WorldWideScience

Sample records for equivalent solar transmittance

  1. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Observations of the transmittance in two solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Bryant, M.C.

    1983-11-01

    A NaCl salt gradient solar pond has been in continuous operation at the University of New Mexico since the fall of 1975; a smaller pond, using KNO/sub 3/ to produce the salinity gradient, was commissioned in the fall of 1981. The distribution of absorbed radiation in the ponds is of key importance in the determination of their efficiencies for collecting and storing solar energy. The absorption coefficient of light in an aqueous solution is very dependent upon wavelength; the spectral distribution of sunlight shifts toward the blue and the amount of solar energy absorbed per unit length of path declines with depth of penetration. The presence of suspended solids and bioforms further complicate the transmittance of sun light through the pond, specially since this contamination tends to vary strongly with depth. Because of its importance to the phytoplankton population , considerable work has been done by oceanographers on the absorption and scattering of light for different wavelengths. However, in a solar pond the big question is the amount of energy reaching the lower convective layer (storage). Several attempts have been made to measure the transmittance in solar ponds, mainly NaCl but the problem is to find a temperature-insensitive submersible pyranometer. Convenient formulas have been offered for the attenuation of solar radiation in pond water by considering it to be divided into spectral bands, or by fitting simple analytical functions, or specifying the extintion coefficient. (For the first method, it is necessary to know the absorption and scattering of light for different lambda.) In this paper some measurements of transmittance in the UNM ponds, are presented thereby exhibiting a simple procedure which may be of interest to others in this field.

  3. Violation of Equivalence Principle and Solar Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, A.M.; Nunokawa, H.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2001-01-01

    We have updated the analysis for the solution to the solar neutrino problem by the long-wavelength neutrino oscillations induced by a tiny breakdown of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity, and obtained a very good fit to all the solar neutrino data

  4. Directional and hemispherical solar energy transmittance of single and double glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugot-Le Goff, le A; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and visual light transmittance, color appearance, thermal emissivity, and other optical properties of architectural glazing are in general angular dependent. Realistic computation of solar properties, therefore, requires the angular behavior to be known. Determination of these properties for

  5. Suomi NPP VIIRS solar diffuser screen transmittance model and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mcintire, Jeff

    2017-11-01

    The visible infrared imaging radiometer suite on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite calibrates its reflective solar bands through observations of a sunlit solar diffuser (SD) panel. Sunlight passes through a perforated plate, referred to as the SD screen, before reaching the SD. It is critical to know whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate. Several factors such as misalignments of the SD panel and the measurement apparatus could lead to errors in the measured transmittance and thus adversely impact on-orbit calibration quality through the SD. We develop a mathematical model to describe the transmittance as a function of the angles that incident light makes with the SD screen, and apply the model to fit the prelaunch measured transmittance. The results reveal that the model does not reproduce the measured transmittance unless the size of the apertures in the SD screen is quite different from the design value. We attribute the difference to the orientation alignment errors for the SD panel and the measurement apparatus. We model the alignment errors and apply our transmittance model to fit the prelaunch transmittance to retrieve the "true" transmittance. To use this model correctly, we also examine the finite source size effect on the transmittance. Furthermore, we compare the product of the retrieved "true" transmittance and the prelaunch SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) value to the value derived from on-orbit data to determine whether the prelaunch SD BRDF value is relatively accurate. The model is significant in that it can evaluate whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate and help retrieve the true transmittance from the transmittance with measurement errors, consequently resulting in a more accurate sensor data product by the same amount.

  6. Auxiliary VHF transmitter to aid recovery of solar Argos/GPS PTTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2014-01-01

    While conducting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) research, we found that solar-powered global positioning systems platform transmitter terminals (GPS PTTs) can be lost if the solar panel does not receive adequate sunlight. Thus, we developed 5-g (mortality sensor included; Prototype A) and 9.8-g (no mortality sensor; Prototype B) auxiliary very high...

  7. Voigt equivalent widths and spectral-bin single-line transmittances: Exact expansions and the MODTRAN®5 implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Exact expansions for Voigt line-shape total, line-tail and spectral bin equivalent widths and for Voigt finite spectral bin single-line transmittances have been derived in terms of optical depth dependent exponentially-scaled modified Bessel functions of integer order and optical depth independent Fourier integral coefficients. The series are convergent for the full range of Voigt line-shapes, from pure Doppler to pure Lorentzian. In the Lorentz limit, the expansion reduces to the Ladenburg and Reiche function for the total equivalent width. Analytic expressions are derived for the first 8 Fourier coefficients for pure Lorentzian lines, for pure Doppler lines and for Voigt lines with at most moderate Doppler dependence. A strong-line limit sum rule on the Fourier coefficients is enforced to define an additional Fourier coefficient and to optimize convergence of the truncated expansion. The moderate Doppler dependence scenario is applicable to and has been implemented in the MODTRAN5 atmospheric band model radiative transfer software. Finite-bin transmittances computed with the truncated expansions reduce transmittance residuals compared to the former Rodgers-Williams equivalent width based approach by ∼2 orders of magnitude.

  8. Standard Test Method for Solar Photometric Transmittance of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar photometric transmittance of materials in sheet form. Solar photometric transmittance is measured using a photometer (illuminance meter) in an enclosure with the sun and sky as the source of radiation. The enclosure and method of test is specified in Test Method E 1175 (or Test Method E 1084). 1.2 The purpose of this test method is to specify a photometric sensor to be used with the procedure for measuring the solar photometric transmittance of sheet materials containing inhomogeneities in their optical properties. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Comparison of selective transmitters for solar thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert A; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha; DeJarnette, Drew; Otanicar, Todd P

    2016-05-10

    Solar thermal collectors are radiative heat exchangers. Their efficacy is dictated predominantly by their absorption of short wavelength solar radiation and, importantly, by their emission of long wavelength thermal radiation. In conventional collector designs, the receiver is coated with a selectively absorbing surface (Black Chrome, TiNOx, etc.), which serves both of these aims. As the leading commercial absorber, TiNOx consists of several thin, vapor deposited layers (of metals and ceramics) on a metal substrate. In this technology, the solar absorption to thermal emission ratio can exceed 20. If a solar system requires an analogous transparent component-one which transmits the full AM1.5 solar spectrum, but reflects long wavelength thermal emission-the technology is much less developed. Bespoke "heat mirrors" are available from optics suppliers at high cost, but the closest mass-produced commercial technology is low-e glass. Low-e glasses are designed for visible light transmission and, as such, they reflect up to 50% of available solar energy. To address this technical gap, this study investigated selected combinations of thin films that could be deposited to serve as transparent, selective solar covers. A comparative numerical analysis of feasible materials and configurations was investigated using a nondimensional metric termed the efficiency factor for selectivity (EFS). This metric is dependent on the operation temperature and solar concentration ratio of the system, so our analysis covered the practical range for these parameters. It was found that thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) and ZnS-Ag-ZnS provided the highest EFS. Of these, ITO represents the more commercially viable solution for large-scale development. Based on these optimized designs, proof-of-concept ITO depositions were fabricated and compared to commercial depositions. Overall, this study presents a systematic guide for creating a new class of selective, transparent optics for solar

  10. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  11. Toward maximum transmittance into absorption layers in solar cells: investigation of lossy-film-induced mismatches between reflectance and transmittance extrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Lai, Chi-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    The mismatch in film thickness and incident angle between reflectance and transmittance extrema due to the presence of lossy film(s) is investigated toward the maximum transmittance design in the active region of solar cells. Using a planar air/lossy film/silicon double-interface geometry illustrates important and quite opposite mismatch behaviors associated with TE and TM waves. In a typical thin-film CIGS solar cell, mismatches contributed by TM waves in general dominate. The angular mismatch is at least 10° in about 37%-53% of the spectrum, depending on the thickness combination of all lossy interlayers. The largest thickness mismatch of a specific interlayer generally increases with the thickness of the layer itself. Antireflection coating designs for solar cells should therefore be optimized in terms of the maximum transmittance into the active region, even if the corresponding reflectance is not at its minimum.

  12. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem

  13. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle, quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs the quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the nonuniversality of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the Sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can place stringent bounds on the violation of the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10 15 --10 16 if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem

  14. Standard Test Method for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar transmittance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form by using a pyranometer, an enclosure, and the sun as the energy source. 1.2 This test method also allows measurement of solar transmittance at angles other than normal incidence. 1.3 This test method is applicable to sheet materials that are transparent, translucent, textured, or patterned. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Determination of the solar transmittance for the translucent shutter with PCM in liquid and solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komerska, Anna; Ksionek, Dariusz; Rosiński, Marian

    2017-11-01

    This article presents results of the energy performance of an external translucent shading component integrated with a phase change material. A proposed technology is able to accumulate considerable amounts of energy in the latent heat by absorbing solar energy. Due to selective optical properties, much of the visible light is still transmitted through the facade. Experimental measurements were carried out in a laboratory set-up - testing thermal chamber, located in the Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. The main result of the experimental study was the evaluation of the average solar transmittance in the whole measured spectrum, as well as in the infrared and visible light. Since the shift in optical properties was observed when the material was undergoing a phase transition, the average spectral transmittances were measured for different states of matter of the PCM material. The tested shutter showed abilities to reduce and modulate daylight and solar heat gains in the indoor environment, which could contribute to considerable energy savings.

  16. Determination of the solar transmittance for the translucent shutter with PCM in liquid and solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komerska Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the energy performance of an external translucent shading component integrated with a phase change material. A proposed technology is able to accumulate considerable amounts of energy in the latent heat by absorbing solar energy. Due to selective optical properties, much of the visible light is still transmitted through the facade. Experimental measurements were carried out in a laboratory set–up – testing thermal chamber, located in the Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. The main result of the experimental study was the evaluation of the average solar transmittance in the whole measured spectrum, as well as in the infrared and visible light. Since the shift in optical properties was observed when the material was undergoing a phase transition, the average spectral transmittances were measured for different states of matter of the PCM material. The tested shutter showed abilities to reduce and modulate daylight and solar heat gains in the indoor environment, which could contribute to considerable energy savings.

  17. Atmospheric turbidity and transmittance of solar radiation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

    During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.

  18. Standard Practice for Calculation of Photometric Transmittance and Reflectance of Materials to Solar Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1988-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes the calculation of luminous (photometric) transmittance and reflectance of materials from spectral radiant transmittance and reflectance data obtained from Test Method E 903. 1.2 Determination of luminous transmittance by this practice is preferred over measurement of photometric transmittance by methods using the sun as a source and a photometer as detector except for transmitting sheet materials that are inhomogeneous, patterned, or corrugated. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. Electrical equivalent model of intermediate band solar cell using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presents a structure of IBSC based on ZnTe:O. The proposed model uses irradiance and temperature as ... of solar cells. They are based on different processes and properties such as photon recycling, ... The MATLAB interface was used .... ioral model of an arbitrary solar cell to amend the PSPICE simulation performance.

  20. Modeling solar flare induced lower ionosphere changes using VLF/LF transmitter amplitude and phase observations at a midlatitude site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar cycle no. 24 a parameterized electron density profile is calculated as a function of time and fed into propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability). The model allows to include lower ionosphere recombination and attachment coefficients, as well as to identify the relevant forcing X-ray wavelength band, and is intended to be a small step forward to a better understanding of the solar-lower ionosphere interaction mechanisms within a consistent framework.

  1. The hour equivalent solar pick, definition and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez Martínez, Maykop; Morales Rodríguez; Clemente; Castro Ingeniero, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy takes advantage of the light energy of the sun to produce electricity through semiconductor plates that are altered by solar radiation, these systems are called Photovoltaic Solar Panels (PSP). In order to calculate the energy absorbed by these PSPs, it is necessary to use technical terms that are a little difficult to interpret, for those less experienced in the subject, above all because of the ambiguity, the level of abstraction required in their understanding and the variety of ways of expressing very similar ideas without offering a clear and unique definition. The main term to which this article is dedicated is the Hour Solar Pick (HSP), which in the experiences of the authors has generated strong discussions about its interpretation. In order to arrive at the desired term, it is necessary to start with others, so the aim is to propose a definition and physical and mathematical interpretation to clarify the meaning of this term. (author)

  2. An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, F. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: frank.hase@imk.fzk.de; Demoulin, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, allee du VI aout, 17, batiment B5a, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Sauval, A.J. [Observatoire Royal de Belgique, avenue circulaire, 3, B-1180, Bruxelles (Belgium); Toon, G.C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bernath, P.F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L3G1 (Canada); Goldman, A. [Department of Physics, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Hannigan, J.W. [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Rinsland, C.P. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    An empirical line-by-line model for the infrared solar transmittance spectrum is presented. The model can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes to allow fast calculation of all relevant emission and absorption features in the solar spectrum in the mid-infrared region from 700 to 5000cm{sup -1}. The transmittance is modelled as a function of the diameter of the field-of-view centered on the solar disk: the line broadening due to solar rotation as well as center-to-limb variations in strength and width are taken into account for stronger lines. Applications of the model presented here are in the fields of terrestrial remote sensing in the mid-infrared spectral region when the sun is used as radiation source or scattered solar radiation contributes to the measured signal and in the fields of atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms which compute the propagation of infrared solar radiation in the terrestrial atmosphere.

  3. Influence of the type of lightweight clay brick on the equivalent thermal transmittance of different types of façades on buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, M. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the equivalent thermal transmittances of different façades built using commercial clay bricks with three different thicknesses and façades made using the same method but with ceramic bricks with optimized rhomboidal interior geometry. Equivalent thermal transmittances of 0.300 W/m2·K were recorded for the rhomboidal brick with a thickness of 0.290 m and a façade with thermo-acoustic insulation and a large format brick on the interior, but the final thickness of the façade was 0.445 m. For ventilated façades made of the proposed rhomboidal brick with thicknesses of 0.290 and 0.240 m an 8–9% improvement was found, with values of 0.312 W/m2·K and 0.339 W/m2·K, respectively. It can be concluded that in view of the small difference in thermal terms, the best option is to use a brick 0.240 m thick, as the overall thickness of the façade will not then exceed 0.300 m.En el presente trabajo se comparan las transmitancias térmicas equivalentes de diferentes fachadas ejecutadas con bloques comerciales de tres espesores 0,290 m, 0,240 m y 0,190 m, con el mismo montaje pero con un bloque cerámico optimizado con geometría interior romboidal. Se ha obtenido una transmitancia térmica equivalente de 0,300 W/m2·K para el ladrillo con geometría romboidal de 0,290 m de espesor y pared con aislamiento termoacústico y gran formato en el interior, con un espesor total de fachada de 0,445 m. Para fachadas ventiladas con el ladrillo romboidal propuesto con espesores de 0,290 y 0,240 m, se obtiene una mejora de un 8%–9%, con valores de 0,312 W/m2·K y 0,339 W/m2·K, respectivamente. Podemos concluir que, dada la pequeña diferencia en términos térmicos, la mejor opción es el uso de ladrillos de 0,240 m de espesor, siempre y cuando el espesor total de fachada no exceda los 0,300 m.

  4. High efficiency of transmittance and electrical conductivity of V doped ZnO used in solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boujnah, M., E-mail: boujnah.mourad@gmail.com [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Boumdyan, M. [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Naji, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ibb University, Ibb (Yemen); Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.; Loulidi, M. [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, B.P. 1014, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-06-25

    The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) based on the density functional theory (DFT) and Boltzmann's Transport theory, are employed to investigate theoretically the electronic structure, optical and electrical properties of vanadium -doped wurtzite ZnO with different concentrations (3.125%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%). The FP-LAPW based on the new potential approximation known as the Tran-Blaha modified Becke–Johnson exchange potential approximation (mBJ) was also applied with the primary goal of improving the electronic structure description specially the band gap energy. The calculated band structure and density of states (DOS) exhibit a band gap of pure ZnO (3.3 eV) closer to the experimental one. As well, our results indicate that the average transmittance in the 400–1000 nm wavelength region was 93%. We found that Zn{sub 96.875}V{sub 3.125}O is the optimized composition of the V doped ZnO, which has the highest conductivity (3.2 × 10{sup 3} (Ωcm){sup −1}) and transmittance. The high transmittance and electrical conductivity indicate that hexagonal V:ZnO system is a potential as material for solar energy applications. - Highlights: • We investigate theoretically the physical properties of V-doped wurtzite ZnO. • We used density functional calculations (DFT) and Boltzmann's Transport theory. • We examined the optical and electrical properties of different percentage of V doped ZnO.

  5. Analysis of each branch current of serial solar cells by using an equivalent circuit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Shi-Guang; Zhang Wan-Hui; Ai Bin; Song Jing-Wei; Shen Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the equivalent single diode circuit model of the solar cell, an equivalent circuit diagram for two serial solar cells is drawn. Its equations of current and voltage are derived from Kirchhoff's current and voltage law. First, parameters are obtained from the I—V (current—voltage) curves for typical monocrystalline silicon solar cells (125 mm × 125 mm). Then, by regarding photo-generated current, shunt resistance, serial resistance of the first solar cell, and resistance load as the variables. The properties of shunt currents (I sh1 and I sh2 ), diode currents (I D1 and I D2 ), and load current (I L ) for the whole two serial solar cells are numerically analyzed in these four cases for the first time, and the corresponding physical explanations are made. We find that these parameters have different influences on the internal currents of solar cells. Our results will provide a reference for developing higher efficiency solar cell module and contribute to the better understanding of the reason of efficiency loss of solar cell module. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Trial manufacture of simple integrated tube-type pyranometer by phycoerythrin and measurements of transmittance of solar radiation in crop canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Honjo, H.; Kamota, F.; Suzuki, Y.; Hayakawa, S.

    1998-01-01

    We tried to construct a simple integrated tube-type pyranometer using phycoerythrin from seaweed pigment. The maximum sensitive wavehand of phycoerythrin was 550 nm - 560 nm, and this waveband was in the photosynthetically active radiation range. The acrylic tubes (outside diameter, 22 mm, length, 100 cm) were spread with white paints except for a strip 15 mm in width, and phycoerythrin was put into the acrylic tube. In the results from the outdoor measurements, the tube-type pyranometer showed a positive correlation between the transmittance of phycoerythrin (%) and the measured accumulated solar radiation (MJ n(-2)), but the slope of the linear equation was different in summer and winter. In an artificial climate room, the relationship between the transmissions of phycoerythrin and the accumulated solar radiation could be approximated by a quadratic equation at every temperature. In the measurements made outdoors, the accumulated solar radiation could be estimated using the transmittance of phycoerythrin and the mean air temperature during measurements

  7. Solar system and equivalence principle constraints on f(R) gravity by the chameleon approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of the equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in the literature that have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-λR c [1-(R c /R) 2n ] in the regime R>>R c . From the solar system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter γ, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of the weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-λR c (R/R c ) p with 0 -10 , which shows that this model is hardly distinguishable from the ΛCDM cosmology

  8. Facile and Low-Temperature Fabrication of Thermochromic Cr2O3/VO2 Smart Coatings: Enhanced Solar Modulation Ability, High Luminous Transmittance and UV-Shielding Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianci; Cao, Xun; Li, Ning; Long, Shiwei; Gao, Xiang; Dedon, Liv R; Sun, Guangyao; Luo, Hongjie; Jin, Ping

    2017-08-09

    In the pursuit of energy efficient materials, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) based smart coatings have gained much attention in recent years. For smart window applications, VO 2 thin films should be fabricated at low temperature to reduce the cost in commercial fabrication and solve compatibility problems. Meanwhile, thermochromic performance with high luminous transmittance and solar modulation ability, as well as effective UV shielding function has become the most important developing strategy for ideal smart windows. In this work, facile Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 bilayer coatings on quartz glasses were designed and fabricated by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures ranging from 250 to 350 °C as compared with typical high growth temperatures (>450 °C). The bottom Cr 2 O 3 layer not only provides a structural template for the growth of VO 2 (R), but also serves as an antireflection layer for improving the luminous transmittance. It was found that the deposition of Cr 2 O 3 layer resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the solar modulation ability (56.4%) and improvement of luminous transmittance (26.4%) when compared to single-layer VO 2 coating. According to optical measurements, the Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 bilayer structure exhibits excellent optical performances with an enhanced solar modulation ability (ΔT sol = 12.2%) and a high luminous transmittance (T lum,lt = 46.0%), which makes a good balance between ΔT sol and T lum for smart windows applications. As for UV-shielding properties, more than 95.8% UV radiation (250-400 nm) can be blocked out by the Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 structure. In addition, the visualized energy-efficient effect was modeled by heating a beaker of water using infrared imaging method with/without a Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 coating glass.

  9. Analysis of thevenin equivalent network of a distribution system for solar integration studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Mattesen, Majken; Kjaer, Søren Bækhøj

    2012-01-01

    generations and expected to play a significant role in the future sustainable energy system. Currently one of the main issues for solar integration is the voltage regulation problem in the LV grid, as to the small X/R ratios. Hence, the voltage control techniques developed for the MV and HV networks may need...... to be further evaluated before applied for the LV grid. For the inverter voltage control design, it is useful to develop a realistic Thevenin equivalent model for the grid to ease the analysis. In this paper, case studies are performed based on the analysis of a realistic distribution network for the design...

  10. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10-5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, J2⊙J2⊙ = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10-7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, GM⊙°/GM⊙GM⊙°/GM⊙ = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10-14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain ∣∣G°∣∣/GG°/G to be <4 × 10-14 per year.

  11. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T

    2018-01-18

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10 -5 . By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10 -5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, [Formula: see text] = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10 -7 . Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, [Formula: see text] = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10 -14 , which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain [Formula: see text] to be <4 × 10 -14 per year.

  12. Neutron spectrum and dose-equivalent in shuttle flights during solar maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, J E; Badhwar, G D; Lindstrom, D J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX (United States). Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents unambiguous measurements of the spectrum of neutrons found in spacecraft during spaceflight. The neutron spectrum was measured from thermal energies to about 10 MeV using a completely passive system of metal foils as neutron detectors. These foils were exposed to the neutron flux bare, covered by thermal neutron absorbers (Gd) and inside moderators (Bonner spheres). This set of detectors was flown on three U.S. Space Shuttle flights, STS-28, STS-36 and STS-31, during the solar maximum. We show that the measurements of the radioactivity of these foils lead to a differential neutron energy spectrum in all three flights that can be represented by a power law, J(E){approx equal}E{sup -0.765} neutrons cm{sup -2} day {sup -1} MeV{sup -1}. We also show that the measurements are even better represented by a linear combination of the terrestrial neutron albedo and a spectrum of neutrons locally produced in a aluminium by protons, computed by a previous author. We use both approximations to the neutron spectrum to produce a worst case and most probable case for the neutron spectra and the resulting dose-equivalents, computed using ICRP-51 neutron fluence-dose conversion tables. We compare these to the skin dose-equivalents due to charged particles during the same flights. (author).

  13. Expanded solar-system limits on violations of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Mitcham, Jack; Warecki, Zoey

    2014-01-01

    Most attempts to unify general relativity with the standard model of particle physics predict violations of the equivalence principle associated in some way with the composition of the test masses. We test this idea by using observational uncertainties in the positions and motions of solar-system bodies to set upper limits on the relative difference Δ between gravitational and inertial mass for each body. For suitable pairs of objects, it is possible to constrain three different linear combinations of Δ using Kepler’s third law, the migration of stable Lagrange points, and orbital polarization (the Nordtvedt effect). Limits of order 10 −10 –10 −6 on Δ for individual bodies can then be derived from planetary and lunar ephemerides, Cassini observations of the Saturn system, and observations of Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids as well as recently discovered Trojan companions around the Earth, Mars, Neptune, and Saturnian moons. These results can be combined with models for elemental abundances in each body to test for composition-dependent violations of the universality of free fall in the solar system. The resulting limits are weaker than those from laboratory experiments, but span a larger volume in composition space. (paper)

  14. Estimation of Transmittance of Solar Radiation in the Visible Domain Based on Remote Sensing: Evaluation of Models Using In Situ Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffoli, M. Laura; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Lin, Junfang; Kovach, Charles; Wei, Jianwei; Lewis, Marlon

    2017-11-01

    The transmittance of solar radiation in the oceanic water column plays an important role in heat transfer and photosynthesis, with implications for the global carbon cycle, global circulation, and climate. Globally, the transmittance of solar radiation in the visible domain (˜400-700 nm) (TRVIS) through the water column, which determines the vertical distribution of visible light, has to be based on remote sensing products. There are models centered on chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration or Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) as both can be derived from ocean color measurements. We present evaluations of both schemes with field data from clear oceanic and from coastal waters. Here five models were evaluated: (1) Morel and Antoine (1994) (MA94), (2) Ohlmann and Siegel (2000) (OS00), (3) Murtugudde et al. (2002) (MU02), (4) Manizza et al. (2005) (MA05), and (5) Lee et al. ([Lee, Z., 2005]) (IOPs05), where the first four are Chl-based and the last one is IOPs-based, with all inputs derived from remote sensing reflectance. It is found that the best performing model is the IOPs05, with Unbiased Absolute Percent Difference (UAPD) ˜23%, while Chl-based models show higher uncertainties (UAPD for MA94: ˜54%, OS00: ˜133%, MU02: ˜56%, and MA05: ˜39%). The IOPs-based model was insensitive to the type of water, allowing it to be applied in most marine environments; whereas some of the Chl-based models (MU02 and MA05) show much higher sensitivities in coastal turbid waters (higher Chl waters). These results highlight the applicablity of using IOPs products for such applications.

  15. Modeled and Empirical Approaches for Retrieving Columnar Water Vapor from Solar Transmittance Measurements in the 0.72, 0.82, and 0.94 Micrometer Absorption Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, T.; Schmid, B.; Maetzler, C.; Demoulin, P.; Kaempfer, N.

    2000-01-01

    A Sun photometer (18 channels between 300 and 1024 nm) has been used for measuring the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor (CWV) by solar transmittance measurements in absorption bands with channels centered at 719, 817, and 946 nm. The observable is the band-weighted transmittance function defined by the spectral absorption of water vapor and the spectral features of solar irradiance and system response. The transmittance function is approximated by a three-parameter model. Its parameters are determined from MODTRAN and LBLRTM simulations or empirical approaches using CWV data of a dual-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) or a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Data acquired over a 2-year period during 1996-1998 at two different sites in Switzerland, Bern (560 m above sea level (asl)) and Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl) were compared to MWR, radiosonde (RS), and FTS retrievals. At the low-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 15 mm the LBLRTM approach (based on recently corrected line intensities) leads to negligible biases at 719 and 946 nm if compared to an average of MWR, RS, and GPS retrievals. However, at 817 nm an overestimate of 2.7 to 4.3 mm (18-29%) remains. At the high-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 1.4 mm the LBLRTM approaches overestimate the CWV by 1.0, 1.4. and 0.1 mm (58, 76, and 3%) at 719, 817, and 946 nm, compared to the ITS instrument. At the low-altitude station, CWV estimates, based on empirical approaches, agree with the MWR within 0.4 mm (2.5% of the mean); at the high-altitude site with a factor of 10 less water vapor the agreement of the sun photometers (SPM) with the ITS is 0.0 to 0.2 mm (1 to 9% of the mean CWV there). Sensitivity analyses show that for the conditions met at the two stations with CWV ranging from 0.2 to 30 mm, the retrieval errors are smallest if the 946 nm channel is used.

