WorldWideScience

Sample records for equivalence principle vis

  1. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  2. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  3. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  4. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  5. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  6. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  7. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  8. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Okon, E.

    2013-01-01

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule

  9. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  10. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  11. Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P C W

    2004-01-01

    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

  12. Free Fall and the Equivalence Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Free fall is commonly discussed as an example of the equivalence principle, in the context of a homogeneous gravitational field, which is a reasonable approximation for small test masses falling moderate distances. Newton's law of gravity provides a generalisation to larger distances, and also brings in an inhomogeneity in the gravitational field.…

  13. Violation of Equivalence Principle and Solar Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, A.M.; Nunokawa, H.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2001-01-01

    We have updated the analysis for the solution to the solar neutrino problem by the long-wavelength neutrino oscillations induced by a tiny breakdown of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity, and obtained a very good fit to all the solar neutrino data

  14. The principle of equivalence reconsidered: assessing the relevance of the principle of equivalence in prison medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.

  15. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  16. Cryogenic test of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, P.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle is the hypothesis that the ratio of internal and passive gravitational mass is the same for all bodies. A greatly improved test of this principle is possible in an orbiting satellite. The most promising experiments for an orbital test are adaptations of the Galilean free-fall experiment and the Eotvos balance. Sensitivity to gravity gradient noise, both from the earth and from the spacecraft, defines a limit to the sensitivity in each case. This limit is generally much worse for an Eotvos balance than for a properly designed free-fall experiment. The difference is related to the difficulty of making a balance sufficiently isoinertial. Cryogenic technology is desirable to take full advantage of the potential sensitivity, but tides in the liquid helium refrigerant may produce a gravity gradient that seriously degrades the ultimate sensitivity. The Eotvos balance appears to have a limiting sensitivity to relative difference of rate of fall of about 2 x 10 -14 in orbit. The free-fall experiment is limited by helium tide to about 10 -15 ; if the tide can be controlled or eliminated the limit may approach 10 -18 . Other limitations to equivalence principle experiments are discussed. An experimental test of some of the concepts involved in the orbital free-fall experiment is continuing. The experiment consists in comparing the motions of test masses levitated in a superconducting magnetic bearing, and is itself a sensitive test of the equivalence principle. At present the levitation magnets, position monitors and control coils have been tested and major noise sources identified. A measurement of the equivalence principle is postponed pending development of a system for digitizing data. The experiment and preliminary results are described

  17. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2015-01-01

    the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...

  18. The equivalence principle in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss our understanding of the equivalence principle in both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. We show that not only does the equivalence principle hold for the trajectories of quantum particles in a background gravitational field, but also that it is only because of this that the equivalence principle is even to be expected to hold for classical particles at all.

  19. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  20. Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in

  1. Theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    We review several theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle (EP). We emphasize the unsatisfactory fact that the EP maintains the absolute character of the coupling constants of physics, while general relativity and its generalizations (Kaluza–Klein, …, string theory) suggest that all absolute structures should be replaced by dynamical entities. We discuss the EP-violation phenomenology of dilaton-like models, which is likely to be dominated by the linear superposition of two effects: a signal proportional to the nuclear Coulomb energy, related to the variation of the fine-structure constant, and a signal proportional to the surface nuclear binding energy, related to the variation of the light quark masses. We recall various theoretical arguments (including a recently proposed anthropic argument) suggesting that the EP be violated at a small, but not unmeasurably small level. This motivates the need for improved tests of the EP. These tests are probing new territories in physics that are related to deep, and mysterious, issues in fundamental physics. (paper)

  2. Testing the equivalence principle on a trampoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.

    2001-07-01

    We are developing a Galilean test of the equivalence principle in which two pairs of test mass assemblies (TMA) are in free fall in a comoving vacuum chamber for about 0.9 s. The TMA are tossed upward, and the process repeats at 1.2 s intervals. Each TMA carries a solid quartz retroreflector and a payload mass of about one-third of the total TMA mass. The relative vertical motion of the TMA of each pair is monitored by a laser gauge working in an optical cavity formed by the retroreflectors. Single-toss precision of the relative acceleration of a single pair of TMA is 3.5×10-12 g. The project goal of Δg/g = 10-13 can be reached in a single night's run, but repetition with altered configurations will be required to ensure the correction of systematic error to the nominal accuracy level. Because the measurements can be made quickly, we plan to study several pairs of materials.

  3. Testing the equivalence principle on cosmological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    The equivalence principle, that is one of the main pillars of general relativity, is very well tested in the Solar system; however, its validity is more uncertain on cosmological scales, or when dark matter is concerned. This article shows that relativistic effects in the large-scale structure can be used to directly test whether dark matter satisfies Euler's equation, i.e. whether its free fall is characterised by geodesic motion, just like baryons and light. After having proposed a general parametrisation for deviations from Euler's equation, we perform Fisher-matrix forecasts for future surveys like DESI and the SKA, and show that such deviations can be constrained with a precision of order 10%. Deviations from Euler's equation cannot be tested directly with standard methods like redshift-space distortions and gravitational lensing, since these observables are not sensitive to the time component of the metric. Our analysis shows therefore that relativistic effects bring new and complementary constraints to alternative theories of gravity.

  4. Equivalence Checking between Pre-synthesis and Post-synthesis Programs by Using VIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Yoo, Junbeom; Choi, Jonggyun; Lee, Jangsoo

    2013-01-01

    PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)-based Software development, the design programs are translated into implementation programs, and behavioral equivalence between the design and implementation is demonstrated by formal method based technique. In FPGA-based software development, the design programs are also synthesized into implementation programs. However, in this process, testing and simulation based comparison techniques are mainly used. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to demonstrate behavioral equivalence between pre-synthesis and post-synthesis programs with VIS (Verification Interacting with Synthesis) verification system. We translated into BLIF-MV which is front-end of VIS, from Verlag and EDIF net list which synthesized from the same Verlag by an automatic synthesis tool. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to confirm correctness of synthesis by using equivalence checking of VIS verification system. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we performed a case study with a part of prototype version of the RPS BP, and demonstrated a behavioral equivalence between Verlag HDL and EDIF post-synthesis net list

  5. Equivalence Checking between Pre-synthesis and Post-synthesis Programs by Using VIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jonggyun; Lee, Jangsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)-based Software development, the design programs are translated into implementation programs, and behavioral equivalence between the design and implementation is demonstrated by formal method based technique. In FPGA-based software development, the design programs are also synthesized into implementation programs. However, in this process, testing and simulation based comparison techniques are mainly used. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to demonstrate behavioral equivalence between pre-synthesis and post-synthesis programs with VIS (Verification Interacting with Synthesis) verification system. We translated into BLIF-MV which is front-end of VIS, from Verlag and EDIF net list which synthesized from the same Verlag by an automatic synthesis tool. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to confirm correctness of synthesis by using equivalence checking of VIS verification system. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we performed a case study with a part of prototype version of the RPS BP, and demonstrated a behavioral equivalence between Verlag HDL and EDIF post-synthesis net list.

  6. Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.

  7. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  8. Risk measurement with equivalent utility principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denuit, M.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.

    2006-01-01

    Risk measures have been studied for several decades in the actuarial literature, where they appeared under the guise of premium calculation principles. Risk measures and properties that risk measures should satisfy have recently received considerable attention in the financial mathematics

  9. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S 0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension

  10. XRD, lead equivalent and UV-VIS properties study of Ce and Pr lead silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias, Nor Hayati; Abdullah, Wan Shafie Wan; Isa, Norriza Mohd; Isa, Muhammad Jamal Md; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Abdullah, Nuhaslinda Ee; Muhammad, Azali

    2014-01-01

    In this work, Cerium (Ce) and Praseodymium (Pr) containing lead silicate glasses were produced with 2 different molar ratios low (0.2 wt%) and high (0.4wt%). These types of glasses can satisfy the characteristics required for radiation shielding glasses and minimize the lead composition in glass. The radiation shielding properties of the synthesized glasses is explained in the form of lead equivalent study. The XRD diffraction and UV-VIS analysis were performed to observe the structural changes of the synthesis glasses at 1.5 Gy gamma radiation exposures

  11. Apparent violation of the principle of equivalence and Killing horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1980-01-01

    By means of the principle of equivalence it is deduced that the qualitative behavior of the Schwarzschild horizon about a uniformly accelerating particle. This result is confirmed for an exact solution of a uniformly accelerating object in the limit of small accelerations. For large accelerations the Schwarzschild horizon appears to violate the qualitative behavior established via the principle of equivalence. When similar arguments are extended to an observable such as the red shift between two observers, there is no departure from the results expected from the principle of equivalence. The resolution of the paradox is brought about by a compensating effect due to the Rindler horizon. (author)

  12. Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs

  13. The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, R.; Vucetich, H.

    1986-05-01

    An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)

  14. Einstein's equivalence principle instead of the inertia forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreros Mateos, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article I intend to show that Einstein's equivalence principle substitutes advantageously the inertia forces in the study and resolution of problems in which non-inertial systems appear. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, C.; Arun, Kenath

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have str...

  16. Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…

  17. The principle of general covariance and the principle of equivalence: two distinct concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, H.V.

    It is shown how to construct a theory with general covariance but without the equivalence principle. Such a theory is in disagreement with experiment, but it serves to illustrate the independence of the former principle from the latter one [pt

  18. Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace

    2017-11-01

    As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.

  19. Principle of natural and artificial radioactive series equivalency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyeva, A.N.; Starkov, O.V.

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper one approach used under development of radioactive waste management conception is under consideration. This approach is based on the principle of natural and artificial radioactive series radiotoxic equivalency. The radioactivity of natural and artificial radioactive series has been calculated for 10 9 - years period. The toxicity evaluation for natural and artificial series has also been made. The correlation between natural radioactive series and their predecessors - actinides produced in thermal and fast reactors - has been considered. It has been shown that systematized reactor series data had great scientific significance and the principle of differential calculation of radiotoxicity was necessary to realize long-lived radioactive waste and uranium and thorium ore radiotoxicity equivalency conception. The calculations show that the execution of equivalency principle is possible for uranium series (4n+2, 4n+1). It is a problem for thorium. series. This principle is impracticable for neptunium series. (author)

  20. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem

  1. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle, quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs the quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the nonuniversality of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the Sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can place stringent bounds on the violation of the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10 15 --10 16 if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem

  2. A weak equivalence principle test on a suborbital rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reasenberg, Robert D; Phillips, James D, E-mail: reasenberg@cfa.harvard.ed [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-05-07

    We describe a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle, to be conducted during the free fall portion of a sounding rocket flight. The test of a single pair of substances is aimed at a measurement uncertainty of sigma(eta) < 10{sup -16} after averaging the results of eight separate drops. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four laser gauges that are expected to achieve 0.1 pm Hz{sup -1/2}. The discovery of a violation (eta not = 0) would have profound implications for physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

  3. Equivalence of Dirac quantization and Schwinger's action principle quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Scherer, W.

    1987-01-01

    We show that the method of Dirac quantization is equivalent to Schwinger's action principle quantization. The relation between the Lagrange undetermined multipliers in Schwinger's method and Dirac's constraint bracket matrix is established and it is explicitly shown that the two methods yield identical (anti)commutators. This is demonstrated in the non-trivial example of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in superspace. (orig.)

  4. Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seveso, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.seveso@unimi.it [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.

  5. Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G.A.

    2017-01-01

    We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.

  6. Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The strong equivalence principle is extended in application to averaged dynamical fields in cosmology to include the role of the average density in the determination of inertial frames. The resulting cosmological equivalence principle is applied to the problem of synchronization of clocks in the observed universe. Once density perturbations grow to give density contrasts of order 1 on scales of tens of megaparsecs, the integrated deceleration of the local background regions of voids relative to galaxies must be accounted for in the relative synchronization of clocks of ideal observers who measure an isotropic cosmic microwave background. The relative deceleration of the background can be expected to represent a scale in which weak-field Newtonian dynamics should be modified to account for dynamical gradients in the Ricci scalar curvature of space. This acceleration scale is estimated using the best-fit nonlinear bubble model of the universe with backreaction. At redshifts z -10 ms -2 , is small, when integrated over the lifetime of the universe it amounts to an accumulated relative difference of 38% in the rate of average clocks in galaxies as compared to volume-average clocks in the emptiness of voids. A number of foundational aspects of the cosmological equivalence principle are also discussed, including its relation to Mach's principle, the Weyl curvature hypothesis, and the initial conditions of the universe.

  7. Uniformly accelerating charged particles. A threat to the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, Stephen N.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a long debate about whether uniformly accelerated charges should radiate electromagnetic energy and how one should describe their worldline through a flat spacetime, i.e., whether the Lorentz-Dirac equation is right. There are related questions in curved spacetimes, e.g., do different varieties of equivalence principle apply to charged particles, and can a static charge in a static spacetime radiate electromagnetic energy? The problems with the LD equation in flat spacetime are spelt out in some detail here, and its extension to curved spacetime is discussed. Different equivalence principles are compared and some vindicated. The key papers are discussed in detail and many of their conclusions are significantly revised by the present solution. (orig.)

  8. Tests of the equivalence principle with neutral kaons

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1999-01-01

    We test the Principle of Equivalence for particles and antiparticles, using CPLEAR data on tagged Pkao and Pkab decays into $pi^+ pi^-$. For the first time, we search for possible annual, monthly and diurnal modulations of the observables $|eta_{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$, that could be correlated with variations in astrophysical potentials. Within the accuracy of CPLEAR, the measured values of $|eta _{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$ are found not to be correlated with changes of the gravitational potential. We analyze data assuming effective scalar, vector and tensor interactions, and we conclude that the Principle of Equivalence between particles and antiparticles holds to a level of $6.5$, $4.3$ and $1.8 imes 10^{-9}$, respectively, for scalar, vector and tensor potentials originating from the Sun with a range much greater than the distance Earth-Sun. We also study energy-dependent effects that might arise from vector or tensor interactions. Finally, we compile upper limits on the gravitational coupling difference betwee...

  9. Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo C. Y.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.

  10. Relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvili, G.

    1981-01-01

    Roles of relativity (RP) and equivalence principles (EP) in the gauge theory of gravity are shown. RP in the gravitational theory in formalism of laminations can be formulated as requirement of covariance of equations relative to the GL + (4, R)(X) gauge group. In such case RP turns out to be identical to the gauge principle in the gauge theory of a group of outer symmetries, and the gravitational theory can be directly constructed as the gauge theory. In general relativity theory the equivalence theory adds RP and is intended for description of transition to a special relativity theory in some system of reference. The approach described takes into account that in the gauge theory, besides gauge fields under conditions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone and Higgs fields can also arise, to which the gravitational metric field is related, what is the sequence of taking account of RP in the gauge theory of gravitation [ru

  11. Density matrix in quantum electrodynamics, equivalence principle and Hawking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Gitman, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The expression for the density matrix describing particles of one sort (electrons or positrons) created by an external electromagnetic field from the vacuum is obtained. The explicit form of the density matrix is found for the case of constant and uniform electric field. Arguments are given for the presence of a connection between the thermal nature of the density matrix describing particles created by the gravitational field of a black hole and the equivalence principle. (author)

  12. Acceleration Measurements Using Smartphone Sensors: Dealing with the Equivalence Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.

    2014-01-01

    Acceleration sensors built into smartphones, i-pads or tablets can conveniently be used in the physics laboratory. By virtue of the equivalence principle, a sensor fixed in a non-inertial reference frame cannot discern between a gravitational field and an accelerated system. Accordingly, acceleration values read by these sensors must be corrected for the gravitational component. A physical pendulum was studied by way of example, and absolute acceleration and rotation angle values were derived...

  13. Phenomenology of the Equivalence Principle with Light Scalars

    OpenAIRE

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Light scalar particles with couplings of sub-gravitational strength, which can generically be called 'dilatons', can produce violations of the equivalence principle. However, in order to understand experimental sensitivities one must know the coupling of these scalars to atomic systems. We report here on a study of the required couplings. We give a general Lagrangian with five independent dilaton parameters and calculate the "dilaton charge" of atomic systems for each of these. Two combinatio...

  14. The Equivalence Principle and Anomalous Magnetic Moment Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, C.; Mann, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of testing of the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) using measurements of anomalous magnetic moments of elementary particles. We compute the one loop correction for the $g-2$ anomaly within the class of non metric theories of gravity described by the \\tmu formalism. We find several novel mechanisms for breaking the EEP whose origin is due purely to radiative corrections. We discuss the possibilities of setting new empirical constraints on these effects.

  15. Equivalence principle and quantum mechanics: quantum simulation with entangled photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, S

    2018-01-15

    Einstein's equivalence principle (EP) states the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and corresponding inertial field in an accelerated reference frame. However, to what extent the EP remains valid in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is a controversial issue. To avoid violation of the EP, Bargmann's superselection rule forbids a coherent superposition of states with different masses. Here we suggest a quantum simulation of non-relativistic Schrödinger particle dynamics in non-inertial reference frames, which is based on the propagation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in curved and birefringent optical waveguides and Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference measurement. The photonic simulator can emulate superposition of mass states, which would lead to violation of the EP.

  16. Supersymmetric QED at finite temperature and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Unbroken supersymmetric QED is examined at finite temperature and it is shown that the scalar and spinor members of a chiral superfield acquire different temperature-dependent inertial masses. By considering the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor it is also shown that the T-dependent scalar-spinor gravitational masses are also no longer degenerate and, moreover, are different from their T-dependent inertial mass shifts implying a violation of the equivalence principle. The temperature-dependent corrections to the spinor (g-2) are also calculated and found not to vanish

  17. Possible test of the strong principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, K.

    1978-01-01

    We suggest that redshift determinations of X-ray and γ-ray lines produced near the surface of neutron stars which arise from different physical processes could provide a significant test of the strong principle of equivalence for strong gravitational fields. As a complement to both the high-precision weak-field solar-system experiments and the cosmological time variation searches, such observations could further test the hypothesis that physics is locally the same at all times and in all places

  18. Cosmology with equivalence principle breaking in the dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keselman, Jose Ariel; Nusser, Adi; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    A long-range force acting only between nonbaryonic particles would be associated with a large violation of the weak equivalence principle. We explore cosmological consequences of this idea, which we label ReBEL (daRk Breaking Equivalence principLe). A high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the distributions of baryons and dark matter confirms our previous findings that a ReBEL force of comparable strength to gravity on comoving scales of about 1 h -1 Mpc causes voids between the concentrations of large galaxies to be more nearly empty, suppresses accretion of intergalactic matter onto galaxies at low redshift, and produces an early generation of dense dark-matter halos. A preliminary analysis indicates the ReBEL scenario is consistent with the one-dimensional power spectrum of the Lyman-Alpha forest and the three-dimensional galaxy autocorrelation function. Segregation of baryons and DM in galaxies and systems of galaxies is a strong prediction of ReBEL. ReBEL naturally correlates the baryon mass fraction in groups and clusters of galaxies with the system mass, in agreement with recent measurements.

  19. Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.; Glashow, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Cheimets, P. N.; Finkelstein, N.; Schneps, M.

    2005-01-01

    This Annual Report illustrates the work carried out during the last grant-year activity on the Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator. The activity focused on the following main topics: (1) analysis and conceptual design of a detector configuration suitable for the flight tests; (2) development of techniques for extracting a small signal from data strings with colored and white noise; (3) design of the mechanism that spins and releases the instrument package inside the cryostat; and (4) experimental activity carried out by our non-US partners (a summary is shown in this report). The analysis and conceptual design of the flight-detector (point 1) was focused on studying the response of the differential accelerometer during free fall, in the presence of errors and precession dynamics, for various detector's configurations. The goal was to devise a detector configuration in which an Equivalence Principle violation (EPV) signal at the sensitivity threshold level can be successfully measured and resolved out of a much stronger dynamics-related noise and gravity gradient. A detailed analysis and comprehensive simulation effort led us to a detector's design that can accomplish that goal successfully.

