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Sample records for er cr ysgg

  1. Er,Cr:YSGG Laser as a Novel Method for Rebonding Failed Ceramic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Aydin; Jafari, Sanaz; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rikhtehgaran, Sahand

    2016-10-01

    Since there is no standard method for rebonding loose ceramic brackets, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using Er,Cr:YSGG laser to eliminate the remaining composite materials from the base of ceramic brackets and to compare the bond strength of rebonded brackets with the new ones. Sixty-two extracted human premolars were mounted in acrylic cylinders. Thirty-one ceramic brackets were bonded, and shear bond strength was tested using Hounsfield testing machine. The remnants of the bonding material were removed from the bases of brackets using Er,Cr:YSGG laser. These brackets were rebonded to 31 fresh teeth and again shear bond strength was measured. Pattern of debonding was assessed in both cases under a stereomicroscope and graded according to ARI index. Data were analyzed with independent t-test and Fisher's exact test. Mean shear bond strength of the bond and rebond groups was 12.29 ± 5.46 and 10.58 ± 5.16 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.21). Pattern of bond failure was not statistically different between the two groups. Er,Cr:YSGG laser was effective in removing the remnants of bonding material from the base of ceramic brackets without any interference with the ceramic base itself, demonstrating that it might be a suitable method for rebonding ceramic brackets.

  2. Effects of an Er, Cr:YSGG laser on canine oral hard tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizoiu, Ioana-Mihaela; Kimmel, Andrew I.; Eversole, Lewis R.

    1996-12-01

    Beagle dogs were utilized to assess the biologic effects of an Er, Cr:YSGG hard tissue cutting laser and results were compared with conventional mechanical preparations of enamel and dentin. Intraoperative pulpal temperature fluctuations were recorded with thermocouples. The laser cuts failed to induce inflammation in the pulps except in teeth with intentional pulp exposures for both methods. No increase in temperature was detected with the laser. It is concluded that this laser system may be safely employed for tooth preparations without causing adverse pulpal effects.

  3. Management of denture-induced epulis fissuratum with Er,Cr:YSGG laser: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Dheeraj Kumar; Gupta, Manak; Verma, Mahesh; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Chawla, Kirti

    2012-01-01

    Epulis fissuratum refers to tissue growth into the oral cavity, located over the alveolar ridges or the soft tissues of the vestibular sulcus. Trauma and irritation are important aetiological factors for epulis fissuratum and lesions arise in areas of persistent mucosal injury. This report presents a case of a 68-year old male patient with two soft tissue hyperplastic growths seen in the buccal vestibule in the lower anterior region. These lesions were removed using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The healing was uneventful and no suture or analgesic was required. The histopathological report confirmed the presurgical diagnosis. No relapse was observed till one year after surgery.

  4. The combined use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride to prevent root dentin demineralization

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    Vinícius Rangel GERALDO-MARTINS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of erbium lasers to prevent caries in enamel has shown positive results. However, it is not known if Er,Cr:YSGG laser can also be used to increase acid resistance of root dentine, which is another dental tissue susceptible to the action of cariogenic bacteria. Objective: To analyze the effects of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (λ=2.78 μm, 20 Hz irradiation associated with 2% neutral sodium fluoride (NaF to prevent root dentin demineralization. Material and Methods: One hundred human root dentin samples were divided into 10 groups (G and treated as follows: G1: no treatment; G2: NaF; G3: laser (4.64 J/cm2 with water cooling (WC=5.4 mL/min; G4: laser (4.64 J/cm2 without WC; G5: laser (8.92 J/cm2 with WC; G6: laser (8.92 J/cm2 without WC; G7: laser (4.64 J/cm2 with WC and NaF; G8: laser (4.64 J/cm2 without WC and NaF; G9: laser (8.92 J/cm2 with WC and NaF; G10: laser (8.92 J/cm2 without WC and NaF. The NaF gel was applied alone or after 4 min of irradiation. After 14 days of acid challenge, the samples were sectioned and the Knoop microhardness (KHN test was done at different depths (30, 60, 90 and 120 μm from the outer dentin surface. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Fisher’s test (α=5%. Results: The results showed that G8 and G10 presented higher KHN than the G1 for the depths of 30 and 60 μm, indicating an increase of the acid resistance of the dentin in up to 35% (p<0.05. Conclusions: The use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 4.64 J/ cm2 and 8.92 J/cm2 without water cooling and associated with 2% NaF can increase the acid resistance of human root dentin.

  5. Bonding performance of universal adhesives to er,cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel.

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    Ayar, Muhammet Kerim; Erdemir, Fatih

    2017-04-01

    Universal adhesives have been recently introduced for use as self-etch or etch-and-rinse adhesives depending on the dental substrate and clinical condition. However, their bonding effectiveness to laser-irradiated enamel is still not well-known. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of universal adhesives (Single Bond Universal; Nova Compo-B Plus) applied to Er,Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated enamel with SBS of the same adhesives applied in self-etch and acid-etching modes, respectively. Crown segments of sixty bovine incisors were embedded into standardized acrylic blocks. Flattened enamel surfaces were prepared. Specimens were divided into six groups according to universal adhesives and application modes randomly (n = 10), as follows: Single Bond Universal/acid-etching mode; Nova Compo-B Plus/acid-etching mode; Single Bond Universal/self-etching mode; Nova Compo-B Plus/self-etching mode; and Single Bond Universal/Er,Cr:YSGG Laser-etching mode; Nova Compo-B Plus/Er,Cr:YSGG Laser-etching mode. After surface treatments, universal adhesives were applied onto surfaces. SBS was determined after storage in water for 24 h using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min -1 . Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed using two-way of analyses of variances (ANOVA) (p = 0.05). Two-way ANOVA revealed that adhesive had no effect on SBS (p = 0.88), but application mode significantly influenced SBS (p = 0.00). Acid-etching significantly increased SBS, whereas there are no significant differences between self-etch mode and laser-etching for both adhesives. The bond strength of universal adhesives may depend on application mode. Acid etching may significantly increase bond strength, while laser etching may provide similar bond strength when compared to self-etch mode. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Influence of Er,Cr: YSGG laser on bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement

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    Matheus Coelho Bandéca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the bond strength of fiber post previously laser treated root canals. Forty single-rooted bovine teeth were endodontically treated, randomly and equally divided into two main groups according to the type of pretreatment: G1: 2.5% NaOCl (control group; and G2: Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Each group was further subdivided into 2 groups based on the category of adhesive systems/ luting materials used: a: an etch-and-rinse resin cement (Single Bond/RelyX ARC; 3M ESPE, and b: a self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X Unicem; 3M ESPE. Three 1.5 mm thick slabs were obtained per root and the push-out test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement occurred. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05 among the groups G1a (25.44 ± 2.35 and G1b (23.62 ± 3.48, G2a (11.77 ± 2.67 and G2b (9.93 ± 3.37. Fractures were observed at the interface between the dentin and the resin in all groups. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation did not influence on the bond strength of the resin cements and the etch-and-rinse resin cement had better results on bond strength than self-adhesive resin cement.

  7. Investigation of Coronal Leakage of Root Fillings after Smear Layer Removal with EDTA or Er,Cr:YSGG Laser through Capillary Flow Porometry

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    Tom Edgard Maria Vergauwen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No studies have been performed evaluating the marginal seal of root fillings after direct exposure of root canal (RC walls to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. Therefore, 75 root filled teeth (5 × 15–cold lateral condensation were analyzed for through-and-through leakage (TTL using capillary flow porometry (CFP. The cleaning protocol determined the experimental groups: (1 irrigation with NaOCl 2.5% and EDTA 17% or standard protocol (SP, (2 SP + Er,Cr:YSGG lasing (dried RC, (3 NaOCl 2.5% + Er,Cr:YSGG lasing (dried RC, (4 SP + Er,Cr:YSGG lasing (wet RC, and (5 NaOCl 2.5% + Er,Cr:YSGG lasing (wet RC. Groups 6 to 10 consisted of the same filled teeth with resected apices. Resection was performed after the first CFP measurement. CFP was used to assess minimum, mean flow, and maximum pore diameters after 48 h. Statistics were performed using nonparametric tests (P>0.05. Additional three roots per group were submitted to SEM of the RC walls. TTL was observed in all groups without statistically significant differences between the different groups for minimum, mean, and maximum pore diameter (P>0.05. In this study, the use of EDTA and/or Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not reduce through-and-through leakage in nonresected and resected roots.

  8. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on bovine enamel surface during in-office tooth bleaching ex vivo.

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    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Koumpia, Effimia

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of using Er,Cr:YSGG laser during in-office tooth bleaching on bovine enamel surface to evaluate the safety of this therapy on tooth tissues. Thirty-six enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and divided into three groups: Group 1 specimens (control) received no bleaching treatment; Group 2 received a conventional in-office bleaching treatment (40 % H 2 O 2 ); Group 3 received laser-assisted bleaching procedure (40 % H 2 O 2 ) utilizing an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The specimens were stored for 10 days after the bleaching treatment in artificial saliva. Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester, and measurements for surface roughness were done using a VSI microscope. Three specimens for each experimental group were examined under SEM and mineral composition of the specimens was evaluated using EDS. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc, Wilcoxon signed rank and Kruskal-Wallis tests (a = 0.05). The Vickers hardness of the enamel was reduced after in-office bleaching procedures (p  0.05), and no changes in mineral composition of the enamel were detected after in-office bleaching procedures (p > 0.05). The laser-assisted bleaching treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not influence the enamel surface compared to the conventional bleaching technique. The safety of the use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser during in-office tooth bleaching regarding the surface properties of the enamel was confirmed under in vitro conditions.

  9. FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis of Nd:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiated enamel for preventive purposes

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    Ana, P. A.; Kauffmann, C. M. F.; Bachmann, L.; Soares, L. E. S.; Martin, A. A.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Zezell, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of combining laser irradiation with fluoride on an enamel microstructure and demineralization by FT-Raman spectroscopy (FTRS). Eighty human enamel slabs were divided into eight groups: (G1) untreated; (G2) acidulated phosphate fluoride application (APF—1.23% F- for 4 min) (G3) Nd:YAG irradiation (84.9 J cm-2, 60 mJ/pulse) (G4) Nd:YAG + APF; (G5) APF + Nd:YAG; (G6) Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation (2.8 J cm-2, 12.5 mJ/pulse) (G7) Er,Cr:YSGG + APF; and (G8) APF + Er,Cr:YSGG. After treatment, the samples were submitted to a ten-day pH-cycling model. Chemical changes were determined on the slabs before and after treatment, and also after pH-cycling, by FTRS in the range 400-4000 cm-1. The inorganic bands at 440, 590, 870, 960, 1100 cm-1, and the organic bands at 1270, 1450, 1670, 2945 cm-1 were considered. Demineralization promoted reduction in organic contents; Nd:YAG laser irradiation promoted loss of carbonate and organic content, while Er,Cr:YSGG did not produce significant changes in the relative band intensities of organic and inorganic contents of the enamel. In lased samples, no effects caused by pH-cycling on enamel were observed. In conclusion, laser treatment and its association with fluoride can somehow interfere with the demineralization dynamics, reducing its effects over the enamel.

  10. FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis of Nd:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiated enamel for preventive purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ana, P A; Kauffmann, C M F; Gomes, A S L; Bachmann, L; Soares, L E S; Martin, A A; Zezell, D M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of combining laser irradiation with fluoride on an enamel microstructure and demineralization by FT-Raman spectroscopy (FTRS). Eighty human enamel slabs were divided into eight groups: (G1) untreated; (G2) acidulated phosphate fluoride application (APF—1.23% F − for 4 min); (G3) Nd:YAG irradiation (84.9 J cm −2 , 60 mJ/pulse); (G4) Nd:YAG + APF; (G5) APF + Nd:YAG; (G6) Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation (2.8 J cm −2 , 12.5 mJ/pulse); (G7) Er,Cr:YSGG + APF; and (G8) APF + Er,Cr:YSGG. After treatment, the samples were submitted to a ten-day pH-cycling model. Chemical changes were determined on the slabs before and after treatment, and also after pH-cycling, by FTRS in the range 400−4000 cm −1 . The inorganic bands at 440, 590, 870, 960, 1100 cm −1 , and the organic bands at 1270, 1450, 1670, 2945 cm −1 were considered. Demineralization promoted reduction in organic contents; Nd:YAG laser irradiation promoted loss of carbonate and organic content, while Er,Cr:YSGG did not produce significant changes in the relative band intensities of organic and inorganic contents of the enamel. In lased samples, no effects caused by pH-cycling on enamel were observed. In conclusion, laser treatment and its association with fluoride can somehow interfere with the demineralization dynamics, reducing its effects over the enamel. (paper)

  11. Effect of Er, Cr: YSGG laser combined with oral basic treatment on inflammatory injury and apoptosis in patients with periodontitis

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    Wei-Xing Jin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Er, Cr: YSGG laser combined with oral basic treatment on inflammatory injury and apoptosis in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Patients with chronic periodontitis who were treated in dental clinic of our hospital between February 2015 and March 2017 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the group A who accepted ultrasonic dental cleaning, hand scaling combined with Er, Cr: YSGG laser treatment and the group B who received ultrasonic dental cleaning and hand scaling treatment. The contents of inflammatory response cytokines, protease molecules and apoptosis molecules in gingival crevicular fluid were detected before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results: TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, EMMPRIN, CyPA, MMP2, MMP9, Smac, Bax, Fas and FasL contents in gingival crevicular fluid of both groups of patients 1 week after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment, and TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, EMMPRIN, CyPA, MMP2, MMP9, Smac, Bax, Fas and FasL contents of group A 1 week after treatment were significantly lower than those of group B. Conclusion: Er, Cr: YSGG laser combined with oral basic treatment can inhibit the inflammatory injury and apoptosis in periodontal tissue of patients with periodontitis.

  12. Evaluation of enamel mineral loss around cavities prepared by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser and restored with different materials

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    Navarro, Ricardo Scarparo; Lago, Andréa. Dias Neves; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Baptista, Alessandra; Nunez, Silvia Cristina; Matos, Adriana Bona; Imparato, José Carlos P.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the enamel demineralization around cavities prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2780 nm) and restored with different materials after an acid challenge. The human dental enamel samples were randomly divided in 12 groups (n=10): G1- high-speed drill (HD); G2- Er,Cr:YSGG laser L (3 W, 20 Hz, 53.05 J/cm2)(air 65% - water 55%); G3- L (4 W, 20 Hz, 70.74 J/cm2); G4- L (5 W, 20 Hz, 88.43 J/cm2). Each group was divided in subgroups: 1- glass ionomer cement (GIC), 2- resin modified GIC (RMGIC), 3- composite resin (C). Samples were submitted to an acid challenge (4.8 pH) for7 days. The calcium ion contend (ppm/mm2) from demineralizing solutions were analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry. ANOVA and LSD tests were performed (α=5%). The significant lower average values of calcium loss were observed on G2 + GIC, G2 + RMGIC, G1 + RMGIC (penamel demineralization. The findings of this in vitro study suggest that the Er,Cr:YSGG lased cavities restored with GIC or RMGIC or conventional drill cavities with RMGIC were effective on reducing the demineralization around restorations, showing an important potential in preventing secondary caries.

  13. The effect of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on external adaptation of healthy and decayed cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbach, William; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Campos, Edson Alves; Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi; Frizzera, Fausto; Zezéll, Denise Maria; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the bond strength and external adaptation in mixed healthy and caries-affected class V cavities before and after thermal cycling. Thirty-six cavity preparations were made in mixed class V buccal human molars, half of them being artificially caries-induced. Any remaining affected dentin was removed from the cavity with a round burr at low speed. The teeth were divided into six groups, according to cleaning agent for both healthy and caries-induced dentin: no treatment, chlorhexidine and erbium, chromium-doped: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation. A Filtek P90 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) silorane adhesive restorative system was used. The specimens were subjected to 5000 thermal cycles (5–55 °C 60 min). Epoxy replicas were obtained to characterize the external adaptation under scanning electron microscopy. The average percentages of non-continuous margins were 5.41% and 6.49% in enamel dentin before thermal cycling and 25% and 33.7% after thermal cycling, respectively. The caries-affected and laser irradiated cavities showed higher non-continuous margins. Thermal cycling was able to raise the percentage of non-continuous margin for all groups. Chlorhexidine did not affect the marginal adaptation results, and the Er,Cr: YSGG laser irradiation showed significantly worse results compared with the control group. (paper)

  14. Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Energy Delivery: Pulse and Power Effects on Enamel Surface and Erosive Resistance.

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    de Oliveira, Renan Mota; de Souza, Vinicius Matsuzaki; Esteves, Camila Machado; de Oliveira Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Cassoni, Alessandra; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Brugnera Junior, Aldo

    2017-11-01

    High power lasers have been suggested as a useful tool for dental caries and erosion prevention due to the increase of enamel acid resistance. to evaluate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG (erbium,chromium:yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser irradiation pulse frequency and power on enamel surface and acid erosion resistance. By combining pulse frequency (5-75 Hz) and power settings (0.10-1.00 W), 20 irradiated groups and one nonirradiated control group were tested. A total of 63 bovine enamel blocks (n = 3/group) were prepared for surface hardness and roughness evaluation, performed in three phases: baseline, after irradiation, and after erosive challenge. Enamel blocks were irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser with MZ8 tip (iPlus; Waterlase, Biolase, CA) for 30 sec according to experimental group and submitted. Erosive challenge consisted of four cycles alternating immersion in 0.01 M HCl (5 mL/mm 2 ; 2 min; at 37°C) and immersion in artificial saliva for 3 h. Analysis of variance (three-way ANOVA), Tukey's test, and Pearson correlation were performed for the statistical analysis (p hardness. After erosive challenge, 5 and 75 W groups showed increase in surface hardness; 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 W groups showed minor alterations in surface roughness. the irradiation of Er,Cr:YSGG laser with different parameters of power and pulse frequency settings may alter enamel surface and erosive resistance differently. Pulse frequency of 30 Hz and power of 0.50 W was considered the best parameter to prevent enamel acid erosion.

  15. Influence of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Surface Treatments on Micro Push-Out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts to Composite Resin Core Materials

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    Mehrsima Ghavami-Lahiji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The bonding of fiber post to resin core or root dentin is challenged by limited penetration of resin material to the polymeric matrix of fiber posts. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG on micro push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to resin core material. Materials and Methods: We used 2 commercially available fiber posts, Exacto (Angelus and White Post DC (FGM, which had similar coronal diameters. Specimens of each fiber post (n=36 were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=12 posts per group according to different surface treatment methods: control (no surface treatment, irradiation by 1W Er,Cr:YSGG, and irradiation by 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG. A cylindrical plastic tube was placed around the post. Resin core material was filled into the tube and cured. Coronal portions of the posts were sectioned into 1-mm-thick slices. Then, the specimens were subjected to a thermocyling device for 3000 cycles. The micro push-out test was carried out using a Universal Testing Machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s HSD post hoc test to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on each type of fiber post. Results: The 1.5W Er,Cr:YSGG laser statistically reduced micro push-out bond strength values in the Exacto groups (P0.05. Mode of failure analysis showed that mixed failure was the predominant failure type for all surface treatment groups. Conclusions: The beneficial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser application could not be confirmed based on the results of this in vitro study. Er,Cr:YSGG laser could not significantly enhance the bond strength values. However, the 1.5W laser statistically decreased micro push-out bond strength in the Exacto fiber posts.

  16. Effects of Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on external adaptation of restorations in caries-affected cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Saad, José Roberto Cury; Campos, Edson Alves de; Neto, Sizenando de Toledo Porto; De Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the external adaptation of composite resin restorations in caries-affected cavities. Mixed class V cavity preparations were performed in 36 intact human third molars, in half of which caries was artificially induced. Both healthy and carious dentin were etched with 35% phosphoric acid (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, Utah, USA), and the teeth were divided into three groups, i.e., (a) untreated etched dentin, (b) application of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and (c) use of chlorhexidine as an adjunct in the bonding process. Restorations were fabricated with Z350 XT FiltekTM composite resin (3M ESPE) and subsequently the specimens were subjected to thermocycling to simulate artificial ageing. Quantitative analysis of external adaptation was performed by scanning electron microscopy in both healthy and affected dentin using epoxy resin replicas. It was concluded that the application of laser and chlorhexidine did not affect the percentages of marginal adaptation of class V restorations. Furthermore, thermocycling may influence adaptation values. (letter)

  17. Short-term clinical outcomes of laser supported periodontal treatment concept using Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm): a pilot study

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    Odor, Alin A.; Violant, Deborah; Badea, Victoria; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Backgrounds: Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers can be used adjacent to the conventional periodontal treatment as minimally invasive non-surgical devices. Aim: To describe the short-term clinical outcomes by combining Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode 940 nm lasers in non-surgical periodontal treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients with periodontal disease (mild, moderate, severe) - 233 teeth and 677 periodontal pockets ranging from 4 mm to 12 mm - were treated with Er,Cr:YSGG (2780nm) and diode (940 nm) lasers in adjunct to manual and piezoelectric scaling and root planning (SRP). Periodontal parameters such as mean probing depth (PD), mean clinical attachment level (CAL) and mean bleeding on probing (BOP) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months after the laser treatment using an electronic periodontal chart. Results: At baseline, the mean PD was 4.06 ± 1.06 mm, mean CAL was 4.56 ± 1.43 mm, and mean BOP was 43.8 ± 23.84 %. At 6 months after the laser supported periodontal treatments the mean PD was 2.6 ± 0.58 mm (p laser wavelengths in adjunct to SRP offers significant improvements of periodontal clinical parameters such as PD, CAL and BOP. Keywords: Laser supported periodontal treatment concept, Er,Cr:YSGG and diode 940nm lasers, Scaling and root planning, Minimally invasive non-surgical device

  18. Study in vitro of Er,Cr:YSGG laser effects in bone tissue by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benetti, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Laser proves to be, more and more, an effective tool for helping health professionals, being intensively used in ophthalmological and odontological procedures. In particular, high-density, infrared emitting lasers have great potential in cutting mineralized biological hard tissues, given their high absorption by hydroxyapatite and water, these tissues' main components. In comparison to mechanical instruments, laser presents a series of advantages, namely, smaller damage to the remaining tissue and promotion of homeostatic effect, apart from making it possible to execute procedures in areas with difficult access. However, for an efficient and safe use of this technique, it is necessary to know the effects of the laser irradiation on the tissue. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique is heavily used in the study of organic materials, because apart from making it possible to identify the materials' components, it also allows to prepare a semi quantitative analysis. This work aims to establish the ATR-FTIR technique in the characterization of natural and irradiated osseous tissue, and to verify the possible chemical and structural changes caused by irradiation. Firstly, the best conditions for the obtainment of bone sample spectra were determined. Then, bone samples, irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG (2,78 μm) infrared emitting laser (adjusted with different energy densities) were analyzed alongside with natural bone samples. It has been verified that the technique is effective in the bone tissue characterization, and that it is possible to observe the chemical changes caused by the temperature rise due to laser irradiation. It has been observed a gradual organic material loss as the energy density goes up. These results are the first steps in testing the Er,Cr:YSGG laser efficacy as a cutting tool, a pivotal aspect of its consolidation in clinical procedures. (author)

  19. Shear bond strength of composite bonded with three adhesives to Er,Cr:YSGG laser-prepared enamel.

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    Türkmen, Cafer; Sazak-Oveçoğlu, Hesna; Günday, Mahir; Güngör, Gülşad; Durkan, Meral; Oksüz, Mustafa

    2010-06-01

    To assess in vitro the shear bond strength of a nanohybrid composite resin bonded with three adhesive systems to enamel surfaces prepared with acid and Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching. Sixty extracted caries- and restoration-free human maxillary central incisors were used. The teeth were sectioned 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. The crowns were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin with the labial surfaces facing up. The labial surfaces were prepared with 0.5-mm reduction to receive composite veneers. Thirty specimens were etched with Er,Cr:YSGG laser. This group was also divided into three subgroups, and the following three bonding systems were then applied on the laser groups and the other three unlased groups: (1) 37% phosphoric acid etch + Bond 1 primer/adhesive (Pentron); (2) Nano-bond self-etch primer (Pentron) + Nano-bond adhesive (Pentron); and (3) all-in-one adhesive-single dose (Futurabond NR, Voco). All of the groups were restored with a nanohybrid composite resin (Smile, Pentron). Shear bond strength was measured with a Zwick universal test device with a knife-edge loading head. The data were analyzed with two-factor ANOVA. There were no significant differences in shear bond strength between self-etch primer + adhesive and all-in-one adhesive systems for nonetched and laser-etched enamel groups (P > .05). However, bond strength values for the laser-etched + Bond 1 primer/adhesive group (48.00 +/- 13.86 MPa) were significantly higher than the 37% phosphoric acid + Bond 1 primer/adhesive group (38.95 +/- 20.07 MPa) (P enamel surface more effectively than 37% phosphoric acid for subsequent attachment of composite material.

  20. Laser Supported Reduction of Specific Microorganisms in the Periodontal Pocket with the Aid of an Er,Cr:YSGG Laser: A Pilot Study

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    N. Gutknecht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a radial firing tip of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser as an adjunct to a nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Methods. Twelve patients with chronic or aggressive periodontitis were treated by conventional periodontal treatment using ultrasonic devices and hand instruments and, additionally, in two quadrants with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. A new radial firing tip (RFPT 14-5, Biolase was used with 1.5 W, 30 Hz, 11% air, 20% water, and pulse duration 140 μs. Microbiological smears were taken before treatment, one day after lasing, and three and six months after lasing. Pocket depths of all periodontal sites were measured before and six months after treatment. Results. The total bacterial load of Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans inside the pocket was reduced significantly throughout the whole examination time. Greater pocket depth reductions were observed in all groups. There was a slight higher reduction of pocket depth in the lased group after six months. Conclusions. These results support the thesis that Er,Cr:YSGG laser supported periodontal treatment leads to a significant reduction of periopathogenes and thereby helps the maintenance of periodontal health.

  1. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the microtensile bond strength of two different adhesives to the sound and caries-affected dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Z; Celik, E U; Unlü, N; Türkün, M; Ozer, F

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of a three-step etch-and-rinse and a two-step self-etch adhesive to sound and caries-affected dentin. Sixteen freshly extracted human molars with occlusal dentin caries were used. The caries lesion was removed by one of the following methods: conventional treatment with burs or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase). The adhesive systems (AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent and Scotchbond Multi Purpose, 3M ESPE) were applied to the entire tooth surface according to the manufacturers' instructions. Resin composites were applied to the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces and light-cured. Each tooth was sectioned into multiple beams with the "non-trimming" version of the microtensile test. The specimens were subjected to microtensile forces (BISCO Microtensile Tester, BISCO). The data was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and independent t-tests (p=0.05). Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation exhibited similar microTBS values compared to that of conventional bur treatment, regardless of the adhesive system and type of treated dentin. The self-etch system revealed lower microTBS values, both with conventional and laser treatment techniques, compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesive in sound and caries-affected dentin (padhesive systems to sound and caries-affected dentin.

  2. Comparison of gingival depigmentation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser and surgical stripping, a 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Leila; Moghaddam, Somayeh Ansari; Rigi Ladiz, Mohammad Ayoub; Molai Manesh, Zohreh; Hashemzehi, Hadi; Fallah, Alireza; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2018-04-13

    Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation is an esthetic concern for many individuals. In this study, we compared the standard surgical removal method with two different Er,Cr:YSGG laser settings in order to find the best treatment method. In 33 dental arches, the following three treatment groups were comparatively evaluated: (1) surgical stripping, (2) removal with laser setting 1 (4.5 W, 50 Hz, 100% water, 80% air, 60 μs, 800 μm Tip; MZ8), and (3) laser setting 2 (2.5 W, 50 Hz, 20% water, 40% air, 700 μs, 800 μm Tip; MZ8). We comparatively evaluated pain, patient satisfaction and wound healing, treatment time, and the amount of bleeding. Re-pigmentation was evaluated after 1 and 12 months by Hedin and Dummet pigmentation scores. Laser setting 1 had the best results regarding pain and patient satisfaction, although not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Wound healing results were better using lasers compared to surgical stripping (P Laser setting 1 was a faster procedure with mild amounts of bleeding. The least amount of bleeding was seen with laser setting 2. After 1 month, only two cases of the laser setting 2-treated areas showed an isolated pigmented area in the papilla; at 12 months, the mean Hedin indexes were still less than 2 and mean Dummett index less than 1 in all treatment techniques, with the lowest scores seen in the laser setting 1 sites. Based on our results, Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be more convenient for gingival depigmentation compared to surgical blade. Although not statistically significant, laser setting 1 with shorter pulse duration and higher water spray showed better overall results. However, laser setting 2, with longer pulse duration and less water spray, resulted in better coagulative effects and can be used to control bleeding wherever necessary in clinical practice.

  3. Comparing the efficiency of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and diode laser on human β-defensin-1 and IL-1β levels during the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Abdullah Seckin; Tekin, Yasin; Talmac, Ahmet Cemil

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the suitability of the Er,Cr:YSGG and 940 ± 15-nm diode laser for the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis by measuring the levels of human β-defensin-1 and IL-1β. A total of 26 patients were included in this study. The study was designed as a "split-mouth" experiment. We performed scaling and root planing in the right maxillary quadrant, scaling and root planning + Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the left maxillary quadrant, scaling and root planning + 940 ± 15-nm diode laser in the left mandibular quadrant, and only scaling and root planing in the right mandibular quadrant. The presence of human β-defensin-1 and IL-1β was analyzed with an ELISA. When the baseline and post-treatment human β-defensin-1 levels and IL-1β levels of the study groups were evaluated, a decrease in human β-defensin-1 and IL-1β were observed in the quadrant where the Er,Cr:YSGG laser was applied in both the generalized aggressive periodontitis group and the chronic periodontitis group. The use of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser at non-surgical periodontal treatment decreased both IL-1β and human β-defensin-1 levels. It is likely that Er,Cr:YSGG laser is more suitable for the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis.

  4. In Vitro Comparison Of Fluoride Gel Alone and in Combination With Er,Cr:YSGG Laser on Reducing White Spot Lesions in Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaasadollah, Fatemeh; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Jafary, Maral

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Laser therapy has been suggested as a method for caries-prevention, and ErCr:YSGG laser is increasingly used in dentistry. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of fluoride gel alone and in conjunction with Er,Cr:YSGG laser for remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) in primary teeth. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 primary teeth with WSLs extracted for orthodontic reasons. Three sections were made of each tooth at the site of WSLs. The surface area of WSLs was measured under a stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Samples were assigned to 3 groups of control (group 1), exposure to 1.23% APF gel for 4 minutes (group 2) and Er,Cr:YSGG laser (0.5 W power, 20 Hz frequency, 60% water, 40% air, pulse duration of 5±1 seconds) plus fluoride (group 3). All samples were stored in artificial saliva for 10 days and then the surface area of the WSLs was measured again under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, MannWhitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: The reduction in surface area of the WSLs was significantly different between the control and fluoride ( P laser plus fluoride groups ( P laser plus fluoride groups was not significant ( P =0.265). Comparison of the surface area of WSLs before and after the intervention showed no significant difference in group one ( P =0.737) while this difference in groups 2 ( P laser irradiation plus 1.23% APF gel was not significantly different from the application of fluoride gel alone in enhancing the remineralization of WSLs.

  5. Spectrophotometric analysis of the effectiveness of a novel in-office laser-assisted tooth bleaching method using Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Tsitrou, Effrosyni; Koumpia, Effimia; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted in-office tooth bleaching method with a conventional method by spectrophotometric analysis of the tooth color change. Furthermore, the influence of the application time of the bleaching gel on the effectiveness of the methods and the maintenance of the results 7 days and 1 month after the treatments were also evaluated. Twenty-four bovine incisors were stained and randomly distributed into four groups. Group 1 specimens received an in-office bleaching treatment with 35% H 2 O 2 for 2 × 15 min. Group 2 specimens received the same treatment but with extended application time (2 × 20 min). In Group 3, the same in-office bleaching procedure (2 × 15 min) was carried out as that in Group 1, using Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation for 2 × 15 s on each specimen to catalyze the reaction of H 2 O 2 breakdown. Group 4 specimens received the same bleaching treatment as Group 3 but with extended application time (2 × 20 min). Er,Cr:YSGG laser-assisted tooth bleaching treatment is more effective than the conventional treatment regarding color change of the teeth. Application time of the bleaching agent may influence the effectiveness of the methods. The color change of the tested treatments decreases after 7 days and 1 month. The clinical relevance of this study is that this novel laser-assisted bleaching treatment may be more advantageous in color change and application time compared to the conventional bleaching treatment.

  6. The influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on enamel surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of a novel in-office tooth whitening procedure using Er,Cr:YSGG laser radiation on bovine enamel. Forty-eight enamel specimens were prepared from bovine canines and divided into four groups: Group 1 specimens (control) received no whitening treatment; Group 2 received whitening treatment with an at-home whitening agent (22% carbamide peroxide) for 7 days; Group 3 received whitening treatment with a novel in-office whitening agent (35% H(2)O(2)); Group 4 received the same in-office whitening therapy with Group 3 using Er,Cr:YSGG laser in order to accelerate the whitening procedure. The specimens were stored for 10 days after the whitening treatment in artificial saliva. Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester and surface roughness was evaluated using a VSI microscope. Three specimens of each experimental group were examined under SEM and the mineral composition of the specimens was evaluated using EDS. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-hoc test, Wilcoxon signed rank and Kruskal-Wallis tests (a = 0.05). The surface microhardness of the enamel was reduced after the in-office whitening treatments (Pwhitening treatment (P> 0.05). Moreover, the surface roughness was not significantly changed after tooth whitening. EDS analysis did not show alterations in the enamel mineral composition, while SEM observations indicated changes in the surface morphology, especially after in-office tooth whitening (Pwhitening treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not affect the alterations in enamel surface compared with the conventional in-office whitening technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Management of Retrograde Peri-Implantitis Using an Air-Abrasive Device, Er,Cr:YSGG Laser, and Guided Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Soldatos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The placement of an implant in a previously infected site is an important etiologic factor contributing to implant failure. The aim of this case report is to present the management of retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI in a first maxillary molar site, 2 years after the implant placement. The RPI was treated using an air-abrasive device, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and guided bone regeneration (GBR. Case Description. A 65-year-old Caucasian male presented with a draining fistula associated with an implant at tooth #3. Tooth #3 revealed periapical radiolucency two years before the implant placement. Tooth #3 was extracted, and a ridge preservation procedure was performed followed by implant rehabilitation. A periapical radiograph (PA showed lack of bone density around the implant apex. The site was decontaminated with an air-abrasive device and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and GBR was performed. The patient was seen every two weeks until suture removal, followed by monthly visits for 12 months. The periapical X-rays, from 6 to 13 months postoperatively, showed increased bone density around the implant apex, with no signs of residual clinical or radiographic pathology and probing depths ≤4 mm. Conclusions. The etiology of RPI in this case was the placement of an implant in a previously infected site. The use of an air-abrasive device, Er,Cr:YSGG, and GBR was utilized to treat this case of RPI. The site was monitored for 13 months, and increased radiographic bone density was noted.

  8. Effect of Surface Treatment on Enamel Cracks After Orthodontic Bracket Debonding: Er,Cr:YSGG Laser-Etching Versus Acid-Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Hassanali; Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Baherimoghadam, Tahereh; Azmi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to compare enamel cracks after orthodontic bracket debonding in the surfaces prepared with erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-galliumgarnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser and the conventional acid-etching technique. Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 60 sound human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=30). The teeth in group A were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, while the teeth in group B were subjected to Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (gold handpiece, MZ8 tip, 50Hz, 4.5W, 60μs, 80% water and 60% air). Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the enamel surfaces and were then debonded in both groups. The samples were inspected under a stereomicroscope at ×38 magnification to assess the number and length of enamel cracks before bonding and after debonding. Independent-samples t-test was used to compare the frequency of enamel cracks in the two groups. Levene’s test was applied to assess the equality of variances. Results: No significant difference was noted in the frequency or length of enamel cracks between the two groups after debonding (P>0.05). Conclusions: Despite the same results of the frequency and length of enamel cracks in the two groups and by considering the side effects of acid-etching (demineralization and formation of white spot lesions), Er,Cr:YSGG laser may be used as an alternative to acid-etching for enamel surface preparation prior to bracket bonding. PMID:29296111

  9. Nanostructured synthetic hydroxyapatite and dental enamel heated and irradiated by ER,CR:YSGG: characterized by FTIR and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo Neto, Jose da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluate the physical changes and/or chemical that occurs in synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and in enamel under action of thermal heating in oven or laser irradiation of Er,Cr:YSGG that may cause changes in its structure to make them more resistant to demineralization aiming the formation of dental caries. The synthetic HAP was produced by reaction of solutions of Ca(NO 3 ) and (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 with controlled temperature and pH. The enamel powder was collected from the bovine teeth. Samples of powder enamel and synthetic HAP were subjected to thermal heating in oven at temperatures of 200 deg C, 400 deg C, 600 deg C, 800 deg C and 1000 deg C. For the laser irradiation of materials, were made with 5,79 J/cm 2 of irradiation, 7,65 J/cm 2 , 10,55 J/cm 2 and 13,84 J/cm 2 for synthetic HAP and 7,53 J/cm 2 , 10,95 J/cm 2 , and 13,74 J/cm 2 for the enamel. The samples were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for analysis of crystallographic phases and analysis by the Rietveld method, to determine their respective proportions in the material, as well as results of changes of the lattice unit cell parameters (axis-a, axis-c and volume), crystallites sizes and the occupation rate of sites of Ca and P atoms. The samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which should compositional changes due to treatment related to carbonate, phosphate, adsorbed water and hydroxyl radicals content. The infrared was used to measure the surface temperature generated by the laser beam in the solid samples of enamel. Besides the major hydroxyapatite crystallographic phases, there was formations of octa calcium phosphate (OCP) and phase β of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP ) in enamel heated at 800 deg C. There was reduction of the axis-a, volume and size of crystallites to the temperatures between 400 degree C and 600 deg C and also on laser irradiated samples. Above the temperature of 600 degree C it is observed the effect in the lattice parameters. The Ca

  10. In vitro study of demineralization resistance and fluoride retention in dental enamel irradiated with Er,Cr: YSGG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ana, Patricia Aparecida da.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to establish irradiation conditions of Er,Cr:YSGG laser (λ of 2.79 μm) which could propitiate changes on human dental enamel and increase its resistance to demineralization, when associated or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Fluences of 2,8 J/cm 2 , 5,6 J/cm 2 e 8,5 J/cm 2 were selected; they were associated or not with previous application of a photo absorber (coal paste) and then APF was applied or not after laser irradiation. In a first step, the morphological findings, the surface temperatures, and the pupal temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiation. After that, the treated samples were submitted to a a ten-day pH-cycling model. After producing the incipient white-spots lesions, the following aspects were evaluated: the mineral loss, the loosely bound fluoride and the firmly bound fluoride. All the demineralizing and remineralizing pH-cycling solutions were evaluated with respect to their calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorous (Pi) and fluoride (F - ) concentrations. The data had their normality and homogeneity distribution statistically evaluated, and it was chosen an appropriated statistical test for each performed analysis according to the obtained results, considering 5% significant level. The fluences selected for this study created ablated surfaces; the fluences of 5.6 J/cm 2 and 8.5 J/cm 2 promoted increments in surface temperature above 110 deg C. The intrapupal temperature changes revealed that laser irradiation did not increase the pulpal temperatures above the critical threshold for induction of pulpitis. The coal paste did not promote any changes on surface morphology or in the intrapulpal temperature changes; however, this paste increased the surface temperatures during laser irradiation. Only laser irradiation at 8.5 J/cm 2 was able to decrease the mineral loss when compared to the no-treatment group; although the association of coal paste + laser at 2.8 J/cm 2 + APF application

  11. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  12. Sub-ablative Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation under all-ceramic restorations: effects on demineralization and shear bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağlar, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the caries resistant effects of sub-ablative Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation alone and combined with fluoride in comparison with fluoride application alone on enamel prepared for veneer restorations. And also, evaluated these treatments' effects on the shear bond strength of all-ceramic veneer restorations. One hundred and thirty-five human maxillary central teeth were assigned to groups of 1a-control, 1b-laser treated, 1c-fluoride treated, 1d-laser + fluoride treated for shear bond testing and to groups of 2a-positive control(non-demineralised), 2b-laser treated, 2c-fluoride treated, 2d-laser + fluoride treated, 2e-negative control (demineralised) for microhardness testing (n = 15, N = 135). Demineralisation solutions of microhardness measurements were used for the ICP-OES elemental analysis. The parameters for laser irradiation were as follows: power output, 0.25 W; total energy density, 62.5 J/cm 2 and energy density per pulse, 4.48 J/cm 2 with an irradiation time of 20 s and with no water cooling. Five percent NaF varnish was used as fluoride preparate. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were performed (α = 5%). Surface treatments showed no significant effects on shear bond strength values (p = 0.579). However, significant differences were found in microhardness measurements and in elemental analysis of Ca and P amounts (p < 0.01). Surface-treated groups showed significantly high VNH values and significantly low ICP-OES values when compared with non-treated (-control) group while there were no significance among surface-treated groups regarding VHN and ICP-OES values. Sub-ablative Er,Cr:YSGG treatment alone or combined with fluoride is as an effective method as at least fluoride alone for preventing the prepared enamel to demineralization with no negative effect on shear bond strength.

  13. Evaluation of Root-End Resections Performed by Er, Cr: YSGG Laser with and without Placement of a Root-End Filling Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microleakage following root-end resections has a direct influence on the outcome of surgical endodontic procedures. This study compared the microleakage after root-end resections performed by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser or carbide burs with or without the placement of MTA, and evaluated the presence of microcracks and gaps at the interface of GP/MTA and the canal walls. Ninety single-rooted teeth were instrumented, obturated with GP and AH-Plus sealer, and divided into 3 experimental groups: (I root-end resections were performed with the laser and G6 tips (parameters: 4.5 w, 30 pps, 20% water and 50% air; (II Lindeman burs were used, without the placement of MTA; (III the burs were used followed by root-end fillings with MTA, and one control (IV of five unobturated roots resected with the burs. The samples were prepared for microleakage (=20 and SEM (=10 analysis. They were immersed in 1% methylene blue, decalcified, cleared, and evaluated for dye penetration (mm2 with the ImageJ software. Epoxy-resin replicas of the root-ends were analyzed by SEM for gaps (m2 and microcracks. Microleakage results were 0.518±1.059, 0.172±0.223, and 0.158±0.253, for the laser (I, no root-end filling (II, and MTA (III samples, respectively, (ANOVA =.02. The laser (7831.7±2329.2 and no root-end filling (7137.3±1400.7 samples presented gaps. Whereas, none was found in the MTA (ANOVA =.002. Microcracks were not observed. The MTA group demonstrated statistically less leakage and better adaptation to the canal walls when compared to the other groups. There was no correlation between the size of the gaps and the degree of microleakage.