  16. Explicit Expressions for Solar Panel Equivalent Circuit Parameters Based on Analytical Formulation and the Lambert W-Function

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Cubas; Santiago Pindado; Carlos de Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation...), it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testin...

  17. Displacement damage analysis and modified electrical equivalent circuit for electron and photon-irradiated silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjhangmehr, Afshin; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein

    2014-10-01

    Solar modules and arrays are the conventional energy resources of space satellites. Outside the earth's atmosphere, solar panels experience abnormal radiation environments and because of incident particles, photovoltaic (PV) parameters degrade. This article tries to analyze the electrical performance of electron and photon-irradiated mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. PV cells are irradiated by mono-energetic electrons and poly-energetic photons and immediately characterized after the irradiation. The mean degradation of the maximum power (Pmax) of silicon solar cells is presented and correlated using the displacement damage dose (Dd) methodology. This method simplifies evaluation of cell performance in space radiation environments and produces a single characteristic curve for Pmax degradation. Furthermore, complete analysis of the results revealed that the open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the filling factor of mono-Si cells did not significantly change during the irradiation and were independent of the radiation type and fluence. Moreover, a new technique is developed that adapts the irradiation-induced effects in a single-cell equivalent electrical circuit and adjusts its elements. The "modified circuit" is capable of modeling the "radiation damage" in the electrical behavior of mono-Si solar cells and simplifies the designing of the compensation circuits.

  18. Explicit Expressions for Solar Panel Equivalent Circuit Parameters Based on Analytical Formulation and the Lambert W-Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation..., it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testing/calculation campaigns, the only information available for them being the manufacturer datasheet. The solution to this problem is the development of new and simple methods to define equivalent circuits able to reproduce the behavior of the panel for any working condition, from a very small amount of information. In the present work a direct and completely explicit method to extract solar cell parameters from the manufacturer datasheet is presented and tested. This method is based on analytical formulation which includes the use of the Lambert W-function to turn the series resistor equation explicit. The presented method is used to analyze commercial solar panel performance (i.e., the current-voltage–I-V–curve at different levels of irradiation and temperature. The analysis performed is based only on the information included in the manufacturer’s datasheet.

  19. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10 %. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5 % at the TOA over ocean/land and 15 % at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20 %. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported. They strongly enhance the absorbing properties and forward scattering in the solar and increase predominantly, e.g., the total TOA forcing of the dust over land.

  20. Understanding S-Shaped Current-Voltage Characteristics in Organic Solar Cells Containing a TiOx Inter layer with Impedance Spectroscopy and Equivalent Circuit Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ecker, Bernhard; Egelhaaf, Hans-Joachim; Steim, Roland; Parisi, Juergen; von Hauff', Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this study we propose an equivalent circuit model to describe S-shaped current–voltage (I–V) characteristics in inverted solar cells with a TiOx interlayer between the cathode and the poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester active layer. Initially the solar cells

  1. An equivalent circuit approach to the modelling of the dynamics of dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, L.; West, K.

    2005-01-01

    A model that can be used to interpret the response of a dye-sensitized photo electrode to intensity-modulated light (intensity modulated voltage spectroscopy, IMVS and intensity modulated photo-current spectroscopy, IMPS) is presented. The model is based on an equivalent circuit approach involvin...

  2. Evaluation of treatment effects for high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells using equivalent circuit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Masaki; Mori, Tatsuo

    2006-01-01

    Equivalent circuit analysis using a one-diode model was carried out as a simpler, more convenient method to evaluate the electric mechanism and to employ effective treatment of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). Cells treated using acetic acid or 4,t-butylpyridine were measured under irradiation (0.1 W/m 2 , AM 1.5) to obtain current-voltage (I-V) curves. Cell performance and equivalent circuit parameters were calculated from the I-V curves. Evaluation based on residual factors was useful for better fitting of the equivalent circuit to the I-V curve. The diode factor value was often over two for high-performance DSCs. Acetic acid treatment was effective to increase the short-circuit current by decreasing the series resistance of cells. In contrast, 4,t-butylpyridine was effective to increase open-circuit voltage by increasing the cell shunt resistance. Previous explanations considered that acetic acid worked to decrease the internal resistance of the TiO 2 layer and butylpyridine worked to lower the back-electron-transfer from the TiO 2 to the electrolyte

  3. Solar neutrino results and Violation of the Equivalence Principle An analysis of the existing data and predictions for SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, D; Sil, A; Majumdar, Debasish; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Sil, Arunansu

    2001-01-01

    Violation of the Equivalence Principle (VEP) can lead to neutrino oscillation through the non-diagonal coupling of neutrino flavor eigenstates with the gravitational field. The neutrino energy dependence of this oscillation probability is different from that of the usual mass-mixing neutrino oscillations. In this work we explore, in detail, the viability of the VEP hypothesis as a solution to the solar neutrino problem in a two generation scenario with both the active and sterile neutrino alternatives, choosing these states to be massless. To obtain the best-fit values of the oscillation parameters we perform a chi square analysis for the total rates of solar neutrinos seen at the Chlorine (Homestake), Gallium (Gallex and SAGE), Kamiokande, and SuperKamiokande (SK) experiments. We find that the goodness of these fits is never satisfactory. It markedly improves if the Chlorine data is excluded from the analysis, especially for VEP transformation to sterile neutrinos. The 1117-day SK data for recoil electron sp...

  4. Solar Equivalences of the Earth’s Primary Exergy inflows and the Theoretical Basis for Secondary and Tertiary Emergy Flows of the Geobiosphere: New Calculations of Transformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown et al. (2016) published a synthesis paper in which evidence was presented supporting a new value of the Earth’s geobiosphere baseline, 12.0E+24 seJ/y (solar equivalent joules per year) from which the emergy of all the Earth’s products and processes can be calcul...

  5. On the equivalence of the solar wind coupling parameter ε and the magnetospheric energy output parameter UT during intense geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    For intervals with intense geomagnetic activity it is shown that the solar wind coupling parameter ε and the magnetospheric output parameter U T are equivalent and that ranges of values of ε can be set up in terms of values of the ring current-time constant τ. (author)

  6. The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for high-altitude long-endurance solar-powered aircraft on energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Fan, Rong-Fei; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The scope of this paper is to apply solar energy to achieve the high-altitude long-endurance flight. • The equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery is discussed. • Four kinds of factors have been discussed to compare the two method of energy storage. • This work can provide some governing principles for the application of solar-powered aircraft. - Abstract: Applying solar energy is one of the most promising methods to achieve the aim of High-altitude Long-endurance (HALE) flight, and solar-powered aircraft is usually taken by the research groups to develop HALE aircraft. However, the crucial factor which constrains the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the aim of HALE is the problem how to fulfill the power requirement under weight constraint of rechargeable batteries. Motivated by the birds store energy from thermal by gaining height, the method of energy stored by gravitational potential for solar-powered aircraft have attracted great attentions in recent years. In order to make the method of energy stored in gravitational potential more practical in solar-powered aircraft, the equivalence of gravitational potential and rechargeable battery for aircraft on energy storage has been analyzed, and four kinds of factors are discussed in this paper: the duration of solar irradiation, the charging rate, the energy density of rechargeable battery and the initial altitude of aircraft. This work can provide some governing principles for the solar-powered aircraft to achieve the unlimited endurance flight, and the endurance performance of solar-powered aircraft may be greatly improved by the application of energy storage using gravitational potential

  7. Simulation of light-induced degradation of μc-Si in a-Si/μc-Si tandem solar cells by the diode equivalent circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weicht, J. A.; Hamelmann, F. U.; Behrens, G.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon-based thin film tandem solar cells consist of one amorphous (a-Si) and one microcrystalline (μc-Si) silicon solar cell. The Staebler - Wronski effect describes the light- induced degradation and temperature-dependent healing of defects of silicon-based solar thin film cells. The solar cell degradation depends strongly on operation temperature. Until now, only the light-induced degradation (LID) of the amorphous layer was examined in a-Si/μc-Si solar cells. The LID is also observed in pc-Si single function solar cells. In our work we show the influence of the light-induced degradation of the μc-Si layer on the diode equivalent circuit. The current-voltage-curves (I-V-curves) for the initial state of a-Si/pc-Si modules are measured. Afterwards the cells are degraded under controlled conditions at constant temperature and constant irradiation. At fixed times the modules are measured at standard test conditions (STC) (AM1.5, 25°C cell temperature, 1000 W/m2) for controlling the status of LID. After the degradation the modules are annealed at dark conditions for several hours at 120°C. After the annealing the dangling bonds in the amorphous layer are healed, while the degradation of the pc-Si is still present, because the healing of defects in pc-Si solar cells needs longer time or higher temperatures. The solar cells are measured again at STC. With this laboratory measured I-V-curves we are able to separate the values of the diode model: series Rs and parallel resistance Rp, saturation current Is and diode factor n.

  8. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  9. Laser transmitter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A laser transmitter system is disclosed which utilizes mechanical energy for generating an output pulse. The laser system includes a current developing device such as a piezoelectric crystal which charges a storage device such as a capacitor in response to a mechanical input signal. The capacitor is coupled to a switching device, such as a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). The switching device is coupled to a laser transmitter such as a GaAs laser diode, which provides an output signal in response to the capacitor being discharged

  10. Oxygen transmittance correction for solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measured on proximal sensing: application to the NASA-GSFC fusion tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since oxygen (O2) absorption of light becomes more pronounced at higher pressure levels, even a few meters distance between the target and the sensor can strongly affect canopy leaving Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) retrievals. This study was conducted to quantify the consequent error ...

  11. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified version of the standard drift-diffusion equations is employed in which minority carrier densities are neglected. This is justified by the large disparities in electron affinity and ionisation potential between the two materials. The resulting equations are solved (via both asymptotic and numerical techniques) in conjunction with (i) Ohmic boundary conditions on the contacts and (ii) an internal boundary condition, imposed on the interface between the two materials, that accounts for charge pair generation (resulting from the dissociation of excitons) and charge pair recombination. Current-voltage curves are calculated from the solution to this model as a function of the strength of the solar charge generation. In the physically relevant power generating regime, it is shown that these current-voltage curves are well-approximated by a Shockley equivalent circuit model. Furthermore, since our drift-diffusion model is predictive, it can be used to directly calculate equivalent circuit parameters from the material parameters of the device. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-01-01

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms

  13. Optimal transmitter power of an intersatellite optical communication system with reciprocal Pareto fading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian

    2010-02-10

    This paper shows that optical signal transmission over intersatellite links with swaying transmitters can be described as an equivalent fading model. In this model, the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio is stochastic and follows the reciprocal Pareto distribution. With this model, we show that the transmitter power can be minimized, subject to a specified outage probability, by appropriately adjusting some system parameters, such as the transmitter gain.

  14. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The authorized...

  15. Equivalent Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.

    1982-01-01

    We present a review of the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations, emphasizing the ambiguities which appear due to the existence of equivalent Lagrangians for a given classical system. In particular, we analyze the properties of equivalent Lagrangians in the multidimensional case, we study the conditions for the existence of a variational principle for (second as well as first order) equations of motion and their solutions, we consider the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations for singular systems, we state the ambiguities which emerge in the relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in the case of equivalent Lagrangians, we discuss the problems which appear in trying to quantize classical systems which have different equivalent Lagrangians, we describe the situation which arises in the study of equivalent Lagrangians in field theory and finally, we present some unsolved problems and discussion topics related to the content of this article. (author)

  16. Universal tritium transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J. V.; Wood, M.

    2008-01-01

    sufficient time to thermally equilibrate. Amplifiers, transistors, resistors all need time to stabilize before the electrometer circuit will measure accurately in the 10 -15 and 10 -14 ampere range. Existing electrometers give the user no indication when the unit has stabilized and is acceptable for low level measurements. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) funded through the NNSA Plant Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program, has developed a truly Universal Tritium Transmitter (UTT) capable of solving many known problems with existing commercial electrometers. This UTT pushes the state-of-the-art in electrometer design and incorporates solutions to deficiencies found in commercial electrometers. (authors)

  17. 47 CFR 80.959 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... watts into 50 ohms nominal resistance when operated with its rated supply voltage. The transmitter must... capability of the transmitter, measurements of primary supply voltage and transmitter output power must be... voltage measured at the power input terminals to the transmitter terminated in a matching artificial load...

  18. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  19. Determination of the SNPP VIIRS SDSM Screen Relative Transmittance From Both Yaw Maneuver and Regular On-Orbit Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chen, Xuexia; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suiteaboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite performs radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands primarily through observing a sunlit onboard solar diffuser (SD). The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function(BRDF) degradation factor is determined by an onboard SD stability monitor (SDSM), which observes the Sun through a pinhole screen and the sunlit SD. The transmittance of the SDSM pinhole screen over a range of solar angles was determined prelaunch and used initially to determine the BRDF degradation factor.The degradation-factor-versus-time curves were found to have a number of very large unphysical undulations likely due to the inaccuracy in the prelaunch determined SDSM screen transmittance.To refine the SDSM screen transmittance, satellite yaw maneuvers were carried out. With the SDSM screen relative transmittance determined from the yaw maneuver data, the computed BRDFdegradation factor curves still have large unphysical ripples, indicating that the projected solar horizontal angular step size in the yaw maneuver data is too large to resolve the transmittance at a fine angular scale. We develop a methodology to use both the yaw maneuver and a small portion of regular on-orbit data to determine the SDSM screen relative transmittance at a fine angular scale. We determine that the error standard deviation of the calculated relative transmittance ranges from 0.00030 (672 nm) to 0.00092 (926 nm). With the newly determined SDSM screen relative transmittance, the computed BRDF degradation factor behaves much more smoothly over time.

  20. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth in...

  1. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power is...

  2. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis demonstrating...

  3. Asymptotic and numerical prediction of current-voltage curves for an organic bilayer solar cell under varying illumination and comparison to the Shockley equivalent circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Foster, J. M.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Richardson, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a drift-diffusion model is used to derive the current-voltage curves of an organic bilayer solar cell consisting of slabs of electron acceptor and electron donor materials sandwiched together between current collectors. A simplified

  4. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior to... adequate to render the service proposed. In cases of questionable antenna locations, it is desirable to...

  5. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... current station authorization. On authorizations stating only the input power to the final radiofrequency...

  6. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  7. Change of the equivalent circuit constants accompanied by the degradation and recovery of efficiency on a-Si solar cells; A-Si taiyo denchi no koritsu no rekka to kaifuku ni tomonau toka kairo teisu no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahisa, K; Kojima, T; Nakamura, K; Koyanagi, T; Yanagisawa, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Investigations were given on how the equivalent circuit constants change when efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells changes with time in light degradation and temperature recovery. In the experiment, light irradiation tests under a constant temperature and light intensity condition, followed by recovery tests under a constant temperature and constant weak light intensity or constant temperature condition were repeated continuously. According to the result of an experiment on single layer type cells, the change in each equivalent circuit constant in association with degradation in efficiency and file factor and variation in recovery is reversible mostly. However, a slightly irreversible component was recognized only in the initial degradation process in series resistance and diode factor values. With regard to stacked cells, it was suggested that the main players to determine cell characteristics during the processes of deterioration and recovery take turns among the three layers as follows: the shape of the time-based change in the efficiency comes different and is not saturating; as the efficiency decreases, the extent of the change increases in the diode factor and series resistance; and the path the deterioration takes differs from that the recovery takes. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Zafar, Ammar; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying

  9. TWT transmitter fault prediction based on ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Li, Junshan; Li, Shuangshuang; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Fault prediction is an important component of health management, and plays an important role in the reliability guarantee of complex electronic equipments. Transmitter is a unit with high failure rate. The cathode performance of TWT is a common fault of transmitter. In this dissertation, a model based on a set of key parameters of TWT is proposed. By choosing proper parameters and applying adaptive neural network training model, this method, combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), has a certain reference value for the overall health judgment of TWT transmitters.

  10. NRL transmittance measurements at DIRT-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.; Woytko, M. A.; Gott, C.

    1981-06-01

    This is a final report on NRL experiments at the DIRT-III tests at Fort Polk, Louisiana in April - May 1980. Spectral transmission data at 3 wavelengths 0.55 microns, 1.06 microns and 10.4 microns is reported for 27 events in natural soil and various prepared soils. Spectral transmittance of smoke and dust clouds generated by explosive charges was found to be independent of wavelengths in about 50% of the events where useful data was obtained. When the charge was buried in wet natural soil transmittance at 10.4 microns was transmittance at 0.55 microns .

  11. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  12. Light transmittance under diffuse radiation circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieboom, A.M.G. van den; Stoffers, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    For a grower it is important to know the light transmittance of a greenhouse. With this date (and many others) he is able to make a decision about which greenhouse and covering is the most economical in his situation. It is absolute impossible for a grower to use figures that are functions of: • the orientation of the greenhouse, • the relation between direct and global radiation, • the amount of radiation, etc. • He needs one comparable figure. As a comparable figure for light transmittance of a greenhouse we use the transmittance factor that is estimated with a diffuse radiation source. This figure will be the same as the mean transmittance over one year for that greenhouse, even with extreme direct radiation and independent of the orientation of the greenhouse. (author)

  13. APMP Pilot Study on Transmittance Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Chun; Hwang, Jisoo; Koo, Annette; Wu, Houping; Leecharoen, Rojana; Yu, Hsueh-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Five NMIs within APMP, including CMS/ITRI, MSL, NIM, NIMT and KRISS from TCPR applied to the APMP technical committee initiative project for funding to carry out a pilot comparison of transmittance haze in 2012. The project started in 2014 and the final report was completed at the end of 2016. In this pilot comparison, three different haze standards were adopted, and transmittance haze for each standard was measured according to ASTM D1003 or ISO 14782. This paper presents the first results of an APMP pilot study of transmittance haze and the analysis of the variation among different haze measurement systems which are commonly used. The study shows that the variables such as sphere multiplier, transmittance distribution, fluorescence of samples and optical path of the incident beam cause discrepancies among NMIs and highlight deficiencies in current documentary standards.

  14. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  15. Digital transmitter for data bus communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proch, G. E. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved digital transmitter for transmitting serial pulse code modulation (pcm) data at high bit rates over a transmission line is disclosed. When not transmitting, the transmitter features a high output impedance which prevents the transmitter from loading the transmission line. The pcm input is supplied to a logic control circuit which produces two discrete logic level signals which are supplied to an amplifier. The amplifier, which is transformer coupled to the output isolation circuitry, converts the discrete logic level signals to two high current level, ground isolated signals in the secondary windings of the coupling transformer. The latter signals are employed as inputs to the isolation circuitry which includes two series transistor pairs operating into a hybrid transformer functioning to isolate the transmitter circuitry from the transmission line.

  16. Terrestrial VLF transmitter injection into the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-08-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio waves emitted from ground sources (transmitters and lightning) strongly impact the radiation belts, driving electron precipitation via whistler-electron gyroresonance, and contributing to the formation of the slot region. However, calculations of the global impacts of VLF waves are based on models of trans-ionospheric propagation to calculate the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. Limited comparisons of these models to individual satellite passes have found that the models may significantly (by >20 dB) overestimate amplitudes of ground based VLF transmitters in the magnetosphere. To form a much more complete empirical picture of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, we present observations of the radiation pattern from a number of ground-based VLF transmitters by averaging six years of data from the DEMETER satellite. We divide the slice at ˜700 km altitude above a transmitter into pixels and calculate the average field for all satellite passes through each pixel. There are enough data to see 25 km features in the radiation pattern, including the modal interference of the subionospheric signal mapped upwards. Using these data, we deduce the first empirical measure of the radiated power into the magnetosphere from these transmitters, for both daytime and nighttime, and at both the overhead and geomagnetically conjugate region. We find no detectable variation of signal intensity with geomagnetic conditions at low and mid latitudes (L ionospheric heating by one VLF transmitter which modifies the trans-ionospheric absorption of signals from other transmitters passing through the heated region.

  17. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  18. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  19. Transmittance measurements at DIRT-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.; Woytko, M. A.

    1980-07-01

    This is a report on the NRL experiments at the DIRT-II tests sponsored by the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory at the White Sands Missile Range in July 1970. The NRL experiment was designed to measure spectral transmittance through smoke and dust clouds generated by detonations of various explosive charges and also by impact of artillery rounds. Spectral transmission data as a function of time for 0.55 micrometers, 1.06 micrometers, and 10.37 micrometers were obtained for 63 events comprised of static detonations and artillery rounds. Transmission data for 1.06 micrometers, in most cases were similar and equal to 0.55 micrometers. In dry soil conditions the 10.37 micrometers channel showed higher transmittance values than the visible channel. There are indications that 10.37 micrometers transmittance in wet soil events is lower than visible presumably because of strong liquid water absorption at the IR wavelength.

  20. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  1. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  2. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resistance when operated with a primary supply voltage of 13.6 volts DC. (d) When an individual demonstration... paragraph must be met as follows: (1) Measurements of primary supply voltage and transmitter output power must be made with the equipment drawing energy only from ship's battery; (2) The primary supply voltage...

  3. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  4. 47 CFR 101.131 - Transmitter construction and installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriately labeled pilot lamp or meter which will provide continuous visual indication at the transmitter... indication when the transmitter is radiating, or, in lieu thereof, a pilot lamp or meter which will provide... responsible operating personnel 24 hours per day. ...

  5. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Safer; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    2000-12-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer responses based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better understanding of the factors that have an impact on printing quality. In order to avoid the additional optical non-linearities produced by light reflection on paper, we have limited the present investigation to transparency prints. The proposed model succeeded to predict the transmittance spectra of printed wedges combining two color toner layers with a mean deviation less than CIE-LAB (Delta) E equals 2.5.

  6. Ultrafast photoconductor detector-laser-diode transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Davis, B.A.; Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Thomas, M.C.; Zagarino, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report the results of an experiment in which we used an ultrafast, photoconductive, radiation detector to drive a fast laser-diode transmitter. When we irradiated the neutron-damaged Cr-doped GaAs detector with 17-MeV electron beams, the temporal response was measured to be less than 30 ps. The pulses from this detector modulated a fast GaAlAs laser diode to transmit the laser output through 30- and 1100-m optical fibers. Preliminary results indicate that 50- and 80-ps time resolutions, respectively, are obtainable with these fibers. We are now working to integrate the photoconductive detector and the laser diode transmitter into a single chip

  7. Ultrafast photoconductive detector-laser-diode transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Davies, T.J.; Nelson, M.A.; Thomas, M.C.; Zagarino, P.A.; Davis, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the results of an experiment in which they used an ultrafast, photoconductive, radiation detector to drive a fast laser-diode transmitter. When they irradiated the neutron-damaged Cr-doped Ga/As detector with 17-MeV electron beams, the temporal response of was measured to be less than 30 ps. The pulses from this detector modulated a fast GaAlAs laser diode to transmit the laser output through 30- and 1100-m optical fibers. Preliminary results indicate that 50- and 80-ps time resolutions, respectively, are obtainable with these fibers. They are now working to integrate the photoconductive detector and the laser diode transmitter into a single chip

  8. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  9. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.

    2009-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds

  10. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The

  11. On the operator equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.

    1978-06-01

    A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined

  12. Agricultural applications of NIR reflectance and transmittance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the use of near infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy technologies for rapid determination of quality parameters in agriculture, including applications within crop product quality, feed and food quality, manure quality, soil analyses etc....... As a result it was decided to arrange a seminar within the Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists. This is a report of the meeting....

  13. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  14. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  15. Dynamic reliability of digital-based transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, Florent, E-mail: florent.brissaud.2007@utt.f [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France) and Universite de Technologie de Troyes - UTT, Institut Charles Delaunay - ICD and UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Smidts, Carol [Ohio State University (OSU), Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Scott Laboratory, 201 W 19th Ave, Columbus OH 43210 (United States); Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Institut Charles Delaunay (ICD) and UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    Dynamic reliability explicitly handles the interactions between the stochastic behaviour of system components and the deterministic behaviour of process variables. While dynamic reliability provides a more efficient and realistic way to perform probabilistic risk assessment than 'static' approaches, its industrial level applications are still limited. Factors contributing to this situation are the inherent complexity of the theory and the lack of a generic platform. More recently the increased use of digital-based systems has also introduced additional modelling challenges related to specific interactions between system components. Typical examples are the 'intelligent transmitters' which are able to exchange information, and to perform internal data processing and advanced functionalities. To make a contribution to solving these challenges, the mathematical framework of dynamic reliability is extended to handle the data and information which are processed and exchanged between systems components. Stochastic deviations that may affect system properties are also introduced to enhance the modelling of failures. A formalized Petri net approach is then presented to perform the corresponding reliability analyses using numerical methods. Following this formalism, a versatile model for the dynamic reliability modelling of digital-based transmitters is proposed. Finally the framework's flexibility and effectiveness is demonstrated on a substantial case study involving a simplified model of a nuclear fast reactor.

  16. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  17. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  18. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  19. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  20. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.M.

    1978-03-01

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr

  1. Opportunistic transmitter selection for selfless overlay cognitive radios

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    We propose an opportunistic strategy to grant channel access to the primary and secondary transmitters in causal selfless overlay cognitive radios over block-fading channels. The secondary transmitter helps the primary transmitter by relaying the primary messages opportunistically, aided by a buffer to store the primary messages temporarily. The optimal channel-aware transmitter- selection strategy is the solution of the maximization of the average secondary rate under the average primary rate requirement and the buffer stability constraints. Numerical results demonstrate the gains of the proposed opportunistic selection strategy. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation of Cognitive Radio Systems without CSI at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-01-07

    Two major issues are facing today’s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produce 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, we aim to determine the optimal energy efficient power allocation of CR when the channel state information at the transmitter CSI-T is not available.

  3. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation of Cognitive Radio Systems without CSI at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    Two major issues are facing today’s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produce 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, we aim to determine the optimal energy efficient power allocation of CR when the channel state information at the transmitter CSI-T is not available.

  4. The equivalence theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, H.

    1990-01-01

    The equivalence theorem states that, at an energy E much larger than the vector-boson mass M, the leading order of the amplitude with longitudinally polarized vector bosons on mass shell is given by the amplitude in which these vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding Higgs ghosts. We prove the equivalence theorem and show its validity in every order in perturbation theory. We first derive the renormalized Ward identities by using the diagrammatic method. Only the Feynman-- 't Hooft gauge is discussed. The last step of the proof includes the power-counting method evaluated in the large-Higgs-boson-mass limit, needed to estimate the leading energy behavior of the amplitudes involved. We derive expressions for the amplitudes involving longitudinally polarized vector bosons for all orders in perturbation theory. The fermion mass has not been neglected and everything is evaluated in the region m f ∼M much-lt E much-lt m Higgs

  5. 29 CFR 1921.15 - Transmittal of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmittal of record. 1921.15 Section 1921.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Decision and Order § 1921.15 Transmittal of record. Immediately following the...

  6. Evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce K. Johnson; Terrance McCoy; Christopher O. Kochanny; Rachel C. Cook

    2006-01-01

    The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. Vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse...

  7. 47 CFR 25.281 - Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS). 25.281 Section 25.281 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.281 Automatic Transmitter...

  8. 22 CFR 181.7 - Transmittal to the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmittal to the Congress. 181.7 Section 181... PUBLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS § 181.7 Transmittal to the Congress. (a) International agreements.... Background statements, while not expressly required by the act, have been requested by the Congress and have...