  20. High energy cosmic neutrinos and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.

    1996-01-01

    Observation of ultra-high energy neutrinos, in particular detection of ν τ , from cosmologically distant sources like active galactic nuclei (AGN) opens new possibilities to search for neutrino flavor conversion. We consider the effects of violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) on propagation of these cosmic neutrinos. In particular, we discuss two effects: (1) the oscillations of neutrinos due to VEP in the gravitational field of our Galaxy and in the intergalactic space; (2) resonance flavor conversion driven by the gravitational potential of AGN. We show that ultra-high energies of the neutrinos as well as cosmological distances to AGN, or strong AGN gravitational potential allow to improve the accuracy of testing of the equivalence principle by 25 orders of magnitude for massless neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -41 ) and by 11 orders of magnitude for massive neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -28 x (Δm 2 /1eV 2 )). The experimental signatures of the transitions induced by VEP are discussed. (author). 17 refs

  1. A homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper any gravitational field (both in the Einsteinian case and in the Newtonian case) is described by the connection, called gravitational. A homogeneous static gravitational field is considered in the four-dimensional area z>0 of a space-time with Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, and t. Such field can be created by masses, disposed outside the area z>0 with a density distribution independent of x, y, and t. Remarkably, in the four-dimensional area z>0, together with the primitive background connection, the primitive gravitational connection has been derived. In concordance with the Principle of Equivalence all components of such gravitational connection are equal to zero in the uniformly accelerated frame system, in which the gravitational force of attraction is balanced by the inertial force. However, all components of such background connection are equal to zero in the resting frame system, but not in the accelerated frame system

  2. The short-circuit concept used in field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    In field equivalence principles, electric and magnetic surface currents are specified and considered as impressed currents. Often the currents are placed on perfect conductors. It is shown that these currents can be treated through two approaches. The first approach is decomposition of the total...... field into partial fields caused by the individual impressed currents. When this approach is used, it is shown that, on a perfect electric (magnetic) conductor, impressed electric (magnetic) surface currents are short-circuited. The second approach is to note that, since Maxwell's equations...... and the boundary conditions are satisfied, none of the impressed currents is short-circuited and no currents are induced on the perfect conductors. Since all currents and field quantities are considered at the same time, this approach is referred to as the total-field approach. The partial-field approach leads...

  3. The equivalence principle and the gravitational constant in experimental relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallicci, A.D.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Fischbach's analysis of the Eotvos experiment, showing an embedded fifth force, has stressed the importance of further tests of the Equivalence Principle (EP). From Galilei and Newton, the EP played the role of a postulate for all gravitational physics and mechanics (weak EP), until Einstein, who extended the validity of the EP to all physics (strong EP). After Fischbach's publication on the fifth force, several experiments have been performed or simply proposed to test the WEP. They are concerned with possible gravitational potential anomalies, depending upon distances or matter composition. While the low level of accuracy with which the gravitational constant G is known has been recognized, experiments have been proposed to test G in the range from few cm until 200 m. This paper highlights the different features of the proposed space experiments. Possible implications on the metric formalism for objects in low potential and slow motion are briefly indicated

  4. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter

    2015-12-31

    The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ(1.23  GHz)-γ(1.45  GHz)]radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.

  5. Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.; Glashow, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Cheimets, P. N.; Finkelstein, N.; Schneps, M.

    2004-01-01

    The scientific goal of the experiment is to test the equality of gravitational and inertial mass (i.e., to test the Principle of Equivalence) by measuring the independence of the rate of fall of bodies from their compositions. The measurement is accomplished by measuring the relative displacement (or equivalently acceleration) of two falling bodies of different materials which are the proof masses of a differential accelerometer spinning about an horizontal axis to modulate a possible violation signal. A non-zero differential acceleration appearing at the signal frequency will indicate a violation of the Equivalence Principle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the Eotvos ratio og/g (differential acceleration/common acceleration) with a targeted accuracy that is about two orders of magnitude better than the state of the art (presently at several parts in 10(exp 13). The analyses carried out during this first grant year have focused on: (1) evaluation of possible shapes for the proof masses to meet the requirements on the higher-order mass moment disturbances generated by the falling capsule; (2) dynamics of the instrument package and differential acceleration measurement in the presence of errors and imperfections; (3) computation of the inertia characteristic of the instrument package that enable a separation of the signal from the dynamics-related noise; (4) a revised thermal analysis of the instrument package in light of the new conceptual design of the cryostat; (5) the development of a dynamic and control model of the capsule attached to the gondola and balloon to define the requirements for the leveling mechanism (6) a conceptual design of the leveling mechanism that keeps the capsule aligned before release from the balloon; and (7) a new conceptual design of the customized cryostat and a preliminary valuation of its cost. The project also involves an international cooperation with the Institute of Space Physics (IFSI) in Rome, Italy. The group at IFSI

  6. Gravitational Lagrangians, Mach's Principle, and the Equivalence Principle in an Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essén, Hanno

    2014-08-01

    Gravitational Lagrangians as derived by Fock for the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approach, and by Kennedy assuming only a fourth rank tensor interaction, contain long range interactions. Here we investigate how these affect the local dynamics when integrated over an expanding universe out to the Hubble radius. Taking the cosmic expansion velocity into account in a heuristic manner it is found that these long range interactions imply Mach's principle, provided the universe has the critical density, and that mass is renormalized. Suitable higher order additions to the Lagrangians make the formalism consistent with the equivalence principle.

  7. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ (1.23 GHz )-γ (1.45 GHz )] <4.36 ×10-9. This provides the most stringent limit up to date on the EEP through the relative differential variations of the γ parameter at radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.

  8. The Bohr--Einstein ''weighing-of-energy'' debate and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Bohr--Einstein debate over the ''weighing of energy'' and the validity of the time--energy uncertainty relation is reexamined in the context of gravitation theories that do not respect the equivalence principle. Bohr's use of the equivalence principle is shown to be sufficient, but not necessary, to establish the validity of this uncertainty relation in Einstein's ''weighing-of-energy'' gedanken experiment. The uncertainty relation is shown to hold in any energy-conserving theory of gravity, and so a failure of the equivalence principle does not engender a failure of quantum mechanics. The relationship between the gravitational redshift and the equivalence principle is reviewed

  9. A Technique of Teaching the Principle of Equivalence at Ground Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrica, Joel V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents one way of demonstrating the Principle of Equivalence in the classroom. Teaching the Principle of Equivalence involves someone experiencing acceleration through empty space, juxtaposed with the daily encounter with gravity. This classroom activity is demonstrated with a water-filled bottle containing glass marbles and…

  10. Conditions needed to give meaning to rad-equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1980-01-01

    To legislate on mutagenic chemical pollution the problem to be faced is similar to that tackled about 30 years ago regarding pollution by ionizing radiations. It would be useful to benefit from the work of these 30 years by establishing equivalences, if possible, between chemical mutagens and radiations. Inevitable mutagenic pollutions are considered here, especially those associated with fuel based energy production. As with radiations the legislation must derive from a compromise between the harmful and beneficial effects of the polluting system. When deciding on tolerance doses it is necessary to safeguard the biosphere without inflicting excessive restrictions on industry and on the economy. The present article discusses the conditions needed to give meaning to the notion of rad-equivalence. Some examples of already established equivalences are given, together with the first practical consequences which emerge [fr

  11. Development of dose equivalent meters based on microdosimetric principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booz, J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the employment of microdosimetric dose-equivalent meters in radiation protection is described considering the advantages of introducing microdosimetric methods into radiation protection, the technical suitability of such instruments for measuring dose equivalent, and finally technical requirements, constraints and solutions together with some examples of instruments and experimental results. The advantage of microdosimetric methods in radiation protection is illustrated with the evaluation of dose-mean quality factors in radiation fields of unknown composition and with the methods of evaluating neutron- and gamma-dose fractions. - It is shown that there is good correlation between dose-mean lineal energy, anti ysub(anti D), and the ICRP quality factor. - Neutron- and gamma-dose fractions of unknown radiation fields can be evaluated with microdosimetric proportional counters without recurrence to other instruments and methods. The problems of separation are discussed. The technical suitability of microdosimetric instruments for measuring dose equivalent is discussed considering the energy response to neutrons and photons and the sensitivity in terms of dose-equivalent rate. Then, considering technical requirements, constraints, and solutions, the problem of the large dynamic range in LET, the large dynamic range in pulse rate, geometry of sensitive volume and electrodes, evaluation of dose-mean quality factors, calibration methods, and uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)

  12. The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    STEP will carry concentric test masses to Earth orbit to test a fundamental assumption underlying Einstein's theory of general relativity: that gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. STEP is a 21st-century version of the test that Galileo is said to have performed by dropping a carnon ball and a musket ball simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to compare their accelerations. During the STEP experiment, four pairs of test masses will be falling around the Earth, and their accelerations will be measured by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). The extended time sensitivity of the instruments will allow the measurements to be a million times more accurate than those made in modern ground-based tests.

  13. On experimental testing of the weak equivalence principle for the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.

    1994-01-01

    The considerations is presented of the experimental situation with the verification of the weak equivalence principle for the neutron. The direct method is proposed to significantly increase (to ∼ 10 -6 ) the precision of the equivalence principle for the neutron in the Galilei type experiment, which uses the thin-film Fabri-Perot interferometer and precise time-of-flight spectrometry of ultracold neutrons

  14. Test of the Equivalence Principle in the Dark sector on galactic scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapi, N.; Hees, A.; Larena, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Einstein Equivalence Principle is a fundamental principle of the theory of General Relativity. While this principle has been thoroughly tested with standard matter, the question of its validity in the Dark sector remains open. In this paper, we consider a general tensor-scalar theory that allows to test the equivalence principle in the Dark sector by introducing two different conformal couplings to standard matter and to Dark matter. We constrain these couplings by considering galactic observations of strong lensing and of velocity dispersion. Our analysis shows that, in the case of a violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, data favour violations through coupling strengths that are of opposite signs for ordinary and Dark matter. At the same time, our analysis does not show any significant deviations from General Relativity

  15. Quantum mechanics in noninertial reference frames: Violations of the nonrelativistic equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2014-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group that includes transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as is the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. A special feature of these previously constructed representations is that they all respect the non-relativistic equivalence principle, wherein the fictitious forces associated with linear acceleration can equivalently be described by gravitational forces. In this paper we exhibit a large class of cocycle representations of the Galilean line group that violate the equivalence principle. Nevertheless the classical mechanics analogue of these cocycle representations all respect the equivalence principle. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is given. •The key concept is the Galilean line group, an infinite dimensional group. •A large class of general cocycle representations of the Galilean line group is constructed. •These representations show violations of the equivalence principle at the quantum level. •At the classical limit, no violations of the equivalence principle are detected

  16. Neutrino oscillations in non-inertial frames and the violation of the equivalence principle neutrino mixing induced by the equivalence principle violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiase, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations are analyzed in an accelerating and rotating reference frame, assuming that the gravitational coupling of neutrinos is flavor dependent, which implies a violation of the equivalence principle. Unlike the usual studies in which a constant gravitational field is considered, such frames could represent a more suitable framework for testing if a breakdown of the equivalence principle occurs, due to the possibility to modulate the (simulated) gravitational field. The violation of the equivalence principle implies, for the case of a maximal gravitational mixing angle, the presence of an off-diagonal term in the mass matrix. The consequences on the evolution of flavor (mass) eigenstates of such a term are analyzed for solar (oscillations in the vacuum) and atmospheric neutrinos. We calculate the flavor oscillation probability in the non-inertial frame, which does depend on its angular velocity and linear acceleration, as well as on the energy of neutrinos, the mass-squared difference between two mass eigenstates, and on the measure of the degree of violation of the equivalence principle (Δγ). In particular, we find that the energy dependence disappears for vanishing mass-squared difference, unlike the result obtained by Gasperini, Halprin, Leung, and other physical mechanisms proposed as a viable explanation of neutrino oscillations. Estimations on the upper values of Δγ are inferred for a rotating observer (with vanishing linear acceleration) comoving with the earth, hence ω∝7.10 -5 rad/sec, and all other alternative mechanisms generating the oscillation phenomena have been neglected. In this case we find that the constraints on Δγ are given by Δγ≤10 2 for solar neutrinos and Δγ≤10 6 for atmospheric neutrinos. (orig.)

  17. The c equivalence principle and the correct form of writing Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, Jose A

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the speed c u =1/√(ε 0 μ 0 ) is obtained in the process of defining SI units via action-at-a-distance forces, like the force between two static charges and the force between two long and parallel currents. The speed c u is then physically different from the observed speed of propagation c associated with electromagnetic waves in vacuum. However, repeated experiments have led to the numerical equality c u = c, which we have called the c equivalence principle. In this paper we point out that ∇xE=-[1/(ε 0 μ 0 c 2 )]∂B/∂t is the correct form of writing Faraday's law when the c equivalence principle is not assumed. We also discuss the covariant form of Maxwell's equations without assuming the c equivalence principle.

  18. Test masses for the G-POEM test of the weak equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D; Phillips, James D; Popescu, Eugeniu M

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design of the test masses that are used in the 'ground-based principle of equivalence measurement' test of the weak equivalence principle. The main features of the design are the incorporation of corner cubes and the use of mass removal and replacement to create pairs of test masses with different test substances. The corner cubes allow for the vertical separation of the test masses to be measured with picometer accuracy by SAO's unique tracking frequency laser gauge, while the mass removal and replacement operations are arranged so that the test masses incorporating different test substances have nominally identical gravitational properties. (papers)

  19. Temperature-dependent dielectric function of germanium in the UV–vis spectral range: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.Y.; Liu, L.H.; Tan, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    The study of temperature dependence of thermophysical parameter dielectric function is key to understanding thermal radiative transfer in high-temperature environments. Limited by self-radiation and thermal oxidation, however, it is difficult to directly measure the high-temperature dielectric function of solids with present experimental technologies. In this work, we implement two first-principles methods, the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT), to study the temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) in the UV–vis spectral range in order to provide data of high-temperature dielectric function for radiative transfer study in high-temperature environments. Both the two methods successfully predict the temperature dependence of dielectric function of Ge. Moreover, the good agreement between the calculated results of the AIMD approach and experimental data at 825 K enables us to predict the high-temperature dielectric function of Ge with the AIMD method in the UV–vis spectral range. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of dielectric function of germanium (Ge) is investigated with two first-principles methods. • The temperature effect on dielectric function of Ge is discussed. • The high-temperature dielectric function of Ge is predicted

  20. Consistency of the Mach principle and the gravitational-to-inertial mass equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Kh.K.; Chubykalo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Kinematics of the system, composed of two bodies, interacting with each other according to inverse-square law, was investigated. It is shown that the Mach principle, earlier rejected by the general relativity theory, can be used as an alternative for the absolute space concept, if it is proposed, that distant star background dictates both inertial and gravitational mass of a body

  1. Strong quantum violation of the gravitational weak equivalence principle by a non-Gaussian wave packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P; Majumdar, A S; Sinha, S; Home, D; Mousavi, S V; Mozaffari, M R

    2012-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle of gravity is examined at the quantum level in two ways. First, the position detection probabilities of particles described by a non-Gaussian wave packet projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection are calculated. These probabilities exhibit mass dependence at both these points, thereby reflecting the quantum violation of the weak equivalence principle. Second, the mean arrival time of freely falling particles is calculated using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. Such a mass dependence is shown to be enhanced by increasing the non-Gaussianity parameter of the wave packet, thus signifying a stronger violation of the weak equivalence principle through a greater departure from Gaussianity of the initial wave packet. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanishes in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter. A selection of Bohm trajectories is exhibited to illustrate these features in the free fall case. (paper)

  2. MICROSCOPE Mission: First Results of a Space Test of the Equivalence Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles; Rodrigues, Manuel; André, Yves; Baghi, Quentin; Bergé, Joël; Boulanger, Damien; Bremer, Stefanie; Carle, Patrice; Chhun, Ratana; Christophe, Bruno; Cipolla, Valerio; Damour, Thibault; Danto, Pascale; Dittus, Hansjoerg; Fayet, Pierre; Foulon, Bernard; Gageant, Claude; Guidotti, Pierre-Yves; Hagedorn, Daniel; Hardy, Emilie; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Inchauspe, Henri; Kayser, Patrick; Lala, Stéphanie; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Lebat, Vincent; Leseur, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise; List, Meike; Löffler, Frank; Panet, Isabelle; Pouilloux, Benjamin; Prieur, Pascal; Rebray, Alexandre; Reynaud, Serge; Rievers, Benny; Robert, Alain; Selig, Hanns; Serron, Laura; Sumner, Timothy; Tanguy, Nicolas; Visser, Pieter

    2017-12-08

    According to the weak equivalence principle, all bodies should fall at the same rate in a gravitational field. The MICROSCOPE satellite, launched in April 2016, aims to test its validity at the 10^{-15} precision level, by measuring the force required to maintain two test masses (of titanium and platinum alloys) exactly in the same orbit. A nonvanishing result would correspond to a violation of the equivalence principle, or to the discovery of a new long-range force. Analysis of the first data gives δ(Ti,Pt)=[-1±9(stat)±9(syst)]×10^{-15} (1σ statistical uncertainty) for the titanium-platinum Eötvös parameter characterizing the relative difference in their free-fall accelerations.

  3. MICROSCOPE Mission: First Results of a Space Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles; Rodrigues, Manuel; André, Yves; Baghi, Quentin; Bergé, Joël; Boulanger, Damien; Bremer, Stefanie; Carle, Patrice; Chhun, Ratana; Christophe, Bruno; Cipolla, Valerio; Damour, Thibault; Danto, Pascale; Dittus, Hansjoerg; Fayet, Pierre; Foulon, Bernard; Gageant, Claude; Guidotti, Pierre-Yves; Hagedorn, Daniel; Hardy, Emilie; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Inchauspe, Henri; Kayser, Patrick; Lala, Stéphanie; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Lebat, Vincent; Leseur, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise; List, Meike; Löffler, Frank; Panet, Isabelle; Pouilloux, Benjamin; Prieur, Pascal; Rebray, Alexandre; Reynaud, Serge; Rievers, Benny; Robert, Alain; Selig, Hanns; Serron, Laura; Sumner, Timothy; Tanguy, Nicolas; Visser, Pieter

    2017-12-01

    According to the weak equivalence principle, all bodies should fall at the same rate in a gravitational field. The MICROSCOPE satellite, launched in April 2016, aims to test its validity at the 10-15 precision level, by measuring the force required to maintain two test masses (of titanium and platinum alloys) exactly in the same orbit. A nonvanishing result would correspond to a violation of the equivalence principle, or to the discovery of a new long-range force. Analysis of the first data gives δ (Ti ,Pt )=[-1 ±9 (stat)±9 (syst)]×10-15 (1 σ statistical uncertainty) for the titanium-platinum Eötvös parameter characterizing the relative difference in their free-fall accelerations.

  4. Equivalence principle, CP violations, and the Higgs-like boson mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Faraoni, V.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the violation of the equivalence principle induced by a massive gravivector, i.e., the partner of the graviton in N>1 supergravity. The present limits on this violation allow us to obtain a lower bound on the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field that gives the gravivector its mass. We consider also the effective neutral kaon mass difference induced by the gravivector and compare the result with the experimental data on the CP-violation parameter ε

  5. Quantum Field Theoretic Derivation of the Einstein Weak Equivalence Principle Using Emqg Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We provide a quantum field theoretic derivation of Einstein's Weak Equivalence Principle of general relativity using a new quantum gravity theory proposed by the authors called Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG (ref. 1). EMQG is based on a new theory of inertia (ref. 5) proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff (which we modified and called Quantum Inertia). Quantum Inertia states that classical Newtonian Inertia is a property of matter due to the strictly local electrical force ...

  6. Weak principle of equivalence and gauge theory of tetrad aravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunyak, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that, unlike the tetrade formulation of the general relativity theory derived from the requirement on the Poincare group localization, the tetrade gravitation theory corresponding to the Trader formulation of the weak equivalence principle, where the nongravitational-matter Lagrangian is the direct covariant generalization of the partial relativistic expression on the Riemann space-time is incompatible with the known method for deriving the calibration theory of the tetrade gravitation field

  7. The c equivalence principle and the correct form of writing Maxwell's equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A, E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    It is well known that the speed c{sub u}=1/{radical}({epsilon}{sub 0{mu}0}) is obtained in the process of defining SI units via action-at-a-distance forces, like the force between two static charges and the force between two long and parallel currents. The speed c{sub u} is then physically different from the observed speed of propagation c associated with electromagnetic waves in vacuum. However, repeated experiments have led to the numerical equality c{sub u} = c, which we have called the c equivalence principle. In this paper we point out that {nabla}xE=-[1/({epsilon}{sub 0}{mu}{sub 0}c{sup 2})]{partial_derivative}B/{partial_derivative}t is the correct form of writing Faraday's law when the c equivalence principle is not assumed. We also discuss the covariant form of Maxwell's equations without assuming the c equivalence principle.