  14. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Buchmair, Alfred; Körpert, Wolfram; Marvastian, Leila; Wernisch, Johann; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study. Immediately after surgical removal teeth were cut using a band saw and 1-mm thick dentin slices were created starting at a distance of 4 mm from the cusp plane to ensure complete removal of the enamel. The discs were polished with silicon carbide paper into rectangular shapes to a size of 6 × 4 mm (±0,2 mm).The discs as well as the remaining teeth stumps were stored in 0.9% NaCl at room temperature. The specimens were divided into three main groups (group I laser group, group II etch group, group III laser and etch group) and each group was subdivided into three subgroups which were allocated to the different bonding systems (subgroup A Excite, subgroup B Scotchbond, subgroup C Syntac). Each disc and the corresponding tooth stump were treated in the same way. After preparation the bonding composite material was applied according to the manufacturers' guidelines in a hollow tube of 2 mm diameter to the disc as well as to the corresponding tooth stump. Shear bond strength testing and environmental scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the morphology and stability of the resin-dentin interface. The self-etching bonding system showed the highest and the most constant shear values in all three main groups, thus enabling etching with phosphoric acid after laser preparation to be avoided. Thus we conclude that laser preparation creates a surface texture that allows prediction of the quality of the restoration without the risk of negative influences during the following treatment steps. This

  15. Effect of different power settings of Er,Cr:YSGG laser before or after tribosilicatization on the microshear bond strength between zirconia and two types of cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Leonardo C; Esteves, Camila M; Oliveira, Juliana A; Brugnera, Aldo; Cassoni, Alessandra; Rodrigues, José Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different output powers of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and the association with tribochemical silica coating on the bond strength between zirconia ceramic and two resin cements. One hundred ninety-two zirconia ceramic bars (IPS e-max ZirCAD Ivoclar Vivadent-) were sectioned (6 × 6 × 4 mm), sintered, and randomly divided into 12 groups for each cement system according to the surface treatment (n = 8): C-without treatment (control); R-tribochemical coating + resin cement (control); 2L-laser (2.0 W) + resin cement; 2LR-laser (2.0 W) + tribochemical coating + resin cement; R2L-tribochemical coating + laser (2.0 W) + resin cement; 2.5L-laser (2.5 W) + resin cement; 2.5LR-laser (2.5 W) + tribochemical coating + resin cement; R2.5L-tribochemical coating + laser (2.5 W) + resin cement; 3L-laser (3.0 W) + resin cement; 3LR-laser (3.0 W) + tribochemical coating + resin cement, R3L-tribochemical coating + laser (3.0 W) + resin cement; and RPHO-tribochemical + resin cement + photoactivation (control). After the surface treatment, the respective primers were applied, and resin cements, Multilink N, Ivoclar Vivadent (M), and Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray Medical Inc. (P), were inserted into Tygon molds which were bonded to the zirconia bars. Each specimen received two cements bars. After 24 h of storage in a relative humidity (100%) at 37 °C, they were evaluated by the microshear test speed of 1 mm/min. The microshear values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the evaluated groups. The highest bond strength was observed in RPHO, which statistically differed from all groups. The lowest bond strength was observed in M2.5L (Multilink N) and in P3LR (Panavia F 2.0). It can be concluded that the lowest power output tested was suitable and showed bond strength values similar to tribochemical silica deposition. The light curing is important to

  16. SEM Evaluation of Enamel Surface Changes and Enamel Microhardness around Orthodontic Brackets after Application of CO2 Laser, Er,Cr:YSGG Laser and Fluoride Varnish: An In vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Tarundeep; Tripathi, Tulika; Rai, Priyank; Kanase, Anup

    2017-09-01

    One of the most undesirable consequences of orthodontic treatment is occurrence of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. Numerous in vitro studies have reported the prevention of enamel demineralization by surface treatment with lasers and fluoride varnish. To evaluate the changes on the enamel surface and microhardness around orthodontic brackets after surface treatment by CO 2 laser, Er, Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride varnish in vivo. A double blind interventional study was carried out on 100 premolars which were equally divided into five groups, out of which one was the control group (Group 0). The intervention groups (Group I to IV) comprised of patients requiring fixed orthodontic treatment with all 4 first premolars extraction. Brackets were bonded on all 80 premolars which were to be extracted. Enamel surface treatment of Groups I, II and III was done by CO 2 laser, Er, Cr:YSGG laser and 5% sodium fluoride varnish respectively and Group IV did not receive any surface treatment. A modified T-loop was ligated to the bracket and after two months, the premolars were extracted. Surface changes were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and microhardness testing. Comparison of mean microhardness between all the groups was assessed using post-hoc test with Bonferroni correction. Group I showed a melted enamel appearance with fine cracks and fissures while Group II showed a glossy, homogenous enamel surface with well coalesced enamel rods. Group III showed slight areas of erosions and Group IV presented areas of stripped enamel. Significant difference was observed between the mean microhardness (VHN) of Group I, Group II, Group III, Group IV and Group 0 with p<0.001. A significant difference of p<0.001 was observed while comparing Group I vs II,III,IV,0 and Group II vs III,IV,0. However, difference while comparing Group III vs IV was p=0.005 and difference between the mean microhardness of Group 0 vs Group III was non significant. Surface

  17. In vitro study of demineralization resistance and fluoride retention in dental enamel irradiated with Er,Cr: YSGG laser; Estudo in vitro da resistencia a desmineralizacao e da retencao de fluor em esmalte dental irradiado com laser de Er, Cr: YSGG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, Patricia Aparecida da. E-mail: patriciadaana@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to establish irradiation conditions of Er,Cr:YSGG laser ({lambda} of 2.79 {mu}m) which could propitiate changes on human dental enamel and increase its resistance to demineralization, when associated or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Fluences of 2,8 J/cm{sup 2}, 5,6 J/cm{sup 2} e 8,5 J/cm{sup 2} were selected; they were associated or not with previous application of a photo absorber (coal paste) and then APF was applied or not after laser irradiation. In a first step, the morphological findings, the surface temperatures, and the pupal temperatures were evaluated during laser irradiation. After that, the treated samples were submitted to a a ten-day pH-cycling model. After producing the incipient white-spots lesions, the following aspects were evaluated: the mineral loss, the loosely bound fluoride and the firmly bound fluoride. All the demineralizing and remineralizing pH-cycling solutions were evaluated with respect to their calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorous (Pi) and fluoride (F{sup -}) concentrations. The data had their normality and homogeneity distribution statistically evaluated, and it was chosen an appropriated statistical test for each performed analysis according to the obtained results, considering 5% significant level. The fluences selected for this study created ablated surfaces; the fluences of 5.6 J/cm{sup 2} and 8.5 J/cm{sup 2} promoted increments in surface temperature above 110 deg C. The intrapupal temperature changes revealed that laser irradiation did not increase the pulpal temperatures above the critical threshold for induction of pulpitis. The coal paste did not promote any changes on surface morphology or in the intrapulpal temperature changes; however, this paste increased the surface temperatures during laser irradiation. Only laser irradiation at 8.5 J/cm{sup 2} was able to decrease the mineral loss when compared to the no-treatment group; although the association of coal paste

  18. Nanostructured synthetic hydroxyapatite and dental enamel heated and irradiated by ER,CR:YSGG: characterized by FTIR and XRD; Hidroxiapatita sintetica nanoestruturada e esmalte dental aquecidos e irradiados por laser de Er,Cr:YSGG: caracterizacao por FTIR e por DRX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo Neto, Jose da Silva

    2009-07-01

    The study evaluate the physical changes and/or chemical that occurs in synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) and in enamel under action of thermal heating in oven or laser irradiation of Er,Cr:YSGG that may cause changes in its structure to make them more resistant to demineralization aiming the formation of dental caries. The synthetic HAP was produced by reaction of solutions of Ca(NO{sub 3}) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} with controlled temperature and pH. The enamel powder was collected from the bovine teeth. Samples of powder enamel and synthetic HAP were subjected to thermal heating in oven at temperatures of 200 deg C, 400 deg C, 600 deg C, 800 deg C and 1000 deg C. For the laser irradiation of materials, were made with 5,79 J/cm{sup 2} of irradiation, 7,65 J/cm{sup 2}, 10,55 J/cm{sup 2} and 13,84 J/cm{sup 2} for synthetic HAP and 7,53 J/cm{sup 2}, 10,95 J/cm{sup 2}, and 13,74 J/cm{sup 2} for the enamel. The samples were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for analysis of crystallographic phases and analysis by the Rietveld method, to determine their respective proportions in the material, as well as results of changes of the lattice unit cell parameters (axis-a, axis-c and volume), crystallites sizes and the occupation rate of sites of Ca and P atoms. The samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which should compositional changes due to treatment related to carbonate, phosphate, adsorbed water and hydroxyl radicals content. The infrared was used to measure the surface temperature generated by the laser beam in the solid samples of enamel. Besides the major hydroxyapatite crystallographic phases, there was formations of octa calcium phosphate (OCP) and phase {beta} of tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP ) in enamel heated at 800 deg C. There was reduction of the axis-a, volume and size of crystallites to the temperatures between 400 degree C and 600 deg C and also on laser irradiated samples. Above the temperature of 600 degree C it

  19. Root canal preparation with Er:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthin, Hartmut; Ertl, Thomas P.; Onal, B.; Schruender, Stephan; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1994-12-01

    The high level of efficiency of hard tissue ablation with Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers is well known. Of these lasers it is possible only to transmit Er:YSGG laser radiation with OH reduced quartz fibers. Most of the fibers we use in this study were prepared as hemispherical fiber tips. Fifty single rooted teeth were divided into ten groups (n equals 5). After conventional opening of the pulp chamber, root canal preparation was performed in five groups under water only using the laser. In the other five groups preparation with K-files to size 35 was performed before treatment with laser radiation. All teeth were axially separated with direct access to the root canal and examined in SEM investigations. The groups were compared by measuring the areas with patent dentin tubules. Representative areas were examined by TEM. The temperature at the root surface was measured during laser irradiation with thermocouples positioned at several points. The in-vitro study of the effect of the high delivered energy (50 - 100 mJ per pulse) in the root canal showed a good ablation effect. Most of the dentin tubules were opened. The increase in temperature at the root surface was tolerable.

  20. Biocompatibility of Er:YSGG laser radiated root surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthin, Hartmut; Ertl, Thomas P.; Schmidt, Dirk; Purucker, Peter; Bernimoulin, J.-P.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-01-01

    Pulsed Er:YAG and Er:YSGG lasers are well known to be effective instruments for the ablation of dental hard tissues. Developments in the last years made it possible to transmit the laser radiation at these wavelengths with flexible fibers. Therefore the application in the periodontal pocket may be possible. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro conditions to generate a bioacceptable root surface. Twenty extracted human teeth, stored in an antibiotic solution, were conventionally scaled, root planed and axially separated into two halves. Two main groups were determined. With the first group laser radiation was carried out without and in the second group with spray cooling. The laser beam was scanned about root surface areas. Laser parameters were varied in a selected range. The biocompatibility was measured with the attachment of human gingival fibroblasts and directly compared to conventionally treated areas of the root surfaces. The fibroblasts were qualified and counted in SEM investigations. On conventionally treated areas gingival fibroblasts show the typical uniform cover. In dependance on the root roughness after laser treatment the fibroblasts loose the typical parallel alignment to the root surface. With spray cooling a better in-vitro attachment could be obtained. Without spray cooling the higher increase in temperature conducted to less bioacceptance by the human gingival fibroblasts to the root surface. These results show the possibility of producing bioacceptable root surfaces with pulsed laser radiation in the range of very high water absorption near 3 micrometer.

  1. Biophysical evaluation of fractional laser skin resurfacing with an Er:YSGG laser device in Japanese skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Utako; Kinoshita, Ayako; Osawa, Aki; Negi, Osamu; Haruna, Kunitaka; Mizuno, Yuki; Suga, Yasushi

    2012-05-01

    Ablative fractional laser skin resurfacing (FLSR) has recently been used for the amelioration of acne scars, and previous studies have shown clinical effectiveness. Despite its extensive use, few studies have focused on the associated changes in biophysical properties of the epidermis. Herein, we evaluate transepidermal water loss, sebum levels, skin hydration, and skin elasticity, following FLSR treatments with an Er:YSGG laser device (Pearl FractionalTM, Cutera Inc., Brisbane, CA), employing non-invasive measurements. Five Japanese patients with facial acne scars underwent one FLSR session. Some acne scars appeared to become less obvious as a consequence of the treatment. All patients were aware of a feeling of skin tightness in treated areas. Objective measurements on the lower lateral angle of the eye and on the inner cheeks were evaluated at baseline and at 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks after FLSR. Transepidermal water loss showed a significant two-fold (100%) increase at day 3, but had returned to almost the baseline level at week 4 in both areas. Sebum secretion showed a 50% increase at day 3, but had returned to the baseline level after day 7. Skin hydration showed a significant decrease at day 3, but had returned to the baseline level by day 7, and showed significant improvement at the end of the study. Skin elasticity (R2) was still at baseline on day 3, but showed some improvement--an increase of at least 30%--at the end of the study. Based on our findings, we believe that FLSR should be performed no more than once a month to allow sufficient time for the damaged skin to recover its barrier function in most areas of the face.

  2. Bonding Strength of Universal Adhesives To Er,Cr:YSGG Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... E-mail: kerimayar@biruni.edu.tr smear layer ... increased, owing to their greater aesthetic properties and the potential ... produced by the selective ablation of the intertubular dentin ... 2.780 nm, power of 1.5 W, frequency of 20 Hz, pulse duration ..... Lopes RM, Trevelin LT, da Cunha SRB, de Oliveira RF, de.

  3. A Pilot Study of Skin Resurfacing Using the 2,790-nm Erbium:YSGG Laser System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Jong Won; Shim, Jeong Su; Choi, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    The erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser differs from other laser techniques by having a faster and higher cure rate. Since the Er:YSGG laser causes an appropriate proportion of ablation and coagulation, it has advantages over the conventional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser, including heating tendencies and explosive vaporization. This research was conducted to explore the effects and safety of the Er:YSGG laser. Twenty patients participated in the pilot study of a resurfacing system using a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. All patients received facial treatment by the 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser system (Cutera) twice with a 4-week interval. Wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture were measured. Study subjects included 15 women and five men. Re-epithelization occurred in all subjects 3 to 4 days after treatment, and wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture within 6 months of treatment. The 2,790-nm YSGG laser technique had fewer complications and was effective in the improvement of scars, pores, wrinkles, and skin tone and color with one or two treatments. We expect this method to be effective for people with acne scars, pore scars, deep wrinkles, and uneven skin texture and color.

  4. A Pilot Study of Skin Resurfacing Using the 2,790-nm Erbium:YSGG Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Rhie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG laser differs from other laser techniques by having a faster and higher cure rate. Since the Er:YSGG laser causes an appropriate proportion of ablation and coagulation, it has advantages over the conventional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser and the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser, including heating tendencies and explosive vaporization. This research was conducted to explore the effects and safety of the Er:YSGG laser.MethodsTwenty patients participated in the pilot study of a resurfacing system using a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. All patients received facial treatment by the 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser system (Cutera twice with a 4-week interval. Wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture were measured.ResultsStudy subjects included 15 women and five men. Re-epithelization occurred in all subjects 3 to 4 days after treatment, and wrinkle reduction, reduction in pigment inhomogeneity, and improvement in tone and texture within 6 months of treatment.ConclusionsThe 2,790-nm YSGG laser technique had fewer complications and was effective in the improvement of scars, pores, wrinkles, and skin tone and color with one or two treatments. We expect this method to be effective for people with acne scars, pore scars, deep wrinkles, and uneven skin texture and color.

  5. Gingival melanin depigmentation by Er:YAG laser: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Verica; Brkic, Zlata; Marin, Sasa; Cicmil, Smiljka; Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Aoki, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Laser ablation is recently suggested as a most effective and reliable technique for depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva. To date, different lasers have been used for gingival depigmentation (CO 2 , diode, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers). The use of Er:YAG laser for depigmentation of melanin hyperpigmented gingiva has gained increasing importance in recent years. The purpose of this study was to report removal of gingival melanin pigmentation using an Er:YAG laser in a literature review. The main outcomes, such as improvement of signs (clinical parameters of bleeding, erythema, swelling and wound healing), symptoms (pain) and melanin recurrence/repigmentation were measured. The literature demonstrated that depigmentation of gingival melanin pigmentation can be performed safely and effectively by Er:YAG laser resulting in healing and an esthetically significant improvement of gingival discoloration. Thus, Er:YAG laser seems to be safe and useful in melanin depigmentation procedure. However, the main issue in giving the final conclusion of the optimal Er:YAG laser use in melanin depigmentation is that, to date, studies are offering completely discrepant Er:YAG laser procedure protocols (complex settings of laser parameters), and different criteria for the assessment of depigmentation and repigmentation (recurrence), thus hampering the comparison of the results. Therefore, further studies are necessary to give an optimal recommendation on the use of Er:YAG laser in gingival melanin hyperpigmentation.

  6. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC ... In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the ..... The Er, Cr: YSGG laser left shallow irradiation markings.

  7. Shear bond strength of a self‑etched resin cement to an indirect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-15

    Nov 15, 2014 ... was used to analyze the bond strength values of different groups. .... was 10 Hz, 3W, 300 mJ, at a distance of 10 mm from the .... gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) group, (e) 2 W Er,Cr:YSGG group, (f) 3 W Er,Cr:YSGG group d c b f.

  8. Créer des possibilités d'emploi pour les jeunes en Afrique de l'Est ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    adéquation des besoins des employeurs du secteur privé avec les compétences offertes par les jeunes, et la facilitation de partenariats pour créer un système collaboratif et connecté qui met l'accent sur les besoins des jeunes.

  9. Détruire, créer, jouer: lire la folie de Caligula chez Camus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Anna Zawada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans la préface américaine de Caligula and three other plays, Camus désigne Vies des douze Césars comme la source première de sa pièce. Toutefois, comme cet article va le démontrer, même si Camus emprunte en effet de Suétone des épisodes et des détails concernant la vie de l’empereur,  il dote tous ces éléments d’une nouvelle signification. À la différence de Suétone, qui attribue la folie de Caligula à une maladie, Camus cherche à donner à ce comportement violent et étrange un sens qui échappe au domaine médical. Ayant beaucoup travaillé sur Nietzsche, notamment sur La naissance de la tragédie Camus marque son personnage de traits dionysiaques, en attirant surtout l’attention sur l’aspect simultané de la création et de la destruction. Dans les pages qui suivent nous allons examiner  l’importance du mythe du dieu de la folie dans le processus de perception et de réception de la folie de Caligula par le destinataire du texte camusien.

  10. Slow magnetic relaxation and single-molecule toroidal behaviour in a family of heptanuclear {Cr"I"I"ILn"I"I"I_6} (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignesh, Kuduva R. [IITB-Monash Research Academy, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Langley, Stuart K. [School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Swain, Abinash; Rajaraman, Gopalan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Damjanovic, Marko; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institute Neel, CNRS, Universite Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    The synthesis, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of three heterometallic {Cr"I"I"ILn"I"I"I_6} (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) complexes, each containing a metal topology consisting of two Ln{sub 3} triangles connected via a Cr{sup III} linker, are reported. The {CrTb_6} and {CrEr_6} analogues display slow relaxation of magnetization in a 3000 Oe static magnetic field. Single-crystal measurements reveal opening up of the hysteresis loop for {CrTb_6} and {CrHo_6} molecules at low temperatures. Ab initio calculations predict toroidal magnetic moments in the two Ln{sub 3} triangles, which are found to couple, stabilizing a con-rotating ferrotoroidal ground state in Tb and Ho examples and extend the possibility of observing toroidal behaviour in non Dy{sup III} complexes for the first time. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Effects of filler metal composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties for ER NiCrFe-7 multi-pass weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Wenlin; Lu, Shanping, E-mail: shplu@imr.ac.cn; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2013-10-10

    The effects of the minor elements Ti and Nb on the microstructure and mechanical properties for multi-pass weldments from the alloy ER NiCrFe-7 were studied using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), as well as tensile and bend tests. The results show that grain size does not change significantly by increasing the Ti content from 0.28 wt% to 0.87 wt% in the weld metal (WM), whereas the grain boundaries become tortuous. The intragranular precipitate in the WM with Ti are AlO and Ti(C, N), whereas the intragranular precipitate in the WM with Nb are AlO and MX (M=Nb, Ti, X=C, N). As the Ti and Nb content increased in the WM, more MX was produced. Furthermore, the majority of C was fixed in the grain, not segregated to the grain boundaries; and less M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M=Cr, Fe) formed at the grain boundaries. Fewer ductility-dip-cracking (DDC) was observed for WM with higher levels of Ti and Nb. The tensile strength and elongation simultaneously increased with an increase in Ti and Nb in WM. The number and length of the cracks in the bend specimens decreased upon adding Ti and Nb.

  12. The Effect of Dilution on Microsegregation in AWS ER NiCrMo-14 Alloy Welding Claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miná, Émerson Mendonça; da Silva, Yuri Cruz; Dille, Jean; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Dilution and microsegregation are phenomena inherent to claddings, which, in turn, directly affect their main properties. This study evaluated microsegregation in the fusion zone with different dilution levels. The overlays were welded by the TIG cold wire feed process. Dilution was calculated from the geometric characteristics of the claddings and from the conservation of mass equation using chemical composition measurements. Microsegregation was calculated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of the dendrites and the chemical composition of the fusion zone. The dilution of the claddings was increased by reducing the wire feed rate. Fe showed potential to be incorporated into the solid phase ( k > 1), and this increased with the increase of dilution. Mo, in turn, was segregated into the liquid phase ( k < 1) and also increased with the increase of dilution. However, Cr and W showed a slight decrease in their partition coefficients ( k) with the increase of dilution.

  13. Créer un site pour mieux apprendre ? Bilan d'expérience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Eisenbeis

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur la mise en place d'un atelier de création d'un site Internet dans le cadre de l'enseignement universitaire du Français Langue Étrangère, réflexion fondée entre autres sur un corpus d'entretiens avec des étudiants ayant participé à ce projet. Ce bilan s'articule autour de trois axes de réflexion : les spécificités du support Internet, source de motivation et base d'un apprentissage collaboratif et de l'acquisition d'un lexique et d'un savoir-faire spécifiques ; la place de la médiation humaine, la redistribution des rôles et la diversité des interactions dans les différentes tâches mises en œuvre ; la dimension actionnelle et autonomisante d'un tel projet. La conclusion propose des pistes pour reconduire ou prolonger cet atelier en vue d'une meilleure intégration pédagogique et institutionnelle

  14. Shear Bond Strength of Composite and Ceromer Superstructures to Direct Laser Sintered and Ni-Cr-Based Infrastructures Treated with KTP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG Lasers: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorler, Oguzhan; Hubbezoglu, Ihsan; Ulgey, Melih; Zan, Recai; Guner, Kubra

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the shear bond strength (SBS) of ceromer and nanohybrid composite to direct laser sintered (DLS) Cr-Co and Ni-Cr-based metal infrastructures treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), and potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser modalities in in vitro settings. Experimental specimens had four sets (n = 32) including two DLS infrastructures with ceromer and nanohybrid composite superstructures and two Ni-Cr-based infrastructures with ceromer and nanohybrid composite superstructures. Of each infrastructure set, the specimens randomized into four treatment modalities (n = 8): no treatment (controls) and Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and KTP lasers. The infrastructures were prepared in the final dimensions of 7 × 3 mm. Ceromer and nanohybrid composite was applied to the infrastructures after their surface treatments according to randomization. The SBS of specimens was measured to test the efficacy of surface treatments. Representative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images after laser treatments were obtained. Overall, in current experimental settings, Nd:YAG, KTP, and Er:YAG lasers, in order of efficacy, are effective to improve the bonding of ceromer and nanohybrid composite to the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures (p laser is more effective in the DLS/ceromer infrastructures (p laser, as second more effective preparation, is more effective in the DLS/ceromer infrastructures (p laser modalities, in order of success, Nd:YAG, KTP, and Er:YAG, are effective to increase bonding of these structures.

  15. Absorbed dose profiles for 32P, 90Y, 188Re, 177Lu, 51Cr, 153Sm and 169Er: radionuclides used in radiosynoviortheses treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, M.; Ayra, E.; Albuerne, O.; Delgado, M.

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable advances in the design and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals has created the opportunity of generating new agents for the treatment of radiosynoviortheses (RSV) which exhibit a minimum leakage from the synovial joint reducing, this way, the non desired absorbed doses to non target organs such as liver, spleen, kidney. Nowadays, the variety of beta emitters used in RSV ranges between 0.34 MeV - 0.33 mm penetration in tissue ( 169 Er) and 2.27 MeV - 3.6 mm penetration in tissue ( 90 Y). The half life of these isotopes goes from 2.3 hours ( 165 Dy) to 27.8 days ( 51 Cr). The selection criterion on which radionuclide should be used, in modern clinics, depends on which joints are to be treated. Thus, the smaller the joint, the lowest should be the energy of the beta emitted and the penetration in soft tissue of these particles. This leads to the use of fixed radionuclides and doses for each kind of joint. In the Isotopes Centre, we've been carrying on studies for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for the radiosynoviortheses treatment and focused our attention in the following radionuclides: 32 P, 90 Y, 188 Re, 177 Lu, 51 Cr, 153 Sm and 169 Er. The main objective of this paper was to obtain the absorbed dose profiles for radionuclides of frequent or potential use in radiosynoviortheses. These profiles reveal the absorbed dose imparted per unit activity of injected radionuclide (Gy/h*MBq) in the synovial membrane and the articular cartilage. The researched radionuclides were those previously mentioned. Also were calculated the therapeutic range of each radionuclides in synovial tissue. The therapeutic range is defined as the deepness at which the absorbed dose equals the 10 % of the maximum dose deposited in the synovial surface. This range determines the synovial thickness that can be sufficiently irradiated and thus successfully treated. The synovial membrane model consisted on a cylinder with the source uniformly distributed in its volume. This

  16. Low Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Positive Breast Cancer and Neoadjuvant Systemic Chemotherapy: Is Response Similar to Typical ER-Positive or ER-Negative Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Alessandra; Farrugia, Daniel J; Zhu, Li; Diego, Emilia J; Johnson, Ronald R; Soran, Atilla; Dabbs, David J; Clark, Beth Z; Puhalla, Shannon L; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Brufsky, Adam M; Ahrendt, Gretchen M; McAuliffe, Priscilla F; Bhargava, Rohit

    2018-05-08

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was compared between 141 estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (43%), 41 low ER+ (13%), 47 moderate ER+ (14%), and 98 high ER+ (30%) tumors. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cases, cases without semiquantitative ER score, and patients treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapy alone were excluded. The pCR rate of low ER+ tumors was similar to the pCR rate of ER- tumors (37% and 26% for low ER and ER- respectively, P = .1722) but significantly different from the pCR rate of moderately ER+ (11%, P = .0049) and high ER+ tumors (4%, P < .0001). Patients with pCR had an excellent prognosis regardless of the ER status. In patients with residual disease (no pCR), the recurrence and death rate were higher in ER- and low ER+ cases compared with moderate and high ER+ cases. Low ER+ breast cancers are biologically similar to ER- tumors. Semiquantitative ER H-score is an important determinant of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  17. Experimental investigation and crystal-field modeling of Er{sup 3+} energy levels in GSGG crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.Y., E-mail: jygao1985@sina.com [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, D.L.; Zhang, Q.L. [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, X.F. [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, W.P.; Luo, J.Q.; Sun, G.H.; Yin, S.T. [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-06-25

    The Er{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Er{sup 3+}:GSGG) single crystal, a excellent medium of the mid-infrared and anti-radiation solid state laser pumped by laser diode, was grown by Czochralski method successfully. The absorption spectra were measured and analyzed in a wider spectral wavelength range of 350–1700 nm at different temperatures of 7.6, 77, 200 and 300 K. The free-ions and crystal-field parameters were fitted to the experimental energy levels with the root mean square deviation of 9.86 cm{sup −1}. According to the crystal-field calculations, 124 degenerate energy levels of Er{sup 3+} in GSGG host crystals were assigned. The fitting results of free-ions and crystal-field parameters were compared with those already reported of Er{sup 3+}:YSGG. The results indicated that the free-ions parameters for Er{sup 3+} in GSGG host are similar to those in YSGG host crystals, and the crystal-field interaction of GSGG is weaker than that of YSGG, which may result in the better laser characterization of Er{sup 3+}:GSGG crystal. - Highlights: • The efficient diode-end-pumped laser crystal Er:GSGG has been grown successfully. • The absorption spectra of Er:GSGG have been measured in range of 350–1700 nm. • The fitting result is very well for the root mean square deviation is 9.86 cm{sup −1}. • The 124 levels of Er:GSGG have been assigned from the crystal-field calculations.

  18. Tratamiento de las úlceras crónicas de las piernas con láser de Er: YAG y tecnología RecoSMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las úlceras crónicas de los miembros inferiores (UCMI tienen una elevada prevalencia, etiología diversa y son de difícil curación. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar los resultados alcanzados en su curación mediante el empleo de un láser de Erbium:YAG con tecnología RecoSMA. Este láser y sistema de tecnología emite energía en forma de miles de microhaces induciendo microablación de la epidermis y actuación en las células de la dermis por efecto mecánico-acústico. Tratamos con irradiación semanal 17 pacientes durante 3 meses. La evaluación de resultados se realizó mediante cuestionarios y correlación clínica e histológica, realizando fotografías antes de cada sesión de tratamiento (12 en total, y su correspondiente análisis con asistencia de un programa informático. Los resultados mostraron curación completa, o reducción del área de las úlceras en aproximadamente el 50% de su superficie inicial en más del 50% de los pacientes. En el estudio estadístico empleamos t de Student y test exacto de Fisher y obtuvimos resultados estadísticamente significativos, con p < 0,05. El láser de Er:YAG y la tecnología RecoSMA basada en ópticas que convierten el haz del láser en miles de microhaces no solamente se absorbe en la superficie del tejido, sino que penetra en la dermis y, por mecanismo mecánico-acústico, produce efectos de resonancia eficaces para producir regeneración tisular. Su empleo en las UCMI de difícil solución es una alternativa de tratamiento eficaz y seguro.

  19. Structural stability and self-healing capability of Er2O3 in situ coating on V-4Cr-4Ti in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhenyu; Suzuki, Akihiro; Muroga, Takeo; Nagasaka, Takuya

    2006-01-01

    The in situ Er 2 O 3 insulating coating is under development for the self-cooled Li/V-alloy type fusion blanket. In this study, the structural stability and self-healing capability of the coating are investigated. Since the cracking in the coating was not observed after exposure when Li was removed with a weak lotion (liquid NH 3 ), the cracking observed in the previous studies is not a practical issue in a real blanket. The re-exposure of the coating in pure Li showed that the coating once formed in Li (Er) is thought to be stable in pure Li. Thus, coating has the possibility to be serviced in a Li environment without an Er supply. By prior exposure to Li (Er) at 873 K, the exhaustion of the oxygen storage in V-alloy substrate during exposure at 973 K could be delayed effectively. The self-healing capability of the coating was demonstrated by the examination with the re-exposing cracked coating in Li (Er)

  20. Evaluation of the bond strength of resin cements used to lute ceramics on laser-etched dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Figen Eren; Duzdar, Lale; Oksuz, Mustafa; Tanboga, Ilknur

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different adhesive resin cements used to lute ceramics on laser-etched dentin. Erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin, but results to date have been controversial, and its compatibility with existing adhesive resin cements has not been conclusively determined. Two adhesive cements, one "etch-and-rinse" [Variolink II (V)] and one "self-etch" [Clearfil Esthetic Cement (C)] luting cement, were used to lute ceramic blocks (Vita Celay Blanks, Vita) onto dentin surfaces. In total, 80 dentin specimens were distributed randomly into eight experimental groups according to the dentin surface-etching technique used Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Er:YAG laser: (1) 37% orthophosphoric acid+V (control group), (2) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V, (3) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+acid+V, (4) Er:YAG laser+V, (5) Er:YAG laser+acid+V, (6) C, (7) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C, and (8) Er:YAG laser+C. Following these applications, the ceramic discs were bonded to prepared surfaces and were shear loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture. SBS was recorded for each group in MPa. Shear test values were evaluated statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were evident between the control group and the other groups (p>0.05). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+A+V group demonstrated significantly higher SBS than did the Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V group (p=0.034). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C and Er:YAG laser+C groups demonstrated significantly lower SBS than did the C group (pceramic bond strengths, depending upon the adhesive cement used.

  1. Carbometalates. Intermediate phases in the ternary systems RE-T-C (RE = Y, La, Gd-Er; T = Cr, Fe, Ru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davaasuren, Bambar

    2010-07-01

    The main motivation of this work was the preparation and characterization of novel compounds in the ternary systems RE-T-C with T = Cr, Fe and Ru with a special focus on compounds containing C{sub 2}{sup n-} and C{sub 3}{sup m-} or mixed C and C{sub 2}{sup n-} as structural units. This would allow to investigate the applicability of the concept of complex anions to this class of materials.

  2. Net art – Créer à l’ère des médias numériques

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Le travail artistique à l’ère d’Internet associe la création d’œuvres interactives à la production de formes de communication et d'exposition visant à impliquer et fidéliser le public. Internet place en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation distribuée entre artistes, informaticiens, dispositifs techniques et public enrôlé. Cet article analyse ces nouvelles figures artistiques et leurs modes relationnels dans un contexte où la mise en œuvre d’art devient indissociable de la pratique de...

  3. Comparative evaluation of surface topography of tooth prepared using erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and bur and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Er, Cr: YSGG laser can be used for preparing tooth and bond strength value achieved by laser preparation alone without surface treatment procedure lies in the range of clinical acceptability.

  4. Net art – Créer à l’ère des médias numériques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Fourmentraux

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le travail artistique à l’ère d’Internet associe la création d’œuvres interactives à la production de formes de communication et d'exposition visant à impliquer et fidéliser le public. Internet place en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation distribuée entre artistes, informaticiens, dispositifs techniques et public enrôlé. Cet article analyse ces nouvelles figures artistiques et leurs modes relationnels dans un contexte où la mise en œuvre d’art devient indissociable de la pratique de médias évolutifs et poreux. À l’intersection des sciences de la communication, de la sociologie des usages et de l’innovation artistique, l’article met en perspective ces formes d’attachement au Net art, révélatrices de nouveaux régimes médiatiques.The artistic work in the era of Internet associates the creation of interactive artworks with the production of forms of communication and exhibition to involve and develop loyalty of the public. This article analyzes these new artistic figures and their relational modes in a context where the implementation of art is inseparable of the practice of evolutionary and porous media. At the intersection of communication sciences, sociology of uses and artistic innovation, the article puts in perspective these new forms of attachment in the Net art, revealing of new media regimes.

  5. Politik er ikke lykken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenbuch, Johannes Aakjær

    2011-01-01

    Der er ikke længere nogen højere sandhed i livet end den, flertallet bestemmer sig for – og dermed ingen del af livet, der ikke er politisk. Højre- og venstrefløjen er i bund og grund enige - enige om, at det er politikernes opgave at forære os det gode liv. Dermed bliver demokratiet totalitært. ...

  6. Man er aldrig alene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Nu ved vi, at der er mange slags DNA i vores krop, og at samarbejdet mellem de organismer, som bærer alt dette DNA, er essentielt for vores overlevelse" … "Kroppen er en slags økosystem, hvor alle slags samarbejde hen ad vejen bliver afprøvet"...

  7. Vreden er over os

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    Urolige elever, cyklister - der giver fuck-finger, aggressive demonstranter. Samtiden er på vej ind i en æra domineret af vrede, siger rektor Lars-Henrik Schmidt, der er aktuel med bogen 'Om vreden'. Udgivelsesdato: Juni......Urolige elever, cyklister - der giver fuck-finger, aggressive demonstranter. Samtiden er på vej ind i en æra domineret af vrede, siger rektor Lars-Henrik Schmidt, der er aktuel med bogen 'Om vreden'. Udgivelsesdato: Juni...

  8. Créer de nouveaux écosystèmes durables par des méthodes bio-inspirées : le cas des toits verts extensifs en région méditerranéenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUTOIT, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Outre l’aspect esthétique, de nombreuses études ont confirmé l’intérêt des toitures végétales dans une perspective de restauration ou de protection de la biodiversité et de l'environnement en milieu urbain. Leur mise en place exige toutefois quelques recommandations quant aux matériaux et techniques utilisés, qui doivent notamment s'inspirer des habitats naturels écologiquement proches. Les objectifs des travaux présentés ici sont d'élaborer et de tester de nouvelles techniques bio-inspirées pour la création de toits verts extensifs en climat méditerranéen sans reccours à l'irrigation permanente.

  9. Hvad f er meningen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Ringberg, Torsten; Wilke, Ricky

    En forskningsrapport fra CBS om danske lederes opfattelse af sociale medier i detail- og servicebranchen. Rapporten er udarbejdet i regi af Service Platform.......En forskningsrapport fra CBS om danske lederes opfattelse af sociale medier i detail- og servicebranchen. Rapporten er udarbejdet i regi af Service Platform....

  10. Fluxus-øer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2008-01-01

    "Fluxus-øer" er en introduktion til Fluxus med udgangspunkt i den tyske galleri-ejer René Blocks samling, som udstillingen "Food for Thought" i Sukkerfabrikken i Stege (Møn) præsenterede et udvalg af. Artiklen beskriver Fluxus som et heterotopi som beskrevet af Michel Foucault i "Of Other Spaces"...

  11. MIT HJEM ER HVOR MIT HJERTE ER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2014-01-01

    Ideen om at arbejde med det man kalder de stedbundne ressourcer på en ny måde, er relevant på Bornholm hvor events som blandt andet festivalen ’Wonderfestiwall’, strandfesten ’Vang Pier Beach Party’, karnevallet ’Svaneke Beach Party, kokkekonkurrencen ’Sol over Gudhjem’ og filmfestivalen ’Bornsho...

  12. Hvor anvendelig er PKI?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jon Magne

    2006-01-01

    Denne oppgaven ser på bruken av elektronisk ID i statlige etater i Norge i dag. Det ses spesielt på om bruken av tekologien PKI er en god løsning på etatenes behov på dette området. Som utgangspunkt for analysen er det sett spesielt på to statlige etater. Disse etatenes behov og bruk av elektronisk ID generelt og PKI spesielt blir undersøkt. Det er videre gjort rede for hvilke lover, forskrifter og andre førende dokumenter som danner de formelle rammebetingelsene for etaters bruk av PKI. ...

  13. Innovation er brugerdreven!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Brugerdreven innovation er blevet svaret på mange af de udfordringer, som vores moderne samfund står overfor.Det er skrevet ind i såvel regeringsgrundlaget som i de forskellige tiltag, som skal ruste Danmark i forhold til globaliseringen. Vi har ifølge argumentationen her enrække særlige forudsæt....... Udgivelsesdato: marts 2008...

  14. Metabolomics er fremtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersern, Birger

    2010-01-01

    Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet......Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet...

  15. Er KU et mobbeuniversitet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Ansatte på KU mobber hverken mere eller mindre end på andre danske arbejdspladser. Mediernes dækning af APV-undersøgelsens resultater mht. mobning er sensationalistisk og delvis vildledende.......Ansatte på KU mobber hverken mere eller mindre end på andre danske arbejdspladser. Mediernes dækning af APV-undersøgelsens resultater mht. mobning er sensationalistisk og delvis vildledende....

  16. Er jeres ledere 'likeable'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Færdigheder: Oftest er lederne langtfra de første til at kaste sig over ny teknologi. It-kundskaberne på chefgangen trænger til en opgradering.......Færdigheder: Oftest er lederne langtfra de første til at kaste sig over ny teknologi. It-kundskaberne på chefgangen trænger til en opgradering....

  17. er 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. P.; Søndergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.

    små cladoceer og hjuldyr, og især er maksimumsforekom-sterne af calanoide vandlopper og de små og store cladoceer og daf-nier gået tilbage. Den gennemsnitlige biomasse af dafnier er derimod øget især p.g.a. stigning i de 25 % af søerne med størst forekomster. Dyreplanktons græsning Betragtet under et...

  18. er 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. P.; Søndergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.

    styrke det fagli-ge grundlag for de mil-jøpolitiske prioriteringer og beslut-ninger. En væsentlig del af denne opgave er overvågning af miljø og natur. Det er derfor et naturligt led i Danmarks Miljø-undersø-gelsers opgave at forestå den landsdækkende rapportering af overvågnings-program-met inden...

  19. Electroplating of erbium on steel surface in ErCl3 doped LiCl-KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The electroplating of Er metal on the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.1C), in a molten salt was studied. The specimen was immersed in the molten ErCl 3 doped LiCl-KCl electrolyte. The electroplating was carried out by a constant potential electrolysis method and a pulsed current electrolysis method. It was found that the Er metal was deposited on the specimen surface due to the electrochemical reaction. (author)

  20. Rab7a modulates ER stress and ER morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Duarte; Marini, Elettra Sara; Progida, Cinzia; Bakke, Oddmund

    2018-05-01

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a membranous organelle with diverse structural and functional domains. Peripheral ER includes interconnected tubules, and dense tubular arrays called "ER matrices" together with bona fide flat cisternae. Transitions between these states are regulated by membrane-associated proteins and cytosolic factors. Recently, the small GTPases Rab10 and Rab18 were reported to control ER shape by regulating ER dynamics and fusion. Here, we present evidence that another Rab protein, Rab7a, modulates the ER morphology by controlling the ER homeostasis and ER stress. Indeed, inhibition of Rab7a expression by siRNA or expression of the dominant negative mutant Rab7aT22 N, leads to enlargement of sheet-like ER structures and spreading towards the cell periphery. Notably, such alterations are ascribable neither to a direct modulation of the ER shaping proteins Reticulon-4b and CLIMP63, nor to interactions with Protrudin, a Rab7a-binding protein known to affect the ER organization. Conversely, depletion of Rab7a leads to basal ER stress, in turn causing ER membrane expansion. Both ER enlargement and basal ER stress are reverted in rescue experiments by Rab7a re-expression, as well as by the ER chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). Collectively, these findings reveal a new role of Rab7a in ER homeostasis, and indicate that genetic and pharmacological ER stress manipulation may restore ER morphology in Rab7a silenced cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Jeg Er blevet FRANKofil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    afhængig af Frank Underwood fra serien House of Cards på den fremadstormende TV-streamingstjenesten Netflix. Jeg har opdaget et nyt internetbaseret datingforhold. Et surrealt, fedt miks af det kyniske og joviale personificeret i karakteren Frank Underwood, som er helt igennem ubehagelig, men fantastisk...... spillet af Kevin Spacey. Og tak til Spacey der for en tid har forladt teateret ’The Old Vic’ i London for at begejstre mig. Der er generelt to årsager til mine FRANKofile tilbøjeligheder. For det første er Netflix’s remake af den tyve år gamle BBC serie House of Cards efter min menig et stykke tv...... anden grund, til at jeg er blevet Frankofil, er, at jeg ikke skal sidde og vente på næste søndag efter søndag efter søndag for at få lov at se næste afsnit. Netflix lagde alle tretten timer af sæson 2 ud på nettet. Jeg afgør selv, hvornår jeg skal have mere Frank! Men på trods af mit narkomanlignende...

  2. Ondskaben er fortryllende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer.......Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer....

  3. Evaluation of microtensile and tensile bond strength tests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare two different bond strength test methods (tensile and microtensile) in investing the influence of erbium, chromium: yttrium‑scandium‑gallium‑garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser pulse frequency on resin‑enamel bonding. Materials and Methods: One‑hundred and twenty‑five ...

  4. A laser-powered hydrokinetic system for caries removal and cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Young, D A; Eversole, L R; Gornbein, J A

    2000-06-01

    Laser systems have been developed for the cutting of dental hard tissues. The erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet, or Er,Cr:YSGG, laser system used in conjunction with an air-water spray has been shown to be efficacious in vitro for cavity preparation. The authors randomly selected subjects for cavity preparation with conventional air turbine/bur dental surgery or an Er,Cr:YSGG laser-powered system using a split-mouth design. They prepared Class I, III and V cavities, placed resin restorations and evaluated subjects on the day of the procedure and 30 days and six months postoperatively for pulp vitality, recurrent caries, pain and discomfort, and restoration retention. Sixty-seven subjects completed the study. There were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups for the parameters measured with one exception; there was a statistically significant decrease in discomfort levels for the laser system at the time of cavity preparation for subjects who declined to receive local anesthetic. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser system is effective for preparation of Class I, III and V cavities and resin restorations are retained by lased tooth surfaces. Hard-tissue cutting lasers are being introduced for use in operative dentistry. In this study, an Er,Cr:YSGG laser has been shown to be effective for cavity preparation and restoration replacement.

  5. Evaluation of microtensile and tensile bond strength tests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-03

    Nov 3, 2015 ... Bond strength tests and Er,Cr:YSGG laser frequency. 586 ... power, 90% air pressure, 75% water pressure, 45 s irradiation ..... geometry on the measurement of the tensile bond strength to dentin. J Dent ... Bur‑cut enamel and.

  6. Scenen er blevet din

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Verden kan betragtes som en skueplads med mange forskellige scener. I bidrgaet vil læseren kunne stifte bekendtskab med forskellige refleksioner over netop denne metaforik som analyseoptik i forhold til begrebet innovation. Afsættet er ønsket om at finde en måde at analysere og begrebsliggøre inn...

  7. Er tang fremtidens superfood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    seneste år fået øjnene op for tang indenfor områderne: biokemikalier og bioaktive stoffer, ekstraktion, gastronomi, produktudvikling, foder, bioraffinaderier, dyrkning osv. Men hvad er det tang kan? Dette foredrag vil vise at vi med tangdyrkning kan rykke mere bæredygtig fødevareproduktion ud på havet...