  9. Analysis of an Intelligent Temperature Transmitter for Process Control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percentage error shows acceptable points at -0.04%, 0.04% and -0.1%. For higher percentage error readings, it is necessary to connect a resistor of value between 250Ω and 1100Ω between the current loop and the transmitter. The future of transmitter technology is however the wireless sensor node (WSN) incorporating ...

  10. Radiation hardening of CMOS-based circuitry in SMART transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loescher, D.H.

    1993-02-01

    Process control transmitters that incorporate digital signal processing could be used advantageously in nuclear power plants; however, because such transmitters are too sensitive to radiation, they are not used. The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored work at Sandia National Laboratories under EPRI contract RP2614-58 to determine why SMART transmitters fail when exposed to radiation and to design and demonstrate SMART transmitter circuits that could tolerate radiation. The term ''SMART'' denotes transmitters that contain digital logic. Tests showed that transmitter failure was caused by failure of the complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS)-integrated circuits which are used extensively in commercial transmitters. Radiation-hardened replacements were not available for the radiation-sensitive CMOS circuits. A conceptual design showed that a radiation-tolerant transmitter could be constructed. A prototype for an analog-to-digital converter subsection worked satisfactorily after a total dose of 30 megarads(Si). Encouraging results were obtained from preliminary bench-top tests on a dc-to-dc converter for the power supply subsection

  11. Near-UV Transmittance of Basalt Dust as an Analog of the Martian Regolith: Implications for Sensor Calibration and Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Frías

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Martian regolith is exposed to solar irradiation in the near-UV (200-390 nm.Basalt is one of the main components of the dust on Mars surface. The near-UV irradiationof basalt dust on Mars is simulated experimentally in order to determine the transmittance asa function of the mass and thickness of the dust. This data can serve to quantify theabsorption of dust deposited on sensors aiming to measure the UV intensity on Marssurface. The minimum thickness of the dust that corresponds to near-zero-transmittance inthe near-UV is measured. Hypothetical Martian microorganisms living on the dusty regolithat deeper layers would be preserved from the damaging solar UV irradiation.

  12. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory Study Toward a Climate-Specific Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Hacke, Peter L.; Kempe, Michael D.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Ballion, Amal; Kohl, Michael; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; French, Roger H.; Burns, David; Phillips, Nancy H.; Feng; Jiangtao; Elliott, Lamont; Scott, Kurt P.; Fowler, Sean; Gu, Xiaohong; Honeker, Christian C.; Khonkar, Hussam; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Shioda, Tsy

    2015-06-14

    Reduced optical transmittance of encapsulation resulting from ultraviolet (UV) degradation has frequently been identified as a cause of decreased PV module performance through the life of installations in the field. The present module safety and qualification standards, however, apply short UV doses only capable of examining design robustness or 'infant mortality' failures. Essential information that might be used to screen encapsulation through product lifetime remains unknown. For example, the relative efficacy of xenon-arc and UVA-340 fluorescent sources or the typical range of activation energy for degradation is not quantified. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide the understanding that will be used towards developing a climate- and configuration-specific (UV) weathering test. Five representative, known formulations of EVA were studied in addition to one TPU material. Replicate laminated silica/polymer/silica specimens are being examined at 14 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers (including Xe, UVA-340, and metal-halide light sources) or field aging. The solar-weighted transmittance, yellowness index, and the UV cut-off wavelength, determined from the measured hemispherical transmittance, are examined to provide understanding and guidance for the UV light source (lamp type) and temperature used in accelerated UV aging tests. Index Terms -- reliability, durability, thermal activation.

  13. Comparison between ASHRAE and ISO thermal transmittance calculation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanusa, Petar; Goss, William P.; Roth, Hartwig

    2007-01-01

    is proportional to the glazing/frame sightline distance that is also proportional to the total glazing spacer length. An example calculation of the overall heat transfer and thermal transmittance (U-value or U-factor) using the two methods for a thermally broken, aluminum framed slider window is presented....... The fenestration thermal transmittance calculations analyses presented in this paper show that small differences exist between the calculated thermal transmittance values produced by the ISO and ASHRAE methods. The results also show that the overall thermal transmittance difference between the two methodologies...... decreases as the total window area (glazing plus frame) increases. Thus, the resulting difference in thermal transmittance values for the two methods is negligible for larger windows. This paper also shows algebraically that the differences between the ISO and ASHRAE methods turn out to be due to the way...

  14. Simulation of solar radiative transfer in cumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    This work presents a 3-D model of radiative transfer which is used to study the relationship between the spatial distribution of cumulus clouds and fluxes (albedo and transmittance) of visible solar radiation.

  15. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  16. A 10.6mm3 Fully-Integrated, Wireless Sensor Node with 8GHz UWB Transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Gyouho; Lee, Yoonmyung; Foo, Zhiyoong; Sylvester, Dennis; Blaauw, David; Wentzloff, David

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a complete, autonomous, wireless temperature sensor, fully encapsulated in a 10.6mm 3 volume. The sensor includes solar energy harvesting with an integrated 2 μAh battery, optical receiver for programming, microcontroller and memory, 8GHz UWB transmitter, and miniaturized custom antennas with a wireless range of 7 meters. Full, stand-alone operation was demonstrated for the first time for a system of this size and functionality.

  17. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated...

  18. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  19. Development of a wireless nuclear signal transmitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soodsakorn, A

    1994-12-31

    This thesis aims at the development of a nuclear signal transmission system using radio frequency as carrier. The system is helpful for long distance data transmission especially convenient in high level radiation area. The transmitting system comprises of pulse height ADCs with serial output, digital data modulation, frequency modulation and a l watt C B 27.125 MHz transmitter. The sequential data transmission is controlled by micro controller. The receiving system comprises of detector, noise filter and data demodulator where the signals in form of nuclear spectrum will be displayed on a micro-computer through R S-232{sub C} serial data transmission. It is found that the developed system can transmit a nuclear pulse height in the range of 0-10 V with the pulse width varying from 0.5-10 us. The linear correlation of the pulse height ADCs conversion is 0.998. The system can transmit a nuclear pulse rate of 600 cpm with the serial data of 1200 baud rate without error. At a l watt transmitted power, the system can on air cover an area of l km radius for continuous operation

  20. A simple mixture to enhance muscle transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Clemente, Manuel Pais; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2008-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is a fibrous tissue composed by muscle fibers and interstitial fluid. Due to this constitution, the muscle presents a non uniform refractive index profile that origins strong light scattering. One way to improve tissue transmittance is to reduce this refractive index mismatch by immersing the muscle in an optical clearing agent. As a consequence of such immersion tissue also suffers dehydration. The study of the optical clearing effect created by a simple mixture composed by ethanol, glycerol and distilled water has proven its effectiveness according to the variations observed in the parameters under study. The effect was characterized in terms of its magnitude, time duration and histological variations. The applied treatment has created a small reduction of the global sample refractive index that is justified by the long time rehydration caused by water in the immersing solution. From the reduction in sample pH we could also identify the dehydration process created in the sample. The immersion treatment has originated fiber bundle contraction and a spread distribution of the muscle fiber bundles inside. New studies with the mixture used, or with other combinations of its constituents might be interesting to perform with the objective to develop new clinical procedures.

  1. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  2. Discussion on informatization teaching of certain radar transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanhui; Lv, Guizhou; Meng, Yafeng

    2017-04-01

    With the development of informatization, the traditional teaching method of certain radar transmitter is more and more difficult to meet the need of cultivating new type of high-quality military talents. This paper first analyzes the problems traditional teaching method of certain radar transmitter, and then puts forward the strategy of informatization teaching, and finally elaborates the concrete steps and contents of informatization teaching. Using the multimedia maintenance training system, information simulation training system and network courses and other informatization means, effectively improves the master degree to radar transmitter by trainees, but also lays a good foundation for repair in the next step.

  3. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  4. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  5. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  6. analysis of an analysis of an intelligent temperature transmitter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    temperature sensors and analyze a typical Rosemount Intelligent Temperature Transmitter (RITT) with a view to identifying and ... material science and communication technologies [2]. ... Some benefits of the 4-20mA transmission standard.

  7. PLZT light transmittance memory driven with an asymmetric voltage pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    PLZT is a ferroelectric electro-optic material, which has been operated with a constant voltage supply to keep a certain optical property. In this study, we propose an optical transmittance memory effect by controlling the domain conditions. The keypoint is to use an asymmetric voltage pulse. In the positive direction, a sufficiently-large voltage is applied to align the polarization directions. After this operation, a relatively small light transmittance is memorized even after removing the electric field. On the other hand, in the negative direction, the amplitude of the voltage is adjusted to the coercive electric field. In this condition, the domain structure is almost the same as the depolarization state. With this voltage supply, the maximum light transmittance can be kept after removing the electric field. Using these voltage operations, the PLZT can obtain two light transmittance states depending on the domain structure. This memory effect should be useful for innovative optical scanners or shutters in the future.

  8. Efficient and Compact Semiconductor Laser Transmitter Modules, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Continue development of a Compact Transmitter Module (CTM). Modules will be voltage controlled to adjust wavlength using temperature and drive current settings. The...

  9. Low-Power-Consumption Integrated PPM Laser Transmitter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional PPM laser transmitters, a CW laser followed by a modulator, are inherently inefficient since the data must be carved from the laser's steady output. 95%...

  10. Low-Power-Consumption Integrated PPM Laser Transmitter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional PPM laser transmitters, a CW laser followed by a modulator, are inherently inefficient since the data must be carved from the laser's steady output. 95%...

  11. 47 CFR 80.873 - VHF radiotelephone transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The transmitter must deliver a carrier power between 8 and 25 watts into a 50 ohm effective resistance... 50 ohms effective resistance over the frequency band specified in § 80.871(d). An individual...

  12. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian corrosive, high pressure, 460oC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a...

  13. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian high pressure, 465?aC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a thermally...

  14. Photonic integrated transmitter and receiver for NG-PON2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana; Lopes, Ana; Rodrigues, Cláudio; Mãocheia, Paulo; Mendes, Tiago; Brandão, Simão.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Ferreira, Ricardo; Teixeira, António

    2014-08-01

    In this paper the authors present a monolithic Photonic Integrated Circuit which includes a transmitter and a receiver for NG-PON2. With this layout it is possible to build an OLT and, by redesigning some filters, also an ONU. This technology allows reducing the losses in the transmitter and in the receiver, increasing power budget, and also reducing the OEO conversions, which has been a major problem that operators want to surpass.

  15. Optimal Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Hybrid Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ozel, Omur; Shahzad, Khurram; Ulukus, Sennur

    2013-01-01

    We consider data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a hybrid energy storage unit composed of a perfectly efficient super-capacitor (SC) and an inefficient battery. The SC has finite space for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter can choose to store the harvested energy in the SC or in the battery. The energy is drained from the SC and the battery simultaneously. In this setting, we consider the offline throughput maximization problem ...

  16. New recommendations for dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)

  17. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  18. Solar Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  19. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  20. System equivalent model mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  1. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  2. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  3. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the...

  4. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. The... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal...

  5. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  6. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  7. REMIT, Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, P.; Hagemeyer, D.; Hardwick, C.; Pippen, H.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Part 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a personal computer (PC) -based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Form 5s or Form 4s. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Form 5s and 4s in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. 2 - Method of solution: REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in micro-curies. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in micro-curies. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: REMIT is a single- user system that only runs on IBM compatible PC systems under DOS and supports only Hewlett

  8. High Power RF Transmitters for ICRF Applications on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yuzhou; Yuan Shuai; Zhao Yanping; Zhang Xinjun; Chen Gen; Cheng Yan; Wang Lei; Ju Songqing; Deng Xu; Qin Chengming; Yang Lei; Kumazawa, R.

    2013-01-01

    An Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) system with a radio frequency (RF) power of 4 × 1.5 MW was developed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). High RF power transmitters were designed as a part of the research and development (R and D) for an ICRF system with long pulse operation at megawatt levels in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz. Studies presented in this paper cover the following parts of the high power transmitter: the three staged high power amplifier, which is composed of a 5 kW wideband solid state amplifier, a 100 kW tetrode drive stage amplifier and a 1.5 MW tetrode final stage amplifier, and the DC high voltage power supply (HVPS). Based on engineering design and static examinations, the RF transmitters were tested using a matched dummy load where an RF output power of 1.5 MW was achieved. The transmitters provide 6 MW RF power in primary phase and will reach a level up to 12 MW after a later upgrade. The transmitters performed successfully in stable operations in EAST and HT-7 devices. Up to 1.8 MW of RF power was injected into plasmas in EAST ICRF heating experiments during the 2010 autumn campaign and plasma performance was greatly improved.

  9. Microminiature radio frequency transmitter for communication and tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Richard I.; Emery, Mike S.; Falter, Kelly G.; Nowlin, C. H.; Rochelle, Jim M.; Clonts, Lloyd G.

    1997-02-01

    A micro-miniature radio frequency (rf) transmitter has been developed and demonstrated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the rf transmitter development was to maximize the transmission distance while drastically shrinking the overall transmitter size, including antenna. Based on analysis and testing, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a 16-GHz gallium arsenide (GaAs) oscillator and integrated on-chip antenna was designed and fabricated using microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Details of the development and the results of various field tests are discussed. The rf transmitter is applicable to covert surveillance and tracking scenarios due to its small size of 2.2 multiplied by 2.2 mm, including the antenna. Additionally, the 16-GHz frequency is well above the operational range of consumer-grade radio scanners, providing a degree of protection from unauthorized interception. Variations of the transmitter design have been demonstrated for tracking and tagging beacons, transmission of digital data, and transmission of real-time analog video from a surveillance camera. Preliminary laboratory measurements indicate adaptability to direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmission, providing a low probability of intercept and/or detection. Concepts related to law enforcement applications are presented.

  10. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  11. Data transmission through power line of smart transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the method to use the phase shift keying (PSK) communication technique in smart transmitter is presented. In nuclear applications, smart transmitters for various parameters are expected to improve the accuracy of measurement and to reduce the load of calibration work. The capability of communication in field level is the most important merit of the smart transmitter. The most popular method is using of digital and analog techniques simultaneously - transmitting measurements from the field at 4-20mA while modulating the current to carry digital information in both directions over the same twisted pairs. Conventional smart transmitters use the frequency shift keying (FSK) method for digital communication. Generally, however, the FSK method has the speed limit at 1200 bps. Amount of information to transmit becomes increasing as the processing technique is improved. The PSK method is noticeable alternative for high speed digital communication, but it has non-zero DC component. In order to use the PSK method in the field transmission with smart transmitter, the method to remove the DC component is studied in this work

  12. An efficient method for computing the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

    1981-01-01

    Chou and Arking (1980) have developed a fast but accurate method for computing the IR cooling rate due to water vapor. Using a similar approach, the considered investigation develops a method for computing the heating rates due to the absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in the wavelength range from 4 to 8.3 micrometers. The validity of the method is verified by comparison with line-by-line calculations. An outline is provided of an efficient method for transmittance and flux computations based upon actual line parameters. High speed is achieved by employing a one-parameter scaling approximation to convert an inhomogeneous path into an equivalent homogeneous path at suitably chosen reference conditions.

  13. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  14. A global network topology of stock markets: Transmitters and receivers of spillover effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Hernandez, Jose Areola; Rehman, Mobeen Ur; Al-Yahyaee, Khamis Hamed; Zakaria, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    This paper applies a bivariate cross-quantilogram approach to examine the spillover network structure in the stock markets of 58 countries according to bearish, normal and bullish market scenarios. Our aim is to identify the strongest interdependencies, the directionality of the spillover risk effects, and to detect those equity markets with the potential to cause global systemic risk. The results highlight the role of the US and Canadian equity markets as major spillover transmitters, while the stock markets of Romania, Taiwan and Mexico act mainly as spillover receivers. Particularly strong spillovers are observed from the Canadian and US equity markets towards the Irish market, and from the Brazilian equity market towards the Kenyan equivalent. The equity market networks suggest that only the US equity market can trigger systemic risk on a global scale. Implications of the results are discussed.

  15. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  16. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  17. A study on lead equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guanxin

    1991-01-01

    A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested

  18. Joint Transmitter-Receiver Optimization in the Downlink CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saquib

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the downlink code-division multiple access (CDMA system capacity, we propose to minimize the total transmitted power of the system subject to users′ signal-to-interference ratio (SIR requirements via designing optimum transmitter sequences and utilizing linear optimum receivers (minimum mean square error (MMSE receiver. In our work on joint transmitter-receiver design for the downlink CDMA systems with multiple antennas and multipath channels, we develop several optimization algorithms by considering various system constraints and prove their convergence. We empirically observed that under the optimization algorithm with no constraint on the system, the optimum receiver structure matches the received transmitter sequences. A simulation study is performed to see how the different practical system constraints penalize the system with respect to the optimum algorithm with no constraint on the system.

  19. Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)

  20. What is correct: equivalent dose or dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In Croatian language some physical quantities in radiation protection dosimetry have not precise names. Consequently, in practice either terms in English or mathematical formulas are used. The situation is even worse since the Croatian language only a limited number of textbooks, reference books and other papers are available. This paper compares the concept of ''dose equivalent'' as outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations No. 26 and newest, conceptually different concept of ''equivalent dose'' which is introduced in ICRP 60. It was found out that Croatian terminology is both not uniform and unprecise. For the term ''dose equivalent'' was, under influence of Russian and Serbian languages, often used as term ''equivalent dose'' even from the point of view of ICRP 26 recommendations, which was not justified. Unfortunately, even now, in Croatia the legal unit still ''dose equivalent'' defined as in ICRP 26, but the term used for it is ''equivalent dose''. Therefore, in Croatian legislation a modified set of quantities introduced in ICRP 60, should be incorporated as soon as possible

  1. 10 CFR 455.152 - Transmittal of record on review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Administrative Review § 455.152 Transmittal of record on review. On or before 15 days from receipt of a notice requesting administrative...

  2. Luminous transmittance and phase transition temperature of VO 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phase transition temperature (τc) of the films was obtained from both the transmittance and sheet resistance against temperature curves. A change in sheet resistance of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude was observed for both undoped and Ce-doped VO2 films. Comparison between undoped and doped VO2 films revealed ...

  3. ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ON SITE EVALUATION OF THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Janković

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal transmittance or U-value is an indicator of the building envelope thermal properties and a key parameter for evaluation of heat losses through the building elements due to heat transmission. It can be determined by calculation based on thermal characteristics of the building element layers. However, this value does not take into account the effects of irregularities and degradation of certain elements of the envelope caused by aging, which may lead to errors in calculation of the heat losses. An effective and simple method for determination of thermal transmittance is in situ measurement, which is governed by the ISO 9869-1:2014 that defines heat flow meter method. This relatively expensive method leaves marks and damages surface of the building element. Furthermore, the final result is not always reliable, in particular when the building element is light or when the weather conditions are not suitable. In order to avoid the above mentioned problems and to estimate the real thermal transmittance value an alternative experimental method, here referred as the natural convection and radiation method, is proposed in this paper. For determination of thermal transmittance, this method requires only temperatures of inside and outside air, as well as the inner wall surface temperature. A detailed statistical analysis, performed by the software package SPSS ver. 20, shows several more advantages of this method comparing to the standard heat flow meter one, besides economic and non-destructive benefits.

  4. Mark 4A DSN receiver-exciter and transmitter subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The present configuration of the Mark 4A DSN Receiver-Exciter and Transmitter Subsystems is described. Functional requirements and key characteristics are given to show the differences in the capabilities required by the Networks Consolidation task for combined High Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network tracking support.

  5. 47 CFR 22.507 - Number of transmitters per station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... those that operate together as a system (e.g., trunked systems, simulcast systems), rather than independently. (b) Split of large systems. The FCC may split wide-area systems into two or more stations for... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.507 Number of transmitters per station...

  6. Snake mortality associated with late season radio-transmitter implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Shirley J. Burgdorf; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; Robert T. Zappalorth

    1998-01-01

    Radio-telemetry is an increasingly used procedure to obtain data on the biology of free-living snakes (Reinert 1992, 1994). In Texas and Louisiana we have been using the surgical technique of Weatherhead and Anderka (1984) to implant transmitters in timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and Louisiana pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus...

  7. Transmittivity and wavefunctions in one-dimensional generalized Aubry models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, C.; Mookerjee, A.; Sen, A.K.; Thakur, P.K.

    1990-07-01

    We use the vector recursion method of Haydock to obtain the transmittance of a class of generalized Aubry models in one-dimension. We also study the phase change of the wavefunctions as they travel through the chain and also the behaviour of the conductance with changes in size. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs

  8. Spectral transmittance of the spectacle scale of snakes and geckos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van K.; Sivak, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral transmittance of the optical media of the eye plays a substantial role in tuning the spectrum of light available for capture by the retina. Certain squamate reptiles, including snakes and most geckos, shield their eyes beneath a layer of transparent, cornified skin called the

  9. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.685 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES... located at the most central point at the highest elevation available. To provide the best degree of... operating on Channels 14-69 with transmitters delivering a peak visual power output of more than 1 kW may...

  10. Surgical insertion of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rub, A. Michelle Wargo; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    ) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical...

  11. Ozone transmittance in a model atmosphere at Ikeja, Lagos state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of ozone transmittance with height in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6m absorption band was studied using Goody's model atmosphere, with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-22 km) for the month of ...

  12. Towards suppression of all harmonics in a polyphase multipath transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subhan, S.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a direct conversion transmitter architecture intended for cognitive radio applications. The architecture is based on the poly-phase multipath technique, which has been shown to cancel out many of the harmonics, sidebands and nonlinearity contributions of a power up-converter using

  13. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Methane Using Pulsed Laser Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William; Fahey, Molly; Yu, Anthony; Stephen, Mark; Mao, Jianping; hide

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. At NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing a laser-based technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. We report on our development effort for the methane lidar, especially on our laser transmitters and recent airborne demonstration. Our lidar transmitter is based on an optical parametric process to generate near infrared laser radiation at 1651 nanometers, coincident with a CH4 absorption. In an airborne flight campaign in the fall of 2015, we tested two kinds of laser transmitters --- an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The output wavelength of the lasers was rapidly tuned over the CH4 absorption by tuning the seed laser to sample the CH4 absorption line at several wavelengths. This approach uses the same Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique we have used for our CO2 lidar for ASCENDS. The two laser transmitters were successfully operated in the NASAs DC-8 aircraft, measuring methane from 3 to 13 kilometers with high precision.

  14. 47 CFR 95.607 - CB transmitter modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC (Federal Communications Commission): (a) The addition of any accessory or device not specified in the application for certification and authorized by the FCC in granting the certification; (b) The... cycle at the highest crest of the modulation envelope), as measured at the transmitter output antenna...

  15. 17 CFR 30.12 - Direct foreign order transmittal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct foreign order... FOREIGN FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.12 Direct foreign order transmittal. (a) Authorized... investment decisions with respect to foreign futures and foreign option transactions are made by a commodity...

  16. 47 CFR 80.203 - Authorization of transmitters for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... application a working unit of the type for which certification is desired. Manufacturers of radar equipment... this chapter. Transmitters of a model authorized before October 1, 1986 will be considered type...) Except for radar equipment, applicants for certification of radio equipment designed to satisfy Part II...

  17. Product of the SNPP VIIRS SD Screen Transmittance and the SD BRDF (RSB) From Both Yaw Maneuver and Regular On-Orbit Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    To assure data quality, the Earth-observing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) regularly performs on-orbit radiometric calibrations of its 22 spectral bands. The primary calibration radiance source for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) is a sunlit solar diffuser (SD). During the calibration process, sunlight goes through a perforated plate (the SD screen) and then strikes the SD. The SD scattered sunlight is used for the calibration, with the spectral radiance proportional to the product of the SD screen transmittance and the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The BRDF is decomposed to the product of its value at launch and a numerical factor quantifying its change since launch. Therefore, the RSB calibration requires accurate knowledge of the product of the SD screen transmittance and the BRDF (RSB; launch time). Previously, we calculated the product with yaw maneuver data and found that the product had improved accuracy over the prelaunch one. With both yaw maneuver and regular on orbit data, we were able to improve the accuracy of the SDSM screen transmittance and the product for the solar diffuser stability monitor SD view. In this study, we use both yaw maneuver and a small portion of regular on-orbit data to determine the product for the RSB SD view.

  18. Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)

  19. Remote control radioactive-waste removal system uses modulated laser transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P.; Rowland, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Laser remote control system consists of transmitter, auto tracker, and receiver. Transmitter and tracker, packaged together and bore sighted, constitute control station, receiver is slave station. Model has five command channels and optical link operating range of 110 m.

  20. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  1. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  2. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  3. Multiband RF circuits and techniques for wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wenhua; Ghannouchi, Fadhel M

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces systematic design methods for passive and active RF circuits and techniques, including state-of-the-art digital enhancement techniques. As the very first book dedicated to multiband RF circuits and techniques, this work provides an overview of the evolution of transmitter architecture and discusses current digital predistortion techniques. Readers will find a collection of novel research ideas and new architectures in concurrent multiband power dividers, power amplifiers and related digital enhancement techniques. This book will be of great interest to academic researchers, R&D engineers, wireless transmitter and protocol designers, as well as graduate students who wish to learn the core architectures, principles and methods of multiband RF circuits and techniques. .

  4. Scattering, absorption and transmittance of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María. M.; Salas, Marianne; Moldovan, Marionara; Dudea, Diana; Yebra, Ana; Ghinea, Razvan

    2017-08-01

    Optical properties of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites were studied. Spectral reflectance was measured and S and K coefficients as well as transmittance of samples were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. The spectral behavior of S, K and T experimental graphene exhibited different trends compared with the commercial nanocomposites and they were statistically different. Experimental nanocomposites show higher scattering and lower transmittance when compared with commercial nanocomposite, probably, due to the shape, type and size of the filler. K for short wavelength of the pre-polymerized experimental nancomposites was very low. According to our results, hidroxypatite with graphene oxide used in dental nanocomposites needs to be improved to reproduce esthetic properties of natural dental tissues and to have potentially clinical applications.

  5. Exciter For X-Band Transmitter And Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes developmental X-band exciter for X-band uplink subsystem of Deep Space Network. X-band transmitter-exciting signal expected to have fractional frequency stability of 5.2 X 10 to negative 15th power during 1,000-second integration period. Generates coherent test signals for S- and X-band Block III translator of Deep Space Network, Doppler-reference signal for associated Doppler-extractor system, first-local-oscillator signal for associated receiver, and reference signal for associated ranging subsystem. Tests of prototype exciter show controlling and monitoring and internal phase-correcting loops perform according to applicable design criteria. Measurements of stability of frequency and of single-sideband noise spectral density of transmitter-exciting signal made subsequently.

  6. Morphology and transmittance of porous alumina on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Peitao, E-mail: guopeitao@hotmail.com [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Xia Zhilin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan (China); Xue Yiyu [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Huang Caihua [China Three Gorges University, Yichang (China); Zhao Lixin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China)

    2011-02-01

    The porous optical film has higher threshold of laser-induced damage than densified films, for the study of mechanism of laser-induced damage of porous optical film with ordered pore structure. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) film with high transmittance on glass substrate has been prepared. Aluminum film was deposited on glass substrate by means of resistance and electron beam heat (EBH) evaporation. Porous alumina was prepared in oxalic acid solution under different anodizing conditions. At normal incidence, the optical transmittance spectrum over 300-1000 nm spectra region was obtained by spectrophotometer. SEM was introduced to analysis the morphology of the porous alumina film. The pore aperture increased with the increase of anodizing voltage, which resulted in a rapid decrease of the pore concentration and the optical thickness of porous alumina film. Damage morphology of porous alumina film is found to be typically defects initiated, and the defect is the pore presented on the film.