  8. Mars Seasonal Polar Caps as a Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, Daivd Parry

    2011-01-01

    The seasonal polar caps of Mars can be used to test the equivalence principle in general relativity. The north and south caps, which are composed of carbon dioxide, wax and wane with the seasons. If the ratio of the inertial to gravitational masses of the caps differs from the same ratio for the rest of Mars, then the equivalence principle fails, Newton's third law fails, and the caps will pull Mars one way and then the other with a force aligned with the planet's spin axis. This leads to a secular change in Mars's along-track position in its orbit about the Sun, and to a secular change in the orbit's semimajor axis. The caps are a poor E6tv6s test of the equivalence principle, being 4 orders-of-magnitude weaker than laboratory tests and 7 orders-of-magnitude weaker than that found by lunar laser ranging; the reason is the small mass of the caps compared to Mars as a whole. The principal virtue of using Mars is that the caps contain carbon, an element not normally considered in such experiments. The Earth with its seasonal snow cover can also be used for a similar test.

  9. Mars seasonal polar caps as a test of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2011-01-01

    The seasonal polar caps of Mars can be used to test the equivalence principle in general relativity. The north and south caps, which are composed of carbon dioxide, wax and wane with the seasons. If the ratio of the inertial (passive) to gravitational (active) masses of the caps differs from the same ratio for the rest of Mars, then the equivalence principle fails, Newton's third law fails, and the caps will pull Mars one way and then the other with a force aligned with the planet's spin axis. This leads to a secular change in Mars's along-track position in its orbit about the Sun, and to a secular change in the orbit's semimajor axis. The caps are a poor Eoetvoes test of the equivalence principle, being 4 orders-of-magnitude weaker than laboratory tests and 7 orders-of-magnitude weaker than that found by lunar laser ranging; the reason is the small mass of the caps compared to Mars as a whole. The principal virtue of using Mars is that the caps contain carbon, an element not normally considered in such experiments. The Earth with its seasonal snow cover can also be used for a similar test.

  10. Solar system and equivalence principle constraints on f(R) gravity by the chameleon approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of the equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in the literature that have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-λR c [1-(R c /R) 2n ] in the regime R>>R c . From the solar system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter γ, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of the weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-λR c (R/R c ) p with 0 -10 , which shows that this model is hardly distinguishable from the ΛCDM cosmology

  11. Five-dimensional projective unified theory and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sabbata, V.; Gasperini, M.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the physical consequences of a new five-dimensional projective theory unifying gravitation and electromagnetism. Solving the field equations in the linear approximation and in the static limit, we find that a celestial body would act as a source of a long-range scalar field, and that macroscopic test bodies with different internal structure would accelerate differently in the solar gravitational field; this seems to be in disagreement with the equivalence principle. To avoid this contradiction, we suggest a possible modification of the geometrical structure of the five-dimensional projective space

  12. The kernel G1(x,x') and the quantum equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatto, H.; Foussats, A.; Giacomini, H.; Zandron, O.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, it is re-examined the formulation of the quantum equivalence principle (QEP) and its compatibility with the conditions which must be fulfilled by the kernel G 1 (x,x') is discussed. It is also determined the base of solutions which give the particle model in a curved space-time in terms of Cauchy's data for such a kernel. Finally, it is analyzed the creation of particles in this model by studying the time evolution of creation and annihilation operators. This method is an alternative to one that uses Bogoliubov's transformation as a mechanism of creation. (author)

  13. Null result for violation of the equivalence principle with free-fall rotating gyroscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J.; Zhou, Z.B.; Nie, Y.X.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2002-01-01

    The differential acceleration between a rotating mechanical gyroscope and a nonrotating one is directly measured by using a double free-fall interferometer, and no apparent differential acceleration has been observed at the relative level of 2x10 -6 . It means that the equivalence principle is still valid for rotating extended bodies, i.e., the spin-gravity interaction between the extended bodies has not been observed at this level. Also, to the limit of our experimental sensitivity, there is no observed asymmetrical effect or antigravity of the rotating gyroscopes as reported by Hayasaka et al

  14. Effective Inertial Frame in an Atom Interferometric Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Chris; Asenbaum, Peter; Kovachy, Tim; Notermans, Remy; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2018-05-01

    In an ideal test of the equivalence principle, the test masses fall in a common inertial frame. A real experiment is affected by gravity gradients, which introduce systematic errors by coupling to initial kinematic differences between the test masses. Here we demonstrate a method that reduces the sensitivity of a dual-species atom interferometer to initial kinematics by using a frequency shift of the mirror pulse to create an effective inertial frame for both atomic species. Using this method, we suppress the gravity-gradient-induced dependence of the differential phase on initial kinematic differences by 2 orders of magnitude and precisely measure these differences. We realize a relative precision of Δ g /g ≈6 ×10-11 per shot, which improves on the best previous result for a dual-species atom interferometer by more than 3 orders of magnitude. By reducing gravity gradient systematic errors to one part in 1 013 , these results pave the way for an atomic test of the equivalence principle at an accuracy comparable with state-of-the-art classical tests.

  15. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  16. Galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar and limit on weak equivalence principle violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shantanu; Kahya, Emre

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the total galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar by including the contributions from the dark matter as well as baryonic matter along the line of sight. The total delay due to dark matter potential is about 3.4 days. For baryonic matter, we included the contributions from both the bulge and the disk, which are approximately 0.12 and 0.32 days respectively. The total delay from all the matter distribution is therefore 3.84 days. We also calculate the limit on violations of Weak equivalence principle by using observations of ''nano-shot'' giant pulses from the Crab pulsar with time-delay < 0.4 ns, as well as using time differences between radio and optical photons observed from this pulsar. Using the former, we obtain a limit on violation of Weak equivalence principle in terms of the PPN parameter Δγ < 2.41 x 10 -15 . From the time-difference between simultaneous optical and radio observations, we get Δγ < 1.54 x 10 -9 . We also point out differences in our calculation of Shapiro delay and that from two recent papers (Yang and Zhang, Phys Rev D 94(10):101501, 2016; Zhang and Gong, Astrophys J 837:134, 2017), which used the same observations to obtain a corresponding limit on Δγ. (orig.)

  17. Galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar and limit on weak equivalence principle violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Shantanu [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Hyderabad, Telangana (India); Kahya, Emre [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2018-02-15

    We calculate the total galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar by including the contributions from the dark matter as well as baryonic matter along the line of sight. The total delay due to dark matter potential is about 3.4 days. For baryonic matter, we included the contributions from both the bulge and the disk, which are approximately 0.12 and 0.32 days respectively. The total delay from all the matter distribution is therefore 3.84 days. We also calculate the limit on violations of Weak equivalence principle by using observations of ''nano-shot'' giant pulses from the Crab pulsar with time-delay < 0.4 ns, as well as using time differences between radio and optical photons observed from this pulsar. Using the former, we obtain a limit on violation of Weak equivalence principle in terms of the PPN parameter Δγ < 2.41 x 10{sup -15}. From the time-difference between simultaneous optical and radio observations, we get Δγ < 1.54 x 10{sup -9}. We also point out differences in our calculation of Shapiro delay and that from two recent papers (Yang and Zhang, Phys Rev D 94(10):101501, 2016; Zhang and Gong, Astrophys J 837:134, 2017), which used the same observations to obtain a corresponding limit on Δγ. (orig.)

  18. On the relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvily, G.

    1981-01-01

    One sees the basic ideas of the gauge gravitation theory still not generally accepted in spite of more than twenty years of its history. The chief reason lies in the fact that the gauge character of gravity is connected with the whole complex of problems of Einstein General Relativity: about the reference system definition, on the (3+1)-splitting, on the presence (or absence) of symmetries in GR, on the necessity (or triviality) of general covariance, on the meaning of equivalence principle, which led Einstein from Special to General Relativity |1|. The real actuality of this complex of interconnected problems is demonstrated by the well-known work of V. Fock, who saw no symmetries in General Relativity, declared the unnecessary Equivalence principle and proposed even to substitute the designation ''chronogeometry'' instead of ''general relativity'' (see also P. Havas). Developing this line, H. Bondi quite recently also expressed doubts about the ''relativity'' in Einstein theory of gravitation. All proposed versions of the gauge gravitation theory must clarify the discrepancy between Einstein gravitational field being a pseudo-Riemannian metric field, and the gauge potentials representing connections on some fiber bundles and there exists no group, whose gauging would lead to the purely gravitational part of connection (Christoffel symbols or Fock-Ivenenko-Weyl spinorial coefficients). (author)

  19. Some algorithms for reordering a sequence of objects, with application to E. Sparre Andersen's principle of equivalence in mathematical statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de N.G.

    1972-01-01

    Recently A. W. Joseph described an algorithm providing combinatorial insight into E. Sparre Andersen's so-called Principle of Equivalence in mathematical statistics. In the present paper such algorithms are discussed systematically.

  20. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure part III: test of the equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 France (France); Hui, Lam [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup −3}÷10{sup −4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.

  1. Equivalence principle for quantum systems: dephasing and phase shift of free-falling particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, C.; Hu, B. L.

    2018-02-01

    We ask the question of how the (weak) equivalence principle established in classical gravitational physics should be reformulated and interpreted for massive quantum objects that may also have internal degrees of freedom (dof). This inquiry is necessary because even elementary concepts like a classical trajectory are not well defined in quantum physics—trajectories originating from quantum histories become viable entities only under stringent decoherence conditions. From this investigation we posit two logically and operationally distinct statements of the equivalence principle for quantum systems. Version A: the probability distribution of position for a free-falling particle is the same as the probability distribution of a free particle, modulo a mass-independent shift of its mean. Version B: any two particles with the same velocity wave-function behave identically in free fall, irrespective of their masses. Both statements apply to all quantum states, including those without a classical correspondence, and also for composite particles with quantum internal dof. We also investigate the consequences of the interaction between internal and external dof induced by free fall. For a class of initial states, we find dephasing occurs for the translational dof, namely, the suppression of the off-diagonal terms of the density matrix, in the position basis. We also find a gravitational phase shift in the reduced density matrix of the internal dof that does not depend on the particle’s mass. For classical states, the phase shift has a natural classical interpretation in terms of gravitational red-shift and special relativistic time-dilation.

  2. Tidal tails test the equivalence principle in the dark-matter sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Satellite galaxies currently undergoing tidal disruption offer a unique opportunity to constrain an effective violation of the equivalence principle in the dark sector. While dark matter in the standard scenario interacts solely through gravity on large scales, a new long-range force between dark-matter particles may naturally arise in theories in which the dark matter couples to a light scalar field. An inverse-square-law force of this kind would manifest itself as a violation of the equivalence principle in the dynamics of dark matter compared to baryons in the form of gas or stars. In a previous paper, we showed that an attractive force would displace stars outwards from the bottom of the satellite's gravitational potential well, leading to a higher fraction of stars being disrupted from the tidal bulge further from the Galactic center. Since stars disrupted from the far (near) side of the satellite go on to form the trailing (leading) tidal stream, an attractive dark-matter force will produce a relative enhancement of the trailing stream compared to the leading stream. This distinctive signature of a dark-matter force might be detected through detailed observations of the tidal tails of a disrupting satellite, such as those recently performed by the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy. Here we show that this signature is robust to changes in our models for both the satellite and Milky Way, suggesting that we might hope to search for a dark-matter force in the tidal features of other recently discovered satellite galaxies in addition to the Sgr dwarf

  3. [Equivalent Lever Principle of Ossicular Chain and Amplitude Reduction Effect of Internal Ear Lymph].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qin, Renjia

    2015-04-01

    This paper makes persuasive demonstrations on some problems about the human ear sound transmission principle in existing physiological textbooks and reference books, and puts forward the authors' view to make up for its literature. Exerting the knowledge of lever in physics and the acoustics theory, we come up with an equivalent simplified model of manubrium mallei which is to meet the requirements as the long arm of the lever. We also set up an equivalent simplified model of ossicular chain--a combination of levers of ossicular chain. We disassemble the model into two simple levers, and make full analysis and demonstration on them. Through the calculation and comparison of displacement amplitudes in both external auditory canal air and internal ear lymph, we may draw a conclusion that the key reason, which the sound displacement amplitude is to be decreased to adapt to the endurance limit of the basement membrane, is that the density and sound speed in lymph is much higher than those in the air.

  4. Expanded solar-system limits on violations of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Mitcham, Jack; Warecki, Zoey

    2014-01-01

    Most attempts to unify general relativity with the standard model of particle physics predict violations of the equivalence principle associated in some way with the composition of the test masses. We test this idea by using observational uncertainties in the positions and motions of solar-system bodies to set upper limits on the relative difference Δ between gravitational and inertial mass for each body. For suitable pairs of objects, it is possible to constrain three different linear combinations of Δ using Kepler’s third law, the migration of stable Lagrange points, and orbital polarization (the Nordtvedt effect). Limits of order 10 −10 –10 −6 on Δ for individual bodies can then be derived from planetary and lunar ephemerides, Cassini observations of the Saturn system, and observations of Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids as well as recently discovered Trojan companions around the Earth, Mars, Neptune, and Saturnian moons. These results can be combined with models for elemental abundances in each body to test for composition-dependent violations of the universality of free fall in the solar system. The resulting limits are weaker than those from laboratory experiments, but span a larger volume in composition space. (paper)

  5. Current research efforts at JILA to test the equivalence principle at short ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faller, J.E.; Niebauer, T.M.; McHugh, M.P.; Van Baak, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    We are presently engaged in three different experiments to search for a possible breakdown of the equivalence principle at short ranges. The first of these experiments, which has been completed, is our so-called Galilean test in which the differential free-fall of two objects of differing composition was measured using laser interferometry. We observed that the differential acceleration of two test bodies was less than 5 parts in 10 billion. This experiment set new limits on a suggested baryon dependent ''Fifth Force'' at ranges longer than 1 km. With a second experiment, we are investigating substance dependent interactions primarily for ranges up to 10 meters using a fluid supported torsion balance; this apparatus has been built and is now undergoing laboratory tests. Finally, a proposal has been made to measure the gravitational signal associated with the changing water level at a large pumped storage facility in Ludington, Michigan. Measuring the gravitational signal above and below the pond will yield the value of the gravitational constant, G, at ranges from 10-100 m. These measurements will serve as an independent check on other geophysical measurements of G

  6. Testing the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator: Detector Dynamics and Gravity Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dorthy (Technical Monitor); Lorenzini, E. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Cosmo, M. L.; Ashenberg, J.; Parzianello, G.; Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss specific, recent advances in the analysis of an experiment to test the Equivalence Principle (EP) in free fall. A differential accelerometer detector with two proof masses of different materials free falls inside an evacuated capsule previously released from a stratospheric balloon. The detector spins slowly about its horizontal axis during the fall. An EP violation signal (if present) will manifest itself at the rotational frequency of the detector. The detector operates in a quiet environment as it slowly moves with respect to the co-moving capsule. There are, however, gravitational and dynamical noise contributions that need to be evaluated in order to define key requirements for this experiment. Specifically, higher-order mass moments of the capsule contribute errors to the differential acceleration output with components at the spin frequency which need to be minimized. The dynamics of the free falling detector (in its present design) has been simulated in order to estimate the tolerable errors at release which, in turn, define the release mechanism requirements. Moreover, the study of the higher-order mass moments for a worst-case position of the detector package relative to the cryostat has led to the definition of requirements on the shape and size of the proof masses.

  7. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10-5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, J2⊙J2⊙ = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10-7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, GM⊙°/GM⊙GM⊙°/GM⊙ = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10-14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain ∣∣G°∣∣/GG°/G to be <4 × 10-14 per year.

  8. Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T

    2018-01-18

    The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10 -5 . By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10 -5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, [Formula: see text] = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10 -7 . Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, [Formula: see text] = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10 -14 , which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain [Formula: see text] to be <4 × 10 -14 per year.

  9. Violations of the equivalence principle in a dilaton-runaway scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    We explore a version of the cosmological dilaton-fixing and decoupling mechanism in which the dilaton-dependence of the low-energy effective action is extremized for infinitely large values of the bare string coupling $g_s^2 = e^{\\phi}$. We study the efficiency with which the dilaton $\\phi$ runs away towards its ``fixed point'' at infinity during a primordial inflationary stage, and thereby approximately decouples from matter. The residual dilaton couplings are found to be related to the amplitude of the density fluctuations generated during inflation. For the simplest inflationary potential, $V (\\chi) = {1/2} m_{\\chi}^2 (\\phi) \\chi^2$, the residual dilaton couplings are shown to predict violations of the universality of gravitational acceleration near the $\\Delta a / a \\sim 10^{-12}$ level. This suggests that a modest improvement in the precision of equivalence principle tests might be able to detect the effect of such a runaway dilaton. Under some assumptions about the coupling of the dilaton to dark matter...

  10. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    CERN Document Server

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between th...

  11. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between the resulting quadrupolar force on the body and the difference between the net and the monopolar forces acting on it, underscoring the utility of the approach. A dynamical technique for experimentally obtaining the mass quadrupole tensors of EP test masses is discussed, and a means of validating the results is noted

  12. Formal structures, the concepts of covariance, invariance, equivalent reference frames, and the principle Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, W. A.; Scanavini, M. E. F.; de Alcantara, L. P.

    1990-02-01

    In this paper a given spacetime theory T is characterized as the theory of a certain species of structure in the sense of Bourbaki [1]. It is then possible to clarify in a rigorous way the concepts of passive and active covariance of T under the action of the manifold mapping group G M . For each T, we define also an invariance group G I T and, in general, G I T ≠ G M . This group is defined once we realize that, for each τ ∈ ModT, each explicit geometrical object defining the structure can be classified as absolute or dynamical [2]. All spacetime theories possess also implicit geometrical objects that do not appear explicitly in the structure. These implicit objects are not absolute nor dynamical. Among them there are the reference frame fields, i.e., “timelike” vector fields X ∈ TU,U subseteq M M, where M is a manifold which is part of ST, a substructure for each τ ∈ ModT, called spacetime. We give a physically motivated definition of equivalent reference frames and introduce the concept of the equivalence group of a class of reference frames of kind X according to T, G X T. We define that T admits a weak principle of relativity (WPR) only if G X T ≠ identity for some X. If G X T = G I T for some X, we say that T admits a strong principle of relativity (PR). The results of this paper generalize and clarify several results obtained by Anderson [2], Scheibe [3], Hiskes [4], Recami and Rodrigues [5], Friedman [6], Fock [7], and Scanavini [8]. Among the novelties here, there is the realization that the definitions of G I T and G X T can be given only when certain boundary conditions for the equations of motion of T can be physically realizable in the domain U U subseteq M M, where a given reference frame is defined. The existence of physically realizable boundary conditions for each τ ∈ ModT (in ∂ U), in contrast with the mathematically possible boundary condition, is then seen to be essential for the validity of a principle of relativity for T

  13. Development of a superconducting position sensor for the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Odile Helene

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) is a joint NASA/ESA mission that proposes to measure the differential acceleration of two cylindrical test masses orbiting the earth in a drag-free satellite to a precision of 10-18 g. Such an experiment would conceptually reproduce Galileo's tower of Pisa experiment with a much longer time of fall and greatly reduced disturbances. The superconducting test masses are constrained in all degrees of freedom except their axial direction (the sensitive axis) using superconducting bearings. The STEP accelerometer measures the differential position of the masses in their sensitive direction using superconducting inductive pickup coils coupled to an extremely sensitive magnetometer called a DC-SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device). Position sensor development involves the design, manufacture and calibration of pickup coils that will meet the acceleration sensitivity requirement. Acceleration sensitivity depends on both the displacement sensitivity and stiffness of the position sensor. The stiffness must kept small while maintaining stability of the accelerometer. Using a model for the inductance of the pickup coils versus displacement of the test masses, a computer simulation calculates the sensitivity and stiffness of the accelerometer in its axial direction. This simulation produced a design of pickup coils for the four STEP accelerometers. Manufacture of the pickup coils involves standard photolithography techniques modified for superconducting thin-films. A single-turn pickup coil was manufactured and produced a successful superconducting coil using thin-film Niobium. A low-temperature apparatus was developed with a precision position sensor to measure the displacement of a superconducting plate (acting as a mock test mass) facing the coil. The position sensor was designed to detect five degrees of freedom so that coupling could be taken into account when measuring the translation of the plate

  14. MICROSCOPE Mission: First Constraints on the Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle by a Light Scalar Dilaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, Joel; Brax, Philippe; Métris, Gilles; Pernot-Borràs, Martin; Touboul, Pierre; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    The existence of a light or massive scalar field with a coupling to matter weaker than gravitational strength is a possible source of violation of the weak equivalence principle. We use the first results on the Eötvös parameter by the MICROSCOPE experiment to set new constraints on such scalar fields. For a massive scalar field of mass smaller than 10-12 eV (i.e., range larger than a few 1 05 m ), we improve existing constraints by one order of magnitude to |α |baryon number and to |α |baryon and the lepton numbers. We also consider a model describing the coupling of a generic dilaton to the standard matter fields with five parameters, for a light field: We find that, for masses smaller than 10-12 eV , the constraints on the dilaton coupling parameters are improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous equivalence principle tests.