  8. Ideologi er noget bras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    fra den slovenske filosof Slavoj Zizek stilles imidlertid det spørgsmål i bogen, om ideologien idag ikke blot har taget en anden form. Vi lever i dag ikke i post-ideologiske tider. Snarere er braset selv – X Factor, forbrugsobjekter, underholdning, følelser og balloner – blevet den næsten usynlige...

  9. Riget - alt er tilladt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Riget indtager en nøglestilling, når overgangen mellem faser i Triers produktion skal karakteriseres. Riget danner bro mellem den billedfascination og de radikale stileksperimenter, der præger Triers tidlige produktion, og den genre- og plotbevidsthed, der er typisk for film som Breaking the Waves...

  10. Hvad er tidligt sprog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver Jensen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Forfatteren argumenterer for at "early literacy" kan oversættes til "tidligt sprog"; særligt når der er tale om en helhedsorienteret tilgang med vægt på sprog som et alsidigt medie for kommunikation- og betydningsskabelse. Med inspiration fra Jerome Bruners kulturpsykologi diskuteres mulige...

  11. Er danskerne racister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Henning; Necef, Mehmet Ümit

    Igennem de seneste årtier er det blevet almindeligt at tale om, at der er en udbredt racisme i Danmark. Påstande om danskernes racisme, fremmedhad og diskrimination optræder dagligt i offentligheden og i medierne, og der henvises ofte til, hvad ’forskerne’ og de ’videnskabelige undersøgelser’ siger...... om emnet. Der kan da næppe heller være tvivl om, at der forekommer racistiske holdninger hos nogle danskere. Men er problemet så stort, som det gøres til i den offentlige debat? Bogen ønsker at afklare, hvorvidt der er videnskabelig dokumentation for påstandene om danskernes racisme. Den går i dybden...... med en række forskeres og eksperters udtalelser på området og præsenterer en grundig analyse af deres fremstilling af dansk racisme i forhold til emner som kultur, seksualitet, kriminalitet og arbejdsmarked....

  12. RIGScan CR: RIGScan CR49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    RIGScan CR49, a 125I-labelled CR monoclonal antibody directed against the tumour-associated antigen TAG-72, is undergoing development with Neoprobe for the intraoperative detection of metastatic colorectal cancer. The Neoprobe's proprietary RIGS (radioimmunoguided surgery) technology combines an injectable radiolabelled cancer-targeting agent and hand-held radiation detection probe that emits an audible tone when located tissue has accumulated a significant amount of the radioactive agent. Neoprobe's RIGS technology also includes a patented surgical method providing surgeons with real-time information to locate tumour deposits that can not be detected by other conventional methods. The RIGS technology has been evaluated in late clinical studies for the detection of adenocarcinomas including primary colorectal, gastrointestinal, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate and neuroendocrine/endocrine. Neoprobe signed an option agreement for its first-generation RIGScan compound, RIGScan CR, with OncoSurg Inc. (formerly NuRigs Ltd). The second-generation humanised RIGScan CR agent was also optionally licensed to OncoSurg Inc. In 1997, Neoprobe filed for approval with the US FDA and the EMEA for RIGScan CR for the intraoperative detection of metastatic colorectal cancer. Both regulatory agencies have requested additional clinical data. On 19 April 2004, Neoprobe announced that it had met with the US FDA to discuss its position on submitting additional clinical information in response to the FDA's questions regarding the Biologic Licence Application (BLA) for RIGScan CR49. The company provided the FDA with new information related to a survival differential for patients whose colorectal cancer was evaluated with RIGScan CR49. The information was not available at the time of the BLA's submission in 1997. The agency indicated that it would consider accepting survival data from one of the two phase III trials, NEO2-14, but not from another trial NEO2-13, as supportive data for a

  13. Er HR ude i tovene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    HR: Er der behov for nytænkning i HR-land? Artikler i Harvard Business Review - bakket op af en dansk undersøgelse - konkluderer, at HR stadig mangler gennemslagskraft i virksomhederne. Er HR ude i tovene? ... For i undersøgelsen "Ny Dansk Ledelse" (maj 2015), som er baseret på danske lederes...

  14. Facebook er internettet nu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Den store vision for world wide web var, at alle kunne få ubegrænset adgang til alverdens information. www var mangfoldigt og anarkistisk. I dag er der rigtig mange, der kun bruger nettet til at være på Facebook. Hvad bruger Facebook det til? Og hvad gør det ved vores udsyn?......Den store vision for world wide web var, at alle kunne få ubegrænset adgang til alverdens information. www var mangfoldigt og anarkistisk. I dag er der rigtig mange, der kun bruger nettet til at være på Facebook. Hvad bruger Facebook det til? Og hvad gør det ved vores udsyn?...

  15. Hvad er en by?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parby, Jakob; Thelle, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Nytænkning. Med de moderne megabyer er det slut med at forestille sig byen som noget, man planlægger og giver form. Vi skal lære at se dem som vildtvoksende urbane landskaber. Artikel om megabyer, byudvikling og forestillingen om byen gennem tiderne. Skrevet delvist i anledning af åbningen af...... udstillingen Citambulos på Københavns Museum, der handlede om Mexico City....

  16. Hvad er tekstfiktion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    artiklen er et bidrag til belysningen af genteori og bygger på ideen om at karakterisere skønlitteratur som et restringeret sæt af universelle tekstparametre. Artiklen fokuserer især på parametren tekstfiktion, hvor jeg forsvarer den position, at en fiktiv tekst hverken kan karakteriseres som en ...... intentioner. Det betyder dog ikke, at sandhed og mening ikke spiller noget rolle ved identifikationen af fiktion, sådan som det hævdes af Walsh og andre....

  17. Rouw mag er zijn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke Moors

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrieving is allowedGrief is a human experience. Every form of loss shapes you into the human being you are today. Contrary to what earlier, unproven grief models postulate, grief does not have an end point. That is, bereavement does not have to be completely processed, but it should be integrated into someone’s life. The outdated grief models were often interpreted and used in a normative way, which led to a normative standard model. This portraits the belief that every mourner would experience similar symptoms and would go through a fixed pattern of phases. However, the updated vision emphasizes the individual and unique process of coping with loss: norms concerning grief should be banned. By means of literature research, interviews with professionals and personal experiences, it became clear that finding an equilibrium between restoration-orientated and loss-orientated coping styles is most beneficial. An important aspect in finding this balance is meaningfulness. Furthermore, the ability to bear a loss and to adapt accordingly are important components. Lastly, attaching significance to a loss is a constructive way of integrating the loss into one’s life. The death of a loved one should therefore not be forgotten or tucked away. After all, grief is the price we pay for love. SAMENVATTINGRouw mag er zijnRouw is een menselijke ervaring en elk verlies vormt je als mens. Rouw heeft, in tegenstelling tot wat de verouderde, niet bewezen rouwmodellen beweren, geen eindpunt. Verlies hoeft namelijk niet verwerkt te worden, maar moet juist geïntegreerd worden in iemands leven. De verouderde rouwmodellen zijn vaak normatief opgevat en toegepast, waaruit een normatief standaardmodel is ontstaan. Daarbij werd gedacht dat elke rouwende dezelfde symptomen zou vertonen en het rouwproces volgens vaste fasen zou verlopen. Binnen de vernieuwde visie wordt er juist van uitgegaan dat elk individu een unieke manier van reageren op rouw heeft. Er zou

  18. Han er her endnu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Interview med den kinesiske aktivist og billedkunstner Ai Weiwei, der sad fængslet i 81 dage i 2011. Hans pas er stadig (i februar 2014) inddraget af myndighederne, så han kan ikke forlade landet, selv om han har betalt en bøde på 13 mio. kr. for ”skatteunddragelse”. Både i sin kunst og i sine...... mange aktioner retter han en hård kritik af det korrupte kinesiske styre, som træder menneskerettighederne under fode. Men uretfærdighedsfølelsen har sin pris i et totalitært og topstyret samfund. Ligegyldigt, hvor mange vigtige udstillinger han har i udlandet, må han blive hjemme og styre aktiviteterne...... via cyberspace. I interviewet fortæller Ai Weiwei om de personlige omkostninger, som hans kamp mod systemet indebærer....

  19. The effect of erbium family laser on tensile bond strength of composite to dentin in comparison with conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Sima; Chiniforush, Nasim; Bahramian, Hoda; Monzavi, Abbas; Baghalian, Ali; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on tensile bond strength of composite resin to dentine in comparison with bur-prepared cavities. Fifteen extracted caries-free human third molars were selected. The teeth were cut at a level below the occlusal pit and fissure plan and randomly divided into three groups. Five cavities were prepared by diamond bur, five cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser, and the other group prepared by Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Then, all the cavities were restored by composite resin. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally with Isomet and the specimens prepared in dumbbelled shape (n = 36). The samples were attached to special jigs, and the tensile bond strength of the three groups was measured by universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results of the three groups were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tamhane test. The means and standard deviations of tensile bond strength of bur-cut, Er:YAG laser-ablated, and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated dentine were 5.04 ± 0.93, 13.37 ± 3.87, and 4.85 ± 0.93 MPa, respectively. There is little difference in tensile bond strength of composite resin in Er,Cr:YSGG lased-prepared cavities in comparison with bur-prepared cavities, but the Er:YAG laser group showed higher bond strength than the other groups.

  20. De 9 P’er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Ledere skal i dag selv skabe deres eget rum til ledelse, men hvad er med til at sætte det, hvilke betingelser og udfordringer er der, og hvordan kan lederne skabe sig selv i et hav af forventninger? Dette katalog inviterer til refleksion herom....

  1. Fremtidens undervisningsmiljøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Som oplægget til dette temanummer af LOM også indikerede, så sætter vi fokus på fremtidens undervisningsmiljøer på universiteter og UCer. Fremtidens undervisningsmiljøer har mange facetter, hvilket samlingen af artikler også illustrerer. “Fremtidens Undervisningsmiljø” handler om eksisterende erf...

  2. Den rige personlighed er livsduelig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    For omtrent 160 år siden formulerede Karl Marx forestillingen om en rig individualitet som det kommunistiske samfunds individideal. I dag får forestillingen relevans. Lyder det lidt besynderligt, er det ikke mærkeligt. For de fleste af os går næppe rundt og tror, at vi er lige på trapperne til...

  3. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  4. Brandulykker er et socialt problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    1999-01-01

    Det er de gamle, de syge, de handicappede og alkoholikerne, der brænder inde. Typisk har de tabt en cigaret eller tændstik på tøjet. En del af disse brandulykker opstår på plejehjem og andre institutioner, hvor det ofte er plejepersonalet, der opdager og slukker branden....

  5. Survival is associated with complete response on MRI after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, Claudette E; Rigter, Lisanne S; Pengel, Kenneth E; Wesseling, Jelle; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T F D Vrancken; Sikorska, Karolina; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological complete remission (pCR) of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer is rarely achieved after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). In addition, the prognostic value of pCR for this breast cancer subtype is limited. We

  6. Thermal effects from modified endodontic laser tips used in the apical third of root canals with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the temperature changes occurring on the apical third of root surfaces when erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser energy was delivered with a tube etched, laterally emitting conical tip and a conventional bare design optical fiber tip. Thermal effects of root canal laser treatments on periodontal ligament cells and alveolar bone are of concern in terms of safety. A total of 64 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared 1 mm short of the working length using rotary nickel-titanium Pro-Taper files to an apical size corresponding to a F5 Pro-Taper instrument. A thermocouple located 2 mm from the apex was used to record temperature changes arising from delivery of laser energy through laterally emitting conical tips or plain tips, using an Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG laser. For the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG systems, conical fibers showed greater lateral emissions (452 + 69% and 443 + 64%) and corresponding lower forward emissions (48 + 5% and 49 + 5%) than conventional plain-fiber tips. All four combinations of laser system and fiber design elicited temperature increases less than 2.5 degrees C during lasing. The use of water irrigation attenuated completely the thermal effects of individual lasing cycles. Laterally emitting conical fiber tips can be used safely under defined conditions for intracanal irradiation without harmful thermal effects on the periodontal apparatus.

  7. Min mentor er min voksenven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Birte

    2009-01-01

    En artikel i bogen: 6 belysninger af vejledning, brydninger, forståelser & praksis. Artiklen er et sammendrag af en diskursanalyse fra 2008 fra projetrapporten: Ind under huden, www.vejledning.net...

  8. Forenklingens fire F'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Tina Øllgaard

    2017-01-01

    At fjerne styring er det, man ofte forbinder med afbureaukratisering, men det er ikke tilstrækkeligt, når man vil gå fra flotte ambitioner til en styring, som reelt opleves enklere. For at forenkle må man også forandre, forankre og fastholde styring, og det må ske i et samspil mellem de aktører, ...

  9. Hvis en kartoffel er forkert, hvad er en Mars-bar så?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Thomsen, Freja; Hinze, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Danske unge er de slankeste af 41 europæiske unge, men de føler sig ofte tykke og går på slankekur. Hvad er årsagen, og hvorfor er det et problem?......Danske unge er de slankeste af 41 europæiske unge, men de føler sig ofte tykke og går på slankekur. Hvad er årsagen, og hvorfor er det et problem?...

  10. Den sproglige leg er super fly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2013-01-01

    Man kan rappe om alt. I hvert fald hvis man er Marvelous Mosell. I spændingsfeltet mellem fiktion og virkelighed skaber Mosell sin persona i et forjættende 80' er-univers der på en og samme tid er vildt overdrevet og helt autentisk.......Man kan rappe om alt. I hvert fald hvis man er Marvelous Mosell. I spændingsfeltet mellem fiktion og virkelighed skaber Mosell sin persona i et forjættende 80' er-univers der på en og samme tid er vildt overdrevet og helt autentisk....

  11. N-ov-emb-er

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    " to. Andrew Z Fire - Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, CA, USA. Craig C Mello - University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester, MA, USA. -96----------------------------~~--------R-ES-O-N-A-N-C-E--1 -N-ov-e-m-b-er--2-oo-6.

  12. Hvad er ledelse af brugerinddragelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Petersen, Christina; Navne, Laura Emdal

    2015-01-01

    Brugerinddragelse i det danske sundhedsvæsen står højt på den politiske dagsorden, men det er stadig en udfordring at implementere visionen i klinisk praksis. Ledelse af brugerinddragelse bliver aktuelt udpeget som en central nøgle til at føre visionen ud i livet. Samtidig er der kun relativt lidt......, at brugerinddragelse skal implementeres i en verden, hvor der allerede er en række andre mål tilstede. En central ledelsesudfordring er derfor, at nogle af målene med brugerinddragelse forudsætter nye måder at organisere ikke bare arbejdet og kompetencer på, men også relationer til patienter og pårørende. En væsentlig...... that organize relations Patient involvement in the health services in Denmark is high on the political agenda, though continues to be a challenge to implement. It is increasingly said that leadership is crucial to the implementation process. However, research into the role of leaders in patient involvement...

  13. ER2OWL: Generating OWL Ontology from ER Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Muhammad

    Ontology is the fundamental part of Semantic Web. The goal of W3C is to bring the web into (its full potential) a semantic web with reusing previous systems and artifacts. Most legacy systems have been documented in structural analysis and structured design (SASD), especially in simple or Extended ER Diagram (ERD). Such systems need up-gradation to become the part of semantic web. In this paper, we present ERD to OWL-DL ontology transformation rules at concrete level. These rules facilitate an easy and understandable transformation from ERD to OWL. The set of rules for transformation is tested on a structured analysis and design example. The framework provides OWL ontology for semantic web fundamental. This framework helps software engineers in upgrading the structured analysis and design artifact ERD, to components of semantic web. Moreover our transformation tool, ER2OWL, reduces the cost and time for building OWL ontologies with the reuse of existing entity relationship models.

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  16. Hvornår er man ung?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Nørregård-Nielsen, Esther C.

    2002-01-01

    Hvornår er man ung, og hvornår er man voksen? Er der forskelle i befolkningens værdier i forhold til arbejde og politik, når det undersøges ud fra henholdsvis et alders- eller generationsperspektiv? Baseret på data fra den danske del af den internationale værdiundersøgelse vises at der er så store...

  17. Hvorfor er sygeplejersker usynlige i offentlige medier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Annemi Lund; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Når der er sygeplejerelevante emner til debat i de offentlige medier på Færøerne, bærer debatten præg af sygeplejerskers manglende deltagelse. Sygeplejerskerne er usynlige. Et eksempel på dette er en debat om besparelser inden for ældreomsorgen. Til trods for at besparelsen fik omfattende konsekv...

  18. A gene expression signature of Retinoblastoma loss-of-function predicts resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive/HER2-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Emanuela; Grilli, Andrea; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Biagioni, Chiara; McCartney, Amelia; Guarducci, Cristina; Bonechi, Martina; Benelli, Matteo; Vitale, Stefania; Biganzoli, Laura; Bicciato, Silvio; Di Leo, Angelo; Malorni, Luca

    2018-07-01

    HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers show heterogeneous response to chemotherapy, with the ER-positive (ER+) subgroup deriving less benefit. Loss of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB1) function has been suggested as a cardinal feature of breast cancers that are more sensitive to chemotherapy and conversely resistant to CDK4/6 inhibitors. We performed a retrospective analysis exploring RBsig, a gene signature of RB loss, as a potential predictive marker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients. We selected clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 therapy in HER2+ breast cancer patients with available information on gene expression data, hormone receptor status, and pathological complete response (pCR) rates. RBsig expression was computed in silico and correlated with pCR. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis (514 patients). Overall, of 211 ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients, 49 achieved pCR (23%). The pCR rate following chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 drugs in patients with RBsig low expression was significantly lower compared to patients with RBsig high expression (16% vs. 30%, respectively; Fisher's exact test p = 0.015). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.62 (p = 0.005). In the 303 ER-negative (ER-)/HER2+ patients treated with chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 drugs, the pCR rate was 43%. No correlation was found between RBsig expression and pCR rate in this group. Low expression of RBsig identifies a subset of ER+/HER2+ patients with low pCR rates following neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 therapy. These patients may potentially be spared chemotherapy in favor of anti-HER2, endocrine therapy, and CDK 4/6 inhibitor combinations.

  19. Jordkvalitetskriterier for PAH'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    For to år siden forhøjede Miljøstyrelsen den administrativt fastsatte grænseværdi for polycycliske hydrocarboner (PAH’er) i jord med en faktor 3, hvilket i praksis betød at en række grunde, der tidligere var klassifi ceret som forurenede, nu ikke klassifi ceres sådan. Den hidtidige og den nye met...

  20. Comparative evaluation of surface topography of tooth prepared using erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and bur and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahesh; Kumari, Pooja; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    Erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser has been successfully used in the ablation of dental hard and soft tissues. It has been reported that this system is also useful for preparing tooth surfaces and etching, but no consensus exist in the literature regarding the advantage of lasers over conventional tooth preparation technique. Labial surfaces of 25 extracted human maxillary central incisors were divided into two halves. Right half was prepared with diamond bur and left half with Er, Cr; YSGG laser and a reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm was carried out. Topography of prepared surfaces of five teeth were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The remaining samples were divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens each based on the surface treatment received: One group was acid etched and other was nonetched. Composite resin cylinders were bonded on prepared surfaces and shear bond strength was assessed using a universal testing machine. The SEM observation revealed that the laser prepared surfaces were clean, highly irregular and devoid of a smear layer. Bur prepared surfaces were relatively smooth but covered with smear layer. Highest bond strength was shown by laser prepared acid etched group, followed by bur prepared the acid etched group. The bur prepared nonacid etched group showed least bond strength. Er, Cr: YSGG laser can be used for preparing tooth and bond strength value achieved by laser preparation alone without surface treatment procedure lies in the range of clinical acceptability.

  1. crRNA biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charpentier, E.; Oost, van der J.; White, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mature crRNAs are key elements in CRISPR-Cas defense against genome invaders. These short RNAs are composed of unique repeat/spacer sequences that guide the Cas protein(s) to the cognate invading nucleic acids for their destruction. The biogenesis of mature crRNAs involves highly precise processing

  2. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  4. Optimal fodring af goldkøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Et forsøg har vist, at køer på lavt energiniveau i goldperioden var fysiologisk sundere og havde mindre risiko for at udvikle stofskiftesygdomme end køer på et højt energiniveau. Forsøget viste også, at køer på et normalt energiniveau i senlaktationen gav mere mælk i den efterfølgende laktation e...

  5. Er moral bare noget vi leger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2014-01-01

    Hvis man er skeptiker, så er moral nemlig altid kun et udtryk for psykologi og kultur, også når det handler om for eksempel misbrug af børn i Tønder-sagen eller terror-angreb i Madrid, London og Mumbai .......Hvis man er skeptiker, så er moral nemlig altid kun et udtryk for psykologi og kultur, også når det handler om for eksempel misbrug af børn i Tønder-sagen eller terror-angreb i Madrid, London og Mumbai ....

  6. Thermodynamic assessments of the Ag-Er and Er-Y systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Wang, C.P.; Liu, X.J.; Tang, A.T.; Pan, F.S.; Ishida, K.

    2010-01-01

    The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties in the Ag-Er and Er-Y binary systems have been assessed by using the CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) method on the basis of the experimental data including the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. The Gibbs free energies of the liquid, bcc, fcc, and hcp phases were described by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister equation, and those of intermetallic compounds (Ag 2 Er and AgEr phases) were treated as stoichiometric compounds, and Ag 51 Er 14 phase was modeled by the sublattice model in the Ag-Er binary system. The thermodynamic parameters of the Ag-Er and Er-Y binary systems were obtained, and an agreement between the calculated results and experimental data was obtained for each binary system.

  7. Neoclassical transport in ERS regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.; Lee, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The core ion thermal conductivity has been observed to fall below the standard neoclassical level in recent TFTR reversed magnetic shear discharges. Due to the combination of high central q and small local inverse aspect ratio, the ion poloidal gyroradius can be larger than the minor radius and comparable to the pressure gradient scale length in this ERS regime. It is then expected that finite orbit width effects play a key role in modifying the standard picture of neoclassical transport. Specifically, both the trapped particle fraction and the banana orbit width axe reduced by the finite minor radius and possibly by the pressure-gradient-driven radial electric field. In addition, the steep pressure gradient can generate neoclassical poloidal flows which, in turn, could reduce the particle and heat transports. Results from analytic estimates as well as those from full toroidal gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations will be presented

  8. Ungdomslitteratur former(er) sig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    2016-01-01

    Igennem en 'mediesensitiv' analyse af romanen "Akavet" af Ronnie Andersen (2014) og perspektivering til andre aktuelle romaner for og med unge undersøger artiklen, hvordan ungdomslitteratur udvikler sig i dialog med digitale og mediebaserede impulser, og hvilke konsekvenser for udsigelserne om...... ungdomsliv og ungdomslitteraturens æstetik og mulige egenart, denne udvikling har. Artiklen baserer sig på en materialitetstilgang særligt inspireret af N. Katherine Hayles, som ikke tidligere har fået opmærksomhed i læsninger af ungdomslitteratur eller i diskussioner af ungdomslitteraturens mulige egenart......, at ungdomslitteratur drejer sig om unges udviklingsproces fra barndom og til voksenhed og dermed skildrer en overgang præget af linearitet, modning og vækst. Artiklen konkluderer, at der er ungdomslitteratur, der realiseres på andre præmisser, og Akavet kan ses som eksponent for en bevægelse fra ungdomslitteratur som...

  9. Multiple band structure in 156Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyar, A.W.; Der Mateosian, E.; Kistner, O.C.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thieberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    The 142 Nd( 18 O,4n) 156 Er reaction at 90-95 MeV was used to study 156 Er high-spin states to spin 24. In addition to the background ground-state band, two well developed off-spin side bands, one of each parity, were observed. (Auth.)

  10. Er der en underviser til stede?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Rosenlund, Lea Tilde

    2015-01-01

    I de senere år er MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) blevet en faktor på uddannelsesområdet. MOOC-forskning er et forholdsvist nyt felt, men har inden for de seneste 2-3 år udviklet sig med hastige skridt (Liyanagunawardena et al. 2013, Bayne & Ross 2014). En stor del af denne forskning har haft...

  11. Coronavirus infection, ER stress and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TO SING eFUNG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR, a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus-host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases activation, autophagy, apoptosis and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling.

  12. Led strategisk med 3 F'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Kurt Klaudi

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår kort de tre F'er: at fremskrive, forudse og forestille som strategiske værktøjer til strategic forecast......Artiklen gennemgår kort de tre F'er: at fremskrive, forudse og forestille som strategiske værktøjer til strategic forecast...

  13. Et kors er ikke bare et kors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Nielsen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Om et kors, der er rejst uden for den danske kirke i Bruxelles; formodentlig en afledning af det såkaldte Brabanterkors.......Om et kors, der er rejst uden for den danske kirke i Bruxelles; formodentlig en afledning af det såkaldte Brabanterkors....

  14. Er formen blevet vigtigst i politik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etemadi, Maziar Haghpaidar

    2005-01-01

    RETORIK: Retorikken er kunsten at tage ordet - skriftligt eller mundtligt - og udtrykke sig smukt og velformuleret. Gorgias (ca. 490-ca. 390 f. Kr.) fra Leontinoi på Sicilien betragtes som ophavsmanden til den første endelige formulering af retorikkens virke og muligheder: "Talen er en mægtig...

  15. En isoleret verden er en bedre verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enrum, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Man skal ikke kaste med sten, hvis man bor i et hus med energimærke D ... Men problemet med varmetab fra danske boliger er til at løse......Man skal ikke kaste med sten, hvis man bor i et hus med energimærke D ... Men problemet med varmetab fra danske boliger er til at løse...

  16. "Det man siger er man selv..."

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Nørgaard, Britta; Uddholm, Mats

    forhold, der er hermeneutisk, strukturelt og relationelt bestemt. Praksisviden kan ikke være objektiv i gængs forstand, men det behøver ikke at diskvalificere denne viden. Forståelse er altid knyttet til den sag og bundet til den situation man står overfor og i som professionel og som menneske....

  17. Colour due to Cr3+ ions in oxides: a study of the model system MgO:Cr3+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aramburu, J. A.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2013-01-01

    Seeking to understand why the cubic centre in MgO:Cr3+ has the same 10Dq value as emerald, ab initio cluster and periodic supercell calculations have been performed. It is found that the equilibrium Cr3+-O2- distance, R, in MgO:Cr3+ is equal to 2.03 Å and thus 0.06 Å higher than that measured...... for the emerald. Calculations carried out on the isolated CrO69- complex at R = 2.03 Å give 10Dq = 14 510 cm-1, which is 10% smaller than the experimental figure for MgO:Cr3+. Nevertheless, when the internal electric field, ER(r), due to the rest of the lattice ions is also taken into account, the calculated 10Dq...... = 16 210 cm-1 coincides with the experimental value. Accordingly, the colour shift for different oxides doped with Cr3+ can be well understood on the basis of this extrinsic contribution to 10Dq usually ignored in a ligand field description. The calculated electrostatic potential, VR(r), related to ER(r...

  18. Supervision og de tre k´er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Benedicte; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Nielsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Kontrol, kontrakt og kontekst er supervisionens tre k'er. Men hvad er supervision i det hele taget for en størrelse, der spillerså central en rolle for den psykologfaglige profession?......Kontrol, kontrakt og kontekst er supervisionens tre k'er. Men hvad er supervision i det hele taget for en størrelse, der spillerså central en rolle for den psykologfaglige profession?...

  19. En hat er vel en hat ... eller?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøilerehauge, Dorrit

    2007-01-01

    Mens vi kører i høj fart på "the information highway" - i den helt store bus midt på vejen - glemmer vi ofte noget meget vigtigt i vores glæde over, at verden tilsyneladende åbner sig for os, og vi kan kommunikere med hele verden med ét klik. Vi glemmer, at selvom trafikskilte som oftest er ens -...... - så er selve trafikken og forventningerne blandt medtrafikanterne helt forskellige fra det, vi er vant til. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  20. Ytringsfriheden er ikke nødvendig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Pia

    2008-01-01

    nemlig godt konstatere, at ytringsfriheden ikke er nødvendig uden dermed at give afkald på frihed og demokrati.Vi kan oven i købet mene, at ytringsfriheden ophører med at være frihed, når vi betragter den som nødvendig. Og det er lige nøjagtig det, jeg efterlyser: at vi bruger filosoffer som Immanuel...... Kant og Luigi Pareyson til at forstå, at friheden er betydelig mere kompleks, end vi gør den til i øjeblikket....

  1. Hvordan er det å leve med CRPS?

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med denne studien er å se på hvordan pasienter med komplekst regionalt smertesyndrom (CRPS) opplever å leve med tilstanden og hvordan disse pasientene har opplevd å bli møtt i helsevesenet. CRPS er en langvarig tilstand med sterke smerter som kan medføre økt smerterespons, redusert funksjon og nedsatt livskvalitet hos pasientene. Studien er en kvalitativ undersøkelse basert på dybdeintervju av fire pasienter med CRPS. Pasientene ble rekruttert fra en smerteavdeling i Nord-Norge og u...

  2. Branding er ikke til at komme udenom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Søren Askegaard definerer branding som "et iscenesat og afkodet symbolunivers". Det vil sige, at vi på den ene side har virksomhedens strategiske profilering, hvor den forsøger at skabe sig en særlig differentieret og positioneret profil, som adskiller den fra andre virksomheder. "Og det er denne...... strategiske kommunikation, der gør at branding er et ledelsesbegreb og ikke kun et markedsføringsbegreb. Det er ikke staffage, men værdier, som skal gennemsyre alle organisationens aktiviteter." Udgivelsesdato: maj...

  3. Influence of Laser Activated Irrigation with Erbium Lasers on Bond Strength of Inidividually Formed Fiber Reinforced Composite Posts to Root Canal Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Miletić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of laser activated irrigation (LAI using two erbium lasers on bond strength of individually formed fiber-reinforced composite (FRC posts to root canal dentin. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated and after post space preparation divided into three groups (n=9 per group, according to the pre-treatment of post space preparation: 1 Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI and saline; 2 Er.YAG photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS technique and saline; 3 Er,Cr:YSGG activated irrigation with RFT2 tip. Two specimens from each group were used for SEM analysis. The remaining specimens (n=7 per group received individually formed FRC post, everStick POST, luted with self-adhesive cement, G-CEM LinkAce. After cementation, the roots were perpendicularly sectioned into 1 mm thin sections and a push-out test was carried out (0.5 mm/min. The data were calculated as megapascals and were log transformed and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA at the level of significance set at 5%. Results: In the control group, the smear layer was still present. In the Er:YAG group, the smear layer was removed. In the Er,Cr:YSGG group, the smear layer was partially removed. The Er,Cr:YSGG group achieved the highest bond strength values, followed by the control group and then the Er:YAG group, but no statistically significant difference was found in bond strength values in the tested group of post space pretreatment (p=0.564. Conclusions: LAI using two erbium lasers, with PIPS or RFT2 tip, did not affect the bond strength of individually formed FRC posts to root canal dentin.

  4. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  5. Phase I trial of the androgen receptor modulator CR1447 in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zweifel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CR1447 (4-hydroxytestosterone, 4-OHT binds to the androgen receptor and has antiproliferative activity in both ER-positive and ER-negative/AR-positive breast cancer cells in preclinical studies. The objective of this first-in man trial was to evaluate the safety and to determine the dose of CR1447, administered as an ointment, for Phase II. Escalating doses (100, 200, 400 mg of CR1447 were administered topically on a daily basis to patients with ER-positive/AR-positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer pretreated with several lines of therapy. 14 patients have been treated for a total of 42 cycles. Two patients, one at dose level 100 mg and one at dose level 200 mg, showed early tumour progression and were replaced. Related adverse events were all ≤ grade 2 and included fatigue, bone and joint pain, stiffness, dry skin and mouth, nausea, sweating, urinary tract infection, rash, headache and distress. No drug-related dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs were seen. Two patients (17% achieved stable disease at 3 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed dose-dependent transdermal uptake of CR1447. 4-OH-androstenedione (4-OHA, a key metabolite of 4-OHT, was undetectable in most of the plasma samples. Urine metabolites of 4-OHT and 4-OHA indicate high exposure of 4-OHT after topical administration. Oestradiol serum concentrations did not increase, confirming preclinical data that CR1447 is not converted to estrogens in vivo. In conclusion, CR1447 administered transdermally as an ointment is well tolerated and appears to have single-agent activity in heavily pretreated ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer patients. The recommended phase II dose is 400 mg/day.

  6. Er iPad digital udeskole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Hvor ’konkret’ skal en oplevelse være, for at intuitionen om, at det selvoplevede styrker læringen, holder? Er brug af tablets (e.g. iPads) et ligebyrdigt alternativ til den konkrete oplevelse?......Hvor ’konkret’ skal en oplevelse være, for at intuitionen om, at det selvoplevede styrker læringen, holder? Er brug af tablets (e.g. iPads) et ligebyrdigt alternativ til den konkrete oplevelse?...

  7. Snip snap snude - dobbelthagerne er ude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte; Kofoed, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Det handler om at være grim. Det står i skarp kontrast til det pæne og polerede på Instagram. Det er flygtigt, useriøst og ligegyldigt. Og så forsvinder det heldigvis igen, så man behøver kun at forholde sig til det i de få sekunder, det foregår. Snapchat vokser i popularitet og er nu det...

  8. Håndbold er en praksis!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Dansk håndbold er en kæmpemæssig succeshistorie. Ser man snævert på den udvikling, elitedelen af sporten har gennemlevet de seneste 15 år, viser stort set alle tænkelige parametre fremgang. De internationale resultater for lands og klubhold er med få udfald blevet stadigt bedre, omsætningen i klu...

  9. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  10. Bæredygtighed hos SMV'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Valg af materiale/medie/form: YouTube Valg af arbejdsform: Videoerne kan bruges som caseundervisning Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Caseundervisning er velegnet til at lære om praksis......Valg af materiale/medie/form: YouTube Valg af arbejdsform: Videoerne kan bruges som caseundervisning Begrundelse for valg af materiale/medie/form/arbejdsform: Caseundervisning er velegnet til at lære om praksis...

  11. Hvad litteraturen kan, er ofte det rigtige ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Kühn, Lisbet

    2010-01-01

    Læsning i dansk handler i første omgang om at blive god til at læse, men på mellemtrinnet er det ved at være tiden til også at bruge skønlitteraturen til det, den er god til, nemlig til at få indsigt i menneskelivets kompleksitet. I dette kapitel anbefales det at gøre noget med litteraturen, fx f...

  12. Hvilke Dødehavstekster er "sekteriske"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2003-01-01

    Skønt Dødehavsrullerne antageligt tilhørte en gruppering, der boede i Qumran, tyder alt på, at mange af teksterne er forfattet andre steder. Artiklen undersøger den særlige sprogbrug, som antageligt er typisk for Qumran-samfundet, og som præger forbavsende få af tekserne. En meget stor del af...

  13. Trump er godt nyt for verdensfreden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden......Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden...

  14. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca2+ Probe D4ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Greotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER represents the major intracellular Ca2+ store and the free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] within its lumen ([Ca2+]ER can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca2+ sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca2+ probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd for Ca2+, low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca2+] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca2+ affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca2+] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca2+]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca2+ homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer’s Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2. The lower Ca2+ affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca2+ content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls.

  15. ER-to-plasma membrane tethering proteins regulate cell signaling and ER morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manford, Andrew G; Stefan, Christopher J; Yuan, Helen L; Macgurn, Jason A; Emr, Scott D

    2012-12-11

    Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions are conserved structures defined as regions of the ER that tightly associate with the plasma membrane. However, little is known about the mechanisms that tether these organelles together and why such connections are maintained. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified three families of ER-PM tethering proteins in yeast: Ist2 (related to mammalian TMEM16 ion channels), the tricalbins (Tcb1/2/3, orthologs of the extended synaptotagmins), and Scs2 and Scs22 (vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated proteins). Loss of all six tethering proteins results in the separation of the ER from the PM and the accumulation of cytoplasmic ER. Importantly, we find that phosphoinositide signaling is misregulated at the PM, and the unfolded protein response is constitutively activated in the ER in cells lacking ER-PM tether proteins. These results reveal critical roles for ER-PM contacts in cell signaling, organelle morphology, and ER function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Compatibility of dip-coated Er2O3 coating by MOD method with liquid Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongxun; Kondo, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Valentyn, Tsisar

    2011-01-01

    An electrical insulating ceramic coating on the self-cooled lithium blanket is a promising technology for suppressing MHD pressure drop in the blanket system. Er 2 O 3 is thought to be one of the potential candidate materials for ceramic coatings because of their high electrical resistivity and high compatibility with liquid lithium. In this study, Er 2 O 3 coating was fabricated on the ferritic steels by dip-coating method with MOD (metal organic decomposition) liquid precursor followed by baking in different atmosphere. The coated specimens were immersed at 500 o C in the static liquid lithium to test the compatibility. It was shown that the compatibility of the coating was degraded when Fe 2 O 3 or Fe 3 O 4 was formed as the main composition of the substrate oxidation layer during the baking. On the other hand, thin Cr 2 O 3 layer in the substrate oxidation layer did not influence the stability of Er 2 O 3 coating. Atmosphere controlling for suppressing the substrate oxidation, especially Fe 2 O 3 or Fe 3 O 4 , during the baking is shown to be essential for the compatibility of MOD Er 2 O 3 coating on ferritic steels.

  17. Synthesis of Er and Er : Yb doped sol–gel derived silica glass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Materials Science Centre, †Central Research Facility, Optical Fibre Unit, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 1 March 2004; revised 4 July 2004. Abstract. Er3+ and Er3+ : Yb3+ doped optical quality, crack and bubble free glasses for possible use in mak- ing laser material have been ...

  18. Structure and magnetic properties of (Nd1-xErx)3Fe25Cr4.0 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Hongzhi; Jia Lin; Li Yangxian; Meng Fanbin; Shen Jiang; Chen Nanxian; Wu Guangheng; Yang Fuming

    2004-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of (Nd 1-x Er x ) 3 Fe 25 Cr 4.0 compounds with x = 0-0.8 have been investigated using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and magnetic measurements. It has been found that all the compounds crystallize in a Nd 3 (Fe,Ti) 29 -type structure. Substitution of Er for Nd leads to a contraction of the unit-cell volume. The Curie temperature, T c , and the saturation magnetization, M s , of (Nd 1-x Er x ) 3 Fe 25 Cr 4.0 decrease monotonically with increasing Er content. The easy magnetization direction (EMD) of Nd 3 Fe 25 Cr 4.0 at room temperature is close to the [040] direction but may be a little out of the basal plane. With increasing Er content, the EMD changes closer to the [40-2] direction and the tilt angle increases. Both the XRD patterns and ac susceptibility indicate the appearance of a spin reorientation for x = 0-0.4 as the temperature decreases from room temperature to 77 K. The spin reorientation temperature, T sr , increases monotonically with increasing Er content from 158 K for x = 0 to 198 K for x = 0.4. A first order magnetization process (FOMP) occurs for all the compounds, and the critical field of the FOMP decreases with increasing Er content from 6.6 T for x = 0 to 2.0 T for x = 0.7

  19. Una Crácida nueva para la avifauna colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicéforo María Hermano

    1955-08-01

    Full Text Available Pauxi pauxi pauxi (Linnaeus. / Nombres Vernáculos.-- Comunmemte se designa esta crácida con los nombres de "Paujil Copete de Piedra" o "Pajuil de Piedra"; algunas personas dicen Paují. en lugar de Paujil o Pajuil. Esta ave carece de cresta plumosa sobre la cabeza, pero lleva en la frente una protuberancia ósea, desnuda y muy hinchada, en forma de higo. En las selvas del Margua, cerca del lugar en donde este río toma el nombre de Arauca, existe otra crácida, Crax daubentoni G. R. Gray (* que carece de copete óseo; la parte superior de la cabeza, en cambio. ostenta una cresta de plumas eréctiles y alargadas. cuyas puntas rígidas estan encorvadas hacia delante. Se la distingue del Pajuil de Piedra con los nombres vernaculos de Pajuil de Cresta, Pajuil Turbante, o simplemente Turbante o Pajuil.

  20. Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrino, P.; Garrido, B.; Arbiol, J.; Garcia, C.; Lebour, Y.; Morante, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Silica layers implanted with Si and Er ions to various doses and annealed at 950 deg. C have been investigated by means of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and high annular angle dark field (HAADF). EFTEM analysis reveals Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) with an average size around 3 nm for high Si content (15 at. %) whereas no clusters can be imaged for the lowest Si excess (5 at. %). Raman scattering supports that amorphous Si precipitates are present in all the samples. Moreover, the filtered images show that Er ions appear preferentially located outside the Si-nc. HAADF analysis confirms that the Er atoms form agglomerations of 5-10 nm size when the Er concentration exceeds 1x10 20 cm -3 . This observation correlates well with the reduction of the Er population excitable by Si nanoclusters, in the best case corresponding to 10% of the total. A suitable tuning of the annealing drastically reduces this deleterious effect

  1. DNA as a component of ER materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, K; Aoki, Y; Berber, M R; Mori, T; Tanaka, M

    2009-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is known as a typical biopolymer, has been utilized for a few types of ER materials. Suspensions were prepared with the particles of DNA, DNA/lipid complexes, and LDH (layered double hydroxide)/DNA composites. The purified DNA showed larger ER effect than the others, but this particle tended to absorb water, which caused less stability. Preliminary experiments of preparing composite with LDH indicated that this inorganic material would be useful for hydrophobic modification of DNA particles, although further optimization of composite preparation is needed. In addition, the LDH/DNA suspensions showed interesting behaviours under some conditions, which indicated possibility for controlling ER property in a wide range.

  2. DNA as a component of ER materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minagawa, K; Aoki, Y; Berber, M R [Institute of Technology and Science, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Mori, T [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, M [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan)], E-mail: minagawa@chem.tokushima-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is known as a typical biopolymer, has been utilized for a few types of ER materials. Suspensions were prepared with the particles of DNA, DNA/lipid complexes, and LDH (layered double hydroxide)/DNA composites. The purified DNA showed larger ER effect than the others, but this particle tended to absorb water, which caused less stability. Preliminary experiments of preparing composite with LDH indicated that this inorganic material would be useful for hydrophobic modification of DNA particles, although further optimization of composite preparation is needed. In addition, the LDH/DNA suspensions showed interesting behaviours under some conditions, which indicated possibility for controlling ER property in a wide range.

  3. Créer un conseil arabe des sciences sociales | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    enseignement et de recherche les empêche de faire la lumière sur les problèmes de la région, de soutenir un débat public et d'éclairer les politiques publiques. On reconnaît de plus en plus que le monde arabe doit combler ce " déficit de ...

  4. Exploitation du savoir autochtone afin de créer des emplois pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transformer l'emploi des femmes. L'étude explorera le potentiel d'approches novatrices locales ou autochtones visant à appuyer l'emploi en milieu rural. Les chercheurs auront recours à des méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives pour analyser la façon dont le savoir autochtone et la technologie peuvent être utilisés pour ...

  5. Créer des emplois pour combler l'absence de milieu en Inde | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... Les chercheurs ont aussi observé que l'expansion de l'emploi dans des secteurs autres que l'agriculture était étroitement liée à l'expansion de l'éducation. L'Inde doit s'attacher à offrir une meilleure instruction dans ses villages, afin que les travailleurs éventuels puissent acquérir les compétences de base ...

  6. Créer un conseil arabe des sciences sociales | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nouveau webinaire IWRA/CRDI sur les changements climatiques et la gestion adaptive de l'eau. L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite collaboration avec le CRDI, organise un webinaire intitulé "Changements climatiques et gestion adaptive de l'eau: des... Voir davantageNouveau webinaire ...

  7. Créer de la valeur pour les petits exploitants agricoles Les 26 et 27 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ida St-Martin

    27 mars 2012 ... formation; des soins de santé; et, par-dessus tout, un accès aux marchés. ... Pamela Anderson, directrice générale, Centre international de la pomme .... Les besoins en matière de sécurité alimentaire varient énormément d'une région à .... Ce débat d'experts met en relief la portée de cette nouvelle vision.

  8. Créer de la continuité : un travail en soi

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    L’agriculture et le monde du spectacle disposent historiquement d’un cadre institutionnel favorisant le recours à la discontinuité de l’emploi. Au vu du développement des formes particulières d’emploi, il apparaît judicieux d’observer comment les saisonniers agricoles et les artistes du spectacle font face à la précarité et sécurisent leur parcours professionnel. En effet, à la recherche d’autonomie de ces salariés précaires s’oppose la vulnérabilité de leur situation sociale. Ils développent...