  7. Implementation and validation of a CubeSat laser transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, R. W.; Caplan, D. O.; Cahoy, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents implementation and validation results for a CubeSat-scale laser transmitter. The master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design produces a 1550 nm, 200mW average power optical signal through the use of a directly modulated laser diode and a commercial fiber amplifier. The prototype design produces high-fidelity M-ary pulse position modulated (PPM) waveforms (M=8 to 128), targeting data rates > 10 Mbit/s while meeting a constraining 8W power allocation. We also present the implementation of an avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver with measured transmitter-to-receiver performance within 3 dB of theory. Via loopback, the compact receiver design can provide built-in self-test and calibration capabilities, and supports incremental on-orbit testing of the design.

  8. Designing Light Beam Transmittance Measuring Tool Using a Laser Pointer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuroso, H.; Kurniawan, W.; Marwoto, P.

    2016-08-01

    A simple instrument used for measuring light beam transmittance percentage made of window film has been developed. The instrument uses a laser pointer of 405 nm and 650 nm ±10% as a light source. Its accuracy approaches 80%. Transmittance data was found by comparing the light beam before and after passing the window film. The light intensity measuring unit was deleted by splitting the light source into two beams through a beam splitter. The light beam was changed into resistance by a NORP12 LDR sensor designed at a circuit of voltage divider rule of Khirchoff's laws. This conversion system will produce light beam intensity received by the sensor to become an equal voltage. This voltage will, then, be presented on the computer screen in the form of a real time graph via a 2.0 USB data transfer.

  9. Application of smart transmitter technology in nuclear engineering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    By making use of the microprocessor technology, instrumentation system becomes intelligent. In this study a programmable smart transmitter is designed and applied to the nuclear engineering measurements. In order to apply the smart transmitter technology to nuclear engineering measurements, the digital time delay compensation function and water level change detection function are developed and applied in this work. The time compensation function compensates effectively the time delay of the measured signal, but it is found that the characteristics of the compensation function should be considered through its application. It is also found that the water level change detection function reduces the detection time to about 7 seconds by the signal processing which has the time constant of over 250 seconds and which has the heavy noise. (Author)

  10. Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code LOWTRAN 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    1966) The refractive index of air, Metrologia 2:12, ൞ -1...sight. For an optical path traversing N layers in an upward or downward direction this process gives N [ 7 A+M A -SCAT --SUN I e,ps+op > AIV < La ... a...for cirrus normal transmittance, r, of the form = exp - (0. 14 LA ) (49) This expression closely duplicates the double exponential model of Davis 4 0 for

  11. Effects of satellite transmitters on captive and wild mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.

  12. Anomalous Faraday effect of a system with extraordinary optical transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B; Baryshev, Alexander V; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Granovsky, Alexander B; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2007-05-28

    It is shown theoretically that the Faraday rotation becomes anomalously large and exhibits extraordinary behavior near the frequencies of the extraordinary optical transmittance through optically thick perforated metal film with holes filled with a magneto-optically active material. This phenomenon is explained as result of strong confinement of the evanescent electromagnetic field within magnetic material, which occurs due to excitation of the coupled plasmon-polaritons on the opposite surfaces of the film.

  13. Test and evaluation of radioactively contaminated transducers and transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahm, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    People in the nuclear industries face some unique problems when handling, testing, or examining transducers and transmitters that have been radioactively contaminated. Although many people and organizations, including EG and G Idaho, have performed such work for many years, there are no set, structured approaches or procedures. This paper discusses a disciplined laboratory approach to contaminated transducer testing and evaluation, utilizing equipment and facilities developed specifically for this type of work

  14. FIR Filter of DS-CDMA UWB Modem Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyu-Min; Cho, Sang-In; Won, Hui-Chul; Choi, Sang-Sung

    This letter presents low-complexity digital pulse shaping filter structures of a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) ultra wide-band (UWB) modem transmitter with a ternary spreading code. The proposed finite impulse response (FIR) filter structures using a look-up table (LUT) have the effect of saving the amount of memory by about 50% to 80% in comparison to the conventional FIR filter structures, and consequently are suitable for a high-speed parallel data process.

  15. Secure Broadcasting with Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Khisti, Ashish; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper’s CSI and not of its channel’s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1−) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  16. Mechanisms of light transmittance changes in rat spinal cord slices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Lýdia; Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2002), s. S36 ISSN 0894-1491. [European Meeting on Glia l Cell Function in Health and Disease /5./. Rome - Italy, 21.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:MSM 111100004; CEZ:MSM 5011112 Keywords : light transmittance changes Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2002

  17. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  18. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in otariids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haulena Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinnipeds, including many endangered and declining species, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. Archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into four rehabilitated California sea lions (Zalophus californianus and 15 wild juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus to determine the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of long-term telemetry devices in otariids. The life history transmitters record information throughout the life of the host and transmit data to orbiting satellites after extrusion following death of the host. Results Surgeries were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and single (n = 4 or dual (n = 15 transmitters were inserted into the ventrocaudal abdominal cavity via an 8.5 to 12 cm incision along the ventral midline between the umbilicus and pubic symphysis or preputial opening. Surgeries lasted 90 minutes (SD = 8 for the 19 sea lions. All animals recovered well and were released into the wild after extended monitoring periods from 27 to 69 days at two captive animal facilities. Minimum post-implant survival was determined via post-release tracking using externally attached satellite transmitters or via opportunistic re-sighting for mean durations of 73.7 days (SE = 9.0, Z. californianus and 223.6 days (SE = 71.5, E. jubatus. Conclusion The low morbidity and zero mortality encountered during captive observation and post-release tracking periods confirm the viability of this surgical technique for the implantation of long-term telemetry devices in otariids.

  19. Secure Broadcasting with Imperfect Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-11-13

    We investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over fast fading channels with imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In particular, we analyze the effect of the noisy estimation of the main CSI on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. Besides, we consider the realistic case where the transmitter is only aware of the statistics of the eavesdropper’s CSI and not of its channel’s realizations. First, we discuss the common message transmission case where the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, and we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link and we prove that a non-zero secrecy rate can still be achieved even when the CSI at the transmitter is noisy. Then, we look at the independent messages case where the transmitter broadcasts multiple messages to the receivers, and each intended user is interested in an independent message. For this case, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate and an upper bound on the secrecy sum-capacity and we show that, in the limit of large number of legitimate receivers K, our achievable secrecy sum-rate follows the scaling law log((1−) log(K)), where is the estimation error variance of the main CSI. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Analytical derivations and numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained expressions for the case of independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  20. 21 CFR 870.2910 - Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter... Devices § 870.2910 Radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency physiological signal transmitter and receiver is a device used to condition a physiological signal...

  1. 46 CFR 308.522 - Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA... Collateral deposit fund, letter of transmittal, Form MA-302. The standard form of letter of transmittal for use in establishing a collateral deposit fund, may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or...

  2. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior...

  3. Solar neutrinos and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    We review the possibility that the solar neutrino problem can be explained by neutrinos violating the equivalence principle. It is found that such a scenario can be ruled out when one takes into account data from high energy accelerator neutrino experiments

  4. Transmittance and scattering during wound healing after refractive surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Santiago; Martinez-Garcia, C.; Blanco, J. T.; Torres, R. M.; Gonzalez, V. R.; Najera, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Merayo, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are frequent techniques performed to correct ametropia. Both methods have been compared in their way of healing but there is not comparison about transmittance and light scattering during this process. Scattering in corneal wound healing is due to three parameters: cellular size and density, and the size of scar. Increase in the scattering angular width implies a decrease the contrast sensitivity. During wound healing keratocytes activation is induced and these cells become into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Hens were operated using PRK and LASIK techniques. Animals used in this experiment were euthanized, and immediately their corneas were removed and placed carefully into a cornea camera support. All optical measurements have been done with a scatterometer constructed in our laboratory. Scattering measurements are correlated with the transmittance -- the smaller transmittance is the bigger scattering is. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data of the corneal transparency and scattering, in order to supply data that they allow generate a more complete model of the corneal transparency.

  5. Fast Turn-off Mine Transient Electromagnetic Transmitter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Xiao-Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For solving problems such as short turn-off time, high linear degree of falling edge, measurement of turn-off time and influence of primary signals for transient electromagnetic transmitter, and restrictions because of the environmental conditions of underground coal mine, this thesis aims at designing a new transient electromagnetic transmitter system suitable for coal mine. Supported by damping absorption circuit, such system applies small volume, sectional transmitting coil, with features of short turn-off time, high linear degree of current falling edge. It uses the transmitter monitoring circuit, which accurately measures turn-off time and simultaneously records the current value changes after turn-off, thus to eliminate the influence of primary field as well as to restore earlier secondary field signals for reference and finally to improve the ability to detect the shallow structure. It turns out that the new system has a shorter turn-off time, a higher linear degree of current falling and more accurate data record of turn-off current.

  6. Reliability analysis for new technology-based transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, Florent, E-mail: florent.brissaud.2007@utt.f [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Institut Charles Delaunay (ICD) and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Institut Charles Delaunay (ICD) and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Charpentier, Dominique [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2011-02-15

    The reliability analysis of new technology-based transmitters has to deal with specific issues: various interactions between both material elements and functions, undefined behaviours under faulty conditions, several transmitted data, and little reliability feedback. To handle these particularities, a '3-step' model is proposed, based on goal tree-success tree (GTST) approaches to represent both the functional and material aspects, and includes the faults and failures as a third part for supporting reliability analyses. The behavioural aspects are provided by relationship matrices, also denoted master logic diagrams (MLD), with stochastic values which represent direct relationships between system elements. Relationship analyses are then proposed to assess the effect of any fault or failure on any material element or function. Taking these relationships into account, the probabilities of malfunction and failure modes are evaluated according to time. Furthermore, uncertainty analyses tend to show that even if the input data and system behaviour are not well known, these previous results can be obtained in a relatively precise way. An illustration is provided by a case study on an infrared gas transmitter. These properties make the proposed model and corresponding reliability analyses especially suitable for intelligent transmitters (or 'smart sensors').

  7. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Aging characteristics of nuclear plant RTDs and pressure transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and pressure, level, and flow transmitters provide almost all the vital signals that are used for the control and safety of nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure that the performance of these sensors remain acceptable as they age in the process under normal operating conditions. Four comprehensive research projects were conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the effects of normal aging on calibration stability and response time of RTDs and pressure transmitters of the types used for safety-related measurements in nuclear power plants. Each project was conducted over a three year period. The projects involved laboratory testing of representative RTDs and pressure transmitters aged in simulated reactor conditions. The main purpose of these projects was to establish the degradation rate of the sensors and use the information to determine if the current testing intervals practiced by the nuclear power industry are adequate for management of aging of the sensors. The results have indicated that the current nuclear industry practice of testing the response time and calibration of the sensors once every fuel cycle is adequate. (author)

  9. Transmitter-induced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in leech segmental ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, A J; Pentreath, V W

    1987-01-01

    1. The utilization and control of glycogen stores were studied in the isolated segmental ganglia of the horse leech, Haemopis sanguisuga. The glycogen in the ganglia was extracted and assayed fluorimetrically and its cellular localization and turnover studied by autoradiography in conjunction with [3H] glucose. 2. The glycogen levels were measured after incubation with different neurotransmitters for 60 min at 28 degrees C. The results for each experimental ganglion were compared to a paired control ganglion, and the results analysed by paired t-tests. 3. Several transmitter substances (5-HT, octopamine, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine) produced reductions in glycogen (glycogenolysis); other transmitters (glutamate, GABA) produced increases in glycogen (gluconeogenesis); others (adenosine, glycine) produced reductions or increases, depending on concentration. Acetylcholine had no effect on the glycogen levels. 4. Most of the glycogen in the ganglia is localized in the packet glial cells, which surround the neuron perikarya. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated that the effects of histamine and dopamine were principally on the glycogen in the glial cells. 5. Adenylate cyclase was demonstrated by electron microscope histochemistry to be localized on the plasma membranes of the glial cells, and to a lesser extent on the neuronal membranes. 6. It is concluded that the changes in glycogen in the glial cells may be party controlled by transmitters via adenylate cyclase. This may provide a sensitive mechanism for coupling neuronal activity with energy metabolism.

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  15. Estimating Parameters for the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide Using VLF Narrowband Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, N. C.; Cohen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the D-region (60 to 90 km altitude) ionospheric electron density profile has always been a challenge. The D-region's altitude is too high for aircraft and balloons to reach but is too low for satellites to orbit at. Sounding rocket measurements have been a useful tool for directly measuring the ionosphere, however, these types of measurements are infrequent and costly. A more sustainable type of measurement, for characterizing the D-region, is remote sensing with very low frequency (VLF) waves. Both the lower ionosphere and Earth's ground strongly reflect VLF waves. These two spherical reflectors form what is known as the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. As VLF waves propagate within the waveguide, they interact with the D-region ionosphere, causing amplitude and phase changes that are polarization dependent. These changes can be monitored with a spatially distributed array of receivers and D-region properties can be inferred from these measurements. Researchers have previously used VLF remote sensing techniques, from either narrowband transmitters or sferics, to estimate the density profile, but these estimations are typically during a short time frame and over a narrow propagation region. We report on an effort to improve the understanding of VLF wave propagation by estimating the commonly known h' and beta two parameter exponential electron density profile. Measurements from multiple narrowband transmitters at multiple receivers are taken, concurrently, and input into an algorithm. The cornerstone of the algorithm is an artificial neural network (ANN), where input values are the received narrowband amplitude and phase and the outputs are the estimated h' and beta parameters. Training data for the ANN is generated using the Navy's Long-Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) model. Emphasis is placed on profiling the daytime ionosphere, which has a more stable and predictable profile than the nighttime. Daytime ionospheric disturbances, from high solar

  16. Influence of water vapour and permanent gases on the atmospheric optical depths and transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.

    1991-05-01

    The influence of the atmospheric state on the extinction of direct solar radiation has been studied by using a four layer atmospheric model. Simple analytical formulae are established for the spectral optical depths of permanent gases and water vapour. These formulae use the ground level values of air pressure, temperature and relative huniidity. An additional parameter, related to the vertical distribution of the hunmidity content, is used for a better estimation of the water vapour optical depth. Good agreement between theory and measurements is found. The paper shows the dependence of the atmospheric spectral transmittance on the above mentioned parameters. L'influence de l'état atmosphérique sur l'extinction de la radiation solaire directe a été étudiée à l'aide d'un modèle atmosphérique développé antérieurement par l'auteur. Des formules simples ont été établies pour l'épaisseur optique spectrale des gaz et de la vapeur d'eau. Ces formules utilisent les valeurs de la pression atmosphérique, de la température et de l'humidité relative, mesurées au niveau du sol. Un paramètre supplémentaire, lié à la distribution verticale du contenu d'humidité, est utilisé pour calculer l'épaisseur optique due à la vapeur d'eau. La théorie est en bon accord avec les résultats des mesures. Le travail montre la dépendance de la transmittance atmosphérique spectrale en fonction des paramètres spécifiés ci-dessus.

  17. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  18. Transmittance and Tunneling Current through a Trapezoidal Barrier under Spin Polarization Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, F. A.; Nabila, E.; Mardianti, H.; Ariani, T. I.; Khairurrijal

    2018-04-01

    The transmittance and tunneling current in heterostructures under spin polarization consideration were studied by employing a zinc-blended structure for the heterostructures. An electron tunnels through a potential barrier by applying a bias voltage to the barrier, which is called the trapezoidal potential barrier. In order to study the transmittance, an Airy wave function approach was employed to find the transmittance. The obtained transmittance was then utilized to compute the tunneling current by using a Gauss quadrature method. It was shown that the transmittances were asymmetric with the incident angle of the electron. It was also shown that the tunneling currents increased as the bias voltage increased.

  19. Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater

  20. The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, Matthew S.; Forget, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power

  1. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  2. Equivalent nozzle in thermomechanical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.

    1977-01-01

    When analyzing nuclear vessels, it is most important to study the behavior of the nozzle cylinder-cylinder intersection. For the elastic field, this analysis in three dimensions is quite easy using the method of finite elements. The same analysis in the non-linear field becomes difficult for designs in 3-D. It is therefore necessary to resolve a nozzle in two dimensions equivalent to a 3-D nozzle. The purpose of the present work is to find an equivalent nozzle both with a mechanical and thermal load. This has been achieved by the analysis in three dimensions of a nozzle and a nozzle cylinder-sphere intersection, of a different radius. The equivalent nozzle will be a nozzle with a sphere radius in a given ratio to the radius of a cylinder; thus, the maximum equivalent stress is the same in both 2-D and 3-D. The nozzle examined derived from the intersection of a cylindrical vessel of radius R=191.4 mm and thickness T=6.7 mm with a cylindrical nozzle of radius r=24.675 mm and thickness t=1.350 mm, for which the experimental results for an internal pressure load are known. The structure was subdivided into 96 finite, three-dimensional and isoparametric elements with 60 degrees of freedom and 661 total nodes. Both the analysis with a mechanical load as well as the analysis with a thermal load were carried out on this structure according to the Bersafe system. The thermal load consisted of a transient typical of an accident occurring in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, with a peak of the temperature (540 0 C) for the sodium inside the vessel with an insulating argon temperature constant at 525 0 C. The maximum value of the equivalent tension was found in the internal area at the union towards the vessel side. The analysis of the nozzle in 2-D consists in schematizing the structure as a cylinder-sphere intersection, where the sphere has a given relation to the

  3. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  4. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  5. Wijsman Orlicz Asymptotically Ideal -Statistical Equivalent Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2013-01-01

    in Wijsman sense and present some definitions which are the natural combination of the definition of asymptotic equivalence, statistical equivalent, -statistical equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense. Finally, we introduce the notion of Cesaro Orlicz asymptotically -equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense and establish their relationship with other classes.

  6. Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  7. Retention and effects of miniature transmitters in juvenile American eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Janak, Jill; Liss, Stephanie A.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Harnish, Ryan A.

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of a non-functional acoustic micro transmitter (tag) on survival, tag loss, and swimming ability of juvenile American eels (Anguilla rostrata). The transmitter was designed for implantation through a < 3 mm opening into the body cavity of anguilliform fishes without the need for sutures. American eels used for the swimming performance study were 113–175 mm (N = 120). There were two treatment groups (tagged and non-tagged), each treatment was split into six size groups of 10 mm for testing. Potential transmitter effects on swimming performance were examined by comparing critical swimming speeds (Ucrit an index of prolonged swimming performance) for tagged and non-tagged eels. There was no significant difference in Ucrit between tagged and non-tagged eels for all of the size groups tested. Median Ucrits for tagged eels ranged from 50.2 cm/s for the smallest group tested (113–119 mm) to 63.9 cm/s for fish 141–150 mm in length. Non-tagged group median Ucrits ranged from 47.2 cm/s for the smallest group to 66.9 cm/s for the 141–150 mm group. An additional 26 eels (115–208 mm) were tagged and held for 38 d (without undergoing swimming performance tests) to determine the effects on survival and tag loss. There was no mortality during the holding period and the majority of the tag loss occurred after 20 days post-tagging, which is the current projected life of the tag. Our results indicate that micro acoustic tags can be successfully implanted in juvenile American eels with no apparent impacts to swimming ability, and would be a viable option for examining eel movement patterns in river systems and near hydroelectric facilities.

  8. Method for transmittance measurements in sunglasses for a kiosk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Marcio M.; Figueiredo, M.; Konda, R. A.; Ventura, Liliane

    2013-03-01

    Light transmittance measurements through sunglasses lenses is one of the required tests of the Brazilian Standard NBR15111(2004). Its measurement establishes the category of the sample and determines the required ultraviolet, visible and infrared protection, as well as the attenuation coefficient for signal light recognition. However, these measurements are usually performed by spectrophotometers and educated users, who are acknowledged to manage the equipment, use the weighting functions (WF) and interpret the data. We propose an alternative method, which consists in having matching optics and electronics to obtain a close WF to be used in transmittance measurements, and create an accessible device, for public self-use, providing a simple way for measuring and educating the public about sunglasses protection. Measurements were made in 30 samples for UV test, performed for the 280 - 400nm range, where UVA and UVB light sources and two photodiode sensors with Erythema action response are assembled, and for traffic signal a visible light sensor was used with spectral human eye response and different LEDs. As for the visible test, the visible light sensor was used for different light sources: incandescent, fluorescent, and a set of LEDs, while the infrared test is performed by several LEDs that provide the 780 - 2000nm range, and an infrared sensor. For these tests, only the samples spectrum were used. The transmittances were within the deviation limit required by NBR15111. The results have led us to build a self service kiosk for public use providing the category, UV protection and IR protection of the sunglasses as well as the information regarding its use for driving.

  9. Behavioral modelling and predistortion of wideband wireless transmitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghannouchi, Fadhel M; Helaoui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Covers theoretical and practical aspects related to the behavioral modelling and predistortion of wireless transmitters and power amplifiers. It includes simulation software that enables the users to apply the theory presented in the book. In the first section, the reader is given the general background of nonlinear dynamic systems along with their behavioral modelling from all its aspects. In the second part, a comprehensive compilation of behavioral models formulations and structures is provided including memory polynomial based models, box oriented models such as Hammerstein-based and Wiene

  10. The Gigabit Optical Transmitters for the LHCb Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Lax, Ignazio; D’Antone, I; Marconi, U

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the boards developed for the optical data transmission of the calorimeter system of the LHCb experiment and test results. We developed two types of transmission boards: the single-channel and the multi-channel ones. Multi-channel boards can be equipped with a variable number of transmitters, depending on the need, with a maximum allowed of 12 channels. Each optical channel allows transmitting 32 bit data at 40.08 MHz. The boards have been designed and built using radiation hard devices produced at CERN. The optical links have been qualified using the eye diagram and the BERT at 1.6Gbps.

  11. Laser transmitter for Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John; Cimolino, Marc; Petros, Mulugeta

    1991-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) Laser Transmitter Module (LTM) flight laser optical architecture has been space qualified by extensive testing at the system, subsystem and component level. The projected system output performance has been verified using an optically and electrically similar breadboard version of the laser. Parasitic lasing was closely examined and completely suppressed after design changes were implemented and tested. Oscillator and amplifier type heads were separately tested to 150 million shots. Critical subassemblies have undergone environmental testing to Shuttle qualification levels. A superior three color anti-reflection coating was developed and tested for use on 14 surfaces after the final amplifier.

  12. The Casimir effect for pistons with transmittal boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, Guglielmo

    2017-11-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of the Casimir effect for pistons subject to transmittal boundary conditions. In particular we consider, as piston configuration, a direct product manifold of the type I × N where I is a closed interval of the real line and N is a smooth compact Riemannian manifold. By utilizing the spectral zeta function regularization technique, we compute the Casimir energy of the system and the Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit results for the force are provided when the manifold N is a d-dimensional sphere.

  13. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  14. Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)

  15. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  16. Testing the equivalence principle on cosmological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    The equivalence principle, that is one of the main pillars of general relativity, is very well tested in the Solar system; however, its validity is more uncertain on cosmological scales, or when dark matter is concerned. This article shows that relativistic effects in the large-scale structure can be used to directly test whether dark matter satisfies Euler's equation, i.e. whether its free fall is characterised by geodesic motion, just like baryons and light. After having proposed a general parametrisation for deviations from Euler's equation, we perform Fisher-matrix forecasts for future surveys like DESI and the SKA, and show that such deviations can be constrained with a precision of order 10%. Deviations from Euler's equation cannot be tested directly with standard methods like redshift-space distortions and gravitational lensing, since these observables are not sensitive to the time component of the metric. Our analysis shows therefore that relativistic effects bring new and complementary constraints to alternative theories of gravity.

  17. Estimating hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation for the compilation of solar radiation distribution maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for estimating hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation. The essence of the method is the estimation of two important factors related to solar radiation, atmospheric transmittance and a dimensionless parameter, using empirical and physical equations and data from general meteorological observation stations. An equation for atmospheric transmittance of direct solar radiation and a dimensionless parameter representing diffuse solar radiation are developed. The equation is based on multiple regression analysis and uses three parameters as explanatory variates: calculated hourly extraterrestrial solar radiation on a horizontal plane, observed hourly sunshine duration and hourly precipitation as observed at a local meteorological observatory. The dimensionless parameter for estimating a diffuse solar radiation is then determined by linear least squares using observed hourly solar radiation at a local meteorological observatory. The estimated root mean square error (RMSE) of hourly direct and diffuse solar radiation is about 0.0-0.2 MJ¥m(-2)¥h(-1) in each mean period. The RMSE of the ten-day and monthly means of these quantities is about 0.0-0.2 MJ¥m(-2)¥h(-1), based on comparisons with AMeDAS station data, located at a distance of 6 km

  18. Assessment of Barotrauma Resulting from Rapid Decompression of Depth Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radio Telemetry Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Theriault, Marie-Helene

    2007-09-06

    A multifactor study was conducted by Battelle for the US Army Corps of Engineers to assess the significance of the presence of a radio telemetry transmitter on the effects of rapid decompression from simulated hydro turbine passage on depth acclimated juvenile run-of-the-river Chinook salmon. Study factors were: (1) juvenile chinook salmon age;, subyearling or yearling, (2) radio transmitter present or absent, (3) three transmitter implantation factors: gastric, surgical, and no transmitter, and (4) four acclimation depth factors: 1, 10, 20, and 40 foot submergence equivalent absolute pressure, for a total of 48 unique treatments. Exposed fish were examined for changes in behavior, presence or absence of barotrauma injuries, and immediate or delayed mortality. Logistic models were used to test hypotheses that addressed study objectives. The presence of a radio transmitter was found to significantly increase the risk of barotrauma injury and mortality at exposure to rapid decompression. Gastric implantation was found to present a higher risk than surgical implantation. Fish were exposed within 48 hours of transmitter implantation so surgical incisions were not completely healed. The difference in results obtained for gastric and surgical implantation methods may be the result of study design and the results may have been different if tested fish had completely healed surgical wounds. However, the test did simulate the typical surgical-release time frame for in-river telemetry studies of fish survival so the results are probably representative for fish passing through a turbine shortly following release into the river. The finding of a significant difference in response to rapid decompression between fish bearing radio transmitters and those not implies a bias may exist in estimates of turbine passage survival obtained using radio telemetry. However, the rapid decompression (simulated turbine passage) conditions used for the study represented near worst case exposure

  19. REMIT5.1, Radiation exposure monitoring and information transmittal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) is a PC-based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com. REMIT system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. 2 - Methods - REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the Committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in microcuries. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in microcuries. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - None noted

  20. Solar gravitational redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopresto, J.C.; Chapman, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Wavelengths of solar spectrum lines should be shifted toward the red by the Sun's gravitational field as predicted by metric theories of gravity according to the principle of equivalence. Photographic wavelengths of 738 solar Fe 1 lines and their corresponding laboratory wavelengths have been studied. The measured solar wavelength minus the laboratory wavelength (Δlambdasub(observed)) averaged for the strong lines agrees well with the theoretically predicted shift (Δlambdasub(theoretical)). Studies show that the departures depend on line strength. No dependence of the departures on wavelength was found within the existing data. By studying strong lines over a wide spectral range, velocity shifts caused by the complex motions in the solar atmosphere seem to affect the results in a minimal fashion. (orig.)