  15. An Abstract Approach to Process Equivalence and a Coinduction Principle for Traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek

    2004-01-01

    An abstract coalgebraic approach to well-structured relations on processes is presented, based on notions of tests and test suites. Preorders and equivalences on processes are modelled as coalgebras for behaviour endofunctors lifted to a category of test suites. The general framework is specializ...

  16. Violation of the equivalence principle for stressed bodies in asynchronous relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Martins, R. de (Centro de Logica, Epistemologia e Historia da Ciencia, Campinas (Brazil))

    1983-12-11

    In the recently developed asynchronous formulation of the relativistic theory of extended bodies, the inertial mass of a body does not explicitly depend on its pressure or stress. The detailed analysis of the weight of a box filled with a gas and placed in a weak gravitational field shows that this feature of asynchronous relativity implies a breakdown of the equivalence between inertial and passive gravitational mass for stressed systems.

  17. Principle and methods for measurement of snow water equivalent by detection of natural gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrestoel, G O [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The underlying principles for snow cover determination by use of terrestrial gamma radiation are presented. Several of the methods that have been proposed to exploit the effect are discussed, and some of the more important error sources for the different methods are listed. In conclusion an estimate of the precision that can be obtained by these methods is given.

  18. Principle and methods for measurement of snow water equivalent by detection of natural gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endrestol, G O

    1979-01-01

    The underlying principles for snow cover determination by use of terrestrial gamma radiation are presented. Several of the methods that have been proposed to exploit the effect are discussed, and some of the more important error sources for the different methods are listed. In conclusion estimates of the precision that can be obtained by these methods are given.

  19. On the role of the equivalence principle in the general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsenshtein, M.E.; Stanyukovich, K.P.; Pogosyan, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions under which the solutions of the general relativity theory equations satisfy the correspondence principle are considered. It is shown that in general relativity theory, as in a plane space any systems of coordinates satisfying the topological requirements of continuity and uniqueness are admissible. The coordinate transformations must be mutually unique, and the following requirements must be met: the transformations of the coordinates xsup(i)=xsup(i)(anti xsup(k)) must preserve the class of the function, while the transformation jacobian must be finite and nonzero. The admissible metrics in the Tolmen problem for a vacuum are considered. A prohibition of the vacuum solution of the Tolmen problem is obtained from the correspondence principle. The correspondence principle is applied to the solution of the Friedmann problem by constructing a spherical symmetric self-similar solution, in which replacement of compression by expansion occurs at a finite density. The examples adduced convince that the application of the correspondence principle makes it possible to discard physically inadmissible solutions and obtained new physical results

  20. Significance and principles of the calculation of the effective dose equivalent for radiological protection of personnel and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Williams, G.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E), concept for radiological protection assessments of occupationally exposed persons is justifiable by the practicability thus achieved with regard to the limiting principles. Nevertheless, it would be proper logic to further use as the basic limiting quantity the real physical dose equivalent of homogeneous whole-body exposure, and for inhomogeneous whole-body irradiation the Hsub(E) value, calculated by means of the concept of the effective dose equivalent. For then the required concepts, models and calculations would not be connected with a basic radiation protection quantity. Application of the effective dose equivalent for radiation protection assessments for patients is misleading and is not practical with regard to assessing an individual or collective radiation risk of patients. The quantity of expected harm would be better suited to this purpose. There is no need to express the radiation risk by a dose quantity, which means careless handling of good information. (orig./WU) [de

  1. Experimental constraints on a minimal and nonminimal violation of the equivalence principle in the oscillations of massive neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasperini, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Torino, Italy)

    1989-01-01

    The negative results of the oscillations experiments are discussed with the hypothesis that the various neutrino types are not universally coupled to gravity. In this case the transition probabiltiy between two different flavor eigenstates may be affected by the local gravitational field present in a terrestrial laboratory, and the contribution of gravity can interfere, in general, with the mass contribution to the oscillation process. In particular it is shown that even a strong violation of the equivalence principle could be compatible with the experimental data, provided the gravity-induced energy splitting is balanced by a suitable neutrino mass difference

  2. The meaning and the principle of determination of the effective dose equivalent in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Williams, G.; Zankl, M.

    1985-01-01

    Since the introduction of the quantity ''effective dose equivalent'' within the framework of new radiation concepts, the meaning and interpretation of the quantity is often discussed and debated. Because of its adoption as a limiting quantity in many international and national laws, it is necessary to be able to interpret this main radiation protection quantity. Examples of organ doses and the related Hsub(E) values in occupational and medical exposures are presented and the meaning of the quantity is considered for whole body exposures to external and internal photon sources, as well as for partial body external exposures to photons. (author)

  3. Testing the strong equivalence principle with the triple pulsar PSR J 0337 +1715

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lijing

    2016-04-01

    Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, the inertial mass, mI , the passive gravitational mass, mP, and the active gravitational mass, mA. It is assumed that, for any objects, mI=mP=mA in the Newtonian gravity, and mI=mP in the Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We study the possibility of carrying out new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J 0337 +1715 . Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, the equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses could be probed to 3 ×1 0-8 , improving the current constraints from lunar laser ranging on the post-Newtonian parameters that govern violations of mP=mI and mA=mP by thousands and millions, respectively. The test of mP=mA would represent the first test of Newton's third law with compact objects.

  4. Comment on ''Modified photon equation of motion as a test for the principle of equivalence''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nityananda, R.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent paper, a modification of the geodesic equation was proposed for spinning photons containing a spin-curvature coupling term. The difference in arrival times of opposite circular polarizations starting simultaneously from a source was computed, obtaining a result linear in the coupling parameter. It is pointed out here that this linear term violates causality and, more generally, Fermat's principle, implying calculational errors. Even if these are corrected, there is a violation of covariance in the way the photon spin was introduced. Rectifying this makes the effect computed vanish entirely

  5. MICROSCOPE Mission: First Constraints on the Violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle by a Light Scalar Dilaton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, Joel; Brax, Philippe; Métris, Gilles; Pernot-Borràs, Martin; Touboul, Pierre; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-06

    The existence of a light or massive scalar field with a coupling to matter weaker than gravitational strength is a possible source of violation of the weak equivalence principle. We use the first results on the Eötvös parameter by the MICROSCOPE experiment to set new constraints on such scalar fields. For a massive scalar field of mass smaller than 10^{-12}  eV (i.e., range larger than a few 10^{5}  m), we improve existing constraints by one order of magnitude to |α|difference between the baryon and the lepton numbers. We also consider a model describing the coupling of a generic dilaton to the standard matter fields with five parameters, for a light field: We find that, for masses smaller than 10^{-12}  eV, the constraints on the dilaton coupling parameters are improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous equivalence principle tests.

  6. Einstein's Elevator in Class: A Self-Construction by Students for the Study of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapotis, Efstratios; Kalkanis, George

    2016-10-01

    According to the principle of equivalence, it is impossible to distinguish between gravity and inertial forces that a noninertial observer experiences in his own frame of reference. For example, let's consider an elevator in space that is being accelerated in one direction. An observer inside it would feel as if there was gravity force pulling him toward the opposite direction. The same holds for a person in a stationary elevator located in Earth's gravitational field. No experiment enables us to distinguish between the accelerating elevator in space and the motionless elevator near Earth's surface. Strictly speaking, when the gravitational field is non-uniform (like Earth's), the equivalence principle holds only for experiments in elevators that are small enough and that take place over a short enough period of time (Fig. 1). However, performing an experiment in an elevator in space is impractical. On the other hand, it is easy to combine both forces on the same observer, i.e., gravity and a fictitious inertial force due to acceleration. Imagine an observer in an elevator that falls freely within Earth's gravitational field. The observer experiences gravity pulling him down while it might be said that the inertial force due to gravity acceleration g pulls him up. Gravity and inertial force cancel each other, (mis)leading the observer to believe there is no gravitational field. This study outlines our implementation of a self-construction idea that we have found useful in teaching introductory physics students (undergraduate, non-majors).

  7. Ecological aspects of the radiation-migration equivalence principle in a closed fuel cycle and its comparative assessment with the ALARA principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluektov, P.P.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Nikipelov, B.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Voloshin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The errors and uncertainties arising in the determination of radionuclide escape from the RW burial require the use of extremely conservative estimates. In the limit, the nuclide concentrations in the waste may be used as estimates of their concentrations in underground waters. On this basis, it is possible to evaluate the corresponding radio-toxicities (by normalizing to the interference levels) of individual components and radioactive waste as a whole or the effective radio-toxicities (by dividing the radionuclide radio-toxicities into the retardation factors for the nuclide transfer with underground waters). This completely coincides with the procedure of performing the limiting conservative estimate according to the traditional approach with the use of scenarios, escape models, and the corresponding codes. A comparison of radio-toxicities for waste with those for natural uranium consumed for producing a required fuel results in the notion of radiation-migration equivalence for individual waste components and radioactive waste as a whole. Therefore, the radiation-migration equivalence corresponds to the limiting conservative estimate in the traditional approach to the determination of RW disposal safety in comparison with the radiotoxicity of natural uranium. The amounts of radionuclides in fragments (and actinides) and the corresponding weight of heavy metal in the fuel are compared with due regard for the hazard (according to the NRB-99 standards), the nuclide mobility (through the sorption retardation factors), the retention of radioactive waste by the solid matrix, and the contribution from the chains of uranium fission products. It was noted above that the RME principle is aimed at ensuring the radiological safety of the present and future generations and the environment through the minimization of radioactive waste upon reprocessing. This is attended by reaching a reasonably achievable, low level of radiological action in the context of modern science, i

  8. How to estimate the differential acceleration in a two-species atom interferometer to test the equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varoquaux, G; Nyman, R A; Geiger, R; Cheinet, P; Bouyer, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau (France); Landragin, A [LNE-SYRTE, UMR8630, UPMC, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)], E-mail: philippe.bouyer@institutoptique.fr

    2009-11-15

    We propose a scheme for testing the weak equivalence principle (universality of free-fall (UFF)) using an atom-interferometric measurement of the local differential acceleration between two atomic species with a large mass ratio as test masses. An apparatus in free fall can be used to track atomic free-fall trajectories over large distances. We show how the differential acceleration can be extracted from the interferometric signal using Bayesian statistical estimation, even in the case of a large mass and laser wavelength difference. We show that this statistical estimation method does not suffer from acceleration noise of the platform and does not require repeatable experimental conditions. We specialize our discussion to a dual potassium/rubidium interferometer and extend our protocol with other atomic mixtures. Finally, we discuss the performance of the UFF test developed for the free-fall (zero-gravity) airplane in the ICE project (http://www.ice-space.fr)

  9. How to estimate the differential acceleration in a two-species atom interferometer to test the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varoquaux, G; Nyman, R A; Geiger, R; Cheinet, P; Bouyer, P; Landragin, A

    2009-01-01

    We propose a scheme for testing the weak equivalence principle (universality of free-fall (UFF)) using an atom-interferometric measurement of the local differential acceleration between two atomic species with a large mass ratio as test masses. An apparatus in free fall can be used to track atomic free-fall trajectories over large distances. We show how the differential acceleration can be extracted from the interferometric signal using Bayesian statistical estimation, even in the case of a large mass and laser wavelength difference. We show that this statistical estimation method does not suffer from acceleration noise of the platform and does not require repeatable experimental conditions. We specialize our discussion to a dual potassium/rubidium interferometer and extend our protocol with other atomic mixtures. Finally, we discuss the performance of the UFF test developed for the free-fall (zero-gravity) airplane in the ICE project (http://www.ice-space.fr).

  10. Determination of the electronic structure and UV-Vis absorption properties of (Na2-xCux)Ta4O11 from first-principle calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab; Masih, Dilshad; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Sautet, Philippe; Basset, Jean-Marie; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    the optical transitions in these materials using the screened coulomb hybrid (HSE06) exchange-correlation formalism. The calculated density of states showed excellent agreement with UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra predicting a significant red

  11. Derivation of the blackbody radiation spectrum from the equivalence principle in classical physics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    A derivation of Planck's spectrum including zero-point radiation is given within classical physics from recent results involving the thermal effects of acceleration through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. A harmonic electric-dipole oscillator undergoing a uniform acceleration a through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation responds as would the same oscillator in an inertial frame when not in zero-point radiation but in a different spectrum of random classical radiation. Since the equivalence principle tells us that the oscillator supported in a gravitational field g = -a will respond in the same way, we see that in a gravitational field we can construct a perpetual-motion machine based on this different spectrum unless the different spectrum corresponds to that of thermal equilibrium at a finite temperature. Therefore, assuming the absence of perpetual-motion machines of the first kind in a gravitational field, we conclude that the response of an oscillator accelerating through classical zero-point radiation must be that of a thermal system. This then determines the blackbody radiation spectrum in an inertial frame which turns out to be exactly Planck's spectrum including zero-point radiation

  12. Dark energy and equivalence principle constraints from astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C.; Pino, M.; Rocha, C.I.S.A.; Wietersheim, M. von

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w 0 . Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints

  13. Dark energy and equivalence principle constraints from astrophysical tests of the stability of the fine-structure constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Pino, M. [Institut Domènech i Montaner, C/Maspujols 21-23, 43206 Reus (Spain); Rocha, C.I.S.A. [Externato Ribadouro, Rua de Santa Catarina 1346, 4000-447 Porto (Portugal); Wietersheim, M. von, E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt, E-mail: Ana.Pinho@astro.up.pt, E-mail: up201106579@fc.up.pt, E-mail: mpc_97@yahoo.com, E-mail: cisar97@hotmail.com, E-mail: maxivonw@gmail.com [Institut Manuel Sales i Ferré, Avinguda de les Escoles 6, 43550 Ulldecona (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w{sub 0}. Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints.

  14. Solar neutrino results and Violation of the Equivalence Principle An analysis of the existing data and predictions for SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, D; Sil, A; Majumdar, Debasish; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Sil, Arunansu

    2001-01-01

    Violation of the Equivalence Principle (VEP) can lead to neutrino oscillation through the non-diagonal coupling of neutrino flavor eigenstates with the gravitational field. The neutrino energy dependence of this oscillation probability is different from that of the usual mass-mixing neutrino oscillations. In this work we explore, in detail, the viability of the VEP hypothesis as a solution to the solar neutrino problem in a two generation scenario with both the active and sterile neutrino alternatives, choosing these states to be massless. To obtain the best-fit values of the oscillation parameters we perform a chi square analysis for the total rates of solar neutrinos seen at the Chlorine (Homestake), Gallium (Gallex and SAGE), Kamiokande, and SuperKamiokande (SK) experiments. We find that the goodness of these fits is never satisfactory. It markedly improves if the Chlorine data is excluded from the analysis, especially for VEP transformation to sterile neutrinos. The 1117-day SK data for recoil electron sp...

  15. Diabetes and hypertension care among male prisoners in Mexico City: exploring transition of care and the equivalence principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Servan-Mori, Edson; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    To document the performance of diabetes and hypertension care in two large male prisons in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study carried out during July-September 2010, including 496 prisoners with hypertension or diabetes in Mexico City. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess process-of-care indicators and disease control status. Hypertension and diabetes prevalence were estimated on 2.1 and 1.4 %, respectively. Among prisoners with diabetes 22.7 % (n = 62) had hypertension as comorbidity. Low achievement of process-of-care indicators-follow-up visits, blood pressure and laboratory assessments-were observed during incarceration compared to the same prisoners in the year prior to incarceration. In contrast to nonimprisoned diabetes population from Mexico City and from the lowest quintile of socioeconomic status at the national level, prisoners with diabetes had the lowest performance on process-of-care indicators. Continuity of care for chronic diseases, coupled with the equivalence of care principle, should provide the basis for designing chronic disease health policy for prisoners, with the goal of consistent transition of care from community to prison and vice versa.

  16. Test of the Weak Equivalence Principle using LIGO observations of GW150914 and Fermi observations of GBM transient 150914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molin Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available About 0.4 s after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO detected a transient gravitational-wave (GW signal GW150914, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM also found a weak electromagnetic transient (GBM transient 150914. Time and location coincidences favor a possible association between GW150904 and GBM transient 150914. Under this possible association, we adopt Fermi's electromagnetic (EM localization and derive constraints on possible violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP from the observations of two events. Our calculations are based on four comparisons: (1 The first is the comparison of the initial GWs detected at the two LIGO sites. From the different polarizations of these initial GWs, we obtain a limit on any difference in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN parameter Δγ≲10−10. (2 The second is a comparison of GWs and possible EM waves. Using a traditional super-Eddington accretion model for GBM transient 150914, we again obtain an upper limit Δγ≲10−10. Compared with previous results for photons and neutrinos, our limits are five orders of magnitude stronger than those from PeV neutrinos in blazar flares, and seven orders stronger than those from MeV neutrinos in SN1987A. (3 The third is a comparison of GWs with different frequencies in the range [35 Hz, 250 Hz]. (4 The fourth is a comparison of EM waves with different energies in the range [1 keV, 10 MeV]. These last two comparisons lead to an even stronger limit, Δγ≲10−8. Our results highlight the potential of multi-messenger signals exploiting different emission channels to strengthen existing tests of the WEP.

  17. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 1: basic principles and properties of tyrosine chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    2016-06-01

    Spectroscopic properties of tyrosine residues may be employed in structural studies of proteins. Here we discuss several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, like normal, difference and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and corresponding optical properties of the tyrosine chromophore, phenol, which are used to study protein structure.

  18. A Pontryagin Minimum Principle-Based Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus on a Fixed Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When developing a real-time energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, it is still a challenge for the Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy to achieve near-optimal energy consumption, because the optimal equivalence factor is not readily available without the trip information. With the help of realistic speeding profiles sampled from a plug-in hybrid electric bus running on a fixed commuting line, this paper proposes a convenient and effective approach of determining the equivalence factor for an adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy. Firstly, with the adaptive law based on the feedback of battery SOC, the equivalence factor is described as a combination of the major component and tuning component. In particular, the major part defined as a constant is applied to the inherent consistency of regular speeding profiles, while the second part including a proportional and integral term can slightly tune the equivalence factor to satisfy the disparity of daily running cycles. Moreover, Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle is employed and solved by using the shooting method to capture the co-state dynamics, in which the Secant method is introduced to adjust the initial co-state value. And then the initial co-state value in last shooting is taken as the optimal stable constant of equivalence factor. Finally, altogether ten successive driving profiles are selected with different initial SOC levels to evaluate the proposed method, and the results demonstrate the excellent fuel economy compared with the dynamic programming and PMP method.

  19. Equivalent Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.

    1982-01-01

    We present a review of the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations, emphasizing the ambiguities which appear due to the existence of equivalent Lagrangians for a given classical system. In particular, we analyze the properties of equivalent Lagrangians in the multidimensional case, we study the conditions for the existence of a variational principle for (second as well as first order) equations of motion and their solutions, we consider the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations for singular systems, we state the ambiguities which emerge in the relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in the case of equivalent Lagrangians, we discuss the problems which appear in trying to quantize classical systems which have different equivalent Lagrangians, we describe the situation which arises in the study of equivalent Lagrangians in field theory and finally, we present some unsolved problems and discussion topics related to the content of this article. (author)

  20. Adaptation of the TH Epsilon Mu formalism for the analysis of the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak and electroweak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.