  9. Exploitation du savoir autochtone afin de créer des emplois pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La Commission des Nations unies pour la démarginalisation estime que quatre milliards de personnes ne peuvent pas exercer leurs droits juridiques à cause des coûts, du dysfonctionnement, de la corruption ou de l'abus de pouvoir. Il existe un besoin reconnu en institutions intermédiaires, comme les médias, les partis ...

  10. Créer de meilleurs emplois dans les pays de l'ANASE | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juil. 2015 ... Depuis les années 1990, les investissements étrangers et un vaste bassin de travailleurs ont aidé le Cambodge, le Laos, le Vietnam et, plus récemment, le Myanmar, à établir des relations dans les chaînes de valeur des ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia.

  11. Exploitation du savoir autochtone afin de créer des emplois pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    la pollution ou la détérioration des terres. ... pas exercer leurs droits juridiques à cause des coûts, du dysfonctionnement, de la corruption ou de l'abus de pouvoir. ... IDRC evidence and innovation supports India's adaptation to climate change.

  12. Créer des campus durables : échange de connaissances entre le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    campus de Galeana) visitent l'Instituto de Energías Renovables de l'Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). L'un des défis importants que doivent relever les établissements d'enseignement postsecondaire ...

  13. Créer des ressources audio pour le cours de FLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Gérard Lojacono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available These last ten years, web applicationshave gained ascendency over the consumersociety as shown by the success of iTunesand the increase of podcasting. The academicworld, particularly in the field oflanguage teaching, could take advantage ofthis massive use of audio files. The creationand the diffusion of customized ad hocaudio files and the broadcast of these resourcesthrough educational podcasts addressthe upcoming challenges of a knowledgebased society. Teaching and learningwith audio files also meet the recommendationsof the European Higher EducationArea (EHEA. This paper will provide languageteachers, especially French teachers,with the tools to create, edit, upload andplay their own audio files. No specific computerskills are required.

  14. ARM CLASIC ER2 CRS/EDOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Heymsfield

    2010-12-20

    Data was taken with the NASA ER-2 aircraft with the Cloud Radar System and other instruments in conjunction with the DOE ARM CLASIC field campaign. The flights were near the SGP site in north Central Oklahoma and targeted small developing convection. The CRS is a 94 GHz nadir pointing Doppler radar. Also on board the ER-2 was the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). Seven science flights were conducted but the weather conditions did not cooperate in that there was neither developing convection, or there was heavy rain.

  15. Psyken er en grænseflade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    En computer er i sig selv blot et stykke mekanik. Det afgørende sker i mødet mellem maskinen, mennesker og fællesskaber: på grænsefladen. Præcis som hos levende væsner......En computer er i sig selv blot et stykke mekanik. Det afgørende sker i mødet mellem maskinen, mennesker og fællesskaber: på grænsefladen. Præcis som hos levende væsner...

  16. ER Stress: A Therapeutic Target in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Marveh; Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; McDermott, Michael F

    2018-04-22

    Diverse physiological and pathological conditions that impact on protein folding of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cause ER stress. The unfolded protein response (UPR) and the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway are activated to cope with ER stress. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammation and ER stress work in parallel by driving inflammatory cells to release cytokines that induce chronic ER stress pathways. This chronic ER stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of RA through synoviocyte proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, ER stress pathways and their constituent elements are attractive targets for RA drug development. In this review, we integrate current knowledge of the contribution of ER stress to the overall pathogenesis of RA, and suggest some therapeutic implications of these discoveries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical effect of ablative fractional laser-assisted topical anesthesia on human skin%点阵Er:YAG激光辅助外用麻醉药物传输的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗瑶佳; 吴严; 高兴华; 何春涤; 陈洪铎; 李远宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective Most topically used medications need a long time to be absorbed into the skin owing to the stratum corneum(SC) barrier. The fractional Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser,creating vertical channels to disrupt the SC,might assist the delivery of topically applied drug to penetrate into the skin. This study was intended to determine whether pretreatment with fractional Er:YAG laser could assist transdermal delivery of topical anesthesia. Methods Thirty-one subjects were enrolled in this study. Three neighboring 4cm×3cm regions were marked on their left forearm with the interference of Er:YAG laser plus topical anesthesia (laser +anesthesia +pain stimuli), anesthesia control (anesthesia + pain stimuli) and blank control (moisture + pain stimuli) respectively. Then each region was treated with YSGG laser to evaluate the pain sensation using the visual analogue scale (VAS) as a way to scale the transdermal absorption of topical anesthesia. Results The pain scores for Er:YAG laser plus topical anesthesia, anesthesia control and blank control regions are 2.84±0.66, 3.91 ±0.79 and 4.59±0.87 respectively. The pain score for Er:YAG laser plus topical anesthesia region is significantly lower than the anesthesia control (P=0.042) and blank control (P=0.003). Conclusion This proved the laser assistance of transdermal absorption for topical anesthesia medication.%目的:由于角质层的屏障作用,外用药物很难经皮吸收.铒:钇铝石榴石(Er:YAG)点阵激光通过点状剥脱的模式穿透角质层,破坏了角质层的完整性,可以加速外用药物经皮吸收的速度.本实验旨在验证外用表面麻醉药之前用点阵Er:YAG激光破坏角质层,可以促进表面麻醉药的吸收速度.方法:在31名受试者的左前臂上划出三块相邻的4cm×3cm区域,分别予以Er:YAG激光加表面麻醉药("点阵+麻药+疼痛"),表面麻醉药对照("麻药+疼痛")和空白对照干预("润肤露+疼痛").干预后对各区域

  18. Ledelse af samskabelse er en ny ledelsesdisciplin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Jens; Martin Nielsen, Kim; Bartram, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Samskabelse er blevet det nye orienteringspunkt for rigtig mange offentlige organisationer. Det skyldes en udbredt konsensus om, at velfærdsopgaverne ikke kan løses inden for de vante organisatoriske rammer, men må løses i tæt kontakt med de parter, som opgaverne vedrører. Denne nye tilgang til...

  19. Der er fuld religionsfrihed i Danmark, men..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2018-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer en rapport, udgivet af FN's special rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief, Heiner Bielefeldt. Rapporten vedrører Danmark. Analysen tilslutter sig rapporten på de fleste punkter, men kritiserer begrebet 'blød diskrimination'; kritiserer at rapporten ikke er gået tættere på...

  20. Hvad er kildekritik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er Kildekritik? I stedet for at forstå kildekritik som et stringent system, grundlagt af Leopold von Ranke og i Danmark kanoniseret af Kristian Erslev, kunne man med større historiografisk ret og faglig frugtbarhed opfatte kildekritikken som en faglig tradition med tre lag afsat (sedimentere...

  1. Hvad er PET og fMRI?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Paulson, Olaf; Balslev, Daniela; Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Hvilken rolle spiller følelserne for vores tankeliv, og hvorfor har vi overhovedet følelser? I kraft af avancerede hjerneskanningsteknikker er den moderne hjernevidenskab blevet i stand til at besvare disse spørgsmål. Gennem artiklerne i denne antologi, skrevet af ledende danske forskere, bliver ...

  2. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  3. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...

  4. Er nogen mere lige end andre?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møberg, Rasmus Juul

    normativ fordring. Kohlis (2007) formulering af normalbiografien er en tredeling af livsforløbet (uddannelse – arbejdsliv - pension). En tredeling der bliver kritiseret for at være køns- og familieblind, hvorfor linked lives-begrebet bliver introduceret. Begrebet har den teoretiske implikation...... analyser tager højde for afhængighed over tid i den afhængige variabel. Overordnet set er det tre aspekter af datas karakteristika, der fordrer specielle metoder. Det er censurering af data, tidsmæssig variation i de uafhængige variable samt potentiel korrelation mellem målingerne af den afhængige variabel...... for disse ændringer, hvorved risikoen for en given transition beregnes mere præcist. Afhandlingens empiriske grundlag er registerdata for alle personer i Danmark, der tilhører fødselskohorterne 1968, 1972 og 1976. Data dækker over personlige, familiære forhold og oplysninger på arbejdspladsniveau, hvor den...

  5. Hvad nu hvis sommerfuglen er ekshibitionist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2008-01-01

    Groft sagt vil denne artikel, ved at aflæse hvad hhv. Inger Christensen, Sigmund Freud og Jacques Lacan har at sige om sommerfugle, argumentere for at der er et afgørende skel mellem naturvidenskab og litteraturvidenskab; mellem naturen, dyret, sommerfuglen på den ene side og bevidstheden...

  6. Hvad er hjemkundskabslæreren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2009-01-01

        En appetizer: De praktisk-musiske fag på dagsordenen Temaet for denne artikel er hjemkundskabsfaget, -professionen og dens praktisering belyst gennem et interviewstudie fra 2008 af lærerstuderende og deres lærere. Dette studie relateres til forfatterens tidligere studie af fag og profession i...

  7. Er Storm P. en hardcore vagabond?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortkær, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Den vagabond, som vi kender som Storm P.s, er ikke en figur, der kom fra en guddommelig inspiration eller deslige. Den var en allerede velkendt figur, før Storm P. tog den til sig, og figuren gennemgik radikale forandringer gennem Storm P.s liv: Krads social satire, hypervoldelig eller hyggelig...

  8. Er Frank rationel demokrat eller naiv fetichist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen er en diskussion af demokrati-begrebet i Rune Lykkebergs Alle har ret. Over for Lykkebregs demokrati-begreb sætter den Rancières og Zizeks forståelse af demokratiet som en åbning for det, den sociale orden ikke kan rumme. Det fører til en kritik af Lykkebergs anvendelse af begreberne om...

  9. Hvad er militær ledelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Jakob Rømer

    militær ledelse unik og derved muliggøre en opdeling, således at Forsvarets skoler kun underviser i den del af ledelse, som andre civile uddannelsesinstitutioner ikke menes at kunne undervise i. Men er det muligt at adskille begreber og praksis på den måde? Dette brief undersøger nogle betydninger af...

  10. Finanskrisen - er den markedsorienterede regulering skurken?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    markedsorienterede opgørelse tilsyneladende skyld i bankernes dårlige resultater. I hvert fald er standardsætteren inden for international regnskabsregulering, IASB, i efteråret 2008 på rekordtid kommet de betrængte virksomheder - herunder bankerne - til undsætning med en regnskabsmæssig hjælpepakke som supplement...

  11. Characterization of Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions by a surplus agricultural waste-Rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Liu Yunguo; Zeng Guangming; Xu Weihua; Li Ting; Xia Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    The removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by rice straw, a surplus agricultural byproduct was investigated. The optimal pH was 2.0 and Cr(VI) removal rate increased with decreased Cr(VI) concentration and with increased temperature. Decrease in straw particle size led to an increase in Cr(VI) removal. Equilibrium was achieved in about 48 h under standard conditions, and Cr(III), which appeared in the solution and remained stable thereafter, indicating that both reduction and adsorption played a part in the Cr(VI) removal. The increase of the solution pH suggested that protons were needed for the Cr(VI) removal. A relatively high level of NO 3 - notably restrained the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), while high level of SO 4 2- supported it. The promotion of the tartaric acid modified rice straw (TARS) and the slight inhibition of the esterified rice straw (ERS) on Cr(VI) removal indicated that carboxyl groups present on the biomass played an important role in chromium remediation even though were not fully responsible for it. Isotherm tests showed that equilibrium sorption data were better represented by Langmuir model and the sorption capacity of rice straw was found to be 3.15 mg/g

  12. Effects of material growth technique and Mg doping on Er3+ photoluminescence in Er-implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Henry, R. L.; Wickenden, A. E.; Koleske, D. D.; Rhee, S. J.; White, J. O.; Myoung, J. M.; Kim, K.; Li, X.; Coleman, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopies have been carried out at 6 K on the ∼1540 nm 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 15/2 emissions of Er 3+ in Er-implanted and annealed GaN. These studies revealed the existence of multiple Er 3+ centers and associated PL spectra in Er-implanted GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, hydride vapor phase epitaxy, and molecular beam epitaxy. The results demonstrate that the multiple Er 3+ PL centers and below-gap defect-related absorption bands by which they are selectively excited are universal features of Er-implanted GaN grown by different techniques. It is suggested that implantation-induced defects common to all the GaN samples are responsible for the Er site distortions that give rise to the distinctive, selectively excited Er 3+ PL spectra. The investigations of selectively excited Er 3+ PL and PLE spectra have also been extended to Er-implanted samples of Mg-doped GaN grown by various techniques. In each of these samples, the so-called violet-pumped Er 3+ PL band and its associated broad violet PLE band are significantly enhanced relative to the PL and PLE of the other selectively excited Er 3+ PL centers. More importantly, the violet-pumped Er 3+ PL spectrum dominates the above-gap excited Er 3+ PL spectrum of Er-implanted Mg-doped GaN, whereas it was unobservable under above-gap excitation in Er-implanted undoped GaN. These results confirm the hypothesis that appropriate codopants can increase the efficiency of trap-mediated above-gap excitation of Er 3+ emission in Er-implanted GaN. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  13. Correlation of clinicopathological outcomes with changes in IHC4 status after NACT in locally advanced breast cancers: do pre-NACT ER/PR status act as better prognosticators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanjoy Chatterjee,1 Animesh Saha,1 Indu Arun,2 Sonali Susmita Nayak,2 Subir Sinha,3 Sanjit Agrawal,4 Mayur Parihar,5 Rosina Ahmed4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Medical Statistics, 4Department of Breast Surgery, 5Department of Molecular Pathology, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, West Bengal, India Background: Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT for breast cancer, changes in estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, HER2 status, and Ki-67 index (IHC4 status and its correlation with pathological complete response (pCR or relapse-free survival (RFS rates could lead to better understanding of tumor management. Patients and methods: Pre- and post-NACT IHC4 status and its changes were analyzed in 156 patients with breast cancer. Associations between pCR, RFS rates to IHC4 status pre- and post-NACT were investigated. Results: pCR was found in 25.3% patients. Both ER and PR positive tumors had the lowest (14.3% pCR compared to ER and PR negative (29% or either ER-/PR-positive (38.6% tumors. PR positivity was significantly associated with less likelihood of pCR (15% versus 34%. The pCR rate was low for luminal A subtype (13.68% compared to 24.36%, 26.31%, and 33.33% for luminal B, HER2-enriched, and triple-negative subtypes, respectively. There was significant reduction in ER expression and Ki-67 index post-NACT. RFS of patients in whom the hormonal status changed from positive to negative was better compared to those of patients in whom the hormonal status changed from negative to positive. Conclusion: Although changes in IHC4 occurred post-NACT, pre-NACT hazard ratio status prognosticated RFS better. pCR and RFS rates were lower in PR-positive tumors. Keywords: neoadjuvant chemotherapy, IHC4 status changes, survival 

  14. CAMEX-4 ER-2 HIGH ALTITUDE DROPSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde dataset was collected by the ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde System (EHAD), which used dropwinsondes fitted with Global...

  15. CAMEX-4 ER-2 LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 LIP, which allows the vector components of the electric field (i.e, Ex, Ey, Ez...

  16. Facets of operational performance in an emergency room (ER)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Taco; Vastag, Gyula; Wijngaard, Jacob

    This paper, using detailed time measurements of patients complemented by interviews with hospital management and staff, examines three facets of an emergency room's (ER) operational performance: (1) effectiveness of the triage system in rationing patient treatment; (2) factors influencing ER's

  17. ER Consolidated Qtrly Rpt_April-June 2016_October 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) for the April, May, and June 2016 quarterly reporting period.

  18. GPM Ground Validation Navigation Data ER-2 OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA ER-2 Navigation Data OLYMPEX dataset supplies navigation data collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft for flights that occurred during...

  19. Senior Sport er læring i virkeligheden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Erna Rosenlund

    2014-01-01

    Samarbejde mellem fysioterapeutudddannelsen på UCN og Aalborg senior Sport er givende for alle parter, inklusiv studerende.......Samarbejde mellem fysioterapeutudddannelsen på UCN og Aalborg senior Sport er givende for alle parter, inklusiv studerende....

  20. Er frygten for Kina vores eneste håb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Man siger, at håbet er lysegrønt, men i det 21. århundrede er håbet rødt som riget i midten. Mens optimismen vinder frem i Asien med Kina som bannerfører, er Vesten ramt af frygt, og det forplanter sig negativt til uddannelsessystemet. Er positive følelser hemmeligheden bag, at asiatiske lande st...... stormer frem i internationale undersøgelser som PISA?...

  1. Cr3+ and Cr4+ luminescence in glass ceramic silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, Marco A.U.; Davolos, Marian R.; Jafelicci, Miguel Junior; Souza, Dione F. de; Nunes, Luiz A.O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of glass ceramic silica matrix on [CrO 4 ] 4- and Cr 2 O 3 NIR and visible luminescence. Chromium-containing silica was obtained by precipitation from water-glass and chromium nitrate acid solution with thermal treatment at 1000 deg. C. From XRD results silica and silica-chromium samples are crystalline. The chromium emission spectrum presents two main broad bands: one in the NIR region (1.1-1.7μm) and other in the visible region (0.6-0.7μm) assigned to Cr 4+ and to Cr 3+ , respectively. This thermal treated glass ceramic silica-chromium sample stabilizes the [CrO 4 ] 4- where Cr 4+ substitutes for Si 4+ and also hexacoordinated Cr 3+ group probably as segregated phase in the system. It can be pointed out that luminescence spectroscopy is a powerful tool for detecting the two chromium optical centers in the glass ceramic silica

  2. TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) dataset was collected by the ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP), which is an X-band (9.6 GHz) Doppler radar mounted in the nose of the ER-2...

  3. CAMEX-4 ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 Doppler Radar dataset was collected by the ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP), which is an X-band (9.6 GHz) Doppler radar mounted in the nose of ER-2. The...

  4. SEC16 in COPII coat dynamics at ER exit sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Joep; Rabouille, Catherine

    Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the first step in protein transport through the secretory pathway, is mediated by coatomer protein II (COPII)-coated vesicles at ER exit sites. COPII coat assembly on the ER is well understood and the conserved large hydrophilic protein Sec16

  5. Magnetic properties of ErGa3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murasik, A.; Czopnik, A.; Keller, L.; Fischer, P.

    1999-01-01

    Bulk magnetization measurements and magnetic phase diagram for ErGa 3 show that zero-external magnetic field it undergoes two successive transitions at T 1 = 2.6 K and T 2 = 2.8 K, respectively. Its magnetic ordering examined by neutron diffraction, can be derived from the so-called [1/2, 1/2, 0] structure, i.e. one in which the successive antiparallel (110) sheets of spins have additionally superimposed on them a sinusoidal modulation parallel to the [100] axis. The temperature dependence of neutron diffraction diagrams studied with powder and single crystal samples revealed, that in the range of (2.6 - 2.78) k there occurs an abrupt reorientation of the Er 3+ spins from the [110]-type direction, towards the [100] axis. This rotation can be attributed to the T 1 transition found in the magnetic phase diagram. (author)

  6. SYP73 Anchors the ER to the Actin Cytoskeleton for Maintenance of ER Integrity and Streaming in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengfei; Renna, Luciana; Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-12-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that spreads throughout the cytoplasm as one interconnected network of narrow tubules and dilated cisternae that enclose a single lumen. The ER network undergoes extensive remodeling, which critically depends on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions [1]. In plants, the ER is also highly mobile, and its streaming contributes significantly to the movement of other organelles [2, 3]. The remodeling and motility of the plant ER rely mainly on actin [4] and to a minor extent on microtubules [5]. Although a three-way interaction between the ER, cytosolic myosin-XI, and F-actin mediates the plant ER streaming [6], the mechanisms underlying stable interaction of the ER membrane with actin are unknown. Early electron microscopy studies suggested a direct attachment of the plant ER with actin filaments [7, 8], but it is plausible that yet-unknown proteins facilitate anchoring of the ER membrane with the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate here that SYP73, a member of the plant Syp7 subgroup of SNARE proteins [9] containing actin-binding domains, is a novel ER membrane-associated actin-binding protein. We show that overexpression of SYP73 causes a striking rearrangement of the ER over actin and that, similar to mutations of myosin-XI [4, 10, 11], loss of SYP73 reduces ER streaming and affects overall ER network morphology and plant growth. We propose a model for plant ER remodeling whereby the dynamic rearrangement and streaming of the ER network depend on the propelling action of myosin-XI over actin coupled with a SYP73-mediated bridging, which dynamically anchors the ER membrane with actin filaments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Virtual Reality er dit nye Skype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads

    2016-01-01

    VR er mediet, der kan gøre den flade skærm og det begrænsede blik i for eksempel Skype til et lidt gammeldags digitalt samarbejde. Ved at sætte folk i stand til at kommunikere, dele virtuelle genstande og give dem en øget oplevelse af at være i et rum sammen, kan man mediere nye aspekter af samar...

  8. Her er din motion i 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lasse Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Motion i naturen, en indendørs fitnessform inspireret af junglens lianer og høj intensitet med crossfit. Det er ifølge en ekspert nogle af de træningstyper, der vil være mest populære i 2012. Året hvor fleksibilitet og frihed vil blive endnu vigtigere, for den måde vi holder os i form på....

  9. Selskaberne er en del af staten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein Jessen, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Lækket af Panama Papers fremhæver endnu engang den paradoksale rolle, ikke mindst multinationale selskaber spiller i politik og økonomi: De er både skabt af staten, og fremstår stadig som uden for og i opposition til staten. Hvis vi vil gøre noget ved problemet, må vi forstå, hvordan stat og...

  10. Hamlet er manden i mit liv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    Hamlet er manden i mit liv. Min elskede. Jeg har en drøm om at frelse ham. At redde ham ud af sin mors soveværelse og ind i mit. Væk fra det ødipale Helvede han befinder sig i, fastlåst mellem et svin af en faderskikkelse (Claudius) og en alt for idealiseret far (gamle Hamlet), vågende over sin m...

  11. Electrorheological (ER) Fluids: A Research Needs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    is given as line (g). Experimental results a correspond to polyaniline in silicone oil, e.c•,=36 (Gow 1990); * hollow silica spheres in corn oil ye...Malishauskas, 1981) (Fig. 18b). In Minsk, we have designed a new model of a screw valve (Shulman, 1978b). Its electrodes are fabricated in the form of...Takimoto, both of whom were very gracious. Dr. Takimoto is primarily involved in ER research. I was not shown any facilities while there, primarily

  12. Musikkens Hus i Aalborg er demensvenligt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2017-01-01

    . Der blev afholdt frokostmøder hvor medarbejdere og brugere af Musikkens Hus fik undervisning om demens. Der blev også udvekslet gode idéer til hvad man i Musikkens Hus kan gøre for at byde mennesker med demens velkomne. at vi skal læse en masse, gå på kurser eller forpligte os til at være besøgsven...

  13. ER-12-1 completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.; Cole, J.C.; Drellack, S.L.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of drillhole ER-12-1 was to determine the hydrogeology of paleozoic carbonate rocks and of the Eleana Formation, a regional aquitard, in an area potentially downgradient from underground nuclear testing conducted in nearby Rainier Mesa. This objective was addressed through the drilling of well ER-12-1 at N886,640.26 E640,538.85 Nevada Central Coordinates. Drilling of the 1094 m (3588 ft) well began on July 19, 1991 and was completed on October 17, 1991. Drilling problems included hole deviation and hole instability that prevented the timely completion of this borehole. Drilling methods used include rotary tri-cone and rotary hammer drilling with conventional and reverse circulation using air/water, air/foam (Davis mix), and bentonite mud. Geologic cuttings and geophysical logs were obtained from the well. The rocks penetrated by the ER-12-1 drillhole are a complex assemblage of Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian sedimentary rocks that are bounded by numerous faults that show substantial stratigraphic offset. The final 7.3 m (24 ft) of this hole penetrated an unusual intrusive rock of Cretaceous age. The geology of this borehole was substantially different from that expected, with the Tongue Wash Fault encountered at a much shallower depth, paleozoic rocks shuffled out of stratigraphic sequence, and the presence of an altered biotite-rich microporphyritic igneous rock at the bottom of the borehole. Conodont CAI analyses and rock pyrolysis analyses indicate that the carbonate rocks in ER-12-1, as well as the intervening sheets of Eleana siltstone, have been thermally overprinted following movement on the faults that separate them. The probable source of heat for this thermal disturbance is the microporphyritic intrusion encountered at the bottom of the hole, and its age establishes that the major fault activity must have occurred prior to 102.3+0.5 Ma (middle Cretaceous)

  14. Friluftsinstallationer i træer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Simon; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    2015-01-01

    Abebaner, treetop walking, high rope adventure, slackline, træhuse og parkour-baner er alle installationer, som bruger træerne som støtte, enten midlertidigt eller permanent. Den nye sport, turistattraktionen eller team building-redskabet sætter i alle tilfælde træerne på prøve. Der følger positiv...

  15. The role of the AR/ER ratio in ER-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Nelson; Rondon-Lagos, Milena; Annaratone, Laura; Osella-Abate, Simona; Metovic, Jasna; Mano, Maria Piera; Bertero, Luca; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna; Castellano, Isabella

    2018-03-01

    The significance of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) management is not fully defined, and it is still ambiguous how the level of AR expression influences oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumours. The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic impact of AR/ER ratio, evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), correlating this value with clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics. We retrospectively selected a cohort of 402 ER+BC patients. On each tumour, IHC analyses for AR, ER, PgR, HER2 and Ki67 were performed and AR+ cases were used to calculate the AR/ER value. A cut-off of ≥2 was selected using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. RNA from 19 cases with AR/ER≥2 was extracted and used for Prosigna-PAM50 assays. Tumours with AR/ER≥2 (6%) showed more frequent metastatic lymph nodes, larger size, higher histological grade and lower PgR levels than cases with AR/ERAR/ER≥2 had worse disease-free interval (DFI) and disease-specific survival (DSS) (hazard ratios (HR) = 4.96 for DFI and HR = 8.69 for DSS, both P  ≤ 0.004). According to the Prosigna-PAM50 assay, 63% (12/19) of these cases resulted in intermediate or high risk of recurrence categories. Additionally, although all samples were positive for ER assessed by IHC, the molecular test assigned 47.4% (9/19) of BCs to intrinsic non-luminal subtypes. In conclusion, the AR/ER ratio ≥2 identifies a subgroup of patients with aggressive biological features and may represent an additional independent marker of worse BC prognosis. Moreover, the Prosigna-PAM50 results indicate that a significant number of cases with AR/ER≥2 could be non-luminal tumours. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. ER stress, autophagy, and RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Rong eJheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a general term for representing the pathway by which various stimuli affect ER functions. ER stress induces the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, called the unfolded protein response (UPR, which compromises the stimulus and then determines whether the cell survives or dies. In recent years, ongoing research has suggested that these pathways may be linked to the autophagic response, which plays a key role in the cell’s response to various stressors. Autophagy performs a self-digestion function, and its activation protects cells against certain pathogens. However, the link between the UPR and autophagy may be more complicated. These two systems may act dependently, or the induction of one system may interfere with the other. Experimental studies have found that different viruses modulate these mechanisms to allow them to escape the host immune response or, worse, to exploit the host’s defense to their advantage; thus, this topic is a critical area in antiviral research. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about how RNA viruses, including influenza virus, poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71, Japanese encephalitis virus, hepatitis C virus, and dengue virus, regulate these processes. We also discuss recent discoveries and how these will produce novel strategies for antiviral treatment.

  17. Sund livsstil er mere end fysik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Thing, Lone Friis; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    . I virkeligheden hænger tingene sammen, og i et holistisk sundhedsbillede er de psykiske og sociale dimensioner mindst lige så vigtige som de fysiske. Fællesskabet under og efter fodboldtræningen kan for eksempel være en lige så vigtig del af at være aktiv som selve træningen. Og selv om nogle...... begynder på en aktiv livsstil ud fra en ydre motivation om det fysiske aspekt af ’mere sundhed’, så er der meget, som tyder på, at den indre motivation overtager, og at de i stedet bliver drevet af glæden ved den øgede livskvalitet. Nogle mennesker fascineres af at følge en fast træningsplan og have et...... behandling af inaktivitetsrelaterede lidelser bør dog ikke være det vigtigste argument for at oplyse om og opfordre til en sund livsstil. Livskvalitetsaspektet skal være i højsædet, og det er for så vidt en legitim bekymring, at der kommer et overdrevet fokus på samfundsøkonomi og forebyggelse af somatisk...

  18. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  19. HFO operation with CR injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poensgen, Christian [MAN-Diesel und Turbo SE, Augsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 1996 MAN Diesel and Turbo SE started the development of a CR-system for medium speed engines for HFO operation up to fuel viscosity of 700 cSt. 2004 the first field test engine, a 7L 32/40 GenSet was put into service as a retrofit and collected up to now more than 20.000 running hours operated on HFO on a large container vessel. Meanwhile several L32/40 CR GenSets, L32/44 CR, V48/60 CR and L21/31 CR engines collected more than 100000 running hours in HFO operation before MAN Diesel started up the serial production of the new 32/44 CR and 48/60 CR engines. All of these engines are still in service. The paper will give an overview about the field experience and countermeasures which were necessary to develop a reliable product which fulfills the customers' demands concerning low fuel oil consumption, invisible smoke over the whole load range, low emission levels and maintenance costs. The experience was made in a wide range of applications such as GenSet, Cruise Vessel main propulsion and ferry main propulsion running 24h/day. The field test engines reached an availability of more than 90% per year. The paper also will point out the win/win situation for the the manufacturer and customer to participate in the development of the CR technology. For customers satisfaction MAN Diesel provides help for easy handling like online access per satellite connection, easy leakage detection and operator training at site or at the new built academies. The flexibility of the CR-system is the base frame for the future development of engines which fulfills IMO TIER II and IMO TIER III with high efficiency. The necessary reliability, a must, has been proven in the field under real conditions. (orig.)

  20. The structure of the 168Er nucleus and the 166Er(t,p) 168 Er reaction in terms of the sdg interacting boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Y.; Heyde, K.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.

    1986-05-01

    Extending the interacting boson model by incorporating besides s and d, also the g-boson, we can describe the population of positive parity states of 168Er in the 166Er(t,P) 168Er reaction rather well. In particular, the excitation of I,Kπi = 4,3 +1; 2,2 +2; 0,0 +3 and 0,0 +4 states is much improved over the sd-IBM approach.

  1. MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2014-11-04

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Vidensledelse er også en social praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2006-01-01

    lys er det utroligt vigtigt at personalefunktionen i virksomheden er klar over de processer der udspiller sig, og aktivt tager fat om problemerne der ligger i disse barrierer. Vores egne undersøgelser viser, at på trods af opstillingen af teknologiske systemer til vidensdeling, er der stadig...... væsentlige ledelsesmæssige opgaver i forhold til sociale aspekter ved arbejdet i en organisation, som skal varetages hvis vidensdelingen skal fremmes succesfuldt. Det er væsentligt at forstå, at vidensledelse ikke blot handler om cirkulering af information, men også er forbundet mere generelt til ledelse som...

  3. Repair bond strength of composite resin to sandblasted and laser irradiated Y-TZP ceramic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmali, Omer; Barutcigil, Çağatay; Ozarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Harorlı, Osman Tolga

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different surface treatments on the repair bond strength of yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramic (Y-TZP) zirconia to a composite resin. Sixty Y-TZP zirconia specimens were prepared and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) as follows: Group 1, surface grinding with Cimara grinding bur (control); Group 2, sandblasted with 30 µm silica-coated alumina particles; Group 3, Nd:YAG laser irradiation; Group 4, Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation; Group 5, sandblasted + Nd:YAG laser irradiation; and Group 6, sandblasted + Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. After surface treatments, the Cimara(®) System was selected for the repair method and applied to all specimens. A composite resin was built-up on each zirconia surface using a cylindrical mold (5 × 3 mm) and incrementally filled. The repair bond strength was measured with a universal test machine. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and a Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). Surface topography after treatments were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Shear bond strength mean values ranged from 15.896 to 18.875 MPa. There was a statistically significant difference between group 3 and the control group (p < 0.05). Also, a significant increase in bond strength values was noted in group 6 (p < 0.05). All surface treatment methods enhanced the repair bond strength of the composite to zirconia; however, there were no significant differences between treatment methods. The results revealed that Nd:YAG laser irradiation along with the combination of sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation provided a significant increase in bond strength between the zirconia and composite resin. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Laser induced explosive vapor and cavitation resulting in effective irrigation of the root canal. Part 1: a visualization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Jan; De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil; Meire, Maarten; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2009-09-01

    Limited information exists regarding the induction of explosive vapor and cavitation bubbles in an endodontic rinsing solution. It is also not clear whether a fiber has to be moved in the irrigation solution or can be kept stationary. No information is available on safe power settings for the use of cavitation in the root canal. This study investigates the fluid movements and the mechanism of action caused by an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in a transparent root model. Glass models with an artificial root canal (15 mm long, with a 0.06 taper and apical diameter of 400 microm) were used for visualization and registration with a high-speed imaging technique (resolution in the microsecond range) of the creation of explosive vapor bubbles with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser at pulse energies of 75, 125, and 250 mJ at 20 Hz using a 200 microm fiber (Z2 Endolase). Fluid movement was investigated by means of dyes and visualization of the explosive vapor bubbles, and as a function of pulse energy and distance of the fiber tip to the apex. The recordings in the glass model show the creation of expanding and imploding vapor bubbles with secondary cavitation effects. Dye is flushed out of the canal and replaced by surrounding fluid. It seems not necessary to move the fiber close to the apex. Imaging suggests that the working mechanism of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in root canal treatment in an irrigation solution can be attributed to cavitation effects inducing high-speed fluid motion into and out the canal.

  5. Comparative study of the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel treated with acid etchant and erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Sulaiman Alagl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation is in vitro comparison of the shear bond strength (SBS of composite resin bonded to enamel pretreated with an acid etchant against enamel etched with erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr:YSGG laser. Materials and Methods: Sixty premolars were sectioned mesiodistally and these 120 specimens were separated into two groups of 60 each (Groups A and B. In Group A (buccal surfaces, enamel surface was etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. In Group B (lingual surfaces, enamel was laser-etched at 2W for 10 s by Er, Cr:YSGG laser operational at 2780 nm with pulse duration of 140 μs and a frequency of 20 Hz. After application of bonding agent on all test samples, a transparent plastic cylinder of 1.5 mm × 3 mm was loaded with composite and bonded by light curing for 20 s. All the samples were subjected to SBS analysis using Instron Universal testing machine. Failure modes were observed under light microscope and grouped as adhesive, cohesive, and mixed. Failure mode distributions were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: SBS values obtained for acid-etched enamel were in the range of 7.12–28.36 megapascals (MPa and for laser-etched enamel were in the range of 6.23–23.35 MPa. Mean SBS for acid-etched enamel was 15.77 ± 4.38 MPa, which was considerably greater (P < 0.01 than laser-etched enamel 11.24 ± 3.76 MPa. The Chi-square test revealed that the groups showed no statistically significant differences in bond failure modes. Conclusions: We concluded that the mean SBS of composite with acid etching is significantly higher as compared to Er, Cr: YSGG (operated at 2W for 10 s laser-etched enamel.

  6. Æstetik er tilbage som nøgle til at forstå samtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Devika

    2013-01-01

    Casper Christensen er gakket, Hello Kitty er nuttet og konceptkunsten er interessant. Her er tre nye kategorier at forstå senkapitalismen med. I anledning af Sianne Ngais bog "Our aesthetic categories: zany, cute, interesting" .......Casper Christensen er gakket, Hello Kitty er nuttet og konceptkunsten er interessant. Her er tre nye kategorier at forstå senkapitalismen med. I anledning af Sianne Ngais bog "Our aesthetic categories: zany, cute, interesting" ....

  7. Suppression of concentration quenching of Er-related luminescence in Er-doped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoqiang; Tomita, Shigeo; Kudo, Hiroshi; Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Dierre, Benjamin; Lee, Woong; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Erbium-doped GaN with different doping concentrations were grown by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy. The intra-4f-shell transitions related green luminescence were observed by both photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. It was found that concentration quenching of Er-related luminescence was observed in PL measurements while not in CL measurements. The different excitation and relaxation processes are suggested as the cause of the concentration quenching characteristics between PL and CL. The strong Er-related CL intensity in highly doped GaN demonstrates that high energy excitation is a promising approach to suppress the concentration quenching in Er-doped GaN.

  8. Interlayer exchange coupling in Er|Tb superlattices mediated by short range incommensurate Er order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuhl, E; Brueckel, T; Voigt, J; Mattauch, S; Korolkov, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the magnetic correlations in Er|Tb superlattices by means of off-specular scattering of polarized neutrons. We show here the co-existence of inhomogeneous magnetic states: i) ferromagnetic order of moments within the Tb layers below 230 K (FM), correlation length of about 10 bilayer, ii) an incommensurate modulated magnetic order, restricted to single Er layers and iii) antiferromagnetic coupling of ferromagnetic layers below 70K (AFC). Polarised off-specular neutron scattering under grazing incidence reveals that i) magnetic fluctuations appear when the sample is cooled below 70 K, ii) these fluctuations lead to AFC, when the sample is cooled to 10 K, which iii) persists, when the sample is subsequently heated up to 45 K, while the order is not present during the cooling cycle. Also the short range incommensurate order changes accordingly, implying that the magnetic order in the Er layers mediates the interlayer coupling between ferromagnetic Tb layers.

  9. Effect of the unfolded protein response on ER protein export: a potential new mechanism to relieve ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Alaa

    2018-05-05

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive cellular response that aims to relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via several mechanisms, including inhibition of protein synthesis and enhancement of protein folding and degradation. There is a controversy over the effect of the UPR on ER protein export. While some investigators suggested that ER export is inhibited during ER stress, others suggested the opposite. In this article, their conflicting studies are analyzed and compared in attempt to solve this controversy. The UPR appears indeed to enhance ER export, possibly via multiple mechanisms. However, another factor, which is the integrity of the folding machinery/environment inside ER, determines whether ER export will appear increased or decreased during experimentation. Also, different methods of stress induction appear to have different effects on ER export. Thus, improvement of ER export may represent a new mechanism by which the UPR alleviates ER stress. This may help researchers to understand how the UPR works inside cells and how to manipulate it to alter cell fate during stress, either to promote cell survival or death. This may open up new approaches for the treatment of ER stress-related diseases.

  10. Complex analysis and CR geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zampieri, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cauchy-Riemann (CR) geometry is the study of manifolds equipped with a system of CR-type equations. Compared to the early days when the purpose of CR geometry was to supply tools for the analysis of the existence and regularity of solutions to the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problem, it has rapidly acquired a life of its own and has became an important topic in differential geometry and the study of non-linear partial differential equations. A full understanding of modern CR geometry requires knowledge of various topics such as real/complex differential and symplectic geometry, foliation theory, the geometric theory of PDE's, and microlocal analysis. Nowadays, the subject of CR geometry is very rich in results, and the amount of material required to reach competence is daunting to graduate students who wish to learn it. However, the present book does not aim at introducing all the topics of current interest in CR geometry. Instead, an attempt is made to be friendly to the novice by moving, in a fairly relaxed way, f...

  11. On the Use of an ER-213 Detonator to Establish a Baseline for the ER-486

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Keith A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Liechty, Gary H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Dennis C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Munger, Alan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McHugh, Douglas C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kennedy, James E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-19

    This report documents a series of tests using a TSD-115 fireset coupled with an ER-213, a gold exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonator. These tests were designed to fire this EBW with a smaller fireset to obtain current and voltage data as well as timing information at voltage levels below, above, and throughout the threshold firing region. This study could then create a database for comparison to our current ER-486 EBW development, which is designed to be a lower voltage (<500V) device.

  12. GR and ER co-activation alters the expression of differentiation genes and associates with improved ER+ breast cancer outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Diana C.; Pan, Deng; Tonsing-Carter, Eva Y.; Hernandez, Kyle M.; Pierce, Charles F.; Styke, Sarah C.; Bowie, Kathleen R.; Garcia, Tzintzuni I.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    In estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer (BC), high tumor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression has been associated with a relatively poor outcome. In contrast, using a meta-analysis of several genomic datasets, here we find that tumor GR mRNA expression is associated with improved ER+ relapse-free survival (RFS) (independently of progesterone receptor (PR) expression). To understand the mechanism by which GR expression is associated with a better ER+ BC outcome, the global effect of GR-mediated transcriptional activation in ER+ BC cells was studied. Analysis of GR chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) in ER+/GR+ MCF-7 cells revealed that upon co-activation of GR and ER, GR chromatin association became enriched at proximal promoter regions. Furthermore, following ER activation, increased GR chromatin association was observed at ER, FOXO, and AP1 response elements. In addition, ER associated with GR response elements, suggesting that ER and GR interact in a complex. Co-activation of GR and ER resulted in increased expression (relative to ER activation alone) of transcripts that encode proteins promoting cellular differentiation (e.g. KDM4B, VDR) and inhibiting the Wnt-signaling pathway (IGFBP4). Finally, expression of these individual pro-differentiation genes was associated with significantly improved RFS in ER+ BC patients. Together, these data suggest that the co-expression and subsequent activity of tumor cell GR and ER contribute to the less aggressive natural history of early-stage BC by coordinating the altered expression of genes favoring differentiation. Implications The interaction between estrogen and glucocorticoid receptor activity highlights the importance of context-dependent nuclear receptor function in cancer. PMID:27141101

  13. COPII-Dependent ER Export: A Critical Component of Insulin Biogenesis and β-Cell ER Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jingye; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xuebao; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Taatjes, Douglas J; Jena, Bhanu P; Sun, Fei; Woods, James; Bryson, Tim; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu; Zhang, Kezhong; Chen, Xuequn

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic β-cells possess a highly active protein synthetic and export machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to accommodate the massive production of proinsulin. ER homeostasis is vital for β-cell functions and is maintained by the delicate balance between protein synthesis, folding, export, and degradation. Disruption of ER homeostasis by diabetes-causing factors leads to β-cell death. Among the 4 components to maintain ER homeostasis in β-cells, the role of ER export in insulin biogenesis is the least understood. To address this knowledge gap, the present study investigated the molecular mechanism of proinsulin ER export in MIN6 cells and primary islets. Two inhibitory mutants of the secretion-associated RAS-related protein (Sar)1 small GTPase, known to specifically block coat protein complex II (COPII)-dependent ER export, were overexpressed in β-cells using recombinant adenoviruses. Results from this approach, as well as small interfering RNA-mediated Sar1 knockdown, demonstrated that defective Sar1 function blocked proinsulin ER export and abolished its conversion to mature insulin in MIN6 cells, isolated mouse, and human islets. It is further revealed, using an in vitro vesicle formation assay, that proinsulin was packaged into COPII vesicles in a GTP- and Sar1-dependent manner. Blockage of COPII-dependent ER exit by Sar1 mutants strongly induced ER morphology change, ER stress response, and β-cell apoptosis. These responses were mediated by the PKR (double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase)-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α) and inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1)/x-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) pathways but not via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Collectively, results from the study demonstrate that COPII-dependent ER export plays a vital role in insulin biogenesis, ER homeostasis, and β-cell survival.

  14. Hvor langt er PISA fra Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Krogh, Lars Brian

    2008-01-01

    PISA 2006 science testen i en dansk kontekst. I det første delprojekt sammenlignes PISA science frameworket med de danske mål for naturfagsuddannelserne. I det andet delprojekt undersøges hvorledes PISA testformatet er i overensstemmelse med evalueringspraksis i naturfagene i den danske folkeskole. I...... det tredje delprojekt sammenlignes elevers score i PISA science testen med deres resultater i en mere dialogbaseret evalueringssituation.   De tre delundersøgelser betjener sig af forskellige metoder, nemlig henholdsvis tekstanalyse, spørgeskemaundersøgelse/ interview samt en egentlig feltvalidering...

