Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, for production of high load tablets

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    Verônica M. L. Alves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a co-processing technique for improving the manufacturing properties of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae, and Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Fabaceae, extracts in order to obtain tablets containing a high dose of such extracts. An experimental mixture design was used to optimise the formulation composition. Flowability parameters, such as compressibility index, time flow and angle of repose, were determined. Additional important industrial parameters, such as granulometry, bulk density and moisture stability, were also studied. The results demonstrated that co-processing technique was able to improve the flowability of vegetal extracts, making these materials suitable for a direct compression process. The contour plots revealed that formulations with a higher amount of lactose produced the best flow results as well as a larger particle size and a greater bulk density. Tablets from co-processed extracts containing lactose as majority diluent showed appropriate physical-chemical characteristics and presented a more stable moisture sorption behaviour compared to commercial gelatine capsules.

  20. Tableros de partículas de bambú (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad y resina poliuretana a base de aceite de rícino (Ricinus communis L.

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    Flávio Januário José

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo la elaboración y la evaluación de tableros de partículas homogéneas aglomeradas, utilizándose dos materiales alternativos en la búsqueda de la sustentabilidad del proceso productivo. Fueron utilizadas partículas de Bambusa vulgaris Schrad por la rapidez del ciclo de producción de esta especie de bambú. Como pegante fue utilizada la resina poliuretana a base de aceite de ricino (Ricinus communis L., por su origen parcialmente renovable, y por ser considerada no tóxica. Para la caracterización del material, fueron fabricadas, en escala de laboratorio, tableros de partículas de bambú con dimensiones inferiores al 2.4 mm, combinadas con 5%, 10% y 15% de resina en relación a la masa de partículas de bambú. Probetas fueron evaluadas de acuerdo con las especificaciones de la norma NBR 14810 - Tableros de madera aglomerada. Antes de los ensayos de compresión las probetas fueron evaluadas por medio del ensayo no destructivo por ultra-sonido. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que los tableros con el contenido de 10% de resina no fue estadísticamente diferente al contenido de 15%, siendo ambos superiores al contenido de 5%. La mayoría de las propiedades de los tableros fueron inferiores a aquellas de los tableros comerciales. No fue posible correlacionar la velocidad del pulso de ultra-sonido con la resistencia a la compresión longitudinal.

  1. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of epicatechin in Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae Desenvolvimento e validação de um método de CLAE para a determinação da epicatequina em Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae

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    Gisely Cristiny Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple, reproducible and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed. Water (0.05% TFA:acetonitrile (0.05% TFA was used as the mobile phase in a gradient system for the determination of epicatechin (EP in leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch. The analysis was performed using an RP C-18 column (5 µm as the stationary phase, with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, at a wavelength of 210 nm for detection and determination. The main validation parameters of the method were also determined. The calibration curve was found to be linear, with a range of 10-120 µg/mL (EP. The correlation coefficient of the linear regression analysis was within 0.9988, and the detection and quantification limits were 28.61 and 86.77 µg/mL, respectively. The content of EP was successfully determined, with satisfactory reproducibility and recovery. Recovery of the EP was 99.32%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of epicatechin in leaves of M. ilicifolia. The interlaboratorial evaluation showed the reproducibility of the method with a relative standard deviation of 14.62%.Um método simples, reprodutível e eficiente de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido. Água (0,05% TFA:acetonitrila (0,05% TFA foi utilizado como fase móvel em um sistema de gradiente para a determinação da epicatequina (EP em folhas de Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae. A análise foi realizada utilizando coluna RP C-18 (5 µm como fase estacionária, com vazão de 0,8 mL/min, e comprimento de onda de 210 nm para a detecção e determinação. Os principais parâmetros de validação do método foram determinados. A curva analítica apresentou-se linear no intervalo de 10-120 µg/mL (EP. O coeficiente de correlação da análise de regressão linear foi de 0,9988, o limite de detecção e o limite de quantificação foram de 28,61 e 86,77 µg/mL, respectivamente. O conteúdo do EP foi determinado

  2. Effects of maturity at harvest on the nutritive value and ruminal digestion of Eragrostis tef (cv. Moxie) when fed to beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyard, J R; Hall, J B; Sprinkle, J E; Chibisa, G E

    2018-05-18

    Teff (Eragrostis tef cv. Moxie), a warm-season annual grass, could be an excellent forage for beef cattle. However, there is limited information on its nutritive value to cattle when harvested at different stages of maturity. Thus, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of feeding teff hay harvested at the boot (BT), early-heading (EH), or late-heading (LH) stages of maturity on nutrient intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, omasal nutrient flow, and N utilization in beef cattle. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (mean initial BW ± SD, 476 ± 32.6) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18 d for adaptation and 10 d for measurements). Dry matter intake was measured daily. Indwelling pH loggers were used to measure ruminal pH from d 21 to 28. Ruminal fluid and omasal digesta were collected from d 26 to 28 to determine fermentation characteristics and omasal nutrient flow. Fecal and urine samples to quantify N excretion were also collected (d 26 to 28). Blood samples for plasma urea-N (PUN) determination were collected 3 h post-feeding on d 28. There were no changes (P > 0.28) in the ADF or NDF content of teff with advancing maturity, but iNDF increased (P ruminal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration, pH, digestibility and outflow of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and CP. However, the CP content of BT hay was greater (P ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration was greater (P ruminal NH3-N concentration, feeding beef heifers EH and LH compared to BT teff hay did not compromise ruminal digestion and outflow of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and CP, and microbial protein synthesis. Advancing maturity in teff hay also resulted in a decrease in the excretion of total N and urine N and UUN when fed to cattle.

  3. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  4. The effect of winter burning and mowing on seasonal herbage yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Eragrostis curvula cv. Ermelo to three levels of fertilizer (no nitrogen or phosphorus; 53 kg nitrogen + 16 kg phosphorus per ha; and 106 kg nitrogen + 32 kg phosphorus per ha), three times of removing unutilized herbage (July, August and September) and three methods of herbage removal (annual mowing ...

  5. Establishing vegetation on Kimberlite mine tailings: 2. Field trials. | N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of field experiments were carried out on Kimberlite mine tailing located at Cullinan in the Transvaal. The most successful species in pure sward were Chloris gayana, Cynodon aethiopicus, Eragrostis curvula, E. tef, Pennisetum purpureum, Melilotus alban and Medicago sativa. Growth of grasses in the absence of ...

  6. Controle de capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana com herbicidas pré-emergentes em associação com diferentes métodos de manejo do campo nativo Control of South African lovegrass (Eragrostis plana in natural pastures using pre emergent herbicides and different vegetation management methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.G.R. Goulart

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A planta daninha capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana é um dos principais limitantes ao desenvolvimento da pecuária extensiva no Sul do Brasil. Vários fatores dificultam o controle dessa espécie em condições de pastagem natural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle de capim-annoni-2 por meio de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência que possam apresentar seletividade de posição no solo à pastagem nativa. Dois experimentos foram realizados neste estudo. O primeiro foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde sementes de capim-annoni-2 foram semeadas em vasos. O delineamento utilizado foi o completamente casualizado com seis repetições. Os herbicidas avaliados foram alachlor, ametryne, ametryne + tebuthiuron, atrazine, clomazone, diuron, flumioxazin, imazaquin, mesotrione, metribuzin, oxadiazon, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, terbuthylazine e trifluralin. Todos os produtos controlaram satisfatoriamente o capim-annoni-2. O segundo experimento foi conduzido em campo nativo com alta infestação de capim-annoni-2, em delineamento de blocos completamente casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas. Nas parcelas principais foram alocados os tratamentos de manejo da vegetação em antecedência a aplicação dos herbicidas: fogo técnico e roçada em altura alta e baixa; nas subparcelas, as doses dos herbicidas: 75 e 100% da dose de rótulo; e, nas subsubparcelas, os herbicidas atrazine, flumioxazin, mesotrione, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, trifluralin e testemunha não tratada. Nenhum dos herbicidas testados controlou efetivamente o capim-annoni-2 em campo, provavelmente devido à grande presença de plantas perenizadas. No entanto, os efeitos dos herbicidas foram mais pronunciados quando associados a fogo técnico e roçada baixa.The weed South African lovegrass (Eragrostis plana is one of the most important problems of rangelands and native pastures in southern Brazil. Several factors have limited its management in these

  7. The influence of feedback on hay pastures. | N.F.G. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding of hay to sheep or cattle on an Eragrostis curvula pasture during the winter months has a most beneficial effect on the response of the pasture to fertilization in subsequent seasons. Low rates of feedback (10 t/ha) had an effect for two seasons whilst the effect of 30 t/ha lasted for at least three seasons and was ...

  8. Comportamento ingestivo diurno de vacas primíparas em pastagem nativa dominada por capim-annoni-2 com suplementação proteica e mineral em diversas estações climáticas Diurnal ingestive behaviour of pregnant heifers grazing on natural grasslands invaded by Eragrostis plana Ness as affected by protein and mineral supplements in the different climatic seasons

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    Silvane Barcelos Carlotto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da suplementação proteica e mineral sobre o comportamento ingestivo de vacas primíparas em pastagem nativa dominada por capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Ness recebendo suplementação com sal comum; sal mineral; sal proteinado; ou sal para reprodução e sal proteinado (1:1. Testou-se a hipótese de que suplementos minerais e proteinados pudessem promover alterações no comportamento ingestivo dos animais em pastejo. O estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área de 37 ha de pastagem nativa invadida por capim-annoni-2, dividida em oito potreiros (unidades experimentais. Os animais foram avaliados no período diurno, por dois dias consecutivos, em cada uma das estações climáticas, de abril de 2006 a março de 2007. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições. Os tempos de pastejo, de ruminação, de ócio e de outras atividades não diferiram entre suplementos, e os valores médios diários para essas atividades foram 505, 108, 70 e 11 minutos, respectivamente. Os tempos de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e a taxa de bocados diferiram significativamente entre as estações climáticas. A suplementação proteica e mineral não promove alterações significativas no comportamento ingestivo dos animais. O comportamento ingestivo, no entanto, é influenciado pelas estações climáticas.The influence was assessed of protein and mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of pregnant heifers on a native grassland dominated by capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Ness supplementation with common salt, mineral salt, protein salt and protein salt and reproduction salt (1:1. The hypothesis was tested that different mineral and protein salt supplements could promote alterations in the animal grazing ingestive behavior. The study was carried out in a 37 ha area of native pasture invaded by capim-annoni-2, divided into 8 paddocks (experimental units. The animals were evaluated during the daylight

  9. Potencial fitotóxico de Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrad. Underw. (Gleicheniaceae Phytotoxic potential of Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrad. Underw. (Gleicheniaceae

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    Valerí Schmidt da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o potencial fitotóxico do extrato etanólico bruto e das frações semipurificadas de Dicranopteris flexuosa por meio de bioensaios de germinação e crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. (alface, Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomate, Allium cepa L. (cebola e Triticum aestivum L. (trigo em laboratório e casa de vegetação e quantificar o teor total de fenóis e flavonóides dos extratos e frações. Nos bioensaios realizados em laboratório foram utilizadas quatro concentrações (0, 250, 500, 1000 mg L-1, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. A análise dos resultados indica redução da velocidade e/ou inibição da germinação, estímulo do crescimento da raiz das eudicotiledôneas e inibição da raiz adventícia das monocotiledôneas estudadas. Nos bioensaios realizados em casa de vegetação foram utilizadas as mesmas concentrações dos bioensaios em laboratório, com oito repetições de cinco sementes por vaso. A análise dos resultados indica que o comprimento da raiz foi afetado pelo extrato etanólico bruto, ocorrendo estímulo em tomate e inibição em cebola e trigo. A produção de massa seca da parte aérea foi estimulada na menor concentração em alface e trigo. A fração acetato de etila foi a que apresentou os maiores teores de fenóis e flavonóides totais. Embora os resultados sejam preliminares, observa-se que o extrato etanólico e as frações semipurificadas de D. flexuosa também contêm substâncias que interferem no crescimento das plântulas de alface, tomate, cebola e trigo.This work aimed to determine the phytotoxic potential of crude ethanol extract and semipurified fractions of Dicranopteris flexuosa on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce, Lycopersicon esculentum L. (tomato, Allium cepa L. (onion and Triticum aestivum L. (wheat in laboratory and greenhouse bioassays and determine total phenolic and flavonoid content. For the tests carried out in laboratory, four concentrations (0, 250, 500, 1000 mg.L-1 were applied to four replicates of 50 seeds each. Analysis of the results indicates a reduction in speed and/or inhibition of germination, stimulation of root growth in eudicots and root inhibition in the monocots studied. For the bioassays carried out in the greenhouse, the plant materials were applied at the same concentrations as those in the laboratory bioassays, with eight replicates of five seeds each. Analysis of the results indicates that root length was affected by the crude ethanol extract resulting in stimulation in tomato and inhibition in onion and wheat. Aerial dry mass was higher at the lower concentration in lettuce and wheat. The ethyl acetate fraction presented higher content of total phenols and flavonoids. Although the results are preliminary, they indicate that ethanol extract and semipurified fractions of D. flexuosa contain substances that modify seedling growth of lettuce, tomato, onion and wheat.

  10. Screening Some Tef [Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.)Trotter] Accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Salinity is a continuing problem in the arid and semi-arid tracts of the world. It could be alleviated using irrigation management and/or crop management. However, the former approach is outdated and very expensive. Nevertheless, the latter is economical as well as efficient, and it enables to produce salt ...

  11. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  12. Probiotic potential and nutritional importance of teff (Eragrostis tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Physiological response of selected eragrostis species to water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, .... respiration measurements were taken at night (20:00 h). .... Cellular ultrastructure .... these in place, to be held at intermediate water contents.

  14. Perennial pastures for marginal farming country in southern Queensland. 2. Potential new grass cultivar evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Silcock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials in the Condamine-Balonne basin, Australia, compared 11 promising perennial pasture grass accessions (4 Bothriochloa, 2 Cenchrus, 2 Urochloa and 1 each of Digitaria, Eragrostis and Panicum species against the best similar commercial cultivars on the basis of ease of establishment from seed, persistence once established, forage yield and ease of seed production.  Accessions sown at a site were determined by prior experience with them on a range of soils.  High quality seed was relatively easy to produce for both Urochloa species and for Eragrostis curvula CPI 30374 but problematic for the Bothriochloa spp.  Once established, all accessions persisted for 3–5 years and most were well grazed, but adequate establishment was sometimes a problem with Panicum stapfianum and Bothriochloa ewartiana.  The dry matter yield ratings of the non-commercial lines were similar to those of the commercial equivalents of the same species.  While agronomically valuable, none of the promising new grasses was considered worthy of commercialization at this point because their strengths did not warrant the setting up of a seed-production business in competition with current commercial enterprises.  Long-standing cultivars such as Gayndah buffel and Nixon sabi grass continued to exhibit their superior pasture qualities.Keywords: Herbicide tolerance, persistence, forage yield, establishment ease, commercialization, seed production.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(315-26

  15. Revegetation on a coal fine ash disposal site in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, L.; De Sousa Correia, R.I.; Booysen, J. [Potchefstroom Univ. for Christian Higher Education (South Africa). Research Inst. for Reclamation Ecology; Ginster, M. [Sastech Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    1998-11-01

    Eight medium amendments were conducted on top of a fine ash coal dump (i) to evaluate a few cost-effective treatments that could determine the minimum fertility status required for the local ash to support the establishment of a viable vegetation cover, and (ii) to select suitable grass species that would establish on the ash and could serve as a foundation for long-term rehabilitation. Degree and success of grass establishment per medium amelioration treatment is expressed in terms of total biomass, percentage basal cover, and in terms of a condition assessment model. Both the chemical and physical nature of the ash medium before and after amendment was characterized, as were the concentrations of some essential and potentially toxic elements in leaf samples. In terms of medium amelioration 5000 kg ha{sup {minus}1} compost, or 500 kg ha{sup {minus}1} kraal manure or 480 kg 2:3:2 ha{sup {minus}1} proved to be most effective. The grass species that occurred with the highest frequency, irrespective of treatment, were the perennials bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers. var dactylon], weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula (Schrader) Nees], and the annual teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter]. Of the potentially toxic extractable metals monitored in the leaves of vegetation on the dump, only Se accumulated to an average level of 4.4 mg kg{sup {minus}1} that could be toxic to livestock.

  16. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  17. Leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae Schrad. from the Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Heliotropiaceae has more than 450 species, mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. In Brazil, it is represented by the genera Euploca Nutt., Heliotropium L., Myriopus Small and Tournefortia L. The aim of this study was to describe the leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae recorded in the semi-arid region of Brazil: E. polyphylla (Lehm. J.I.M. Melo & Semir, E. procumbens (Mill. Diane & Hilger, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., M. rubicundus (Salzm. ex DC. Luebert and M. salzmannii (DC. Diane & Hilger. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the anatomy of the representatives of the family in the Caatinga (Brazilian savannah, we also sought to determine and highlight the anatomical features adaptive to the region and to identify features with potential diagnostic value. Leaf structures were analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additional tests were also carried out to detect starch and total lipids. The morphological variation and the distribution of trichomes were the most relevant features for species diagnosis. The distribution of stomata in M. salzmannii and H. angiospermum differed from that described in other papers, which demonstrates the anatomical plasticity of these species. This is the first report describing the leaf blade of M. rubicundus.

  18. Leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae Schrad. from the Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tölke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p1 The family Heliotropiaceae has more than 450 species, mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. In Brazil, it is represented by the genera Euploca Nutt., Heliotropium L., Myriopus Small and Tournefortia L. The aim of this study was to describe the leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae recorded in the semi-arid region of Brazil: E. polyphylla (Lehm. J.I.M. Melo & Semir, E. procumbens (Mill. Diane & Hilger, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., M. rubicundus (Salzm. ex DC. Luebert and M. salzmannii (DC. Diane & Hilger. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the anatomy of the representatives of the family in the Caatinga (Brazilian savannah, we also sought to determine and highlight the anatomical features adaptive to the region and to identify features with potential diagnostic value. Leaf structures were analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additional tests were also carried out to detect starch and total lipids. The morphological variation and the distribution of trichomes were the most relevant features for species diagnosis. The distribution of stomata in M. salzmannii and H. angiospermum differed from that described in other papers, which demonstrates the anatomical plasticity of these species. This is the first report describing the leaf blade of M. rubicundus.

  19. Salinity effects on radiation utilization characteristics of Kochia (Kochia Scoparia L. Schrad.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jami Al-Ahmadi, M.; Kafi, M.; Nassiri Mahalati, M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency of Kochia scoparia in response to saline stress, a study was performed at Birjand, South Khorasan, using three levels of salinity in irrigation water (1.5, 8.6 and 28.2 dSm-1) with three replications. Several measurements were conducted during growth season to calculate radiation fraction passed through plant canopy, and also leaf area index (LAI) and total dry matter (TDM). Light extinction coefficient calculated with correcting fraction of plant light absorption for whole day, and using dry matter accumulation, radiation use efficiency obtained in each different salinity level. The results showed that light extinction coefficient of Kochia was equal to 0.59 for solar noon and 0.75 for whole day. The radiation absorption of kochia rose as LAI increased, and 95% of radiation was absorbed at LAI equal to 4 to 5. LAI and total dry matter accumulation were highest in moderate salinity level. In general, increase in salinity caused a delay in early season development, and accelerated plant maturity at late season. This caused plant canopies at the highest salinity reached to maximum light absorption later in growth season. Increase of salinity from 1.5 to 8.6 dSm-1 was responsible for little increase in RUE from 2.4 to 2.5 g per MJ absorbed PAR; however, it reduced with further increase in salinity. Thus, it seems that moderate salinity levels stimulate growth and dry matter accumulation of kochia and cause kochia canopy convert the absorbed radiation to dry matter more effectively. Key words: Kochia scoparia, Salinity, Light extension coefficient, Radiation use efficiency, Leaf Area Index

  20. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  1. Crop coefficient, yield response to water stress and water productivity of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Girmay, G.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    In the semi-arid region of Tigray, Northen Ethiopia a two season experiment was conducted to measure evapotranspiration, estimate yield response to water stress and derive the crop coefficient of teff using the single crop coefficient approach with simple, locally made lysimeters and field plots.