  1. Completely boundary-free minimum and maximum principles for neutron transport and their least-squares and Galerkin equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackroyd, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    Some minimum and maximum variational principles for even-parity neutron transport are reviewed and the corresponding principles for odd-parity transport are derived by a simple method to show why the essential boundary conditions associated with these maximum principles have to be imposed. The method also shows why both the essential and some of the natural boundary conditions associated with these minimum principles have to be imposed. These imposed boundary conditions for trial functions in the variational principles limit the choice of the finite element used to represent trial functions. The reasons for the boundary conditions imposed on the principles for even- and odd-parity transport point the way to a treatment of composite neutron transport, for which completely boundary-free maximum and minimum principles are derived from a functional identity. In general a trial function is used for each parity in the composite neutron transport, but this can be reduced to one without any boundary conditions having to be imposed. (author)

  2. Biophysical modelling of phytoplankton communities from first principles using two-layered spheres: Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson Lain, L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available (PFT) analysis. To these ends, an initial validation of a new model of Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) is presented here. This paper makes a first order comparison of two prominent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models with the EAP...

  3. Determination of the electronic structure and UV-Vis absorption properties of (Na2-xCux)Ta4O11 from first-principle calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-08-29

    Density functional theory (DFT) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) were applied to study the structural, electronic, and optical properties of a (Na2-xCux)Ta4O11 solid solution to accurately calculate the band gap and to predict the optical transitions in these materials using the screened coulomb hybrid (HSE06) exchange-correlation formalism. The calculated density of states showed excellent agreement with UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra predicting a significant red-shift of the band gap from 4.58 eV (calculated 4.94 eV) to 2.76 eV (calculated 2.60 eV) as copper content increased from 0 to 83.3%. The band gap narrowing in these materials, compared to Na2Ta4O11, results from the incorporation of new occupied electronic states, which are strongly localized on the Cu 3d orbitals, and is located within 2.16-2.34 eV just above the valence band of Na2Ta4O11. These new occupied states, however, possess an electronic character localized on Cu, which makes hole mobility limited in the semiconductor. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor

  5. First-principles study on electronic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSiV I4 (VI=S, Se, and Te quaternary semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebiao Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSiS4, Cu2ZnSiSe4 and Cu2ZnSiTe4 in kesterite and stannite structures are systematically studied using first-principles calculations. Crystal field splitting, optical transitions, p-d bonding, and anti-bonding overlapping are analyzed. The physical and chemical trends in these properties are investigated with respect to the crystal structure and anion atomic number. The optical spectra, such as dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity and absorption coefficient are explored in a broad range of energy. A good agreement between the calculated results and experimental data is obtained.

  6. Core structure of screw dislocations in Fe from first-principles; Simulation ab initio des coeurs de dislocation vis dans le fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventelon, L

    2008-11-15

    The various methods appropriate for the simulation of dislocations within first-principles calculations have been set up, improved and compared between them. They have been applied to study screw dislocations in body-centered cubic iron using the SIESTA code. A non-degenerate core structure is obtained; its detailed analysis reveals a dilatation effect. Taking it into account in an anisotropic elasticity model, allows explaining the cell-size dependence of the energetics, obtained within the dipole approach. The Peierls potential obtained in ab initio suggests that the metastable core configuration at halfway position in the Peierls barrier, predicted by empirical potential, does not exist. We show how to construct tri-periodic cells optimized to study kinked dislocations. Using empirical potential, we demonstrate the feasibility of ab initio calculations of Peierls stress and kink formation. (author)

  7. The special theory of Brownian relativity: equivalence principle for dynamic and static random paths and uncertainty relation for diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A

    2007-03-15

    The theoretical basis of a recent theory of Brownian relativity for polymer solutions is deepened and reexamined. After the problem of relative diffusion in polymer solutions is addressed, its two postulates are formulated in all generality. The former builds a statistical equivalence between (uncorrelated) timelike and shapelike reference frames, that is, among dynamical trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of polymer chains. The latter defines the "diffusive horizon" as the invariant quantity to work with in the special version of the theory. Particularly, the concept of universality in polymer physics corresponds in Brownian relativity to that of covariance in the Einstein formulation. Here, a "universal" law consists of a privileged observation, performed from the laboratory rest frame and agreeing with any diffusive reference system. From the joint lack of covariance and simultaneity implied by the Brownian Lorentz-Poincaré transforms, a relative uncertainty arises, in a certain analogy with quantum mechanics. It is driven by the difference between local diffusion coefficients in the liquid solution. The same transformation class can be used to infer Fick's second law of diffusion, playing here the role of a gauge invariance preserving covariance of the spacetime increments. An overall, noteworthy conclusion emerging from this view concerns the statistics of (i) static macromolecular configurations and (ii) the motion of liquid molecules, which would be much more related than expected.

  8. Biophysical modelling of phytoplankton communities from first principles using two-layered spheres: Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson Lain, L; Bernard, S; Evers-King, H

    2014-07-14

    There is a pressing need for improved bio-optical models of high biomass waters as eutrophication of coastal and inland waters becomes an increasing problem. Seasonal boom conditions in the Southern Benguela and persistent harmful algal production in various inland waters in Southern Africa present valuable opportunities for the development of such modelling capabilities. The phytoplankton-dominated signal of these waters additionally addresses an increased interest in Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) analysis. To these ends, an initial validation of a new model of Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) is presented here. This paper makes a first order comparison of two prominent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models with the EAP model, which places emphasis on explicit bio-physical modelling of the phytoplankton population as a holistic determinant of inherent optical properties. This emphasis is shown to have an impact on the ability to retrieve the detailed phytoplankton spectral scattering information necessary for PFT applications and to successfully simulate reflectance across wide ranges of physical environments, biomass, and assemblage characteristics.

  9. Electrostatic Positioning System for a free fall test at drop tower Bremen and an overview of tests for the Weak Equivalence Principle in past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, Andrea; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is at the basis of General Relativity - the best theory for gravitation today. It has been and still is tested with different methods and accuracies. In this paper an overview of tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle done in the past, developed in the present and planned for the future is given. The best result up to now is derived from the data of torsion balance experiments by Schlamminger et al. (2008). An intuitive test of the WEP consists of the comparison of the accelerations of two free falling test masses of different composition. This has been carried through by Kuroda & Mio (1989, 1990) with the up to date most precise result for this setup. There is still more potential in this method, especially with a longer free fall time and sensors with a higher resolution. Providing a free fall time of 4.74 s (9.3 s using the catapult) the drop tower of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen is a perfect facility for further improvements. In 2001 a free fall experiment with high sensitive SQUID (Superconductive QUantum Interference Device) sensors tested the WEP with an accuracy of 10-7 (Nietzsche, 2001). For optimal conditions one could reach an accuracy of 10-13 with this setup (Vodel et al., 2001). A description of this experiment and its results is given in the next part of this paper. For the free fall of macroscopic test masses it is important to start with precisely defined starting conditions concerning the positions and velocities of the test masses. An Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS) has been developed to this purpose. It is described in the last part of this paper.

  10. Verification of the weak equivalence principle of supports and heavy masses using SQUIDs; Ueberpruefung des schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips von Traegern und schwerer Masse mittels Squids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodel, W.; Nietzsche, S.; Neubert, R. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation

    2003-07-01

    The weak equivalence principle is one of the fundamental hypotheses of general relativity and one of the key elements of our physical picture of the world, but since Galileo there has been no satisfactory way of verifying it. The new SQUID technology may offer a solution. The contribution presents the experiments of Jena University. Applications are envisaged, e.g., in the STEP space mission of the NASA/ESA. [German] Das Schwache Aequivalenzprinzip ist eine der grundlegenden Hypothesen der Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie und damit einer der Grundpfeiler unseres physikalischen Weltbildes. Obwohl es seit den ersten Experimenten von Galileo Galilei am Schiefen Turm zu Pisa im Jahre 1638 bis heute schon zahlreiche und immer praeziser werdende Messungen zur Ueberpruefung der Aequivalenz von schwerer und traeger Masse gegeben hat, ist die strenge Gueltigkeit dieses fundamentalen Prinzips experimentell vergleichsweise unzureichend bestimmt. Neuere Methoden, wie der Einsatz SQUID-basierter Messtechnik und die Durchfuehrung von Experimenten auf Satelliten, lassen Verbesserungen schon in naher Zukunft erwarten, so dass theoretische Ueberlegungen zur Vereinigung aller uns bekannten physikalischen Wechselwirkungen, die eine Verletzung des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips voraussagen, experimentell eingegrenzt werden koennten. Der Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die an der Universitaet Jena entwickelte SQUID-basierte Messtechnik zum Test des Aequivalenzprinzips und fasst die bisher bei Freifallversuchen am Fallturm Bremen erzielten experimentellen Ergebnisse zusammen. Ein Ausblick auf die geplante Raumfahrtmission STEP der NASA/ESA zum Praezisionstest des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips schliesst den Beitrag ab. (orig.)

  11. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comandi, G.L.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies-of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass--if the measurement is made to the level of η≅10 -13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the 'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)-can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus

  12. GloVis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houska, Treva R.; Johnson, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis) trifold provides basic information for online access to a subset of satellite and aerial photography collections from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive. The GloVis (http://glovis.usgs.gov/) browser-based utility allows users to search and download National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), National High Altitude Photography (NHAP), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Earth Observing-1 (EO-1), Global Land Survey, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and TerraLook data. Minimum computer system requirements and customer service contact information also are included in the brochure.

  13. Virtual Interactive Space (VIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2015-01-01

    This paper shares code that enables the making of a Virtual Interactive Space (VIS) where the skin of the invisible active sensor area is dynamically responsive to the velocity of a limb e.g. hand. Used in proprioception training of movement the patch is at the core of the author’s Reafferentation...

  14. uVis Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Lauesen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Vis Studio. Instead of programming, developers apply a Drag-Drop-Set-View-Interact approach. Developers bind controls to data, and the Studio gives immediate visual feedback in the Design Panel. This is a novel feature, called What-You-Bind-Is-What- You-Get. The Studio also provides Modes that allow...

  15. uVis Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Lauesen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Vis Studio. Instead of programming, developers apply a Drag-Drop-Set-View-Interact approach. Developers bind controls to data, and the Studio gives immediate visual feedback in the Design Panel. This is a novel feature, called What-You-Bind-Is-What- You-Get. The Studio also provides Modes that allow......A toolkit facilitates the visualization development process. The process can be further enhanced by integrating the toolkits in development environments. This paper describes how the uVis toolkit, a formula-based visualiza- tion toolkit, has been extended with a development environment, called u...... developers to interact and view the visualization from the end-user's perspective without switching workspace, and Auto-Completion; a feature of the Property Grid that provides suggestions not only for the formula language syntax but also for the tables, the table elds and the relationships in the database...

  16. emotionVis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Chris; Stein, Mari-Klara; Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    trend detection to specific applications in marketing practice, such as monitoring product launches, campaigns and public relations milestones. After collecting 1.6 million user-tagged feelings from 12 million online posts that mention emotions, we utilized machine learning techniques towards building...... an automatic ‘feelings meter’; a tool for both researchers and practitioners to automatically detect emotional dimensions from text. Following several iterations, the test version has now taken shape as emotionVis, a dashboard prototype for inferring emotions from text while presenting the results for visual...

  17. The transnational ne bis in idem principle in the EU. Mutual recognition and equivalent protection of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A.E. Vervaele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The deepening and widening of European integration has led to an increase in transborder crime. Concurrent prosecution and sanctioning by several Member States is not only a problem in inter-state relations and an obstacle in the European integration process, but also a violation of the ne bis in idem principle, defined as a transnational human right in a common judicial area. This article analyzes whether and to what extent the ECHR has contributed and may continue to contribute to the development of such a common ne bis in idem standard in Europe. It is also examined whether the application of the ne bis in idem principle in classic inter-state judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the framework of the Council of Europe may make such a contribution as well. The transnational function of the ne bis in idem principle is discussed in the light of the Court of Justice’s case law on ne bis in idem in the framework of the area of Freedom, Security and Justice. Finally the inherent tension between mutual recognition and the protection of human rights in transnational justice is analyzed by looking at the insertion of the ne bis in idem principle in the Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant.

  18. Fermat's principle and the formal equivalence of local light-ray rotation and refraction at the interface between homogeneous media with a complex refractive index ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes

    2009-02-01

    We derive a formal description of local light-ray rotation in terms of complex refractive indices. We show that Fermat's principle holds, and we derive an extended Snell's law. The change in the angle of a light ray with respect to the normal of a refractive index interface is described by the modulus of the refractive index ratio; the rotation around the interface normal is described by the argument of the refractive index ratio.

  19. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  20. Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)

  1. Uranium determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in organic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Leonardo E.O.; Silva, Ieda S.; Oliveira, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of uranium in the process samples provide essential information required for nuclear process monitoring. A large number of techniques have been developed to allow uranium determination, but each technique possesses some advantages and disadvantages and cannot be applied without difficulty to all samples. The ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) is widely method used in analytical industrial processes due to its simplicity, rapidity, low costs, low generation of analytical waste, easy calibration and operation. In this study, we describe a simple and fast quantification method to determination of a high amount of uranium in organic phase (TBP/kerosene) using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The process sample was analyzed in UV-Vis and compared with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) showing similar results in both methods. The statistical tests (Student-t and Fischer) showed that the both techniques they are equivalent. (author)

  2. Rotating model for the equivalence principle paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    An idealized system is described in which two inertial frames rotate relative to one another. When a (scalar) dipole is locally at rest in one frame, a paradox arises as to whether or not it will radiate. Fluxes of energy and angular momentum and the time development of the system are discussed. Resolution of the paradox involves several unusual features, including (i) radiation by an unmoving charge, an effect discussed by Chitre, Price, and Sandberg, (ii) different power seen by relatively accelerated inertial observers, and (iii) radiation reaction due to gravitational backscattering of radiation, in agreement with the work of C. and B. DeWitt. These results are obtained, for the most part, without the complications of curved space--time

  3. The strong equivalence principle and its violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; Goldman, I.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss theoretical and observational aspects of an SEP violation. They present a two-times theory as a possible framework to handle an SEP violation and summarize the tests performed to check the compatibility of such violation with a host of data ranging from nucleosynthesis to geophysics. They also discuss the dynamical equations needed to analyze radar ranging data to reveal an SEP violation and in particular the method employed by Shapiro and Reasenberg. (Auth.)

  4. Runaway dilaton and equivalence principle violations

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Veneziano, Gabriele; Damour, Thibault; Piazza, Federico; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    In a recently proposed scenario, where the dilaton decouples while cosmologically attracted towards infinite bare string coupling, its residual interactions can be related to the amplitude of density fluctuations generated during inflation, and are large enough to be detectable through a modest improvement on present tests of free-fall universality. Provided it has significant couplings to either dark matter or dark energy, a runaway dilaton can also induce time-variations of the natural "constants" within the reach of near-future experiments.

  5. Floyd's principle, correctness theories and program equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Tiuryn, J.; Tucker, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    A programming system is a language made from a fixed class of data abstractions and a selection of familiar deterministic control and assignment constructs. It is shown that the sets of all ‘before-after’ first-order assertions which are true of programs in any such language can uniquely determine

  6. DC cancellation as a method of generating a t2-response and of solving the radial position error in a concentric free-falling two-sphere equivalence-principle experiment in a drag-free satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for doing a free-fall equivalence-principle (EP) experiment in a satellite at ambient temperature which solves two problems that have previously blocked this approach. By using large masses to change the gravity gradient at the proof masses, the orbit dynamics of a drag-free satellite may be changed in such a way that the experiment can mimic a free-fall experiment in a constant gravitational field on the earth. An experiment using a sphere surrounded by a spherical shell both completely unsupported and free falling has previously been impractical because (1) it is not possible to distinguish between a small EP violation and a slight difference in the semi-major axes of the orbits of the two proof masses and (2) the position difference in the orbit due to an EP violation only grows as t whereas the largest disturbance grows as t 3/2 . Furthermore, it has not been known how to independently measure the positions of a shell and a solid sphere with sufficient accuracy. The measurement problem can be solved by using a two-color transcollimator (see the main text), and since the radial-position-error and t-response problems arise from the earth's gravity gradient and not from its gravity field, one solution is to modify the earth's gravity gradient with local masses fixed in the satellite. Since the gravity gradient at the surface of a sphere, for example, depends only on its density, the gravity gradients of laboratory masses and of the earth unlike their fields are of the same order of magnitude. In a drag-free satellite spinning perpendicular to the orbit plane, two fixed spherical masses whose connecting line parallels the satellite spin axis can generate a dc gravity gradient at test masses located between them which cancels the combined gravity gradient of the earth and differential centrifugal force. With perfect cancellation, the position-error problem vanishes and the response grows as t 2 along a line which always points toward

  7. Depopulation of Vis Island, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses population dynamics of Vis Island along with geographic, demographic and social features related to this process. Data from demographic statistics and research results show that Vis Island has been affected by strong populational regression. This process originated at the beginning of the 20th century, and intensified after the Second World War. Depopulation was generated by retardation in socio-economic development, but it was directly caused by centennial emigration. At the beginning of 1960s, natural decrease occurred as another important cause of depopulation. It was the result of postponed effect of emigration, demographic losses in world wars and birth rate transition (changes in number of children per family. Long-term unfavorable demographic processes (emigration, depopulation, demographic aging, reduced birth rates have led to weakening of (bioreproduction and vital potential. The above-mentioned fact has also influencedthe age structure of the population. Population of Vis Island has aged and belongs to a particular demographic type named very old population. However, depopulation, that used to be the result of social phenomena, has become an important factor of social and spatial processes.

  8. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  9. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-`a-vis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    index vis-`a-vis increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra ... in the district scale are identified by trend analysis of rainfall time series. ... for better disaster management and water resource ..... productivity and irrigation water supply in the con-.

  10. Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

  11. Decompositional equivalence: A fundamental symmetry underlying quantum theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Decompositional equivalence is the principle that there is no preferred decomposition of the universe into subsystems. It is shown here, by using simple thought experiments, that quantum theory follows from decompositional equivalence together with Landauer's principle. This demonstration raises within physics a question previously left to psychology: how do human - or any - observers agree about what constitutes a "system of interest"?

  12. An Evaluation of Grades 9 and 10 Mathematics Textbooks Vis-À-Vis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Evaluation of Grades 9 and 10 Mathematics Textbooks Vis-À-Vis Fostering Problem Solving Skills. ... Document analysis was carried out on the two textbooks using Mathematics Material Analysis Instrument (MMAI) developed by Karen (1997). Interview was held with two experts from Institute of Curriculum Development ...

  13. An Evaluation of Grades 9 and 10 Mathematics Textbooks Vis-À-Vis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Evaluation of Grades 9 and 10 Mathematics Textbooks Vis-À-Vis Fostering Problem Solving Skills. ... Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  14. The performance effects of attitudes of management vis-à-vis employee representatives in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Annette; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Boone, Christophe; Van der Brempt, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to move beyond the usual analysis of the effects of worker representation. Instead of estimating the impact of the mere presence of works councils on business achievements, the focus is on the performance effects of managerial attitudes vis-à-vis worker representation.

  15. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  16. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.

    2009-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds

  17. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The

  18. On the operator equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.

    1978-06-01

    A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined

  19. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  20. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  1. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  2. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  3. The Principle of General Tovariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  4. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  5. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  6. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.M.

    1978-03-01

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr

  7. Mathematically equivalent hydraulic analogue for teaching the pharmcokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atracurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkelen, A.L.J.M.; Meurs, van W.L.; Ohrn, M.A.K.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the mathematical equivalence between the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model of the neuromuscular blocking agent atracurium and a hydraulic analogue that includes harmacodynamic principles.

  8. Nonextensive entropies derived from Gauss' principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Tatsuaki

    2011-01-01

    Gauss' principle in statistical mechanics is generalized for a q-exponential distribution in nonextensive statistical mechanics. It determines the associated stochastic and statistical nonextensive entropies which satisfy Greene-Callen principle concerning on the equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles. - Highlights: → Nonextensive entropies are derived from Gauss' principle and ensemble equivalence. → Gauss' principle is generalized for a q-exponential distribution. → I have found the condition for satisfying Greene-Callen principle. → The associated statistical q-entropy is found to be normalized Tsallis entropy.