  15. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  16. Photoluminescence of Er in SiOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Jun; Sheng Chi; Lu Fang; Gong Dawei; Fan Yongliang; Lin Feng; Wang Xun

    1998-01-01

    Erbium-doped SiO x is prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. The influence of Er on the incorporation of O is studied by using Auger spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks around the wave-length of 1.53 μm have been observed within the temperature range of 18 to 300 K after annealing. The relationship between PL intensity and annealing temperature is discussed. The temperature dependence of the PL intensity shows an exponential decay with an activation energy of 12 meV at low temperatures ( 100 K)

  17. Er internethandel kommet for at blive? Eller er det bare krisen som kradser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivang, Reimer

    2012-01-01

    I de seneste dage har Jyllandsposten sat fokus på, at omsætningen i den danske detailhandel falder, der fyres, der spares, og det bliver endnu værre i de kommende måneder og år. I artiklen udråbes finanskrisen, som den store skurk, men er det nu den fulde sandhed?...

  18. Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron Charles; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul

    2010-01-01

    with clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes...

  19. Cr(III) reactivity and foot dermatitis in Cr(VI) positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Chromium allergy has become synonymous with Cr(VI) allergy. However, real exposure to chromium from leather products may include both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). In this study, we investigate the reactivity to both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in consecutive patients to analyse the relation between foot eczema/leather...... to Cr(III). The increased risk was not due to a higher degree of sensitivity to Cr(VI). Leather was reported most frequently as the suspected cause of chromium dermatitis (54%). However, Cr(VI) allergics having foot eczema and positive or doubtful Cr(III) reactions often had positive reactions to other...

  20. Den der ser, er den, der ses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Troels

    2010-01-01

    Udgangspunktet for afhandlingen er at undersøge, hvordan unge udsatte mennesker kan opnå personlig forandring ved hjælp af åndedrætstræning og meditation. Afhandlingen indleder med at beskrive de unges liv i en globalisering. Mange unge mennesker uden en social ansvarlig baggrund har ikke lært...... at foretage sig nødvendige samfundsmæssige valg. På grund af nederlag i hjem, skole, uddannelse og erhverv søger unge fællesskaber i ligestillede miljøer svarende til egen negative forventningspraksis. Den unge praktiserer en vanedannende negativ livsførelse, som eskalerer til yderligere socialt forfald. Unge......, der har levet i kriminalitet, misbrug og medmisbrug i lang tid, vil ikke være i stand til at realisere sig positivt pga. en personlig indgroet diskvalificerende forestilling. Afhandlingen forklarer, hvorledes negative oplevelser forbliver spændinger i menneskers krop. Teorier af Maurice Merleau...

  1. Kinetics of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal from water by two floating macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, M A; Hadad, H R; Sánchez, G; Caffaratti, S; Pedro, M C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal kinetics from water by Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia herzogii. The accumulation in plant tissues and the effects of both Cr forms on plant growth were also evaluated. Plants were exposed to 2 and 6 mg L(-1) of Cr(III) or Cr(VI) during 30 days. At the end of the experiment, Cr(VI) removal percentages were significantly lower than those obtained for Cr(III) for both macrophytes. Cr(III) removal kinetics involved a fast and a slow component. The fast component was primarily responsible for Cr(III) removal while Cr(VI) removal kinetics involved only a slow process. Cr accumulated principally in the roots. In the Cr(VI) treatments a higher translocation from roots to aerial parts than in Cr(III) treatments was observed. Both macrophytes demonstrated a high ability to remove Cr(III) but not Cr(VI). Cr(III) inhibited the growth at the highest studied concentration of both macrophytes while Cr(VI) caused senescence. These results have important implications in the use of constructed wetlands for secondary industrial wastewater treatment. Common primary treatments of effluents containing Cr(VI) consists in its reduction to Cr(III). Cr(III) concentrations in these effluents are normally below the highest studied concentrations in this work.

  2. Prácticas narrativas, reconstrucción del yo y redes sociales: el caso de Instagram y el dolor crónico

    OpenAIRE

    Sendra Toset, Anna; Farré Coma, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Cartel presentado en el 3er Congreso Internacional de Comunicación en Salud (3ICHC), celebrado los días 19 y 20 de octubre de 2017 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. El objetivo principal de este estudio es analizar las prácticas narrativas de los pacientes con dolor crónico en Instagram

  3. Cu-Cr Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Need, Ryan F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Cu-Cr alloys are part of a class of face-centered cubic (FCC)-body-centered cubic (BCC) composites that includes similar alloys, such as Cu-Nb and Cu-Ta. When heavily deformed, these FCC-BCC materials create 'in situ' composites with a characteristic structure-nanoscale BCC filaments in a ductile FCC matrix. The strength of these composites is vastly greater than predicted by the rule of mixtures, and has been shown to be inversely proportional to the filament spacing. Lower raw materials costs suggest that Cu-Cr alloys may offer more economical solution to high-strength, high-conductivity wire than either their Nb or Ta counterparts. However, Cr is also more brittle and soluble in Cu than Nb or Ta. These qualities necessitate thermal treatments to remove solute atoms from the Cu matrix, improve conductivity, and maintain the ductility of the Cr filaments. Through the use of different thermomechanical processing routes or the addition of select dopants, alloys with strength in excess of 1 GPa at 70% IACS have been achieved. To date, previous research on Cu-Cr alloys has focused on a relatively small number of alloy compositions and processing methods while the effects of dopants and ageing treatments have only been studied independently. Consequently, there remains considerable opportunity for the development and optimization of these alloys as a leading high-strength, high-conductivity material.

  4. Effect of Cr content on the SHS reaction of Cr-Ti-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.N.; Wang, H.Y.; Wang, P.J.; Zhang, J.; He, L.; Jiang, Q.C.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Cr content on the self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction of Cr-Ti-C system has been investigated in this research. The thermodynamics calculation indicates that the TiC possesses higher thermodynamic stability than the Cr 23 C 6 , Cr 7 C 3 and Cr 3 C 2 phases, and the formation of TiC is the most exothermic. Additionally, the adiabatic combustion temperature (T ad ) decreases with the increase of Cr content except for the phase transition regions. The XRD result shows that the type of products synthesized by SHS changes that a higher Cr content corresponds to higher chromium carbide. When Cr content is 10 wt.%, only solid solution (Ti,Cr)C ss is formed in the products. When Cr content increases to 20 wt.%, besides (Ti,Cr)C ss , the Cr 7 C 3 phase is also detected. With the Cr content further increasing to 30 and 40 wt.%, the products consist of (Ti,Cr)C ss , Cr 23 C 6 , Cr 7 C 3 and Cr, and therefore, much higher chromium carbide is synthesized. When Cr content reaches 50 wt.%, however, the Cr 7 C 3 disappears and the final products become (Ti,Cr)C ss , Cr 23 C 6 and Cr. Moreover, when Cr content increases from 10 to 20 wt.%, the lattice parameter of (Ti,Cr)C ss decreases, while it increases when the Cr content ranges from 20 to 50 wt.%. Furthermore, the microstructure shows that the TiC particulate size decreases from ∼8 to ∼2 μm with the increase of Cr content from 10 to 50 wt.%, and the morphology shape of TiC particulate becomes more and more spherical

  5. Vejen til helvede er brolagt med frelste intentioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2013-01-01

    Det åbenlyse spørgsmål omkring, hvorfor vi er i Afghanistan (eller hvorfor vi bliver?) er bestemt et relevant spørgsmål, men at klæbe et prædikat på om krigens manglende moralske troværdighed kræver mere end blot sure opstød. Er vi netop ikke blevet i Afghanistan grundet moralske principper?...

  6. Employer branding er også intern kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    I videnssamfundet og serviceøkonomien er medarbejderne virksomhedens vigtigste ressource, men milleniumgenerationen er ikke trofaste overfor deres arbejdsplads – de har typisk 15-20 jobs i løbet af deres livstid. Et stærkt employer brand bidrager til at fastholde medarbejdere – og dermed...... kompetencer – i virksomheden, og medarbejderne er dermed en central målgruppe for employer branding....

  7. The ER in 3-D: a multifunctional dynamic membrane network

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, singular, membrane-bound organelle that has an elaborate 3-D structure with a diversity of structural domains. It contains regions that are flat and cisternal, ones that are highly curved and tubular, and others adapted to form contact with nearly every other organelle and with the plasma membrane. ER 3-D structure is determined by both integral ER membrane proteins and by interactions with the cytoskeleton. Here, we describe some of the factors that...

  8. Evaluating the Potential Bioactivity of a Novel Compound ER1626

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lijun; Zeng, Yanyan; Wang, Tianling; Liu, Hongyi; Xiao, Hong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626. Method MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and ...

  9. Hvorfor er danske fødevarer dyre?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    De danske fødevarepriser er generelt høje set i forhold til resten af EU og også i forhold til lande uden for EU. Overordnet set er der en række forklaringer på internationale prisforskelle, og der er også flere mulige årsager til de høje danske fødevarepriser. Forskelle i moms, kvalitet...

  10. Forbruget af træer og buske i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Svejgaard; Laursen, Allan Bach; Kjær, Erik Dahl

    Træer og buske er vigtige elementer i byen og landskabet, og i Danmark bruges der mellem 60 og 80 millioner vedplanter hvert år. Forbruget har været konstant stigende og der er sket store forskydninger i forbrugsmønstret i retning af større fokus på mangfoldighed og autencitet. Undersøgelsen...... klarlægger forbrugsmønstret for træer og buske og undersøger, hvad brugerne lægger vægt på i deres valg af planter....

  11. Preparation of Erbium-169 (169Er) Using Natural Erbium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmairit Aziz; Nana Suherman

    2009-01-01

    The therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals which is labelled by β-particle emission are now increasingly used in nuclear medicine. Erbium-169 ('1 69 Er) is one of radioisotopes that can be used for radiation synovectomy (radio synovectomy) in the treatment of inflammatory joint diseases (arthritis) due to its β- particle emission (T 1/2 =9.4 days, E β maximum =0.34 MeV). The preliminary study on preparation of 169 Er by using natural erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) target irradiated at TRIGA 2000 Bandung reactor has been carried out. The irradiated target was dissolved in hydrochloric acid solution and gentle warming. The optimum condition of 169 Er preparation was obtained by dissolution of 169 Er 2 O 3 by using 1N HCl solution. The radiochemical purity of 169 ErCl 3 was determined by paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography and paper electrophoresis techniques. The solution of 169 ErCl 3 formed was obtained with the pH of 1.5 – 2, clear, with the specific activity of 0.48 – 0.71 MBq/mg Er. The solution has the radiochemical purity of 98.32 ± 1.28% and the radionuclide purity of 99.98%. Study on the stability of 169 ErCl 3 solution showed that the solution was still stable for 4 days at room temperature with the radiochemical purity more than 95%. (author)

  12. Pæren er faldet langt fra stammen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Jon Helt

    2013-01-01

    Roman: Hassan Preislers vellykkede debutroman udleverer ikke bare multikulti-industrien. Den er også en rablende diagnosticering af det moderne menneskes livsvilkår HASSAN PREISLER BRUN MANDS BYRDE 224 sider, 249,95 Lindhardt og Ringhof Er udkommet 4......Roman: Hassan Preislers vellykkede debutroman udleverer ikke bare multikulti-industrien. Den er også en rablende diagnosticering af det moderne menneskes livsvilkår HASSAN PREISLER BRUN MANDS BYRDE 224 sider, 249,95 Lindhardt og Ringhof Er udkommet 4...

  13. Er Web 2.0 klar til mainstream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivang, Reimer

    2009-01-01

    BLOG: Spørgsmålene der relateres til Web 2.0 er mange. Men en af de mest signifikante er om netop din virksomhed skal anvende Web 2.0 teknologier? Hvad kan I få ud af det?......BLOG: Spørgsmålene der relateres til Web 2.0 er mange. Men en af de mest signifikante er om netop din virksomhed skal anvende Web 2.0 teknologier? Hvad kan I få ud af det?...

  14. Evaluating the potential bioactivity of a novel compound ER1626.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Zeng, Yanyan; Wang, Tianling; Liu, Hongyi; Xiao, Hong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626. MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis. ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor α protein and up-regulated β protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis.

  15. Evaluating the potential bioactivity of a novel compound ER1626.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626.MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis.ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor α protein and up-regulated β protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells.In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis.

  16. pacientes crónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Barrera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra cómo se ha construido una red de investigadores en el campo del cuidado a cuidadores de pacientes conenfermedad crónica. Presenta los principios y conceptos de las redes reconociendo el proceso, la aplicación y articulación a partir de lasexperiencias realizadas por el grupo académico flCuidado al paciente crónicofl de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional, quegenera un estudio multicéntrico de investigación.

  17. Modeling on Fe-Cr microstructure: evolution with Cr content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arroyo, D.; Perlado, J.M.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.; Caturla, M.J.; Victoria, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The minimum energy configuration of interstitials in the Fe-Cr system, which is the base for the low activation steels being developed in the European fusion reactor materials community, is determined by magnetism. Magnetism plays also a role in the atomic configurations found with increasing Cr content. Results will be presented from a program in which the microstructure evolution produced after heavy ion irradiation in the range from room temperature to 80 K is studied as a function of the Cr content in alloys produced under well controlled conditions, i.e. from high purity elements and with adequate heat treatment. It is expected that these measurements will serve as matrix for model validation. The first step in such modeling sequence is being performed by modeling the evolution of displacement cascades in Fe using the Dudarev -Derlet and Mendeleev potentials for Fe and the Caro potential for Fe-Cr. It is of particular interest to study the evolution of high-energy cascades, where an attempt will be made to clarify the role of the evolution of sub-cascades. Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) techniques will be used then to simulate the defect evolution. A new parallel kMC code is being implemented for this purpose. (authors)

  18. Structure of the /sup 168/Er nucleus and the /sup 166/Er(t,p)/sup 168/Er reaction in terms of the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Y.; Heyde, K.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.

    1986-05-29

    Extending the interacting boson model by incorporating besides s and d, also the g-boson, we can describe the population of positive parity states of /sup 168/Er in the /sup 166/Er(t,P)/sup 168/Er reaction rather well. In particular, the excitation of I,Ksub(i)sup(..pi..) = 4,3/sub 1//sup +/; 2,2/sub 2//sup +/; 0,0/sub 3//sup +/ and 0,0/sub 4//sup +/ states is much improved over the sd-IBM appraoch.

  19. Large magnetoresistance in Er7Rh3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Sampathkumaran, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The compound Er 2 Rh 3 has been known to order antiferromagnetically below (T N =14K), and to exhibit a change in the sign of temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity (ρ) in the paramagnetic state around 120 K. Here we report the influence of external magnetic field (H) on the ρ(T) behavior of this compound (1.8-300 K). While the ρ behavior in the paramagnetic state, qualitatively speaking, is found to be robust to the application of H, the magnitude of the magnetoresistance (MR) is significant for moderate applications of H, even at temperatures for above T N untypical of metallic systems. In addition, large values are observed in the magnetically ordered state. (author)

  20. Final Technical Report for Award # ER64999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, William W. [University of Illinois

    2014-10-08

    This report provides a summary of activities for Award # ER64999, a Genomes to Life Project funded by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Research. The project was entitled "Methanogenic archaea and the global carbon cycle: a systems biology approach to the study of Methanosarcina species". The long-term goal of this multi-investigator project was the creation of integrated, multiscale models that accurately and quantitatively predict the role of Methanosarcina species in the global carbon cycle under dynamic environmental conditions. To achieve these goals we pursed four specific aims: (1) genome sequencing of numerous members of the Order Methanosarcinales, (2) identification of genomic sources of phenotypic variation through in silico comparative genomics, (3) elucidation of the transcriptional networks of two Methanosarcina species, and (4) development of comprehensive metabolic network models for characterized strains to address the question of how metabolic models scale with genetic distance.

  1. ER@CEBAF: Modeling code developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    A proposal for a multiple-pass, high-energy, energy-recovery experiment using CEBAF is under preparation in the frame of a JLab-BNL collaboration. In view of beam dynamics investigations regarding this project, in addition to the existing model in use in Elegant a version of CEBAF is developed in the stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi, Beyond the ER experiment, it is also planned to use the latter for the study of polarization transport in the presence of synchrotron radiation, down to Hall D line where a 12 GeV polarized beam can be delivered. This Note briefly reports on the preliminary steps, and preliminary outcomes, based on an Elegant to Zgoubi translation.

  2. Nonrotational states of 165Er nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonch-Osmolovskaya, N.A.; Morozov, V.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    165 Er nucleus excited states have been analysed on the basis of available experimental data and calculations within the framework of a quasiparticle-phonon model. β-vibrational components of states are included into the calculations, the Pauli principle was taken account of consecutively. Taking account of the Pauli principle permitting to perform a more correct description of vibrational components resulted in a marked change of characteristics of a number of states especially in the case of 9/2 + [624]. The whole set of levels with 1/2 - [521], 297.4 keV; 1/2 - [530], 589.9 keV; 1/2 - [510], 920.7 keV; 3/2, 1/2 - [541], 1039 keV, is described satisfactorily. The calculation performed gives as a whole a better agreement with experiment as compared with earlier calculations of other authors

  3. ER and PR expression and survival after endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah; Stewart, Colin J R; Clarke, Edward M; Lose, Felicity; Davies, Claire; Armes, Jane; Obermair, Andreas; Brennan, Donal; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2018-02-01

    To measure association between endometrial carcinoma ER and PR status and endometrial cancer (EC) survival, accounting for inter-observer variation. The intensity and proportion of tumor cell expression of ER and PR in ECs were assessed independently and semi-quantitatively by two pathologists using digital images of duplicate tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Cases with inconsistent initial assessment were reviewed and final scoring agreed. The association between overall and EC-specific survival and hormone receptor expression (intensity, proportion and combined) was assessed using Cox regression analysis. The C-index was used to evaluate model discrimination with addition of ER and PR status. Tumor ER and PR analysis was possible in 659 TMAs from 255 patients, and in 459 TMAs from 243 patients, respectively. Initial ER and PR scoring was consistent in 82% and 80% of cases, respectively. In multivariate analyses decreased ER and PR expression was associated with increased tumor-related mortality. Associations reached statistical significance for ER proportion score (P=0.05), ER intensity score (P=0.003), and PR combined score (P=0.04). Decreased expression of combined ER/PR expression was associated with poorer EC-specific survival than decreased expression of either hormone receptor alone (P=0.005). However, hormone receptor status did not significantly improve mortality prediction in individual cases. ER and PR expression combined, using cut-points that capture variation in scoring and across cores, is significantly associated with EC-specific survival in analyses adjusting for known prognostic factors. However, at the individual level, ER and PR expression does not improve mortality prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. EC/β+ decay of 161Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.G.; Ibraheem, Y.S.; Stegailov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The study of odd-proton nuclei in rare-earth region has been performed to get more information on the nuclear structure of these nuclei. In the framework of a program at the ISOL complex of YASNAPP-2 at JINR to study the decay of odd-nuclei, 161 Er has been investigated. The experiments have been focused on the 161 Ho level scheme populated in the EC/β + decay of 161 Er for which a few results have been previously reported [1,2]. Spectra of single γ-ray, γ-γ coincidence and internal conversion electrons were measured. There are appreciable disagreements between results of some γ-ray intensities obtained by us and in [2]. The greatest difference was for relative γ-ray intensity of the 11.28 keV, which has reported value I γ ∼ 10 (I γ 211 =1000) in [2], but this leads to an overpopulation of the 211 keV level by 14% of the decay [3]. The relative intensities of transitions with Eγ γ211 =1000). Inaccuracy of Iγ in [2] is probably due to a sudden change in the efficiency curve of their Ge(Li) detector in the low energy region while our HPGe detector feature a much smoother variation in the efficiency curve in this γ-ray energy region. Besides, the levels earlier introduced by us in [4], three new levels in 161 Ho were proposed from γ-γ coincidences at energies 693.2 keV, 859.6 keV, and 957.97 keV. Spins, parities and Nilsson quantum characteristics of some 161 Ho levels were established

  5. Elemental analysis of oum er rbia moroccan river-water Using icp-aes and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Labraimi, M.; Moutte, J.; Bilal, E.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 22 elements has been performed utilizing ICP-AES and chromatography methods. MPS samples were dissolved in nitric acid. The element analyzed are : Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Ba and Pb. The detection limits are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for the accuracy by the analysis of a multi-elemental standard. The results for most of the elements obtained were accurate to about 2-15%. The objective of the analysis were to determine the geochemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanisms of sediment transport and nevertheless, to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 48 samples were collected along the river, between its source in meddle atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city

  6. Ikon. iPod er kongen over mp3. Hvad er hemmeligheden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    iPod er blevet ikonet for det 21. århundrede. Men iPod var hverken den første mp3-afspiller eller den første veldesignede af slagsen. Før iPod så dagens lys var Bang & Olufsen på banen med sin næsten lige så lækre BeoSound2.......iPod er blevet ikonet for det 21. århundrede. Men iPod var hverken den første mp3-afspiller eller den første veldesignede af slagsen. Før iPod så dagens lys var Bang & Olufsen på banen med sin næsten lige så lækre BeoSound2....

  7. “Når man er tvunget ud i det, er det egentlig meget godt”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Lilius, Karin Marianne; Petersen, Jørgen Haagen

    2018-01-01

    , er en nødvendighed for kompetenceudvikling understøttet af metoden lektionsstudier samt relevante stilladseringsværktøjer der kan rammesætte udviklingen af undervisningskompeten-cer – i dette tilfælde et såkaldt P-CKema. Desuden peger projektets empiri på at projekter der søger at udvikle...

  8. Operational durability of a giant ER valve for Braille display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luning, Xu; Han, Li; Yufei, Li; Shen, Rong; Kunquan, Lu

    2017-05-01

    The compact configuration of giant ER (electrorheological) valves provides the possibility of realizing a full-page Braille display. The operational durability of ER valves is a key issue in fulfilling a Braille display. A giant ER valve was used to investigate the variations in pressure drops and critical pressure drops of the valves over a long period under some typical operational parameters. The results indicate that neither the pressure drops nor critical pressure drops of giant ER valves show apparent deterioration over a long period. Without ER fluid exchange, a blockage appears in the channel of the valve because the ER structures induced by an external electric field cannot be broken by the Brownian motion of hydraulic oil molecules when the external electric field is removed. Forcing ER fluid flow is an effective and necessary method to keep the channel of the valve unblocked. Thus the operational durability of the valve using giant ER fluids is able to meet the demands of Braille display.

  9. Er der forskel på grinder og grise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heðinsdóttir, Katla; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Når det gælder grindedrab, burde man måske spørge, om en tradition, som involverer smerte, angst og andre negative følelser for dyr, er værd at holde fast i, og om det ikke er muligt at fastholde en færøsk identitet uden grindefangst....

  10. Det man hører, er man selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2012-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013.......Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013....

  11. Zebrafisken er et vigtigt forsøgsdyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Sørensen, Kasper; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Det kan ved første øjekast undre, at en almindelig dansk akvariefisk er blevet forskernes favorit. Ikke desto mindre er det tilfældet for den lille zebrafisk (Danio rerio), som i disse år anvendes til at undersøge funktionen af gener, til at lave dyremodeller for menneskets sygdomme og til...

  12. Dietary toxins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Kalindi D; Zimmet, Paul Z; Myers, Mark A

    2008-05-01

    The incidence of Type 1 diabetes has been increasing at a rate too rapid to be due to changes in genetic risk. Instead changes in environmental factors are the likely culprit. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in the production of newly synthesized proteins and interference with these processes leads to ER stress. The insulin-producing beta cells are particularly prone to ER stress as a result of their heavy engagement in insulin production. Increasing evidence suggests ER stress is central to initiation and progression of Type 1 diabetes. An early environmental exposure, such as toxins and viral infections, can impart a significant physiological load on beta cells to initiate abnormal processing of proinsulin, ER stress and insulin secretory defects. Release of altered proinsulin from the beta cells early in life may trigger autoimmunity in those with genetic susceptibility leading to cytokine-induced nitric oxide production and so exacerbating ER stress in beta cells, ultimately leading to apoptosis of beta cells and diabetes. Here we suggest that ER stress is an inherent cause of beta cell dysfunction and environmental factors, in particular dietary toxins derived from Streptomyces in infected root vegetables, can impart additional stress that aggravates beta cell death and progression to diabetes. Furthermore, we propose that the increasing incidence of Type 1 diabetes may be accounted for by increased dietary exposure to ER-stress-inducing Streptomyces toxins.

  13. Hvilke planter er hjemmehørende i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Buchwald,; Wind, Peter; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Der har i de senere år været debat om, hvorvidt konkrete plantearter - fx Ær (Acer pseudoplatanus) og Gyvel (Cytisus scoparius) - er hjemmehørende arter i Danmark eller indførte fremmede (Buchwald 2008, 20110: Friis 2010: Møller 2011; Bruun2011). En medvirkende årsag til diskussionerne er, at derr...

  14. Giv Kejseren hvad Kejserens er - på langt sigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Fra OECD over EU til det danske videnskabsministerium er der en mængde magtfulde instanser, som i det seneste årti har stillet en række nye krav til universiteterne. Kravene kan i korthed sammenfattes som en fordring om samfundsmæssig og økonomisk relevans. Artiklen argumenterer for, at det er le...

  15. Ny vaccine mod ledbetændelse er ikke effektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elisabeth Okholm; Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll

    2013-01-01

    En ny mulighed for at vaccinere mod mykoplasma-ledbetændelse er undersøgt hos en slagtesvineproducent. Vaccinen kunne desværre ikke forebygge halthed eff ektivt.......En ny mulighed for at vaccinere mod mykoplasma-ledbetændelse er undersøgt hos en slagtesvineproducent. Vaccinen kunne desværre ikke forebygge halthed eff ektivt....

  16. Hvad er fantastisk ved HBO-serien Game of Thrones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Blogindlæg på videnskab.dk, kaldt "Hvad er fantastisk ved HBO-serien Game of Thrones?" om HBO tv-serien Game of Thrones......Blogindlæg på videnskab.dk, kaldt "Hvad er fantastisk ved HBO-serien Game of Thrones?" om HBO tv-serien Game of Thrones...

  17. Din tandbørste og pejsen er online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Det er snart definitivt slut med de store mysterier om flys forsvinden og massive eftersøgninger efter overlevende. Danske Naviair er i disse år med til at sende 66 satellitter i kredsløb om Jorden. Så kan alle kommercielle fly følges, uanset hvor på jordkloden de befinder sig....

  18. Danskhed er pizza, kebab og flæskesteg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Dannebrog. Kongehuset. Flæskesteg. Folkeskolen. Fodbold og øl. En lang række symboler og fortællinger kendetegner danskhed, men det er en myte, at danskerne er en homogen gruppe, fortæller professor Richard Jenkins....

  19. The ER in 3D: a multifunctional dynamic membrane network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R; Voeltz, Gia K

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, singular, membrane-bound organelle that has an elaborate 3D structure with a diversity of structural domains. It contains regions that are flat and cisternal, ones that are highly curved and tubular, and others adapted to form contacts with nearly every other organelle and with the plasma membrane. The 3D structure of the ER is determined by both integral ER membrane proteins and by interactions with the cytoskeleton. In this review, we describe some of the factors that are known to regulate ER structure and discuss how this structural organization and the dynamic nature of the ER membrane network allow it to perform its many different functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-diffusion of Er and Hf inpure and HfO2-doped polycrystalline Er2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidecker, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970 0 C in pure and HfO 2 -doped polycryatalline Er 2 O 3 . Up to about 10 m/o HfO 2 dopant level, the Er self-diffusion coefficients followed a relationship based on cation vacancies. Above 10 m/o HfO 2 , deviation from this relationship occurred, apparently due to clustering of cation vacancies and oxygen interstitials around the dopant hafnia ion. The activation energy for the self-diffusion of Er in pure Er 2 O 3 was 82.2 Kcal/mole and increased with the HfO 2 dopant level present. Self-diffusion of Hf was measured in pure Er 2 O 3 having two impurity levels, and a separation of the grain boundary. The volume diffusion of Hf showed both extrinsic and intrinsic behavior with the transition temperature increasing with the impurity level present in Er 2 O 3 . The activation energy for Hf volume diffusion in the intrinsic region was high, i.e. 235 -+ 9.5 Kcal/mole. The grain boundary diffusion was apparently extrinsic over the entire temperature interval Very low Hf self diffusion rates were found in both pure and HfO 2 doped Er 2 O 3 compositions. Despite a clustering effect, the HfO 2 dopant increased the Hf volume diffusion coefficients

  1. Effect of Er3+ Concentration on Upconversion in Hexagonal-Phase NaYF4:Er3+ Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X J; Yuminami, R; Sakurai, T; Akimoto, K

    2013-01-01

    A facile synthesis method was developed to produce hexagonal-phase of NaYF 4 nanocrystals (NCs) doped with Er 3+ in different concentration, which showed upconversion (UC) emission from infrared to visible spectral region. This proposed method is simple and less toxic compared with generally used method so far. It was found that up-conversion emission spectra of NaYF 4 :Er 3+ NCs, excited at 1550 nm, included four peaks at about 980 nm, 800 nm, 660 nm and 540 nm. The effect of Er 3+ concentration on UC in β-phase NaYF 4 :Er 3+ NCs were discussed based on the excitation power dependence. The optimum Er 3+ concentration for 2-step and 3-step UC was found to be around 10∼30%.

  2. Applications of Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS lasers to ultrabroadband high-resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, E.; Sorokina, I.; Picque, N.; Guelachvili, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Cr 2+ :ZnSe laser, and since recently also the Cr 2+ :ZnS laser proved to be versatile laser sources for trace gas measurements in the whole range between 2 and 3.1 μm. Among the existing methods of sensitive gas detection, intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS) offers some distinct advantages such as the simultaneous coverage of a broad spectral domain and large dynamic range. Under ICLAS the absorbing medium is put inside a laser cavity with broadband gain. As a result, the laser cavity acts as a multipass cell. Equivalent absorption path length of tens of kilometers can be achieved, corresponding to high detection sensitivities of the order of 10 -8 cm -1 and better. Only few examples of ICLAS spectrometers were demonstrated beyond 2 μm. Among them are: KCl:Li Fa(II) color center laser with coverage up to 4 nm at 2638 nm, Co:MgF 2 , covering up to 30 nm around 2040 and 2245 nm, Tm:YAG with coverage up to 35 nm at 2030 nm, and pulsed Cr:ZnSe, with coverage up to 50 nmat 2500 nm. In this talk we discuss application of a Cr 2+ :ZnSe laser to high-resolution and high-sensitivity intracavity absorption spectroscopy (ICLAS) analyzed by time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy. This represents the extreme limit presently reached in the infrared by ICLAS with Doppler limited resolution. Our most recent works concern application of a Cr 2+ :ZnS laser for broadband ultrasensitive intracavity laser spectroscopy (ICLAS), with effective absorption path up to about 50 km in the 2.4 μm range. The spectrometer operates with both Er-fiber and direct diode pumping in the very interesting water-free window between ∼ 2.1 and 2.5 μm. The sensitivity of 2 x 10 -9 cm -1 at Doppler-limited resolution allows obtaining spectral information that was previously unreachable in laboratory conditions. Summarizing, intracavity laser spectroscopy technique has been successfully used for measuring and detecting gas constituents with extreme sensitivity and

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructure multilayer CrN/Cr coatings on titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecinski, Piotr; Smolik, Jerzy; Garbacz, Halina; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    Five different nanostructured, multilayer coatings (CrN/Cr)x8 with different thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers were deposited by PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition) vacuum arc method on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The microstructure, chemical and phase composition of the CrN and Cr sub-layers were characterized by SEM with EDX and Cs-corrected dedicated STEM on cross-sections prepared by focus ion beam. Besides, hardness and Young's modulus of the (Cr/CrN)x8 coatings has been measured. The adhesion has been tested by scratch test method. The obtained (CrN/Cr) multilayer coatings, 5-6 μm in thickness, have homogeneous and nanocrystalline structure, free of pores and cracks. The microstructures of Cr and CrN layers consist of columnar grains below 100 nm in diameter. The hardness and Young's modulus of these coatings depend linearly on thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers. The decrease of the thickness ratio Cr/CrN 0.81 to 0.15 results in the increase of hardness from 1275 HV to 1710 HV and Young's modulus from 260 GPa to 271 GPa.

  4. Beta decay of 46Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, T K; Gelberg, A; Sakurai, H; Yoneda, K; Aoi, N; Imai, N; Baba, H; Brentano, P von; Fukuda, N; Ichikawa, Y; Ishihara, M; Iwasaki, H; Kameda, D; Kishida, T; Lisetskiy, A F; Ong, H J; Osada, M; Otsuka, T; Suzuki, M K; Ue, K; Utsuno, Y; Watanabe, H

    2006-01-01

    The Gamow-Teller transition of 46 Cr to the N = Z odd-odd nucleus 46 V has been observed for the first time. By means of β-γ coincidence measurements, a γ-ray peak at 993 keV corresponding to the decay of the 1 + 1 state in 46 V was observed. The branching ratio of the decay to this state was found to be b GT = 0.25 ± 0.050. The half-life of 46 Cr was measured to be T 1/2 = 240 ± 140 ms. The transition strength was determined to be B(GT) = 0.64 ± 0.20. This result was compared with theoretical calculations

  5. Tv nyheder: Journalistiske Idealer er under Pres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    2013-01-01

    som tv-journalisterne ville ønske det. Tv-journalister har mange store idealer om god journalistik og public service. Men de vilkår journalisterne arbejder under gør idealerne nærmest umulige at opnå i dagligdagen. I dag er det ikke de journalistiske idealer men markedskræfterne der driver de...... Journalist” inside Public Service TV Newsrooms in the UK and Denmark’. Under ph.d.- studiet har jeg tilbragt halvandet år med deltager-observation på de fire største tv-redaktioner i England og Danmark. Jeg har observeret og deltaget i det daglige arbejde på redaktionerne hos TV Avisen og TV2 Nyhederne og i...... licensfinansieret tv-station. Men der tog jeg fejl. Jeg ledte efter forskelligheder, men fandt ligheder. Efterhånden som feltstudiet tog fat gik det op for mig at journalisterne på de fire forskellige tv-stationer arbejdede og tænkte ens. Derudover gik det op for mig at mange af journalisterne på de forskelligt...

  6. The CR-Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pricop Oliver Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The Customer Relationship- Marketing supposes the adaptation of the marketing mix from the customers’ and the market’s perspective. Thus, the 4 P (product, price, place, promotion) must become 4 D (desired by consumers, distinctive from the competition, deliverable by the company, durable over time) respectively 4C (the buyer with his requirements and desires, the cost paid by the buyer, the convenience of the acquisition, the communication with the customers. The CR-Marketing strategy compri...

  7. Mechanisms of ER Stress-Mediated Mitochondrial Membrane Permeabilization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    During apoptosis, the process of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) represents a point-of-no-return as it commits the cell to death. Here we have assessed the role of caspases, Bcl-2 family members and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore on ER stress-induced MOMP and subsequent cell death. Induction of ER stress leads to upregulation of several genes such as Grp78, Edem1, Erp72, Atf4, Wars, Herp, p58ipk, and ERdj4 and leads to caspase activation, release of mitochondrial intermembrane proteins and dissipation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from caspase-9, -2 and, -3 knock-out mice were resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis which correlated with decreased processing of pro-caspase-3 and -9. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with caspase inhibitors (Boc-D.fmk and DEVD.fmk) attenuated ER stress-induced loss of DeltaPsim. However, only deficiency of caspase-9 and -2 could prevent ER stress-mediated loss of DeltaPsim. Bcl-2 overexpression or pretreatment of cells with the cell permeable BH4 domain (BH4-Tat) or the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitors, bongkrekic acid or cyclosporine A, attenuated the ER stress-induced loss of DeltaPsim. These data suggest a role for caspase-9 and -2, Bcl-2 family members and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in loss of mitochondrial membrane potential during ER stress-induced apoptosis.

  8. Création du groupe FMR (Flux, Matrices, Réseaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Beauguitte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Laurent Beauguitte et César Ducruetont pris l’initiative de créer un groupe de travail sur les réseaux en vue d’intégrer dans l’approche géographique les outils et méthodes issues de l’analyse des réseaux (planaires, sociaux, complexes. Ces derniers paraissent en effet fournir des pistes intéressantes pour l’analyse des flux de toute nature (commerciaux, humains, informationnels, financiers. Ce groupe tient une réunion mensuelle depuis le 26 octobre 2010 à Paris. Trois axes de travail sont...

  9. Internationale medier: Når sproget er den eneste forskel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Saugmann

    2009-01-01

    forhandlingerne som formålet med dem. Det gør der ikke mere. Efter tusindvis af historier i dusinvis af førende aviser verden over ser det ud til at der kun er én historie tilbage: Det neo-liberale udviklingseventyr. For i perioden 2001-2006 – hvor jeg har analyseret pressedækningen i USA, Spanien, England......, Indien og Argentina – er der sket en bemærkelsesværdig ensretning af presseomtalen af forhandlingerne – i øvrigt sideløbende med at forhandlingerne er blevet stadig mere fastlåste. ...

  10. Harvard ER-2 OH laser-induced fluorescence instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Paul O.; Anderson, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The Harvard ER-2 OH instrument is scheduled to be integrated into the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft ozone payload in August 1992. Design and fabrication is presently underway. This experiment is a descendant of a balloon borne instrument designed and built in the mid-1980s. The ER-2 instrument is being designed to measure OH and HO2 as part of the NASA ozone payload for the investigation of processes controlling the concentration of stratospheric ozone. Although not specifically designed to do so, it is hoped that valid measurements of OH and HO2 can be made in the remote free troposphere with this instrument.

  11. Die HECT-Ligase Hul5, eine neue Komponente der ER-assoziierten Proteindegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlmann, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Die meisten sekretorischen Proteine der eukaryontischen Zellen erreichen durch das endoplasmatische Retikulum (ER) den sekretorischen Signalweg. Sie gelangen vom Zytoplasma durch einen Kanal in der ER-Membran in das ER, wo sie ihre native Konformation erhalten. Das ER enthält ein strenges Qualitätskontrollsystem, welches fehlgefaltete Proteine erkennt, im ER zurückhält und letztendlich der ER-assoziierten Degradation (ERAD) zuführt. Die ER-Qualitätskontrolle und die ER-assoziierte Degradation...

  12. Biliary excretion and distribution of 51Cr(III) and 51Cr(VI) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikrt, M.; Bencko, V.

    1979-01-01

    The biliary excretion and distribution of 51 Cr after intravenous administration of 51 Cr(III) ( 51 CrCl 3 ) or 51 Cr(VI) (Na 2 51 CrO 4 .4H 2 O) were studied in rats. The cumulative biliary excretion of 51 Cr 24 hrs after the injection was significantly higher after administration of 51 Cr(VI) than of 51 Cr(III) (3.51+-0.7% and 0.51+-0.05% of administered dose, respectively). This difference was especially due to a higher rate of biliary excretion of 51 Cr in the first hours after 51 Cr(VI) administration. The excretion of 51 Cr via feces was also higher after administration of 51 Cr(VI) (7.35+-0.45%) of administered dose, as against 4.23+-0.23% after 51 Cr(III). On the other hand, no significant difference in urinary excretion of 51 Cr was found. Statistically significant differences were also observed in the distribution of 51 Cr in the organism after administration of both valence states of the metal. (author)

  13. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Mori

    Full Text Available The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  14. Sigma-1 receptor chaperone at the ER-mitochondrion interface mediates the mitochondrion-ER-nucleus signaling for cellular survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Teruo; Hayashi, Eri; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of a cell forms contacts directly with mitochondria whereby the contact is referred to as the mitochondrion-associated ER membrane or the MAM. Here we found that the MAM regulates cellular survival via an MAM-residing ER chaperone the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in that the Sig-1R chaperones the ER stress sensor IRE1 to facilitate inter-organelle signaling for survival. IRE1 is found in this study to be enriched at the MAM in CHO cells. We found that IRE1 is stabilized at the MAM by Sig-1Rs when cells are under ER stress. Sig-1Rs stabilize IRE1 and thus allow for conformationally correct IRE1 to dimerize into the long-lasting, activated endonuclease. The IRE1 at the MAM also responds to reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria. Therefore, the ER-mitochondrion interface serves as an important subcellular entity in the regulation of cellular survival by enhancing the stress-responding signaling between mitochondria, ER, and nucleus.

  15. Er3+ infrared fluorescence affected by spatial distribution synchronicity of Ba2+ and Er3+ in Er3+-doped BaO–SiO2 glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsunobu Masuno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glasses with the composition xBaO–(99.9 − xSiO2–0.1ErO3/2 (0 ≤x ≤ 34.9 were fabricated by a levitation technique. The glasses in the immiscibility region were opaque due to chemical inhomogeneity, while the other glasses were colorless and transparent. The scanning electron microscope observations and electron probe microanalysis scan profiles revealed that more Er3+ ions were preferentially distributed in the regions where more Ba2+ ions existed in the chemically inhomogeneous glasses. The synchronicity of the spatial distributions of the two ions initially increased with increasing x and then decreased when the Ba2+ concentration exceeded a certain value. The peak shape and lifetime of the fluorescence at 1.55 μm depended on x as well as the spatial distribution of both ions. These results indicate that although ErOn polyhedra are preferentially coordinated with Ba2+ ions and their local structure is affected by the coordination of Ba2+, there is a maximum in the amount of Ba2+ ions that can coordinate ErOn polyhedra since the available space for Ba2+ ions is limited. These findings provide us with efficient ways to design the chemical composition of glasses with superior Er3+ fluorescence properties for optical communication network systems.

  16. Vibronic intensities for Er3+ in Cs2 NaErCl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, R.; Navarro, G.; Meruane, T.

    2001-01-01

    In this current study, we have undertaken vibronic intensity calculations for the absorptions (( 4 I 15/2 ) Γ k ) → (( 4 I 13/2 ) Γ l ) of the Er 3+ in the Cs 2 NaErCl 6 elpasolite type system. This system is extremely complicated to handle from both a theoretical and an experimental viewpoints. This theoretical work shows that over an energy range of about 400 cm -1 , a substantial amount of transitions are likely to take place (about 100 transitions; twenty five of them are magnetic dipole allowed and seventy five are vibronically allowed). It is then a formidable task to identify and assign all of these transitions in a non-ambiguous way. Also the experimental evidence available for these absorptions is related to a total of about twenty lines in the luminescence spectrum of this system. The spectrum itself is very challenging and the superposition of spectral features is most likely to occur. A careful analysis of the calculated vibronic intensities and overall oscillator strengths for the various transitions indicates that the current model used is both flexible and appropriate to deal with this kind of systems. In a forthcoming paper, we will examine the rather unusual high intensity associated with the (( 4 I 15/2 ) Γ k ) → (( 4 S 3/2 ) Γ l ) excitations. (Author)

  17. Modeller forudsiger klimarespons hos træer og buske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Modeller baseret på målinger af træer og buskes årringe afslører, hvilke klimatiske faktorer der lokalt er afgørende for deres vækst. Det kan hjælpe os med at forstå nogle af de ændringer, der sker i vegetationen, for eksempel i Grønland og i alpine områder. Med udgangspunkt i klimafrem- skrivnin......Modeller baseret på målinger af træer og buskes årringe afslører, hvilke klimatiske faktorer der lokalt er afgørende for deres vækst. Det kan hjælpe os med at forstå nogle af de ændringer, der sker i vegetationen, for eksempel i Grønland og i alpine områder. Med udgangspunkt i klimafrem...

  18. A Comparative Study of Er3+, Er3+-Eu3+, Er3+-Tb3+, and Er3+-Eu3+-Tb3+ Codoped Y2O3 Nanoparticles as Optical Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Sobral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR technique, based on the thermal coupling of H11/22 and S3/24 energy levels of erbium ions, was used to study the optical heating behavior of rare earth doped yttrium oxide nanophosphors (Y2O3:Er3+, Y2O3:Er3+-Eu3+, Y2O3:Er3+-Tb3+, and Y2O3:Er3+-Eu3+-Tb3+ synthesized via PVA-assisted sol-gel route. The samples were optically heated by an 800 nm CW diode laser, while the upconverted green emissions were used to measure their temperatures in real time. The experimental results indicate that the studied nanoparticles are promising candidates to applications such as photothermal treatments and hyperthermia.

  19. TCSP ER-2 LIGHTNING INSTRUMENT PACKAGE (LIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP ER-2 Lightning Instrument Package (LIP) consists of 7 rotating vane type electric field sensors and a two channel conductivity probe along with a central...

  20. Hvor er nørderne, der skal sikre klimaomstillingen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted

    2015-01-01

    Kronikken skaber en forbindelse mellem vores nye forskningsprojekt, "Pædagogik på kanten" (som også er titlen på en ny bog, der udkom 6.11.15) og klimaproblemerne / behovet for klimaomstilling....