  2. Fluoride levels in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and enjera and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the fluoride levels in tef grain and in enjera, its fermentation product in different regions of Ethiopia, especially in the regions where tef is dominantly cultivated. The effect of water used to bake the enjera was assessed by preparing fluoride-containing water in the laboratory.

  3. Tef (Eragrostis tef) Variety "Dagim" አህፅሮት Abstract Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Solomon et al. [132]. Tef is the major Ethiopian cereal grown on 3.02 million hectares annually. (CSA, 2015), and serving as staple food grain for over 70 million people. The crop constitutes 30% of the total area allocated to cereals and contributes more than 20% of the total cereals production (CSA. 2015). The.

  4. An African grassland responds similarly to long-term fertilization to the Park Grass experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    Full Text Available We compared the results of a long-term (65 years experiment in a South African grassland with the world's longest-running ecological experiment, the Park Grass study at Rothamsted, U.K. The climate is warm and humid in South Africa and cool and temperate in England. The African grassland has been fertilized with two forms of nitrogen applied at four levels, phosphorus and lime in a crossed design in 96 plots. In 1951, about 84% of plant cover consisted of Themeda triandra, Tristachya leucothrix and Setaria nigrirostris. Currently, the dominant species are Panicum maximum, Setaria sphacelata and Eragrostis curvula, making up 71% of total biomass. As in the Park Grass experiment, we found a significant (additive interaction effect on ANPP of nitrogen and phosphorus, and a (marginally significant negative correlation between ANPP and species richness. Unlike the Park Grass experiment, there was no correlation between ANPP and species richness when pH was included as a covariate. There was also a significant negative effect of nitrogen amount and nitrogen form and a positive effect of lime on species richness and species diversity. Soil pH had an important effect on species richness. Liming was insufficient to balance the negative effects on species richness of nitrogen fertilization. There was a significant effect of pH on biomass of three abundant species. There were also significant effects of light on the biomass of four species, with only Panicum maximum having a negative response to light. In all of the abundant species, adding total species richness and ANPP to the model increased the amount of variance explained. The biomass of Eragrostis curvula and P. maximum were negatively correlated with species richness while three other abundant species increased with species richness, suggesting that competition and facilitation were active. Consistent with the results from the Park Grass and other long-term fertilization experiments of grasslands

  5. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy.

  6. Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind

    2014-03-22

    The family Geminiviridae includes plant-infecting circular single-stranded DNA viruses that have geminate particle morphology. Members of this family infect both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and have a nearly global distribution. With the advent of new molecular tools and low-cost sequencing, there has been a significant increase in the discovery of new geminiviruses in various cultivated and non-cultivated plants. In this communication, we highlight the establishment of three new genera (Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus) to accommodate various recently discovered geminiviruses that are highly divergent and, in some cases, have unique genome architectures. The genus Becurtovirus has two viral species, Beet curly top Iran virus (28 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps) and Spinach curly top Arizona virus (1 isolate; unknown vector), whereas the genera Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus each have a single assigned species: Eragrostis curvula streak virus (6 isolates; unknown vector) and Turnip curly top virus (20 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps), respectively. Based on analysis of all of the genome sequences available in public databases for each of the three new genera, we provide guidelines and protocols for species and strain classification within these three new genera. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  7. Establishment of three new genera in the family Geminiviridae: Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind; Navas-Castillo, Jesú s; Moriones, Enrique; Herná ndez-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Brown, Judith K.; Murilo Zerbini, F.; Martin, Darren Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The family Geminiviridae includes plant-infecting circular single-stranded DNA viruses that have geminate particle morphology. Members of this family infect both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants and have a nearly global distribution. With the advent of new molecular tools and low-cost sequencing, there has been a significant increase in the discovery of new geminiviruses in various cultivated and non-cultivated plants. In this communication, we highlight the establishment of three new genera (Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus) to accommodate various recently discovered geminiviruses that are highly divergent and, in some cases, have unique genome architectures. The genus Becurtovirus has two viral species, Beet curly top Iran virus (28 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps) and Spinach curly top Arizona virus (1 isolate; unknown vector), whereas the genera Eragrovirus and Turncurtovirus each have a single assigned species: Eragrostis curvula streak virus (6 isolates; unknown vector) and Turnip curly top virus (20 isolates; leafhopper vector Circulifer haematoceps), respectively. Based on analysis of all of the genome sequences available in public databases for each of the three new genera, we provide guidelines and protocols for species and strain classification within these three new genera. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  8. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha -1 yr -1 and to harvest once yr -1 after senescence.

  9. Switchgrass, Bermudagrass, Flaccidgrass, and Lovegrass biomass yield response to nitrogen for single and double harvest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindhakshan, Sijesh C.; Epplin, Francis M. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-6026 (United States); Taliaferro, Charles M. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been identified as a model dedicated energy crop species. After a perennial grass is established, the major variable costs are for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and harvest. Prior to establishing switchgrass on millions of ha in a particular agro-climatic region, it would be useful to determine switchgrass yield response to N and its response to harvest frequency relative to alternative grass species. The objective of this research is to determine biomass yield response to N for four perennial grass species and to determine the species, N level, and harvest frequency that will maximize expected net returns, given the climate and soils of the U.S.A. Southern Plains. Yield data were produced in an experiment that includes four species (switchgrass, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), and carostan flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum)), four N levels, and two harvest levels. Linear response plateau (LRP), linear response stochastic plateau (LRSP), and quadratic response (QR) functions are estimated. For all combinations of biomass and N prices considered, the optimal species is switchgrass. For most price situations, it is economically optimal to fertilize established stands of switchgrass with 69 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} and to harvest once yr{sup -1} after senescence. (author)

  10. Poder germinativo de sementes de capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Ness recuperadas em fezes de bovinos Germination of capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Ness seeds recovered in bovine feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Augusto Vargas Lisboa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do processo de digestão de bovinos sobre o poder germinativo de sementes de capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostisplana Ness recuperadas nas fezes. As sementes (6 g, 27.273 sementes foram colocadas no saco ventral do rúmem de oito novilhos fistulados, mantidos em gaiolas para ensaios metabólicos. Quarenta e três por cento das sementes fornecidas aos animais foram recuperadas nas fezes: aquelas recuperadas nos três primeiros dias corresponderam a 97,2% da quantidade de sementes fornecidas. Somente 7,2% das sementes recuperadas, equivalente a 3,1% da quantidade de sementes fornecidas, apresentaram viabilidade. O tempo de permanência no trato digestivo foi a principal causa do desaparecimento das sementes consumidas e da perda de seu poder germinativo. A ausência de sementes de capim-annoni-2 nas fezes ocorre a partir do oitavo dia após a ingestão, assim, bovinos devem permanecer em quarentena por sete dias em área livre de capim-annoni-2 para limpeza do trato digestivo.This work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of the bovine digestion process on the germination capacity of the capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostisplana Ness seeds recovered in feces. The seeds (6 g, 27,273 seeds were placed in a ruminal ventral sack of eight fistulated steers kept in pen trial. Forthy-three percent of the offered seeds were recovered in the feces. Seeds recovered in the first three days corresponded to 97.2% of the offered seeds. Only 7.2% of the recovered seeds germinated and represented 3.1% of the offered seeds. The permanence time in the digestive trait was the main cause for the disappearance of consumed seeds and for the loss in their germination capacity. The absence of capim-annoni-2 seeds in the feces occurs in the eighth day after ingestion, then, bovines should be kept in quarantine for seven days in an area free of capim-annoni-2 seeds to clean their digestive trait.

  11. Effect of adding phosphogypsum to the soil on the growth, yield, radionuclides, trace elements and fluorine accumulation in Kochia scoparia (L.) schrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Odat, M.; Sharabi, N.; Kanacri, S.

    2004-01-01

    Large quantities of phosphogypsum, a by-product of phosphate fertilizer industry, are stacked close to urban areas in Syria. This may pose negative impacts on the environment. Many studies have reported positive effects of phosphogypsum application on nutrient levels, physical and chemical properties of agricultural soils. There are some concerns that the application of phosphogypsum to agricultural lands may results in the uptake by plant of radionuclides, fluorine and trace elements. Phosphogypsum, which has a radioactivity of 416 Bq/Kg, was mixed with a loamy soil, at different rates (0, 10, 20 and 40 T/ha). The experiments were carried out using Kochia scoparia, as a forage crop. The results showed that adding phosphogypsum to the soil, at a rate of 10 to 40 T/ha increased significantly the yields of Kochia by 44%. The radioactivities in the shoot systems of Kochia grown on these soil - phosphogypsum mixtures were below detection level. In addition, phosphogypsum application did not cause accumulation of trace elements in the soil or plant. Fluorine concentrations in the forage increased but remained less than the allowable level (30 ppm). Therefore adding phosphogypsum to agricultural soils (at a rate of 10-20 T/ha) can be considered an effective way of improving soil properties, crop productivity and represents a way of phosphogypsum utilization which reduces in negative effects on the environment. (author)

  12. A quantitative validated method using liquid chromatography and chemometric analysis for evaluation of raw material oF Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad.) Planch., Celastraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrame, Flávio Luís; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Prestes, Rosilene Aparecida; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo Mottin; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2012-01-01

    The hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from standard leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia and commercial samples of espinheira-santa were evaluated qualitatively (fingerprinting) and quantitatively. In this paper, fingerprinting chromatogram coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is described for the metabolomic analysis of standard and commercial espinheira-santa samples. The epicatechin standard was used as an external standard for the development and validation of a quantitative method for...

  13. A quantitative validated method using liquid chromatography and chemometric analysis for evaluation of raw material oF Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Luís Beltrame

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from standard leaves of Maytenus ilicifolia and commercial samples of espinheira-santa were evaluated qualitatively (fingerprinting and quantitatively. In this paper, fingerprinting chromatogram coupled with Principal Component Analysis (PCA is described for the metabolomic analysis of standard and commercial espinheira-santa samples. The epicatechin standard was used as an external standard for the development and validation of a quantitative method for the analysis in herbal medicines using a photo diode array detector. This method has been applied for quantification of epicatechin in commercialized herbal medicines sold as espinheira-santa in Brazil and in the standard sample of M. ilicifolia.

  14. Evaluation of six candidate DNA barcode loci for identification of five important invasive grasses in eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisuo Wang

    Full Text Available Invasive grass weeds reduce farm productivity, threaten biodiversity, and increase weed control costs. Identification of invasive grasses from native grasses has generally relied on the morphological examination of grass floral material. DNA barcoding may provide an alternative means to identify co-occurring native and invasive grasses, particularly during early growth stages when floral characters are unavailable for analysis. However, there are no universal loci available for grass barcoding. We herein evaluated the utility of six candidate loci (atpF intron, matK, ndhK-ndhC, psbE-petL, ETS and ITS for barcode identification of several economically important invasive grass species frequently found among native grasses in eastern Australia. We evaluated these loci in 66 specimens representing five invasive grass species (Chloris gayana, Eragrostis curvula, Hyparrhenia hirta, Nassella neesiana, Nassella trichotoma and seven native grass species. Our results indicated that, while no single locus can be universally used as a DNA barcode for distinguishing the grass species examined in this study, two plastid loci (atpF and matK showed good distinguishing power to separate most of the taxa examined, and could be used as a dual locus to distinguish several of the invasive from the native species. Low PCR success rates were evidenced among two nuclear loci (ETS and ITS, and few species were amplified at these loci, however ETS was able to genetically distinguish the two important invasive Nassella species. Multiple loci analyses also suggested that ETS played a crucial role in allowing identification of the two Nassella species in the multiple loci combinations.

  15. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.; Velasco, R. H.

    2008-08-01

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs+ (and K+) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the 137Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m-2 in this region, no 137Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K+ starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs+ and K+ when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. KM values were smaller for K+ than for Cs+, indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K+ concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs+ uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs+ is smaller than K+ concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors.

  16. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, R. H.; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs + (and K + ) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the 137 Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m -2 in this region, no 137 Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K + starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs + and K + when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. K M values were smaller for K + than for Cs + , indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K + concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs + uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs + is smaller than K + concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors

  17. Temperaturas cardinales de desarrollo en la etapa siembra- emergencia de 11 pastos forrajeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Durán Puga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron determinar las temperaturas cardinales de desarrollo (temperatura umbral mínima Tb, temperatura óptima To y temperatura umbral máxima Tu, e identificar un método que estime con precisión los requerimientos térmicos para la etapa siembra-emergencia (E de 11 pastos forrajeros. Ciento veinte (120 semillas de cada uno se sembraron en recipientes en condiciones controladas con un diseño experimental completamente al azar y tres repeticiones a temperaturas constantes de 15 hasta 46 ºC, en cámaras de ambiente controlado del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP en Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. Las temperaturas cardinales y requerimiento térmico se estimaron mediante el método bilineal (MB y el método curvilíneo (MC, se evaluó su ajuste mediante comparación directa con los valores de desarrollo observados en ambiente controlado y coeficiente de variación de la duración de E expresada en términos de unidades calor acumuladas (UCA. Los resultados mostraron que el MB fue mejor para estimar Tb y To, y el MC fue mejor para estimar Tu. Los valores de Tb, To, Tu y UCA, fueron, Lolium perenne 9, 31, 41, 80, Festuca arundinacea 10, 31, 41, 78, Hyparrhenia rufa 12, 32, 42, 62, Eragrostis curvula 13, 32, 47, 40, Chloris gayana 13, 31, 47, 40, Melinis minutiflora 13, 31, 43, 50, Pennisetum clandestinum 12, 32, 43, 65, Brachiaria mutica 14, 32, 43, 57, Andropogon gayanus 12, 37, 48, 66, Cynodon dactylon 14, 29, 44, 48, Pennicetum ciliare 13, 30, 42, 61.

  18. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making.

  19. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  20. Chemical constituents of leaves of Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schard.) Irwin and Barneby; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schrad.) Irwin and Barneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio de Oliveira; Oliveira, Irvila Ricarte de; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From leaves of Senna spectabilis var. excelsa were isolated caffeine, the triterpenes lupeol, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, cycloeucalenol, friedelin and ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids, besides the steroids sitosterol and stigmasterol and their respective glucosides. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis including two-dimensional NMR methods and comparison with published spectral data. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in S. spectabilis var. excelsa. (author)

  1. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 16, No 4 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meiotic behaviour of Eragrostis tef and,i> Eragrostis Pilosa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Admas, K Dagne. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v16i4.54396 ...

  2. Antimycotoxigenic and antifungal activities of Citrullus colocynthis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-23

    Oct 23, 2013 ... may have significant potential for biological control of fungi and theirs toxins. Key words: Citrullus .... antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antiochratoxigenic effect ... C. colocynthis Schrad. fruits were collected in December (2010).

  3. ·: ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this figure is low compared with figures from other studies in .... a long summer period, high temperatures and wind are major factors contributing to the production of ..... Eragrostis grasses. Values shown are mean cpm of triplicate wells as.

  4. RESEARCH NOTE THE PERFOR]\\IANCE DURING WINTER, OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PERFOR]\\IANCE DURING WINTER, OF HETFERS FED GRASS SILAGE, MADE UNDER. UNFAVOURABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS AND E. curvula HAY, PRODUCED. FROM THE SAME SWARD. Receipt of MS: 06-10-1981. A. van Niekerk. Cedara Agriculrural Research Station, PlBag X9059, Pietermaritzburg ...

  5. National Register Testing of 42 Prehistoric Archeological Sites on Fort Hood, Texas: The 1996 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    the mussel shells belong to the family Unionidae, but no attempt to identify genus or species was made. At least nine different genera of mussels...ornaments or tools. Four of the modified shells are identifiable to genus : two are cf. Lampsilis sp. (one from 41CV578 and one from 41CV1250), one is... Diospyros texana Eragrostis intermedia Eragrostis trichodes Erigeron tenuis Erioneuron pilosum Erodium texanum Euphorbia roemeriana Evax

  6. Radiosensitivity and parameters for its measurement in some cucurbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnoi, A.K.; Joshi, M.C. (Defence Research and Development Organization, Almora (India). Agricultural Research Unit)

    1981-12-01

    Treatment with gamma-rays resulted in a significant reduction in the germination percentage and root and shoot lengths in Luffa cylindrica (inn). M. Roem, Momordica charantia Linn. Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. and Cylanthera pedata Schrad., but radiation had no significant effect on nuclear volume. Species having higher value of nuclear volume had more radiosensitivity.

  7. Notes on Citrullus spp.: Pollen morphology, C values, and interspecific hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. mucosospermus (Fu...

  8. Effect of Component Population on the Growth and Yield of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment to determine the optimum component populations of maize (Zea mays L.) and egusi melon Colocynthis citrullus L. Schrad) component crops in intercrop were conducted in 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons. There were three maize populations (17,780; 26,670 and 53,330 plants/ha), three egusi melon ...

  9. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) schrad is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family of Cucurbitaceae. In the present study we evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial and the antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from C. colocynthis roots as well as the latter phytochemical characterisation. Total phenolic and ...

  10. Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, I.J. van der; Faber, K.N.; Keizer-Gunnink, I.; Gietl, C.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector

  11. Genetic relationships in the desert watermelon citrullus colocynthis as viewed with high-frequency, oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. are a viable source for enhancing disease and pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. However, there is information about their genetic diversity and relationships to watermelon cultivars. Genetic diversity and relationships were ...

  12. Utilizing genetic diversity in the desert watermelon citrullus colocynthis for enhancing watermelon cultivars for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide genetic diversity exists among the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (CC) accessions collected in the deserts of northern Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Because of their resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, there can be a viable source of genes used for enhancing wa...

  13. Genetic diversity in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis and its relationship with Citrullus species as determined by high-frequency oligonucleotides-targeting active gene markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. is a viable source of genes for enhancing disease and pest resistance in the cultivated watermelon. However, there is little information in the literature about genetic diversity within C. colocynthis (CC) or the relationship of specific genotypes of CC to C. lanat...