  9. The equivalence theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, H.

    1990-01-01

    The equivalence theorem states that, at an energy E much larger than the vector-boson mass M, the leading order of the amplitude with longitudinally polarized vector bosons on mass shell is given by the amplitude in which these vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding Higgs ghosts. We prove the equivalence theorem and show its validity in every order in perturbation theory. We first derive the renormalized Ward identities by using the diagrammatic method. Only the Feynman-- 't Hooft gauge is discussed. The last step of the proof includes the power-counting method evaluated in the large-Higgs-boson-mass limit, needed to estimate the leading energy behavior of the amplitudes involved. We derive expressions for the amplitudes involving longitudinally polarized vector bosons for all orders in perturbation theory. The fermion mass has not been neglected and everything is evaluated in the region m f ∼M much-lt E much-lt m Higgs

  10. New test of the equivalence principle from lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dicke, R. H.; Bender, P. L.; Alley, C. O.; Currie, D. G.; Carter, W. E.; Eckhardt, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of six years of lunar-laser-ranging data gives a zero amplitude for the Nordtvedt term in the earth-moon distance yielding the Nordtvedt parameter eta = 0.00 plus or minus 0.03. Thus, earth's gravitational self-energy contributes equally, plus or minus 3%, to its inertial mass and passive gravitational mass. At the 70% confidence level this result is only consistent with the Brans-Dicke theory for omega greater than 29. We obtain the absolute value of beta - 1 less than about 0.02 to 0.05 for five-parameter parametrized post-Newtonian theories of gravitation with energy-momentum conservation.

  11. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be

  12. Principle of equivalence and a theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelupsky, D.

    1985-01-01

    We examine a well-known thought experiment often used to explain why we should expect a ray of light to be bent by gravity; according to this the light bends downward in the gravitational field because this is just what an observer would see if there were no field and he were accelerating upward instead. We show that this description of the action of Newtonian gravity in a flat space-time corresponds to an old two-index symmetric tensor field theory of gravitation

  13. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  14. UV/VIS spektrofotometrie a možnosti jejího využití v rámci vzdělávání učitelů chemie

    OpenAIRE

    Hejsková, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    This master's thesis discusses the use of UV/VIS spectrophotometry in chemistry teacher education. Optical methods principles are described in theoretical part of the thesis, and. the main part is dedicated to UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Tasks for quantifying and qualifying substances determination are described in experimental part. Educational tasks are described in a way so that chemistry teachers could use for instructions.

  15. Recent hydrogeologic study of the Vis island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislav Kapelj

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vis Island belongs to the group of the Middle Dalmatian islands. It comprises an area of about 90.2 km2. Morphologically, three belts of highlands and two depressions with karst poljes are significant. The highest point on the island is Hum with 587 m a.s.l. theisland’s water supply is organized from the water-supply station “Korita”, situated in the central part of island, in tectonically formed depression. There are two additional capturedobjects: the well K-1 above the Komiža town and the spring “Pizdica”. The most important hydrogeological role on the island have two hydrogeological barriers, one in the KomižaBay, completely made of impermeable igneous and clastic rocks, and another one, the recently recognized relative barrier in the area of Dra~evo, Plisko and Velo polje. Since the island karst aquifer is in permanent dynamic relation with seawater, classical geologic,structural and hydrogeologic investigations have been performed with application of hydrogeochemical methods taking into account the natural chemical tracer content of groundwater and its variations in different hydrologic and vegetation conditions. Precipitationregime is very unfavorable with regard to the recharging of island’s aquifer, because dry periods are usually very long. During the summer tourist season, when the number of inhabitants and fresh water consumption considerably increase, amounts of island’sgroundwater suitable for water supply and irrigation rapidly decrease. Sometimes, insufficient quantity of fresh water on the Vis Island causes restrictions. Concerning the development of tourist potential and the present agricultural activities, summer lack ofwater is a serious restrictive factor. Some results of the performed hydrogeological study, important as a basis for island’s fresh water potential assessment, will be presented.

  16. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  17. Karl Marx vis-à-vis Max Weber: perspectiva comparada das visões acerca do Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe Ramos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda a distinção analítica entre Marx e Weber, em relação ao tema do Estado. A hipótese é de que ambos os autores, a despeito do que pode parecer à primeira vista, estavam imbuídos da impossibilidade de um Estado impessoal, o que remete, em última instância, à politização do Estado. O que parece claro na visão de Marx é, contudo, obscurecido pela construção metodológica (e epistemológica de Weber, com base na busca constante da objetividade do conhecimento, a partir de uma ciência que se afasta do engajamento político e da importância das categorias analíticas da burocracia e racionalização. Essa dificuldade de construir uma análise crítica da proposta weberiana pode ser esclarecida, contudo, constituindo uma análise do Estado, em oposição à esfera de legitimação do Estado moderno que se encontra claramente na burocracia, cuja característica maior é a impessoalidade, a partir da descrição de suas instâncias de decisão – um elemento político sobre a burocracia. A análise marxiana do Estado classista, por sua vez, também precisa ter suas nuances analisadas de acordo com o próprio amadurecimento teórico do autor, que, em suas obras de análise de eventos históricos escritas tardiamente, torna complexa a classificação do Estado, demonstrando suas aporias e disputas internas, para além de sua visão inicialmente instrumental do Estado.

  18. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  19. Visualization Software for VisIT Java Client

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The VisIT Java Client (JVC) library is a lightweight thin client that is designed and written purely in the native language of Java (the Python & JavaScript versions of the library use the same concept) and communicates with any new unmodified standalone version of VisIT, a high performance computing parallel visualization toolkit, over traditional or web sockets and dynamically determines capabilities of the running VisIT instance whether local or remote.

  20. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merced Montesinos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  1. New recommendations for dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)

  2. System equivalent model mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  3. Experimental method research on neutron equal dose-equivalent detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1995-10-01

    The design principles of neutron dose-equivalent meter for neutron biological equi-effect detection are studied. Two traditional principles 'absorption net principle' and 'multi-detector principle' are discussed, and on the basis of which a new theoretical principle for neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' has been put forward to place high hope on both increasing neutron sensitivity of this type of meters and overcoming the shortages of the two traditional methods. In accordance with this new principle a brand-new model of neutron dose-equivalent meter BH3105 has been developed. Its neutron sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), 18∼40 times higher than that of all the same kinds of meters 0.23∼0.56 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), available today at home and abroad and the specifications of the newly developed meter reach or surpass the levels of the same kind of meters. Therefore the new theoretical principle of neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' is proved to be scientific, advanced and useful by experiments. (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  4. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  5. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  6. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-12

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  7. A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.

  8. The Application of Equivalence Theory to Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2017-01-01

    Through analyzing equivalence theory, the author tries to find a solution to the problems arising in the process of ad?vertising translation. These problems include cultural diversity, language diversity and special requirement of advertisement. The author declares that Nida''s functional equivalence is one of the most appropriate theories to deal with these problems. In this pa?per, the author introduces the principles of advertising translation and culture divergences in advertising translation, and then gives some advertising translation practices to explain and analyze how to create good advertising translation by using functional equivalence. At last, the author introduces some strategies in advertising translation.

  9. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  10. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  11. Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

  12. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  13. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  14. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  15. A study on lead equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guanxin

    1991-01-01

    A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested

  16. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  17. Maquet principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-04-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.

  18. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  19. VisTool: A user interface and visualization development system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shangjin

    system – to simplify user interface development. VisTool allows user interface development without real programming. With VisTool a designer assembles visual objects (e.g. textboxes, ellipse, etc.) to visualize database contents. In VisTool, visual properties (e.g. color, position, etc.) can be formulas...... programming. However, in Software Engineering, software engineers who develop user interfaces do not follow it. In many cases, it is desirable to use graphical presentations, because a graphical presentation gives a better overview than text forms, and can improve task efficiency and user satisfaction....... However, it is more difficult to follow the classical usability approach for graphical presentation development. These difficulties result from the fact that designers cannot implement user interface with interactions and real data. We developed VisTool – a user interface and visualization development...

  20. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  1. Socio-demographic profile of patients with sarcoidosis vis-à-vis tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D; Vinay, N; Agarwal, R; Agarwal, A N

    2013-11-25

    Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis closely resemble each other and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been implicated as a causative agent for sarcoidosis. Herein we explore the socio-demographic features of patients with sarcoidosis vis-a-vis tuberculosis. In a prospective case-control design, we studied hundred patients each of newly diagnosed sarcoidosis, bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy controls. Socio-demographic profile was recorded on a standardized questionnaire. Information about tobacco smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cooking fuels was also collected. Various parameters were compared among the three groups. Compared to tuberculosis, patients with sarcoidosis were elder, had better body mass index (BMI), higher urban residence (OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.02-4.69), were better educated (ORs 8.50 to 74.25 for different categories), had higher per capita income (OR 13.33; 95% CI: 6.79-26.19) and belonged to better overall socio-economic status (SES) (ORs 8.57-195.0 for different categories). All these differences were also significant when sarcoidosis patients were compared to healthy controls albeit to a lesser degree. Tobacco smoking, ETS exposure and use of fossil/biomass fuels for cooking were more commonly seen in TB patients. In the multivariate analysis, as compared to TB or controls, sarcoidosis patients had higher odds for a better SES after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, religion, smoking, ETS exposure and cooking fuel. Patients with sarcoidosis are likely to be better educated and more affluent compared to those with tuberculosis and healthy controls and this can be useful in clinical differential diagnosis of the two conditions in populations with high prevalence of TB.

  2. WebVis: a hierarchical web homepage visualizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Jose C.; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2000-02-01

    WebVis, the Hierarchical Web Home Page Visualizer, is a tool for managing home web pages. The user can access this tool via the WWW and obtain a hierarchical visualization of one's home web pages. WebVis is a real time interactive tool that supports many different queries on the statistics of internal files such as sizes, age, and type. In addition, statistics on embedded information such as VRML files, Java applets, images and sound files can be extracted and queried. Results of these queries are visualized using color, shape and size of different nodes of the hierarchy. The visualization assists the user in a variety of task, such as quickly finding outdated information or locate large files. WebVIs is one solution to the growing web space maintenance problem. Implementation of WebVis is realized with Perl and Java. Perl pattern matching and file handling routines are used to collect and process web space linkage information and web document information. Java utilizes the collected information to produce visualization of the web space. Java also provides WebVis with real time interactivity, while running off the WWW. Some WebVis examples of home web page visualization are presented.

  3. What is correct: equivalent dose or dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In Croatian language some physical quantities in radiation protection dosimetry have not precise names. Consequently, in practice either terms in English or mathematical formulas are used. The situation is even worse since the Croatian language only a limited number of textbooks, reference books and other papers are available. This paper compares the concept of ''dose equivalent'' as outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations No. 26 and newest, conceptually different concept of ''equivalent dose'' which is introduced in ICRP 60. It was found out that Croatian terminology is both not uniform and unprecise. For the term ''dose equivalent'' was, under influence of Russian and Serbian languages, often used as term ''equivalent dose'' even from the point of view of ICRP 26 recommendations, which was not justified. Unfortunately, even now, in Croatia the legal unit still ''dose equivalent'' defined as in ICRP 26, but the term used for it is ''equivalent dose''. Therefore, in Croatian legislation a modified set of quantities introduced in ICRP 60, should be incorporated as soon as possible

  4. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  5. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  6. Thermal versus high pressure processing of carrots: A comparative pilot-scale study on equivalent basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, L.; Plancken, Van der L.; Grauwet, T.; Verlinde, P.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first study comparing different high pressure (HP) and thermal treatments at intensities ranging from mild pasteurization to sterilization conditions. To allow a fair comparison, the processing conditions were selected based on the principles of equivalence. Moreover,

  7. Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)

  8. SemVisM: semantic visualizer for medical image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, Luis; La Cruz, Alexandra; Baranya, Alexander; Vidal, María.-Esther

    2015-01-01

    SemVisM is a toolbox that combines medical informatics and computer graphics tools for reducing the semantic gap between low-level features and high-level semantic concepts/terms in the images. This paper presents a novel strategy for visualizing medical data annotated semantically, combining rendering techniques, and segmentation algorithms. SemVisM comprises two main components: i) AMORE (A Modest vOlume REgister) to handle input data (RAW, DAT or DICOM) and to initially annotate the images using terms defined on medical ontologies (e.g., MesH, FMA or RadLex), and ii) VOLPROB (VOlume PRObability Builder) for generating the annotated volumetric data containing the classified voxels that belong to a particular tissue. SemVisM is built on top of the semantic visualizer ANISE.1

  9. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  10. Conditions for equivalence of statistical ensembles in nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, Swagata; Chaudhuri, Gargi

    2012-01-01

    Statistical models based on canonical and grand canonical ensembles are extensively used to study intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions. The underlying physical assumption behind canonical and grand canonical models is fundamentally different, and in principle agree only in the thermodynamical limit when the number of particles become infinite. Nevertheless, we show that these models are equivalent in the sense that they predict similar results if certain conditions are met even for finite nuclei. In particular, the results converge when nuclear multifragmentation leads to the formation of predominantly nucleons and low mass clusters. The conditions under which the equivalence holds are amenable to present day experiments.

  11. BH3105 type neutron dose equivalent meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Enshan; Yang Jianfeng; Zhang Hong; Huang Jiling

    1995-10-01

    It is noted that to design a neutron dose meter of high sensitivity is almost impossible in the frame of traditional designing principle--'absorption net principle'. Based on a newly proposed principle of obtaining neutron dose equi-biological effect adjustment--' absorption stick principle', a brand-new neutron dose-equivalent meter with high neutron sensitivity BH3105 has been developed. Its sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), which is 18∼40 times higher than one of foreign products of the same kind and is 10 4 times higher than that of domestic FJ342 neutron rem-meter. BH3105 has a measurement range from 0.1μSv/h to 1 Sv/h which is 1 or 2 orders wider than that of the other's. It has the advanced properties of gamma-resistance, energy response, orientation, etc. (6 tabs., 5 figs.)

  12. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  13. [Study on predicting firmness of watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Qing; Ying, Yi-Bin; Lu, Hui-Shan; Xu, Hui-Rong; Xie, Li-Juan; Fu, Xia-Ping; Yu, Hai-Yan

    2007-06-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world and firmness (FM) is one of the major characteristics used for assessing watermelon quality. The objective of the present research was to study the potential of visible/near Infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance spectroscopy as a way for the nondestructive measurement of FM of watermelon. Statistical models between the spectra and FM were developed using partial least square (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) methods. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients (r) of validation set of samples and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP). Models for three kinds of mathematical treatments of spectra (original, first derivative and second derivative) were established. Savitsky-Goaly filter smoothing method was used for spectra data smoothing. The PLS model of the second derivative spectra gave the best prediction of FM, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0. 974 and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 0. 589 N using Savitsky-Goaly filter smoothing method. The results of this study indicate that NIR diffuse transmittance spectroscopy can be used to predict the FM of watermelon. The Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique will be valuable for the nandestructive detection large shape and thick peel fruits'.

  14. Characterization of cytochrome c as marker for retinal cell degeneration by uv/vis spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmach, Julia; Schweizer, Julia; Steiner, Gerald; Knels, Lilla; Funk, Richard H. W.; Thalheim, Silko; Koch, Edmund

    2011-07-01

    Retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration have become an important cause of visual loss depending on increasing life expectancy and lifestyle habits. Due to the fact that no satisfying treatment exists, early diagnosis and prevention are the only possibilities to stop the degeneration. The protein cytochrome c (cyt c) is a suitable marker for degeneration processes and apoptosis because it is a part of the respiratory chain and involved in the apoptotic pathway. The determination of the local distribution and oxidative state of cyt c in living cells allows the characterization of cell degeneration processes. Since cyt c exhibits characteristic absorption bands between 400 and 650 nm wavelength, uv/vis in situ spectroscopic imaging was used for its characterization in retinal ganglion cells. The large amount of data, consisting of spatial and spectral information, was processed by multivariate data analysis. The challenge consists in the identification of the molecular information of cyt c. Baseline correction, principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed in order to identify cyt c within the spectral dataset. The combination of PCA and CA reveals cyt c and its oxidative state. The results demonstrate that uv/vis spectroscopic imaging in conjunction with sophisticated multivariate methods is a suitable tool to characterize cyt c under in situ conditions.

  15. DisVis: Visualizing Discussion Threads in Online Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakikj, Drashko; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals turn to online health communities (OHC) for information, advice and support about their health condition or disease. As a result of users' active participation, these forums store overwhelming volumes of information, which can make access to this information challenging and frustrating. To help overcome this problem we designed a discussion visualization tool DisVis. DisVis includes features for overviewing, browsing and finding particular information in a discussion. In a between subjects study, we tested the impact of DisVis on individuals' ability to provide an overview of a discussion, find topics of interest and summarize opinions. The study showed that after using the tool, the accuracy of participants' answers increased by 68% (p-value = 0.023) while at the same time exhibiting trends for reducing the time to answer by 38% with no statistical significance (p-value = 0.082). Qualitative interviews showed general enthusiasm regarding tools for improving browsing and searching for information within discussion forums, suggested different usage scenarios, highlighted opportunities for improving the design of DisVis, and outlined new directions for visualizing user-generated content within OHCs.

  16. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; Ruth, van Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-01-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in

  17. Outlier detection in UV/Vis spectrophotometric data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepot, M.J.; Aubin, Jean Baptiste; Clemens, F.H.L.R.; Mašić, Alma

    2017-01-01

    UV/Vis spectrophotometers have been used to monitor water quality since the early 2000s. Calibration of these devices requires sampling campaigns to elaborate relations between recorded spectra and measured concentrations. In order to build robust calibration data sets, several spectra must be

  18. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  19. GlottoVis : Visualizing Language Endangerment and Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, T.H.A.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.; Westenberg, M.A.; Hammarström, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present GlottoVis, a system designed to visualize language endangerment as collected by UNESCO and descriptive status as collected by the Glottolog project. Glottolog records bibliographic data for the world’s (lesser known) languages. Languages are documented with increasing detail, but the

  20. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems.

  1. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  2. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method

    OpenAIRE

    Frantisek Jelenciak; Michael Gerke; Ulrich Borgolte

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM) as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a...

  3. Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie

    2016-06-01

    Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices.

  4. Application of the general principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristic feature of radiation protection is that of a unitary approach vis-a-vis a coherent set of concepts and general principles and the ensuing systems of standards. This situation creates favourable conditions for guaranteeing quality control. However, the benefit of radiation protection would be limited if the doctrine, principles and standards were merely a theoretical administrative and technocratic system: it is essential that these doctrines, principles and standards should lead to concrete action at all stages of development, from design right up to daily operational procedures. This requires on the part of all those involved, and at all levels, a spirit of discipline and openness where there must be both common sense and respect for the rules. It also requires the constraint of the regulation which is comprehensive, precise, clear and which cannot be evaded. In short, it must be enforceable. Even if the situation in the nuclear industry vis-a-vis radiological safety cannot be called ideal, it is totally satisfactory, both for members of the public and for workers. This is the main topic developed in the report

  5. The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, Matthew S.; Forget, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power

  6. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  7. Equivalent nozzle in thermomechanical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.

    1977-01-01

    When analyzing nuclear vessels, it is most important to study the behavior of the nozzle cylinder-cylinder intersection. For the elastic field, this analysis in three dimensions is quite easy using the method of finite elements. The same analysis in the non-linear field becomes difficult for designs in 3-D. It is therefore necessary to resolve a nozzle in two dimensions equivalent to a 3-D nozzle. The purpose of the present work is to find an equivalent nozzle both with a mechanical and thermal load. This has been achieved by the analysis in three dimensions of a nozzle and a nozzle cylinder-sphere intersection, of a different radius. The equivalent nozzle will be a nozzle with a sphere radius in a given ratio to the radius of a cylinder; thus, the maximum equivalent stress is the same in both 2-D and 3-D. The nozzle examined derived from the intersection of a cylindrical vessel of radius R=191.4 mm and thickness T=6.7 mm with a cylindrical nozzle of radius r=24.675 mm and thickness t=1.350 mm, for which the experimental results for an internal pressure load are known. The structure was subdivided into 96 finite, three-dimensional and isoparametric elements with 60 degrees of freedom and 661 total nodes. Both the analysis with a mechanical load as well as the analysis with a thermal load were carried out on this structure according to the Bersafe system. The thermal load consisted of a transient typical of an accident occurring in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, with a peak of the temperature (540 0 C) for the sodium inside the vessel with an insulating argon temperature constant at 525 0 C. The maximum value of the equivalent tension was found in the internal area at the union towards the vessel side. The analysis of the nozzle in 2-D consists in schematizing the structure as a cylinder-sphere intersection, where the sphere has a given relation to the

  8. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  9. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  10. Wijsman Orlicz Asymptotically Ideal -Statistical Equivalent Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2013-01-01

    in Wijsman sense and present some definitions which are the natural combination of the definition of asymptotic equivalence, statistical equivalent, -statistical equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense. Finally, we introduce the notion of Cesaro Orlicz asymptotically -equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense and establish their relationship with other classes.