  1. TCSP ER-2 DOPPLER RADAR (EDOP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EDOP provides vertically profiled reflectivity and Doppler velocity at aircraft nadir along the flight track. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) is an X-band (9.6...

  2. Biocompatible Er:(Na,K)NbO3 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, N. P.; Grishin, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Dense homogeneous fabric composed from continuous bead-free erbium-doped sodium potassium niobate (Er:NKN) 100 μm long and 100-200 nm in diameter nanofibers was sintered by sol-gel calcination assisted electrospinning technique. Er doping with the concentration of 2 at.% provides readily detectable room-temperature broad-band photoluminescence (PL) centered at λPL = 0.55 and 0.98 μm being pumped, respectively, with 532 and 785 nm lasers. Electric field induced resistance switching and strong electric rectification effect were found in nanoporous sandwich Au/Er:NKN/Pt capacitive cell. Memristor-type current-voltage I-V characteristics originate from the electrochemical migration of oxygen vacancies at the n-type Er:NKN oxide/high work function Pt cathode junction interface.

  3. Promoter and Cofactor Requirements for SERM-ER Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Jason S

    2007-01-01

    .... We originally planned to develop a methodology for specifically isolating chromatin to assess associated proteins but due to technical limitations we developed the ChiP-on-chip technique to map ER...

  4. Nuclear level density of 166Er with static deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The level densities of 166 Er is calculated using the microscopic theory of interacting fermions and is compared with experimental. It is concluded that the data can be reproduced with level density formalism for nuclei with static deformation

  5. Ferske vandområder - Søer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. P.; Jeppesen, E.; Søndergaard, M.

    Forord: Denne rapport er udarbej-det af Danmarks Mil-jøunder-søgelser som et led i den lands-dæk-ken-de rapportering af Vand-miljøpla-nens Over-vågningspro-gram. Over-vågningsprogram-met blev iværksat efteråret 1988. Hensigten med Vand-miljøplanens over-vågningsprogram er at undersøge effekten af......-miljøet med nærings-salte. Danmarks Miljøundersø-gelser har som sektor-forskningsinstitu-tion i Miljø- og Energiministeriet til opgave at forbedre og styrke det fagli-ge grundlag for de mil-jøpolitiske prioriteringer og beslut-ninger. En væsentlig del af denne opgave er overvågning af miljø og natur. Det er...

  6. Magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of NdCrTiO5 revealed by systematically rare-earth doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Feng, Zhenjie; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Bojie; Chu, Hao; Huang, Ping; Wang, Difei; Qian, Xiaolong; Yu, Chuan; Wang, Guohua; Deng, Dongmei; Jing, Chao; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang

    2018-01-01

    We have systematically synthesized polycrystalline samples of Nd0.9A0.1CrTiO5 (A = Pr, Nd, Gd, Dy, Er, Tm, and Yb), and have investigated their crystal structure, polarization and magnetic susceptibility. The polarization values of doped samples are suppressed comparing to pure NdCrTiO5 sample, which indicates that the polarization is highly dependence with the magnetic moments of doping ions. The TN of Cr-Cr in Nd0.9A0.1CrTiO5 are dominated by both the suppression effect caused by doped magnetic moment increment and the enhancement effect caused by c axis contracting. We conclude that the magnetic moments in the rare-earth Nd sites play an important role in the magnetoelectric effect in NdCrTiO5 family. The substitution effect discussion here can help us well understand the intrinsic mechanism and provide a possible guidance in exploring new magnetoelectric coupling systems.

  7. Er det økologisk madordninger ofte sundere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    Det europæiske skolemad system er under forandring, en forandring der er blevet kaldt den europæiske skolemad revolution af Morgan & Sonnino (2008). Forandringen består af to afgørende søjler/indsatsområder; 1) Krav til sundere kostvaner; 2) Flere økologiske fødevarer. Denne forskning harundersøg...

  8. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Ib Schou

    2014-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  9. Outdoor Adventure er mulighedernes læringslandskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning.......Global Nutrition and Health er en ny international uddannelse for ernærings- og sundhedsstuderende ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol. De tilbydes Outdoor Adventure, som bryder de vante rammer for undervisning....

  10. "Det man hører, er man selv"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (20)00erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal...

  11. A model for the generation and interconversion of ER morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Shemesh, Tom; Klemm, Robin W.; Romano, Fabian B.; Wang, Songyu; Vaughan, Joshua; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Kozlov, Michael M.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important membrane-bound organelle in all eukaryotic cells. Depending on cell type and functional state, the ER membrane can adopt different morphologies, including a network of interconnected tubules, and sheets that can contain fenestrations or be stacked on top of each other. How these different morphologies are generated is unclear. Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical model that explains the formation and interconversion of virtually all known...

  12. Er Native Advertising en gråzone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2018-01-01

    Native advertising ser ud til at være den perfekte syntese mellem læsernes ønske om interessant indhold og annoncørers ønske om at komme tættere på kunderne. Men native advertising er også anklaget for at være fundamentalt uetisk i sin virkemåde, og måske er de gode oplevelser faktisk netop et...

  13. Measuring the Digital Divide with PingER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the PingER project/toolkit and show its relevance to monitoring sites in developing countries. We then show results from PingER that illustrate the extent of the Digital Divide in terms of Internet performance between developed and developing regions, which developing regions are catching up, keeping up, or falling behind and the magnitude of the differences in performance between developed regions and developing regions.

  14. Det man tænker er man selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Philip

    2017-01-01

    I en tid, hvor ”det postfaktuelle samfund” er det mest populære udtryk øst for Valby bakke, er det vigtigt for de profaktuelle fanebærere at forstå, at fakta og evidens ikke i sig selv ændrer på folks opfattelse og holdninger. For at evidensbaserede argumenter skal få en vigtig position i samfund...

  15. Vækstplan DK er en snuptagsløsning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Rasmussen, Martin Møller

    2013-01-01

    Med Vækstplan DK har Helle Thorning-Schmidt glemt en socialdemokratisk kongstanke i ambitionen om at skyde hurtig genvej til genvalg. Planen er først og fremmest udtryk for kortsigtet finanspolitik og ikke langsigtet konkurrenceevnepolitik.......Med Vækstplan DK har Helle Thorning-Schmidt glemt en socialdemokratisk kongstanke i ambitionen om at skyde hurtig genvej til genvalg. Planen er først og fremmest udtryk for kortsigtet finanspolitik og ikke langsigtet konkurrenceevnepolitik....

  16. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-01-01

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi 2 composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al 8 Cr 5 and CrNi 2 chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  17. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  18. Overvågning af orkidéer 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, P.

    resultaterne af orkidéovervågningen (Wind 2001). Hertil kommer præsentationen af projektet og dets resultater efter forløbet af de første tre år (Løjtnant 1991a) og en bearbejdning af projektets resultater for årene 1987-1995 (Wind 1997). I nærværende rapport undersøges skov-hullæbe for en eventuel sammenhæng...... mellem skudanlæggelsen udtrykt ved antallet af blomstrende og vegetative skud i et givet år og nedbørsmængder i august og september året før. Det er en udbredt antagelse at der er en sammenhæng mellem skudanlæggelse og mængden af nedbør det foregående år. Undersøgelser af skov-hullæbe populationer i...... truet og sårbar samt de to arter der er omfattet af Habitatdirektivets bilag 2. I 2000 kan det i forhold til 1999 konstateres at der i 15 bestande er optalt et øget antal skud. I 11 bestande er der noteret en nedgang i antallet af skud sammenlignet med optællingerne i 1999. Af disse er der 2 be...

  19. Analysis of erythema after Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Na Young; Ahn, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Nam; Kye, Young-Chul

    2007-11-01

    Postoperative erythema can be expected to occur in every patient after laser resurfacing, and pigmentary disturbances may be related to the intensity and the duration of erythema. This study was undertaken to assess the clinical features of erythema, the factors that influence its duration, and the relation between the duration of erythema and the incidence of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation in skin of Asian persons after Er:YAG laser resurfacing. A total of 218 patients (skin phototypes III to V) were recruited and treated with a short-pulsed Er:YAG laser, a variable-pulsed Er:YAG laser, or a dual-mode Er:YAG laser for skin resurfacing. Clinical assessments were performed retrospectively using medical charts and serial photographs. Postoperative erythema was observed in all patients after Er:YAG laser resurfacing with a mean duration of 4.72 months. In 98.2% of patients, erythema faded completely within 12 months. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed in 38.1% of patients after Er:YAG laser resurfacing. Skin phototype, level of ablation, and depth of thermal damage caused by a long-pulsed laser appear to be important factors that affect the duration of erythema. Moreover, prolonged erythema was related to the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  20. A model for the generation and interconversion of ER morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Tom; Klemm, Robin W; Romano, Fabian B; Wang, Songyu; Vaughan, Joshua; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Kozlov, Michael M; Rapoport, Tom A

    2014-12-09

    The peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms different morphologies composed of tubules and sheets. Proteins such as the reticulons shape the ER by stabilizing the high membrane curvature in cross-sections of tubules and sheet edges. Here, we show that membrane curvature along the edge lines is also critical for ER shaping. We describe a theoretical model that explains virtually all observed ER morphologies. The model is based on two types of curvature-stabilizing proteins that generate either straight or negatively curved edge lines (R- and S-type proteins). Dependent on the concentrations of R- and S-type proteins, membrane morphologies can be generated that consist of tubules, sheets, sheet fenestrations, and sheet stacks with helicoidal connections. We propose that reticulons 4a/b are representatives of R-type proteins that favor tubules and outer edges of sheets. Lunapark is an example of S-type proteins that promote junctions between tubules and sheets. In a tubular ER network, lunapark stabilizes three-way junctions, i.e., small triangular sheets with concave edges. The model agrees with experimental observations and explains how curvature-stabilizing proteins determine ER morphology.

  1. Herp enhances ER-associated protein degradation by recruiting ubiquilins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Eunmin; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Yoon, Jong-Bok

    2008-01-01

    ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) is a protein quality control system of ER, which eliminates misfolded proteins by proteasome-dependent degradation and ensures export of only properly folded proteins from ER. Herp, an ER membrane protein upregulated by ER stress, is implicated in regulation of ERAD. In the present study, we show that Herp interacts with members of the ubiquilin family, which function as a shuttle factor to deliver ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome for degradation. Knockdown of ubiquilin expression by small interfering RNA stabilized the ERAD substrate CD3δ, whereas it did not alter or increased degradation of non-ERAD substrates tested. CD3δ was stabilized by overexpressed Herp mutants which were capable of binding to ubiquilins but were impaired in ER membrane targeting by deletion of the transmembrane domain. Our data suggest that Herp binding to ubiquilin proteins plays an important role in the ERAD pathway and that ubiquilins are specifically involved in degradation of only a subset of ubiquitinated targets, including Herp-dependent ERAD substrates

  2. AFM observation of OMVPE-grown ErP on InP substrates using a new organometal tris(ethylcyclopentadienyl)erbium (Er(EtCp)3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akane, T.; Jinno, S.; Yang, Y.; Kuno, T.; Hirata, T.; Isogai, Y.; Watanabe, N.; Fujiwara, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Takeda, Y.

    2003-01-01

    ErP has been grown on InP(0 0 1) substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) using a new liquid organic Er source: tris(ethylcyclopentadienyl)erbium (Er(EtCp) 3 ). Morphological change of an ErP layer on InP(0 0 1) is investigated together with that of an overgrown capping InP layer. Optimum growth condition of InP causes islanding on over-monolayer-ErP. A relatively low overgrowth temperature of InP is a key factor for attaining complete capping coverage on ErP

  3. ER, PgR, Ki67, p27Kip1, and histological grade as predictors of pathological complete response in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy using taxanes followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide concomitant with trastuzumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurozumi, Sasagu; Inoue, Kenichi; Takei, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Horiguchi, Jun; Takeyoshi, Izumi; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with taxanes followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC), and concurrent trastuzumab is a potent regimen for HER2 over-expressing breast cancer. A high pathological complete response (pCR) rate has been achieved using this regimen; however, the predictive factors and prognostic effects of pCR currently remain unclear. In the present study, we determined whether pCR was related to histological grade (HG) and several biological factors including p27 Kip1 . We also assessed the prognosis of the pCR and non-pCR groups, and expected differences between those positive and negative for lymph node metastasis after chemotherapy. A total of 129 Japanese women with HER2-positive invasive breast cancer received either paclitaxel or docetaxel followed by FEC, with the concomitant administration of trastuzumab. The statuses of HG, ER, PgR, Ki67, and p27 Kip1 were evaluated to determine their relationship with pCR. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were also analyzed for their relationship with pCR and pathological nodal involvement. pCR was obtained in 84 out of 129 patients and the pCR rate was 65.1 %. The pCR rates related to 5 factors were as follows: HG (grade 3, 70.0 % vs. grades 1–2, 36.8 %), ER (negative, 78.6 % vs. positive, 40.0 %), PgR (negative, 75.3 % vs. positive, 38.9 %), Ki67 (high, 72.0 % vs. low, 47.2 %), and p27 Kip1 (low, 71.0 % vs. high, 50.0 %). RFS was significantly better in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (p = 0.018). Patients with remaining nodal disease in the pCR group had worse OS (p = 0.0002). High-HG, low-ER, low-PgR, high-Ki67, and low-p27 Kip1 were identified as predictive factors of pCR in NAC with trastuzumab, while pCR and negative nodes were predictive of better survivals. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1641-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. An ER protein functionally couples neutral lipid metabolism on lipid droplets to membrane lipid synthesis in the ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markgraf, Daniel F; Klemm, Robin W; Junker, Mirco; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K; Ejsing, Christer S; Rapoport, Tom A

    2014-01-16

    Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that, in S. cerevisiae, LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein (Ice2p) facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG degradation and synthesis, promoting the rapid relocalization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An ER Protein Functionally Couples Neutral Lipid Metabolism on Lipid Droplets to Membrane Lipid Synthesis in the ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Markgraf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG in lipid droplets (LDs. Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. We show that, in S. cerevisiae, LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG. During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein (Ice2p facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic domain with affinity for LDs and is required for the efficient utilization of LD-derived DAG in the ER. Ice2p breaks a futile cycle on LDs between TAG degradation and synthesis, promoting the rapid relocalization of Dga1p to the ER. Our results show that Ice2p functionally links LDs with the ER and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption.

  6. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-01-01

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-Lα, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm 2 irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm 2 UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  7. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Brook, Mark N.; Orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather S.; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E.; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G.; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J.; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L.; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S.; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H.; Radice, Paolo; teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C.; Park, Daniel J.; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J. Van't; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Berg, David Van Den; Stram, Daniel O.; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; John, Esther M.; Chen, Gary K.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Millikan, Robert M.; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E.; Berg, Christine D.; Hoover, Robert N.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Willett, Walter C.; Hunter, David J.; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M.; Sherman, Mark E.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kraft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20-30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry. The etiology and clinical behavior of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including

  8. Is CR39 worth the effort?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    CR39 proton sensitive track detectors were greeted by the radiation protection community at the end of the last decade as a major breakthrough for personnel neutron dosimetry. A number of laboratories eagerly began research on application of CR39 to their dosimetry needs. However, in the last two or three years the enthusiasm has subsided, and many health physicists have stopped working with the material. The number of participants using CR39 in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Personnel Intercomparison Studies dropped from six in 1985 to three in 1986. On a national level, the Federal Republic of Germany with researchers active in CR39 research recently adopted an albedo system as their national standard. In contrast, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of a CR39 based combination dosimeter to meet Department wide dosimetry needs. The English National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) now features the use of CR39 in the NRPB PADC(CR39). There has obviously been a range of experiences with CR39 in the dosimetry community. Why has this been the case, and what is the proper role for CR39 in personnel neutron dosimetry. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Les nanostructures pour créer de la couleur, un art inspiré par la nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Les reflets changeants des plumes de la queue du paon ont captivé plus d'un esprit curieux. Le scientifique anglais Robert Hooke les qualifiait en 1665 de « surnaturelles » en constatant que, mouillées, elles perdaient leurs couleurs. À l'aide du microscope inventé depuis peu, il observa ces plumes, et découvrit qu'elles étaient couvertes de stries - qu'il suspecta d'être à l'origine des couleurs. Aujourd'hui, la recherche tente de s'inspirer de ces phénomènes : des applications « bio-inspirées » sont en voie de concrétisation. ARRAY(0x29ad218)

  10. A pornografia como paródia: humor e crítica nos machinimas eróticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Krischke Leitão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, based on our ethnographic research conducted in a 3D virtual world, we discuss the production of erotic machinima as a form of altporn. Machinima is a technique that allows the production of films in digital platforms such as games and 3D virtual worlds. We argue that erotic machinimas, understood as parody of pornography itself, establish a critique of mainstream pornography.

  11. Créer avec SketchUp 16 projets, de l'architecture au théâtre

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Grâce à SketchUp, la 3D n'est plus l'apanage des seuls programmes de CAO spécialisés. Plus besoin d investir des milliers d euros en logiciels et en matériel informatique haut de gamme ! Les concepteurs comme le grand public disposent maintenant d un outil efficace, rapide et intuitif pour modéliser en trois dimensions le fruit de leur imagination. Cet ouvrage, à l'approche originale et concrète, vous dispense des conseils pour acquérir de bonnes pratiques d'utilisation de SketchUp, manier ses fonctions avancées et le faire collaborer avec d'autres logiciels. Il présente un tour d horizon de SketchUp et 16 cas d'utilisation professionnelle réels, couvrant une vaste gamme de métiers, de l'architecture à la menuiserie en passant par le graphisme, la scénographie, la géologie, l'ingénierie ou l'infographie. Chaque auteur partage avec vous ses méthodes et astuces, issues de sa pratique professionnelle, qui vous permettront de gagner du temps et de dépasser les limites apparentes parfois rencon...

  12. Competing exchange interactions and their relevance for the magnetisation process in RMn6-xCrxSn6 powders (R=Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabers, J.H.V.J.; Zhou, G.F.; Colpa, J.H.P.; Buschow, K.H.J.; De Boer, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    The free-powder magnetisation of RMn 6-x Cr x Sn 6 compounds has been measured for compounds with R=Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er in fields up to 38 T, and interpreted in terms of a simple model, which is also outlined in this paper. From the measurements, estimates for the R-3d mean-field coupling constant (n RT ) could be derived for the cases where R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er. In turn, the n RT values can be related to the microscopic spin-coupling constant (J RT ). In the case of YMn 6 Sn 6 the high-field measurement presents evidence for a very weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the Mn layers. Furthermore, values for the Mn moments (μ Mn ) were also derived from the magnetisation measurements. The estimated μ Mn values are of the order of 2.0 μ B . ((orig.))

  13. Med sjefen på Facebook: En studie av ledere som er "venner" med sine ansatte

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    MR690 Masteroppgave i organisasjon og ledelse - utdanningsledelse Formålet med studien er å belyse hvordan aktiv bruk av sosiale medier, i dette tilfellet Facebook, påvirker relasjoner mellom mennesker. Hva skjer når en tar i bruk en websjanger som i utgangspunktet er umiddelbar og uformell, til jobbrelatert og mer formell kommunikasjon? Er det sjangeren eller relasjonen som endres? Søkelyset rettes mot ledere som er “venner” med sine medarbeidere, og problemstillingen er...

  14. Krigens første offer er også truet i fredstid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlev, Jeanette

    2018-01-01

    Sandheden er krigens første offer, lyder det. Men informationskrig finder også sted i fredstid, og også her er sandheden jaget vildt. ’Fake News’ er det nye modeord, selv om det ikke er nyt. Det behøver ikke at være værre, end vi selv gør det. Det farlige opstår først, når vi er ligeglade....

  15. Formation enthalpies of LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) interlanthanide perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jianqi [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Guo, Xiaofeng [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mielewczyk-Gryn, Aleksandra [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Department of Solid State Physics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Navrotsky, Alexandra, E-mail: anavrotsky@ucdavis.edu [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    High-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry using 3Na{sub 2}O·MoO{sub 3} at 802 °C was performed for interlanthanide perovskites LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm and Yb) and lanthanide oxides (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The enthalpies of formation of these interlanthanide perovskites from binary lanthanide oxides at room temperature (25 °C) were determined to be −8.3±3.4 kJ/mol for LaHoO{sub 3}, −9.9±3.0 kJ/mol for LaErO{sub 3}, −10.8±2.7 kJ/mol for LaTmO{sub 3} and −12.3±2.9 kJ/mol for LaYbO{sub 3}. There is a roughly linear relationships between these enthalpy values and the tolerance factor for these and for other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites, confirming that the distortion of the perovskites as results from ionic radius difference of A-site and B-site cations, is the main factor determining the stability of these compounds. - Graphical abstract: A linear relationship between the enthalpy of formation and the tolerance factor for interlanthanide LaLn'O{sub 3} (Ln'=Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb) and other LaM{sup 3+}O{sub 3} (M=In, Sc, Ga, Al, Fe and Cr) perovskites. - Highlights: • Interlanthanide perovskites were synthesized by solid state reactions. • Their enthalpies of formation were measured by oxide melt solution calorimetry. • ΔH{sub f,ox} shows a linear relationship with tolerance factor.

  16. Nuclear structure of 54Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, S.; Gunye, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The large amount of the experimental data accumulated in recent years on the levels of fp-shell nuclei, especially on the properties of the high spin states studied through heavy-ion reactions, needs to be explained systematically on theoretical basis. The exact shell model calculations are not feasible for most of these nuclei. The restricted shell-model calculations, however, do not give a proper account of the experimental data. The nuclear structure of 54 Cr has been investigated in the framework of Hartree-Fock Projection formation employing effective interaction in the configuration space of the full fp-shell. The band-mixed wave functions obtained from the lowest four intrinsic states have been used to compute energy levels and electromagnetic properties. The present calculations give a fairly good account of the available data. (author)

  17. Neutron dosimeter utilizing CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, H.V.C. de.

    1991-05-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter has been developed with discretization in a wide range of energies of real interest, utilizing the CR-39 polymer, to detect recoil protons in the fast range, and alpha particles in the thermal and epithermal ranges, with possibility to be disposed in the IRD/CNEN's conventional film badge suport. They are presented, abstractly, the difficulties and importance of the neutron dosimetry, beyond the general objectives that motivated this work execution. The details of the materials utilized in the dosimeter confection, and the experimental methodology employed to obtain the performance curves are presented. The results about linearity response of the dosimeter with respect to equivalent dose, in a wide range of doses, and about the verified angular dependence are analysed. (author)

  18. ER phospholipid composition modulates lipogenesis during feeding and in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Wang, Bo; Palladino, Elisa Nd; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2017-10-02

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Exogenous delivery of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine to ER accelerated SREBP-1c processing through a mechanism that required an intact SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) pathway. Furthermore, induction of the phospholipid-remodeling enzyme LPCAT3 in response to liver X receptor (LXR) activation promoted SREBP-1c processing by driving the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into ER. Conversely, LPCAT3 deficiency increased membrane saturation, reduced nuclear SREBP-1c abundance, and blunted the lipogenic response to feeding, LXR agonist treatment, or obesity-linked insulin resistance. Desaturation of the ER membrane may serve as an auxiliary signal of the fed state that promotes lipid synthesis in response to nutrient availability.

  19. ER stress proteins in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eMorito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, heat shock proteins (HSPs have been implicated in inflammatory responses and autoimmunity. HSPs were originally believed to maintain protein quality control in the cytosol. However, they also exist extracellularly and appear to act as inflammatory factors. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggested that the other class of stress proteins such as, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress proteins, which originally act as protein quality control factors in the secretory pathway and are induced by ER stress in inflammatory lesions, also participate in inflammation and autoimmunity. The immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (Bip/glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78, homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp, calnexin, calreticulin, glucose-regulated protein 94 (Grp94/gp96, oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150 and heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47/Serpin H1, which are expressed not only in the ER but also occasionally at the cell surface play pathophysiological roles in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as pro- or anti-inflammatory factors. Here we describe the accumulating evidence of the participation of ER stress proteins in autoimmunity and inflammation and discuss the critical differences between the two classes of stress proteins.

  20. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  1. DEBONDING OF CERAMIC BRACKETS BY ER:YAG LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan ALAKUŞ-SABUNCUOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG laser debonding of ceramic brackets on the bond strength and the amount of adhesive resin remnant. Materials and Methods: Twenty human mandibular incisors were randomly divided into two groups of 10 and polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Transcend series 6000, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA were bonded on enamel surfaces. Group 1 was the control group in which no laser application was performed prior to the shear bond strength (SBS testing. In Group 2, Er:YAG was applied in 3W power for 6 seconds using the scanning method. The brackets were tested for SBS with an Instron universal testing machine and results were expressed in megapascals (MPa. The amount of adhesive remnant was evaluated with Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean ± standard deviation of SBS values in the control group was 13.42 ±1.23 MPa and 8.47 ±0.71 MPa in the Er:YAG group and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. The evaluation of ARI scores demonstrated more adhesive was left on the enamel surface with Er:YAG group. Conclusion: 3W power Er:YAG laser application with the scanning method to polycrystalline ceramic brackets demonstrated lower bond strengths and higher ARI scores during the debonding procedure.

  2. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in leather and elicitation of eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Barré; Menne, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the content of Cr(VI) and soluble Cr(III) in leather and the ability of the leather to elicit eczema in chromium allergic patients. An array of chromium-tanned leather samples was analysed for the content of total Cr(VI) and sol...

  3. Cr-Ni ALLOY ELECTRODEPOSITION AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL PURE Cr COATING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cr coating is widely used as the outer surface of precision parts due to its attractive appearance and superior corrosion resistance properties. It is obtained by electrodeposition via a conventional bath with hexavalent Cr ions. This manufacturing technique has many drawbacks, such as very low efficiency and high operating temperature and it is hazardous to health. In this work, we studied a Cr-Ni alloy deposition technique and compared the alloy coating properties to those with conventional Cr coating. Sequential two-step alloy electrodeposition was also compared. We took varying concentrations of Cr, Ni and complexing agents for the electrodeposition of Cr-Ni alloy and sequential Cr-Ni alloy coating on mild steel. Operating parameters, i.e. current density and temperature, were varied to examine their effects on the coating properties. The coatings thus obtained were characterized by visual observation, corrosion test, microhardness measurement, morphology and chemical analysis. The Cr-Ni alloy coating was found to be more corrosion resistant in 5% NaCl solution and harder than the pure Cr coating obtained by conventional electrodeposition. Toxic gas was produced in a much lower extent in the alloy coating than the conventional Cr coating technique. Again, the two-step Cr-Ni alloy coating was found better in terms of corrosion resistance as well as hardness compared to the Cr-Ni alloy coating. The process was also found to be much more environmentally friendly.

  4. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fracture toughness. Keywords. Cermet; Cr3C2–NiCr; sintering; mechanical properties. ... et al investigated the mechanical properties of VC, Cr3C2 and NbC doped ..... Huang S G, Li L, Van der Biest O and Vleugels J 2008 J. Alloys. Compds.

  5. Application of double-spike isotope dilution for the accurate determination of Cr(III), Cr(VI) and total Cr in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Ciceri, Elena; Mester, Zoltán; Sturgeon, Ralph E

    2006-11-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in yeast using species-specific double-spike isotope dilution (SSDSID) with anion-exchange liquid chromatography (LC) separation and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (SF-ICP-MS) detection. Total Cr is quantitated using ID SF-ICP-MS. Samples were digested on a hot plate at 95+/-2 degrees C for 6 h in an alkaline solution of 0.5 M NaOH and 0.28 M Na2CO3 for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), whereas microwave-assisted decomposition with HNO3 and H2O2 was used for the determination of total Cr. Concentrations of 2,014+/-16, 1,952+/-103 and 76+/-48 mg kg-1 (one standard deviation, n=4, 3, 3), respectively were obtained for total Cr, Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the yeast sample. Significant oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) (24.2+/-7.6% Cr(III) oxidized, n=3) and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) (37.6+/-6.5% Cr(VI) reduced, n=3) occurred during alkaline extraction and subsequent chromatographic separation at pH 7. Despite this significant bidirectional redox transformation, quantitative recoveries for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were achieved using the SSDSID method. In addition, mass balance between total Cr and the sum of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) concentrations was achieved. Method detection limits of 0.3, 2 and 30 mg kg-1 were obtained for total Cr, Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively, based on a 0.2-g sub-sample.

  6. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 Precipitation: Implications for Cr Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Bo; Hu, Yandi

    2016-02-16

    The formation of (Fe, Cr)(OH)3 nanoparticles determines the fate of aqueous Cr in many aquatic environments. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, precipitation rates of (Fe, Cr)(OH)3 nanoparticles in solution and on quartz were quantified from 0.1 mM Fe(III) solutions containing 0-0.25 mM Cr(III) at pH = 3.7 ± 0.2. Concentration ratio of aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) controlled the chemical composition (x) of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 precipitates, solutions' supersaturation with respect to precipitates, and the surface charge of quartz. Therefore, the aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) ratio affected homogeneous (in solution) and heterogeneous (on quartz) precipitation rates of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 through different mechanisms. The sequestration mechanisms of Cr(III) in precipitates were also investigated. In solutions with high aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) ratios, surface enrichment of Cr(III) on the precipitates occurred, resulting in slower particle growth in solutions. From solutions with 0-0.1 mM Cr(III), the particles on quartz grew from 2 to 4 nm within 1 h. Interestingly, from solution with 0.25 mM Cr(III), particles of two distinct sizes (2 and 6 nm) formed on quartz, and their sizes remained unchanged throughout the reaction. Our study provided new insights on homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 nanoparticles, which can help determine the fate of Cr in aquatic environments.

  7. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  8. IRE1: ER stress sensor and cell fate executor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yani; Brandizzi, Federica

    2013-11-01

    Cells operate a signaling network termed the unfolded protein response (UPR) to monitor protein-folding capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is an ER transmembrane sensor that activates the UPR to maintain the ER and cellular function. Although mammalian IRE1 promotes cell survival, it can initiate apoptosis via decay of antiapoptotic miRNAs. Convergent and divergent IRE1 characteristics between plants and animals underscore its significance in cellular homeostasis. This review provides an updated scenario of the IRE1 signaling model, discusses emerging IRE1 sensing mechanisms, compares IRE1 features among species, and outlines exciting future directions in UPR research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ER=EPR, GHZ, and the consistency of quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture. It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Hydrogeology of the Umm Er Radhuma Aquifer (Arabian peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Heiko; Al Ajmi, Hussain; Kienast, Peter; Rausch, Randolf

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this article is to enhance the understanding of the Umm Er Radhuma aquifer's genesis, and its hydraulic and hydrochemical development over time. This is a prerequisite for wise use of the fossil groundwater resources contained within. The Umm Er Radhuma is a karstified limestone aquifer, extending over 1.6 Mio. km2 in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Both epigene and hypogene karstification contributed to the genesis of what is today the most prolific aquifer in the region. Besides man-made abstractions, even the natural outflows are higher than the small recharge (natural storage depletion). The Umm Er Radhuma shows that large aquifers in arid regions are never in "steady state" (where inflows equal outflows), considering Quaternary climate history. The aquifer's adaption to climate changes (precipitation, sea level) can be traced even after thousands of years, and is slower than the climate changes themselves.

  11. The ERS role on Tobacco Control Policy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gratziou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Respiratory Society is an international medical organisation that brings together physicians, healthcare professionals, scientists and other experts working in respiratory medicine. Its aim is to alleviate suffering from respiratory diseases and promote lung health globally through science, education and advocacy. ERS has since its founding in 1990 demonstrated strong commitment to tobacco control. Through scientific assemblies, education courses, various alliances and collaboration (Framework Convention Alliance, European Chronic Disease Alliance, World Health Organisation etc. As well as a Tobacco Control Committee (TCC dedicated to advocacy, ERS constantly strives to promote strong and evidence-based policies to reduce the burden of tobacco related diseases. One of the main outcome of the TCC is the creation of Smokehaz, a website aimed at providing policy-makers with scientific information on the Health hazards associated with smoking. Recently, ERS created the Latin-America Working Group which aims at strengthening tobacco control activities in Spain, Portugal and Latin-American countries.

  12. ER=EPR, GHZ, and the consistency of quantum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper illustrates various aspects of the ER=EPR conjecture. It begins with a brief heuristic argument, using the Ryu-Takayanagi correspondence, for why entanglement between black holes implies the existence of Einstein-Rosen bridges. The main part of the paper addresses a fundamental question: Is ER=EPR consistent with the standard postulates of quantum mechanics? Naively it seems to lead to an inconsistency between observations made on entangled systems by different observers. The resolution of the paradox lies in the properties of multiple black holes, entangled in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger pattern. The last part of the paper is about entanglement as a resource for quantum communication. ER=EPR provides a way to visualize protocols like quantum teleportation. In some sense teleportation takes place through the wormhole, but as usual, classical communication is necessary to complete the protocol. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. I dag er eleven altid måske-egnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    "Måske-egnet" er i nutiden blevet ophøjet til et pædagogisk ideal, som elever inkluderes og ekskluderes efter. Det ses i de helt særlige forestillinger, der er knyttet til at manifestere sig som lærerende i skolen i dag. Forestillingen om læring ses ikke alene i skolen, men afspejles i en...... samfundsdiskurs, hvor livslang læring er blevet et bærende ideal. Elever i skolen fikseres i en måske-egnethed, der betyder at de aldrig for alvor dømmes ude, men heller aldrig kan føles sig sikre på at være indenfor. Hvor elever tidligere blev dømt ude på grund af manglende evner, omfattes elever i dag af et...

  14. Liquidus projection of the Nb-Cr-Al system near the Al3(Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.A.; Ferrandini, P.L.; Nunes, C.A.; Coelho, A.A.; Caram, R.

    2006-01-01

    The system Nb-Cr-Al was investigated in the region near the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic and the liquidus projection of that region was determined based on the microstructural characterization of arc melted alloys. The characterization utilized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results allowed one to determine three primary solidification liquidus surfaces ((Cr,Al) 2 Nb, Cr(Al,Nb) and Al 3 (Nb,Cr)), that are originated from the binary systems Cr-Nb, Cr-Al and Al-Nb. It is proposed the occurrence of the invariant reaction L + (Cr,Al) 2 Nb ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) and of a point of minimum, which involves a three phase reaction, L ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb). All alloys studied showed formation of the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic as the last solidification step with Al(Nb)Cr 2 precipitating from Cr(Al,Nb)

  15. Les entrevues sont axées sur la création de villes sûres et inclusives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 juin 2015 ... Cette série vidéo Entretien avec est une collection de brèves entrevues avec des partenaires de recherche du CRDI qui travaillent à créer des villes sûres et inclusives en Afrique, en Asie et en Amérique latine. Elle porte sur trois questions importantes et présente les observations de 15 équipes de ...

  16. Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

  17. Computational modelling of Er(3+): Garnet laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lee H.

    1994-01-01

    The Er(3+) ion has attracted a lot of interest for four reasons: (1) Its (4)I(sub 13/2) yields (4)I(sub 15/2) transition lases in the eyesafe region near 1.5 micron; (2) the (4)I(sub 13/2) transition lases near 2.8 micron, an important wavelength for surgical purposes; (3) it displays surprisingly efficient upconversion with lasing observed at 1.7, 1.2, 0.85, 0.56, 0.55, and 0.47 micron following 1.5 micron pumping; and (4) it has absorption bands at 0.96 and 0.81 micron and thus can be diode pumped. However, properties desirable for upconversion reduce the efficiency of 1.5 and 3 micron laser operation and vice versa. Since all of the processes are influenced by the host via the crystal field induced stark splittings in the Er levels, this project undertook modelling of the host influence on the Er lasinng behavior. While growth and measurement of all ten Er(3+) doped garnets is the surest way of identifying hosts which maximize upconversion (or conversly, 1.5 and 3 micron performance), it is also expensive - costing approximately $10,000/material or approximately $100,000 for the materials computationally investigated here. The calculations were performed using a quantum mechanical point charge model developed by Clyde Morrison at Harry Diamond Laboratories. The programs were used to fit the Er:YAG experimental energy levels so that the crystal field parameters, B(sub nm) could be extracted. From these radial factors, rho (sub n) were determined for Er(3+) in garnets. These, in combination with crystal field components, Anm, available from X-ray data, were used to predict energy levels for Er in the other nine garnet hosts. The levels in Er:YAG were fit with an rms error of 12.2/cm over a 22,000/cm range. Predicted levels for two other garnets for which literature values were available had rms errors of less than 17/cm , showing the calculations to be reliable. Based on resonances between pairs of calculated stark levels, the model predicts GSGG as the best host

  18. Inflation er en af finanskrisens løsninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Rasmussen, Martin Møller

    2013-01-01

    Med en lille anekdote om børnepasning illustrerer den amerikanske stjerneøkonom Paul Krugman, hvorfor økonomiske recessioner opstår, og hvad vi bør stille op over for dem. Inflation er et af svarene.......Med en lille anekdote om børnepasning illustrerer den amerikanske stjerneøkonom Paul Krugman, hvorfor økonomiske recessioner opstår, og hvad vi bør stille op over for dem. Inflation er et af svarene....

  19. Induction of ER stress in macrophages of tuberculosis granulomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie A Seimon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR is an adaptive survival pathway that protects cells from the buildup of misfolded proteins, but under certain circumstances it can lead to apoptosis. ER stress has been causally associated with macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerosis of mice and humans. Because atherosclerosis shares certain features with tuberculosis (TB with regard to lesional macrophage accumulation, foam cell formation, and apoptosis, we investigated if the ER stress pathway is activated during TB infection.Here we show that ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP; also known as GADD153, phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (Ire1α and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α, and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 are expressed in macrophage-rich areas of granulomas in lungs of mice infected with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. These areas were also positive for numerous apoptotic cells as assayed by TUNEL. Microarray analysis of human caseous TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection reveal that 73% of genes involved in the UPR are upregulated at the mRNA transcript level. The expression of two ER stress markers, ATF3 and CHOP, were also increased in macrophages of human TB granulomas when assayed by immunohistochemistry. CHOP has been causally associated with ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis. We found that apoptosis was more abundant in granulomas as compared to non-granulomatous tissue isolated from patients with pulmonary TB, and apoptosis correlated with CHOP expression in areas surrounding the centralized areas of caseation.In summary, ER stress is induced in macrophages of TB granulomas in areas where apoptotic cells accumulate in mice and humans. Although macrophage apoptosis is generally thought to be beneficial in initially protecting the host from Mtb infection, death of infected macrophages in

  20. Radonsikring af boliger er et overset forretningsområde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    I mange boliger er der for meget radon i luften og dermed øget risiko for lungekræft. Men kun få af byggeriets virksomheder har øje på radonsikring som forretningsområde.......I mange boliger er der for meget radon i luften og dermed øget risiko for lungekræft. Men kun få af byggeriets virksomheder har øje på radonsikring som forretningsområde....

  1. CBS-institutleder: Der er masser af muligheder i blockchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Flere virksomheder fokuserer på blockchain, ligesom flere iværksættere og uddannelsesinstitutioner også gør. Derfor er der masser af muligheder i blockchain, der venter på at blive taget i brug......Flere virksomheder fokuserer på blockchain, ligesom flere iværksættere og uddannelsesinstitutioner også gør. Derfor er der masser af muligheder i blockchain, der venter på at blive taget i brug...

  2. Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Hübner, Jörg; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations.......A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations....

  3. Structure and magnetic properties of Cr nanoparticles and Cr2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.S.; Brueck, E.; Zhang, Z.D.; Tegus, O.; Li, W.F.; Si, P.Z.; Geng, D.Y.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have synthesized Cr nanoparticles by arc-discharge and Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles by subsequent annealing the as-prepared Cr nanoparticles. The structure of these nanoparticles is studied by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Most of the particles show a good crystal habit of well-defined cubic or orthorhombic shape, while some small particles show spherical shape. The as-prepared Cr nanoparticles have a BCC Cr core coated with a thin Cr 2 O 3 layer. Cr in the core of the particles heated at 873 K for 4 h is changed to Cr 2 O 3 . The results of magnetic measurements show that the Cr nanoparticles exhibit mainly antiferromagnetic properties, in addition to a weak-ferromagnetic component at lower fields. The weak-ferromagnetic component may be ascribed to uncompensated surface spins. For the field-cooled Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles, an exchange bias is observed in the hysteresis loops, which can be interpreted as the exchange coupling between the uncompensated spins at the surface and the spins in the core of the Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles

  4. Plantago lanceolata growth and Cr uptake after mycorrhizal inoculation in a Cr amended substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Nogales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from two chromium contaminated sites, one with 275 mg kg-1 of Cr (zone A and the other with 550 mg kg-1 Cr (zone B, were multiplied and tentatively identified. The effect of both fungal consortia on Plantago lanceolata plant growth in a substrate amended with 200 mg kg-1 of Cr and with 400 mg kg-1 Cr was assessed and compared with the growth of plants inoculated with Glomus intraradices BEG72. Only the plants inoculated with G. intraradices BEG72 and with the fungal consortia obtained from the area with a high Cr contamination (zone B grew in the soil with 400 mg kg-1 of Cr. The consortia of fungi from zone B, decreased the plant’s uptake/translocation of the heavy metal compared with G. intraradices BEG72. These results underscore the differential effect of AM fungi in conferring bioprotection in Cr contaminated soils.

  5. Hva er Digital Valuta? Hva slags formuerettslig produkt er digital valuta? Omfattes slike finansielle produkter av gjeldende finansreguleringer og hvordan burde de reguleres?

    OpenAIRE

    Heggen, Vilde Stuvøy

    2014-01-01

    Det er kanskje ingen overraskelse at man i internettalderen har funnet på en valuta som kun eksisterer på nett. Per i dag eksisterer det flere slike nettvalutaer, med varierende grad av oppslutning. Spørsmålet som stilles i oppgaven er hva slags formuerettslig objekt digital valuta er. Jeg regner digital valuta som alle valutaer som hovedsakelig er å finne på nett og som ikke utstedes av eller på vegne av en statsmakt. Definisjonen omfatter både kryptovalutaer som Bitcoin, som nok er mest kje...

  6. An ER Protein Functionally Couples Neutral Lipid Metabolism on Lipid Droplets to Membrane Lipid Synthesis in the ER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markgraf, Daniel F; Klemm, Robin W; Junker, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets (LDs). Here, we have addressed how LDs are functionally linked to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that, in S. cerevisiae, LD growth is sustained by LD-localized enzymes. When LDs grow in early stationary...... phase, the diacylglycerol acyl-transferase Dga1p moves from the ER to LDs and is responsible for all TAG synthesis from diacylglycerol (DAG). During LD breakdown in early exponential phase, an ER membrane protein (Ice2p) facilitates TAG utilization for membrane-lipid synthesis. Ice2p has a cytosolic...... and explain how cells switch neutral lipid metabolism from storage to consumption....

  7. Sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    2001-01-01

    Alloys for use in high temperature environments rely on the formation of an oxide layer for their protection. Normally, these protective oxides are Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 and, some times, SiO 2 . Many industrial gaseous environments contain sulfur. Sulfides, formed in the presence of sulfur are thermodynamically less stable, have lower melting points and deviate much more stoichiometrically, compared to the corresponding oxides. The mechanism of sulfidation of various metals is as yet not clear, in spite of the concerted efforts during the last decade. To help address this situation, the sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr has been studied as a function of compositional modifications and surface state of the alloy. The alloys Fe20Cr, Fe20Cr0.7Y, Fe20Cr5Al and Fe20Cr5Al0.6Y were prepared and three sets of sulfidation tests were carried out. In the first set, the alloys were sulfidized at 700 deg C and 800 deg C for 10h. In the second set, the alloys were pre-oxidized at 1000 deg C and then sulfidized at 800 deg C for up to 45h. In the third set of tests, the initial stages of sulfidation of the alloys was studied. All the tests were carried out in a thermobalance, in flowing H 2 /2%H 2 S, and the sulfidation behavior determined as mass change per unit area. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the reaction products. The addition of Y and Al increased sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr. The addition of Y altered the species that diffused predominantly during sulfide growth. It changed from predominant cationic diffusion to predominant anionic diffusion. The addition of Al caused an even greater increase in sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr, with the parabolic rate constant decreasing by three orders of magnitude. Y addition to the FeCrAl alloy did not cause any appreciable alteration in sulfidation resistance. Pre-oxidation of the FeCrAl and FeCrAlY alloys resulted in an extended

  8. Defects and color centers in SrTiD/sub 3/ monocrystals. [Pr, Nb Sm, Er, Tm additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulagin, N A

    1983-11-01

    Results are presented of investigation into crystal defects of nominally pure and activated SrTiO/sub 3/ monocrystals. It is shown that blue and yellow colour of the crystals is caused bt transition of some Ti/sup 4 +/ ions to Ti/sup 3 +/ which takes place against the background of essential change in the phase composition of crystals. Ions of iron group (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) in SrTiO/sub 3/ mainly form centres Me/sup 3 +/:(O/sup 2 -/)/sub 6/ with compensation of charge deficit by anion vacancies. Ti/sup 3 +/ ions serve as compensators at non-isovalent substitution for SrTiO/sub 3/:REI/sup 3 +/ (Pr, Nd, Er, Tm). It is shown that the presence of impurity in concentration up to 10/sup -1/ % does not affect the temperature of the phase transformation in the range of 106 K.