  14. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 6 - Southern Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Zandica L. Maryland senna FAG fassutha f11i~iformis L. Cassytha :azyaponia cuinque~ aba (Raf.) Shinners Cayaponia FAC CeLtis !aeviaata Wilid. Sugarberry... Basil FAC P. ternsifoiwn Schrad. Pychanthemum FAC Qu.ercus X beadiei Trelease Beadle oak FACW- Q. bicolor Willd. Swamp white oak FACW+ Q. imbricaria

  15. Radiosensitivity and parameters for its measurement in some cucurbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnoi, A.K.; Joshi, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Treatment with gamma-rays resulted in a significant reduction in the germination percentage and root and shoot lengths in Luffa cylindrica (inn). M. Roem, Momordica charantia Linn. Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. and Cylanthera pedata Schrad., but radiation had no significant effect on nuclear volume. Species having higher value of nuclear volume had more radiosensitivity. (author)

  16. Radioecological Study in Natural Grasslands of Argentina. Modeling and Evaluation of the Impact on Humans and the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juri Ayub, Jimena; Velasco, Hugo; Rizzotto, Marcos G. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales - Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (GEA-IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis/CONICET, Ejercito de los Andes 950 D5700HHW, San Luis (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides was measured in two natural grasslands (SA and SB), where soils have been undisturbed since the atmospheric {sup 137}Cs global fallout. Site SA is characterized by a small slope (<0.8 deg.) and only the grass Eragrostis curvula grows. Site SB shows a more marked slope (1.7 deg. - 2.0 deg.) where a mixture of grasses grows. Following standard procedures soil and vegetation samples were obtained. Soil profiles were collected up to 25 cm depth (slices 5 cm thickness) and 10 cm depth (0-2, 2-5 and 5-10 cm). In plants, radionuclides uptake by roots and resuspension were distinguished. In soil, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac activity concentration ranged from 706±71 Bq kg{sup -1} to 743±74 Bq kg{sup -1}, 26±2.6 Bq kg{sup -1} to 20±2.0 Bq kg{sup -1} and 31.0±3.1 Bq kg{sup -1} to 35.2±3.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively; showing a uniform vertical distribution and no differences between sites. Instead, for {sup 137}Cs, the vertical distribution is not uniform and differences between sites were found. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration ranged from 0.37±0.04 Bq kg{sup -1} to 6.2±0.06 Bq kg{sup -1}, reaching the maximum value??in the intermediate soil layer (10-15 cm). The {sup 137}Cs deposition on soil was 0.56±0.10 kBq m{sup -2} in SA and 0.51±0.15 kBq m{sup -2} in SB. The {sup 137}Cs vertical transport in soil was described using a convection-dispersion model. The diffusion coefficients (0.43-0.96 cm{sup 2} y{sup -1} for SA and 0.67-2.27 cm{sup 2} y{sup -1} for SB) are in the range of values reported in the literature, instead the convection velocities (0.29-0.64 cm y{sup -1} for SA and 0.33-0.73 cm y{sup -1} for SB) are one order of magnitude higher. This could be due to the high sand and low fine materials content in these soils (sand > 60%, clay <8 %). In plants, {sup 137}Cs was not detected. We have not found differences in {sup 40}K content in plants between sites but differences between sampling

  17. Response to elevated CO 2 from a natural spring in a C 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eragrostis racemosa (C4), a slow grower, showed no significant responses to high CO2 during the late season. CO2-responsiveness in the field generally followed the seasonal phenologies of each species, being greatest during the most active growth period. Keywords: climate change; gas exchange; photosynthetic ...

  18. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  19. Improvement of Injera shelf life through the use of chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mould spoilage is a serious problem that affects the shelf life of injera, the staple Ethiopian fermented bread. Injera is made from teff (Eragrostis tef) but other cereals may also be used in combination with teff. About two-third of Ethiopian diet consists of injera and it accounts for about two-thirds of the daily protein intake of the ...

  20. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts ofCupressus lusitanica and threeEucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisanework N.; Michelsen, Anders

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf ex...

  1. FOLIAR EPIDERMAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    alkaloid, saponin, inulin, cellulose, tannin and lignin; Eragrostis tremula tested negative for lignin and positive for cellulose, saponin and alkaloids while Axonopus compressus tested negative for lignin, but positive for alkaloid, saponin, inulin, cellulose and tannin respectively. Leaf epidermal studies help to determine ...

  2. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  3. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND PLANT REGENERATION FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2012-08-29

    Aug 29, 2012 ... An in vitro embryo rescue culture technique has been developed for F1 hybridsof Eragrostis tef with ... straw over straw of other cereals, and its quality ..... bread wheat. Maximum calli were induced in 4.5. µM 2,4-D (Sears and Deckard, 1982). From a total of 635 cultured pollinated florets of F1 hybrids, 21 ...

  4. Cyperus surinamensis Rottb., A Newly Naturalized Sedge Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyperus surinamensis Rottb., a sedge species of tropical and subtropical American origins, has recently been naturalized in the northern part of Taiwan. The present study provides taxonomic description, line drawings and other relevant information. In addition, a comparison with similar species C. eragrostis Lam. is given.

  5. The farm household model based on Lexicographic utilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yigezu A. Yigezu

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... fill in gaps in the data collected from the sample households and community surveys. Besides the ... Teff (Eragrostis tef), sorghum, maize and ... In the literature, sorghum yield losses due to Striga range from 40-100% [15]. For.

  6. Biomass and leaf-level gas exchange characteristics of three African savanna C4 grass species under optimum growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Arneth, A.; Grispen, V.; Bonyongo, C.M.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-01-01

    C4 savanna grass species, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis lehmanniana and Panicum repens, were grown under optimum growth conditions with the aim of characterizing their above- and below-ground biomass allocation and the response of their gas exchange to changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration

  7. Diversity and Plant Growth Promoting Proerties of Rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the plant growth promoting characteristics and diversity of major tef rhizosphere isolates from central Ethiopia. A total of 162 bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] and characterized. While screening using some plant growth ...

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 22 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Effects of sowing date and nutsedge removal time on plant growth and yield of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] ... Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot multiplication of Amygdalus communis L. cv.

  9. A new agro-climatic classification for crop suitability zoning in northern semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Keesstra, S.D.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    The agro-climatic resources of Giba catchment in northern Ethiopia were assessed and characterized. The objectives were (i) to ascertain the suitability of the climate for growing teff (Eragrostis tef) and barley (Hordeum vulgare); (ii) to determine the onset and length of the growing period (LGP),

  10. Development of lignin in Themeda triandra, Cymbopogon plurinodis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount and distribution of lignin in three grass species was determined. Two climax species, Themeda triandra and Cymbopogon plurinodis and one pioneer species, Eragrostis lehmanniana were used in the investigation. Leaf samples of the three grass species were taken at four stages of growth and samples of the ...

  11. Recommended Species for Vegetative Stabilization of Training Lands in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    bitterbrush Purshia glandulosa Apache plume Fallugia paradoxa Arizona fesce Festuca arizonica Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei Australian saltbush Atriplex...elm Ulmus crassifolia *Cheatgrass Bromus tectorum -Chinkapin oak Quercus muhlenbergii Cholla Opuntia, spp. * Cicer milkvetch Astragalus cicer Clovers...Linum lewisii Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium *Littleleaf palo verde Cercidium microphyllum *Live oak Quercus virginiana Lovegrasses Eragrostis

  12. Smallholders' soil fertility management in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia: implications for nutrient stocks, balances and sustainability of agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haileslassie, A.; Priess, J.A.; Veldkamp, E.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Low agricultural productivity caused by soil degradation is a serious problem in the Ethiopian Highlands. Here, we report how differences in soil fertility management between farming systems, based either on enset (Ensete ventricosum) or on teff (Eragrostis tef) as the major crops, affect the extent

  13. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    glaucus (blue rye grass), Eragrostis pilosa (Indian love grass), Oenothera biennis (king’s-cureall), Ostrya virginiana (eastern hop-hornbeam...profile with a low wa- ter-holding capacity. ERDC/CRREL TN-12-1 6 Prunus serotina (black cherry), Phleum pretense (common timothy), Sarcobatus

  14. Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Study of the Black Warrior-Tombigbee System Corridor, Alabama. Volume 1. Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    rigidulum and P. dichotomi- florum, goose grass ( Eleusine indica ), the love grass (Eragrostis glome- rata), and red-root sedge (Cyperus erythrorhizos...type, Weeden Island Incised, is considered to be an indica - tion of late Porter. This assumption is apparently supported by the dated assemblage at Site

  15. Test Area B-75 Final Range Environmental Assessment (REA), Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    impacts to Eglin ecosystems. Some of the main invasive non-native species of concern are Chinese tallow, cogon grass , Japanese climbing fern...lotor Saw Grass Cladium jamaicensis Florida Black Bear Ursus americanus floridanus Cattail Typha domingensis Sherman’s Fox Squirrel Sciuris niger...Cont’d Yellow Indian Grass Sorghastrum nutans Flycatchers Tyrannidae spp. Purple Lovegrass Eragrostis spectabilis Cotton Mouse Peromyscus gossypinus

  16. Nutrient Intake of the Repatriated United States Army, Navy and Marine Corps Prisoners-of-War of the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    species Banana flowers Hoa hien Cucurbita papo Linn. Pumpkin Cu toi Allium sativum Linn. Garlic Cu don do Daucus carota Linn. Carrot Cu he Allium ...hau Citrullus vulRaris Schrad ’.atermolon Thom (dua) Ananassa staiva Lindl. Pineapple Hanh Allium cap& Linn. Onion He Allium angulosum Linn. Mouse...Ait. Sago Dua Bloa lan Pisum sativum Linn. Green peas Lentilles Lens esculenta Moench Lentils Hot sen Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Lotus Ngo sen Nelumbium

  17. In Contact! Case Studies from the Long War. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    lull, Bellavia called his platoon sergeant, Cantrell, on his radio. Cantrell, who was not with Meno, immediately responded yelling into the mike ...at <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107644.html>, accessed 12 June 2006. 3. Mike Tucker, Among Warriors in Iraq: True Grit, Special Ops, and...SGT Kennedy SPC Detman SPC Hubbard SPC Graff SPC Harris SPC Rullo SPC Kinzer SPC Sharples SPC Heesacker SPC Birkel SPC Schrad Regulator 3 SSG Castro SPC

  18. The grasses (Poaceae) of the Colombian Guyana: analyses on their composition, richness, endemism, and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Canas, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The checklist of grasses from Colombian Guyana is presented. In all, 152 species, 69 genera, and six subfamilies were recorded. Thus, in the Colombian Guyana is represented the 18.7 and 43.7% of the species and genera of Colombian grasses, respectively. The subfamilies with the highest number of species were Panicoideae (110 species/46 genera), Chloridoideae (21/9), and Bambusoideae (11/9). The most diverse genera were Paspalum (19 species), Panicum (16), Axonopus (14), Eragrostis (9), and Digitaria (8). Nineteen species are introduced and naturalized in the Colombian Guyana, which represent 12.5% of the agrostological flora for the Colombian Guyana. There were 8 endemic species (5.3% of Colombian Guayanan grasses). In addition, some species are reported for the first time for Colombian flora (belonging to Axonopus, Cyphonanthus, Gymnopogon, and Paspalum), and some species are new to science (belonging to Axonopus, Digitaria, Eragrostis, and Sacciolepis). On the other hand, some preliminary biogeographical aspect are analyzed.

  19. Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Opiyo, Francis EO; Ekaya, Wellington N; Nyariki, Dickson M; Mureithi, Stephen Mwangi

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to me...

  20. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  1. Nutrição mineral de plantas de maxixe-do-reino Mineral nutrition of Cyclanthera pedata

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    Luiz Arnaldo Fernandes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi o de caracterizar as limitações nutricionais para a produção de matéria seca do maxixe-do-reino, Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. Foram realizados dois cultivos sucessivos, em vasos de 3 dm³ de solo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em treze tratamentos, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram baseados na técnica do elemento faltante (em que se omite a calagem e cada um dos macronutrientes e micronutrientes. A produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e raiz foi reduzida pela acidez do solo e baixa disponibilidade de macronutrientes, principalmente P, Ca, Mg e S; as plantas foram pouco afetadas pela baixa disponibilidade de micronutrientes.The objective of this work was to characterize the nutritional limitations for dry matter production of Cyclanthera pedata (L. Schrad. Two successive cultivations were conducted in 3 dm³ pots with soil. The experimental design was totally randomized with 13 treatments and three replications. Treatments were based on the missing element technique (with omission of liming and each one of the macro and micronutrients. Cyclanthera pedata plants have their dry matter production reduced by soil acidity and low macronutrients availability, mainly P, Ca, Mg and S, and were little affected by low micronutrients availability.

  2. LEAF RESIDUE DECOMPOSITION OF SELECTED ATLANTIC FOREST TREE SPECIES

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    Helga Dias Arato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biogeochemical cycling is essential to establish and maintain plant and animal communities. Litter is one of main compartments of this cycle, and the kinetics of leaf decomposition in forest litter depend on the chemical composition and environmental conditions. This study evaluated the effect of leaf composition and environmental conditions on leaf decomposition of native Atlantic Forest trees. The following species were analyzed: Mabea fistulifera Mart., Bauhinia forficata Link., Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell, Luehea grandiflora Mart. et. Zucc., Croton floribundus Spreng., Trema micrantha (L Blume, Cassia ferruginea (Schrad Schrad ex DC, Senna macranthera (DC ex Collad. H. S. Irwin and Barney and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae. For each species, litter bags were distributed on and fixed to the soil surface of soil-filled pots (in a greenhouse, or directly to the surface of the same soil type in a natural forest (field. Every 30 days, the dry weight and soil basal respiration in both environments were determined. The cumulative decomposition of leaves varied according to the species, leaf nutrient content and environment. In general, the decomposition rate was lowest for Aegiphila sellowiana and fastest for Bauhinia forficate and Schinus terebinthifolius. This trend was similar under the controlled conditions of a greenhouse and in the field. The selection of species with a differentiated decomposition pattern, suited for different stages of the recovery process, can help improve soil restoration.

  3. Sistema radicular do fórmio, sisal e bambu imperial Root systems of new zealand flax, sisal, and imperial bamboo

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    Júlio César Medina

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam e discutem os resultados de estudos preliminares sôbre o sistema radicular do fórmio (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine e bambu .imperial (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. ,& C, Riv.. Concluem, que o sistema radicular do fórmio é relativamente raso, o do sisal bastante superficial é o do bambu imperial se limitada às primeiras carnadas do solo.Results of preliminary studies on root-systems of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax Forster, sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine, and imperial bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. var. vittata A. & C. Riv. plants by the method of soil block, are apresented and discussed by the authors. According to local soil conditions, it is concluded that the root-system of New Zealand flax is relatively superficial, with the main concentration of roots in the 12 in. soil top layer. In sisal, the root-systems of the three plants investigated were found to occur in the soil surface layer, with more of 90% of the roots in the top 6 in. Finally, in the imperial bamboo clump atudied, the main concentration of roots was found in the layer 6-12 in. deep.

  4. Anther and pollen development in some species of Poaceae (Poales Desenvolvimento da antera e do grão de pólen em espécies de Poaceae (Poales

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    AT. Nakamura

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development were studied in Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr, (Bambusoideae, Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae, Eragrostis solida Nees, and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae. The objective of this study was to characterise, embryologically, these species of subfamilies which are considered basal, intermediate and derivate, respectively. The species are similar to each other and to other Poaceae. They present the following characters: tetrasporangiate anthers; monocotyledonous-type anther wall development, endothecium showing annular thickenings, secretory tapetum; successive microsporogenesis; isobilateral tetrads; spheroidal, tricellular, monoporate pollen grains with annulus and operculum. Nevertheless, the exine patterns of the species studied are distinct. Olyra humilis and Sucrea monophylla (Bambusoideae show a granulose pattern, whereas in the other species, it is insular. In addition, Axonopus aureus and Paspalum polyphyllum (Panicoideae have a compactly insular spinule pattern, while Chloris elata and Eragrostis solida (Chloridoideae show a sparsely insular spinule pattern. The exine ornamentation may be considered an important feature at the infrafamiliar level.O desenvolvimento da antera e do grão de pólen de Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr. (Bambusoideae, Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae, Eragrostis solida Nees and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae foi estudado visando caracterizar embriologicamente essas espécies de subfamílias consideradas basal, intermediária e derivada, respectivamente. As espécies são similares entre si e entre as demais Poaceae. Apresentam os seguintes caracteres: anteras tetrasporangiadas; desenvolvimento da parede da antera do tipo monocotiledôneo, endotécio com espessamento de parede anelar, tapete secretor; microsporogênese sucessiva; tétrades isobilaterais; grãos de

  5. Basic chromosome numbers and polyploid levels in some South African and Australian grasses (Poaceae

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    J. J. Spies

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of 46 specimens of grasses, involving 24 taxa from South Africa and Australia, have been determined during the present study. For the first time chromosome numbers are given for Eragrostis sarmentosa (Thunb. Trin. (n = 20. Panicum aequinerve Nees (n = 18,  Digitaria argyrograpta (Nees Stapf (n = 9 and D. maitlandii Stapf & C.E. Hubb. (n = 9. Additional polyploid levels are described for Diplachne fusca (L. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. (n = 10 and Digitaria diagonalis (Nees Stapf var.  diagonalis (n = 9. B-chromosomes were observed in several different specimens. The presence of B-chromosomes often results in abnormal chromosomal behaviour during meiosis.

  6. IDENTIFIKASI TUMBUHAN SUKU POACEAE SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN MATAKULIAH KEANEKARAGAMAN TUMBUHAN

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    Desy Yanuarita Wulandari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poaceae known as plants used as food ingredients in Indonesian. One area thas has high level diversity of plants Poaceae is Tahura R. Soerjo. Morphological characterization Poaceae in that region are still rare. The Goal for this research are to identify Poaceae tribes, and make photography Poaceae data that can be used as a supplement on Diversity of Plants course. This study included descriptive exploratory study with free cruising method. The species Poaceae has identified are Bambusa multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, Digitaria radicosa, Echinochloa sp, Eragrostis unioloides, Lophatherum gracile, Oplismenus burmanni, Paspalidium flavidum, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites karka, Setaria parviflor. Suku Poaceae dikenal sebagai tumbuhan yang dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pangan masyarakat Indonesia. Salah satu daerah yang memiliki tingkat keanekaragaman tumbuhan Poaceae adalah di Tahura R. Soerjo. Karakterisasi morfologi terkait suku Poaceae di daerah tersebut masih sedikit. Tujuan dalam penelitian ini adalah untuk identifikasi suku Poaceae, membuat data fotografi suku Poaceae sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai suplemen keanekaragaman tumbuhan. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif eksploratif dengan metode jelajah bebas. Sebelas spesies suku Poaceae yang telah teridentifikasi, yaitu Bambusa multiplex, Dendrocalamus asper, Digitaria radicosa, Echinochloa sp, Eragrostis unioloides, Lophatherum gracile, Oplismenus burmanni, Paspalidium flavidum, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites karka, Setaria parviflora.

  7. Anther and pollen development in some species of Poaceae (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AT. Nakamura

    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development were studied in Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr, (Bambusoideae, Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae, Eragrostis solida Nees, and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae. The objective of this study was to characterise, embryologically, these species of subfamilies which are considered basal, intermediate and derivate, respectively. The species are similar to each other and to other Poaceae. They present the following characters: tetrasporangiate anthers; monocotyledonous-type anther wall development, endothecium showing annular thickenings, secretory tapetum; successive microsporogenesis; isobilateral tetrads; spheroidal, tricellular, monoporate pollen grains with annulus and operculum. Nevertheless, the exine patterns of the species studied are distinct. Olyra humilis and Sucrea monophylla (Bambusoideae show a granulose pattern, whereas in the other species, it is insular. In addition, Axonopus aureus and Paspalum polyphyllum (Panicoideae have a compactly insular spinule pattern, while Chloris elata and Eragrostis solida (Chloridoideae show a sparsely insular spinule pattern. The exine ornamentation may be considered an important feature at the infrafamiliar level.