  11. Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  12. A study of principle and testing of piezoelectric transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiyue; Wang Yanfang; Huang Yihua; Shi Jun

    2002-01-01

    The operating principle and structure of a kind of piezoelectric transformer which can be used in a particle accelerator are investigated. The properties of piezoelectric transformer are tested through equivalent circuit combined with experiment

  13. Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)

  14. Applications of derivative UV/VIS spectroscopy in water analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    Derivative UV/VIS spectra offer new possibilities in determination and identification of trace substances in waters, suspended matter, and in sediments. Aromatics and their derivatives, such as alkyl-benzene-sulfonates, esters of phthalic acid, alkyl-phenol-oxethylates etc., but also non-aromatic substances with a π-bond can be identified. Compounds showing no absorption in the UV/VIS range can be detected by adding a suitable corectant, e.g. cationic detergents by means of disulfin-blue of BiJ 4 - . Normally, a clean-up is necessary. The recommended procedure is two- or multi-stage chromatography on adsorbing layers of silica gel or aluminium oxide. Thus, numerous substances can be identified and quantified at levels as low as 5 microgram. In some cases, it will be useful to supplement the method by fluorescent spectra of higher orders. (orig.) [de

  15. A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachuk, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces.  An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch.   The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as  the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...

  16. Shad Garbhakara Bhavas vis-a-vis congenital and genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Kamini; Kumar, Abhimanayu; Dhiman, K S

    2010-04-01

    Despite the advancements in diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions, medical science has failed to keep the incidence of congenital malformations under control. Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical system has given due emphasis on this and postulated various measures to minimize the risks. These measures start well before conception. According to Ayurvedic principles, proper preparation of the parents is an essential prerequisite for a healthy progeny. Pre-conception care is a set of interventions that identifies biomedical behavioral and social risks to the health of the mother and the baby. It includes both-prevention and management, emphasizing health issues that require action before conception, very early in pregnancy, for maximal impact. For meeting the objective of healthy progeny, Ayurveda scholars felt the importance of six procreative factors (Shadgarbhkarabhavas) such as Matrija, Pitrija, Aatmaja, Rasaja, Satmyaja, and Sattvaja. The conglomeration of these procreative factors is must for healthy progeny. The physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being of the person, proper nutrition of the mother during pregnancy, and practice of a wholesome regimen, play a prime role in achieving a healthy offspring, thus structuring a healthy family, society, and nation. Negligence toward any of these factors becomes a cause for unhealthy and defective child birth. The present literary / conceptual study, thus focuses mainly on interpreting these observations, on the basis of modern scientific knowledge.

  17. Usable Security and E-Banking: ease of use vis-a-vis security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hertzum

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic banking must be secure and easy to use. An evaluation of six Danish web-based electronic banking systems indicates that the systems have serious weaknesses with respect to ease of use. Our analysis of the weaknesses suggests that security requirements are among their causes and that the weaknesses may in turn cause decreased security. We view the conflict between ease of use and security in the context of usable security, a concept that is intended to match security principles and demands against user knowledge and motivation. Automation, instruction, and understanding can be identified as different approaches to usable security. Instruction is the main approach of the systems evaluated; automation relieves the user from involvement in security, as far as possible; and understanding goes beyond step-by-step instructions, to enable users to act competently and safely in situations that transcend preconceived instructions. We discuss the pros and cons of automation and understanding as alternative approaches to the design of web-based e-banking systems.

  18. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  19. Photodetachment and UV-Vis spectral properties of Cl2rad -·nHO clusters: Extrapolation to bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A. K.; Mukherjee, T.; Maity, D. K.

    2008-03-01

    Vertical detachment energy (VDE) and UV-Vis spectra of Cl2rad -·nHO clusters ( n = 1-11) are reported based on first principle electronic structure calculations. VDE of the hydrated clusters are calculated following second order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) as well as coupled cluster theory with 6-311++G(d,p) set of basis function. The excess electron in these hydrated clusters is mainly localized over the solute Cl atoms. A linear relationship is obtained for VDE vs. ( n + 2.6) -1/3 and bulk VDE of Cl2rad - aqueous solution is calculated as 10.61 eV at CCSD(T) level of theory. UV-Vis spectra of these hydrated clusters are calculated applying CI with single electron (CIS) excitation procedure. Simulated UV-Vis spectra of Cl2rad -·10HO cluster is noted to be in excellent agreement with the reported spectra of Cl2rad - (aq) system, λmax for Cl2rad -·11HO system is calculated to be red shifted though.

  20. VariVis: a visualisation toolkit for variation databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Timothy D

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the Human Genome Project and recent advancements in mutation detection technologies, the volume of data available on genetic variations has risen considerably. These data are stored in online variation databases and provide important clues to the cause of diseases and potential side effects or resistance to drugs. However, the data presentation techniques employed by most of these databases make them difficult to use and understand. Results Here we present a visualisation toolkit that can be employed by online variation databases to generate graphical models of gene sequence with corresponding variations and their consequences. The VariVis software package can run on any web server capable of executing Perl CGI scripts and can interface with numerous Database Management Systems and "flat-file" data files. VariVis produces two easily understandable graphical depictions of any gene sequence and matches these with variant data. While developed with the goal of improving the utility of human variation databases, the VariVis package can be used in any variation database to enhance utilisation of, and access to, critical information.

  1. Thermomechanical architecture of the VIS focal plane for Euclid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, Jerome; Carty, Michael; Tourette, Thierry; Bachet, Damien; Berthe, Michel; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Amiaux, Jerome; Fontignie, Jean; Horeau, Benoit; Renaud, Diana

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges for current and near future space experiments is the increase of focal plane complexity in terms of amount of pixels. In the frame work of the ESA Euclid mission to be launched in 2020, the Euclid Consortium is developing an extremely large and stable focal plane for the VIS instrument. CEA has developed the thermomechanical architecture of that Focal Plane taking into account all the very stringent performance and mission related requirements. The VIS Focal Plane Assembly integrates 36 CCDs (operated at 150 K) connected to their front end electronics (operated at 280 K) as to obtain one of the largest focal plane (0.6 billion pixels) ever built for space application after the GAIA one. The CCDs are CCD273 type specially designed and provided by the e2v company under ESA contract, front end electronics is studied and provided by MSSL. In this paper we first recall the specific requirements that have driven the overall architecture of the VIS-FPA and especially the solutions proposed to cope with the scientific needs of an extremely stable focal plane, both mechanically and thermally. The mechanical structure based on SiC material used for the cold sub assembly supporting the CCDs is detailed. We describe also the modular architecture concept that we have selected taking into account AIT-AIV and programmatic constraints. (authors)

  2. User Manual for SAHM package for VisTrails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, C.B.; Talbert, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The Software for Assisted Habitat I\\•1odeling (SAHM) has been created to both expedite habitat modeling and help maintain a record of the various input data, pre-and post-processing steps and modeling options incorporated in the construction of a species distribution model. The four main advantages to using the combined VisTrail: SAHM package for species distribution modeling are: 1. formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process 2. easier collaboration through a common modeling framework 3. a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output 4. extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. This user manual provides detailed information on each module within the SAHM package, their input, output, common connections, optional arguments, and default settings. This information can also be accessed for individual modules by right clicking on the documentation button for any module in VisTrail or by right clicking on any input or output for a module and selecting view documentation. This user manual is intended to accompany the user guide which provides detailed instructions on how to install the SAHM package within VisTrails and then presents information on the use of the package.

  3. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. Critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 [1] methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. The effective dose equivalent determined using ICRP-26 methods is significantly smaller than the dose equivalent determined by traditional methods. No existing personnel dosimeter or health physics instrument can determine effective dose equivalent. At the present time, the conversion of dosimeter response to dose equivalent is based on calculations for maximal or ''cap'' values using homogeneous spherical or cylindrical phantoms. The evaluated dose equivalent is, therefore, a poor approximation of the effective dose equivalent as defined by ICRP Publication 26. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Migratory Trends in the Czech Republic: “Divergence or Convergence” vis-a-vis the Developed World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drbohlav

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyse whether the geopolitical and socio-economic integration and “harmonisation” of the Czech Republic with Western Europe is accompanied by a divergence or convergence of the Czech migratory reality vis-a-vis the developed western world. When testing resemblance two kinds of measurements are used: 1 quantitative – (in terms of the numbers of international migrants, and 2 “qualitative” – a in terms of regularities linked with the migration itself and those that tackle mutual relationships among immigration, the socio-economic development of the destination country and subjective attitudes of the majority population towards minority groups: 3 hypotheses are tested in this regard; b in terms of migratory policies and practices. The results clearly show us that convergence rather than divergence is characteristic of the current migratory trends in the Czech Republic as compared to the developed world, mainly Western Europe.

  5. Mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles decorated KTaO3 photocatalysts with improved Vis and UV-Vis light activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Anna; Trykowski, Grzegorz; Winiarski, Michal Jerzy; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Lisowski, Wojciech; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Pinto, Henry P.; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2018-05-01

    Novel mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles (MNPs and BNPs) decorated surface of perovskite-type KTaO3 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of KTaO3 followed by photodeposition of MNPs/BNPs. The effect of noble metal type (MNPs = Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or BNPs = Au/Pt, Ag/Pd, Rh/Ru), amount of metal precursor (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 wt%) as well as photoreduction method (simultaneous (both) or subsequent (seq) deposition of two metals) on the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of MNPs- and BNPs-KTaO3 have been investigated. All as-prepared photocatalysts were subsequently characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore size distribution measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The crystal structure was performed using visualization for electronic and structural analysis (VESTA). The photocatalytic activity under Vis light irradiation was estimated in phenol degradation in aqueous phase and toluene removal in gas phase, while under UV-Vis light irradiation was measured amount of H2 generation from formic acid solution. The absorption properties of O2 and H2O molecules on KTaO3(1 0 0) surface supported by Au or Au/Pt NPs was also investigated using density-functional theory (DFT). The experimental results show that, both MNPs-KTaO3 and BNPs-KTaO3 exhibit greatly enhanced pollutant decomposition efficiency under Vis light irradiation and highly improved H2 production under UV-Vis light irradiation compared with pristine KTaO3. MNPs deposition on KTaO3 surface effects by disperse metal particle size ranging from 11 nm (Ru NPs) to 112 nm (Au NPs). Simultaneous addition of Au/Pt precursors results in formation of agglomerated

  6. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  7. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  8. Radiological equivalent of chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has caused continued effort toward public safety through radiation health protection measures and nuclear management practices. However, concern has not been focused on the development specifically in the operation of chemical pestrochemical industries as well as other industrial processes brought about by technological advancements. This article presents the comparison of the risk of radiation and chemicals. The methods used for comparing the risks of late effects of radiation and chemicals are considered at three levels. (a) as a frame of reference to give an impression of resolving power of biological tests; (b) as methods to quantify risks; (c) as instruments for an epidemiological survey of human populations. There are marked dissimilarities between chemicals and radiation and efforts to interpret chemical activity may not be achieved. Applicability of the concept of rad equivalence has many restrictions and as pointed out this approach is not an established one. (RTD)

  9. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  10. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  11. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  12. Investigation of Equivalent Circuit for PEMFC Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Kwang Jae

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions occurring in a PEMFC are dominated by the physical conditions and interface properties, and the reactions are expressed in terms of impedance. The performance of a PEMFC can be simply diagnosed by examining the impedance because impedance characteristics can be expressed by an equivalent electrical circuit. In this study, the characteristics of a PEMFC are assessed using the AC impedance and various equivalent circuits such as a simple equivalent circuit, equivalent circuit with a CPE, equivalent circuit with two RCs, and equivalent circuit with two CPEs. It was found in this study that the characteristics of a PEMFC could be assessed using impedance and an equivalent circuit, and the accuracy was highest for an equivalent circuit with two CPEs

  13. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable...

  14. Some spectral equivalences between Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, C; Hibberd, K E; Links, J

    2008-01-01

    Spectral equivalences of the quasi-exactly solvable sectors of two classes of Schroedinger operators are established, using Gaudin-type Bethe ansatz equations. In some instances the results can be extended leading to full isospectrality. In this manner we obtain equivalences between PT-symmetric problems and Hermitian problems. We also find equivalences between some classes of Hermitian operators

  15. The definition of the individual dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Margarete

    1986-01-01

    A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)

  16. Nutritional habits of the inhabitants of the island of Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Sasa

    2009-12-01

    The island of Vis belongs to middle Dalmatian group of islands with caracteristics Mediterranean climate. The assumption was that the dominant diet of the inhabitants is also Mediterranean. Such diet is considered to be one of the best for the prevention of many complex and chronic diseases, as confirmed by numerous studies in different parts of the World. This study showed a shift in dietary habits in the direction of a more globalized diet. Such sudden shift may prove to be an important trigger for the development of complex diseases such as diabetes melitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, as well as certain types of cancer.

  17. uVis: A Formula-Based Visualization Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Xu, Shangjin; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin

    Several tools use programming approaches for developing advanced visualizations. Others can with a few steps create simple visualizations with built-in patterns, and users with limited IT experience can use them. However, it is programming and time demanding to create and customize...... these visualizations. We introduce uVis, a tool that allows users with advanced spreadsheet-like IT knowledge and basic database understanding to create simple as well as advanced visualizations. These users construct visualizations by combining building blocks (i.e. controls, shapes). They specify spreadsheet...

  18. Os conteúdos das visões da ayahuasca

    OpenAIRE

    Shanon,Benny

    2003-01-01

    Este artigo examina os conteúdos das alucinações visuais induzidas pela infusão psicotrópica ayahuasca. Ele faz parte de uma investigação fenomenológica mais ampla que busca estudar a ayahuasca de uma perspectiva psicológico-cognitiva. (Até agora, quase todos os estudos da ayahuasca partiram das ciências naturais ou da antropologia.) Análises comparativas quantitativas revelam que certos itens de conteúdo específico são especialmente prevalescentes em visões da ayahuasca e se reencontram em r...

  19. Calibration curves for quantifying praseodymium by UV-VIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, R.; Lopez G, H.; Rojas H, A.

    2007-01-01

    The UV-Vis spectroscopic technique was used to determine the absorption bands depending on the concentration from the praseodymium solutions at pH3. Those more appropriate were in the wavelength of 215 nm, for concentrations of 0.0001-0.026 M, of 481nm, 468 nm and 443 nm, for concentrations of 0.026-0.325 M, and of 589 nm, for concentrations of 0.026-0.65 M of the praseodymium. To these wavelengths the calibration curves were determined, which presented correlation coefficients between 0.9976 and 0.9999 except of the absorption of 589 nm that gave R 2 = 0.9014. (Author)

  20. Vis Medicatrix naturae: does nature "minister to the mind"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Alan C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The healing power of nature, vis medicatrix naturae, has traditionally been defined as an internal healing response designed to restore health. Almost a century ago, famed biologist Sir John Arthur Thomson provided an additional interpretation of the word nature within the context of vis medicatrix, defining it instead as the natural, non-built external environment. He maintained that the healing power of nature is also that associated with mindful contact with the animate and inanimate natural portions of the outdoor environment. A century on, excessive screen-based media consumption, so-called screen time, may be a driving force in masking awareness of the potential benefits of nature. With global environmental concerns, rapid urban expansion, and mental health disorders at crisis levels, diminished nature contact may not be without consequence to the health of the individual and the planet itself. In the context of emerging research, we will re-examine Sir J. Arthur Thomson's contention that the healing power of the nature-based environment - green space, forests and parks in particular - extends into the realm of mental health and vitality.

  1. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  2. Uric acid detection using uv-vis spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazmi, N.; Rasad, Z. R. Abdul; Mohamad, M.; Manap, H.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research is to detect uric acid (UA) concentration using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer in the Ultraviolet (UV) region. Absorption technique was proposed to detect different uric acid concentrations and its UV absorption wavelength. Current practices commonly take a lot of times or require complicated structures for the detection process. By this proposed spectroscopic technique, every concentration can be detected and interpreted into an absorbance value at a constant wavelength peak in the UV region. This is due to the chemical characteristics belong to the uric acid since it has a particular absorption cross-section, σ which can be calculated using Beer’s Lambert law formula. The detection performance was displayed using Spectrasuite sofware. It showed fast time response about 3 seconds. The experiment proved that the concentrations of uric acid were successfully detected using UV-Vis spectrometer at a constant absorption UV wavelength, 294.46 nm in a low time response. Even by an artificial sample of uric acid, it successfully displayed a close value as the ones reported with the use of the medical sample. It is applicable in the medical field and can be implemented in the future for earlier detection of abnormal concentration of uric acid.

  3. HYDROGEOLOGICAL RELATIONS ON KARSTIFIED ISLANDS - VIS ISLAND CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Terzić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the hydrogeological investigations on Adriatic islands is presented on the Island of Vis case study. Infiltration, accumulation and discharge of the groundwater occur in karstified rock mass. Hydrogeological relations are mostly a consequence of the geological setting, because of the complete hydrogeologic barrier in Komiža bay, and relative barrier in the area of karst poljes. Significant research was performed in the 1999 – 2000 period aimed of better understanding of hydrogeological relations. These investigations, as well as reinterpretation of some previously known data, included structural geology, hydrogeology, hydrology and hydrochemistry. Approximate rock mass hydraulic conductivity calculation is also shown, as well as level of its usability in such terrain. Based on all these methods, it is possible to conclude that on the Island of Vis there is no saline water present underneath the entire island. There is only a saline water wedge which is formed on the top of relatively impermeable base rock, some few tens of meters under recent sea level. With such a model, and taking in account the hydrological balance, it is possible to conclude that there is possibility of higher amount of groundwater exploitation then it is today (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Matter tensor from the Hilbert variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandres, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    We consider the Hilbert variational principle which is conventionally used to derive Einstein's equations for the source-free gravitational field. We show that at least one version of the equivalence principle suggests an alternative way of performing the variation, resulting in a different set of Einstein equations with sources automatically present. This illustrates a technique which may be applied to any theory that is derived from a variational principle and that admits a gauge group. The essential point is that, if one first imposes a gauge condition and then performs the variation, one obtains field equations with source terms which do not appear if one first performs the variation and then imposes the gauge condition. A second illustration is provided by the variational principle conventionally used to derive Maxwell's equations for the source-free electromagnetic field. If one first imposes the Lorentz gauge condition and then performs the variation, one obtains Maxwell's equations with sources present

  5. The micropolitics of responsibility vis-à-vis autonomy: parental accounts of childhood genetic testing and (non)disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ayllon, Michael; Sarangi, Srikant; Clarke, Angus

    2008-03-01

    Genetic testing and (non)disclosure of genetic information present ethical and moral dilemmas for the management of parental responsibility vis-à-vis the child's autonomy. Ethical guidelines aimed at professionals currently seek to defer childhood testing where there is no clear medical or psychosocial benefit. This version of autonomy is derived from a bioethical paradigm which brackets the individual rights and capacities of the child. In this paper we focus on situated parental accounts of responsibility/autonomy to understand the complex forms of relational work -i.e. the micropolitics of balancing rights and responsibilities - involving a range of inherited genetic disorders. Interviews (n= 20) were conducted with parents whose genetic condition may have had consequences for their children. Using rhetorical discourse analysis, we show how parents draw upon a number of rhetorical/discoursal devices to produce accounts where genetic responsibility is actually or potentially transmitted to the child. We identify three kinds of accounting practice: (1) aligned responsibility; (2) deferred responsibility; and (3) misaligned responsibility. Each of these practices demonstrates how parents position themselves responsibly by foregrounding figures and events onto which the child's autonomy is selectively mapped. Rather than simple representations, we regard these accounts as complex moral performances that seek alignment with broader bioethical discourses.

  6. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON CUTICULAR PROTEINS OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) VIS-A-VIS THE MODES OF APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooboon, T; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, Opender; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86.67 and 80.0%, respectively. However, this impairment via oral administration was significantly lower (73.33%). Using SDS-PAGE, the cuticular proteins were determined for treated insects under all the three modes of application. In all cases 6 protein bands (MW 9-34 kDa) were identified using markers as standard. In all treatments 3 induced proteins (MW. ~16, 20 and 23 kDa) and 1 reduced protein (~19 kDa) were observed. In case of the topical treatment a different induced protein of ~18 kDa was identified. The change in cuticular proteins, their possible role in ecdysis impairment vis-a-vis the mode of application of azadirachtin is being correlated. This will help in understanding the mode-of-action at cuticular level and also will allow developing a suitable application strategy under field conditions in insect pest management.