  9. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Posts Subjected to Laser Surface Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Siqueira, Carolina; Spadini de Faria, Natália; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Colucci, Vivian; Alves Gomes, Erica

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser irradiation on flexural strength, elastic modulus, and surface roughness and morphology of glass fiber posts (GFPs). Laser treatment of GFPs has been introduced to improve its adhesion properties. A total of 40 GFPs were divided into 4 groups according to the irradiation protocol: GC-no irradiation, GYAG-irradiation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG], GCR-irradiation with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG), and GDI-irradiation with diode laser. The GFP roughness and morphology were evaluated through laser confocal microscopy before and after surface treatment. Three-point bending flexural test measured flexural strength and elastic modulus. Data about elastic modulus and flexural strength were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p properties of GFPs.

  10. Hvem er mest fornøyd med samlivet? : samlivskvalitet blant samboere og gifte

    OpenAIRE

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Noack, Turid

    2011-01-01

    Artiklene i Samfunnsspeilet er tilgjengelige fra SSBs nettsider: http://www.ssb.no/ssp/ Norge og Sverige er land der samboerskap har en lang historie, og der denne samlivsformen er mest utbredt. I dag er et av fire samliv her til lands samboerskap. Men også her er det forskjeller mellom samboere og gifte. Hvis vi sammenlikner samlivskvaliteten blant samboere og gifte, finner vi at unge samboere i alderen 25 til 35 år er minst fornøyd med samlivet sitt. Samboere med planer om å gifte seg me...

  11. Aktiv og sund aldring, men hvad er sundhed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Aldersrelaterede forandringer og helbredsproblemer kræver fokusering på sundhed og opretholdelse af helbredet. Der er behov for et skift fra sygdomsorienteret til sundhedsorienteret biomedicinsk forskning. Forfatteren argumenterer for, at den biologiske tilgang skal ændre sig fra at være fokusere...

  12. Treating ER+ Breast Cancer with CDK4/6 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Data from the MONARCH2, PALOMA-1, and TREnd trials strongly support using CDK4/6 inhibitors alongside standard endocrine therapy for advanced ER-positive breast cancer. Including these targeted agents not only improves progression-free survival but may reverse acquired resistance to hormone treatment. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Nå, er du kommet til hægterne igen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Viggo; Grøftehauge, Nina Keller

    2011-01-01

    De jyske dialekter har - ligesom rigssproget - tre hovedtyper af udtryk for, at nogen kommer sig (af sygdom, mathed, dårlig økonomi), men det er andre udtryk, oftest baseret på verber med betydninger som "slide og slæbe, slå sig igennem" etc. Typen "komme sig" repræsenterer den bredspektrede diat...

  14. Temperature Effects of Dielectric Properties of ER Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Z. Y.; Hu, L.; Liu, M. W.; Bao, H. X.; Jiang, Y. G.; Zhou, L. W.; Tang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Sun, M.; Korobko, E. V.

    Under the consideration of the role that energy transfer and dissipation play in ER effect, an improved theory frame for ER effects, polarization-dissipation-structure-rheology, is suggested. The theory frame is substantiated by the basic physical laws and certain critical experimental facts. The dielectric response of a diatomite ER fluid to temperature is measured in the temperature range of 140 K to 400 K. By comparison of the DC conductivity with the AC effective conductivity of the sample, we found that the AC dielectric loss consists of two parts. One part comes from the DC conductivity, the other from the response of the bound charges in scope of particle to AC field. It is suggested that the response of bound charges is very important to ER effects. Besides, the effect of temperature on shear stress is measured, and interpreted based on the dielectric measurements. The source of two loss peaks in the curve of the dielectric loss versus temperature is not clear.

  15. Test dig selv: Hvilken type projektleder er du?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Hver person har sin egen måde at organisere et givent projekt på. Her kan du læse om fire typer af projektledere, som de fleste møder – og om hvorfor en mangfoldighed i typer er godt i enhver organisation....

  16. [The ethical approach applied to the TV series ER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandra, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    The television series ER presents an opportunity to reflect on ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the example of an episode in which a patient suffering from an incurable disease, unable to express his views clearly, has a tracheotomy performed on him without the consent of the team or his health care proxy.

  17. 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Guillermo Pérez Jimeno

    2008-01-01

    ResumenLos pasados días 2 y 3 de noviembre se llevó a cabo el 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), en instalaciones del Zoológico de Florencio Varela. Participaron activamente representantes de Brasil, Colombia, Holanda, Alemania y Argentina.

  18. Structural and Functional Impacts of ER Coactivator Sequential Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Zhao; Feng, Qin; Chou, Chao-Kai; Pintilie, Grigore D; Shen, Hong; Foulds, Charles E; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chiu, Wah; O'Malley, Bert W

    2017-09-07

    Nuclear receptors recruit multiple coactivators sequentially to activate transcription. This "ordered" recruitment allows different coactivator activities to engage the nuclear receptor complex at different steps of transcription. Estrogen receptor (ER) recruits steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) primary coactivator and secondary coactivators, p300/CBP and CARM1. CARM1 recruitment lags behind the binding of SRC-3 and p300 to ER. Combining cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure analysis and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that there is a close crosstalk between early- and late-recruited coactivators. The sequential recruitment of CARM1 not only adds a protein arginine methyltransferase activity to the ER-coactivator complex, it also alters the structural organization of the pre-existing ERE/ERα/SRC-3/p300 complex. It induces a p300 conformational change and significantly increases p300 HAT activity on histone H3K18 residues, which, in turn, promotes CARM1 methylation activity on H3R17 residues to enhance transcriptional activity. This study reveals a structural role for a coactivator sequential recruitment and biochemical process in ER-mediated transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Afghanistan: Håbet lever – og elektrikerne er tilkaldt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2013-01-01

    Håbet for den civile afghaner kan til tider virke som et skamskudt fyrtårn, og det bliver næppe genopbygget af kritiske observationer og selvretfærdig debat. Operationens fokus forud for de udenlandske troppers exit er at udvikle sikkerhedsinstitutionerne og skabe arbejdspladser...

  20. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE's Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems

  1. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The European biofuel market is now regulated by the directive, known as ILUC, whose wording focuses on the environmental impact of first generation biofuel development. This long-awaited clarification has arrived against the backdrop of falling oil prices and shrinking European Union biofuel consumption, which should drop by 1.7% between 2014 and 2015, according to EurObserv'ER

  2. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3293 August 2016 FANS -3D User’s Guide (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn-Ching...1.1 THEORY AND NUMERICAL ALGORITHM OF FANS CODE ............................................. 1 2. FANS -3D SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AND EXECUTION...5 3. FANS -3D CODE PARALLELIZATION

  3. Completion report for Well Cluster ER-20-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Well Cluster ER-20-6 drilling and completion project was conducted during February, March, and April of 1996 in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This project is part of the DOE`s Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject at the NTS. The primary UGTA tasks include collecting geological, geophysical, and hydrological data from new and existing wells to define groundwater quality as well as pathways and rates of groundwater migration at the NTS. A program of drilling wells near the sites of selected underground nuclear tests (near-field drilling) was implemented as part of the UGTA subproject to obtain site-specific data on the nature and extent of migration of radionuclides produced by an underground nuclear explosion. The ER-20-6 near-field drilling project was originally planned to be very similar to that recently conducted at Well Cluster ER-20-5, which was designed to obtain data on the existing hydrologic regime near the site of an underground nuclear explosion (IT, 1995; IT, 1996a). However, after further consideration of the goals of the near-field drilling program and the characteristics of the BULLION site, the TWG recommended that the ER-20-6 project be redesigned to accommodate a forced-gradient experiment. This proposed experiment is expected to yield more realistic estimates of transport parameters than can be deduced from sampling and testing natural groundwater flow systems.

  4. Kemi er hele fundamentet for vores livsførelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2011-01-01

    Talemåden “der er god kemi imellem dem” tager de fleste næppe bogstaveligt. Men som kemiker gør man, for al kommunikation mellem os mennesker styres ikke kun af lys- og lydimpulser, men også af hele den kemiske efterbehandling, der påvirker alle vores sanser....

  5. Elaboration, characterization of CrN- based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, B.; Nouveau, C.; Guillemot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were synthesized by RF dual magnetron sputtering on AISI4140 steel and silicon substrates at 200 deg. C. Multilayers coatings based on the three mono-layers such as CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were also synthesized only on Si. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the layers were determined by AFM, SEM+WDS, stress, roughness and nanoindentation measurements. The influence of the thickness on the mechanical properties of the monolayers stresses has been studied and as a consequence we compared the mono and multilayers stress state.

  6. ER Stress and β-Cell Pathogenesis of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes and Islet Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Hitomi Usui; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress affects the pathogenesis of diabetes. ER stress plays important roles, both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, because pancreatic β-cells possess highly developed ER for insulin secretion. This review summarizes the relationship between ER stress and the pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In addition, the association between islet transplantation and ER stress is discussed.

  7. Ficção a trois: erotismo, mercado e valor em trilogias eróticas de autoria feminina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda duas trilogias de ficção erótica de autoria feminina considerando a relação entre literatura, valor de mercado e circulação de capital erótico. Fifty Shades Trilogy (Cinquenta tons de cinza, da inglesa E L James, lançada em 2012 no Brasil e a Trilogia Obscena, da brasileira Hilda Hilst, lançada na década de 1990, compõem-se de modo que pode ser considerado diametralmente oposto quanto a suas estratégias de composição formal, construção temática do erotismo e limites transgressivos da pornografia. Se na primeira encontra-se o tom folhetinesco das obras comerciais, na segunda, o sentido da densidade própria do texto literário transita pelos limites da não fabulação, posto que a narratividade é decomposta por mecanismos reflexivos que remetem a uma crítica do campo literário. A reflexão proposta parte da relação com a conformidade ou desconformidade em termos do instituído ao gênero ficcional literatura erótica e ao campo do pornô em geral, às investiduras de gênero que constroem o masculino como ativo e o feminino como passivo e à lógica do mercado editorial em torno do que constitui um best seller e sua circulação no meio leitor.

  8. Optimum Er concentration for in situ doped GaN visible and infrared luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Heikenfeld, J.; Steckl, A. J.; Hommerich, U.; Seo, J. T.; Braud, A.; Zavada, J.

    2001-01-01

    GaN thin films have been doped with varying Er concentrations (0.01--10 at.%) during molecular-beam-epitaxy growth. As expected, the visible and infrared (IR) emissions, from photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL), are a strong function of Er concentration. We report on the determination of an optimum Er doping level for PL and EL intensity. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering measurements showed that the Er concentration in GaN increased exponentially with Er cell temperature. PL and EL intensity of green emission at 537 and 558 nm, due to Er 4f--4f inner shell transitions, exhibited a maximum at ∼1 at.% Er. IR PL intensity at 1.54 μm, due to another Er transition, revealed the same maximum for ∼1 at.% Er concentration. PL lifetime measurements at 537 nm showed that samples with Er concentration <1 at.% had a lifetime of ∼5 μs. For Er concentration ≥1 at.%, the lifetime decreased rapidly to values below 1 μs. This concentration quenching is believed to be due to a combination of Er cross relaxation and energy transfer to GaN defects, eventually followed by precipitation. This conclusion is supported by x-ray diffraction measurements. As a result, we have determined that the optimum Er doping concentration into GaN is ∼1 at.%. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  9. Mathematical models applied to the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez C, Margarita; Pereira da Silva, Mônica; Ferreira L, Selma G; Vasco E, Oscar

    2007-07-19

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium continuous biosorption was studied using residual brewer Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in volcanic rock. The columns used in the process had a diameter of 4.5 cm and a length of 140 cm, working at an inlet flow rate of 15 mL/min. Breakthrough curves were used to study the yeast biosorption behavior in the process. The saturation time (ts) was 21 and 45 h for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, and a breakthrough time (tb) of 4 h for Cr(III) and 5 h for Cr(VI). The uptake capacity of the biosorbent for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 48 and 60 mg/g, respectively. Two non-diffusional mathematical models with parameters t0 and sigma were used to adjust the experimental data obtained. Microsoft Excel tools were used for the mathematical solution of the two parameters used.

  10. The lattice distortion effect for zinc-blende CrAs and CrSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamana, Keita; Geshi, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Uchida, Ichiro; Shirai, Masafumi; Kusakabe, Koichi; Suzuki, Naoshi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the stability of the ferromagnetism of CrAs and CrSb in the zinc-blende structure against the lattice distortion, systematically. A calculation within the generalized gradient approximation using a full potential linearized augmented plane wave method was performed. We compared the ferromagnetic state and the antiferromagnetic state assuming tetragonal distortion with the lattice constants a and c changing independently and determined the spin polarization ratio in the ferromagnetic phase. The result shows that complete spin polarization (half-metallic ferromagnetism) remains stable even in the presence of large tetragonal distortion. On the other hand, our calculation shows that two monolayers of CrAs is enough to produce a half-metallic state in the CrAs/GaAs multilayer. Thus, the present result suggests that the half-metallic nature persists in various atomic-scale superlattices made of distorted CrAs or CrSb

  11. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. → We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. → VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. → VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  12. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan); Ogawa, Atsushi [Department of Biological Production, Akita Prefectural University, Shimosinjyou-nakano 241-438, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Suzuki, Shunji, E-mail: suzukis@yamanashi.ac.jp [Laboratory of Fruit Genetic Engineering, The Institute of Enology and Viticulture, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0005 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  13. The LLNL CR-39 personnel neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.; Westermark, J.

    1987-01-01

    We developed a personnel neutron dosimetry system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This CR-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. 3 refs., 4 figs

  14. Fe-Cr-Ni system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Phase diagram of Fe-Cr-Ni system, which is the basic one for production of corrosion resistant alloys, is considered. Data on corrosion resistance of such alloys are correlated depending on a number of factors: quality and composition of modifying elements, corrosion medium, temperature, alloy structure, mechanical and thermal treatment. Grades of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys are presented, and fields of their application are pointed out

  15. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of microviscosity changes during ER autophagy in live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Samanta, Soham; Gong, Wanjun; Liu, Wufan; Pan, Wenhui; Yang, Zhigang; Qu, Junle

    2018-02-01

    Unfolded or misfolded protein accumulation inside Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) will cause ER stress and subsequently will activate cellular autophagy to release ER stress, which would ultimately result in microviscosity changes. However, even though, it is highly significant to gain a quantitative assessment of microviscosity changes during ER autophagy to study ER stress and autophagy behaviors related diseases, it has rarely been reported yet. In this work, we have reported a BODIPY based fluorescent molecular rotor that can covalently bind with vicinal dithiols containing nascent proteins in ER and hence can result in ER stress through the inhibition of the folding of nascent proteins. The change in local viscosity, caused by the release of the stress in cells through autophagy, was quantified by the probe using fluorescence lifetime imaging. This work basically demonstrates the possibility of introducing synthetic chemical probe as a promising tool to diagnose ER-viscosity-related diseases.

  16. Design Program in Graphic User Interface Environment for Automobile ER Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. C.; Park, J. S.; Sohn, J. W.; Choi, S. B.

    This work presents a design and analysis program for vehicle devices utilizing an electrorheological (ER) fluid. The program is operated in graphic user interface (GUI) environment and the initial window is consisted of four subprogram modules which are related to ER shock absorber, ER seat damper, ER engine mount, and ER anti-lock brake system (ABS), respectively. In order to execute each module, both material properties and design parameters are to be chosen by the user. Then, the output display window shows the field-dependent performance characteristics to be considered as design criteria. In addition, control performances of the vehicle system equipped with ER devices are displayed in time and frequency domain. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed program, ER shock absorber and ER ABS are designed and manufactured and their performance characteristics are evaluated.

  17. 20 CFR 218.44 - When a remarried widow(er) annuity ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(er)— (1) Dies; (2) Becomes entitled to an old age benefit under the Social Security Act that is equal...) remarries unless the marriage is to an individual entitled to a retirement, disability, widow(er)'s, father...

  18. Improving the photoluminescence response of Er-Tm: Al2O3 films by Yb codoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhisong; Serna, R.; Afonso, C.N.; Cheng Guoan; Vickridge, I.

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous Al 2 O 3 films doped with Er, Tm and Yb have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. A broadband emission in the range 1400-1700 nm with two peaks around 1540 and 1640 nm has been observed, both in the Er-Tm and Er-Tm-Yb codoped films. The Tm-related photoluminescence (PL) intensity at 1640 nm is enhanced when codoping with Yb thus suggesting the existence of multiple energy transfer processes from Yb to Er and Er to Tm. The Er-Tm-Yb codoped film exhibits a broadband emission with a full-width half-maximum of 184 nm similar to that of the film codoped with Tm and Er but having higher Tm to Er concentration ratio and higher PL lifetime values

  19. Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that facilitate ER-to-Golgi transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, W P; Walter, P

    1999-04-01

    Many eukaryotic cell surface proteins are anchored in the lipid bilayer through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI anchors are covalently attached in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The modified proteins are then transported through the secretory pathway to the cell surface. We have identified two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LAG1 and a novel gene termed DGT1 (for "delayed GPI-anchored protein transport"), encoding structurally related proteins with multiple membrane-spanning domains. Both proteins are localized to the ER, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Deletion of either gene caused no detectable phenotype, whereas lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells displayed growth defects and a significant delay in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that LAG1 and DGT1 encode functionally redundant or overlapping proteins. The rate of GPI anchor attachment was not affected, nor was the transport rate of several non-GPI-anchored proteins. Consistent with a role of Lag1p and Dgt1p in GPI-anchored protein transport, lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells deposit abnormal, multilayered cell walls. Both proteins have significant sequence similarity to TRAM, a mammalian membrane protein thought to be involved in protein translocation across the ER membrane. In vivo translocation studies, however, did not detect any defects in protein translocation in lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells, suggesting that neither yeast gene plays a role in this process. Instead, we propose that Lag1p and Dgt1p facilitate efficient ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins.

  20. Ductilization of Cr via oxide dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.P.; Wright, I.G.; Anderson, I.M.; Sikka, V.K.; Ohriner, E.K.; Walls, C.; Westmoreland, G.; Weaver, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Work by Scruggs et al. in the 1960's demonstrated that up to 20 % tensile ductility could be achieved at room-temperature in sintered and extruded powder metallurgical Cr alloyed with MgO. During sintering, much of the MgO converts to a MgCr 2 O 4 spinel, which was hypothesized to getter nitrogen from the Cr, rendering it ductile. Recent efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have succeeded in duplicating this original effect. Preliminary results suggest that the ductilization mechanism may be more complicated than the simple nitrogen gettering mechanism proposed by Scruggs, as some ductility was observed at room-temperature in Cr-MgO alloys containing nitride precipitates. Results of microstructural characterization and room-temperature mechanical property studies are presented for Cr-6MgO-(0-2.2) Ti wt.% as a function of hot-pressing and extrusion. Possible mechanisms by which the MgO additions may improve the room-temperature ductility of Cr are discussed. (author)

  1. Traumatisme crânien grave et transport héliporté: étude prospective lorraine

    OpenAIRE

    Humbert , Hervé

    2000-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; Les modalités de prise en charge médicale préhospitalière doivent prendre en compte l'impact essentiel des facteurs d'agression cérébrale secondaire d'origine systémique sur le pronostic des traumatismes crâniens graves. Ainsi tout patient traumatisé crânien avec un score de Glasgow inférieur ou égal à 8 doit bénéficier d'une intubation orotrachéale et d'une ventilation contrôlée, d'un monitorage de la SpO2 er de la PETCO2 et éventuellement d'un remplissage. L'...

  2. Determination of Cr(VI) in wood specimen: A XANES study at the Cr K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, E.; Plarre, R.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Schoknecht, U.; Urban, K.; Juengel, P.

    2008-01-01

    The content of chromium in different oxidation states in chromium-treated wood was studied with XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) measurements at the Cr K absorption edge. It could be shown that wood samples treated with Cr(VI) (pine and beech) did still contain a measurable content of Cr(VI) after four weeks conditioning. If such wood samples were heat exposed for 2 h with 135 deg. C prior conditioning, Cr(VI) was no longer detected by XANES, indicating a complete reduction to chromium (III)

  3. Bicarbonate catalysis of exchange synthesis of [51Cr]Cr(III)-EDTA and other chromium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Strashun, A.M.; Lopez, C.; Steigman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Exchange syntheses of trivalent chromium complexes often require heating, thus limiting tagging of heat-sensitive biological compounds with 51 Cr. Bicarbonate at pH 6, accelerates the formation of mM Cr-EDTA. Accordingly, room temperature catalysis with [ 51 Cr]Cr(III) at 10 -7 -10 -8 M was investigated. Complexes were successfully formed with EDTA and iminodiacetic acid (electrophoretic analysis) and acetylacetone and tropolone (analyzed by chloroform extraction). The formation of these complexes normally requires extensive heating. (author)

  4. Isotope Effects in the Bonds of beta-CrOOH and beta-CrOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørlund Christensen, A.; Hansen, P.; Lehmann, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of orthorhombic chromium oxide hydroxide, beta -CrOOH, and the deuterated compound, beta -CrOOD, were prepared hydrothermally. The crystal structures were determined by powder profile refinement technique using neutron diffraction data. Unit cells are: beta -CrOOH: a equals 4. 862(2) A, b...... equals 4. 298(a) A, c equals 2. 995(1) A; beta -CrOOD: a equals 4. 873(5) A, b equals 4. 332(7) A, c equals 2. 963(2) A, with Z equals 2. The space group is P2//1nm or Pnnm....

  5. Cr 3d surface and bulk states in Sn1-xCrxTe/Cr crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guziewicz, E.; Szamota-Sadowska, K.; Kowalski, B.J.; Grodzicka, E.; Story, T.; Orlowski, B.A.; Johnson, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    We report a new approach to investigate metal-semiconductor interface formation. Photoemission spectroscopy was applied in order to investigate the clean surface of a Sn 0.97 Cr 0.03 Te crystal and to observe its changes under sequential deposition of small amounts of Cr atoms. In order to analyse the Cr 3d contribution to the valence band, the Fano-type resonance tuned to the Cr 3p-3d transmission was used. The experiment was designed to follow the Sn 0.97 Cr 0.03 Te/Cr interface formation process. At the clean Sn 0.97 Cr 0.03 Te surface, the Cr 3d states contribution to the valence band was found to be positioned 0.8 eV below Fermi level. After the Cr deposition processes the contribution shifted to a higher binding energy and another contribution 5.8 eV below the Fermi level also observed. (author)

  6. Hvordan kan jeg ane det jeg gør er rigtigt?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Dømmekraft er i vælten. Men hvad er dømmekraft, og hvordan er det muligt at udvikle sin dømmekraft i en virkelighed, hvor målstyring fylder stadigt mere? Artiklen tager med dømmekraftbegrebet afsæt i den nye pædagoguddannelse. Bekendtgørelsen er præget af en opfordring til at have mere opmærksomh...

  7. Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S., E-mail: yolanda@kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Lidén, Carola, E-mail: carola.liden@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Odnevall Wallinder, Inger, E-mail: ingero@kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Released reducing/complexing leather-specific species can reduce released Cr(VI). • No co-released species enable the formation of Cr(VI) in solution. • The major Cr species released from leather in phosphate buffer was Cr(III) (>82%). • No Cr(VI) was released into artificial sweat. - Abstract: About 1–3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pH < 6.5) and phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.5–8.0), measured by means of spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Co-released leather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB)

  8. Spectral variations and energy transfer processes on both Er 3+ ion concentration and excitation densities in Yb 3+-Er 3+ codoped LaF3 materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jisen; Qin Weiping; Zhao Dan; Degejihu; Zhang Jishuang; Wang Yan; Cao Chunyan

    2007-01-01

    In comparison with the up-conversion spectra of Yb 3+ -Er 3+ codopded systems reported previously, the interesting intensity changes of up-conversion luminescence between the violet, the blue, the green and the red on the both Er 3+ ion concentration and excitation density with 978 nm laser diodes as an excitation source were observed in Yb 3+ -Er 3+ codopded LaF 3 powders. In order to clarify the change mechanisms, the up-conversion spectra of LaF 3 : 10 mol% Yb 3+ , 0.5 mol% Er 3+ and LaF 3 : 10 mol% Yb 3+ , 1 mol% Er 3+ were investigated and the results indicated that the cross-relaxation processes between Er 3+ ions and the thermal population of the 2 H 11/2 level play significant roles

  9. Hvad er smag, og hvordan underviser man i og med smag?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Lars; Wistoft, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Hvad er smag, og hvordan underviser man i smag som undervisningens genstand eller med smag som et virkemiddel i undervisningen? Det er denne artikels to hovedspørgsmål. Formålet er at præsentere det, der kaldes en smagsdidaktisk refleksionsteori, dvs. en teori der reflekterer over, hvordan man un...

  10. Derfor er zoner en god idé for naturen og pengepungen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Dahl, Hjalmar

    2014-01-01

    I rapporten ”Til Gavn for Grønland” var en zoneinddeling af landet et tema. I den offentlige debat er zoneringstanken blevet opfattet, som en (urealistisk) friholdelse af arealer for industri-aktivitet. Men ideen bag zonerne er også til fordel for erhvervslivet og økonomien. Det er en prioriterin...

  11. Når mindset er nøglen til succes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Karlsmose, Jens; Kortnum, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Hvordan skaber man en arbejdspladskultur, hvor medarbejderne trives med forandringer, er udholdende og indstillede på at lære nyt? Det er for mange virksomheder et af de helt store aktuelle spørgsmål, og i flere af dem er svaret ledelse med mindsetbaserede principper. Læs her om mindset-tanketank...

  12. Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Beckley, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the two ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used in global and regional analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature trends over the last, 7.8 years. T he ERS satellites and in the future the ENVISAT satellite provide unique opportunity for monitoring both changes in sea level and sea...

  13. Searching for “LiCrIIPO4”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosymow, E.; Glaum, R.; Kremer, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    The two new phosphates LiCr II 4 (PO 4 ) 3 and Li 5 Cr II 2 Cr III (PO 4 ) 4 are discovered as equilibrium phases (ϑ=800 °C) in the quarternary system Li/Cr/P/O. Their crystal structures have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (LiCr II 4 (PO 4 ) 3 : violet-blue, Pnma (no. 62), Z=4, a=6.175(1) Å, b=14.316(3) Å, c=10.277(2) Å, 100 parameters, R 1 =0.028, wR 2 =0.08, 2060 unique reflections with F o >4σ(F o ); Li 5 Cr II 2 Cr III (PO 4 ) 4 : greyish-green, P1 ¯ (no. 2), Z=1, a=4.9379(7) Å, b=7.917(2) Å, c=8.426(2) Å, α=109.98(2)°, β=90.71(1)°, γ=104.91(1)°, 131 parameters, R 1 =0.022, wR 2 =0.067, 1594 unique reflections with F o >4σ(F o )). Li 5 Cr II 2 Cr III (PO 4 ) 4 adopts an hitherto unknown structure type. The crystal structure of LiCr II 4 (PO 4 ) 3 is isotypic to that of NaCd II 4 (PO 4 ) 3 and related to that of the mineral silicocarnotite Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 2 (SiO 4 ). Significant disorder between Li + and Cr 2+ is observed for both crystal structures. The oxidation states assigned to chromium in these two phosphates are in agreement with UV/vis/NIR absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility data recorded for both compounds. Instead of “LiCr II PO 4 ” mixtures of LiCr II 4 (PO 4 ) 3 , Li 5 Cr II 2 Cr III (PO 4 ) 4 , Cr 2 O 3 , and CrP are observed at equilibrium. Instead of “Li 2 Cr II P 2 O 7 ” four-phase mixtures consisting of Li 9 Cr III 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , Li 3 Cr III 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , LiCrP 2 O 7 , and CrP were obtained. - Graphical abstract: Investigations on the equilibrium relations in the system Li/Cr/P/O revealed the two hitherto unknown phosphates Li 5 Cr II 2 Cr III (PO 4 ) 4 and LiCr II 4 (PO 4 ) 3 . They form instead of “LiCr II PO 4 ”. The crystal structures, magnetic behavior and optical spectra of these phosphates are reported. - Highlights: • The two new phosphates Li 5 Cr II 2 Cr III (PO 4 ) 4 and LiCr II 4 (PO 4 ) 3 have been characterized. • Optical spectra and paramagnetism of

  14. Fredom and Responsibility in the Myth of Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Berzons McCoy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plato uses the myth of Er in the Republic in order to carve out space for political freedom and responsibility for human freedom in the ordinary polis. While much of the Republic concentrates on the development of an ideal city in speech, that city is fundamentally a mythos presented in order for Socrates and his friends to learn something about political and individual virtue. The city in which Socrates and his friends exist is an imperfect city and myth of Er is intended for those audience members. Its emphasis on the necessity for personal responsibility in the midst of freedom can be understood as a political claim about the place of individual choice in a world that is constrained by both political and cosmic "necessity".

  15. Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierolf, V.; Sandmann, C.; Zavada, J.; Chow, P.; Hertog, B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated different Er 3+ defect sites found in Er-doped GaN layers by site-selective combined excitation-emission spectroscopy and studied the role of these sites in different direct and multistep excitation schemes. The layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and were 200 nm thick. Two majority sites were found along with several minority sites. The sites strongly differ in excitation and energy transfer efficiencies as well as branching ratios during relaxation. For this reason, relative emission intensities from these sites depend strongly on emission and excitation. The sites were identified for several transitions and a comprehensive list of energy levels has been compiled. One of the minority sites appears strongly under ultraviolet excitation above the GaN band gap suggesting that this site is an excellent trap for excitation energy of electron-hole pairs

  16. Sodahvede og glycerol til malkekøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2011-01-01

    Et fodringsforsøg på Kvægbrugets Forsøgscenter har vist, at glycerol kan anvendes som et alternativt fodermiddel til højtydende malkekøer. De anvendte mængder gav dog en lavere EKM ydelse end sodahvede, men øgede samtidigt mælkens proteinindhold.......Et fodringsforsøg på Kvægbrugets Forsøgscenter har vist, at glycerol kan anvendes som et alternativt fodermiddel til højtydende malkekøer. De anvendte mængder gav dog en lavere EKM ydelse end sodahvede, men øgede samtidigt mælkens proteinindhold....

  17. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) ER-2 Preflight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hsiang; Wilson, John W.; Maiden, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) produces chemically active radicals in biological tissues that alter the cell function or result in cell death. The AIR ER-2 flight measurements will enable scientists to study the radiation risk associated with the high-altitude operation of a commercial supersonic transport. The ER-2 radiation measurement flights will follow predetermined, carefully chosen courses to provide an appropriate database matrix which will enable the evaluation of predictive modeling techniques. Explicit scientific results such as dose rate, dose equivalent rate, magnetic cutoff, neutron flux, and air ionization rate associated with those flights are predicted by using the AIR model. Through these flight experiments, we will further increase our knowledge and understanding of the AIR environment and our ability to assess the risk from the associated hazard.

  18. Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Němec, M; Šulc, J; Indra, L; Fibrich, M; Jelínková, H

    2015-01-01

    Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications. (paper)

  19. Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on human cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, Malgorzata; Ciszek, Bogdan; Rowinski, Jan; Strek, Wieslaw

    1996-03-01

    Irradiation of the hyaline or fibrous cartilage excised from the body of a human cadaver with Er:YAG laser beam, single pulse with a dose of 1 J, produces a crater with a depth of approximately 500 micrometers and a diameter varying from 5 to 300 micrometers. Histological examination has revealed that the laser-made craters were surrounded by a thin rim (2-10 micrometer) of charred and coagulated tissue. No damage was observed in the cartilage surrounding the rim. The presence of sharp demarcation between the tissue areas ablated by laser energy and the undamaged areas argues for the potential usefulness of the Er:YAG laser in surgery of cartilages.

  20. Antiferromagnetic ordering of Er2NiSi3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakhira, Santanu; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ternary intermetallics of the stoichiometric composition R 2 TX 3 , where, R = rare earth element, T = d-electron transition metal and X= p-electron element, crystallizes in hexagonal A1B 2 type crystal structure with space group P6/mmm. We report here the synthesis and basic magnetic properties of the compound Er 2 NiSi 3 . Paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase change occurs below 5.4 K for this compound. (author)

  1. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    After the euphoria of 2011, the European Union's photovoltaic market slowed right down in 2012. EurObserv'ER puts newly-connected capacity in 2012 at 16.5 GWp compared to 22 GWp in 2011, which is a 25% slide. At global level the market generally held up, with just over 30 GWp installed, bolstered by the build-up of the America and Asian markets

  2. Bio-fuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The European bio-fuel market is now regulated by the directive, known as ILUC, whose wording focuses on the environmental impact of first generation bio-fuel development. This long-awaited clarification has arrived against the backdrop of falling oil prices and shrinking European Union bio-fuel consumption, which should drop by 1.7% between 2014 and 2015, according to EurObserv'ER

  3. Heat pumps barometer - EurObserv'ER - September 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    Heat pumps have moved up the ranks of renewable energy - producing heating technologies since the mid-2000's. The EU Member States' individual market trends are characterised by the technologies used and their heating and cooling needs. More than 1.7 million systems were sold in the European Union in 2014. According to EurObserv'ER, several market factors were responsible for sales dipping slightly below their 2013 level of just under 2 million

  4. Virtual reality - ja det er virkelig allerede en realitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2016-01-01

    Allerede tilbage i 1980’erne kunne forskningen i medier og informationsteknologier fremvise de første prototyper på 3D virtual reality. Man kan spekulere længe over, hvad der egentligt motiverede forskningen på det tidspunkt. En motivation kunne være den ingeniørmæssige: Er det muligt at skabe en...

  5. Copenhagen vs Everett, teleportation, and ER=EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Quantum gravity may have as much to tell us about the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics as it does about gravity. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Everett's Relative State Formulation are complementary descriptions which in a sense are dual to one another. My purpose here is to discuss this duality in the light of the of ER=EPR conjecture. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Photovoltaic Barometer - EurObserv'ER - April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    The global photovoltaic market continued to expand between 2013 and 2014, rising from 37.6 GW to almost 40 GW unlike the European Union market that plummeted further. The EurObserv'ER estimate of the European photovoltaic market is about 6.9 GWp in 2014, a 32.3 % drop on 2013, yet three years earlier, in 2011, it hovered around the 22 GWp mark

  7. Excitation of spin-1 states in 166168170Er using bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, F.R.

    1976-01-01

    Some 40 states in 166 , 168 , 170 Er, most of them previously unknown, have been excited using bremsstrahlung with < or =4.2 MeV endpoint energy. For all but three of these levels, the angular distribution of the resonantly scattered radiation favors the assignment of spin 1. For some of the strongly excited levels, linear polarization measurements have been performed. They indicate that these levels have positive parity. The branching ratios further characterize them as K=1 excitations

  8. Hvad er psykologien bag stærke brands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stasiak, Adam; Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2018-01-01

    Der findes ikke kun én, men flere typer af stærke brands. Denne artikel præsenterer 4 overordnede branding strategier, med hver deres rationale og bagvedliggende psykologi. Det er kendetegnende for disse 4 strategier, at de repræsenterer en bevægelse i marketing og branding, der går fra en snæver...

  9. Beta-delayed proton activities: 147Dy and 149Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.; Moltz, D.M.; Schloemer, E.C.; Cable, M.D.; Avignone, F.T. III; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper discusses mainly the β-delayed proton spectra of 147 Dy and of the hitherto unknown isotope, 149 Er. However, following the submittal of the abstract for this conference we have now observed delayed protons following the decay of 145 Dy. Additionally, we have identified a 0.5-s delayed-proton emitter and tentatively assign it to the new isotope, 151 Yb

  10. Børsnoteret – hvad er egentlig fordele og ulemper?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Gregersen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Der hersker generel enighed om, at et velfungerende børsmarked er vigtigt blandt andet for vækst og jobskabelse. Sperling m.fl. (2016) giver i dette nummer af Finans/Invest en række eksempler på, at det danske marked for børsnoteringer af specielt små og mellemstore virksomheder med fordel kunne ...

  11. The sdg interacting-boson model applied to 168Er

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Akiyama, Y.; Arima, A.

    1986-03-01

    The sdg interacting-boson model is applied to 168Er. Energy levels and E2 transitions are calculated. This model is shown to solve the problem of anharmonicity regarding the excitation energy of the first Kπ=4+ band relative to that of the first Kπ=2+ one. The level scheme including the Kπ=3+ band is well reproduced and the calculated B(E2)'s are consistent with the experimental data.

  12. Er genomisk selektion en revolution af avlsarbejdet med mink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Peer

    2011-01-01

    Genomisk selektion udnytter, at den enkelte mink kan genotypes for tusindvis af genetiske markører. Et dyrs avlsværdi kan skønnes med ret stor sikkerhed på basis af en blod- eller hårprøve, hvor dyrets sæt af genetiske markører bestemmes. Det er altså ikke nødvendigt at registrere minkens egne eg...

  13. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical ...

  14. The Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) for ERS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delderfield, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Bernard, R.; de Javel, Y.; Williamson, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ATSR is an infrared imaging radiometer which has been selected to fly aboard the ESA Remote Sensing Satellite No. 1 (ERS1) with the specific objective of accurately determining global Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Novel features, including the technique of 'along track' scanning, a closed Stirling cycle cooler, and the precision on-board blackbodies are described. Instrument subsystems are identified and their design trade-offs discussed.

  15. Impact of incoherent pumping field and Er3+ ion concentration on group velocity and index of refraction in an Er3+-doped YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, Hossein; Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Soleimani, H Rahimpour

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Er 3+ ion concentration and incoherent pumping field on the refractive index and group index in an Er 3+ : YAG crystal is investigated. It is shown that under different concentrations of Er 3+ ion in the crystal, the index of refraction and absorption can be changed and a high index of refraction is accompanied by amplification in the medium. Also, it is shown that with the switching from subluminal to superluminal, or vice versa, light propagation can be obtained by different concentrations of Er 3+ ions in the crystal. (paper)

  16. Hvad er inklusion, og hvordan leder man det?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Qvortrup, Lars

    2014-01-01

    En fundamental forudsætning for at inklusion både kan gøres til et centralt tema og at medarbejdernes kompetencer kan styrkes, er, at alle medarbejdere ved, hvad man snakker om, og at man har en fælles, operationaliserbar forståelse af, hvad inklusion er. Der skal formuleres en definition af...... definition, som både er bredt, præcist og operationaliserbart. Derefter fremlægges forslag til, hvad man kan gøre som ledelse for at få inklusionsindsatsen til at lykkes....... inklusion i det enkelte dagtilbud, der både kan anerkendes af alle, så den gøres til et fælles anliggende, og kan operationaliseres, så alle kan se, hvad de skal gøre for at få indsatsen til at lykkes. Artiklen indledes med at diskutere de gængse definitioner af inklusion og præsentere et nyt forslag til en...

  17. Heat effect of pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibst, Raimund; Keller, Ulrich

    1990-06-01

    Pulsed Er:YAG laser radiation has been found to be effective for dental enamel and dentin removal. Damage to the surrounding hard tissue is little, but before testing the Er:YAG laser clinically for the preparation of cavities, possible effects on the soft tissue of the pulp must be known. In order to estimate pulp damage , temperature rise in dentin caused by the laser radiation was measured by a thermocouple. Additionally, temperature distributions were observed by means of a thermal imaging system. The heat effect of a single Er:YAG laser pulse is little and limited to the vicinity of the impact side. Because heat energy is added with each additional pulse , the temperature distribution depends not only on the radiant energy, but also on the number of pulses and the repetition rate. Both irradiation conditions can be found , making irreversible pulp damage either likely or unlikely. The experimental observations can be explained qualitatively by a simple model of the ablation process.

  18. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  19. Spin rotation in ErGa{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murasik, A. E-mail: amur@cyf.gov.pl; Czopnik, A. E-mail: czopnik@int.pan.wroc.pl; Keller, L. E-mail: lukas.keller@psi.ch; Fischer, P. E-mail: peter.fischer@psi.ch

    2000-04-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of ErGa{sub 3}, built up from bulk magnetisation data, shows in zero-applied magnetic field two successive transitions at T{sub 1}=2.6 and T{sub 2} congruent with 2.8 K, respectively. The magnetic ordering of ErGa{sub 3} examined by neutron diffraction, can be derived from the so-called {l_brace}((1)/(2)), ((1)/(2)), 0{r_brace} structure, i.e. one in which the successive antiparallel (1 1 0) sheets of spins have additionally superimposed on them a sinusoidal modulation parallel to the [1 0 0] axis. The temperature dependence of neutron diffraction diagrams studied on the single crystal, revealed in the range of (2.6-2.78) K an abrupt reorientation of the Er{sup 3+} spins from the nearly [1 1 0] direction, towards the [1 0 0] axis. In this way previously observed effect on the polycrystalline sample has been confirmed. This rotation can be attributed to the T{sub 1} transition found in the H-T magnetic phase diagram.

  20. Isotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Hutsemékers, Damien; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Opitom, Cyrielle; Manfroid, Jean; Jehin, Emmanuël; Meech, Karen J.; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Gillon, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that 12C/13C = 100 ± 15, 14N/15N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio from four pairs of NH2 isotopolog lines and measured 14N/15N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets.

  1. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

  2. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (Ptranspiration rate (Ptranspiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement.

  3. Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-09-15

    About 1-3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pHleather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fracture toughness and sliding properties of magnetron sputtered CrBC and CrBCN coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Fei; Ma, Qiang; Callisti, Mauro; Polcar, Tomas; Yan, Jiwang

    2018-06-01

    CrBC and CrBCN coatings with low and high B contents were deposited on 316L steel and Si wafers using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Mechanical properties including hardness (H), elastic modulus (E) and fracture toughness (KIc) as well as residual stresses (σ) were quantified. A clear correlation between structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings was found. In particular, structural analyses indicated that N incorporation in CrBC coatings with high B content caused a significant structural evolution of the nanocomposite structure (crystalline grains embedded into an amorphous matrix) from nc-CrB2/(a-CrBx, a-BCx) to nc-CrN/(a-BCx, a-BN). As a result, the hardness of CrBC coating with high B content decreased from 23.4 to 16.3 GPa but the fracture toughness was enhanced. Consequently, less cracks initiated on CrBCN coatings during tribological tests, which combined with the shielding effect of a-BN on wear debris, led to a low friction coefficient and wear rate.

  5. Cr/alpha-Cr2O3 monodispersed spherical core-shell particles based solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khamlich, S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available as reported. The coated Cr/alpha-Cr2O3 spherical particles on rough copper substrates by a simple self-assembly-like method were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance UV...

  6. Microbial conversion of Cr (VI) in to Cr (III) in industrial effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These bacterial strains also take up and reduce Cr (VI) present in industrial effluents, and their reduction potential was not significantly affected in the presence of different metallic salts. Key Words: Cr (VI) reduction, bacteria, industrial effluent, heavy metals. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(11) 2004: 610-617 ...

  7. Growth process and structure of Er/Si(100) thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, S.; Michishita, Y.; Miyamae, N.; Suto, H.; Honda, S.; Okado, H.; Oura, K.; Katayama, M.