  8. The grasses (Poaceae) of the Colombian guayana: analyses on their composition, richness, endemism, and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas, Diego Giraldo

    2010-01-01

    The checklist of grasses from Colombian Guayana is presented. In all, 152 species, 69 genera, and six subfamilies were recorded. Thus, in the Colombian Guayana is represented the 18.7 and 43.7% of the species and genera of Colombian grasses, respectively. The subfamilies with the highest number of species were Panicoideae (110 species/46 genera), Chloridoideae (21/9), and Bambusoideae (11/9). The most diverse genera were Paspalum (19 species), Panicum (16), Axonopus (14), Eragrostis (9), and Digitaria (8). Nineteen species are introduced and naturalized in the Colombian Guayana, which represent 12.5% of the agrostological flora for the Colombian Guayana. There were 8 endemic species (5.3% of Colombian Guayanan grasses). In addition, some species are reported for the first time for Colombian flora (belonging to Axonopus, Cyphonanthus, Gymnopogon, and Paspalum), and some species are new to science (belonging to Axonopus, Digitaria, Eragrostis, and Sacciolepis). On the other hand, some preliminary biogeographical aspect are analyzed Flora of Colombia,

  9. A Review on Gnetalean Megafossils: Problems and Perspectives

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    Yong Yang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gnetalean megafossils were accumulated in the last decade. Taxonomic positions of several of Ephedran megafossil species are, however, controversial, resulting in a complicated nomenclature. Liaoxia Z.Y. Cao & S.Q. Wu, “Eragrostis Z.Y. Cao & S.Q. Wu”, “Chaoyangia Duan”, and their type species “Liaoxia cheniae Z.Y. Cao & S.Q. Wu”, “Eragrostis changii Z.Y. Cao & S.Q. Wu”, “Chaoyangia liangii S.Y. Duan”, were not validly published in the original publication under the Vienna Code. The species “Liaoxia cheniae Z.Y. Cao & S.Q. Wu” was validly published as Ephedrites cheniae S.X. Guo & X.W. Wu but later combined into Liaoxia cheniae (S.X. Guo & X.W. Wu Z.Y. Cao & S.Q. Wu and further into Ephedra cheniae (S.X. Guo & X.W. Wu H.M. Liu et al. Some uncertain morphological characters are fundamental to elucidate the taxonomic position of Ephedrites cheniae S.X. Guo & X.W. Wu and “Chaoyangia liangii S.Y. Duan”, e.g. bract number, position, and connation in female cones, seed number and position in a female cone, and morphology of the furcated appendages of reproductive organs of “Chaoyangia liangii S.Y. Duan”.

  10. Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia

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    Hamid Reza Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics.

  11. Leaf anatomy of the South African Danthonieae (Poaceae. III. Merxmuellera stricta

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    R. P. Ellis

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical structure, of the leaf blade as seen in transverse section, and of the abaxial epidermis, of Merxmuellera stricta (Schrad. Conert is described and illustrated. In this variable species four distinct anatomical “forms” are recognized viz. the typical  M. stricta form, the Cathedral Peak form, the Drakensberg form and the alpine form. The alpine and Cathedral Peak forms have recently been described as M. guillarmodiae Conert (1975. The degree of anatomical differentiation of these “forms” resembles the situation described in M. disticha (Nees Conert (Ellis, 1980. Populations of both M. stricta and M. disticha from the Drakensberg mountains display extensive anatomical diversification which appears to be correlated with environmental factors. In addition, morphological differences are exhibited as well and the anatomical “forms” of M. stricta probably warrant taxonomic recognition.

  12. Determinação espectrométrica dos flavonóides das folhas de Maytenus (Celastraceae e de Passiflora (Passifloraceae e comparação com método CLAE-UV

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    Regina de A. O. Chabariberi

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma modificação dos procedimentos descritos nas Farmacopéias Francesa e Européia para a análise de flavonoides de Passiflora incarnata L., Passifloraceae, por espectrometria UV-Visível e propõe a sua aplicação na determinação dos flavonoides totais das folhas da espinheira-santa (Maytenus aquifolium Mart. e Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch., Celastraceae e do maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims. e Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae. Os resultados obtidos por espectrometria no UV-Visível foram comparados aos obtidos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV, encontrando-se resultados estatisticamente similares entre os métodos espectrométrico modificado da Farmacopéia Francesa e CLAE-UV.

  13. Hydroxyl and methoxyl derivatives of benzylglucosinolate in Lepidium densiflorum with hydrolysis to isothiocyanates and non-isothiocyanate products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagnotta, Eleonora; Agerbirk, Niels; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2017-01-01

    A system of benzylic glucosinolates was found and characterized in common pepperweed, Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. The major glucosinolate was the novel 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzylglucosinolate (3,5-dimethoxysinalbin), present at high levels in seeds, leaves, and roots. Medium......-level glucosinolates were 3,4-dimethoxybenzylglucosinolate and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylglucosinolate. Minor glucosinolates included benzylglucosinolate, 3-hydroxy- and 3-methoxybenzylglucosinolate, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin), the novel 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylglucosinolate (3-methoxysinalbin), and indole......-type glucosinolates. A biosynthetic connection is suggested. NMR, UV, and ion trap MS/MS spectral data are reported, showing contrasting MS fragmentation of p-hydroxyls and p-methoxyls. Additional investigations by GC-MS focused on glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Whereas glucosinolates generally yielded...

  14. Floristic diversity in relation to geomorphological and climatic factors in the subalpinealpine belt of the Rodna Mountains (the Romanian Carpathians

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    Coldea, G.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the GLORIA-EUROPE project, the floristic diversity, frequency and species coverage in relation to the main ecological gradients (altitude,aspect were studied in the alpine pasture (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi and subalpine dwarf shrub communities (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinetum of the four summits from the Pietrosul Rodnei massif (Romanian Carpathians. Floristic diversity is higher in the plant communities from lower altitude summits (Golgota, Gropile, while it decreases in communities, to higher summits (Buhaiescu, Rebra. For each 100 m increase in the altitude of subalpine-alpine summits, a decrease of approximately 10% was found in the number of vascular plant species. Arctic-Alpine species (Carex curvula, ¡uncus trifidus, Hieracium alpinum, Oreochloa disticha, etc. and a Carpatho-Balkanic regional species (Rhododendron myrtifolium have the highest frequency and coverage in these plant communities. In northern and eastern slope areas, where the vegetation cover is 15-30% lower than on western and southern slopes and the soil temperature is generally 1-3°C lower during the vegetative season (June-August, the mean number of species per square meter is 25% higher than in southern and western slope areas.

    [fr] Dans le cadre du projet GLORIA EUROPE on a étudié la diversité floristique, la fréquence et le recouvrement des espèces, par rapport aux principaux gradients écologiques (altitude, exposition, au sein des associations de prés alpins (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi et des buissons subalpins de petite taille (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinietum, sur quatre sommets dans le massif Pietrosul Mare (Les Carpates Roumaines. La diversité floristique est plus grande chez les associations de plantes des sommets avec des altitudes plus basses (Golgota, Gropile et elle s'abaisse chez les associations des sommets plus hauts (Buhaiescu

  15. A preliminaryfloristic checklist of thal desert punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Qureshi, R.

    2014-01-01

    The floristic survey of the Thal desert, Punjab, Pakistan was carried out during 2010 to 2013. So far, 248 species distributed across 166 genera and 38 families were identified during the report period. Besides, one species viz., Themeda triandra was recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Of them, one fern, 4 monocots and 33 dicots families were determined. The most dominating family was Poaceae that contributed 52 species (21.49%), followed by Fabaceae (34 spp., 13.05%) and Amaranthaceae and Asteraceae (17 spp., 7.02% each). The largest genera were Euphorbia (6 spp.), Cyperus, Eragrostis and Solanum (5 spp. each), Mollugo, Heliotropium and Cenchrus (4 spp. each), Acacia, Prosopis, Tephrosia, Corchorus, Boerhavia and Ziziphus (3 spp. each). This checklist consists of updated systematic families and plants names that will provide a useful starting point for further ecological and bioprospective research of the area under study. (author)

  16. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources

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    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef; Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa; Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.

  17. Desenvolvimento pós-seminal de espécies de Poaceae (Poales Post-seminal development of Poaceae species (Poales

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    Adriana Tiemi Nakamura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou verificar a existência de um padrão do desenvolvimento pós-seminal em Poaceae. Para tanto, foram estudadas as seguintes espécies: Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae. Procurou-se também comparar as estruturas da plântula de Poaceae com as demais monocotiledôneas. As espécies estudadas são plantas perenes, rizomatosas, cespitosas e apresentam cariopses de tamanhos diferentes. Apresentam sementes albuminosas; embrião lateral, diferenciado, com raiz endógena (adventícia; cotilédone dividido em hiperfilo (escutelo, bainha reduzida e hipofilo (coleóptilo; coleorriza (raiz primária reduzida e mesocótilo (eixo localizado entre o escutelo e coleóptilo. A presença de epiblasto (folha embrionária foi observada em Olyra humilis, Chloris elata e Eragrostis solida. O desenvolvimento pós-seminal é semelhante nas espécies estudadas e forma um padrão em Poaceae. Primeiramente, observa-se a emissão da coleorriza, que cresce no sentido geotrópico positivo, seguida do coleóptilo e plúmula que crescem em sentido contrário, a partir do desenvolvimento do mesocótilo. As primeiras folhas são semelhantes às folhas definitivas (metafilos das espécies, exceto em Olyra humilis, que são modificadas em catafilos e podem ser interpretadas como caráter basal em Bambusoideae. Raiz primária reduzida (coleorriza e hipofilo modificado em coleóptilo são considerados caracteres derivados em Poaceae, quando comparados com as demais monocotiledôneas.This work has aimed to verify the existence of a pattern of the post-seminal development in Poaceae. Thus, Olyra humilis Nees (Bambusoideae; Axonopus aureus P. Beauv. e Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae; Chloris elata Nees e Eragrostis solida Desv. (Chloridoideae have been studied. Besides, it was compared the structures of

  18. An ultrastructural and irradiation study of diffuse and localised kinetochore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.S.

    1979-05-01

    An electron microscope study of plant types Luzula nivea and Cyperus eragrostis with diffuse kinetochores and Crepis neglecta with localised kinetochore showed that Luzula has a rather different kinetochore organisation from Cyperus, with features approaching the localised type of Crepis. These studies included an examination of the ultrastructure of the kinetochore at metaphase at low magnification in control and irradiated material of Luzula; the chromosomal ultrastructure at high magnification at interphase and all stages of mitosis in Luzula, Cyperus and Crepis; and the ultrastructure of the nucleolus in Luzula, Cyperus and Crepis. Light microscopic studies were also performed showing the effects of irradiation on first mitotic division in Cyperus, Luzula and Crepis, mitotic aberrations in Cyperus and Crepis and meiosis in Cyperus. Finally, the survival with the diffuse as opposed to the localised kinetochore in M 1 and M 2 generations following seed irradiation was studied. (U.K.)

  19. The problem of maintaining large herbivores in small conservation areas: deterioration of the grassveld in the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vegetation cover and species composition in a grassland community during a six year period are reported. The grass Themeda triandra and the dwarf shrub Helichrysum rosum decreased in abundance, whereas the grass Eragrostis obtusa increased. Comparison of grazed plots with fenced plots revealed large herbivores were responsible for the increase in abundance ofE. obtusa. The abundance of T. triandra was influenced by large herbivores, but rainfall fluctuations apparently also played a role. The decline in relative abundance of/7. rosum was evidently not caused by large herbivores. Grass cover was closely determined by rainfall. A drought-induced decline in forage abundance evidently caused the buffalo population to crash.

  20. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain Sorghum root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, F A; Souza, I F

    1992-01-01

    Root exudates ofSorghum bicolor consist primarily of a dihydroquinone that is quickly oxidized to ap-benzoquinone named sorgoleone. The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential activity of sorgoleone as an inhibitor of weed growth. Bioassays showed 125μM sorgoleone reduced radicle elongation ofEragrostis tef. In liquid culture, 50-μM sorgoleone treatments stunted the growth ofLemna minor. Over a 10-day treatment period, 10μM sorgoleone in the nutrient medium reduced the growth of all weed seedlings tested:Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, andEchinochloa crusgalli. These data show sorgoleone has biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a strong contribution toSorghum allelopathy.

  1. [A comparative study on seed germination of 15 grass species in Keeqin Sandyland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Li, Xuehua; Li, Rongping; Jiang, Deming; Cao, Chengyou

    2003-09-01

    A laboratory study was made on the germination characteristics of freshly-collected seeds of grass species at the Wulanaodu area of Keeqin Sandyland in Eastern Inner-Mongolia. Of the 15 species examined, 8 species including Clinelymus dahuricus, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Pappophorum boreale, Spodiopogon sibiricus, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Arundinella hirta, Pennisetum alopecuroides had a germination rate of over 80%, but 4 species including Echinochloa hispidula, Hemarthria compressa, Tragus berteronianus and Setaria viridis had a value of less than 10%. Spodiopogon sibiricus, Eragrostis pilosa, Phragmites communis, Chloris virgata, Clinelymus dahuricus, Pappophorum boreale, Digitaria cilliaris and Cleistogenes squrrosa began to germinate within 1-3 days after the test began, while Setaria viridis, Tragus berteronianus and Hemarthria compressa failed to germinate in a period of more than 10 days. For the species such as Digitaria cilliaris, Echinochloa hispidula, Phragmites communis, Eragrostis pilosa and Spodiopogon sibiricus, their germination period was less than 10 days, while Clinelymus dahuricus and Pappophorum boreale had a germination period of more than 20 days. The days required for half the final germination rate to be reached were: 2 days for Chloris virgata, 3 days for Phragmites communis, 4 days for Spodiopogon sibiricus, 5 days for Clinelymus dahuricus and Cleistogenes squarrosa, 7 days for Arundinella hirta and Pappophorum boreale, and 10 days for Pennisetum alopecuriodes. Compared with the Sheffield region in Britain, the Wulanaodu area of Kerqin Sandyland had a higher proportion of annul grasses with a low germination rate and a longer germination period, and the perennial grasses at the Wulanaodu area had an approximately same germination rate, but a longer germination period. During germination, ruderals showed the potential for risk-sharring, and thus, they had a relatively higher disturbance-resistance capacity.

  2. QUALIDADE SENSORIAL DE GELÉIA MISTA DE MELANCIA E TAMARINDO

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    RAFAELLA MARTINS DE ARAUJO FERREIRA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of jelly is an alternative to the use of fruits that did not meet the classification standard, helping to reduce post harvest losses of up to 40% of total production. This study aimed to evaluate the sensory quality of jelllies produced mixed with watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad. and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.. Six jelly formulations were prepared using pulp from watermelon and tamarind in different proportions: F1 (100% watermelon pulp, F2 (87.5% watermelon pulp and 12.5% tamarind pulp, F3 (75% watermelon pulp and 25% tamarind pulp, F4 (12.5% tamarind pulp and 87.5% water, F5 (25% tamarind pulp and 75% water and F6 (37.5% tamarind pulp and 62.5% water. All jellies containing pulp and sucrose in the ratio 1: 0.6 and the final soluble solids was 67 ºBrix. The attributes of color, texture, taste and preference of the jellies were evaluated by 50 untrained panelists using a hedonic scale of nine points (ranging from "like extremely" to "dislike extremely". The worst consistency was found in F4 and the largest concentration of tamarind in jelly impaired color impacting negatively on the product acceptance. The jelly mixed F2 had the best score for taste and preference attributes that jelly F6.

  3. KARO’S LOCAL WISDOM: THE USE OF WOODY PLANTS FOR TRADITIONAL DIABETIC MEDICINES

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    Rospita Odorlina Situmorang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the plant species used traditionally by Karo people in North Sumatra, to cure diabetes, analyses the cultural significance index of those plants for the Karo, and clarifies phytochemical contents of the plants. Data were collected using survey method from selected respondents (n=54 based on their knowledge and practices in utilising medicinal plants to cure diabetic disease. Index of Cultural Significance (ICS of plants was determined using the method proposed by Turner. Results showed that twelve woody plant species have been used to cure diabetes: loning leave (Psychotria sp., kacihe leave (Prunus accuminta Hook, umbrella tree leave (Maesopsis eminii Engl, mutamba leave (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk, cepcepan leave (Villebrunea subescens Blume, pirdot/cepcepan lembu leave (Saurauia vulcani Korth, raru bark (Cotylelobium melanoxylo, breadfruit leave (Artocarpus altilis, salam leave (Syzygium polyanthum Wight, mahogany seed (Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmani, and yellow bamboo rod (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Five of those plants: loning, umbrella tree, mutamba, raru and salam have the highest cultural significance level. These five plants are highly needed in large quatities by the Karo people, so their availability in the forest should be securely conserved and protected. The plants used contained alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids which can help to lower blood sugar level.

  4. Medicinal plants and secondary metabolites for diabetes mellitus control

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common and complex problems of modern societies which has caused many economic and social problems. Because diabetes has no definite treatment, the use of traditional medicine seems to be an appropriate solution to control and manage it. Studies revealed that Vaccinium Arctostaphylos L., Securigera securidaca L., Gymnema sylvestre L., Atriplex halimus L., Camellia sinensis L., Ginkgo biloba L., Mamordica charantia L., Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Silybum marianum (L., Gaertn and Trigonella foenum graecum L. are effective against diabetes. Flavonoids, quercin, metformin, quinolizidine, anthocyanin, catechin and flavone, phenylpropanoids, lipoic acid and coumarin metabolites were introduced major impact on diabetes. With regard to the study of plants and their metabolites and the mechanisms of their influence, it is clear that these plants have the potential to reduce blood sugar and diabetes and be considered as candidates for preparing new drugs. Combination of plants extracts or their components may also have synergistic effects to better act on diabetes.

  5. Membranous appendices of spherosomes (oleosomes) : Possible role in fat utilization in germinating oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, G; Theimer, R R

    1978-01-01

    Spherosomes (oleosomes) of cotyledons of rape (Brassica napus L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad.) seedlings are delimited by a "half unit membrane" that appears to be continuous with each of the osmiophilic layers of a tripartite unit membrane forming a handlelike appendix of the spherosomes. Prior to any noticeable utilization of the spherosomal storage fat, ribosomes were found to be attached to these "handles". At later stages appendices of the spherosomes are smooth, showing a diameter of about 22 nm that greatly exceeds the thickness of any other unit membrane profiles identical in structure and diameter osomes appears to be continuous with the thick lipid layer of the handles. In intermediate stages of fat depletion the spherosomal bodies become invaginated with cytoplasmic material. Finally vesicles with cytoplasmic contents surrounded by a membrane with a typically thick lipid layer are left in the cells. Membrane profiles indentical in structure and diameter to the spherosomal appendices were also present in electron micrographs of the lipolytic membrane fraction recovered from sucrose density gradients after centrifugation of a microsomal cell fraction. The ultrastructural observations are taken for evidence that the spherosomal appendices represent the lipase-carrying membranes isolated previously (Theimer and Rosnitschek, 1978). A novel hypothesis for development and utilization of fat-storing spherosomes is also proposed.

  6. Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyyat, A; Legssyer, A; Mekhfi, H; Dassouli, A; Serhrouchni, M; Benjelloun, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to select the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes, a survey was undertaken in different areas of oriental Morocco. The patients (370 women and 256 men) were divided into three groups: diabetics (61%), hypertensives (23%) and hypertensive diabetic persons (16%). On average, 67.51% of patients regularly use medicinal plants. This proportion is perceptibly the same in all groups and does not depend on sex, age and socio-cultural level. This result shows that phytotherapy is widely adopted in northeastern Morocco. For diabetes, 41 plants were cited, of which the most used were Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Leguminosae), Globularia alypum L. (Globulariaceae), Artemisia herba-alba Asso. (Compositae), Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) and Tetraclinis articulata Benth. (Cupressaceae). In the hypertension's therapy 18 vegetal species were reported, of which the most used were Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae), Olea europea L. (Oleaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae), Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) and Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill (Apiaceae). Among the 18 species used for hypertension, 14 were also employed for diabetes. Moreover, these two diseases were associated in 41% of hypertensives. These findings suggest that hypertension observed in this region would be in a large part related to diabetes.