  1. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  2. Modified Polar Sigma-Delta Transmitter for Multiradio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maršálek Roman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio transmitters capable of transforming variable envelope signals into constant envelope signals can be associated with high-efficiency switched mode power amplifiers. One of the techniques providing this conversion is Polar Sigma-Delta ( architecture. This approach provides efficient solution for high-dynamic signals, and, moreover, it offers flexibility in a multiradio environment. The overall concept of the polar transmitter is presented here along with novel modifications and improvements. Namely, when recombining the envelope and the phase signals, it is suggested to replace the analog mixing by a digital mixing. The impact of a frequency synthesizer with a switched loop bandwidth and its imperfections on the overall polar architecture is investigated as well. The Mobile WiMAX standard has been chosen for validation due to very high requirements in terms of power dynamics and the variable channel bandwidth. Simulation results are presented in this paper, and advantages and drawbacks of this novel approach are pointed here as well.

  3. Evaluation of Photopolymerization Kinetics by Means of Transmittance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Armellin, E.; Cerroni, L.

    2018-04-01

    Polymeric resins are widely used for dental reconstruction, and most resins use camphorquinone as activator of the polymerization reaction, through the absorption of light at a defined wavelength range (from 400 nm to 460 nm). During the photopolymerization curing, transparency of these resins changes and transmittance variation can be detected by photodiode and bolometer measurements. This change can be used as an index of the reaction rate, and the kinetic parameter k (reaction rate) can be evaluated from transmittance data by means of nonlinear regression. The relation between k and the light intensity impinging on the resin sample can thus be obtained. In the present work, tests were carried out using the resin Enamel Plus HFO GE2. Results reveal the presence of two different polymerization reactions at two different intensity ranges. The obtained k values were used to predict the most suited curing times for different light intensities. The proposed methodology can be applied to different dental reconstruction materials, provided that the material is partially transparent and that its transparency changes during the polymerization reaction.

  4. Fiber-based laser MOPA transmitter packaging for space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Fahey, Molly; Plants, Michael; Rodriguez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Abshire, James; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Hariharan, Anand; Mamakos, William; Bean, Brian

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been developing lidar to remotely measure CO2 and CH4 in the Earth's atmosphere. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. We are working on maturing the technology readiness of a fiber-based, 1.57-micron wavelength laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. To this end, we are building a ruggedized prototype to demonstrate the required power and performance and survive the required environment. We are building a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture. The laser is a wavelength-locked, single frequency, externally modulated DBR operating at 1.57-micron followed by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The last amplifier stage is a polarization-maintaining, very-large-mode-area fiber with 1000 μm2 effective area pumped by a Raman fiber laser. The optical output is single-frequency, one microsecond pulses with >450 μJ pulse energy, 7.5 KHz repetition rate, single spatial mode, and < 20 dB polarization extinction.

  5. Digital simulation of staining in histopathology multispectral images: enhancement and linear transformation of spectral transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-05-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is currently the most popular for routine histopathology staining. Special and/or immuno-histochemical (IHC) staining is often requested to further corroborate the initial diagnosis on H&E stained tissue sections. Digital simulation of staining (or digital staining) can be a very valuable tool to produce the desired stained images from the H&E stained tissue sections instantaneously. We present an approach to digital staining of histopathology multispectral images by combining the effects of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation. Spectral enhancement is accomplished by shifting the N-band original spectrum of the multispectral pixel with the weighted difference between the pixel's original and estimated spectrum; the spectrum is estimated using M transformed to the spectral configuration associated to its reaction to a specific stain by utilizing an N × N transformation matrix, which is derived through application of least mean squares method to the enhanced and target spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components found in the image. Results of our experiments on the digital conversion of an H&E stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained equivalent show the viability of the method.

  6. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. Critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 [1] methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. The effective dose equivalent determined using ICRP-26 methods is significantly smaller than the dose equivalent determined by traditional methods. No existing personnel dosimeter or health physics instrument can determine effective dose equivalent. At the present time, the conversion of dosimeter response to dose equivalent is based on calculations for maximal or ''cap'' values using homogeneous spherical or cylindrical phantoms. The evaluated dose equivalent is, therefore, a poor approximation of the effective dose equivalent as defined by ICRP Publication 26. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  8. Azimuth-Variant Signal Processing in High-Altitude Platform Passive SAR with Spaceborne/Airborne Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizong Shao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude platforms (HAP or near-space vehicle offers several advantages over current low earth orbit (LEO satellite and airplane, because HAP is not constrained by orbital mechanics and fuel consumption. These advantages provide potential for some specific remote sensing applications that require persistent monitoring or fast-revisiting frequency. This paper investigates the azimuth-variant signal processing in HAP-borne bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BiSAR with spaceborne or airborne transmitter for high-resolution remote sensing. The system configuration, azimuth-variant Doppler characteristics and two-dimensional echo spectrum are analyzed. Conceptual system simulation results are also provided. Since the azimuth-variant BiSAR geometry brings a challenge for developing high precision data processing algorithms, we propose an image formation algorithm using equivalent velocity and nonlinear chirp scaling (NCS to address the azimuth-variant signal processing problem. The proposed algorithm is verified by numerical simulation results.

  9. Solar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    China is facing enormous energy challenges. Everyone seems to know that we need to increase our energy supply by the equivalent of one power plant per week to support China's economic growth, which is allowing millions of people to enjoy better standards of living. Much less is known of the extent to which China has taken steps to mitigate the impact of that growing energy demand through incentives for greater efficiency and renewable energy. Policies include: Cutting energy intensity - 20 per cent between 2005 and 2010, saving five times as much CO 2 as the EU's goals. Cutting major pollutants by 10 per cent by 2010. Setting one of the world's most aggressive renewable energy standards: 15 per cent of national energy from renewables by 2020. Setting targets of 300 megawatts of installed solar by 2010, and 1.8 gigawatts by 2020, in the 2007 National Development and Reform Commission Renewable Energy Development Plan. Dedicating $180 billion for renewable energy by 2020. Imposing energy efficiency targets for the top 1,000 companies, a measure with greater carbon savings potential than most Western initiatives. Establishing building energy codes in all regions and extensive efficiency standards for appliances, which will be particularly important as China continues to grow. Targeting new buildings in major cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, to achieve 65 per cent greater energy efficiency than local codes require. Closing thousands of older, smaller, dirtier power plants by 2010. China understands the economic development potential in clean energy technologies. Even the noted journalist Thomas Friedman has remarked that 'China is going green in a big way,' using domestic demand for cleaner energy to build low-cost, scalable green technologies. Suntech Power Holdings - now the world's largest solar photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturer, with operations around the globe - was just one of dozens of solar companies that realised the opportunity provided by

  10. Regulatory Experience on Safety Smart Transmitter's CCF of SKN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. M.; Jeong, C. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Smart transmitters are digital I and C equipment which can replace analog transmitters. Non safety grade smart transmitters have been used for I and C systems of NPP(Nuclear Power Plant).. But, recently, smart transmitters have been used for safety grade I and C systems as well as non-safety grade I and C system for SKN 3 and 4. Smart transmitters execute measuring sensor values, generating output signals and adjusting range using software. Also, smart transmitters are basically capable of remote calibration through digital communication. The operating capability is more reliable and effective with remote calibration of smart transmitters, but there is potential vulnerability that causes the result no one wanted such as cyber attacks or software CCF. This paper addresses our regulatory experiences how to evaluate safety smart transmitter's CCF of SKN 3 and 4. Nuclear I and C equipment have increased the use on digital technology in safety system. According that, interest in a postulated software CCF is increasing. The software may be firmware or operating system of digital equipment. During SKN 3 and 4 operating license process, safety grade smart transmitter's adequacy was reviewed such as software V and V processes and equipment qualification. Also, it was analyzed that effect of the software CCFs of smart transmitters under DBA condition. Main concern was whether the postulated smart transmitter's software CCF may lead to an adverse safety consequence. We have future research plan to execute proof tests about our concerns and develop regulatory guide for smart transmitters.

  11. All polymer chip for amperometric studies of transmitter release from large groups of neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    We present an all polymer electrochemical chip for simple detection of transmitter release from large groups of cultured PC 12 cells. Conductive polymer PEDOT:tosylate microelectrodes were used together with constant potential amperometry to obtain easy-to-analyze oxidation signals from potassium......-induced release of transmitter molecules. The nature of the resulting current peaks is discussed, and the time for restoring transmitter reservoirs is studied. The relationship between released transmitters and potassium concentration was found to fit to a sigmoidal dose–response curve. Finally, we demonstrate...

  12. Effects of aging on calibration and response time of nuclear plant pressure transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the key results of an experimental research project conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to quantify the effects of normal aging on static and dynamic performance of nuclear grade pressure, level, and flow transmitters (hereafter referred to as pressure transmitters). The project involved laboratory testing of representative pressure transmitters manufactured by Barton, Foxboro, Rosemount, and Tobar (or Veritrak) companies. These manufacturers provide the four most commonly used pressure transmitters in the safety systems of US nuclear power plants. The transmitters were tested under normal aging conditions as opposed to accelerated aging, even though accelerated aging will be used in the last few months of the project to determine the weak links and failure modes of the transmitters. The project has been performed in two phases. The Phase 1 project which was a six month feasibility study has been completed and the results published in NUREG/CR-5383. The Phase 2 project is still underway with the final report due in the fall of 1991. The project has focused on the following areas: (1) effects of aging on calibration stability; (2) effects of aging on response time; (3) study of individual components of pressure transmitters that are sensitive to aging degradation; (4) sensing line blockages due to solidification of boron, formation of sludge, freezing, and other effects; (5) search of licensee event reports and component reliability databases for failures of safety-related pressure transmitters; and (6) oil loss syndrome in Rosemount pressure transmitters

  13. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  14. Radiological equivalent of chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has caused continued effort toward public safety through radiation health protection measures and nuclear management practices. However, concern has not been focused on the development specifically in the operation of chemical pestrochemical industries as well as other industrial processes brought about by technological advancements. This article presents the comparison of the risk of radiation and chemicals. The methods used for comparing the risks of late effects of radiation and chemicals are considered at three levels. (a) as a frame of reference to give an impression of resolving power of biological tests; (b) as methods to quantify risks; (c) as instruments for an epidemiological survey of human populations. There are marked dissimilarities between chemicals and radiation and efforts to interpret chemical activity may not be achieved. Applicability of the concept of rad equivalence has many restrictions and as pointed out this approach is not an established one. (RTD)

  15. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  16. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  17. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for complex glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Four different complex glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET.The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements and to perform measurements and corrections according to a method developed in the ALTSET project...

  18. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  19. Investigation of Equivalent Circuit for PEMFC Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Kwang Jae

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions occurring in a PEMFC are dominated by the physical conditions and interface properties, and the reactions are expressed in terms of impedance. The performance of a PEMFC can be simply diagnosed by examining the impedance because impedance characteristics can be expressed by an equivalent electrical circuit. In this study, the characteristics of a PEMFC are assessed using the AC impedance and various equivalent circuits such as a simple equivalent circuit, equivalent circuit with a CPE, equivalent circuit with two RCs, and equivalent circuit with two CPEs. It was found in this study that the characteristics of a PEMFC could be assessed using impedance and an equivalent circuit, and the accuracy was highest for an equivalent circuit with two CPEs

  20. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable...

  1. Electromagnetic Cavity Effects from Transmitters Inside a Launch Vehicle Fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Dawn H.; Wahid, Parveen F.; Stanley, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the difficult analytical issue for launch vehicles and spacecraft that has applicability outside of the launch industry. Radiation from spacecraft or launch vehicle antennas located within enclosures in the launch vehicle generates an electromagnetic environment that is difficult to accurately predict. This paper discusses the test results of power levels produced by a transmitter within a representative scaled vehicle fairing model and provides preliminary modeling results at the low end of the frequency test range using a commercial tool. Initially, the walls of the fairing are aluminum and later, layered with materials to simulate acoustic blanketing structures that are typical in payload fairings. The effects of these blanketing materials on the power levels within the fairing are examined.

  2. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

  3. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  4. Possible test of the strong principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, K.

    1978-01-01

    We suggest that redshift determinations of X-ray and γ-ray lines produced near the surface of neutron stars which arise from different physical processes could provide a significant test of the strong principle of equivalence for strong gravitational fields. As a complement to both the high-precision weak-field solar-system experiments and the cosmological time variation searches, such observations could further test the hypothesis that physics is locally the same at all times and in all places

  5. Some spectral equivalences between Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, C; Hibberd, K E; Links, J

    2008-01-01

    Spectral equivalences of the quasi-exactly solvable sectors of two classes of Schroedinger operators are established, using Gaudin-type Bethe ansatz equations. In some instances the results can be extended leading to full isospectrality. In this manner we obtain equivalences between PT-symmetric problems and Hermitian problems. We also find equivalences between some classes of Hermitian operators

  6. The definition of the individual dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Margarete

    1986-01-01

    A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)

  7. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  8. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  9. Effect of package light transmittance on vitamin content of milk. Part 2: UHT whole milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2008-01-01

    This work is the second part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on UHT whole milk. The milk was stored at three different light intensities in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying light transmittance as

  10. Photonic integrated multiwavelength transmitters for fiber-to-the-home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawniczuk, K.; Smit, M.K.; Piramidowicz, P.; Szczepanski, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Wale, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measurement results of monolithically integrated photonic transmitters for application in the next generation Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks. 4- and 8-channel transmitters were integrated onto a single chip, using multiple lasers with distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)

  11. 31 CFR 537.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 537.323 Section 537.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 537.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money...

  12. 31 CFR 538.319 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 538.319 Section 538.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 538.319 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money...

  13. Dual-Band Modulation of Visible and Near-Infrared Light Transmittance in an All-Solution-Processed Hybrid Micro-Nano Composite Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chen, Mei; Guo, Shumeng; Zhang, Lanying; Li, Fasheng; Yang, Huai

    2017-11-22

    Smart windows with controllable visible and near-infrared light transmittance can significantly improve the building's energy efficiency and inhabitant comfort. However, most of the current smart window technology cannot achieve the target of ideal solar control. Herein, we present a novel all-solution-processed hybrid micronano composite smart material that have four optical states to separately modulate the visible and NIR light transmittance through voltage and temperature, respectively. This dual-band optical modulation was achieved by constructing a phase-separated polymer framework, which contains the microsized liquid crystals domains with a negative dielectric constant and tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide (W-VO 2 ) nanocrystals (NCs). The film with 2.5 wt % W-VO 2 NCs exhibits transparency at normal condition, and the passage of visible light can be reversibly and actively regulated between 60.8% and 1.3% by external applied voltage. Also, the transmittance of NIR light can be reversibly and passively modulated between 59.4% and 41.2% by temperature. Besides, the film also features easy all-solution processability, fast electro-optical (E-O) response time, high mechanical strength, and long-term stability. The as-prepared film provides new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology, and the proposed strategy is conductive to engineering novel hybrid inorganic-organic functional matters.

  14. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  15. Transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation during the growing season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, I.; Kubasek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was made at the study site of Bily Kriz (the Moravian-Silesian Beskids Mts., the Czech Republic) at different sky conditions during the growing season in 2010. For the description of PAR transmittance different phenological phases of the spruce stand development in clear and overcast days were chosen. The mean daily PAR transmittance of the spruce canopy was significantly higher in overcast days compared with clear ones. Diffuse PAR thus penetrated into lower parts of the canopy more efficiently than direct one. PAR transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy was different in individual phenological phases of the spruce stand canopy which was caused by changes in the stand structure during the growing season. Thus monitoring of transmittance of young Norway spruce stand canopy for PAR can help to describe the development of spruce stand canopy

  16. Flat-topped beam transmittance in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulent marine atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Yalçın; Baykal, Yahya

    2017-10-01

    Turbulence affects optical propagation, and, as a result, the intensity is attenuated along the path of propagation. The attenuation becomes significant when the turbulence becomes stronger. Transmittance is a measure indicating how much power is collected at the receiver after the optical wave propagates in the turbulent medium. The on-axis transmittance is formulated when a flat-topped optical beam propagates in a marine atmosphere experiencing anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Variations in the transmittance are evaluated versus the beam source size, beam number, link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, and structure constant. It is found that larger beam source sizes and beam numbers yield higher transmittance values; however, as the link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, or structure constant increase, transmittance values are lowered. Our results will help in the performance evaluations of optical wireless communication and optical imaging systems operating in a marine atmosphere.

  17. Improvement of the equivalent sphere model for better estimates of skin or eye dose in space radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.W.

    2011-01-01

    It is often useful to get a quick estimate of the dose or dose equivalent of an organ, such as blood-forming organs, the eye or the skin, in a radiation field. Sometimes an equivalent sphere is used to represent the organ for this purpose. For space radiation environments, recently it has been shown that the equivalent sphere model does not work for the eye or the skin in solar particle event environments. In this study, we improve the representation of the eye and the skin using a two-component equivalent sphere model. Motivated by the two-peak structure of the body organ shielding distribution for the eye and the skin, we use an equivalent sphere with two radius parameters, for example a partial spherical shell of a smaller thickness over a proper fraction of the full solid angle combined with a concentric partial spherical shell of a larger thickness over the rest of the full solid angle, to represent the eye or the skin. We find that using an equivalent sphere with two radius parameters instead of one drastically improves the accuracy of the estimates of dose and dose equivalent in space radiation environments. For example, in solar particle event environments the average error in the estimate of the skin dose equivalent using an equivalent sphere with two radius parameters is about 8%, while the average error of the conventional equivalent sphere model using one radius parameter is around 100%.

  18. Pressure transmitter surveillance: the dominant real pole case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.

    1995-01-01

    There are about 500 pressure transmitters in a nuclear power plant. Due to Safety requirements, some of them must be specially surveilled. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity to be measured. Response time, τ r , reflects the dynamics of the sensor and the sensing line. A real pole is due to the inner sensor structure, but the complex pole stands for the sensing line too. The real pole usually is the dominant in most sensors. On line monitoring noise analysis regards simultaneously both, the sensor and the sensing line, but the noise signal contains not only the sensor poles, but many others coming from the plant, so must be conditioned previously and the determination of τ r is not free of systematic errors. That is the price to be paid for non disturbing the plant. When the real pole is dominant, the sensing line contribution is negligible, so the on line noise monitoring methods are supported by the laboratory experiments and the real pole border in the PSD is properly identified. The mean square frequency results proportional to τ r -1 , so manual techniques are designed for response time surveillance made by non noise plant's maintenance technicians. (author)

  19. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, R.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the revised 10 CFR 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in R.G. 8.7, Rev. 1, ''Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data.'' REMIT is a personal computer (PC) based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of R. G. 8.7, Rev. 1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5, REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and alerts the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files

  20. Reflection effects in multimode fiber systems utilizing laser transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Harry E.

    1991-11-01

    A number of optical communication lines are now in use at NASA-Kennedy for the transmission of voice, computer data, and video signals. Now, all of these channels use a single carrier wavelength centered near 1300 or 1550 nm. Engineering tests in the past have given indications of the growth of systematic and random noise in the RF spectrum of a fiber network as the number of connector pairs is increased. This noise seems to occur when a laser transmitter is used instead of a LED. It has been suggested that the noise is caused by back reflections created at connector fiber interfaces. Experiments were performed to explore the effect of reflection on the transmitting laser under conditions of reflective feedback. This effort included computer integration of some of the instrumentation in the fiber optic lab using the Lab View software recently acquired by the lab group. The main goal was to interface the Anritsu Optical and RF spectrum analyzers to the MacIntosh II computer so that laser spectra and network RF spectra could be simultaneously and rapidly acquired in a form convenient for analysis. Both single and multimode fiber is installed at Kennedy. Since most are multimode, this effort concentrated on multimode systems.

  1. Comparison between moving and stationary transmitter systems in induction logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M.; Caleb Dhanasekaran, P.; Prabhakar Rao, K.

    1985-09-01

    In a general treatment of the theory of induction logging, an exact integral representation has been obtained for the mutual impedance between a vertical dipole transmitter and a coaxial dipole receiver in a three layered earth. Based on this representation, a computer model has been devised using the traditional Slingram system of induction logging and the comparatively new Turam system, ignoring borehole effects. The model results indicate that due to its much larger response, the Turam system is in general preferable to the Slingram in mineral and groundwater investigations where formation conductivity much less than 1 S/m is generally encountered. However, if the surrounding media are conductive (more than 0.1 S/m), the Turam system suffers from large amplitude attenuation and phase rotation of the primary field caused by the conductive surrounding, and is less useful than the Slingram system which does not so suffer, unless the target bed is shallow. Because it is a more complex function of system parameters than the corresponding Slingram log, a Turam log can be conveniently interpreted only by the modern inverse method using a fast algorithm for the forward solution and a high speed digital computer.

  2. Computational Investigations of THz Transmittance in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xingyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent scientific advancements in Terahertz (THz wave propagation and reception technology, there has been significant development in new possibilities for using THz waves – offering new possibilities in THz detection and ranging. A first foundational step toward this goal is to better understand THz transmittance in the turbulent atmosphere. In this project, a frequency modulation pattern of THz waves was created by utilizing a system of shifting frequency based on temperature, air humidity, and distance of transmission. The total path loss of the wave in air, based on the wave spread and molecular absorption, was then modeled using radiative transfer theory, onto a set of JavaHAWK filtered-HITRAN data representative of an air sample. This data was used to generate a path loss matrix, which was then used to optimize frequency of transmission for the specific conditions. The concept to be evaluated is whether adaptive frequency modulated THz might usefully decrease transmission losses by adjusting to atmospheric conditions (such as local variations in temperature and humidity.

  3. A 7T spine array based on electric dipole transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Nair, Govind; Gudino, Natalia; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Murphy-Boesch, Joe; Reich, Daniel S; Duyn, Jeff H; Merkle, Hellmut

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an array of electric dipole antennas for RF transmission in spine MRI at high fields. A two-channel transmit array based on an electric dipole design was quantitatively optimized for 7T spine imaging and integrated with a receive array combining eight loop coils. Using B1+ mapping, the transmit efficiency of the dipole array was compared with a design using quadrature loop pairs. The radiofrequency energy deposition for each array was measured using a home-built dielectric phantom and MR thermometry. The performance of the proposed array was qualitatively demonstrated in human studies. The results indicate dramatically improved transmit efficiency for the dipole design compared with the loop excitation. A gain of up to 76% was achieved within the spinal region. For imaging of the spine, electric dipole-based transmitters provide an attractive alternative to the traditional loop-based design. Easy integration with existing receive array technology facilitates practical use at high fields. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  5. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  6. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  7. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  8. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed

  9. Equivalences of real submanifolds in complex space.

    OpenAIRE

    ZAITSEV, DMITRI

    2001-01-01

    PUBLISHED We show that for any real-analytic submanifold M in CN there is a proper real-analytic subvariety V contained in M such that for any p ? M \\ V , any real-analytic submanifold M? in CN, and any p? ? M?, the germs of the submanifolds M and M? at p and p? respectively are formally equivalent if and only if they are biholomorphically equivalent. More general results for k-equivalences are also stated and proved.

  10. Relations of equivalence of conditioned radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumer, L.; Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.

    1982-01-01

    A compensation for the wastes remaining with the operator of a waste management center, to be given by the agent having caused the waste, may be assured by effecting a financial valuation (equivalence) of wastes. Technically and logically, this equivalence between wastes (or specifically between different waste categories) and financial valuation has been established as reasonable. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such equivalences are developed, and their suitability for waste management concepts is quantitatively expressed

  11. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...... of processes between BPP and TCSP, not only are the two equivalences different, but one (locality) is decidable whereas the other (pomsets) is not. The decidability result for locality is proved by a reduction to the reachability problem for Petri nets....

  12. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.

    Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE

    Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.

    Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ

  13. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  14. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  15. 47 CFR 95.221 - (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC certificated R/C transmitter (see R/C Rule 9) must be made in accord with the Technical... in order to: (1) Adjust a transmitter to an antenna; (2) Detect or measure radiation of energy other...

  16. Seasonality of light transmittance through Arctic sea ice during spring and summe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, M.; Hudson, S. R.; Granskog, M. A.; Pavlov, A.; Taskjelle, T.; Kauko, H.; Katlein, C.; Geland, S.; Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    The energy budget of sea ice and the upper ocean during spring, summer, and autumn is strongly affected by the transfer of solar shortwave radiation through sea ice and into the upper ocean. Previous studies highlighted the great importance of the spring-summer transition, when incoming fluxes are highest and even small changes in surface albedo and transmittance have strong impacts on the annual budgets. The timing of melt onset and changes in snow and ice conditions are also crucial for primary productivity and biogeochemical processes. Here we present results from time series measurements of radiation fluxes through seasonal Arctic sea ice, as it may be expected to play a key role in the future Arctic. Our observations were performed during the Norwegian N-ICE drift experiment in 2015 and the Polarstern expedition PS106 in 2017, both studying sea ice north of Svalbard. Autonomous stations were installed to monitor spectral radiation fluxes above and under sea ice. The observation periods cover the spring-summer transition, including snow melt and early melt pond formation. The results show the direct relation of optical properties to under ice algae blooms and their influence on the energy budget. Beyond these results, we will discuss the latest plans and implementation of radiation measurements during the MOSAiC drift in 2019/2020. Then, a full annual cycle of radiation fluxes may be studied from manned and autonomous (buoys) measurements as well as using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as measurement platform. These measurements will be performed in direct relation with numerical simulations on different scales.

  17. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  18. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  19. Accurate method for luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients measurements in sunglasses lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, A. D.; Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2018-02-01

    The international standard ISO 12312-1 proposes transmittance tests that quantify how dark sunglasses lenses are and whether or not they are suitable for driving. To perform these tests a spectrometer is required. In this study, we present and analyze theoretically an accurate alternative method for performing these measurements using simple components. Using three LEDs and a four-channel sensor we generated weighting functions similar to the standard ones for luminous and traffic lights transmittances. From 89 sunglasses lens spectroscopy data, we calculated luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients using our obtained weighting functions and the standard ones. Mean-difference Tukey plots were used to compare the results. All tested sunglasses lenses were classified in the right category and correctly as suitable or not for driving. The greatest absolute errors for luminous transmittance and red, yellow, green and blue signal detection quotients were 0.15%, 0.17, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.18, respectively. This method will be used in a device capable to perform transmittance tests (visible, traffic lights and ultraviolet (UV)) according to the standard. It is important to measure rightly luminous transmittance and relative visual attenuation quotients to report correctly whether or not sunglasses are suitable for driving. Moreover, standard UV requirements depend on luminous transmittance.