    2006-01-01

    The solid-phase reactive epitaxial growth processes and structures of Er/Si(100) thin films were investigated by coaxial impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-deposited Er film grown at room temperature was transformed into crystalline rectangular-shaped islands after annealing at 900 deg. C. These islands have a hexagonal AlB 2 -type structure and the epitaxial relationship is determined to be ErSi 2 (011-bar0)[0001]//Si(100)[011-bar]. It has been revealed that the surface of the Er silicide island is terminated with an Er plane

  8. Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the freshwater green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharchaou, Imad [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine and CNRS, 8 rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rosabal, Maikel; Liu, Fengjie [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Battaglia, Eric; Vignati, Davide A.L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine and CNRS, 8 rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Fortin, Claude, E-mail: claude.fortin@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • C. reinhardtii accumulated similar levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). • The subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was similar. • Cr(III) and Cr(VI) associated mainly with organelles and heat-stable proteins. • Metallomic analysis showed two main Cr-binding biomolecules after 72 h of exposure. - Abstract: Chromium occurs in aquatic environments under two main redox forms, namely Cr(III) and Cr(VI), with different geochemical and biochemical properties. Cr(VI) readily crosses biological membranes of living organisms and once inside the cells it undergoes a rapid reduction to Cr(III). The route of entry for the latter form is, however, poorly known. Using the radioactive tracer {sup 51}Cr we compared the accumulation (absorption and adsorption) of the two Cr forms by the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii after 1 h and 72 h of exposure to 100 nM of either Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at pH 7. Both Cr forms had similar accumulation, with a major part in the extracellular (adsorbed) fraction after 1 h and a major part of total accumulated Cr in the intracellular (absorbed) fraction after 72 h. We also investigated the intracellular partitioning of Cr using an operational fractionation scheme and found that both Cr forms had similar distributions among fractions: Cr was mostly associated with organelles (23 ± 12% after 1 h and 37 ± 7% after 72 h) and cytosolic heat-stable proteins and peptides (39 ± 18% after 1 h and 35 ± 3% after 72 h) fractions. Further investigations using a metallomic approach (SEC-ICP-MS) were performed with the heat-stable proteins and peptides fraction to compare the distribution of the two Cr forms among various biomolecules of this fraction. One Cr-binding biomolecule (∼28 kDa) appeared after 1 h of exposure for both Cr species. After 72 h another biomolecule of lower molecular weight (∼0.7 kDa) was involved in binding Cr and higher signal intensities were observed for Cr(VI) than for Cr(III). We show, for the

  9. Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the freshwater green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharchaou, Imad; Rosabal, Maikel; Liu, Fengjie; Battaglia, Eric; Vignati, Davide A.L.; Fortin, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • C. reinhardtii accumulated similar levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). • The subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was similar. • Cr(III) and Cr(VI) associated mainly with organelles and heat-stable proteins. • Metallomic analysis showed two main Cr-binding biomolecules after 72 h of exposure. - Abstract: Chromium occurs in aquatic environments under two main redox forms, namely Cr(III) and Cr(VI), with different geochemical and biochemical properties. Cr(VI) readily crosses biological membranes of living organisms and once inside the cells it undergoes a rapid reduction to Cr(III). The route of entry for the latter form is, however, poorly known. Using the radioactive tracer "5"1Cr we compared the accumulation (absorption and adsorption) of the two Cr forms by the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii after 1 h and 72 h of exposure to 100 nM of either Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at pH 7. Both Cr forms had similar accumulation, with a major part in the extracellular (adsorbed) fraction after 1 h and a major part of total accumulated Cr in the intracellular (absorbed) fraction after 72 h. We also investigated the intracellular partitioning of Cr using an operational fractionation scheme and found that both Cr forms had similar distributions among fractions: Cr was mostly associated with organelles (23 ± 12% after 1 h and 37 ± 7% after 72 h) and cytosolic heat-stable proteins and peptides (39 ± 18% after 1 h and 35 ± 3% after 72 h) fractions. Further investigations using a metallomic approach (SEC-ICP-MS) were performed with the heat-stable proteins and peptides fraction to compare the distribution of the two Cr forms among various biomolecules of this fraction. One Cr-binding biomolecule (∼28 kDa) appeared after 1 h of exposure for both Cr species. After 72 h another biomolecule of lower molecular weight (∼0.7 kDa) was involved in binding Cr and higher signal intensities were observed for Cr(VI) than for Cr(III). We show, for the

  10. P-type Al-doped Cr-deficient CrN thin films for thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Febvrier, Arnaud; Van Nong, Ngo; Abadias, Gregory; Eklund, Per

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric properties of chromium nitride (CrN)-based films grown on c-plane sapphire by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. In this work, aluminum doping was introduced in CrN (degenerate n-type semiconductor) by co-deposition. Under the present deposition conditions, over-stoichiometry in nitrogen (CrN1+δ) rock-salt structure is obtained. A p-type conduction is observed with nitrogen-rich CrN combined with aluminum doping. The Cr0.96Al0.04N1.17 film exhibited a high Seebeck coefficient and a sufficient power factor at 300 °C. These results are a starting point for designing p-type/n-type thermoelectric materials based on chromium nitride films, which are cheap and routinely grown on the industrial scale.

  11. Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by grape stalks and yohimbe bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, Núria; Escudero, Carlos; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2008-07-01

    In this work, two low cost sorbents, grape stalks and yohimbe bark wastes were used to remove Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were designed to obtain Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption data. The mechanism of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by the two vegetable wastes, has been investigated. Fourier transform infrared rays (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis on solid phase were performed to determine the main functional groups that might be involved in metal uptake and to confirm the presence of Cr(III) on the sorbent, respectively. Results put into evidence that both sorbents are able to reduce Cr(VI) to its trivalent form.

  12. Electronic structure and magnetic ordering of the semiconducting chromium trihalides CrCl3, CrBr3, and CrI3

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-03-01

    We present results from an electronic structure investigation of the chromium halides CrCl3, CrBr3, and CrI3, as obtained by the linearized augmented plane wave method of density functional theory. Our interest focuses on the chloride. While all three halides display strong ferromagnetic coupling within the halide-Cr-halide triple layers, our emphasis is on differences in the interlayer magnetic coupling. In agreement with experimental results, our calculations indicate ferromagnetic ordering for CrBr3 as well as CrI3. The antiferromagnetic state of CrCl3 can be reproduced by introducing an on-site electron-electron repulsion. However, we observe that the ground state depends critically on the specific approach used. Our results show that a low temperature structural phase transition from monoclinic to trigonal is energetically favourable for CrCl3. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. First-Principles Calculations for Chemical Reaction between Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate and Transition-Metal (Cr) atom to Produce Cr(DDC)3 and Cr(DDC)2ODDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyanto, Henry; Muhida, Rifki; Kishi, Tomoya; Rempillo, Ofelia; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno; Di\\ {n}o, Wilson Agerico; Matsumoto, Shigeno; Kasai, Hideaki

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the chemical reaction between a Cr transition-metal atom and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC), a complexing agent used to detect and extract Cr in human blood samples. Using density-functional-theory-based calculations, we determine their stable structures of Cr(DDC)2ODDC and Cr(DDC)3 complexes and obtain their dissociation energies. We found dissociation energies of -10.66 and -3.24 eV for Cr(DDC)2ODDC and Cr(DDC)3 complexes, respectively. Hence, on the basis of dissociation energies, we have verified that the reaction of NaDDC with Cr produces Cr(DDC)2ODDC as a major product.

  14. LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Rak-Hyun; Shin, Dong Ryul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dokiya, Masayuki [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In the planar SOFC, the interconnect materials plays two roles as an electrical connection and as a gas separation plate in a cell stack. The interconnect materials must be chemically stable in reducing and oxidizing environments, and have high electronic conductivity, high thermal conductivity, matching thermal expansion with an electrolyte, high mechanical strength, good fabricability, and gas tightness. Lanthanum chromite so far has been mainly used as interconnect materials in planar SOFC. However, the ceramic materials are very weak in mechanical strength and have poor machining property as compared with metal. Also the metallic materials have high electronic conductivity and high thermal conductivity. Recently some researchers have studied metallic interconnects such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Inconel 600 cermet, Ni-20Cr coated with (LaSr)CoO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3-} or La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-dispersed Cr alloy. These alloys have still some problems because Ni-based alloys have high thermal expansion, the added Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} to metals have no electronic conductivity, and the oxide formed on the surface of Cr alloy has high volatility. To solve these problems, in this study, LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC was investigated. The LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr can be one candidate of metallic interconnect because LaCrO{sub 3} possesses electronic conductivity and Cr metal has relatively low thermal expansion. The content of 25 vol.% LaCrO{sub 3} Was selected on the basis of a theoretically calculated thermal expansion. The thermal expansion, electrical and oxidation properties were examined and the results were discussed as related to SOFC requirements.

  15. Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, Umit; Schmalz, Michael; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Petrich, Gale S; Kolodziejski, Leslie A; Fujimoto, James G; Kärtner, Franz X; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

    2011-10-10

    We report compact, low-cost and efficient Cr:Colquiriite lasers that are pumped by high brightness tapered laser diodes. The tapered laser diodes provided 1 to 1.2 W of output power around 675 nm, at an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of about 30%. Using a single tapered diode laser as the pump source, we have demonstrated output powers of 500 mW and 410 mW together with slope efficiencies of 47% and 41% from continuous wave (cw) Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers, respectively. In cw mode-locked operation, sub-100-fs pulse trains with average power between 200 mW and 250 mW were obtained at repetition rates around 100 MHz. Upon pumping the Cr:Colquiriite lasers with two tapered laser diodes (one from each side of the crystal), we have observed scaling of cw powers to 850 mW in Cr:LiSAF and to 650 mW in Cr:LiCAF. From the double side pumped Cr:LiCAF laser, we have also obtained ~220 fs long pulses with 5.4 nJ of pulse energy at 77 MHz repetition rate. These are the highest energy levels reported from Cr:Colquiriite so far at these repetition rates. Our findings indicate that tapered diodes in the red spectral region are likely to become the standard pump source for Cr:Colquiriite lasers in the near future. Moreover, the simplified pumping scheme might facilitate efficient commercialization of Cr:Colquiriite systems, bearing the potential to significantly boost applications of cw and femtosecond lasers in this spectral region (750-1000 nm).

  16. Analysis of PTA hardfacing with CoCrWC and CoCrMoSi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Scheid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available CoCrWC alloys are widely used to protect components that operate under wear and high temperature environments. Enhanced performance has been achieved with the CoCrMoSi alloys but processing this alloy system is still a challenge due to the presence of the brittle Laves phase, particularly when welding is involved. This work evaluated Plasma Transferred Arc coatings processed with the Co-based alloy CoMoCrSi - Tribaloy T400, reinforced with Laves phase, comparing its weldability to the CoCrWC - Stellite 6, reinforced with carbides. Coatings were also analyzed regarding the response to temperature exposure at 600°C for 7 days and subsequent effect on microstructure and sliding abrasive wear. Coatings characterization was carried out by light and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness. CoCrWC coatings exhibited a Cobalt solid solution dendritic microstructure and a thin interdendritic region with eutectic carbides, while CoCrMoSi deposits exhibit a large lamellar eutectic region of Laves phase and Cobalt solid solution and a small fraction of primary Laves phase. Although phase stability was observed by X-ray diffraction, coarsening of the microstructure occurred for both alloys. CoCrMoSi showed thicker lamellar Laves phase and CoCrWC coarser eutectic carbides. Coatings stability assessed by wear tests revealed that although the wear rate of the as-deposited CoCrMoSi alloy was lower than that of CoCrWC alloy its increase after temperature exposure was more significant, 22% against 15%. Results were discussed regarding the protection of industrial components in particular, bearings in 55AlZn hot dip galvanizing components.

  17. Overexpressed cyclophilin B suppresses apoptosis associated with ROS and Ca2+ homeostasis after ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhwan; Choi, Tae Gyu; Ding, Yan; Kim, Yeonghwan; Ha, Kwon Soo; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kang, Insug; Ha, Joohun; Kaufman, Randal J; Lee, Jinhwa; Choe, Wonchae; Kim, Sung Soo

    2008-11-01

    Prolonged accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Cyclophilins are protein chaperones that accelerate the rate of protein folding through their peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. In this study, we demonstrated that ER stress activates the expression of the ER-localized cyclophilin B (CypB) gene through a novel ER stress response element. Overexpression of wild-type CypB attenuated ER stress-induced cell death, whereas overexpression of an isomerase activity-defective mutant, CypB/R62A, not only increased Ca(2+) leakage from the ER and ROS generation, but also decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in cell death following exposure to ER stress-inducing agents. siRNA-mediated inhibition of CypB expression rendered cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Finally, CypB interacted with the ER stress-related chaperones, Bip and Grp94. Taken together, we concluded that CypB performs a crucial function in protecting cells against ER stress via its PPIase activity.

  18. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. - Highlights: • Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells. • Oroxin B significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice.

  19. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng, E-mail: zhouqs@suda.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. - Highlights: • Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells. • Oroxin B significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice.

  20. Compressive characteristics of closed-cell aluminum foams with different percentages of Er element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-min Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, closed-cell aluminum foams with different percentages of erbium (Er element were successfully prepared. The distribution and existence form of erbium (Er element and its effect on the compressive properties of the foams were investigated. Results show that Er uniformly distributes in the cell walls in the forms of Al3Er intermetallic compound and Al-Er solid solutions. Compared with commercially pure aluminum foam, Er-containing foams possess higher micro-hardness, compressive strength and energy absorption capacity due to solid solution strengthening and second phase strengthening effects. Additionally, the amount of Er element should be controlled in the range of 0.10wt.%-0.50wt.% in order to obtain a good combination of compressive strength and energy absorption properties.

  1. Distribution of chromium species in a Cr-polluted soil: presence of Cr(III) in glomalin related protein fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Cardeza, María L; Ferri, Alejandro; Cornejo, Pablo; Gomez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The accumulation of Cr in soil could be highly toxic to human health; therefore Cr soil distribution was studied in rhizosphere soils from Ricinus communis and Conium maculatum and bare soil (BS) from an industrial and urban area in Argentina. Total Cr, Cr(VI) and Cr(III) concentrations were determined in 3 soil fractions: total, extractable and associated to total-glomalin-related protein (T-GRSP). BS had the highest total Cr and total Cr(VI) concentrations. Total Cr(VI) concentration from both rhizosphere soils did not differ from the allowed value for residential area in Argentina (8 μg Cr(VI) g(-1) soil), while total Cr(VI) in BS was 1.8 times higher. Total Cr concentration in all the soils was higher than the allowed value (250 μg Cr g(-1) soil). Extractable and associated to T-GRSP Cr(VI) concentrations were below the detection limit. Cr(III) bound to T-GRSP was the highest in the BS. These findings are in agreement with a long term effect of glomalin in sequestrating Cr. In both plant species, total Cr was higher in root than in shoot and both species presented arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). As far as we know, this is the first study that reports the presence of Cr in T-GRSP fraction of soil organic matter. These findings suggest that Cr mycorrhizostabilization could be a predominant mechanism used by R. communis and C. maculatum to diminish Cr soil concentration. Nevertheless, further research is needed to clarify the contribution of native AMF isolated from R. communis and C. maculatum rhizosphere to the Cr phytoremediation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Cr6+ component in mixtures of Cr2O3 and K2CrO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, Tatsunori; Sakakura, Shusuke; Oohashi, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using Cr K α spectra was applied to the determination of the mixing ratio of Cr 6+ to (Cr 6+ + Cr 3+ ) in several mixtures of K 2 CrO 4 and Cr 2 O 3 . Because the powder of K 2 CrO 4 contained large particles that were more than 50 μm in diameter, it was ground between a pestle and a mortar for about 8 h. The coarse particles still remaining were removed by using a sieve with 325-mesh (44 μm) in order to reduce the difference in absorption effects between emissions from Cr 6+ and those from Cr 3+ . The mixing ratio, K 2 CrO 4 /(K 2 CrO 4 + Cr 2 O 3 ), of the five mixtures investigated is 0.50, 0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 in weight, respectively. Each spectrum obtained was analyzed by decomposing it into two reference spectra, those of the two pure materials, K 2 CrO 4 and Cr 2 O 3 , with a constant background. The results for the mixtures containing K 2 CrO 4 of more than 20 wt% are that the relative deviation from the true value is less than ∼5%. On the other hand, when the content of K 2 CrO 4 decreases to less than 10 wt%, the relative deviation gets so large as 20 - 25%. The error coming from a peak separation of spectrum involved in our results were estimated by applying our method to five sets of data for each mixture computationally generated, taking into account the uncertainty in total counts of real measurements. (author)

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Cr(6+) component in mixtures of Cr(2)O(3) and K(2)CrO(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochio, Tatsunori; Sakakura, Shusuke; Oohashi, Hirofumi; Mizota, Hirohisa; Zou, Yanhui; Ito, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Sei; Tanuma, Shigeo; Shoji, Takashi; Fujimura, Hajime; Yamashita, Michiru

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using Cr K(alpha) spectra was applied to the determination of the mixing ratio of Cr(6+) to (Cr(6+) + Cr(3+)) in several mixtures of K(2)CrO(4) and Cr(2)O(3). Because the powder of K(2)CrO(4) contained large particles that were more than 50 microm in diameter, it was ground between a pestle and a mortar for about 8 h. The coarse particles still remaining were removed by using a sieve with 325-mesh (44 microm) in order to reduce the difference in absorption effects between emissions from Cr(6+) and those from Cr(3+). The mixing ratio, K(2)CrO(4)/(K(2)CrO(4) + Cr(2)O(3)), of the five mixtures investigated is 0.50, 0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 in weight, respectively. Each spectrum obtained was analyzed by decomposing it into two reference spectra, those of the two pure materials, K(2)CrO(4) and Cr(2)O(3), with a constant background. The results for the mixtures containing K(2)CrO(4) of more than 20 wt% are that the relative deviation from the true value is less than approximately 5%. On the other hand, when the content of K(2)CrO(4) decreases to less than 10 wt%, the relative deviation gets so large as 20 - 25%. The error coming from a peak separation of spectrum involved in our results were estimated by applying our method to five sets of data for each mixture computationally generated, taking into account the uncertainty in total counts of real measurements.

  4. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  5. TiC-reinforced cast Cr steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Schrems, K. K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5-4.5Ti, and 1-1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  6. Wilde, la nueva crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Haydée Páez

    2002-11-01

    cultivados e ilustres de América Latina, recordando la más actual de Silvia Molloy que hace hincapié en el carácter político de una pose que fue rebajada tradicionalmente a la frivolidad, el artículo rescata la sutileza crítica del escritor. Encubiertas bajo un título que aparenta banalidad, La importancia de no hacer nada (1891, se encuentran las formulaciones teóricas de “El crítico como artista” y “Del crítico y del criticismo”. Anticipaciones inmersas en la pretendida vuelta decadentista al pasado, los preceptos sabiamente dosificados por el artista inclasificable, no sólo fueron musitados para repensar el tema del gusto, en el famoso ensayo de Susan Sontag, sino que tocaron desde el pasado, precisamente, a escrituras criticas como la de Ian Mukarovsky y Roland Barthe

  7. Isothermal section of the Er-Fe-Al ternary system at 800 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemmali, M.; Walha, S.; Pasturel, M.; Tougait, O.; Ben Hassen, R.; Noel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Physico-chemical analysis techniques, including X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, were employed to construct the isothermal section of the Er-Fe-Al system at 800 o C. At this temperature, the phase diagram is characterized by the formation of five intermediate phases, ErFe 12-x Al x with 5 ≤ x ≤ 8 (ThMn 12 -type), ErFe 1+x Al 1-x with -0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.75 (MgZn 2 -type), ErFe 3-x Al x with 0.5 2 Al-type), Er 2 Fe 17-x Al x with 4.74 ≤ x ≤ 5.7 (TbCu 7 -type) and Er 2 Fe 17-x Al x with 5.7 2 Zn 17 -type), seven extensions of binaries into the ternary system; ErFe x Al 3-x with x 3 Cu-type), ErFe x Al 2-x with x ≤ 0.68 (MgCu 2 -type), Er 2 Fe x Al 1-x with x ≤ 0.25 (Co 2 Si-type), ErFe 2-x Al x with x ≤ 0.5 (MgCu 2 -type), ErFe 3-x Al x with x ≤ 0.5 (Be 3 Nb-type), Er 6 Fe 23-x Al x with x ≤ 8 (Th 6 Mn 23 -type), and Er 2 Fe 17-x Al x with x ≤ 4.75 (Th 2 Ni 17 -type) and one intermetallic compound; the ErFe 2 Al 10 (YbFe 2 Al 10 -type).

  8. Effect of Cr4+ impurities in Nd:Cr:GSGG and Nd:Cr:YAG laser materials on parameters of lasers at solar pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payziyev, Sh.D.; Bakhramov, S.A.; Shayimov, F.F.; Fayziev, A.Sh.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of an effect of Cr 4+ impurity ions, existent in Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :GSGG and Nd 3+ :Cr 3+ :YAG laser materials on output parameters of solar pumped lasers is carried out by modeling of lasing process at solar pumping. (authors)

  9. Electronic structure and magnetic ordering of the semiconducting chromium trihalides CrCl3, CrBr3, and CrI3

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao; Eyert, Volker; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    for CrBr3 as well as CrI3. The antiferromagnetic state of CrCl3 can be reproduced by introducing an on-site electron-electron repulsion. However, we observe that the ground state depends critically on the specific approach used. Our results show that a

  10. [A case of breast cancer postoperative metastases to the liver obtained cCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Kenichi

    2011-11-01

    A case is a 55-year-old woman. We noticed the right breast lump in May 2006. It was papillotubular carcinoma, ER(-), PgR -), HER2 (3+) by needle biopsy. The patient was introduced to our department in November 2006 for a close inspection and treatment. The palpation showed a mass without a firm flexibility, which was a border indistinctness of about 2 cm in size in the right AB area. We did not find a distant metastasis either. We operated for Bt+Ax (level II) in December. It was T2N0M0, stage IIA papillotubular carcinoma, ER(-), PgR(-), HER2 (3+) with histopathology. We recommended an adjuvant therapy but the patient refused. Since then we followed her up. After two years from the operation, multiple metastases were observed to the liver, FEC therapy was started. CT revealed that metastasized tumors were disappeared after six courses of treatment. Echography obtained cCR. Generally speaking, chemotherapy was effective for breast cancer as we compared it to endemic cancer of other organs. Meanwhile, it has been reported that many kinds of newly developed medicines for the treatment are available and effective. On the other hand, a selection of therapeutic drugs could be a problem for metastasized organs.

  11. Alfonso Reyes, crítico humanista

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo David, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Uno de los conceptos más divulgados por el Ateneo de la Juventud de México en 1910 fue ''La Cultura de las Humanidades'', y dos de sus mayores exponentes fueron Pedro Henríquez Ureña y Alfonso Reyes. Este último, justamente desde las Humanidades, fundamentó su crítica literaria haciendo de ella una de las expresiones más altas de su producción escrita. Una ''crítica humanista'' que tiene como centro, a su vez, la ''concordia'': pensar la obra de los ''otros'' desde la sensibilidad y la buena ...

  12. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Xia, H.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers has been investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance techniques (FMR). The FMR spectra are obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field from in-plane to out-of-plane. The results are fitted theoretically to determine the magnetic anisotropy. From VSM and FMR, a positive value for Ni/Cr interface anisotropy is obtained, which favours a perpendicular easy axis. The possible mechanism for the perpendicular anisotropy has been discussed and it may be attributed to the magnetostriction, caused by intrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch. (orig.). With 005 figs., 001 tabs

  13. Creatividad y pensamiento crítico

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Duran, Anna; Lois Alcázar, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    La comunicación presenta la asignatura de Composición II, a través de dos acciones: las presentaciones en grupo (happening), y la redacción del artículo crítico individual. La libertad en ambos ejercicios es alta y el grado de respuesta muy bueno.En el happening se presenta el objeto de estudio de una forma creativa, buscando el debate y la participación: maquetas, muebles, detalles, murales, videos, instalaciones, performances, juegos, etc. El artículo crítico pretende, con las palabras e im...

  14. A crítica feminista na mira da crítica A crítica feminista na mira da crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Terezinha Schmidt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a dialogue with some texts that appeared in an anthology of critical writings about “Brazilian feminisms,” problematizing them and thus providing a productive discussion about the production of knowledge about and by feminist criticism in Brazil. Este artigo apresenta um diálogo com textos presentes em uma antologia crítica sobre “feminismos brasileiros”, problematizando-os e, por conseguinte, gerando uma discussão produtiva acerca da produção de conhecimento sobre e pela crítica feminista no Brasil.

  15. Flora y fauna crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Chávez-Silverman

    2004-01-01

    “Flora & Fauna Crónica” is from the book, Killer Crónicas, which will be published by the University of Wisconsin Press in 2004. This collection of chronicles began in 2000, after Susana was awarded a fellowship by the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) for a project on contemporary Argentine women's poetry. She spent thirteen months in Buenos Aires where, in addition to research and writing on her official (academic) book, she began to send bilingual, punning “letters from the so...

  16. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki-Hyoung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.

  17. Microstructural Characterization of Clad Interface in Welds of Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Ho-Jin; Kim, Keong-Ho; Lee, Ki-Hyoung; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2011-01-01

    SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel, in which Ni and Cr contents are higher than in commercial SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steels, may be a candidate reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material with higher strength and toughness from its tempered martensitic microstructure. The inner surface of the RPV is weld-cladded with stainless steels to prevent corrosion. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microstructural properties of the clad interface between Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel and stainless weldment, and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the properties. The properties of the clad interface were compared with those of commercial Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel. Multi-layer welding of model alloys with ER308L and ER309L stainless steel by the SAW method was performed, and then PWHT was conducted at 610°C for 30 h. The microstructural changes of the clad interface were analyzed using OM, SEM and TEM, and micro-Vickers hardness tests were performed. Before PWHT, the heat affected zone (HAZ) showed higher hardness than base and weld metals due to formation of martensite after welding in both steels. In addition, the hardness of the HAZ in Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel was higher than that in Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel due to a comparatively high martensite fraction. The hardness of the HAZ decreased after PWHT in both steels, but the dark region was formed near the fusion line in which the hardness was locally high. In the case of Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, formation of fine Cr-carbides in the weld region near the fusion line by diffusion of C from the base metal resulted in locally high hardness in the dark region. However, the precipitates of the region in the Ni-Cr-Mo low alloy steel were similar to that in the base metal, and the hardness in the region was not greatly different from that in the base metal.

  18. Æstetiseringen af forbruget: En undersøgelse af to udstillinger, hvor branding er kunst - og kunst er branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Æstetiseringen af hverdagen er ét af de helt centrale træk ved det postmoderne forbrugersamfund. Og denne nedbrydning af grænserne mellem kunst og forbrug er det også vigtigt for marketingteorien at udforske. Artiklen analyserer to (kunst?)udstillinger i England, som på hver sin måde tematiserer,...

  19. Correlation of microstructure and fracture toughness of advanced 9Cr/CrMoV dissimilarly welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui, E-mail: Lfg119@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Xia [Shanghai Turbine Plant of Shanghai Electric Power Generation Equipment Co. Ltd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Renjie [Shanghai Turbine Works Company, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cui, Haichao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yulai, E-mail: ylgao@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steels, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-06-25

    In this paper, the fracture toughness and the related microstructure characteristics of dissimilarly welded joint manufactured by advanced 9Cr and CrMoV steels were systematically investigated. The dissimilarly welded joint was fabricated by narrow gap submerged arc welding (NG-SAW) applying multi-layer and multi-pass technique. Fracture toughness, as one of the most important property to assess the reliability of welded joint, was studied for different regions including CrMoV base metal (CrMoV-BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) of CrMoV side (CrMoV-HAZ), weld metal (WM), heat affected zone of 9Cr side (9Cr-HAZ) and 9Cr base metal (9Cr-BM). It was found that the fracture toughness of CrMoV-BM, CrMoV-HAZ and WM was better than that of 9Cr-HAZ and 9Cr-BM. In order to illustrate these results, the microstructure of the whole welded joint was observed by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) detailedly. It was found that the fine high-temperature tempered martensite and bainite in WM, CrMoV-BM and CrMoV-HAZ contribute to the higher fracture toughness, while lower fracture toughness for 9Cr-BM and HAZ was caused by coarse tempered lath-martensite. Furthermore, the fracture morphology showed that ductile fracture occurred in WM and CrMoV side, while brittle fracture appeared in BM and HAZ of 9Cr side.

  20. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjan, P., E-mail: peter.panjan@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-09-30

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  1. Oxidation resistance of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coatings deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjan, P.; Drnovšek, A.; Kovač, J.; Gselman, P.; Bončina, T.; Paskvale, S.; Čekada, M.; Kek Merl, D.; Panjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years vanadium-doped hard coatings have become available as possible candidates for self-lubrication at high temperatures. Their low coefficient of friction has mainly been attributed to the formation of the V_2O_5 phase. However, the formation of vanadium oxides must be controlled by the out-diffusion of vanadium in order to achieve the combination of a low coefficient of friction and good mechanical properties for the protective coatings. In this work the application of a nanolayer of CrN/(Cr,V)N hard coating was proposed as a way to better control the out-diffusion of vanadium, while the topmost chromium oxide layer acts as barrier for the vanadium diffusion. However, the aim of this investigation was not only to focus on the formation of the oxide layer. Special attention was given to the oxidation process that takes place at the growth defects, where we observed a strong diffusion of vanadium taking place. The CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayer coatings were deposited by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering in an CC800/9 (CemeCon) industrial unit. The vanadium concentration in the (Cr,V)N layers was varied in the range 1.0–11.5 at.%. - Highlights: • Oxidation processes of CrN/(Cr,V)N nanolayers with vanadium content were investigated. • The CrN/(Cr,V)N hard layers were oxidized at high temperature in O2 atm. • The top chromium oxide layer acts as a diffusion barrier for vanadium ions during oxidation. • Important role of growth defects during the oxidation process is demonstrated.

  2. Natural Cr3+-rich ettringite: occurrence, properties, and crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Murashko, Mikhail N.

    2017-08-01

    Cr3+-rich ettringite with Cr3+→Al substitution and Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios up to 0.40-0.50 was found in mineral assemblages of the Ma'aleh Adumim area of Mottled Zone (Judean Desert). The Cr3+-rich compositions were the latest in the thaumasite → ettringite-thaumasite solid solution → ettringite → ettringite-bentorite solid solution series. The mineral-forming solution was enriched in Cr3+ and had a pH buffered by afwillite at 11-12. Chromium was inherited from larnite rocks produced by high-temperature combustion metamorphic alteration of bioproductive calcareous sediments. The Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios are within 0.10-0.15 in most of the analysed crystals. This degree of substitution imparts pink colouration to the crystals, but does not affect their habit (a combination of monohedra and a prism). The habit changes to pyramid faces in coarse and later Cr3+-bearing crystals as Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios increase abruptly to 0.40-0.50. Single-crystal XRD analysis of one Cr-free and two Cr3+-rich samples and their structure determination and refinement indicate that the Cr-rich crystals (with Cr/(Cr + Al) to 0.3) preserve the symmetry and metrics of ettringite. The Ca-O bonding network undergoes differentiation with increase of Cr3+ concentration at octahedral M sites. The compression of Ca2 and expansion of Ca1 polyhedra sub-networks correlates with the degree of Cr3+→Al substitution.

  3. Optical energy gaps and photoluminescence peaks of BaGa2S4:Er3+ and BaGa2Se4:Er3+ single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Sung-Hyu; Jin, Moon-Seog; Kim, Wha-Tek

    2005-01-01

    BaGa 2 S 4 :Er 3+ and BaGa 2 Se 4 :Er 3+ single crystals were grown by using the chemical transport reaction method. The optical energy gaps of the BaGa 2 S 4 :Er 3+ and the BaGa 2 Se 4 :Er 3+ single crystals were found to be 4.045 eV and 3.073 eV, respectively, at 11 K. The temperature dependence of the optical energy gap was well fitted by the Varshni equation. Sharp emission peaks were observed in the photoluminescence spectra of the single crystals and assigned to radiation recombination between split Stark levels of the Er 3+ ion.

  4. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr2 in Ti-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr 2 in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr 2 . The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability

  5. 53Cr NMR study of CuCrO2 multiferroic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smol'nikov, A. G.; Ogloblichev, V. V.; Verkhovskii, S. V.; Mikhalev, K. N.; Yakubovskii, A. Yu.; Kumagai, K.; Furukawa, Y.; Sadykov, A. F.; Piskunov, Yu. V.; Gerashchenko, A. P.; Barilo, S. N.; Shiryaev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetically ordered phase of the CuCrO2 single crystal has been studied by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method on 53Cr nuclei in the absence of an external magnetic field. The 53Cr NMR spectrum is observed in the frequency range νres = 61-66 MHz. The shape of the spectrum depends on the delay tdel between pulses in the pulse sequence τπ/2- t del-τπ- t del-echo. The spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured. Components of the electric field gradient, hyperfine fields, and the magnetic moment on chromium atoms have been estimated.

  6. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shikama, T. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of <10{sup -6} S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500{degrees}C up to a maximum dose of {approximately}3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to {approximately}2 x 10{sup -4} S/m after {approximately}0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to <1 x 10{sup -6} S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect.

  7. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Shikama, T.

    1997-01-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of -6 S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500 degrees C up to a maximum dose of ∼3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to ∼2 x 10 -4 S/m after ∼0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to -6 S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect

  8. Transmission of Er:YAG laser through different dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Tugrul; Tuncel, Ilkin; Usumez, Aslihan; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser transmission ratio through different dental ceramics with different thicknesses. Laser debonding procedure of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations is based on the transmission of laser energy through the ceramic and the ablation of resin cement, because of the transmitted laser energy. Five different dental ceramics were evaluated in this study: sintered zirconium-oxide core ceramic, monolithic zirconium-oxide ceramic, feldspathic ceramic, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, and lithium disilicate-reinforced glass ceramic. Two ceramic discs with different thicknesses (0.5 and 1 mm) were fabricated for each group. Ceramic discs were placed between the sensor membrane of the laser power meter and the tip of the contact handpiece of an Er:YAG laser device with the aid of a custom- made acrylic holder. The transmission ratio of Er:YAG laser energy (500 mJ, 2 Hz, 1 W, 1000 μs) through different ceramic discs was measured with the power meter. Ten measurements were made for each group and the results were analyzed with two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. The highest transmission ratio was determined for lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic with 0.5 mm thickness (88%) and the lowest was determined for feldspathic ceramic with 1 mm thickness (44%). The differences among the different ceramics and between the different thicknesses were significant (pCeramic type and thickness should be taken into consideration to adjust the laser irradiation parameters during laser debonding of adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations.

  9. Mutation in GNE Downregulates Peroxiredoxin IV Altering ER Redox Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Pratibha; Padhy, Gayatri; Bhargava, Kalpana; Arya, Ranjana

    2017-12-01

    GNE myopathy is a rare neuromuscular genetic disorder characterized by early adult onset and muscle weakness due to mutation in sialic acid biosynthetic enzyme, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE). More than 180 different GNE mutations are known all over the world with unclear pathomechanism. Although hyposialylation of glycoproteins is speculated to be the major cause, but cellular mechanism leading to loss of muscle mass has not yet been deciphered. Besides sialic acid biosynthesis, GNE affects other cellular functions such as cell adhesion and apoptosis. In order to understand the effect of mutant GNE protein on cellular functions, differential proteome profile of HEK293 cells overexpressing pathologically relevant recombinant mutant GNE protein (D207V and V603L) was analyzed. These cells, along with vector control and wild-type GNE-overexpressing cells, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS). In the study, 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Progenesis same spots software revealed downregulation of peroxiredoxin IV (PrdxIV), an ER-resident H 2 O 2 sensor that regulates neurogenesis. Significant reduction in mRNA and protein levels of PrdxIV was observed in GNE mutant cell lines compared with vector control. However, neither total reactive oxygen species was altered nor H 2 O 2 accumulation was observed in GNE mutant cell lines. Interestingly, ER redox state was significantly affected due to reduced normal GNE enzyme activity. Our study indicates that downregulation of PrdxIV affects ER redox state that may contribute to misfolding and aggregation of proteins in GNE myopathy.

  10. Fired products of Cr-smectite clays in nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Volzone

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The products of Cr-smectite clays heated to 1350 ° C in nitrogen were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. Cr-smectite clays were prepared at room temperature by contact between smectite clays and Cr species contained in OH-Cr solutions. The Cr species were prepared using chromium nitrate solution by addition of NaOH solution with OH/Cr = 2. Products of firing in nitrogen at the high temperature were different (magnesia chromite, donathite, iron chromium oxide and picrochromite depending on the type of isomorphous substitution of the smectite structure and the amount of retained chromium.

  11. Fired products of Cr-smectite clays in nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    C. Volzone; A. M. Cesio

    2004-01-01

    The products of Cr-smectite clays heated to 1350 ° C in nitrogen were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. Cr-smectite clays were prepared at room temperature by contact between smectite clays and Cr species contained in OH-Cr solutions. The Cr species were prepared using chromium nitrate solution by addition of NaOH solution with OH/Cr = 2. Products of firing in nitrogen at the high temperature were different (magnesia chromite, donathite, iron chromium oxide and picrochromi...

  12. Atomistic simulation of the influence of Cr on the mobility of the edge dislocation in Fe(Cr) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez Haghighat, S.M.; Terentyev, D.; Schaeublin, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work Fe-Cr compounds, as model alloys for the ferritic base steels that are considered as main candidates for the structural materials of the future fusion reactors, are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The Cr or so-called α' precipitates, which are obstacles to dislocations, affect mechanical properties, leading to hardening and loss of ductility. The flow stress to move an edge dislocation in a Cr solid solution in pure Fe is studied as a function of Cr content. The strength of a nanometric Cr precipitate as obstacle to an edge dislocation in pure Fe is investigated as a function of its Cr content. Results show that with increasing Cr content the precipitate obstacle strength increases, with a strong sensitivity to the local atomic order. Temperature induces a monotonic decrease of the flow stress of the Cr solid solution and of the Cr precipitate obstacle strength.

  13. Crèche and School

    CERN Multimedia

    EVE et École

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANT DATES Enrolments 2018-2019 Enrolments to the Crèche and School for the school year 2018-2019 will take place on 5, 6 and 7 March 2018 from 10 am to 1 pm at the Crèche and School of the CERN Staff Association. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 1st March 2018. For more information, please visit the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Saturday 3 March 2018 Open Day at Crèche and School of the CERN Staff Association Are you considering enrolling your child to the Crèche and School of the CERN Staff Association? If you work at CERN, then this event is for you: come visit the school and meet the Management on Saturday 3 March 2018 from 10 to 12 am It will be our pleasure to present to you our structure, its projects and premises, and answer any questions you may have. Please sign up for one of the two sessions via Doodle before Wednesd...

  14. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  15. Petrogenetic importance of Cr - spinel metaperidotite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarska, B.

    2010-01-01

    The research is ultramafic body Komarovce the site, which represents the spinel metaperidotit. In recent works dealing with the problems of genesis and tectonic ultramafic rocks placement consideration, Cr - spinel, which is considered an important petrogenetic indicator. Based on its chemical composition can further characterize the origin of peridotite.

  16. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  17. Electronic structure and superconductivity of fcc Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Freeman, A.J.; Jarlborg, T.; Brodsky, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Results of self-consistent electronic structure calculations are reported for metastable fcc Cr metal. Unlike the case of bcc Cr which has E/sub F/ at a minimum in the density of states (DOS), the DOS at E/sub F/ in fcc Cr is at a peak making this one of the higher-DOS metals with the fcc structure (e.g., comparable with that of Ni and Pt). A calculated Stoner factor of 0.82 indicates that ferromagnetic ordering is not expected. Calculations of the electron-phonon coupling parameter lambda and superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ were made using the rigid-ion approximation and strong-coupling theory with various estimates of the (unknown) phonon contribution. We conclude that T/sub c/'sroughly-equal2.5 K are reasonable, although they are substantially smaller than the T/sub c/roughly-equal10 K derived from measurements on Au-Cr-Au sandwiches

  18. Polarized neutron reflectometry on Co-Cr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, A.; Frederikze, H.; de Haan, P.; Rekveldt, M.Th.; Lodder, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Polarized neutron reflectivity of a Co---Cr film on silicon with the easy axis of magnetization perpendicular to the plane has been measured at in-plane magnetic fields of various magnitudes. The obtained data can be well described assuming a constant atomic density and a gradual increase of the

  19. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative–specific breast cancer risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Brook, Mark N; orr, Nick; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Riboli, Elio; Feigelson, Heather s; Le Marchand, Loic; Buring, Julie E; Eccles, Diana; Miron, Penelope; Fasching, Peter A; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Carpenter, Jane; Godwin, Andrew K; Nevanlinna, Heli; Giles, Graham G; Cox, Angela; Hopper, John L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Howat, Will J; Schoof, Nils; Bojesen, Stig E; Lambrechts, Diether; Broeks, Annegien; Andrulis, Irene L; Guénel, Pascal; Burwinkel, Barbara; Sawyer, Elinor J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Fletcher, Olivia; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Meindl, Alfons; Lindblom, Annika; Zheng, Wei; Devillee, Peter; Goldberg, Mark S; Lubinski, Jan; Kristensen, Vessela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Dörk, Thilo; Muir, Kenneth; Matsuo, Keitaro; Wu, Anna H; Radice, Paolo; Teo, Soo Hwang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Southey, Melissa C; Park, Daniel J; Hammet, Fleur; Stone, Jennifer; Veer, Laura J Van’t; Rutgers, Emiel J; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Peto, Julian; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Johnson, Nichola; Warren, Helen; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lichtner, Peter; Lochmann, Magdalena; Justenhoven, Christina; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Margolin, Sara; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Balleine, Rosemary; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Dieudonné, Anne-Sophie; Leunen, Karin; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bernard, Loris; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Stevens, Kristen; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Feng, Ye; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Hooning, Maartje J; Van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Signorello, Lisa; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Miao, Hui; Chan, Ching Wan; Chia, Kee Seng; Jakubowska, Anna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; John, Esther M; Chen, Gary K; Hu, Jennifer J; Rodriguez-gil, Jorge L; Bernstein, Leslie; Press, Michael F; Ziegler, Regina G; Millikan, Robert M; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Nyante, Sarah; Ingles, Sue A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel; Bui, Minh; Gibson, Lorna; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Pilarski, Robert; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Slamon, Dennis J; Rauh, Claudia; Lux, Michael P; Jud, Sebastian M; Bruning, Thomas; Weaver, Joellen; Sharma, Priyanka; Pathak, Harsh; Tapper, Will; Gerty, Sue; Durcan, Lorraine; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kolonel, Laurence N; Chen, Constance; Beck, Andy; Hankinson, Susan E; Berg, Christine D; Hoover, Robert N; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D; Chasman, Daniel I; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Willett, Walter C; Hunter, David J; Simard, Jacques; Benitez, Javier; Dunning, Alison M; Sherman, Mark E; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chanock, Stephen J; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Vachon, Celine; Easton, Douglas F; Haiman, Christopher A; Kraft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors represent 20–30% of all breast cancers, with a higher proportion occurring in younger women and women of African ancestry1. The etiology2 and clinical behavior3 of ER-negative tumors are different from those of tumors expressing ER (ER positive), including differences in genetic predisposition4. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10−12 and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10−8), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10−8), were associated with ER-negative but not ER-positive breast cancer (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence for distinct etiological pathways associated with invasive ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:23535733

  20. A conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC facilitates phospholipid transfer from the ER to mitochondria.

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    Sujoy Lahiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial membrane biogenesis and lipid metabolism require phospholipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to mitochondria. Transfer is thought to occur at regions of close contact of these organelles and to be nonvesicular, but the mechanism is not known. Here we used a novel genetic screen in S. cerevisiae to identify mutants with defects in lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria. We show that a strain missing multiple components of the conserved ER membrane protein complex (EMC has decreased phosphatidylserine (PS transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Mitochondria from this strain have significantly reduced levels of PS and its derivative phosphatidylethanolamine (PE. Cells lacking EMC proteins and the ER-mitochondria tethering complex called ERMES (the ER-mitochondria encounter structure are inviable, suggesting that the EMC also functions as a tether. These defects are corrected by expression of an engineered ER-mitochondrial tethering protein that artificially tethers the ER to mitochondria. EMC mutants have a significant reduction in the amount of ER tethered to mitochondria even though ERMES remained intact in these mutants, suggesting that the EMC performs an additional tethering function to ERMES. We find that all Emc proteins interact with the mitochondrial translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex protein Tom5 and this interaction is important for PS transfer and cell growth, suggesting that the EMC forms a tether by associating with the TOM complex. Together, our findings support that the EMC tethers ER to mitochondria, which is required for phospholipid synthesis and cell growth.