  7. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

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    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  8. Efeitos dos estresses hidrico e salino e da ação de giberelina em sementes de Senna spectabilis

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    Helma Jeller

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna spectabilis (DC. Irwin et Barn. variedade excelsa (Schrad. Irwin et Barn. is a leguminosae woody species of low frequency in cerrado and caatinga of the Brazilian northeast. It is used in landscaping designs due to it’s natural beauty, streets arborization and in reflorestation of degraded areas. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge about the biology of this species and to study the effects of water and salt stress and gibberellins on seed germination. Four replications of 50 seeds were used for each treatment and germination was carried out in 9cm Petri lived with filter paper moistened with test-solution. Senna espectabilis seeds did not present a wide tolerance to water stress and the germination was supressed at -0,7MPa. The reduction of NaCl osmotic potential decreased germination and synchrony of the process. The maximal tolerance limit was at -1,6MPa, when germination was totally inhibited. The addition of gibberellic acid reduced partially the effects of water and salt stress.

  9. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

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    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  10. Documentation of Ethnoveterinary Practices for Mastitis in Dairy Animals in Pakistan

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    S. M. Raihan Dilshad, N. U. Rehman*, Nazir Ahmad and A. Iqbal1

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to document the ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs used for the control and treatment of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in the Sargodha district, Pakistan. The information was collected using rapid and participatory rural appraisal techniques through interviews and focused group discussions with 217 traditional veterinary healers (TVHs over a period of 16 months from September 2005 to December 2006. Thus, 25 different plant species belonging to 20 different families were documented from the study area for the treatment and prophylaxis of mastitis in bovines (cattle and bubalines (dairy buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The most frequently reported (≥10 times plant species were Capsicum annuum L. (n = 32, Lepidium sativum L. (n =31, Allium sativum L. (n = 28, Sesamum indicum L. (n = 24, Citrus limon (L. Burm. f (n = 22, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (n = 18, Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (n = 18, Curcuma longa L. (n = 16, Cuminum cyminum L. (n = 14, Rosa indica L. (n = 13, Centratherum anthelmisticum L. (n = 12, Triticum aestivum L (n = 11, Nigella sativa L. (n = 11 and Peganum harmala L. (n = 11. All the documented plant species were indigenous to the study area. Materials other than plants used for the treatment of this problem included ammonium chloride. The richness of EVPs in the study area and extensive variation in the doses, methods of preparation, indications, and claims regarding efficacy of plants for mastitis merit controlled studies for their validation.

  11. Uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampugnani, M G; Fantelli, R; Longo, G P; Longo, C P; Rossi, G

    1981-07-01

    The uptake of 8-[(14)C]N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) was studied in excised watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of BA; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit ATP synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. About two-thirds of the radioactivity taken up is released after 12 hours of washing. If the washing is performed at 2 C very little radioactivity is released.There seems to be a correlation between the level of radioactivity (i.e. of BA + derivatives) present in the cotyledons and the magnitude of hormonal responses that are observed four days after uptake. This relationship holds regardless of whether a given level of radioactivity has been reached after a short period of uptake or after a long period of uptake followed by washing.

  12. Paresthesia: A Review of Its Definition, Etiology and Treatments in View of the Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2016-01-01

    To search major Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM) textbooks for definition, etiology and medicinal plants used to manage 'khadar' or 'paresthesia', a common sensory symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) and peripheral neuropathies. In addition, the conformity of the efficacy of ITM-suggested plants with the findings from modern pharmacological research on MS will be discussed. Data on the medicinal plants used to treat 'khadar' were obtained from major ITM texts. A detailed search in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Google Scholar databases was performed to confirm the effects of ITM-mentioned medicinal plants on MS in view of identified pharmacological actions. Moringa oleifera Lam., Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Euphorbia species, Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad., and Costus speciosus (Koen ex. Retz) Sm. are among the most effective ITM plants for the management of 'khadar'. Recent experimental evidence confirms the effectiveness of the mentioned plants in ameliorating MS symptoms. Moreover, according to ITM, prolonged exposure to cold and consuming foodstuff with cold temperament might be involved in the etiopathogenesis of MS. The use of traditional knowledge can help finding neglected risk factors as well as effective and safe therapeutic approaches, phytomedicines and dietary habits for the management of paresthesia and related disorders such as MS.

  13. In vitro antiviral activity of Brazilian plants (Maytenus ilicifolia and Aniba rosaeodora) against bovine herpesvirus type 5 and avian metapneumovirus.

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    Kohn, L K; Queiroga, C L; Martini, M C; Barata, L E; Porto, P S S; Souza, L; Arns, C W

    2012-10-01

    Medicinal plants are well known for their use in traditional folk medicine as treatments for many diseases including infectious diseases. Six Brazilian medicinal plant species were subjected to an antiviral screening bioassay to investigate and evaluate their biological activities against five viruses: bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), murine hepatitis virus type 3, porcine parvovirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The antiviral activity was determined by a titration technique that depends on the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 or 2.5 µg/mL) to inhibit the viral induced cytopathic effect and the extracts' inhibition percentage (IP). Two medicinal plant species showed potential antiviral activity. The Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (Lauraceae) extract had the best results, with 90% inhibition of viral growth at 2.5 µg/mL when the extract was added during the replication period of the aMPV infection cycle. The Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad.) Planch. (Celastraceae) extracts at a concentration of 2.5 µg/mL exhibited antiviral activity during the attachment phase of BHV-5 (IP = 100%). The biomonitored fractionation of the active extracts from M. ilicifolia and A. rosaeodora could be a potential tool for identifying their active compounds and determining the exact mechanism of action.

  14. Water-borne hyphomycetes in tree canopies of Kaiga (Western Ghats, India

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    Naga M. Sudheep

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The canopy samples such as trapped leaf litter, trapped sediment (during summer, stemflow and throughfall (during monsoon from five common riparian tree species (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Cassia fistula, Ficus recemosa, Syzygium caryophyllatum and Xylia xylocarpa in Kaiga forest stand of the Western Ghats of southwest India were evaluated for the occurrence of water-borne hyphomycetes. Partially decomposed trapped leaf litter was incubated in bubble chambers followed by filtration to assess conidial output. Sediments accumulated in tree holes or junction of branches were shaken with sterile leaf disks in distilled water followed by incubation of leaf disks in bubble chamber and filtration to find out colonized fungi. Stemflow and throughfall samples were filtered directly to collect free conidia. From five canopy niches, a total of 29 water-borne hyphomycetes were recovered. The species richness was higher in stemflow and throughfall than trapped leaf litter and sediments (14-16 vs. 6-10 species. Although sediments of Syzygium caryophyllatum were acidic (5.1, the conidial output was higher than other tree species. Stemflow and throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa even though alkaline (8.5-8.7 showed higher species richness (6-12 species as well as conidial load than rest of the tree species. Flagellospora curvula and Triscelophorus acuminatus were common in trapped leaf litter and sediments respectively, while conidia of Anguillospora crassa and A. longissima were frequent in stemflow and throughfall. Diversity of water-borne hyphomycetes was highest in throughfall of Xylea xylocarpa followed by throughfall of Ficus recemosa. Our study reconfirms the occurrence and survival of diverse water-borne hyphomycetes in different niches of riparian tree canopies of the Western Ghats during wet and dry regimes and predicts their possible role in canopy as saprophytes, endophytes and alternation of life cycle between canopy and aquatic habitats.

  15. Fungal composition on leaves explains pollutant-mediated indirect effects on amphipod feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Stang, Christoph; Duester, Lars; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of leaves by microorganisms (=conditioning) caused by chemical stressors are rarely studied. Our laboratory experiments, therefore, investigated for the first time effects of a fungicide on the conditioning process of leaf material by means of food-choice experiments using Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Additionally, microbial analyses were conducted to facilitate the mechanistic understanding of the observed behavior. Gammarids significantly preferred control leaf discs over those conditioned in presence of the fungicide tebuconazole at concentrations of 50 and 500 μg/L. Besides the decrease of fungal biomass with increasing fungicide concentration, also the leaf associated fungal community composition showed that species preferred by gammarids, such as Alatospora acumunata, Clavariopsis aquatica, or Flagellospora curvula, were more frequent in the control. Tetracladium marchalianum, however, which is rejected by gammarids, was abundant in all treatments suggesting an increasing importance of this species for the lower leaf palatability--as other more palatable fungal species were almost absent--in the fungicide treatments. Hence, the food-choice behavior of G. fossarum seems to be a suitable indicator for alterations in leaf associated microbial communities, especially fungal species composition, caused by chemical stressors. Finally, this or similar test systems may be a reasonable supplement to the environmental risk assessment of chemicals in order to achieve its protection goals, as on the one hand, indirect effects may occur far below concentrations known to affect gammarids directly, and on the other

  16. Efeito de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas na produtividade da cultura da cebola Effect of different weed control periods on onion crop yield

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    D.J. Soares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em Monte Alto-SP, visando estudar os efeitos de diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas sobre a produção de bulbos da cultura da cebola (Allium cepa, cultivar 'Mercedes', no sistema de transplantio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Parte dos tratamentos experimentais foi disposta num esquema fatorial 4 x 6, em que constituíram variáveis quatro períodos em que se fez o controle (0-0, 0-7, 0-14 e 0-21 DAT e seis períodos em que se reiniciou o controle das plantas daninhas prolongando até a colheita: 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 DAT. Duas testemunhas foram adotadas: uma com controle e outra sem controle das plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cultura. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa e Galinsoga parviflora foram as plantas daninhas mais importantes na área. Não houve interação entre os diferentes períodos de controle das plantas daninhas. O controle inicial destas plantas deve se prolongar até 14 DAT e ser reiniciado aos 28 DAT, a fim de prevenir reduções significativas na produtividade em relação à testemunha no limpo A convivência com as plantas daninhas durante todo o ciclo da cebola reduziu a produtividade em 94,5%.An experiment was carried out in Monte Alto, SP to study the effects of different of weed control periods on the yield of onion (Allium cepa bulb, 'Mercedes' cultivar, under the transplanting system. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with four initial weed removal periods (after transplanting until 0, 7, 14 and 21 days and six final weed removal periods (from 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 or 98 days after transplanting until harvest. Two controls were adapted with and without weed control throughout the onion cycle. Lycopersicon esculentum, Portulaca oleracea, Eragrostis pilosa and

  17. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola em semeadura direta Efficacy of herbicides on weed control in onion direct sowing

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    Lino R. Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cebola provenientes da semeadura direta no campo são mais danificadas pelo cultivo mecânico e são mais sensíveis aos herbicidas, principalmente os latifolicidas, do que quando transplantadas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia dos herbicidas oxyfluorfen, ioxynil-octanoato e fluazifop-p-butil, aplicados em pós-emergência, isoladamente ou em mistura no tanque, com ou sem aplicação de paraquat, antes da emergência das plantas de cebola, conduziu-se este trabalho no município de Monte Alto, SP. Nenhum dos herbicidas aplicados isoladamente foi eficiente no controle de todas as espécies daninhas presentes na área experimental. As misturas no tanque de fluazifop-p-butil com oxyfluorfen ou ioxynil-octanoato, independente da aplicação ou não de paraquat aos cinco dias após a semeadura, controlaram eficientemente Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea, com produção de bulbos semelhante à da testemunha capinada.Onion plants, from direct sowing to the field, are more damaged by mechanical cultivation and more sensitive to herbicides, especially to broadleaf herbicides, than transplanted onions. With the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of the herbicides oxyfluorfen, ioxynyl-octanoato and fluazifop-p-butyl, applied in post-emergence, alone or tank mix, with or without paraquat application, before onion plants emergence, this investigation was carried out at Monte Alto County, São Paulo State, Brazil. None of the herbicides sprayed alone were efficient in the control of all the weeds present in the experimental area. The tank mix of fluazifop-p-butyl plus oxyfluorfen or ioxynyl-octanoato, regardless of paraquat application, at five days after sowing, controlled efficiently Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Echinoclhoa crusgalli, Eragrostis pilosa, Digitaria horizontalis, Eleusine indica and Brachiaria

  18. Distribuição mensal da emergência de seis ervas daninhas em solos com e sem cultivos Monthly emergence of six weeds in cultived and undisturbed soil

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    Hélio G. Blanco

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados no período de 14 meses, com início em outubro de 1988, levantamentos demográficos mensais para registro da dinâmica de emergência de seis espécies de ervas daninhas anuais, submetidas mensalmente a um dos seguintes sistemas de manejo da população: grade de disco, grade de disco seguida de rolo compactador do solo, enxada rotativa, e herbicida de contato. Os resultados mostraram que a distribuição mensal da emergência de Digitaria horizontalis Willd. (capim-colchão, Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. (capim-marmelada, Bidens pilosa L. (picão-preto, e Amaranthus viridis L. (caruru-de-mancha, se configurou com um pico de emergência muito alto em outubro (acima de 80% do total emergido no período, com reinfestações pouco significativas nos meses seguintes, e que o manejo através do cultivo do solo favoreceu a emergência dessas espécies. O modelo de emergência de Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. (capim-pé-de-galinha, e Eragrostis pilosa (L. Beauv. (capim-barba-de-alemão, por outro lado, apresentou um grau de emergência baixo em outubro, elevando-se até janeiro quando ocorreu o fluxo de maior pico. O manejo sem revolvimento do solo dessas duas espécies incrementou a geminação dos propágulos do banco de sementes. De um modo geral, quando não se permitiu a multiplicação sexuada, a taxa de população foi extremamente reduzida no ciclo seguinte.In lhe period of October/l988 to December/1989 a research was carried out to study lhe emergence dynamics of six weeds through monthly samplings under four weed managements: destruction of lhe former flora by cultivation with harrow, harrow following compaction by soil roller, rotary harrow and use of a contact herbicide without soil disturbance. The results showed that lhe initial emergence in October is very high for Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus viridis compared with lhe emergence in lhe following months and that

  19. Estimating suitable environments for invasive plant species across large landscapes: a remote sensing strategy using Landsat 7 ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kendal E.; Abbott, Laurie B.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Schrader, T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The key to reducing ecological and economic damage caused by invasive plant species is to locate and eradicate new invasions before they threaten native biodiversity and ecological processes. We used Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to estimate suitable environments for four invasive plants in Big Bend National Park, southwest Texas, using a presence-only modeling approach. Giant reed (Arundo donax), Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), horehound (Marrubium vulgare) and buffelgrass (Pennisteum ciliare) were selected for remote sensing spatial analyses. Multiple dates/seasons of imagery were used to account for habitat conditions within the study area and to capture phenological differences among targeted species and the surrounding landscape. Individual species models had high (0.91 to 0.99) discriminative ability to differentiate invasive plant suitable environments from random background locations. Average test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ranged from 0.91 to 0.99, indicating that plant predictive models exhibited high discriminative ability to differentiate suitable environments for invasive plant species from random locations. Omission rates ranged from <1.0 to 18%. We demonstrated that useful models estimating suitable environments for invasive plants may be created with <50 occurrence locations and that reliable modeling using presence-only datasets can be powerful tools for land managers.

  20. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence.

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    Kealohanuiopuna M Kinney

    Full Text Available We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years, and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years. The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. This work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands.

  1. Impacts of conservation tillage on the hydrological and agronomic performance of Fanya juus in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay river basin

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    H. H. G. Savenije

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of soil conservation structures (SCS has been low in high rainfall areas of Ethiopia mainly due to crop yield reduction, increased soil erosion following breaching of SCS, incompatibility with the tradition of cross plowing and water-logging behind SCS. A new type of conservation tillage (CT involving contour plowing and the construction of invisible subsoil barriers using a modified Maresha winged "subsoiler" is suggested as a means to tackle these problems as an integral part of the SCS. We investigated the effect of integrating the CT with SCS on the surface runoff, water-logging, soil loss, crop yield and plowing convenience. The new approach of conservation tillage has been compared with traditional tillage (TT on 5 farmers' fields in a high rainfall area in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay river basin. Test crops were wheat [triticum vulgare] and tef [eragrostis tef]. Farmers found CT convenient to apply between SCS. Surface runoff appeared to be reduced under CT by 48 and 15%, for wheat and tef, respectively. As a result, CT reduced sediment yield by 51 and 9.5%, for wheat and tef, respectively. Significantly reduced water-logging was observed behind SCS in CT compared to TT. Grain yields of wheat and tef increased by 35 and 10%, respectively, although the differences were not statistically significant apparently due to high fertility variations among fields of participating farmers. Farmers who tested CT indicated that they will continue this practice in the future.

  2. Herbaceous vegetation restoration potential and soil physical condition in a mountain grazing land of Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

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    Gebrewahd Amha Abesha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An existence of information in the form database and full knowledge of grazing land vegetation resources and trend over time is essential for management decisions. This study was conducted in Kiltew -Awelaelo, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. The study aimed to investigate species composition and diversity of the herbaceous vegetation, and examine the physical soil condition of the grazing lands. A total of 45 quadrats measuring 20m×20m (400m2 were laid out in 15 sample sites from three corresponding land use types (i.e. ten year enclosure, five year enclosure and open grazing land. From each land use type five sites having three quadrats were investigated. Each quadrat was laid out at an interval of 400m in five parallel transects each 200m apart from other. To collect data of herbaceous and soil five randomly located 1m2 area each, was selected and marked, within each 400m2 sample quadrat of sample sites located along the main transect. There was significant (PBracharia sp., Bromus pectinatus, Chloris gayana, Cenchurs cilarias, chloris radiata, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria Velutina, Eragrostis teniufolia, Lintonia nutans, Setaria pumila, Seteria verticillate, and Tragus racemosus all occurred frequently forming the major constituents of the sites. Therefore, regeneration from area enclosure can be on advocated practice for grazing lands rehabilitation.

  3. Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

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    V. Maneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem. Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic, Descurania sophia (L. Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L. P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès.

  4. REVISIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES DEL GÉNERO SPOROBOLUS (POACEAE: CHLORIDOIDEAE: SPOROBOLINAE DEL NOROESTE DE SUDAMÉRICA: PERÚ, ECUADOR, COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA

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    Giraldo-Cañas Diego

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio taxonómico de las especies de Sporobolus para el noroeste de Sudamérica. Se reconocen once especies para el área de estudio. Se incluyen las claves para determinar las especies así como las descripciones morfológicas y sus ilustraciones. Se discuten para cada una de las especies sus relaciones morfológicas, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas; adicionalmente, se relacionan sus usos y sus nombres comunes. Asimismo, se propone la lectotipificación para Sporobolus lasiophyllus Pilg. Por otra parte, se registran tres especies por primera vez para Colombia [Sporobolus pilifer (Trin. Kunth, Sporobolus tenuissimus (Mart. ex Schrank Kuntze y Sporobolus virginicus (L. Kunth]. Se excluyen de este tratamiento a Sporobolus brasiliensis (Raddi Hack. (=Eragrostis airoides Nees y Sporobolus domingensis (Trin. Kunth. Adicionalmente, se propone la adopción y la unificación de algunos términos morfológicos en agrostología, tales como caña, panoja, espiguilla, lema, antecio y cariopsis, en lugar de culmo, panícula, espícula, lemma, flósculo y cariopse-cariópside, respectivamente.