  20. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  1. Age-related changes in spectral transmittance of the human crystalline lens in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanishi, Yoshihito; Awano, Masakazu; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru; Murakami, Akira; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to measure spectral transmission of the human crystalline lens in situ. The crystalline lens was illuminated by one of four light-emitting diodes of different colors. The relative spectral transmittance of the human crystalline lens was measured with the Purkinje-Sanson mirror images over a wide range of ages. The study evaluated 36 crystalline lenses of 28 subjects aged 21-76 years. There was a significant correlation between the age and spectral transmittance for blue light. Spectral transmittance of the crystalline lens in situ could be measured with Purkinje-Sanson mirror images. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Ciguatoxin enhances quantal transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgó, J.; Comella, J. X.; Legrand, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ciguatoxin (CTX), a marine toxin produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is responsible for a complex endemic disease in man known as ciguatera fish poisoning. In the present study we have investigated the effects of purified CTX extracted for Gymnothorax javanicus moray-eel liver on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations with conventional electrophysiological techniques. 2. CTX (1-2.5 nM) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations induced, after a short delay, spontaneous fibrillations of the muscle fibres that could be suppressed with 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by formamide to uncouple excitation-contraction. 3. In preparations treated with formamide, CTX (1-2.5 nM) caused either spontaneous or repetitive muscle action potentials (up to frequencies of 60-100 Hz) in response to a single nerve stimulus. Recordings performed at extrajunctional regions of the muscle membrane revealed that during the repetitive firing a prolongation of the repolarizing phase of the action potential occurred. At junctional sites the repetitive action potentials were triggered by repetitive endplate potentials (e.p.ps). 4. CTX (2.5 nM) caused a TTX-sensitive depolarization of the muscle membrane. 5. In junctions equilibrated in solutions containing high Mg2+ + low Ca2+, addition of CTX (1.5 nM) first induced an average increase of 239 +/- 36% in the mean quantal content of e.p.ps. Subsequently CTX reduced and finally blocked nerve-evoked transmitter release irreversibly. 6. CTX (1.5-2.5 nM) increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) in junctions bathed either in normal Ringer, low Ca2(+)-high Mg2+ medium or in a nominally Ca2(+)-free solution containing EGTA.2+ Extensive washing with toxin-free solutions did not reverse the effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1972891

  3. Equivalent drawbead performance in deep drawing simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    1999-01-01

    Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the

  4. On uncertainties in definition of dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    The author has entertained always the doubt that in a neutron field, if the measured value of the absorbed dose with a tissue equivalent ionization chamber is 1.02±0.01 mGy, may the dose equivalent be taken as 10.2±0.1 mSv. Should it be 10.2 or 11, but the author considers it is 10 or 20. Even if effort is exerted for the precision measurement of absorbed dose, if the coefficient being multiplied to it is not precise, it is meaningless. [Absorbed dose] x [Radiation quality fctor] = [Dose equivalent] seems peculiar. How accurately can dose equivalent be evaluated ? The descriptions related to uncertainties in the publications of ICRU and ICRP are introduced, which are related to radiation quality factor, the accuracy of measuring dose equivalent and so on. Dose equivalent shows the criterion for the degree of risk, or it is considered only as a controlling quantity. The description in the ICRU report 1973 related to dose equivalent and its unit is cited. It was concluded that dose equivalent can be considered only as the absorbed dose being multiplied by a dimensionless factor. The author presented the questions. (K.I.)

  5. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  7. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  8. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  9. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  10. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  13. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  15. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  16. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...

  17. Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As

  18. What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...

  19. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank

  20. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  1. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  2. Review on Improving the Transmittance of Photovoltaic Glass%提高光伏玻璃透光率的研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿铁; 胡金中; 蔚川乐; 盛洁; 秦立祥

    2017-01-01

    能源短缺已经成为阻碍当今世界经济发展的重大问题,开发新型能源已经受到广泛的共识.太阳能作为一种无污染、可再生能源,它的利用受到越来越多的重视.太阳能光伏玻璃的透光率在太阳能利用方面起着重要的作用,所以如何提高光伏玻璃的透光率已成为光伏行业一项重大的研究课题.光伏玻璃作为光伏电池组件封装的重要组成部分,是直接应用在太阳能光伏发电组件上,具有传递和控制光线,或导出电流作用的玻璃产品.光伏玻璃的透光率是影响太阳能光伏电池转换效能的重要因素,然而它受到玻璃中金属含量,压延花型以及玻璃表面薄膜制备方法等很多因素的影响.本文介绍了影响光伏玻璃透光率的因素,并且详细地概述了提高光伏玻璃透光率的方法以及对这些方法所做的研究,为下一阶段的研究提供了方向.%Energy shortage has become a major obstacle to the development of the world economy, the development of new energy has been widely agreed.As a kind of non pollution and renewable energy, solar energy has attracted more and more attention.The transmittance of solar photovoltaic glass plays an important role in the use of solar energy, so how to improve the transmittance of photovoltaic cells has become a major research topic in the photovoltaic industry.As an important part of the photovoltaic cell package, photovoltaic glass is a kind of glass product which is directly applied to the solar photovoltaic power generation component, and has the function of transferring and controlling the light, or exporting the current.The transmittance of photovoltaic glass is an important factor which affects the conversion efficiency of solar photovoltaic cells.However, it is affected by many factors, such as the content of metal in the glass, the pattern of the rolled glass and the preparation method of the glass surface film.This article introduces the factors

  3. Optimal power allocation of a single transmitter-multiple receivers channel in a cognitive sensor network

    KAUST Repository

    Ayala Solares, Jose Roberto; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    The optimal transmit power of a wireless sensor network with one transmitter and multiple receivers in a cognitive radio environment while satisfying independent peak, independent average, sum of peak and sum of average transmission rate constraints

  4. Design and calculation of low infrared transmittance and low emissivity coatings for heat radiative applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Da-Hai; Fan, Jin-Peng

    2012-02-01

    The infrared transmittance and emissivity of heat-insulating coatings pigmented with various structural particles were studied using Kubelka-Munk theory and Mie theory. The primary design purpose was to obtain the low transmittance and low emissivity coatings to reduce the heat transfer by thermal radiation for high-temperature applications. In the case of silica coating layers constituted with various structural titania particles (solid, hollow, and core-shell spherical), the dependence of transmittance and emissivity of the coating layer on the particle structure and the layer thickness was investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the coating pigmented with core-shell titania particles exhibits a lower infrared transmittance and a lower emissivity value than that with other structural particles and is suitable to radiative heat-insulating applications.

  5. Performance Limits of Online Energy Harvesting Communications with Noisy Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    KAUST Repository

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridha; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    to mobility and environmental changes. In this paper, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the quality of channel state information (CSI) measured at the transmitter, in order to maximize

  6. Solid State Transmitters for Water Vapor and Ozone DIAL Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a common architecture for laser transmitters that address requirements for water vapor as well as ground and airborne ozone lidar systems. Our...

  7. Perturbations of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling by powerful VLF emissions from ground-based transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A. S.; Markov, G. A.; Ryabov, A. O.; Parrot, M.

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of the plasma-wave disturbances stimulated in the near-Earth plasma by powerful VLF radiation from ground-based transmitters are investigated. Radio communication VLF transmitters of about 1 MW in power are shown to produce artificial plasma-wave channels (density ducts) in the near-Earth space that originate in the lower ionosphere above the disturbing emission source and extend through the entire ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth along the magnetic field lines. Measurements with the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite have revealed that under the action of emission from the NWC transmitter, which is one of the most powerful VLF radio transmitters, the generation of quasi-electrostatic (plasma) waves is observed on most of the satellite trajectory along the disturbed magnetic flux tube. This may probably be indicative of stimulated emission of a magnetospheric maser.

  8. Conductive Polymer Microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of transmitter release from living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Matteucci, Marco; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    driven cell trapping inside closed chip devices. Conductive polymer microelectrodes were used to measure transmitter release using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. By measuring the oxidation current at a cyclic voltammogram, the concentration...

  9. Development of Ethernet Based Remote Monitoring and Controlling of MST Radar Transmitters using ARM Cortex Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana ROSHANNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerging Web Services technology has provided a new and excellent solution to Industrial Automation in online control and remote monitoring. In this paper, a Web Service Based Remote Monitoring & Controlling of Radar Transmitters for safety management (WMCT developed for MST Radar is described. It achieved the MST radar transmitters’ remote supervisory, data logging and controlling activities. The system is developed using an ARM Cortex M3 processor to monitor and control the 32 triode-based transmitters of the 53-MHz Radar. The system controls transmitters via the internet using an Ethernet client server and store health status in the Database for radar performance analysis. The system enables scientists to operate and control the radar transmitters from a remote client machine Webpage.

  10. High Performance Design of 100Gb/s DPSK Optical Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L; Shah, Nor Shahihda Mohd

    2016-01-01

    and optical transmitter have taken plenty of time for transmitting signal. When proposed design is operated at 1 GHz, 5 GHz, 10 GHz and 20 GHz using time constraint technique, it is observed that among all these frequencies, at 10 GHz high performance output is achieved for designed optical transmitter....... This high performance design of optical transmitter has zero timing error, low timing score and high slack time due to synchronization between input data and clock frequency. It is also determined that 99% timing score is reduced in comparison with 1 GHz frequency that has high jitters, high timing error......, high time score and low slack time. The high performance design is realized without disturbing actual bandwidth, power consumption and other parameters of the design. The proposed high performance design of 100Gb/s optical transmitter can be used with existing optical communication system to develop...

  11. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of the designation of five new equivalent methods for...) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, five new equivalent methods, one for measuring...

  12. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY... equivalent methods, one for measuring concentrations of PM 2.5 , one for measuring concentrations of PM 10...

  13. Electromagnetic coupling between transmitters and electro-explosive devices located within an enclosure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2010-04-01

    This report documents calculations conducted to determine if 42 low-power transmitters located within a metallic enclosure can initiate electro-explosive devices (EED) located within the same enclosure. This analysis was performed for a generic EED no-fire power level of 250 mW. The calculations show that if the transmitters are incoherent, the power available is 32 mW - approximately one-eighth of the assumed level even with several worst-case assumptions in place.

  14. BioRadioTransmitter: a self-powered wireless glucose-sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-09-01

    Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique*

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyz...

  16. Perancangan Prototipe Transmitter Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37.5 kHz Pingers

    OpenAIRE

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI; KANIA SAWITRI; RUDI GUNAWAN

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAK Pingers transmitter berfungsi untuk memancarkan sinyal atau getaran pulsa akustik pada black box. Frekuensi sinyal yang dipancarkan sebesar 37,5 kHz yang dimodulasikan oleh pulsa dengan durasi 10 ms setiap interval 1 second. Modulasi yang digunakan adalah modulasi on off keying. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat perancangan pingers transmitter yang tersusun atas rangkaian osilator, timer, inverter, switch dan rangkaian amplifier. Frekuensi 37,5 kHz tersebut dibangkitkan oleh rangkaian osi...

  17. Software-Defined Radio Global System for Mobile Communications Transmitter Development for Heterogeneous Network Vulnerability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    AbdelWahab, “ 2G / 3G Inter-RAT Handover Performance Analysis,” Second European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1, 8, 11–16, Nov. 2007. [19] J...RADIO GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS TRANSMITTER DEVELOPMENT FOR HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK VULNERABILITY TESTING by Carson C. McAbee... MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS TRANSMITTER DEVELOPMENT FOR HETEROGENEOUS NETWORK VULNERABILITY TESTING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Carson C. McAbee

  18. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  19. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  20. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  1. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  2. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  3. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Prediction of transmittance spectra for transparent composite electrodes with ultra-thin metal layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhao; Alford, T. L., E-mail: TA@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Khorasani, Arash Elhami [ON Semiconductor Corp., Phoenix, Arizona 85005 (United States); Theodore, N. D. [CHD-Fab, Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona 85224 (United States); Dhar, A. [Intel Corp., 2501 NW 229th Ave, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Recent interest in indium-free transparent composite-electrodes (TCEs) has motivated theoretical and experimental efforts to better understand and enhance their electrical and optical properties. Various tools have been developed to calculate the optical transmittance of multilayer thin-film structures based on the transfer-matrix method. However, the factors that affect the accuracy of these calculations have not been investigated very much. In this study, two sets of TCEs, TiO{sub 2}/Au/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2}, were fabricated to study the factors that affect the accuracy of transmittance predictions. We found that the predicted transmittance can deviate significantly from measured transmittance for TCEs that have ultra-thin plasmonic metal layers. The ultrathin metal layer in the TCE is typically discontinuous. When light interacts with the metallic islands in this discontinuous layer, localized surface plasmons are generated. This causes extra light absorption, which then leads to the actual transmittance being lower than the predicted transmittance.

  5. The deep-tow marine controlled-source electromagnetic transmitter system for gas hydrate exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Xianhu; Jing, Jianen; Chen, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) method has been recognized as an important and effective tool to detect electrically resistive structures, such as oil, gas, and gas hydrate. The MCSEM performance is strongly influenced by the transmitter system design. We have developed a deep-tow MCSEM transmitter system. In this paper, some new technical details will be present. A 10,000 m optical-electrical composite cable is used to support high power transmission and fast data transfer; a new clock unit is designed to keep the synchronization between transmitter and receivers, and mark the time stamp into the transmission current full waveform; a data link is established to monitor the real-time altitude of the tail unit; an online insulation measuring instrument is adopted to monitor current leakage from high voltage transformer; a neutrally buoyant dipole antenna of copper cable and flexible electrodes are created to transmit the large power current into seawater; a new design method for the transmitter, which is called "real-time control technology of hardware parallelism", is described to achieve inverting and recording high-power current waveform, controlling functions, and collecting auxiliary information. We use a gas hydrate exploration test to verify the performance of the transmitter system, focusing on more technical details, rather than applications. The test shows that the transmitter can be used for gas hydrate exploration as an effective source.

  6. Hydrodynamic effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson; Granger

    1998-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to measure the effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas). A full-scale turtle model was constructed from an 11.5 kg specimen with a 48 cm carapace length, and a transmitter model was constructed from a Telonics ST-6. The turtle model was tested in a wind tunnel with and without the transmitter, which was mounted on the forward, topmost part of the carapace. Drag, lift and pitch moment were measured for several speeds and flow angles, and the data were scaled for application to the marine environment. At small flow angles representative of straight-line swimming, the transmitter increased drag by 27-30 %, reduced lift by less than 10 % and increased the pitch moment by 11-42 %. On the basis of the drag data at zero angle of attack, it is estimated that the backpack will reduce swimming speed by 11 %, assuming that the turtle produces the same thrust with the unit attached. The drag data are also used to estimate the effect of a transmitter on the swimming energetics of an adult green turtle. Design guidelines are included to minimize the adverse forces and moments caused by the transmitter.

  7. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  8. Geometry of the local equivalence of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, A; Kus, M, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.kus@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-12-09

    We present a description of locally equivalent states in terms of symplectic geometry. Using the moment map between local orbits in the space of states and coadjoint orbits of the local unitary group, we reduce the problem of local unitary equivalence to an easy part consisting of identifying the proper coadjoint orbit and a harder problem of the geometry of fibers of the moment map. We give a detailed analysis of the properties of orbits of 'equally entangled states'. In particular, we show connections between certain symplectic properties of orbits such as their isotropy and coisotropy with effective criteria of local unitary equivalence. (paper)

  9. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  10. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Okon, E.

    2013-01-01

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule

  11. On the equivalence of chaos control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaofan

    2003-01-01

    For a given chaotic system, different control systems can be constructed depending on which parameter is tuned or where the external input is added. We prove that two different feedback control systems are qualitatively equivalent if they are feedback linearizable

  12. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  13. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  14. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  15. interpratation: of equivalences and cultural untranslatability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jgmweri

    translatability in cultural diversity in terms equivalences such as –Vocabulary or lexical ..... A KSL interpreter who does not understand this English idiom may literally interpret it .... Nida, E.A. (1958) Analysis of meaning and dictionary making.

  16. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  17. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  18. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  19. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  20. S-equivalents lagrangians in generalized mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, L.J.; Silva, Edna G. da.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of s-equivalent lagrangians is considered in the realm of generalized mechanics. Some results corresponding to the ordinary (non-generalized) mechanics are extended to the generalized case. A theorem for the reduction of the higher order lagrangian description to the usual order is found to be useful for the analysis of generalized mechanical systems and leads to a new class of equivalence between lagrangian functions. Some new perspectives are pointed out. (Author) [pt

  1. Solar Thermal Barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, L.W.M.; Mozaffarian, M.

    2008-09-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market (taking all technologies including unglazed flexible collectors into account) marked time in 2007 with 6.9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end, this market reached 2.9 million m 2 vs. 3.1 million m 2 in 2006, i.e. an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the German market, the largest market of the European Union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates

  2. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market marked time in 2007 with 6,9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end this market reached 2,9 million m 2 facing 3,1 million m 2 in 2006, an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the german market, the largest market of the european union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates. (A.L.B.)

  3. Transmitter release modulation in nerve terminals of rat neocortical pyramidal cells by intracellular calcium buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Ora; Sakmann, Bert

    1998-01-01

    Dual whole-cell voltage recordings were made from synaptically connected layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurones in slices of the young (P14-P16) rat neocortex. The Ca2+ buffers BAPTA or EGTA were loaded into the presynaptic neurone via the pipette recording from the presynaptic neurone to examine their effect on the mean and the coefficient of variation (c.v.) of single fibre EPSP amplitudes, referred to as unitary EPSPs. The fast Ca2+ buffer BAPTA reduced unitary EPSP amplitudes in a concentration dependent way. With 0.1 mm BAPTA in the pipette, the mean EPSP amplitude was reduced by 14 ± 2.8% (mean ±s.e.m., n = 7) compared with control pipette solution, whereas with 1.5 mm BAPTA, the mean EPSP amplitude was reduced by 72 ± 1.5% (n = 5). The concentration of BAPTA that reduced mean EPSP amplitudes to one-half of control was close to 0.7 mm. Saturation of BAPTA during evoked release was tested by comparing the effect of loading the presynaptic neurone with 0.1 mm BAPTA at 2 and 1 mm[Ca2+]o. Reducing [Ca2+]o from 2 to 1 mm, thereby reducing Ca2+ influx into the terminals, decreased the mean EPSP amplitude by 60 ± 2.2% with control pipette solution and by 62 ± 1.9% after loading with 0.1 mm BAPTA (n = 7). The slow Ca2+ buffer EGTA at 1 mm reduced mean EPSP amplitudes by 15 ± 2.5% (n = 5). With 10 mm EGTA mean EPSP amplitudes were reduced by 56 ± 2.3% (n = 4). With both Ca2+ buffers, the reduction in mean EPSP amplitudes was associated with an increase in the c.v. of peak EPSP amplitudes, consistent with a reduction of the transmitter release probability as the major mechanism underlying the reduction of the EPSP amplitude. The results suggest that in nerve terminals of thick tufted L5 pyramidal cells the endogenous mobile Ca2+ buffer is equivalent to less than 0.1 mm BAPTA and that at many release sites of pyramidal cell terminals the Ca2+ channel domains overlap, a situation comparable with that at large calyx-type terminals in the brainstem. PMID:9782165

  4. Coupled solar still, solar heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, R R; Harris, W B; Moor, D H; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Computer simulation of combinations of solar stills and solar heaters indicates the probable economic advantage of such an arrangement in many locations if the size of the heater is optimized relative to that of the still. Experience with various low cost solar heaters is discussed.

  5. Solar Sailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  6. Tissue equivalent detector measurements on Mir space station. Comparison with other data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de Dosimetrie; Siegrist, M. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France); Duvivier, E.; Almarcha, B. [STEEL Technologies, Mazeres sur Salat (France); Dachev, T.P.; Semkova, J.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources; Petrov, V.M.; Bengin, V.; Koslova, S.B. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The measurement of the dose received by the cosmonauts, due to cosmic radiations, during a space mission is an important parameter to estimate the radiological risk. Tissue equivalent measurements of radiation environment inside the MIR space station were performed continuously since July 1992. Interesting results about radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) crossing, (c) the increase of radiation near the poles and (d) the effects of solar eruptions. These data are compared with solid state detector (SSD) and other tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) results. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Tissue equivalent detector measurements on Mir space station. Comparison with other data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Duvivier, E.; Almarcha, B.; Dachev, T.P.; Semkova, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the dose received by the cosmonauts, due to cosmic radiations, during a space mission is an important parameter to estimate the radiological risk. Tissue equivalent measurements of radiation environment inside the MIR space station were performed continuously since July 1992. Interesting results about radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) crossing, (c) the increase of radiation near the poles and (d) the effects of solar eruptions. These data are compared with solid state detector (SSD) and other tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) results. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs

  8. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m 2 installed, which is 450000 m 2 less year-on-year. The main reasons of the decrease is the financial crisis and the low oil price, other reasons more specific to the country exist, for instance the property crisis has dragged the Spanish market down. In 2009, the solar thermal collector surface area in service in the European Union is of the magnitude of 32.6 million m 2 , equivalent to a capacity of 22.8 GWTh. The solar thermal sector is one of the renewable sectors that creates the highest number of jobs and wealth, partly because the vast majority of the system components sold in Europe are produced in Europe and partly because the sale, installation fitting and maintenance are labour-intensive. In 2009, there were 50000 direct or indirect jobs in the European solar thermal sector. The main European actors in this sector are GREENoneTEC, Bosch-Thermotechnik, Viessmann, Vaillant and Solvis. No clear recovery is expected before 2011. (A.C.)

  9. Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrmann, N.; Reineke-Koch, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors at temperatures above 100 °C or with low solar irradiation, we implement a double glazing with a low-emitting (low-e) coating on the inner pane to improve the insulation of the transparent cover. Since commercially available low-e glazing provides only insufficient solar transmittance for the application in thermal flat-plate collectors we are developing a sputter-deposited low e-coating system based on transparent conductive oxides which provides a high solar transmittance of 85% due to additional antireflective coatings and the use of low-iron glass substrates. Durability tests of the developed coating system show that our low e-coating system is well suitable even at high temperatures, humidity and condensation.

  10. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles....... The two glasses are identical, except for the fact that one of them is equipped with antireflection surfaces by the company SunArc A/ S. The transmittance was increased by 5–9%-points due to the antireflection surfaces. The increase depends on the incidence angle. The efficiency at incidence angles of 08...... and the incidence angle modifier were measured for a flat-plate solar collector with the two cover plates. The collector efficiency was increased by 4–6%-points due to the antireflection surfaces, depending on the incidence angle. The thermal advantage with using a glass cover with antireflection surfaces...

  11. The principle of equivalence reconsidered: assessing the relevance of the principle of equivalence in prison medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.

  12. Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.

  13. Device-independent quantum reading and noise-assisted quantum transmitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roga, W; Buono, D; Illuminati, F

    2015-01-01

    In quantum reading, a quantum state of light (transmitter) is applied to read classical information. In the presence of noise or for sufficiently weak signals, quantum reading can outperform classical reading by reason of enhanced state distinguishability. Here we show that enhanced quantum efficiency depends on the presence in the transmitter of a particular type of quantum correlations, the discord of response. Different encodings and transmitters give rise to different levels of efficiency. Considering noisy quantum probes, we show that squeezed thermal transmitters with non-symmetrically distributed noise among the field modes yield higher quantum efficiency compared with coherent thermal quantum states. The noise-enhanced quantum advantage is a consequence of the discord of response being a non-decreasing function of increasing thermal noise under constant squeezing, a behavior that leads to increased state distinguishability. We finally show that, for non-symmetric squeezed thermal states, the probability of error, as measured by the quantum Chernoff bound, vanishes asymptotically with increasing local thermal noise with finite global squeezing. Therefore, with fixed finite squeezing, noisy but strongly discordant quantum states with a large noise imbalance between the field modes can outperform noisy classical resources as well as pure entangled transmitters with the same finite level of squeezing. (paper)

  14. The Effect of an Externally Attached Neutrally Buoyant Transmitter on Mortal Injury during Simulated Hydroturbine Passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2012-02-03

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing through hydroturbines experience a rapid decrease in pressure as they pass by the turbine blade and the severity of this decompression can be highly variable. This rapid decrease in pressure can result in injuries such as swim bladder rupture, exophthalmia, and emboli and hemorrhaging in the fins and tissues. However, recent research indicates that the presence of a telemetry tag (acoustic, radio, inductive) implanted inside the coelom of a juvenile salmon increases the likelihood that the fish will be injured or die during turbine passage. Thus, previous research conducted using telemetry tags implanted into the coelom of fish may have been inaccurate. Thus, a new technique is needed to provide unbiased estimates of survival through turbines. This research provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter. Both nontagged fish and fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter were exposed to a range of rapid decompressions simulating turbine passage. Juvenile Chinook salmon tagged with a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter did not receive a higher degree of barotrauma than their nontagged counterparts. We suggest that future research include field-based comparisons of survival and behavior among fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter and those internally implanted with transmitters.

  15. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III taste bud cells (∼50% respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+. In contrast, Receptor (Type II taste cells rarely (4% responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  16. Fiber-Based, Trace-Gas, Laser Transmitter Technology Development for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzalez, Brayler; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter.In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  17. Application of smart differential pressure transmitters (DPTS) for containment studies facility (CSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanware, V.M.; Gole, N.V.; Sebastian, A.; Subramaniam, K.

    2001-01-01

    Containment Studies Facility (CSF) is being set up in BARC for studying various containment related thermal hydraulic and other processes during simulated conditions of pipe rupture. The set up consists of a model reactor containment vessel with a model primary heat transport system. Besides, provisions exist to introduce aerosols and hydrogen also in the containment model. The instrumentation includes measurement of the process temperatures, pressures, levels, flows, humidity, etc. Differential Pressure Transmitters (DPT) will be used for measurement of levels and flows in the CSF. The procured DPTs for this facility are smart. Conventional transmitters have a rangeability specification of 5 or 6. But the smart transmitters have rangeability varying between 40-100. Smart transmitters have facility to change its operating range online. This enables the provision of zooming in on the selected range and narrowing the range around the point of measurement. This facility can be exploited to realise the maximum possible accuracy at the smallest possible range around the point of measurement. This paper describes how the smart DPTs function, how the Highway Addressable Remote Transmitter (HART) protocol works and how we propose to use the on-line rangeability of these DPTs get the highest resolution in our measurements. (author)

  18. Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Grant, Jeff; Roper, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that l-glutamate may be an efferent transmitter released from axons innervating taste buds. In this report, we determined the types of ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors present on taste cells and that underlie this postulated efferent transmission. We also studied what effect glutamate exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura 2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings show that a large fraction of Presynaptic (Type III) taste bud cells (∼50%) respond to 100 µM glutamate, NMDA, or kainic acid (KA) with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 100 µM glutamate. At this concentration and with these compounds, these agonists activate glutamatergic synaptic receptors, not glutamate taste (umami) receptors. Moreover, applying glutamate, NMDA, or KA caused taste buds to secrete 5-HT, a Presynaptic taste cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor cell transmitter. Indeed, glutamate-evoked 5-HT release inhibited taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for glutamate in taste buds as an inhibitory efferent transmitter that acts via ionotropic synaptic glutamate receptors.

  19. All solution processing of ITO-free organic solar cell modules directly on barrier foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Hösel, Markus; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate fully solution processed semi-transparent silver electrodes on flexible substrates having a sheet resistance as low as 5Ω/□ and transmittance of ∼30% at 550nm. We demonstrate the use of this electrode as a substitute for ITO in an inverted organic solar cell (OSC...

  20. Multi-Material Front Contact for 19% Thin Film Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Tezsevin, Y.; Barink, M.