  5. Seawater: an alternative grassy weed control method for post emergence herbicides in tropical turfgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.K.; Ismail, M.R.; Juraimi, A.S.; Hamdani, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research was designed to reduce herbicide use by replacing post emergence herbicides with readily available sea water to control tropical turfgrass weeds. In studies evaluating the use of saline solutions for weed control, four salinity levels (0, 24, 48 and 72 dS m/sup -1/) were applied once to 30 grassy weed species, along with seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) (as a control) during December, 2007 to March, 2008. The results on injury ratings for salt tolerant weeds were categorized as highly susceptible, moderately susceptible and extremely tolerant. C. dactylon, E. indica, E. virescense, E. unioloides and I. globosa were very susceptible and found to be effectively controlled (100%) at 72 dS m/sup -1/ salinity treatment. However, two most serious weeds viz. wiry eragrostis (E. atrovirens) and lesser dropseed (S. diander), were found to be extremely tolerant, and were not controlled even at the highest salinity level of 72 dS m/sup -1/. P. vaginatum and E. atrovirens did not show significant decrease in shoot and root dry weight at highest salinity levels (72 dS m/sup -1/). The results indicate that sea water has excellent potential for sustainable control of several common grassy weeds in tropical turf. (author)

  6. [Succession pattern of artificial vegetation community and its ecological mechanism in an arid desert region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cailin; Li, Zizhen

    2003-09-01

    Focusing on the artificial vegetation protection system of the Shapotou section of Baotou-Lanzhou railway in the arid desert region of China, this paper examined the dynamics of dominant plant species and the succession pattern of artificial plant community in the process of establishing and developing regional artificial vegetation. It also studied the driving force and the ecologically intrinsic mechanism of the community succession. The results demonstrated that the species composition of the artificial vegetation dramatically changed after 40 years of succession, from original artificial plant community of shrub and semi-shrub to artificial-natural desert plant community with annual herb dominated. During the process of succession, the importance values of artificial shrubs, such as Caragana korshinskii and Hedysarum scoparius, decreased and gradually retreated from the artificial plant community, while the naturally multiplied annual herb, such as Eragrostis poaeoides, Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola ruthenica, Chloris virgata and etc., were presented one after another and gradually became dominant. Besides, Artemisia ordosica always played a key role in the community due to its ability of naturally sowing and self-replacement. This type of succession pattern was closely related to the shortage of precipitation resource in this region and the formation of soil crust which inhibited the reproduction of shrub and perennial herb with deep root systems. This study provided a theoretical ground for realizing persistent development of artificial plant community.

  7. Profiling of plants at petroleum contaminated site for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasi, Raymond Oriebe; Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2018-03-21

    The paucity of information in the literature on the characteristics of plants that could be used for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC)-contaminated sites was the principal reason for this study. The aim of the study was to identify indigenous plants growing in PHC-impacted soil in Umuahia in eastern-Nigeria that have the ability to phytoremediate soils contaminated with hydrocarbons under tropical monsoon climate conditions. A total of 28 native plant species from different families growing in and around hydrocarbon-impacted soil in the vicinity of vandalized pipelines carrying petroleum products were collected and studied for their ability to grow in a hydrocarbon-impacted soil and remove the PHC from the impacted soil. Some of the plants demonstrated the ability to grow in soil with high levels of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), which shows that they may be tolerant to hydrocarbons in soil and could potentially phytoremediate a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana, Chloris barbata, Pasparlum vaginatum, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Cosmos bipinnatus, Eragrostis atrovirens, Cyperus rotundus, and Uvaria chamae showed tendencies to phytoremediate contaminated soil. By using bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) as a measure of phytoremediation, results showed that C. odorata, A. africana, and U. chamae demonstrated the highest potentials to phytodegrade hydrocarbons in soil.

  8. Major Vegetation Types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun–Blanquet floristic–sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT’s were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana–Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum–Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum–Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata–Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis–Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon–Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida–Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora–Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  9. Regeneração e riqueza da formação arbustiva de Palmae em uma cronoseqüência pós-fogo na Restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil The structure and diversity of three areas of shrubby restinga vegetation were analyzed 3, 12 and 84 months after fire in the Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura e a riqueza da formação arbustiva de Palmae foram analisadas em três sítios numa cronoseqüência de regeneração (3, 12 e 84 meses após a última queimada na Restinga da Marambaia, registrando-se a presença de 29, 41 e 64 táxons, respectivamente. No sítio com maior tempo de regeneração, Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze representou 79% da dominância relativa (DoR, seguida das nanofanerófitas Inga maritima Benth. e Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard. Na área queimada há 12 meses, A. arenaria representou 88% da DoR, seguida de Inga maritima, Setaria setosa (Sw. P. Beauv. e Paspalum arenarium Schrad. No sítio com três meses de regeneração, a DoR de A. arenaria foi de 82%, acompanhada de Clitoria sp., Inga maritima e Portulaca mucronata Link. Nos três sítios estudados, a forma de vida mais importante foi geófita rizomatosa, devido à dominância de A. arenaria. Caméfita herbácea escaposa foi a forma de vida que apresentou maior número de espécies nos sítios com três e 12 meses de regeneração e no sítio queimado há 84 meses, as nanofanerófitas acompanharam as caméfitas herbáceas escaposas em número de espécies. Das 29 espécies registradas no sítio com três meses de regeneração, só Portulaca mucronata e Sebastiania corniculata (Vahl Müll. Arg. originaramse a partir de sementes, sendo que as demais rebrotaram ou se regeneraram. Sete dias após a queimada A. arenaria apresentou, em média, 8cm de sua parte vegetativa regenerada e com 180 dias apresentou as primeiras inflorescências.A total of 29, 41 and 64 taxa, respectively, were found. In the area sampled 84 months after fire, relative dominance of Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes Kuntze was 79%, followed by the nanophanerophytes Inga maritima Benth. and Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard. In the area sampled 12 months after fire, relative dominance of A. arenaria was 88%, followed by Inga maritima, Setaria setosa (Sw. P. Beauv and Paspalum

  10. Etnobotânica de Plantas Medicinais no Assentamento Monjolinho, município de Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the Monjolinho settlement, Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Simone Alves da Cunha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar um estudo etnobotânico sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas pelos moradores do assentamento Monjolinho, Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram entrevistados através do método bola de neve 35 moradores (33 mulheres. As espécies (210 pertencem a 72 famílias, destacando-se as nativas do Cerrado, sendo o restante cultivado próximos das casas. Fabaceae e Asteraceae foram as mais citadas. Das 23 espécies de Fabaceae, 20 são nativas. As espécies que obtiveram o maior número de citações foram jatobá (Hymenaea spp. e o barbatimão (Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. e as com índice de concordância de uso (CUP alto foram barbatimão (S. obovatum e cancorosa (Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad. Planch. As folhas foram as partes mais utilizadas. As doenças do aparelho respiratório e geniturinário foram as mais citadas. A diversidade (H'= 5,03 de uso das espécies é alta. O conhecimento foi adquirido entre amigos (37%, cursos (17% ou família (39% e mostra que, ao longo do tempo, há expressivo aproveitamento das espécies medicinais e conhecimento da comunidade.This work carried out an ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by the inhabitants of the Monjolinho settlement in Anastácio city, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The goal of this work was to verify how residents congregate information brought from their place with information obtained where they live now, and to verify how the knowledge of spontaneous and native species from cerrado varies in relation to the specie cultivated. A total of 35 inhabitants were interviewed using the snowball method (33 women. The species (210 recorded belong to 72 families. Of these, many are native Cerrado species and the remaining species are cultivated next to the houses. Fabaceae and Asteraceae were the most cited families. Of the 23 species of Fabaceae, 20 are native. The species with the highest number of citations were jatobá (Hymenaea spp. and

  11. Myxomycetes do Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil Myxomycetes of the Parque Zoobotânico - Teresina, Piauí, Brazil

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    Márcia Percília Moura Parente Ponte

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando ampliar o conhecimento sobre a mixobiota do Piauí, foram realizadas coletas no Parque Zoobotânico de Teresina (05º 05' 12'' S, 42º 48' 48'' WG. A vegetação do Parque caracteriza-se como um cerradão com representantes da mata de cocais, que oferecem substratos potencialmente favoráveis ao desenvolvimento de Myxomycetes. Esporocarpos foram coletados no período chuvoso e início da estiagem (março a junho de 1999, identificados e depositados no herbário UFP (Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Foram obtidas 101 amostras, correspondentes a 19 espécies, distribuídas nas famílias Ceratiomyxaceae (Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (Mull. Macbr., Clastodermataceae (Clastoderma debaryanum Blytt, Cribrariaceae (Cribraria microcarpa (Schrad. Pers., C. violacea Rex, Dictydium canceilatum* (Batsch. Macbr., Enteridiaceae (Lycogala exiguum* Morgan., Physaraceae (Craterium aureum* (Schum. Rost., Physarum bogoriense* Racib., P. melleum (Berk. & Br. Massee, P. nucleatum Rex, P. pusilium* (Berk. & Curt. G. Lister, Trichiaceae (Arcyria denudata (L. Wett., A. cinerea (Bull. Pers., Hemitrichia calyculata (Speg. Farr, H. serpula (Scop. Rost., Metatrichia vesparium (Batsch Nann.-Brem., Perichaena depressa Lib. e Stemonitaceae (Comatricha typhoides (Bull. Rost., Stemonitis smithii Macbr.. Exceto H. calyculata e H. serpula, todos os táxons são referidos pela primeira vez para o município de Teresina; as espécies assinaladas com um asterisco constituem novos registros para o Piauí.Aiming to increase the knowledge about the myxobiota of Piauí State, Brazil, collections were done in the undertaken Zoobotanical Park of Teresina (05° 05' 12'' S, 42° 48' 48'' WG. The vegetation of the Park is a savanna ("cerradão" with "cocais" forest representative, offering substrates potentially favorable to the development of Myxomycetes. Sporocarps were collected in the rainy season (March to June 1999, identified and deposited at the UFP herbarium (Federal University

  12. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of some South African medicinal plants against multidrug resistant etiological agents of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Johnson, Mary A; Obi, Chikwelu L; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-06-19

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of some plants used in folklore medicine to treat diarrhoea in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The acetone extracts of Acacia mearnsii De Wild., Aloe arborescens Mill., A. striata Haw., Cyathula uncinulata (Schrad.) Schinz, Eucomis autumnalis (Mill.) Chitt., E. comosa (Houtt.) Wehrh., Hermbstaedtia odorata (Burch. ex Moq.) T.Cooke, Hydnora africana Thunb, Hypoxis latifolia Wight, Pelargonium sidoides DC, Psidium guajava L and Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) van der Merwe were screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, multi-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Isangi, S. typhi, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri type 1b and Sh. sonnei phase II. A qualitative phytochemical screening of the plants extracts was by thin layer chromatography. Plants extracts were screened for antibacterial activity using serial dilution microplate technique and bioautography. The TLC fingerprint indicated the presence of terpenoids and flavonoids in the herbs. Most of the tested organisms were sensitive to the crude acetone extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.018-2.5 mg/mℓ. Extracts of A. striata, C. uncinulata, E. autumnalis and P. guajava were more active against enteropathogens. S. aureus and Sh. flexneri were the most sensitive isolates to the crude extracts but of significance is the antibacterial activity of A. arborescens and P. guajava against a confirmed extended spectrum betalactamase positive S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The presence of bioactive compounds and the antibacterial activity of some of the selected herbs against multidrug resistant enteric agents corroborate assertions by traditional healers on their efficacies.

  13. Estudos sôbre a conservaç��o de sementes: XII - Melancia The influence of humidity and temperature on viability of watermelon seeds in storage

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    Eduardo Zink

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de melancia (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. dos cultivares «Charleston Gray» e «Yamato Satô» foram conservadas em ambientes que diferiam entre si na umidade e na temperatura. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo com rapidez, quando conservadas em ambientes de alta umidade e temperatura elevada, cêrca de 30°C. Queda menos pronunciada foi observada quando se baixou a temperatura para 20ºC. Reduzindo-se apenas a umidade do ar, as sementes conservaram muito bem o poder germinativo até o final do ensaio. Quando, porém, tais sementes foram mantidas em baixas condições de umidade e temperatura, a capacidade germinativa conservou-se inalterada, ao longo dos dezoito meses de observações.The viability of watermelon seeds kept under different storage conditions, was studied during a period of 18 months. The experimental results presented in this paper drew the following conclusions: 1 Complete viability at the end of 18 months was obtained for seeds stored at 20°C and at relative humidity of 45%. 2 At this same temperature, the longevity of the seeds decreased with the increasing of relative humidity. 3 Seeds kept at 30°C, even in low relative humidity condition, lost their viability in a short time. 4 The seeds of watermelon stored in airtight containers at room temperature, kept their viability well for 12 months, after which time it decreased considerably.

  14. Greenhouse crop residues: Energy potential and models for the prediction of their higher heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A.J.; Lopez-Martinez, J.A.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural, Universidad de Almeria, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Velazquez-Marti, B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural y Agroalimentaria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Almeria, in southeastern Spain, generates some 1,086,261 t year{sup -1} (fresh weight) of greenhouse crop (Cucurbita pepo L., Cucumis sativus L., Solanum melongena L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Phaseoulus vulgaris L., Capsicum annuum L., Citrillus vulgaris Schrad. and Cucumis melo L.) residues. The energy potential of this biomass is unclear. The aim of the present work was to accurately quantify this variable, differentiating between crop species while taking into consideration the area they each occupy. This, however, required the direct analysis of the higher heating value (HHV) of these residues, involving very expensive and therefore not commonly available equipment. Thus, a further aim was to develop models for predicting the HHV of these residues, taking into account variables measured by elemental and/or proximate analysis, thus providing an economically attractive alternative to direct analysis. All the analyses in this work involved the use of worldwide-recognised standards and methods. The total energy potential for these plant residues, as determined by direct analysis, was 1,003,497.49 MW h year{sup -1}. Twenty univariate and multivariate equations were developed to predict the HHV. The R{sup 2} and adjusted R{sup 2} values obtained for the univariate and multivariate models were 0.909 and 0.946 or above respectively. In all cases, the mean absolute percentage error varied between 0.344 and 2.533. These results show that any of these 20 equations could be used to accurately predict the HHV of crop residues. The residues produced by the Almeria greenhouse industry would appear to be an interesting source of renewable energy. (author)

  15. An improved HPLC method for determination of colocynthin in colocynth

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    M. Shekarchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Colocynthin is the major active secondary metabolite of colocynth, Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad, which has been used in traditional and ethno medicine of many countries.  It could be considered as an active marker for quality control of colocynth and its herbal products. Analysis and standardization of colocynth and its herbal preparations are a critical issue for their safe applications in phytotherapy and traditional medicine. In the present work, a simple and efficient sample preparation was developed and optimized through combination of matrix solid phase dispersion and ultrasonic assisted extraction. In addition, analytical reversed-phase HPLC method was optimized for analyzing the concentration of colocynthin in colocynth pulp. Methods: Powdered colocynth pulp was grinded with diatomaceous earth to obtain a homogenous mixture. The blend was mixed with methanol and extracted by sonication, followed by centrifugation and filtration. The analytical chromatographic separation was carried out using Luna C18 in isocratic elution with methanol: isopropanol: water: triflouroacetic acid (30:10:60:0.1 v/v. The method was validated as well.  Results: The validation parameters were determines as follows, linear range (r2 = 0.999, 75-500 μg/mL, precision (intra-day < 2.7%, inter-day = 4.4% and accuracy measured via determination of recovery (90-107%. The limit of detection and quantization were calculated 8.5 and 25.7 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Regarding the relatively high content of colocynthin in colocynth pulp, the validated HPLC method could be applied for quality control of colocynth pulp used in Traditional Persian Medicine.

  16. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  17. Controle de invasão biológica por capim-anonni em margem viária mediante a introdução de gramíneas Control of biological invasion by South African lovegrass on a roadside by introducing grasses

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    Renato Borges de Medeiros

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o controle da invasão biológica por Eragrostis plana Nees (capim-anonni em margens de rodovia com a introdução de gramíneas concorrentes associada a práticas de preparo do solo e adubação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram avaliadas duas práticas de preparo do solo: solo subsolado e gradeado com aplicação de calcário e fósforo; e solo apenas subsolado, e nas subparcelas, as espécies de gramíneas: capim-mombaça (Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B. K. Simon & S. W. L. Jacobs; capim-kazangula (Setaria sphacelata (Schumach. Stapf & C. E. Hubb. ex M. B. Moss; mistura de sementes de três gramíneas nativas, grama-de-forquilha (Paspalum notatum Alain ex Flüggé, macega-do-banhado (Paspalum regnelli Mez e capim-das-roças (Paspalum urvillei Steud.; avaliadas em comparação a uma subparcela de exclusão (testemunha. Nos levantamentos florísticos, realizados em 8 de janeiro de 2005, e após o plantio, em 26 de janeiro e 25 de junho de 2006, observou-se alta riqueza florística, com 86 espécies botânicas distribuídas em 29 famílias e 21% de espécies exóticas. O solo subsolado, gradeado, corrigido e adubado, associado às introduções de M. maximus e S. kazungula, foram as alternativas que mais contribuíram para reduzir a cobertura de E. plana. As gramíneas nativas presentes na vegetação do acostamento, Paspalum plicatulum Mitchx, Piptochaetium montevidense (Spreng. Parodi e a espécie nativa introduzida (Paspalum urvillei têm potencial para controlar a invasão de E. plana.The objective of this study was to control biological invasion by Eragrostis plana Nees (South African lovegrass on a roadside by introducing competitor grasses associated with soil management and fertilization practices. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with split-plots parcels and three replications. In the parcels, it was

  18. Banco de sementes como indicador de restauração de uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG Seed bank as indicator of restoration of a kaolin mining - degraded area in Brás Pires, MG

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    Sebastião Venâncio Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar o banco de sementes sob vegetação secundária em uma área degradada por mineração de caulim em Brás Pires, MG. Foram coletadas 40 amostras de solo de 0,5 x 0,5 m até a profundidade de 5,0 cm. As amostras foram mantidas em viveiro por quatro meses, sendo metade em sombreamento de 11,5% (luz e metade em sombreamento de 60% (sombra. A germinação das sementes foi comparada nas duas condições de sombra (11,5% e 60%, utilizando-se o teste t para amostras independentes. Foram amostradas 36 espécies pertencentes a 17 famílias botânicas. As famílias com maior riqueza específica foram Asteraceae, com nove espécies, Rubiaceae com cinco e Poaceae com quatro. A maioria das espécies (66,7% e dos indivíduos (82,2% amostrados no banco foi de herbácea. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos germinados do banco foram as herbáceas Urochloa decumbens (Stapf R.D. Webster, Cenchrus sp. e Eragrostis sp. e a arbustiva Leandra niangaeformis Cogn. Entre as arbóreas, destacaram-se em número de indivíduos Luehea grandiflora Mart. e Trema micranta (L. Blume. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas oriundas de áreas antropizadas do entorno indicou baixa resiliência da vegetação presente na área degradada em caso de ocorrer alguma perturbação severa.This study aimed to characterize the soil seed bank under secondary vegetation in an area degraded by kaolin mining in Brás Pires, MG, Brazil. Forty soil samples of 0.5 x 0.5 m were collected to the depth of 5.0 cm. The soil samples were maintained in nursery for four months, half in shading of 11.5% (light, and half in shading of 60% (shade. Seed germination was compared under the two shade conditions (11.5% and 60%, utilizing the t test for independent samples. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 botanical families were sampled. The families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae with 9, Rubiaceae with 5, and Poaceae with 4. Most of the

  19. Produção Arbórea e Animal em Sistema Silvipastoril com Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii Trees and Animal Production in a Silvipastoral System with Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii

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    Zelia Maria de Souza Castilhos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho dos componentes arbóreo e animal em um sistema silvipastoril (SSP com acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild e gramíneas perenes de verão, foi conduzido um trabalho em convênio com a empresa Seta S.A., na unidade da Fepagro em Tupanciretã, RS, no período de outubro de 1995 a maio de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi um bifatorial (espécie forrageira e densidade arbórea inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As espécies forrageiras (EF avaliadas foram capim annoni (Eragrostis plana, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e capim gatton (Panicum maximum cv. Gatton nos quatro primeiros anos, e capim gatton, capim aruana (P. maximum cv. Aruana e capim pangola (Digitaria diversinervis para os demais anos. As densidades arbóreas (DA testadas foram de 1.667, 1.000, 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Com 1.667 árvores.ha-1 houve maior rendimento de madeira em todas as avaliações, não diferindo de 1.000 árvores/ha-1 a partir do quinto ano. A produtividade animal foi mais elevada em DA de 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1, sendo respectivamente 229 e 223 kg.ha-1 de peso vivo. Aos sete anos de implantação da acácia negra, o volume de madeira foi de 166; 143; 86 e 51 m3.ha-1, respectivamente, nas densidades arbóreas de 1.667; 1.000; 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Para que haja um equilíbrio entre produção arbórea e animal, SSPs com densidades arbóreas entre 1.000 e 833 árvores.ha-1 apresentam-se como alternativas viáveis para os produtores rurais.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.39

    A silvopastoral study consisting of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild and tropical perennial grasses was developed at the Fepagro Research Unity in Tupanciretã, RS, in collaboration with Seta Group, from October 1995 until May 2003, with the objective of evaluating trees and animal (beef cattle performances. The experiment was a bifactorial completely randomized design (forage specie and arboreal density with two

  20. Polliniferous plants aud foraging strategles Of Apis mellifera (Hyínenoptera: Apidae in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico

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    Rogel Villanueva-G

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the most important polliniferous plants for European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L. was made in Quintana Roo state. Comparisons were made between the plants visited by both bee types in order to determine whether there were qualitative or quantitative differences in their choice of plant species. Also some foraging strategies of the honeybees were analysed. Pollen from pollen load samples was acetolysed and mounted on slides. Subsequently the polien grains were identified, counted and photographed. A total of 206 pollen load samples were collected at Palmas and St. Teresa during two years. The most frequent species in the ponen load samples from European and Africanized honeyhees were Cecropia peltata, Metopium brownei, Lonchocarpus sp. 2, Viguiera dentata, Eragrostis sp. 1, Bursera simaruba and Eupatorium albicaule. Both types of honey bees show a high reliance on pollen from only a few species, the first five named above comprised around 50% of all the mean percentage frequencies. Families that contributed with the largest number of polien species were Fabaceae, Asteraceac, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaecae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, Poaceac, Myrtaceae, Sapotaceae and Tiliaceae. C. peltata, Trema micrantha, B. simaruba, Eugenia sp. 1, Thouinia canesceras, Pouteria sp. 1, Mimosa bahamensis and V. dentata, were the pollen species with the largest percentages of oceurrence in both European and Africanized bee pollen load samples, and also represent a "long-term" food resources during the year.Un estudio de las plantas poliníferas más importantes para las abejas europeas y africanizadas (Apis melifera L. se realizó en el estado de Quintana Roo. Se hicieron comparaciones entre plantas visitadas por ambos tipos de abejas, con el objetivo de determinar si hay diferencias cualitativas o cuantitativas en la elección de la especie de planta. Adicionalmente, se analizaron algunas estrategias de forrajeo de las abejas. Muestras

  1. Leaf gas exchange and water status responses of a native and non-native grass to precipitation across contrasting soil surfaces in the Sonoran Desert.

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    Ignace, Danielle D; Huxman, Travis E; Weltzin, Jake F; Williams, David G

    2007-06-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems of the southwestern US are undergoing changes in vegetation composition and are predicted to experience shifts in climate. To understand implications of these current and predicted changes, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment on the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southeastern Arizona. The objectives of our study were to determine how soil surface and seasonal timing of rainfall events mediate the dynamics of leaf-level photosynthesis and plant water status of a native and non-native grass species in response to precipitation pulse events. We followed a simulated precipitation event (pulse) that occurred prior to the onset of the North American monsoon (in June) and at the peak of the monsoon (in August) for 2002 and 2003. We measured responses of pre-dawn water potential, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance of native (Heteropogon contortus) and non-native (Eragrostis lehmanniana) C(4) bunchgrasses on sandy and clay-rich soil surfaces. Soil surface did not always amplify differences in plant response to a pulse event. A June pulse event lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis. Whereas the August pulse did not lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis, due to favorable soil moisture conditions facilitating high plant performance during this period. E. lehmanniana did not demonstrate heightened photosynthetic performance over the native species in response to pulses across both soil surfaces. Overall accumulated leaf-level CO(2) response to a pulse event was dependent on antecedent soil moisture during the August pulse event, but not during the June pulse event. This work highlights the need to understand how desert species respond to pulse events across contrasting soil surfaces in water-limited systems that are predicted to experience changes in climate.

  2. Gibberellin Deficiency Confers Both Lodging and Drought Tolerance in Small Cereals

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    Sonia ePlaza-Wüthrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc. Trotter] and finger millet [Eleusine coracana Gaertn] are staple cereal crops in Africa and Asia with several desirable agronomic and nutritional properties. Tef is becoming a life-style crop as it is gluten-free while finger millet has a low glycemic index which makes it an ideal food for diabetic patients. However, both tef and finger millet have extremely low grain yields mainly due to moisture scarcity and susceptibility of the plants to lodging. In this study, the effects of gibberellic acid (GA inhibitors particularly paclobutrazol (PBZ on diverse physiological and yield-related parameters were investigated and compared to GA mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L.. The application of PBZ to tef and finger millet significantly reduced the plant height and increased lodging tolerance. Remarkably, PBZ also enhanced the tolerance of both tef and finger millet to moisture deficit. Under moisture scarcity, tef plants treated with PBZ did not exhibit drought-related symptoms and their stomatal conductance was unaltered, leading to higher shoot biomass and grain yield. Semi-dwarf rice mutants altered in GA biosynthesis, were also shown to have improved tolerance to dehydration. The combination of traits (drought tolerance, lodging tolerance and increased yield that we found in plants with altered GA pathway is of importance to breeders who would otherwise rely on extensive crossing to introgress each trait individually. The key role played by PBZ in the tolerance to both lodging and drought calls for further studies using mutants in the GA biosynthesis pathway in order to obtain candidate lines which can be incorporated into crop-breeding programs to create lodging tolerant and climate-smart crops.

  3. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

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    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  4. Classification and mapping of the composition and structure of dry woodland and savanna in the eastern Okavango Delta

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    Michelle J. Tedder

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The dry woodland and savanna regions of the Okavango Delta form a transition zone between the Okavango Swamps and the Kalahari Desert and have been largely overlooked in terms of vegetation classification and mapping. This study focused on the species composition and height structure of this vegetation, with the aim of identifying vegetation classes and providing a vegetation map accompanied by quantitative data. Two hundred and fifty-six plots (50 m × 50 m were sampled and species cover abundance, total cover and structural composition were recorded. The plots were classified using agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis using group means and Bray-Curtis similarity and groups described using indicator species analysis. In total, 23 woody species and 28 grass species were recorded. Acacia erioloba and Colophospermum mopane were the most common woody species, whilst Urochloa mossambicensis, Panicum maximum, Dactyloctenium gigantiumand Eragrostis lehmanniana were the most widespread grasses. Eleven vegetation types were identified, with the most widespread being Short mixed mopane woodland, Tall mopane woodland and Tall mixed mopane woodland, covering 288.73 km2 (28%, 209.14 km2 (20% and 173.30 km2 (17% of the area, respectively. Despite their extensive area, these three vegetation types were the least species-rich, whilst Palm thornveld, Short mixed broadleaf woodland and Open mixed Acacia woodland were the most taxonomically variable. By contrast, Closed mixed Acacia woodland and Closed Acacia–Combretum woodland had the most limited distribution, accounting for less than 1% of the mapped area each.Conservation implications: The dry woodland and savanna vegetation of the Okavango Delta comprises a much wider suite of plant communities than the Acacia-dominated and Mopane-dominated classifications often used. This classification provided a more detailed understanding of this vegetation and essential background information for monitoring

  5. Diversifying crops for food and nutrition security - a case of teff.

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    Cheng, Acga; Mayes, Sean; Dalle, Gemedo; Demissew, Sebsebe; Massawe, Festo

    2017-02-01

    There are more than 50000 known edible plants in the world, yet two-thirds of global plant-derived food is provided by only three major cereals - maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa). The dominance of this triad, now considered truly global food commodities, has led to a decline in the number of crop species contributing to global food supplies. Our dependence on only a few crop species limits our capability to deal with challenges posed by the adverse effects of climate change and the consequences of dietary imbalance. Emerging evidence suggests that climate change will cause shifts in crop production and yield loss due to more unpredictable and hostile weather patterns. One solution to this problem is through the wider use of underutilised (also called orphan or minor) crops to diversify agricultural systems and food sources. In addition to being highly nutritious, underutilised crops are resilient in natural and agricultural conditions, making them a suitable surrogate to the major crops. One such crop is teff [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter], a warm-season annual cereal with the tiniest grain in the world. Native to Ethiopia and often the sustenance for local small farmers, teff thrives in both moisture-stressed and waterlogged soil conditions, making it a dependable staple within and beyond its current centre of origin. Today, teff is deemed a healthy wheat alternative in the West and is sought-after by health aficionados and those with coeliac disease or gluten sensitivity. The blooming market for healthy food is breathing new life into this underutilised crop, which has received relatively limited attention from mainstream research perhaps due to its 'orphan crop' status. This review presents the past, present and future of an ancient grain with a potential beyond its size. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Dynamique de la flore et de la végétation des Niayes et du Bassin arachidier au Sénégal

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    Elhadji Faye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactualisation of floristic and phytosociologic datas in Niayes and Peanut-Basin areas were undertook with village scale approach to better underline resources' conervation. In Savannah and sub-guinean areas specially in the Peanut-Basin and Niayes, 288 floristic samples were put in place in 6 villages in an stratified way based on ethnic groups, land use systems and topography. In the same time, 25 samples were realised in the 2 reference sites (Noflaye and Sambandé and comparison were made with researches conducted in 1940. Datas were submitted to multivariate analysis. SØrensen similarity index were used to compare villages systems and natural sites. Results showed discrimination of 11 phytosociologic groups: 5 of which came from natural sites (savanah G4 Hexalobus monopetalus et Gardenia ternifolia and G8 Acacia macrostachya et Ischaemum rugosum, secondary forest G10 Aphania senegalensis et Voaganca africana, semi-aquatic vegetations G1 Ipomoea aquatica et I. dichroa and G5 Phragmites australis subsp australis et Paspalum vaginatum and 6 from anthropic systems (disturbed areas G6 Echinochloa colona et Jussiae erecta and G7 Dactyloctenium aegyptium et Brachiaria disticophylla, and finally post-cultural zones with G2 Brachiaria disticophylla et Cenchrus biflorus, G3 Celosia trigyna et Digitaria velutina, G9 Tephrosia purpurea et Cenchrus biflorus and G11 Mitracarpus scaber et Eragrostis tremula. Natural sites groups were progressively invided by disturded area species and the others by ruderals and nitrophyl species. Overall floristic richness is about 336 species among which 260 from the Niayes sites and 176 from Peanut-Basin ones. References sites are always richer in terms af genera but peul areas are richer in termes of species. Differences were evidenced between actual taxa and Trochain (1940 descriptions. This methodological approach might be extended to other ecogeographical zones in Senegal in order to better identify and follow

  7. Symbiosis in the Context of an Invasive, Non-Native Grass: Fungal Biodiversity and Student Engagement

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    Lehr, Gavin

    Grasslands in the western United States face severe environmental threats including those brought about by climate change, such as changes in precipitation regimes and altered fire cycles; land-use conversion and development; and the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native species. Lehmann's lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) was introduced to the southwestern United States in the early 1900s. Since its introduction, it has become the dominant grass in the mid-elevation grasslands of southern Arizona, including the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER), where it has displaced native grasses including Arizona cottontop, three awns, and gramas. Like all plants in terrestrial ecosystems, this grass harbors fungal symbionts that can be important for its establishment and persistence. This thesis focuses on fungal symbionts of Lehmann's lovegrass and has two components. First, the diversity and distributions of endophytes in Lehmann's lovegrass are evaluated in the context of biotic and abiotic factors in the SRER. Culturing from roots and shoots of Lehmann's lovegrass at points beneath and outside the canopy of native mesquites, which are encroaching on grasslands over time, provides insight into how a single plant species can exhibit local variation in the composition of its symbionts. Second, the thesis is used as the basis for engagement of students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through the development and implementation of classroom- and field activities centered on endophytes, which help high school students address core learning aims while also gaining real research experience. Engaging students in important questions relevant to their local environment can catalyze interest in science and help students cross the threshold into research. The contributions of such approaches with respect to learning not only fulfills key next-generation science standards and common core objectives, but provides students with a meaningful

  8. Diet Switching by Mammalian Herbivores in Response to Exotic Grass Invasion.

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    Carolina Bremm

    Full Text Available Invasion by exotic grasses is a severe threat to the integrity of grassland ecosystems all over the world. Because grasslands are typically grazed by livestock and wildlife, the invasion is a community process modulated by herbivory. We hypothesized that the invasion of native South American grasslands by Eragrostis plana Nees, an exotic tussock-forming grass from Africa, could be deterred by grazing if grazers switched dietary preferences and included the invasive grass as a large proportion of their diets. Bos taurus (heifers and Ovis aries (ewes grazed plots with varying degrees of invasion by E. plana in a replicated manipulative experiment. Animal positions and species grazed were observed every minute in 45-min grazing session. Proportion of bites and steps in and out of E. plana tussocks were measured and used to calculate several indices of selectivity. Both heifers and ewes exhibited increasing probability of grazing E. plana as the proportion of area covered by tussocks increased, but they behaved differently. In agreement with expectations based on the allometry of dietary preferences and morphology, ewes consumed a low proportion of E. plana, except in areas that had more than 90% E. plana cover. Heifers consumed proportionally more E. plana than ewes. Contrary to our hypothesis, herbivores did not exhibit dietary switching towards the invasive grass. Moreover, they exhibited avoidance of the invasive grass and preference for short-statured native species, both of which should tend to enhance invasion. Unless invasive plants are highly palatable to livestock, the effect of grazing to deter the invasion is limited, due to the inherent avoidance of the invasive grass by the main grazers in the ecosystem, particularly sheep.

  9. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil

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    Jaílson Penha Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of weed floristic composition and phytosociology are key factors for improving weed management in pastures. Information on weed species that occur in pastures in Northeast Brazil, particularly in Maranhão State is very limited. It is, therefore, important, to search for information to help farmers to control weeds in livestock farming. This paper describes the weed flora diversity and community structure parameters, including density, frequency, abundance and importance value for each weed species found in five pastures of same age and management in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. The weed survey was carried out using a wooden frame (80 cm x 30 cm placed randomly on the soil surface 30 times in each pasture (n = 150. Weeds were pulled out, separated by species and counted. The weed flora was represented by 996 individuals, from nine families, 15 genera and 19 species. Weed density within pastures was of 44.3 plants m-2. The weed flora was dominated by species of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families. The most important weed species based on Importance Value were Eragrostis ciliaris (IV = 32.97, Cyperus rotundus (IV = 31,95, Cyperus luzulae (IV = 27,50, Cyperus sphacelatus (IV = 27,42, Pycreus lanceolatus (IV = 27,33 Cyperus haspan (IV = 25,72 and Eleusine indica (IV = 23,49. Weed diversity, based on Shannon Diversity Index was very high (H' = 4.37 nats ind-1. Our results could lead to improved weed management in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

  10. Production of biodegradable plastic by polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating bacteria using low cost agricultural waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Anteneh; Woldesenbet, Fantahun

    2016-12-12

    Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) are macromolecules synthesized by bacteria. They are inclusion bodies accumulated as reserve materials when the bacteria grow under different stress conditions. Because of their fast degradability under natural environmental conditions, PHBs are selected as alternatives for production of biodegradable plastics. The aim of this work was to isolate potential PHB producing bacteria, evaluate PHB production using agro-residues as carbon sources. Among fifty bacterial strains isolated from different localities, ten PHB accumulating strains were selected and compared for their ability to accumulate PHB granules inside their cells. Isolate Arba Minch Waste Water (AWW) identified as Bacillus spp was found to be the best producer. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation period for best PHB production by the isolate were 7, 37 °C, and 48 h respectively at 150 rpm. PHB production was best with glucose as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source. The strain was able to accumulate 55.6, 51.6, 37.4 and 25% PHB when pretreated sugar cane bagasse, corn cob, teff straw (Eragrostis tef) and banana peel were used as carbon sources respectively. Fourier transform-infrared authentication results of the extracted and purified PHB identified its functional units as C-H, CH 2 , C=O and C-O groups. UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis and biodegradability test confirmed the similarity of the extract with standard PHB and its suitability for bioplastic production. The isolated Bacillus sp can be used for feasible production of PHB using agro-residues especially sugarcane bagasse which can reduce the production cost in addition to reducing the disposal problem of these substrates. The yield of PHB can further be boosted by optimization of production parameters as substrates.

  11. Screening of salt-tolerance potential of some native forage grasses from the eastern part of Terai-Duar grasslands in India

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    Swarnendu Roy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The salt tolerance of 12 native forage grasses from the eastern part of Terai-Duar grasslands was assessed using a rapid method of leaf disc senescence bioassay. Samples of these grasses were grown in untreated water as well as 100 and 200 mM NaCl solutions for periods of 3, 6 and 9 days. Discs of fresh leaf were then placed in untreated water as well as in 100 and 200 mM NaCl solutions for 96 hours. Quantitative effects were measured as the effects on chlorophyll concentration in leaves in response to exposure to the varying solutions. From these results, the salt sensitivity index (SSI of the individual grasses was determined. The SSI values indicated that Imperata cylindrica, Digitaria ciliaris and Cynodon dactylon were most salt-tolerant of all grasses tested. Further characterization of the grasses was done by observing the changes in 6 biomarkers for salinity tolerance: relative water content, total sugar concentration, proline concentration, electrolyte leakage, membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentration following exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl concentrations for 3, 6 and 9 days. Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis using the software CLUSTER 3.0 was used to represent the inter-relations among the physiological parameters and to group the grasses on the basis of their salinity tolerance. The overall results indicated that Imperata cylindrica, Eragrostis amabilis, Cynodon dactylon and Digitaria ciliaris were potentially salt-tolerant grasses and should be planted on saline areas to verify our results. On the other hand, Axonopus compressus, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Oplismenus burmanni and Thysanolaena latifolia were found to be highly salt-sensitive and would be unsuitable for use in saline areas. 