    2016-01-01

    The trade-off between transmittance and conductivity of the front contact material poses abottleneck for thin film solar panels. Normally, the front contact material is a metal oxide and the optimal cell configuration and panel efficiency were determined for various band gap materials, representing

  1. Experimental investigation on photothermal properties of nanofluids for direct absorption solar thermal energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qinbo; Wang, Shuangfeng; Zeng, Shequan; Zheng, Zhaozhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The factors affecting the transmittance of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids were studied with UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer. • The optical properties of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids were studied through the theoretical model. • The Cu–H 2 O nanofluids can enhance the absorption ability for solar energy. - Abstract: In this article, Cu–H 2 O nanofluids were prepared through two-step method. The transmittance of nanofluids over solar spectrum (250–2500 nm) was measured by the UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer based on integrating sphere principle. The factors influencing transmittance of nanofluids, such as particle size, mass fraction and optical path were investigated. The extinction coefficients measured experimentally were compared with the theoretical calculation value. Meanwhile, the photothermal properties of nanofluids were also investigated. The experimental results show that the transmittance of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids is much less than that of deionized water, and decreases with increasing nanoparticle size, mass fraction and optical depth. The highest temperature of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids (0.1 wt.%) can increased up to 25.3% compared with deionized water. The good absorption ability of Cu–H 2 O nanofluids for solar energy indicates that it is suitable for direct absorption solar thermal energy systems

  2. Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P C W

    2004-01-01

    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

  3. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellakumar, P.; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E.; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z eff ), electron density (ρ e ), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μ en /ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ) tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close ( en /ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement ( tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  4. Using frequency equivalency in stability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Temirbulatov, R.A.; Tereshko, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for calculating oscillatory instability that involves using frequency equivalency is employed in carrying out the following proceedures: dividing an electric power system into subgroups; determining the adjustments to the automatic excitation control in each subsystem; simplifying the mathematical definition of the separate subsystems by using frequency equivalency; gradually re-tuning the automatic excitation control in the separate subsystems to account for neighboring subsystems by using their equivalent frequency characteristics. The methodology is to be used with a computer program to determine the gain in the stabilization channels of the automatic excitation control unit in which static stability of the entire aggregate of normal and post-breakdown conditions acceptable damping of transient processes are provided. The possibility of reducing the equation series to apply to chosen regions of the existing range of frequencies is demonstrated. The use of the methodology is illustrated in a sample study on stability in a Siberian unified power system.

  5. Mg-doped VO2 nanoparticles: hydrothermal synthesis, enhanced visible transmittance and decreased metal-insulator transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Liu, Xinling; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Cao, Chuanxiang; Luo, Hongjie; Kanahira, Minoru; Sun, Chao; Yan, Liuming

    2013-05-28

    This paper reports the successful preparation of Mg-doped VO2 nanoparticles via hydrothermal synthesis. The metal-insulator transition temperature (T(c)) decreased by approximately 2 K per at% Mg. The Tc decreased to 54 °C with 7.0 at% dopant. The composite foils made from Mg-doped VO2 particles displayed excellent visible transmittance (up to 54.2%) and solar modulation ability (up to 10.6%). In addition, the absorption edge blue-shifted from 490 nm to 440 nm at a Mg content of 3.8 at%, representing a widened optical band gap from 2.0 eV for pure VO2 to 2.4 eV at 3.8 at% doping. As a result, the colour of the Mg-doped films was modified to increase their brightness and lighten the yellow colour over that of the undoped-VO2 film. A first principle calculation was conducted to understand how dopants affect the optical, Mott phase transition and structural properties of VO2.

  6. The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gecsec, F.

    It will be shown that the equivalence problem for LL-regular grammars is decidable. Apart from extending the known result for LL(k) grammar equivalence to LLregular grammar equivalence, we obtain an alternative proof of the decidability of LL(k) equivalence. The equivalence prob]em for LL-regular

  7. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  8. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The book serves several purposes. First set of chapters gives a concise general introduction to solar physics. In a second set the basic methods of magnetohydrodynamics are developed. A third set of chapters is an account of current theories for observed phenomena. The book is suitable for a course in solar physics and it also provides a comprehensive review of present magnetohydrodynamical models in solar physics. (SC)

  9. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. DE BONIS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.

  10. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  11. Topological equivalence of nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phan; Tran Van Nhung

    1995-12-01

    We show in this paper that the autonomous nonlinear dynamical system Σ(A,B,F): x' = Ax+Bu+F(x) is topologically equivalent to the linear dynamical system Σ(A,B,O): x' = Ax+Bu if the projection of A on the complement in R n of the controllable vectorial subspace is hyperbolic and if lipschitz constant of F is sufficiently small ( * ) and F(x) = 0 when parallel x parallel is sufficiently large ( ** ). In particular, if Σ(A,B,O) is controllable, it is topologically equivalent to Σ(A,B,F) when it is only that F satisfy ( ** ). (author). 18 refs

  12. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  13. Measurements of the personal dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results of measurements related to the personal dose equivalent in the rooms adjacent to NILPRP 7 MeV linear accelerator, by means of the secondary standard chamber T34035 Hp(10). The chamber was calibrated by PTB at S- 137 Cs (E av = 661.6 keV, T 1/2 11050 days) and has N H = 3.17x10 6 Sv/C calibration factor for the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), at a depth of 10 mm in climatic reference conditions. The measurements were made for the two operation mode of the 7 MeV linac: electrons and bremsstrahlung

  14. Solar constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate tests of the theory of stellar structure and evolution are available from the Sun's observations. The solar constraints are reviewed, with a special attention to the recent progress in observing global solar oscillations. Each constraint is sensitive to a given region of the Sun. The present solar models (standard, low Z, mixed) are discussed with respect to neutrino flux, low and high degree five-minute oscillations and low degree internal gravity modes. It appears that actually there do not exist solar models able to fully account for all the observed quantities. (Auth.)

  15. Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  16. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  17. Micro controller based design of digital transmitters for temperature measurements in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature transmitter is one of the most important transmitters in the nuclear reactor it is used for RTD (resistance temperature detector) signal conditioning. It has built-in current excitation, instrumentation amplifier, linearization and current output circuitry which amplifies the RTD signal and gives linearization to it. It is a part of a system to get temperature and monitoring it. This system is very cost and complicated. In this work a digital system is implemented by using micro controller techniques that replaces the existing system, one chip (PIC16f877) is used to build a digital system, which is more accurate and give more performance and low costs . RTD is the sensing element of temperature, its resistance increases with temperature. There are many types of transmitters in the reactor such as temperature, pressure, level and flow but temperature one is chosen because of temperature is one of the most important parameters in process control.

  18. Time response measurements of Rosemount Pressure Transmitters (model 3154) of Angra-1 power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Roberto Carlos dos; Pereira, Iraci Martinez [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Justino, Marcelo C.; Silva, Marcos C., E-mail: rcsantos@ipen.br, E-mail: justino@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper shows the Response of time five Rosemount model 3154N pressure transmitter from the Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. The tests were performed using the Hydraulic Ramp and Pressure Step Generator from the Sensor Response Time Measurement laboratory of CEN - Nuclear Engineering Center of IPEN. For each transmitter, damping was adjusted so that the time constant was less than or equal to 500 ms. This value has been determined so that the total value of the protection chain response time does not exceed the established maximum value of 2 seconds. For each transmitter ten tests were performed, obtaining mean values of time constant of 499.7 ms, 464.1 ms, 473.8 ms, 484.7 ms and 511.5 ms, with mean deviations 0.85%, 0.24%, 0.97%, 1.26% and 0.64% respectively. (author)

  19. Optimal position of the transmitter coil for wireless power transfer to the implantable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghui Jian; Stanaćević, Milutin

    2014-01-01

    The maximum deliverable power through inductive link to the implantable device is limited by the tissue exposure to the electromagnetic field radiation. By moving away the transmitter coil from the body, the maximum deliverable power is increased as the magnitude of the electrical field at the interface with the body is kept constant. We demonstrate that the optimal distance between the transmitter coil and the body is on the order of 1 cm when the current of the transmitter coil is limited to 1 A. We also confirm that the conditions on the optimal frequency of the power transmission and the topology of the transmission coil remain the same as if the coil was directly adjacent to the body.

  20. High-energy, 2µm laser transmitter for coherent wind LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.

    2017-11-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar at 2μm wavelength has been built with higher output energy (300 mJ) than previously available. The laser transmitter is based on the solid-state Ho:Tm:LuLiF, a NASA Langley Research Center invented laser material for higher extraction efficiency. This diode pumped injection seeded MOPA has a transform limited line width and diffraction limited beam quality. NASA Langley Research Center is developing coherent wind lidar transmitter technology at eye-safe wavelength for satellite-based observation of wind on a global scale. The ability to profile wind is a key measurement for understanding and predicting atmospheric dynamics and is a critical measurement for improving weather forecasting and climate modeling. We would describe the development and performance of an engineering hardened 2μm laser transmitter for coherent Doppler wind measurement from ground/aircraft/space platform.

  1. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage.

  2. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  3. Simulation and design of omni-directional high speed multibeam transmitter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jaw-Luen; Jui, Ping-Chang; Wang, Sun-Chen

    2006-09-01

    For future high speed indoor wireless communication, diffuse wireless optical communications offer more robust optical links against shadowing than line-of-sight links. However, their performance may be degraded by multipath dispersion resulting from surface reflections. We have developed a multipath diffusive propagation model capable of providing channel impulse responses data. It is aimed to design and simulate any multi-beam transmitter under a variety of indoor environments. In this paper, a multi-beam transmitter system with semi-sphere structure is proposed to combat the diverse effects of multipath distortion albeit, at the cost of increased laser power and cost. Simulation results of multiple impulse responses showed that this type of multi-beam transmitter can significantly improve the performance of BER suitable for high bit rate application. We present the performance and simulation results for both line-of-sight and diffuse link configurations.

  4. Marine spawning sites of perch Perca fluviatilis revealed by oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Christensen, Emil A.F.; Carl, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s, a flood-protection system dramatically changed a large part of the coastal environment of Køge Bugt, a bay in the western Baltic Sea, from open coast to a brackish lagoon habitat. An anadromous stock of European perch Perca fluviatilis seems to have benefitted from this change...... a strong proof of concept of oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters in brackish and marine fish spawning studies. The transmitter expulsions were validated using an egg map, which was based on visual observations of perch egg-strands, and 11 of the 12 expulsed transmitters (92%) were located in areas...... with eggs. Many fish spawned in the brackish water with salinities up to 9.6 PSU. These salinities are higher than those previously observed for European perch spawning in the wild, and call for further investigations of salinity tolerance in perch eggs...

  5. Transmitter and Translating Receiver Design For 64-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2010-01-20

    This paper explores the architecture and design of an optically-implemented 64-ary PPM transmitter and direct-translating receiver that effectively translates incoming electrically-generated bit streams into optical PPM symbols (and vice-versa) at > 1 Gb/s data rates. The PPM transmitter is a cascade of optical switches operating at the frame rate. A corresponding receiver design is more difficult to architect and implement, since increasing data rates lead to correspondingly shorter decision times (slot times and frame times). We describe a solution in the form of a time-to-space mapping arrayed receiver that performs a translating algorithm represented as a code map. The technique for generating the code map is described, and the implementation of the receiver as a planar lightwave circuit is given. The techniques for implementing the transmitter and receiver can be generalized for any case of M-ary PPM.

  6. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  7. Methods of Phase and Power Control in Magnetron Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazadevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Various methods of phase and power control in magnetron RF sources of superconducting accelerators intended for ADS-class projects were recently developed and studied with conventional 2.45 GHz, 1 kW, CW magnetrons operating in pulsed and CW regimes. Magnetron transmitters excited by a resonant (injection-locking) phasemodulated signal can provide phase and power control with the rates required for precise stabilization of phase and amplitude of the accelerating field in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities of the intensity-frontier accelerators. An innovative technique that can significantly increase the magnetron transmitter efficiency at the widerange power control required for superconducting accelerators was developed and verified with the 2.45 GHz magnetrons operating in CW and pulsed regimes. High efficiency magnetron transmitters of this type can significantly reduce the capital and operation costs of the ADSclass accelerator projects.

  8. NOVEL TECHNIQUE OF POWER CONTROL IN MAGNETRON TRANSMITTERS FOR INTENSE ACCELERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M.; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Schappert, W. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2016-10-21

    A novel concept of a high-power magnetron transmitter allowing dynamic phase and power control at the frequency of locking signal is proposed. The transmitter compensating parasitic phase and amplitude modulations inherent in Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities within closed feedback loops is intended for powering of the intensity-frontier superconducting accelerators. The con- cept uses magnetrons driven by a sufficient resonant (in- jection-locking) signal and fed by the voltage which can be below the threshold of self-excitation. This provides an extended range of power control in a single magnetron at highest efficiency minimizing the cost of RF power unit and the operation cost. Proof-of-principle of the proposed concept demonstrated in pulsed and CW regimes with 2.45 GHz, 1kW magnetrons is discussed here. A conceptual scheme of the high-power transmitter allowing the dynamic wide-band phase and y power controls is presented and discussed.

  9. UV-vis light transmittance through tinted contact lenses and the effect of color on values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2014-06-01

    To assess the transmittance, in the 200-700nm electromagnetic radiation spectrum, by popularly used tinted soft contact lenses (CLs). The spectra transmittances of ultraviolet (UV)-blocking (I Day Acuvue Define, Freshlook ONE DAY) and non-UV-blocking (Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo) tinted soft CLs were tested. The transmittance of each lens, including nine different colors of Freshlook CL was recorded on spectrophotometer, and the data used to also calculate a UV protection factor (PF) for each lens brand tested, with a higher value indicating a higher level of protection. The UV-blocking CLs significantly reduced UVC, UVB & UVA transmission and thereby meet the American National Standards Institution standard for class 2 UV blockers: a maximum of 30% transmittance of UVA and 5% transmittance of UVB wavelengths. In contrast, the Durasoft 3, Tutti, and NeoCosmo CLs demonstrated negligible UV-blockage. The Acuvue Define CL offered the greatest protection from UVC (PF=69) and UVB (PF=55), but with only 35% luminous transmittance, while the Freshlook CL (especially gemstone green) offered the best protection from UVA (PF=24) and showed about 55% translucency. Overall, the UV-blocking CLs performed equally well across the UV spectrum. Different colors of Freshlook CL transmitted statistically and clinically significantly different amounts of visible light but similar amounts of UVR. Freshlook and Acuvue Define CLs which are designated as UV-blockers significantly reduced UVR transmission to safe levels whereas Tutti, NeoCosmo and Durasoft 3 did not. Transmission within the Freshlook CL family was more dependent on color in the visible light spectrum, but not in the UV-spectrum, where the gemstone green performing best among the tested colors. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on control technology of hardware parallelism for marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Luo, Xianhu; Zhao, Qingxian; Chen, Kai; Jing, Jianen

    2018-02-01

    The marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method has been recognized as an effective exploration method of shallow hydrocarbons around the world. We developed our own underwater marine CSEM transmitter that consisted of many functional modules with various response times. We previously adopted a centralized software-control technology to design the transmitter circuit topological structure. That structure probably generated a control disorder or malfunction. These undesirable conditions could lead to repeated recovery and deployment of the transmitter, which not only consumed time but also affected data continuity and establishment of stable and continuous CSEM field. We developed an instrument design concept named ‘control technology of hardware parallelism’. In this design, a noteworthy innovation of our new technology is to solve the above-mentioned problems at the physical and fundamental levels. We used several self-contained control-units to simultaneously accomplish the predetermined functions of the transmitter. The new solution relies on two technologies: multi-core embedded technology and multi-channel parallel optical-fiber data transmission technology. The first technology depends on many independent microcontrollers. Every microcontroller is only used to achieve a customized function. The second one relies on several multiple optical-fiber transmission channels realized by a complex programmable logic device and two optical-fiber conversion devices, which are used to establish a communication link between the shipboard monitoring and control-unit and underwater transmitter. We have conducted some marine experiments to verify the reliability and stability of the new method. In particular, the new technology used in the transmitter system could help us obtain more useful measured data in a limited time, improve real-time efficiency, and support the establishment of a stable CSEM field.

  11. Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid Device with Different TE Module Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining two different types of solar cells with different absorption bands into a hybrid cell is a very useful method to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. The experimental data of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs and thermoelectric generators (TEG was simulated by equivalent circuit method, and some parameters of DSSCs were obtained. Then, the equivalent circuit model with the obtained parameters was used to optimize the structure design of photovoltaic- (PV- thermoelectric (TE hybrid devices. The output power (Pout first increases to a maximum and then decreases by increasing the TE prism size, and a smaller spacing between p-type prism and n-type prism of a TE p-n junction causes a higher output power of TEG and hybrid device. When the spacing between TE prisms is 15 μm and the optimal base side length of TE prism is 40 μm, the maximum theoretical efficiency reaches 24.6% according to the equivalent circuit analysis. This work would give some enlightenment for the development of high-performance PV-TE hybrid devices.

  12. Toward Improved Modeling of Spectral Solar Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to extend the capability of the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by computing spectral solar irradiances over both horizontal and inclined surfaces. A new model is developed by computing the optical thickness of the atmosphere using a spectral irradiance model for clear-sky conditions, SMARTS2. A comprehensive lookup table (LUT) of cloud bidirectional transmittance distribution functions (BTDFs) is precomputed for 2002 wavelength bands using an atmospheric radiative transfer model, libRadtran. The solar radiation transmitted through the atmosphere is given by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. Our results indicate that this new model has an accuracy that is similar to that of state-of-the-art radiative transfer models, but it is significantly more efficient.

  13. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen... INFORMATION: In accordance with regulations at 40 CFR Part 53, the EPA evaluates various methods for...

  14. Ultra-low power transmitter for encoding non-MR signals in Magnetic Resonance (MR) recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Pedersen, Jan Ole; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    collection of data from non-MRI sensors. The transmitter consumes only 1.3mW while transmitting 2.7µW at 120MHz with high frequency stability. The presented design is useful in low power applications requiring high frequency stability and is intended for wireless transmission of non-MR signal recordings......Advancing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology requires integration of the MRI scanners with sensors and systems for monitoring various non-MRI signals. In this paper, we present design and integration of a low power AM radio transmitter into a 3T MRI scanner, which can be used for efficient...

  15. Investigating Feasibility Of Multiple UHF Passive RFID Transmitters Using Backscatter Modulation Scheme In BCI Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Ajrawi, Shams; Sarkar, Mahasweta; Rao, Ramesh

    simulatedbrain matter to a receiver located on the surface of a simulatedskull. These analyses are essential for building a brain computerinterface application. We showcase theoretical and experimentalresults based on a phantom model of the human brain usingpassive RFID as the implantable transmitter operating...... in UHFrange. Furthermore, we use backscatter modulation as a powertransfer mechanism. Investigation on the feasibility and appli-cability of implantable UHF Passive RFID transmitters insidethe brain is done for capturing multi-channel ECoG signals at ahigh data transfer rate. Detailed analysis have been done...

  16. Evaluating in situ thermal transmittance of green buildings masonries—A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Asdrubali

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a measurement campaign of in situ thermal transmittance, performed in some buildings in the Umbria Region (Italy, designed implementing bio-architecture solutions. The analyzed walls were previously monitored with thermographic surveys in order to assess the correct application of the sensors. Results of the investigation show that in situ thermal transmittance measurements and theoretical calculated U-value are not in perfect agreement. The mismatch becomes important for monolithic structures such as walls made of thermal blocks without insulating layers.

  17. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  18. The miniature optical transmitter and transceiver for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C; Zhao, X; Deng, B; Gong, D; Guo, D; Li, X; Liang, F; Liu, G; Liu, T; Xiang, A C; Ye, J; Chen, J; Huang, D; Hou, S; Teng, P-K

    2013-01-01

    We present the design and test results of the Miniature optical Transmitter (MTx) and Transceiver (MTRx) for the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiments. MTx and MTRx are Transmitter Optical Subassembly (TOSA) and Receiver Optical Subassembly (ROSA) based. There are two major developments: the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) driver ASIC LOCld and the mechanical latch that provides the connection to fibers. In this paper, we concentrate on the justification of this work, the design of the latch and the test results of these two modules with a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) VCSEL driver

  19. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  20. Free Fall and the Equivalence Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Free fall is commonly discussed as an example of the equivalence principle, in the context of a homogeneous gravitational field, which is a reasonable approximation for small test masses falling moderate distances. Newton's law of gravity provides a generalisation to larger distances, and also brings in an inhomogeneity in the gravitational field.…

  1. Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Idu Ekpeye playground and University of Port ... Effective soil remediation and detoxification method like Dispersion by chemical reaction technology should be deployed to clean-up sites to avoid soil toxicity ...

  2. Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...

  3. On Behavioral Equivalence of Rational Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, JC; Hara, S; Ohta, Y; Fujioka, H

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems In general. the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel representations and image representations Two kernel

  4. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  5. Possibility and necessity measures and integral equivalence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, T.; Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Stupňanová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2017), s. 62-72 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Integral equivalence * Necessity measure * Possibility measure * Survival function * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477092.pdf

  6. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  7. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Bilingual Dictionaries and Communicative Equivalence for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. ... With the emphasis on the user perspective, metalexicographical criteria are used to investigate problems regarding the access structure and the addressing procedures in Afrikaans ...

  9. Equivalent operator preconditioning for elliptic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-380 ISSN 1017-1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Elliptic problem * Conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * equivalent operators * compact operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://en.scientificcommons.org/42514649

  10. Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroyter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the finite gauge transformation of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic superstring field theory is ill-defined due to collisions of picture changing operators. Despite this problem we study to what extent could a bijective classical correspondence between this theory and the (presumably consistent) non-polynomial theory exist. We find that the classical equivalence between these two theories can almost be extended to the Ramond sector: We construct mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the linearized gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. The problem with the cubic theory implies that the correspondence of the linearized gauge symmetries cannot be extended to a correspondence of the finite gauge symmetries. Hence, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. Nonetheless, we believe that the fact that the equivalence formally works suggests that a consistent modification of the cubic theory exists. We construct a theory that can be considered as a first step towards a consistent RNS cubic theory.

  11. Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions

  12. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  13. Equivalence of rational representations of behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottimukkala, Sasanka; Fiaz, Shaik; Trentelman, H.L.

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems. In general, the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel and image representations. Two kernel

  14. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Dezhong; He Bin

    2003-01-01

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping

  15. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Dezhong [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu City, 610054, Sichuan Province (China); He Bin [The University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-11-07

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.

  16. Analysis of solar radiation transfer: A method to estimate the porosity of a plastic shading net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, A.M.; Al-Helal, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic nets with opaque threads are frequently used for shading agricultural structures under high solar radiation conditions. A parameter that is often used to define a net is the net porosity (Π). Value of Π is usually estimated by one of three methods: image processing, direct beam transmittance, or solar radiation balance (hereafter radiation balance). Image processing is a rather slow process because it requires scanning the net sample at high resolution. The direct beam transmittance and radiation balance methods greatly overestimate Π because some of the solar radiation incident on the thread surfaces is forward scattered and add a considerable amount of radiation to that transmitted from the net pores directly. In this study, the radiation balance method was modified to estimate Π precisely. The amount of solar radiation scattered forward on the thread surfaces was estimated separately. Thus, the un-scattered solar radiation transmitted from the net pores directly, which describes the net porosity, Π could be estimated. This method, in addition to the image processing and the direct beam transmittance methods were used to estimate Π for different types of nets that are commonly used for shading structures in summer. Values of Π estimated by using the proposed method were in good accordance with those measured by the image processing method at a resolution of 4800 dpi. The direct beam transmittance and the radiation balance methods resulted in overestimation errors in the values of Π. This error strongly depends on the color of the net. The estimated errors were +14% for a green net and +37% for a white net when using the radiation balance method, and were +16% and +38%, respectively, when using the direct beam transmittance method. In the image processing method, a resolution of 2400 dpi is sufficient to estimate Π precisely and the higher resolutions showed no significant effect on the value of Π.

  17. Solar control on irradiated Ta2O2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydogan, N. D.; Zayim, E. Oe.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films consisting of Ta 2 O 5 have been used in industry in applications related to thin-film capacitors, optical waveguides, and antireflection coatings on solar cells. Ta 2 O 5 films are used for several special applications as highly refractive material and show different optical properties depending on the deposition methods. Sol-gel technique has been used for the preparation of Ta 2 O 5 thin films. Ta 2 O 5 thin films were prepared by sol-gel proses on glass substrates to obtain good quality films. These films were exposed to gamma radiation from Co-60 radioisotope. Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were placed against the source and irradiated for 8 different gamma doses; between 0.35 and 21.00 kGy at room temperature. Energetic gamma ray can affect the samples and change its colour. On the other hand some of the Ta 2 O 5 coated thin films were irradiated with beta radiation from Sr-90 radioisotope. The effect of gamma irradiation on the solar properties of Ta 2 O 5 films is compared with that of beta irradiation. The solar properties of the irradiated thin films differ significantly from those of the unirradiated ones. After the irradiation of the samples transmittance and reflectance are measured for solar light between 300 and 2100 nm, by using Perkin Elmer Lambda 9 UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer. Change in the direct solar transmittance, reflectance and absorptance with absorbed dose are determined. Using the optical properties, the redistribution of the absorbed component of the solar radiation and the shading coefficient (SC) are calculated as a function of the convective heat-transfer coefficient. Solar parameters are important for the determination of the shading coefficient. When the secondary internal heat transfer factor (qi), direct solar transmittance (□ e ), and solar factor (g) are known, it is possible to determine shading coefficient via the dose rates. The shading coefficient changes as the dose rate is increased. In this study, the shading

  18. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  19. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  20. Climate hypersensitivity to solar forcing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Soon

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the equilibrium climate responses of a quasi-dynamical energy balance model to radiative forcing by equivalent changes in CO2, solar total irradiance (Stot and solar UV (SUV. The response is largest in the SUV case, in which the imposed UV radiative forcing is preferentially absorbed in the layer above 250 mb, in contrast to the weak response from global-columnar radiative loading by increases in CO2 or Stot. The hypersensitive response of the climate system to solar UV forcing is caused by strongly coupled feedback involving vertical static stability, tropical thick cirrus ice clouds and stratospheric ozone. This mechanism offers a plausible explanation of the apparent hypersensitivity of climate to solar forcing, as suggested by analyses of recent climatic records. The model hypersensitivity strongly depends on climate parameters, especially cloud radiative properties, but is effective for arguably realistic values of these parameters. The proposed solar forcing mechanism should be further confirmed using other models (e.g., general circulation models that may better capture radiative and dynamical couplings of the troposphere and stratosphere.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology · general or miscellaneous · Solar physics · astrophysics · and astronomy (ultraviolet emissions

  1. Solar energy - status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P. [PA Energy A/S, Malling (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Solar energy in terms of thermal Solar Hot Water systems and electricity producing Photovoltaics contribute at present only to the global energy supply at a fraction of 1 %. However, the potential for solar energy is immense: the earth receives in 1 hour from the sun the equivalent of the present annual global energy supply. Solar energy is one of the emerging renewable energy technologies still not competitive, but exhibiting both technical and economic potential to be so inside 10-15 years. There is basically no necessary 'technology jumps' as prerequisites, but such a development will demand a favorable political climate. Growing political awareness, driven partly by environmental concerns partly by concerns about security of energy supply, of the need to promote solar energy and renewables, e.g. on global level spurred on by the recent UN/IPCC report and on an EU level by the EC commitment to reach 20 % renewables in the electricity supply by 2010 and 20 % renewables in the overall energy production by 2020, appears to ensure the necessary future political support for renewables, but not necessarily for solar energy technologies, in particular photovoltaics's, which is still not yet competitive to other renewables although exhibiting a tremendous potential. (au)

  2. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  3. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  4. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  5. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    more about work by this consortium, which crosses national laboratories, on new materials and designs information on NREL's research and development of solar technologies. To receive new issues by email prize, focused on solar energy technologies, and will release the prize rules and open registration

  6. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  7. Glycine: an alternative transmitter candidate of the pallidosubthalamic projection neurons in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M.; Hattori, T.

    1987-01-01

    Autoradiographic retrograde tracing techniques with radioactive transmitters were used to analyse the identity of a putative transmitter in the rat pallidosubthalamic (GP-STN) pathway. One to 2 hours after the stereotaxic injection of 3 H-glycine restricted to the STN, a large number of neuronal somata were radiolabeled in the GP. No comparable labeling was observed following the injection of 3 H-gamma-aminobutyric acid ( 3 H-GABA) into the same nucleus even with survival times as long as 6 hours. Specifically, no significant somatic labeling was detected either in the GP or in the caudoputamen (CPU). Only when 3 H-GABA was injected into the substantia nigra did CPU and GP neurons become labeled. On the contrary, STN neuronal somata were invariably labeled 6 hours after the intrapallidal injection of 3 H-GABA, whereas no perikaryal labeling was observed in the STN after 3 H-glycine injection into the GP. The perikaryal labeling was prevented in all cases by intraventricular administration of colchicine 1 day before the isotope injections. The observations suggest that 3 H-glycine was preferentially transported retrogradely through the GP-STN pathway, and 3 H-GABA through the STN-GP projection. In view of the recent controversy on the role of GABA as a putative transmitter of the GP-STN projection, we now propose glycine as an alternative transmitter candidate of these critically situated neurons in the basal ganglia

  8. 47 CFR 73.653 - Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of TV aural and visual transmitters. 73.653 Section 73.653 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.653 Operation of TV aural and visual...

  9. Enhanced quantal release of excitatory transmitter in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ming-Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is a forebrain structure that plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission was induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury in ACC synapses. However, little information is available on their presynaptic mechanisms, since the source of the enhanced synaptic transmission could include the enhanced probability of neurotransmitter release at existing release sites and/or increases in the number of available vesicles. The present study aims to perform quantal analysis of excitatory synapses in the ACC with chronic pain to examine the source of these increases. The quantal analysis revealed that both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles were increased in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, whereas only probability of transmitter release but not number of available vesicles was enhanced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. In addition, we compared the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSCs in ACC synapses with those in other pain-related brain areas such as the amygdala and spinal cord. Interestingly, the rate and amplitude of mEPSCs in ACC synapses were significantly lower than those in the amygdala and spinal cord. Our studies provide strong evidences that chronic inflammatory pain increases both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles, whereas neuropathic pain increases only probability of transmitter release in the ACC synapses.

  10. Spatial integration of local transmitter responses in motoneurones of the turtle spinal cord in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Hounsgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Integration of responses to local activation of transmitter receptors in the dendrites of motoneurones was investigated in a slice preparation of the turtle spinal cord. Membrane-active substances were applied from up to three independent iontophoresis electrodes during intracellular recording...

  11. Optimization of DP-M-QAM Transmitter using Cooperative Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson

    2018-01-01

    We present a method for joint optimization of transmitter in-phase, quadrature and inter-polarization time skew, amplitude mismatch, and bias voltages. The method is based on a cooperative coevolutionary genetic algorithm with fitness functions extracted from a directly detected reference QAM sig...

  12. Analog direct-modulation behavior of semiconductor laser transmitters using optical FM demodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yabre, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report a theoretical investigation of the analog modulation performance of a semiconductor laser transmitter which employs the direct optical FM demodulation. This analysis is based on the rate equations in which Langevin noise functions are included. The optical FM response has

  13. A beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to nutria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; White, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an approximately 85-g beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to semi-aquatic nutria (Myocastor coypus). Prototype collars were tested on captive nutria and refined during field trials. Central to the design was novel use of the VHF transmitter antenna as a collar. A circular collar was formed by passing the 44-cm antenna cable through a pre-made hole in the transmitter, leaving an approximately 16-cm upright antenna. GPS units were mounted separately via a hole in the base of each unit. For good satellite contact, GPS units (28 g) were maintained at the nape of the neck by counterbalance of the heavier VHF transmitters (50 g) positioned under the neck. To reduce friction, we lined the collar with alternate-sized plastic and, later, more durable nylon beads. The final collar configuration was worn for approximately 1 month deployments with only minor neck abrasion; one collar was worn successfully for 5 months. Foot entanglement remained the greatest risk of injury from the collar. By fitting collars tightly, we reduced the incidence of foot entanglement to 2 of 33 deployments (6%). Successful GPS tracks were acquired on 29 of 33 deployments (88%).

  14. A novel Chirped Return-to-Zero Transmitter and Transmission Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Peucheret, Christophe; Xueyan, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    A new 10 Gb/s chirped return-to-zero transmitter using CW light modulated by only one external modulator is proposed. Transmission over 3600 km of standard single mode fibre is performed in a re-circulating loop set-up with 80 km amplifier span....

  15. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  16. Adaptive Transmitter Optimization in Multiuser Multiantenna Systems: Theoretical Limits, Effect of Delays, and Performance Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardzija Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in programmable and reconfigurable radios have rendered feasible transmitter optimization schemes that can greatly improve the performance of multiple-antenna multiuser systems. Reconfigurable radio platforms are particularly suitable for implementation of transmitter optimization at the base station. We consider the downlink of a wireless system with multiple transmit antennas at the base station and a number of mobile terminals (i.e., users each with a single receive antenna. Under an average transmit power constraint, we consider the maximum achievable sum data rates in the case of (1 zero-forcing (ZF spatial prefilter, (2 modified zero-forcing (MZF spatial prefilter, and (3 triangularization spatial prefilter coupled with dirty-paper coding (DPC transmission scheme. We show that the triangularization with DPC approaches the closed-loop MIMO rates (upper bound for higher SNRs. Further, the MZF solution performs very well for lower SNRs, while for higher SNRs, the rates for the ZF solution converge to the MZF rates. An important impediment that degrades the performance of such transmitter optimization schemes is the delay in channel state information (CSI. We characterize the fundamental limits of performance in the presence of delayed CSI and then propose performance enhancements using a linear MMSE predictor of the CSI that can be used in conjunction with transmitter optimization in multiple-antenna multiuser systems.

  17. Low power wide spectrum optical transmitter using avalanche mode LEDs in SOI CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, V.; Dutta, S; Annema, AJ; Hueting, RJE; Steeneken, P.G.; Nauta, B

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a low power monolithically integrated optical transmitter with avalanche mode light emitting diodes in a 140 nm silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. Avalanche mode LEDs in silicon exhibit wide-spectrum electroluminescence (400 nm < λ < 850 nm), which has a significant

  18. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis...... aluminium content in aluminium hydroxide suspension. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Sb-Based Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (DHBTs) With Fmax 650GHz for 340GHz Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    PROPER IDENTIFICATION . NOT TO BE USED FOR INTERIM PROGRESS REPORTS SEE PAGE 2 FOR INTERIM PROGRESS REPORT INSTRUCTIONS MEMORANDUM OF TRANSMITTAL...conduction band lineup . These advantages have led to rapid progress in increasing device bandwidths, allowing competitive RF performance with established

  20. Remote Determination of Cloud Temperature and Transmittance from Spectral Radiance Measurements: Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    atmospherics temperatura and humidity profiles. Validation tests performed on experimental spectra demonstrate the occuracy of the method with typical...indicated as with the title.) Passive Remota Sensing Infrared Spectra Cloud Temperatura Cloud Transmittance FTIR Spectrometer Icing Hazard Detection (DCD03E.IFO - 95.02.22) UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF FORM

  1. Transmittance enhancement of sapphires with antireflective subwavelength grating patterned UV polymer surface structures by soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2013-12-02

    We report the total and diffuse transmission enhancement of sapphires with the ultraviolet curable SU8 polymer surface structures consisting of conical subwavelength gratings (SWGs) at one- and both-side surfaces for different periods. The SWGs patterns on the silicon templates were transferred into the SU8 polymer film surface on sapphires by a simple and cost-effective soft lithography technique. For the fabricated samples, the surface morphologies, wetting behaviors, and optical characteristics were investigated. For theoretical optical analysis, a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method was used. At a period of 350 nm, the sample with SWGs on SU8 film/sapphire exhibited a hydrophobic surface and higher total transmittance compared to the bare sapphire over a wide wavelength of 450-1000 nm. As the period of SWGs was increased, the low total transmittance region of < 85% was shifted towards the longer wavelengths and became broader while the diffuse transmittance was increased (i.e., larger haze ratio). For the samples with SWGs at both-side surfaces, the total and diffuse transmittance spectra were further enhanced compared to the samples with SWGs at one-side surface. The theoretical optical calculation results showed a similar trend to the experimentally measured data.

  2. Topology optimised photonic crystal waveguide intersections with high-transmittance and low crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikeda, N; Sugimoto, Y; Watanabe, Y

    2006-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies on the photonic crystal waveguide intersection based on the topology optimisation design method are reported and the effectiveness of this technique is shown by achieving high transmittance spectra with low crosstalk for the straightforward beam-propagation line...

  3. Design of an Omnidirectional Multibeam Transmitter for High-Speed Indoor Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jaw-Luen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For future high speed indoor wireless communication, diffuse wireless optical communications offer more robust optical links against shadowing than line-of-sight links. However, their performance may be degraded by multipath dispersion arising from surface reflections. We have developed a multipath diffusive propagation model capable of providing channel impulse responses data. It is aimed to design and simulate any multibeam transmitter under a variety of indoor environments. In this paper, a multi-beam transmitter system associated with hemisphere structure is proposed to fight against the diverse effects of multipath distortion albeit, at the cost of increased laser power and cost. Simulation results of multiple impulse responses showed that this type of multi-beam transmitter can significantly improve the performance of BER suitable for high bit rate application. We present the performance and simulation results for both line-of-sight and diffuse link configurations. We propose a design of power radiation pattern for a transmitter in achieving uniform and full coverage of power distributions for diffuse indoor optical wireless systems.

  4. An Improved Current-Doubler Rectifier for the Marine Controlled Source Electromagnetic Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxi Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High power marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitters have gained interest with applications in marine geological survey and mineral resources exploration. The direct current to direct current (DC-DC converter that is typically used in marine transmitters has some issues, as the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT tube cannot achieve zero-voltage switching (ZVS. In particular, lagging-leg switching cannot easily achieve ZVS. The conversion efficiency of the heat converter requires improvement. This paper proposes an improved current-doubler rectifier for the marine controlled source electromagnetic transmitter (ICDR-MCSET. Resonant inductance is increased and a blocking capacitor is added to the converter (DC-DC circuit, where the converter can achieve ZVS in a wide load range. This results in the effective decrease of the heating temperature and the improvement of transformation efficiency. Saber software simulation and a 20 KW electromagnetic transmitter are used to verify the results, which show that the method is feasible and effective.

  5. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal

  6. Improvements in X-band transmitter phase stability through Klystron body temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the techniques used and experimental results obtained in improving transmitter stability by control of the klystron body temperature. Related work in the measurement of klystron phase control parameters (pushing factors) is also discussed. The contribution of wave guide temperature excursions to uplink phase stability is presented. Suggestions are made as to the direction of future work in this area.

  7. Estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements with the application of perturbation numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoświat, Artur; Skrzypczyk, Jerzy; Krause, Paweł; Steidl, Tomasz; Winkler-Skalna, Agnieszka

    2018-05-01

    Fast estimation of thermal transmittance based on temperature measurements is uncertain, and the obtained results can be burdened with a large error. Nevertheless, such attempts should be undertaken merely due to the fact that a precise measurement by means of heat flux measurements is not always possible in field conditions (resentment of the residents during the measurements carried out inside their living quarters), and the calculation methods do not allow for the nonlinearity of thermal insulation, heat bridges or other fragments of building envelope of diversified thermal conductivity. The present paper offers the estimation of thermal transmittance and internal surface resistance with the use of temperature measurements (in particular with the use of thermovision). The proposed method has been verified through tests carried out on a laboratory test stand built in the open space, subjected to the influence of real meteorological conditions. The present elaboration involves the estimation of thermal transmittance by means of temperature measurements. Basing on the mentioned estimation, the authors present correction coefficients which have impact on the estimation accuracy. Furthermore, in the final part of the paper, various types of disturbance were allowed for using perturbation numbers, and the introduced by the authors "credibility area of thermal transmittance estimation" was determined.

  8. Updated determination of the solar neutrino fluxes from solar neutrino data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergström, Johannes [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C. [Departament d’Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (Spain); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Maltoni, Michele [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Calle de Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Peña-Garay, Carlos [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia,Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46090 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Serenelli, Aldo M. [Institut de Ciencies de l’Espai (ICE-CSIC/IEEC),Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valls (Spain); Song, Ningqiang [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States)

    2016-03-18

    We present an update of the determination of the solar neutrino fluxes from a global analysis of the solar and terrestrial neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino mixing. Using a Bayesian analysis we reconstruct the posterior probability distribution function for the eight normalization parameters of the solar neutrino fluxes plus the relevant masses and mixing, with and without imposing the luminosity constraint. We then use these results to compare the description provided by different Standard Solar Models. Our results show that, at present, both models with low and high metallicity can describe the data with equivalent statistical agreement. We also argue that even with the present experimental precision the solar neutrino data have the potential to improve the accuracy of the solar model predictions.

  9. A standard operating procedure for the surgical implantation of transmitters in juvenile salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, T.L.; Beeman, J.W.; Gee, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Biotelemetry is a useful tool to monitor the movements of animals and is widely applied in fisheries research. Radio or acoustic technology can be used, depending on the study design and the environmental conditions in the study area. A broad definition of telemetry also includes the use of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, either separately or with a radio or acoustic transmitter. To use telemetry, fish must be equipped with a transmitter. Although there are several attachment procedures available, surgical implantation of transmitters in the abdominal cavity is recognized as the best technique for long-term telemetry studies in general (Stasko and Pincock, 1977; Winter, 1996; Jepsen, 2003), and specifically for juvenile salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp. (Adams and others, 1998a, 1998b; Martinelli and others, 1998; Hall and others, 2009). Studies that use telemetry assume that the processes by which the animals are captured, handled, and tagged, as well as the act of carrying the transmitter, will have minimal effect on their behavior and performance. This assumption, commonly stated as a lack of transmitter effects, must be valid if telemetry studies are to describe accurately the movements and behavior of an entire population of interest, rather than the subset of that population that carries transmitters. This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for surgical implantation of radio or acoustic transmitters in juvenile salmonids. The procedures were developed from a broad base of published information, laboratory experiments, and practical experience in tagging thousands of fish for numerous studies of juvenile salmon movements near Columbia River and Snake River hydroelectric dams. Staff from the Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory (CRRL) frequently have used telemetry studies to evaluate new structures or operations at hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin, and these evaluations typically

  10. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Solar MHD is an important tool for understanding many solar phenomena. It also plays a crucial role in explaining the behaviour of more general cosmical magnetic fields and plasmas, since the Sun provides a natural laboratory in which such behaviour may be studied. While terrestrial experiments are invaluable in demonstrating general plasma properties, conclusions from them cannot be applied uncritically to solar plasmas and have in the past given rise to misconceptions about solar magnetic field behaviour. Important differences between a laboratory plasma on Earth and the Sun include the nature of boundary conditions, the energy balance, the effect of gravity and the size of the magnetic Reynolds number (generally of order unity on the Earth and very much larger on the Sun). The overall structure of the book is as follows. It begins with two introductory chapters on solar observations and the MHD equations. Then the fundamentals of MHD are developed in chapters on magnetostatics, waves, shocks, and instabilities. Finally, the theory is applied to the solar phenomena of atmospheric heating, sunspots, dynamos, flares, prominences, and the solar wind. (Auth.)

  11. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. Below we review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs

  12. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescence dosemeter for personal dose equivalent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Campos, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility was investigated of utilising a Brazilian thermoluminescence individual dosemeter, usually calibrated in terms of photon dose equivalent, for the assessment of the personal dose equivalent, H p (d), at depths of 0.07 and 10 mm. The dosemeter uses four CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent detectors, between different filters, as the sensitive materials. It was calibrated in gamma and X radiation fields in the energy range from 17 to 1250 keV. Linear combinations of the responses of three detectors, in this energy range, allow the evaluation of H p (0.07) and H p (10), for radiation incidence angles varying from 0 to 60 degrees, with an accuracy better than 35%. The method is not applicable to mixed photon-beta fields. (author)

  14. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  15. The Logic of Equivalence in Academic Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of discourse to distinguish between the scientific field, where interrelationships among academic disciplines are taken as an object of research, and the widespread uses of ‘interdisciplinary’ and ‘interdisciplinarity’ in academic discourse more generally, typically for legitimation purposes. The assumption......-discourses meet. It is suggested that the logics of signification, and the tension between difference and equivalence, may be important tools for theorizing this borderland. It is argued that whereas the logic of equivalence and the production of empty signifiers appears to be of marginal interest...... to the scientific field, the logic of difference as a more complex articulation of elements, seems to be more in line with the ideals of academic discourse....

  16. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  17. Symmetry adaptation, operator equivalents and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Chatterjee, R.

    1977-12-01

    Basic quantities for symmetry adaptation are discussed in connection with molecular and solid state physics. This gives rise to a formalism whose the central elements are operator equivalents adapted to a point group. Such symmetry adapted operator equivalents are defined in terms of Schwinger operators so that they cover the off-diagonal and diagonal cases. Special emphasis is put on the applications of the formalism to magnetic resonance. More specifically, it is shown how to apply the formalism to the construction, the study of the transformation properties, and the determination of the eigenstates of a generalized spin hamiltonian. Numerous examples are given as well as key tables relative to the chain SO(3) for making easy the application of the formalism to electron paramagnetic resonance [fr

  18. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  19. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  20. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...

  1. Canonizing certain Borel equivalences for Silver forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 13 (2012), s. 2973-2979 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * silver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002180#

  2. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S 0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension

  3. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  4. Cryogenic test of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, P.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle is the hypothesis that the ratio of internal and passive gravitational mass is the same for all bodies. A greatly improved test of this principle is possible in an orbiting satellite. The most promising experiments for an orbital test are adaptations of the Galilean free-fall experiment and the Eotvos balance. Sensitivity to gravity gradient noise, both from the earth and from the spacecraft, defines a limit to the sensitivity in each case. This limit is generally much worse for an Eotvos balance than for a properly designed free-fall experiment. The difference is related to the difficulty of making a balance sufficiently isoinertial. Cryogenic technology is desirable to take full advantage of the potential sensitivity, but tides in the liquid helium refrigerant may produce a gravity gradient that seriously degrades the ultimate sensitivity. The Eotvos balance appears to have a limiting sensitivity to relative difference of rate of fall of about 2 x 10 -14 in orbit. The free-fall experiment is limited by helium tide to about 10 -15 ; if the tide can be controlled or eliminated the limit may approach 10 -18 . Other limitations to equivalence principle experiments are discussed. An experimental test of some of the concepts involved in the orbital free-fall experiment is continuing. The experiment consists in comparing the motions of test masses levitated in a superconducting magnetic bearing, and is itself a sensitive test of the equivalence principle. At present the levitation magnets, position monitors and control coils have been tested and major noise sources identified. A measurement of the equivalence principle is postponed pending development of a system for digitizing data. The experiment and preliminary results are described

  5. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems.\\ud For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  6. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented of the effects of one-dimensional distributed series resistance in solar cells. A general perturbation theory is developed, including consistently the induced spatial variation of diode current density and leading to a first-order equivalent lumped resistance...

  7. Device for welding components using ultrasonics, particularly for solar cell contacts and solar cell connections. Vorrichtung zum Verschweissen von Bauteilen unter Verwendung von Ultraschall, insbesondere von Solarzellenkontakten und Solarzellenverbindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochermann, H.

    1983-06-23

    This is a device for welding components, particularly solar cell contacts and solar cell connections, using an ultrasonic welding device. The ultrasonic welding device has a high frequency generator, an ultrasonic emitter, a transmitter, a sonotrode, a device for accommodating the components and controls. The sonotrode is provided with a circumferential beading acting as the welding disc, which, together with the sonotrode, is rolled over the components by a relative movement. The part of the beading which is tangential to the component introduces ultrasonic energy into the component. The relative movement is made possible by the system of the ultrasonic emitter, transmitter and sonotrode with the surrounding beading being mounted so that it can rotate in a vibration node of the transmitter. (orig.).

  8. Solar heating action plan; Solvarme handlingsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jan Erik

    2011-10-15

    This solar action plan should be seen as a follow-up to the Danish Energy Agency's solar heating strategy from 2007, which showed great potential and opportunities for exploitation and use of solar heat in Denmark. In relation to the strategy from 2007, this action plan adjusted the distribution of solar heat from district heating plants and individual plants, but it is still the objective of this action plan to achieve the strategy's overall goal for 2030. With the implementation of the Action Plan in early 2012, it is estimated that in 2030 there will be about. 10 million m2 of solar collectors in operation, 8 million m2 for district heating and 2 million m2 for individual heating, equivalent to an installed capacity totaling 7 GW. The budget for actions in the Action Plan is about 80 million DKK annually over the next 5 years to initiate and ensure this development. (LN)

  9. Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme

  10. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  11. Neutrino oscillations in non-inertial frames and the violation of the equivalence principle neutrino mixing induced by the equivalence principle violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiase, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations are analyzed in an accelerating and rotating reference frame, assuming that the gravitational coupling of neutrinos is flavor dependent, which implies a violation of the equivalence principle. Unlike the usual studies in which a constant gravitational field is considered, such frames could represent a more suitable framework for testing if a breakdown of the equivalence principle occurs, due to the possibility to modulate the (simulated) gravitational field. The violation of the equivalence principle implies, for the case of a maximal gravitational mixing angle, the presence of an off-diagonal term in the mass matrix. The consequences on the evolution of flavor (mass) eigenstates of such a term are analyzed for solar (oscillations in the vacuum) and atmospheric neutrinos. We calculate the flavor oscillation probability in the non-inertial frame, which does depend on its angular velocity and linear acceleration, as well as on the energy of neutrinos, the mass-squared difference between two mass eigenstates, and on the measure of the degree of violation of the equivalence principle (Δγ). In particular, we find that the energy dependence disappears for vanishing mass-squared difference, unlike the result obtained by Gasperini, Halprin, Leung, and other physical mechanisms proposed as a viable explanation of neutrino oscillations. Estimations on the upper values of Δγ are inferred for a rotating observer (with vanishing linear acceleration) comoving with the earth, hence ω∝7.10 -5 rad/sec, and all other alternative mechanisms generating the oscillation phenomena have been neglected. In this case we find that the constraints on Δγ are given by Δγ≤10 2 for solar neutrinos and Δγ≤10 6 for atmospheric neutrinos. (orig.)

  12. Solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullmann, H; Schmidt, B [Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Industrialisierung des Bauens

    1976-01-01

    The utilisation possibilities of solar energy for the energy supplying of buildings are becoming increasingly more significant. Solar research at the moment aims predominantly with a high level of efficiency and therefore making accessible a significant range of applications for solar technology. Parallel to this are attempts to effect the saving of energy, be it in the demand for energy-saving constructions or in the increasing development and application of rational energy utilisation by technologists. The most important point of these activities at the moment, is still technological methods.

  13. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  15. Recent Advancements in the Numerical Simulation of Surface Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu; Sengupta, Manajit; Deline, Chris

    2017-06-27

    This paper briefly reviews the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's recent efforts on developing all-sky solar irradiance models for solar energy applications. The Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) utilizes the simulation of clear-sky transmittance and reflectance and a parameterization of cloud transmittance and reflectance to rapidly compute broadband irradiances on horizontal surfaces. FARMS delivers accuracy that is comparable to the two-stream approximation, but it is approximately 1,000 times faster. A FARMS-Narrowband Irradiance over Tilted surfaces (FARMS-NIT) has been developed to compute spectral irradiances on photovoltaic (PV) panels in 2002 wavelength bands. Further, FARMS-NIT has been extended for bifacial PV panels.

  16. Gauge equivalence of the Gross Pitaevskii equation and the equivalent Heisenberg spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we construct an equivalent spin chain for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering lengths using gauge equivalence. We have then generated the soliton solutions for the spin components S3 and S-. We find that the spin solitons for S3 and S- can be compressed for exponentially growing eigenvalues while they broaden out for decaying eigenvalues.

  17. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  18. Characterization of meteorological parameters, solar radiation and effect of clouds at two antarctic sites, and comparison with satellite estimates Caracterización de parámetros meteorológicos, radiación solar y efecto de las nubes en dos sitios antárticos, y comparación con estimaciones satelitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Luccini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of measurements of daily mean temperature, daily mean relative humidity and daily total solar irradiation for the period 1979-1985, at the Antarctic stations Almirante Brown (64.9ºS, 62.9ºW, 10m a.s.l., West of Antarctic Peninsula, and BelgranoII (77.9ºS, 34.6ºW, 250m a.s.l., East of Antarctic Peninsula is presented. A short-term characterization of monthly averages was established. Typical temperatures for summer and winter were 2ºC and -7ºC respectively at Brown, and -2ºC and -20ºC at BelgranoII. Relative humidity was always above 60% at both stations. Both measured parameters enter also as input variables in model calculations of the equivalent clear-sky daily total irradiation for each day, to determine the effective cloud transmittance of solar radiation. The effect of cloudiness was stronger at Brown, where an average cloud transmittance of 49% was determined, while it was of 71% at BelgranoII. Average daily irradiation of 27.4MJ/m² in December at BelgranoII is within the highest reported world-wide. Also, some days show increases in the daily irradiation over 20% than that expected for clear-sky conditions. Antarctic solar irradiation levels are considerably higher than in the Arctic. Ground-based data are compared with the satellite database from NASA Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy Data Set.Se presenta el análisis de mediciones de temperatura media diaria, humedad relativa media diaria e irradiación solar total diaria, realizadas en el periodo 1979-1985 en las Bases Antárticas Almirante Brown (64.9ºS, 62.9ºO, 10m s.n.m., Oeste de Península Antártica y BelgranoII (77.9ºS, 34.6ºO, 250m s.n.m., Este de Península Antártica. Se estableció una caracterización de corto plazo sobre medias mensuales. Las temperaturas típicas en verano e invierno fueron 2ºC y -7ºC respectivamente en Brown, y -2ºC y ‑20ºC en BelgranoII. La humedad relativa fue siempre sobre 60% en ambas estaciones. Estos dos par

  19. Diseño de placas solares e implementación de un transmisor experimental AX.25 para el 3Cat-1

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalvez Foguet, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Explains the design and construction of two types of solar panels for the 3cat1, one type based on commercial high efficiency multi-junction solar cells and other based in UPC Electronic Engineering Department in-house developed solar cells. Also describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based experimental transmitter to send data packets to the 3cat1 ground station. Diseño y construcción de dos tipos de paneles solares para el 3cat1, el primero basado en celulas solares...

  20. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...