  12. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  13. Seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses around Artemisia halodendron shrubs in a sandy habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Rui; Zhao, Wen-Zhi; Kang, Ling-Fen; Liu, Ji-Liang; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Qi

    2009-05-01

    In a natural population of the perennial semi-shrub Artemisia halodendron in a shifting sandy habitat in the Horqin Desert of eastern Inner Mongolia, six isolated adult A. halodendron individuals of similar canopy size were chosen as target plants. The density of seeds in the top 5 cm soil depth around shrubs was measured using transects aligned to the four main wind directions and at different distances from the shrub base on both the windward and leeward sides. The effects of shrub presence on seed distribution of four co-occurring grasses were examined by linking seed distribution to seed traits. Of the four species, Setaris viridis and Eragrostis pilosa had small but similar seed mass, while Chloris virgata and Aristida adscensionis had large but similar seed mass. The species were grouped into two cohorts: small-seeded vs. large-seeded cohorts, and shrub presence effects on seed distribution of both cohorts were examined. We found marked difference in the seed distribution pattern among species, especially between the small-seeded and large-seeded cohorts. The small-seeded cohort had significantly higher seed accumulation on the windward than the leeward sides in the most and least prevailing wind directions and much higher seed accumulation on the leeward than the windward sides in the second and third most prevailing wind directions, while opposite patterns occurred in the large-seeded cohort. Four species also showed marked variation in the seed distribution pattern among transects and between windward and leeward sides of each transect. This study provided further evidence that shrubs embedded in a matrix of herbaceous plants is a key cause of spatial heterogeneity in seed availability of herbaceous species. However, seed distribution responses to the presence of shrubs will vary with species as well as with wind direction, sampling position (windward vs. leeward sides of the shrub) and distance from the shrub.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of selected minerals in liver samples from springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis from the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa

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    Khanyisile R. Mbatha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the mineral nutrition of captive antelope in South Africa. Zoo animals are usually offered a very limited array of feeds, which may result in nutritional imbalances. As a pilot study to investigate the presence of myopathy in antelope at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG, stored liver samples from six springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis and seven other antelopes from the NZG, as well as selected food items, were submitted for analysis of selenium, copper, manganese and zinc content by spectrophotometry. Springbok liver levels of copper were 23.07 mg/kg ± 0.72 mg/kg, whilst manganese, selenium and zinc levels were 6.73 mg/kg ± 0.22 mg/kg, 0.14 mg/kg ± 0.05 mg/kg and 135.02 mg/kg ± 1.26 mg/kg, respectively. Liver mineral levels in the other species were very variable. Food item copper levels ranged from 4.00 mg/kg (Eragrostis tef to 17.38 mg/kg (antelope cubes, lucerne (Medicago sativa and E. tef contained no detectable selenium. The highest zinc levels were in antelope cubes (147.00 mg/kg and the lowest were in lucerne (20.80 mg/kg. Interpretation of these results was hampered by the small number of samples and a paucity of information on liver mineral levels in free-ranging and captive antelope; however, results suggested that, in the springbok, whilst copper and manganese intake are likely adequate, selenium nutrition is probably insufficient and may account for the myopathy diagnosed. Zinc liver levels are possibly within the toxic range, perhaps as a result of the high levels of zinc in the antelope cubes. This pilot study highlighted the need to establish baseline mineral nutrition data for captive and freeranging antelope under South African conditions.

  15. Atividade antitríptica de proteínas em polpas e sementes de frutas tropicais

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    Ágnes Denise de Lima Bezerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A alimentação saudável e diversificada é essencial para a manutenção da saúde física e mental, e apesar de o perfil alimentar atual valorizar a praticidade do comer, nota-se que a população está consumindo, de forma crescente, frutas, tanto na forma in natura como na forma de sucos. No entanto, o consumo de certas frutas in natura ocorre acompanhado da ingestão de suas sementes, cascas ou mesmo outras partes, podendo existir fatores antinutricionais, moléculas e/ou compostos que podem interferir na biodisponibilidade e/ou digestibilidade de nutrientes, tais como os inibidores de tripsina. Tais inibidores podem prejudicar o aproveitamento de proteínas presentes nos alimentos, porém estudos recentes vêm sendo divulgados, demonstrando também os efeitos benéficos dos mesmos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar inibidores de tripsina nos extratos aquosos das frutas: goiaba (Psidium guajava L, das variedades Kumagai (branca e Paluma (vermelha; maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. e melancia (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Para tal, foi realizada a detecção da presença da atividade antitríptica e a dosagem de proteínas solúveis. Em todos os extratos analisados, foi detectada atividade inibitória de tripsina, bem como de proteínas solúveis. Assim, a inibição pode ser explicada pela presença de inibidores proteicos, pois, nos extratos de sementes, em SDS-PAGE, foi possível visualizar um largo espectro de bandas proteicas. Vale ressaltar que, no estudo, as bandas proteicas que coincidem com as massas moleculares dos inibidores de tripsina não apareceram de forma majoritária, demonstrando que os extratos de sementes, provavelmente, possuem inibidor proteico, no entanto em pouca quantidade, justificando a baixa atividade antitríptica (1,36 a 15,15 UI / mg de peso seco, também apresentada pelos extratos de polpa. Portanto, tendo em vista o consumo recomendado das frutas, incluindo goiaba, maracujá e melancia

  16. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Krasniqi, Feriz; Hoxha, Esat; Ademi, Hatixhe; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea

    2012-01-28

    Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations.Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal taxa recorded in Kosovo often include those

  17. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

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    Mustafa Behxhet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1 to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2 to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the

  18. Detection of viruses and the spatial and temporal spread patterns of viral diseases of cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae spp.) in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamena, A. E

    2013-07-01

    Cucurbits are susceptible to over 35 plant viruses; each of these viruses is capable of causing total crop failure in a poorly managed virus pathosystem. The objectives of this study were to detect the viruses that infect six cucurbit species in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and to describe the spatial and temporal spread patterns of virus epidemics in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) by the use of mathematical and geostatistical models. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), egushi (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) were grown on an experimental field in the coastal savannah zone of Ghana and were monitored for the expression of virus and virus-like symptoms. The observed symptoms were further confirmed by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS ELISA) and mechanical inoculation of indicator plants. The temporal spread patterns of virus disease in zucchini squash were analyzed by exponential logistic, monomolecular and gompertz mechanistic models. The spatial patterns of virus disease spread in zucchini squash field were analyzed by semivariograms and inverse distance weighing (IDW) methods. Cucumber, zucchini squash, melon and butternut squash were infected by both Cucumber mosaic virus (CMW) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Egushi was infected by CMW but not PRSV-W. None of the six cucurbit species were infected by Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) or Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). The temporal pattern of disease incidence in the zucchini squash field followed the gompertz function with an average apparent infection rate of 0.026 per day. The temporal pattern of disease severity was best described by the exponential model with coefficient of determination of 94.38 % and rate of progress disease severity of 0.114 per day. As at 49 days after planting (DAP), disease incidence and

  19. Ecological analysis of plant cover of the permanent grassland ecosystem located in the vicinity of Novi Kneževac, Serbia

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    Knežević Aleksa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 taxa and stands of 12 plant communities were found to comprise the plant cover of the permanent grassland on the solonetz and solonchakic solonetz soils located in the vicinity of the town of Novi Kneževac (Vojvodina Province, Serbia. The registered taxa included 177 plant species, six subspecies, eight varieties, 13 forms and one lusus. The ecological analysis of the flora involved 191 taxa. That group consisted of 177 species, six subspecies, three varieties and five forms. The three varieties, Aster tripolium L. var. pannonicus ( Jacq. Beck, Chenopodium rubrum L. subsp. botryoides Sm. var. crassifolium (Hornem Kov. and Sonchus arvensis L. var. uliginosus (M.B. Grec. were used for analysis because their higher taxonomic categories were not recorded in the studied flora. The five forms, Aster sedifolius L. f. subsquamosus Soy, Bromus commutatus Schrad. f. violaceus Podp., Mentha aquatica L. f. erromera Top., Poa bulbosa L. f. vivipara Koel. and Scleranthus annus L. f. minimus Schur., were used for the same reason. The ecological analysis encompassed stands of all 12 recorded communities, i.e. ass. Scirpo-Phragmitetum W. Koch 1926, ass. Bolboschoenetum maritimi continentale Soy (1927 1957, ass. Acorelletum pannonici Soy (1939 1947, ass. Puccinelletum limosae (Rapcs. 1927 Soy 1930, ass. Pholiuro-Plantaginetum tenuiflorae (Rapcs. 1927 Wendel. 1943, ass. Hordeetum histricis (Soy 1933 Wendel. 1943, ass. Camphorosmetum annuae (Rapcs. 1916 Soy 1933 corr. Soy 1938, ass. Agrostio-Alopecuretum pratensis Soy (1933 1947, ass. Agrostio-Eleochariti-Alopecuretu geniculati (Magyar1928 Soy (1939 1947, ass. Artemisio-Festucetum pseudovinae (Magyar 1928 Soy 1945, ass. Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae (Magyar 1928 Soy 1945 and ass. Festuco-Andropogonetum ischaemi Vučk. 1985. The ecological analysis of the plant cover indicated that halophytes made 30.37% of the flora of the permanent grassland near the town of Novi Kneževac, and that the stands of

  20. Modeling the Climate and Hydrological Controls of the Expansion of an Invasive Grass Over Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, A.; Niu, G.; Zeng, X.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has an effect on the resilience of ecosystems and the occurrence of ecological perturbations (e.g. spread of invasive species, wildfires). Changes in vegetation in turn can interrupt regional scale climate patterns and alter the spatial and temporal propagation of ecological disturbances. Understanding the controls of vegetation change are essential for predicting future changes, and for setting conservation and restoration targets. Vegetation change in transition zones between ecological regions is a significant indicator of future shifts in the composition of neighboring plant communities. The Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed is in a grassland-shrubland transition zone between the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Desert in Southern Arizona. During the past decade, at some sites the cover of the invasive Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) drastically increased and the abundance of native vegetation decreased, causing a major decline in biodiversity. Focusing on a catchment scale (Kendall Site), we used an individual based vegetation model (ECOTONE) and a coupled vegetation-3D surface/subsurface hydrology model (ECOTONE-CATHY) to simulate vegetation change. We set up the models with soil and climatological data (NLDAS and AmeriFlux), incorporated initial conditions of species and biomass distribution and species parameters for the site. Using ECOTONE we tested our hypothesis that a combination of dry years and subsequent wet period caused Lehmann lovegass to have advantage over the natives. In ECOTONE species composition and species distribution of plant communities arise from dynamic interactions of individual plants with species specific traits through intra- and interspecific competition for resources (H2O, nitrogen) and their interaction with the environment (precipitation and temperature). Our results indicate that the competitive advantage of Lehmann lovegrass stems from its ability to withstand dryer conditions during establishment and due to

  1. Influence of tropical leaf litter on nitrogen mineralization and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

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    Diallo, MD.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study concerns the relationships among leaf litter decomposition, substrate quality, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB community composition and nitrogen (N availability. Decomposition of organic matter affects the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C and N. Since the composition of the soil microbial community can alter the physiological capacity of the community, it is timely to study the litter quality effect on N dynamic in ecosystems. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of leaf litter decomposition on N mineralization. The specific objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the litter biochemistry of five plants species (Faidherbia albida A.Chev., Azadirachta indica A.Juss., Casuarina equisetifolia L., Andropogon gayanus Kunth and Eragrostis tremula Hochst. ex Steud. on N mineralization in a tropical ferrous soil (Lixisol, nitrification, and genetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of amplified fragments of genes coding for 16S rRNA was used to study the development of bacterial communities during decomposition of leaf litter in soils. Method. Community structure of AOB was determined at two time periods: day 0 and day 140. Ten strains were tested and each of these strains produced a single band. Thus, DGGE DNA band patterns were used to estimate bacterial diversity. Plant secondary compounds such as polyphenols are purported to influence nutrient cycling by affecting organic matter degradation, mineralization rates, N availability and humus formation. In a laboratory study, we investigated the influence of six phenolic acids (ferulic, gallic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and p-HBA acids commonly found in the plant residues on N mineralization and NH4+ and NO3- production in soils. Results. The results showed that litter type did affect soil nitrification. Faidherbia albida litter was associated with

  2. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of drip irrigated watermelon in Piaui coastline, Brazil Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo da melancia irrigada por gotejamento no litoral do Piauí

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    Edson A. Bastos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficient (Kc is fundamental to plan and to manage the irrigation of any crop. The aim of this study was to determine the daily and hourly evapotranspiration of drip irrigated watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus, var. Crimson Sweet and crop coefficient (Kc in each crop development phase. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of 1.27 ha of Embrapa Mid-North, localized in Parnaíba (02°54'S, 41°47'W and 46 m above of sea, State of Piauí, Brazil, from September to November, 2006. Electronic weighing lysimeters of 1.5 m x 1.5 m wide and long and 1.0 m deep were used to obtain the evapotranspiration. The plants were drip irrigated with a lateral row per plant row and drippers spaced 0.5 m from each other. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation from the climatic data obtained by electronic sensors. The total evapotranspiration during the watermelon crop cycle cultivated in the state of Piauí was 233.87 mm, with mean values of 3.7 mm day-1, minimum of 1.18 and maximum of 8.14 mm day-1. The Kc of the drip irrigated watermelon was 0.18 in the initial stage of crop growth; 0.18 to 1.3, in crop development stage; 1.3 in the intermediate stage and 0.43 in the final stage.O conhecimento da evapotranspiração e do coeficiente de cultivo (Kc é fundamental para dimensionar e manejar a irrigação de qualquer cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc diária e horária da melancia (Citrullus lanatus Schrad, var. Crimson Sweet irrigada por gotejamento e o Kc em cada fase de desenvolvimento da cultura. O estudo foi conduzido em uma área experimental de 1,27 ha da Embrapa Meio-Norte, localizada em Parnaíba - PI (02° 54'S, 41° 47'W e 46 m de altitude, no período de setembro a novembro de 2006. Utilizaram-se quatro lisímetros de pesagem eletrônica de 1,5 m x 1,5 m de largura e comprimento com 1,0 m de

  3. Interações entre herbicidas e protetores para o controle de capim-annoni em pastagem natural Interactions among herbicides and safeners for the south african lovegrass control in natural grassland

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    Ives Clayton Gomes dos Reis Goulart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A similaridade botânica do capim-annoni com as espécies forrageiras nativas ou cultivadas dificultam o seu controle em pastagens naturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de associações entre herbicidas e protetores sobre o controle de capim-annoni e a seletividade em pastagem natural. Foram realizados dois experimentos a campo em área de pastagem natural típica do Bioma Pampa avaliando-se herbicidas aplicados em pré e pós-emergência. Outro experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com as espécies capim-annoni e grama forquilha onde foram avaliados os herbicidas glufosinate-ammonium e imazethapyr. Em ambos os experimentos os herbicidas foram avaliados isolados ou em associação com os protetores anidrido naftálico, dietholate e fluxofenim. Os experimentos a campo demonstraram que os herbicidas aplicados em pré ou pós-emergência em interação com os protetores não proporcionaram controle satisfatório do capim-annoni e nem aumento da seletividade à pastagem natural. Por outro lado, o experimento em condições controladas indicou a ocorrência de sinergismo do herbicida glufosinate-ammonium em interação com os protetores anidrido naftálico, dietholate e fluxofenim sobre o capim-annoni. As diferenças relacionadas a estádio de desenvolvimento e densidade de infestação estão relacionadas as variações das respostas nos estudos a campo e em condições controladas. A utilização de herbicidas em associações com protetores apresenta potencialidade de controle seletivo de capim-annoni quando aplicado em plantas em estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento.The botanical similarity of the invasive weed Eragrostis plana Nees (South African lovegrass difficult its selective control in natural pastures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the association between herbicides and safeners on the control of E. plana and on the selectivity to the natural pastures. Two experiments were conducted at

  4. CATÁLOGO DE LA FAMILIA POACEAE EN COLOMBIA

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    Diego Giraldo-Cañas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un inventario de las especies de Poaceae de Colombia junto con un análisis de la diversidad específica de esta familia según las regiones naturales colombianas, los gradientes de altitud y de precipitaciones, y la distribución sistemática. Se realizaron 96 expediciones de campo a las diez grandes regiones naturales de Colombia (Amazonia, Andes, Caribe, Chocó Biogeográfico, Guayana, islas caribeñas, Orinoquia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, valle del río Cauca y valle del río Magdalena con un muestreo total de alrededor de 5800 ejemplares. Además, se consultaron colecciones de los herbarios CAUP, COAH, COL, CUVC, CHOCO, HFAB, HUA, HUQ, JAUM, MEDEL, MEXU, MO, NY, PSO, RSA, SI, UDBC, UIS, US, VALLE y VEN, y se realizó una investigación bibliográfica exhaustiva. Las Poaceae están representadas en Colombia por 840 especies y 173 géneros. Se reconocieron 74 especies y un género (Agrostopoa endémicos. Por otra parte, se documentaron 83 especies introducidas-naturalizadas y 50 introducidas-cultivadas. Los géneros más ricos en especies son Paspalum (89 especies, Panicum (42, Festuca (36, Eragrostis (29, Calamagrostis (25, Chusquea (25, Digitaria (24, Axonopus (21, Setaria (20, Cenchrus (18, Poa (17, Muhlenbergia (16, Andropogon (15, Aristida (15, Agrostis (14, Lasiacis (12, Urochloa (12, Pariana (11, Sporobolus (11, Arthrostylidium (10, Cortaderia (10, Nassella (10, Neurolepis (10 y Schizachyrium (10. Durante el desarrollo de esta investigación, se descubrieron 10 nuevos registros para la flora colombiana. La regiones Andina, Orinocense, Caribe y Guayanesa son las más ricas en especies, con 583, 233, 186 y 179 especies, respectivamente. La Región Andina presenta el mayor número de especies endémicas (57 especies. Los gradientes altitudinales más diversos corresponden a los de las tierras bajas (por debajo de 1200 m s.m.. Al igual que en otras áreas tropicales, en Colombia las subfamilias de Poaceae muestran una

  5. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations. Results showed that 20 main feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into natural pastures, crop residues, green feeds, hay, agro-industrial by-products, concentrate mix, and non-conventional feeds. Overall, natural pasture (mean rank = 0.453), non-conventional feeds (0.307), cut green feeds (0.086), conserved hay (0.076), crop residues (0.049), and concentrate feeds (0.029) were ranked as the main feed resources in decreasing order of importance. Natural pasture grazing (92.2% of the respondents), hay (35.6%), and green feeds (29.4%) were the most important conventional basal feeds used. Wheat bran (11.7% of the respondents) followed by commercial concentrate mix (9.4%), Noug seedcake (8.3%), grain (7.8%), and molasses (6.1%) were the concentrate supplements used. Overall, bulule-flour mill leftovers (67.2% of the farmers), bean and pea hulls (57.2%) and atella-local brew by-product (37.2%), enset (Ensete ventricosum, 34.4%), and sugarcane top (32.2%) were the non-conventional feeds available and used during feed scarcity. Barley and teff (Eragrostis teff) straws and maize and sorghum stovers were the main crop residues used in the dry seasons. Overall, 73.9, 12.2, 12.2, and 1.7% of the respondents practiced free grazing, zero grazing, semi-zero, and a combination of zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Over 84% of the respondents in the dry season and 50% in

  6. Effect of Hexaconazole and Penconazole on Kochia (Kochia scoparia Freezing Tolerance

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    A. Kamandy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cold and freezing are the most important limiting factors on development of sensitive plants. When the ambient temperature deviates from optimal, physiological, and biochemical, metabolic and molecular changes will occur within plants. This is an effort of plants to maximize growth and developmental processes and to maintain cellular homeostasis during such adverse conditions. At the extremes of the natural temperature range of plant, the degree of physiological, cellular, metabolic and molecular dysfunction becomes so severe that it leads to death. Triazoles are the most potent groups of growth retardants with multiple effects. Plant growing with paclobutrazol generally has little effect on rates of net photosynthetic rate. However, because the compound reduces leaf area, net photosynthesis on a per plant basis is probably reduced. They have exhibited growth regulating, fungicidal, herbicidal, apicidal and antibacterial activities. More recently, it was found that triazole compounds are able to increase tolerance of plants to cold and freezing stress. Kochia (Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad., an out crossing species whose pollen move between plants in windy areas, has recently been considered as a forage or fodder crop in marginal lands. Steppuhn and Wall (1993 claimed that Kochia offers great potential as a crop that can be grown on saline soils, yielding fodder in quantities approaching that produced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Shamsutdinov et al. (1996 also reported more than 15 Mg ha-1 dry-matter production for Kochia under saline conditions and concluded that it is a good candidate for forage hay. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the triazole compounds could increase tolerance of kochia against freezing stress. Materials and Methods An experiment was carried out with hexaconazole and penconazole in 0, 10 and 20 mg.L-1 and freezing temperatures 0, -2, -4, -6 and -8 degree centigrade in factorial based

  7. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

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    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ∆Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.