  7. Jan Patočka’s Concept of Fraternity and its Challenges vis-à-vis the World of Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Svobodová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation entitled “Jan Patočka’s Concept of Fraternity and its Challenges vis-à-vis the World of Today” discusses the concept of fraternity explored in texts by the Czech philosopher written later in his life. J. Patočka was one of the authors of Charter 77, a dissident document, which called for the protection of human rights (published on January 6.–7., 1977. First, Patočka’s theory of three movements of life (also: movements of the soul – i.e. the movement of rooting or anchoring, the movement of labour or self-delivery and the movement of breakthrough or finding oneself – will be analysed. Based on the analysis, the role of turning (gr. metanoiésis from a mere solidarity of interests to actual being through surrendering oneself will be shown. Jan Patočka interpreted life as surrender by referring to the notion of Godman and the way the world relates to him. The phenomenon of sacrifice that Jan Patočka dealt with in the last period of his life (Patočka died on March 13, 1977, following long and exhausting police interrogations can inspire the field of social ethics, both from the philosophical and theological points of view. It also comes with challenges to education and training in today’s Europe, which faces migration, as it needs to learn new habits of hospitality and fraternity.  

  8. Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Luchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Ukrainian and Polish Adverbial Word Equivalents Form and Meaning Interaction in National Explanatory Lexicography The article proves the necessity and possibility of compiling dictionaries with intermediate existence status glossary units, to which the word equivalents belong. In order to form the Ukrainian-Polish dictionary glossary of this type the form and meaning analysis of Ukrainian and Polish word equivalents is done, the common and distinctive features of these language system elements are described, the compiling principles of such dictionary are clarified.

  9. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  10. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  11. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed

  12. Equivalences of real submanifolds in complex space.

    OpenAIRE

    ZAITSEV, DMITRI

    2001-01-01

    PUBLISHED We show that for any real-analytic submanifold M in CN there is a proper real-analytic subvariety V contained in M such that for any p ? M \\ V , any real-analytic submanifold M? in CN, and any p? ? M?, the germs of the submanifolds M and M? at p and p? respectively are formally equivalent if and only if they are biholomorphically equivalent. More general results for k-equivalences are also stated and proved.

  13. Relations of equivalence of conditioned radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumer, L.; Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.

    1982-01-01

    A compensation for the wastes remaining with the operator of a waste management center, to be given by the agent having caused the waste, may be assured by effecting a financial valuation (equivalence) of wastes. Technically and logically, this equivalence between wastes (or specifically between different waste categories) and financial valuation has been established as reasonable. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such equivalences are developed, and their suitability for waste management concepts is quantitatively expressed

  14. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...... of processes between BPP and TCSP, not only are the two equivalences different, but one (locality) is decidable whereas the other (pomsets) is not. The decidability result for locality is proved by a reduction to the reachability problem for Petri nets....

  15. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.

    Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE

    Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.

    Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ

  16. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  17. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  18. Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.

  19. Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sundrum, Raman [Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.

  20. Calibration curves for quantifying praseodymium by UV-VIS; Curvas de calibracion para cuantificar praseodimio por UV-VIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, R.; Lopez G, H.; Rojas H, A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: robertssd1199@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-07-01

    The UV-Vis spectroscopic technique was used to determine the absorption bands depending on the concentration from the praseodymium solutions at pH3. Those more appropriate were in the wavelength of 215 nm, for concentrations of 0.0001-0.026 M, of 481nm, 468 nm and 443 nm, for concentrations of 0.026-0.325 M, and of 589 nm, for concentrations of 0.026-0.65 M of the praseodymium. To these wavelengths the calibration curves were determined, which presented correlation coefficients between 0.9976 and 0.9999 except of the absorption of 589 nm that gave R{sup 2} = 0.9014. (Author)

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  2. The certainty principle (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.

  3. The equivalent energy method: an engineering approach to fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The equivalent energy method for elastic-plastic fracture evaluations was developed around 1970 for determining realistic engineering estimates for the maximum load-displacement or stress-strain conditions for fracture of flawed structures. The basis principles were summarized but the supporting experimental data, most of which were obtained after the method was proposed, have never been collated. This paper restates the original bases more explicitly and presents the validating data in graphical form. Extensive references are given. The volumetric energy ratio, a modelling parameter encompassing both size and temperature, is the fundamental parameter of the equivalent energy method. It is demonstrated that, in an engineering sense, the volumetric energy ratio is a unique material characteristic for a steel, much like a material property except size must be taken into account. With this as a proposition, the basic formula of the equivalent energy method is derived. Sufficient information is presented so that investigators and analysts may judge the viability and applicability of the method to their areas of interest. (author)

  4. A method to obtain new cross-sections transport equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a method, that allows the calculation, by the mean of variational principle, of equivalent cross-sections in order to take into account the transport and mesh size effects on reactivity variation calculations. The method validation has been made in two and three dimensions geometries. The reactivity variations calculated in three dimensional hexagonal geometry with seven points by subassembly using two sets of equivalent cross-sections for control rods are in a very good agreement with the ones of a transport, extrapolated to zero mesh size, calculation. The difficulty encountered in obtaining a good flux distribution has lead to the utilisation of a single set of equivalent cross-sections calculated by starting from an appropriated R-Z model that allows to take into account also the axial transport effects for the control rod followers. The global results in reactivity variations are still satisfactory with a good performance for the flux distribution. The main interest of the proposed method is the possibility to simulate a full 3D transport calculation, with fine mesh size, using a 3D diffusion code, with a larger mesh size. The results obtained should be affected by uncertainties, which do not exceed ± 4% for a large LMFBR control rod worth and for very different rod configurations. This uncertainty is by far smaller than the experimental uncertainties. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 9 tabs

  5. On organizing principles of discrete differential geometry. Geometry of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobenko, Alexander I; Suris, Yury B

    2007-01-01

    Discrete differential geometry aims to develop discrete equivalents of the geometric notions and methods of classical differential geometry. This survey contains a discussion of the following two fundamental discretization principles: the transformation group principle (smooth geometric objects and their discretizations are invariant with respect to the same transformation group) and the consistency principle (discretizations of smooth parametrized geometries can be extended to multidimensional consistent nets). The main concrete geometric problem treated here is discretization of curvature-line parametrized surfaces in Lie geometry. Systematic use of the discretization principles leads to a discretization of curvature-line parametrization which unifies circular and conical nets.

  6. VisIVO: A Library and Integrated Tools for Large Astrophysical Dataset Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciani, U.; Costa, A.; Ersotelos, N.; Krokos, M.; Massimino, P.; Petta, C.; Vitello, F.

    2012-09-01

    VisIVO provides an integrated suite of tools and services that can be used in many scientific fields. VisIVO development starts in the Virtual Observatory framework. VisIVO allows users to visualize meaningfully highly-complex, large-scale datasets and create movies of these visualizations based on distributed infrastructures. VisIVO supports high-performance, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale astrophysical datasets. Users can rapidly obtain meaningful visualizations while preserving full and intuitive control of the relevant parameters. VisIVO consists of VisIVO Desktop - a stand-alone application for interactive visualization on standard PCs, VisIVO Server - a platform for high performance visualization, VisIVO Web - a custom designed web portal, VisIVOSmartphone - an application to exploit the VisIVO Server functionality and the latest VisIVO features: VisIVO Library allows a job running on a computational system (grid, HPC, etc.) to produce movies directly with the code internal data arrays without the need to produce intermediate files. This is particularly important when running on large computational facilities, where the user wants to have a look at the results during the data production phase. For example, in grid computing facilities, images can be produced directly in the grid catalogue while the user code is running in a system that cannot be directly accessed by the user (a worker node). The deployment of VisIVO on the DG and gLite is carried out with the support of EDGI and EGI-Inspire projects. Depending on the structure and size of datasets under consideration, the data exploration process could take several hours of CPU for creating customized views and the production of movies could potentially last several days. For this reason an MPI parallel version of VisIVO could play a fundamental role in increasing performance, e.g. it could be automatically deployed on nodes that are MPI aware. A central concept in our development is thus to

  7. Equivalent drawbead performance in deep drawing simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    1999-01-01

    Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the

  8. On uncertainties in definition of dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    The author has entertained always the doubt that in a neutron field, if the measured value of the absorbed dose with a tissue equivalent ionization chamber is 1.02±0.01 mGy, may the dose equivalent be taken as 10.2±0.1 mSv. Should it be 10.2 or 11, but the author considers it is 10 or 20. Even if effort is exerted for the precision measurement of absorbed dose, if the coefficient being multiplied to it is not precise, it is meaningless. [Absorbed dose] x [Radiation quality fctor] = [Dose equivalent] seems peculiar. How accurately can dose equivalent be evaluated ? The descriptions related to uncertainties in the publications of ICRU and ICRP are introduced, which are related to radiation quality factor, the accuracy of measuring dose equivalent and so on. Dose equivalent shows the criterion for the degree of risk, or it is considered only as a controlling quantity. The description in the ICRU report 1973 related to dose equivalent and its unit is cited. It was concluded that dose equivalent can be considered only as the absorbed dose being multiplied by a dimensionless factor. The author presented the questions. (K.I.)

  9. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  11. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  12. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  14. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  15. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  18. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  19. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...

  1. Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As

  2. What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...

  3. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank

  4. Nuclear detectors: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadj, Marouane

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear technology is a vast domain. It has several applications, for instance in hydrology, it is used in the analysis of underground water, dating by carbon 14, Our study consists on representing the nuclear detectors based on their principle of functioning and their electronic constitution. However, because of some technical problems, we have not made a deepen study on their applications that could certainly have a big support on our subject. In spite of the existence of an equipment of high performance and technology in the centre, it remains to resolve the problem of control of instruments. Therefore, the calibration of these equipment remains the best guaranteed of a good quality of the counting. Besides, it allows us to approach the influence of the external and internal parameters on the equipment and the reasons of errors of measurements, to introduce equivalent corrections. (author). 22 refs

  5. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  6. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  7. Equity-regarding poverty measures: differences in needs and the role of equivalence scales

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Ebert

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the definition of equity-regarding poverty measures when there are different household types in the population. It demonstrates the implications of a between-type regressive transfer principle for poverty measures, for the choice of poverty lines, and for the measurement of living standard. The role of equivalence scales, which are popular in empirical work on poverty measurement, is clarified.

  8. Designing sustainable concrete on the basis of equivalence performance: assessment criteria for safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order not to hampers innovations, the Dutch National Building Regulations (NBR), allow an alternative approval route for new building materials. It is based on the principles of equivalent performance which states that if the solution proposed can be proven to have the same level of safety,

  9. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  10. A generalized Principle of Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, Fernando de; Preti, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The Theory of Relativity stands as a firm groundstone on which modern physics is founded. In this paper we bring to light an hitherto undisclosed richness of this theory, namely its admitting a consistent reformulation which is able to provide a unified scenario for all kinds of particles, be they lightlike or not. This result hinges on a generalized Principle of Relativity which is intrinsic to Einstein's theory - a fact which went completely unnoticed before. The road leading to this generalization starts, in the very spirit of Relativity, from enhancing full equivalence between the four spacetime directions by requiring full equivalence between the motions along these four spacetime directions as well. So far, no measurable spatial velocity in the direction of the time axis has ever been defined, on the same footing of the usual velocities - the 'space-velocities' - in the local three-space of a given observer. In this paper, we show how Relativity allows such a 'time-velocity' to be defined in a very natural way, for any particle and in any reference frame. As a consequence of this natural definition, it also follows that the time- and space-velocity vectors sum up to define a spacelike 'world-velocity' vector, the modulus of which - the world-velocity - turns out to be equal to the Maxwell's constant c, irrespective of the observer who measures it. This measurable world-velocity (not to be confused with the space-velocities we are used to deal with) therefore represents the speed at which all kinds of particles move in spacetime, according to any observer. As remarked above, the unifying scenario thus emerging is intrinsic to Einstein's Theory; it extends the role traditionally assigned to Maxwell's constant c, and can therefore justly be referred to as 'a generalized Principle of Relativity'.

  11. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J P [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  12. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  13. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of the designation of five new equivalent methods for...) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, five new equivalent methods, one for measuring...

  14. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY... equivalent methods, one for measuring concentrations of PM 2.5 , one for measuring concentrations of PM 10...

  15. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  16. Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav

    2017-12-12

    Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.

  17. A variational principle for the plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.

    1986-09-01

    A variational principle is derived which describes the stationary state of the plasma column in a plasma centrifuge. Starting with the fluid equations in a rotating frame the theory is developed using the method of irreversible thermodynamics. This formulation easily leads to an expression for the density distribution of the l-species at sedimentation equilibrium, taking into account the effect of the electric and magnetic forces. Assuming stationary boundary conditions and rigid rotation nonequilibrium states the condition for thermodynamic stability integrated over the volume of the system reduces, under certain restrictions, to the principle of minimum entropy production in the stationary state. This principle yields a variational problem which is equivalent to the original problem posed by the stationary fluid equations. The variational method is useful in achieving approximate solutions that give the electric potential and current distributions in the rotating plasma column consistent with an assumed plasma density profile. (Author) [pt

  18. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  19. Os conteúdos das visões da ayahuasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Shanon

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina os conteúdos das alucinações visuais induzidas pela infusão psicotrópica ayahuasca. Ele faz parte de uma investigação fenomenológica mais ampla que busca estudar a ayahuasca de uma perspectiva psicológico-cognitiva. (Até agora, quase todos os estudos da ayahuasca partiram das ciências naturais ou da antropologia. Análises comparativas quantitativas revelam que certos itens de conteúdo específico são especialmente prevalescentes em visões da ayahuasca e se reencontram em relatos de informantes de diferentes origens socioculturais. Os resultados são discutidos teoricamente à luz de considerações tanto psicológicas como antropológicas.This paper examines the contents of the visual hallucinations induced by the Amazonian psychotropic brew ayahuasca. It is part of a comprehensive phenomenological investigation attempting to study ayahuasca from a cognitive-psychological perspective. (So far, practically all studies of ayahuasca pertained either to the natural sciences or to anthropology. Comparative quantitative analyses reveal that some specific content items are especially prevalent in ayahuasca visions, and that these are encountered in the reports of informants from different personal and socio-cultural backgrounds. Theoretically, the findings are discussed in light of both psychological and anthropological considerations.

  20. Prophyrin identification by 3rd derivative UV/VIS spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, D.H.; Saint Martin, D.C.; Boreham, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes the Soret band wavelength of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins λ Soret, which identifies etic DPEP/di-DPEP, propano and butano structure types. The approach is based upon routine diode array uv/vis spectra taken to their 3rd derivative. an interpolated zero crossing gives λ max within 0.1 nm. Accordingly, reference spectral properties of 27 well characterized metalloporphyrins were determined. When λSoret, λα and λβ and molecular mass data were combined, each of the DPEP and di-DPEP nickel complexes were distinct. In addition, λSoret was able to classify nickel etioporphyrins according to the number of beta hydrogens. To illustrate the many possible applications, two substances were isolated by HPLC from a Messel Shale extract based on known HPLC C18 retentions. Comparison of wavelength and mass between isolated and reference counterparts showed precise agreement. Thus uv/vic spectroscopy helps to classify porphyrin structure, and to facilitate identification by matching to reference data

  1. Geometry of the local equivalence of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, A; Kus, M, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.kus@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-12-09

    We present a description of locally equivalent states in terms of symplectic geometry. Using the moment map between local orbits in the space of states and coadjoint orbits of the local unitary group, we reduce the problem of local unitary equivalence to an easy part consisting of identifying the proper coadjoint orbit and a harder problem of the geometry of fibers of the moment map. We give a detailed analysis of the properties of orbits of 'equally entangled states'. In particular, we show connections between certain symplectic properties of orbits such as their isotropy and coisotropy with effective criteria of local unitary equivalence. (paper)

  2. 152 Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john mukalay

    Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à-vis de la salinité en culture de bananier. Michel Mazinga KWEY1, Séverin Kalala BANZE2 et John Banza MUKALAY2*. 1Laboratoire des cultures in vitro, Département de phytotechnie, Faculté des sciences agronomiques,. Université de Lubumbashi, BP 1825, ...

  3. On the equivalence of chaos control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaofan

    2003-01-01

    For a given chaotic system, different control systems can be constructed depending on which parameter is tuned or where the external input is added. We prove that two different feedback control systems are qualitatively equivalent if they are feedback linearizable

  4. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  5. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  6. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  7. interpratation: of equivalences and cultural untranslatability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jgmweri

    translatability in cultural diversity in terms equivalences such as –Vocabulary or lexical ..... A KSL interpreter who does not understand this English idiom may literally interpret it .... Nida, E.A. (1958) Analysis of meaning and dictionary making.

  8. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  9. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  10. S-equivalents lagrangians in generalized mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, L.J.; Silva, Edna G. da.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of s-equivalent lagrangians is considered in the realm of generalized mechanics. Some results corresponding to the ordinary (non-generalized) mechanics are extended to the generalized case. A theorem for the reduction of the higher order lagrangian description to the usual order is found to be useful for the analysis of generalized mechanical systems and leads to a new class of equivalence between lagrangian functions. Some new perspectives are pointed out. (Author) [pt

  11. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  12. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  13. Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty and the uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redei, Miklos

    1987-01-01

    The usual verbal form of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the usual mathematical formulation (the so-called uncertainty theorem) are not equivalent. The meaning of the concept 'uncertainty' is not unambiguous and different interpretations are used in the literature. Recently a renewed interest has appeared to reinterpret and reformulate the precise meaning of Heisenberg's principle and to find adequate mathematical form. The suggested new theorems are surveyed and critically analyzed. (D.Gy.) 20 refs

  14. The role of general relativity in the uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1986-01-01

    The role played by general relativity in quantum mechanics (especially as regards the uncertainty principle) is investigated. It is confirmed that the validity of time-energy uncertainty does depend on gravitational time dilation. It is also shown that there exists an intrinsic lower bound to the accuracy with which acceleration due to gravity can be measured. The motion of equivalence principle in quantum mechanics is clarified. (author)

  15. Cost Effective Process Monitoring using UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, B.; McDaniel, M.; Bryan, S.; Pratt, S.

    2015-01-01

    UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy is a simple and inexpensive measurement technology which has been proposed for process monitoring applications at reprocessing plants. The purpose of this work was to examine if spectroscopy could replace more costly analytical measurements to reduce the safeguards burden to the operator or inspector. Recognizing that the higher measurement uncertainty of spectroscopy makes it unsuited for the accountability tanks, the approach instead was to focus on replacing mass spectrometry for random samples that are taken in a plant. The Interim Inventory Verification and Short Inventory Verification (IIV/SIV) at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant utilize random sampling of internal process vessels and laboratory measurement using Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) to account for plutonium on a timely basis. These measurements are time-consuming, and the low uncertainty may not always be required. For this work, modelling was used to examine if spectroscopy could be used without adversely affecting the safeguards of the plant. The Separation and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was utilized to examine the replacement of IDMS measurements with spectroscopy. Modeling results showed that complete replacement of IDMS with spectroscopy lowered the detection probability for diversion by an unacceptable amount. However, partial replacement (only for samples from vessels with low plutonium content) did not adversely affect the detection probability. This partial replacement covers roughly half of the twenty or so sampling points used for the IIV/SIVA cost-benefit analysis was completed to determine the cost savings that this approach can provide based on lower equipment costs, maintenance, and reduction of analysts' time. This work envisions working with the existing sampling system and performing the spectroscopic measurements in the analytical laboratory, but future work could examine incorporating

  16. Coating of gold nanoparticles for medical application: UV-VIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Ramírez, Nayem Amtanus Chequer; Funes Oliva, Luis Enrique; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro; Bernal Alvarado, Jesús; Reyes Pablo, Aldelmo; Núñez, Anita Rosa Elvira

    2014-11-01

    The use of nanostructured materials has gained strength in recent years in the biomedical area; new applications such as the detection of components in living cells have been used in pharmaceutical area, specifically to study the interaction of various antitumor drugs in living tissues, the detection of genes that are closely related to some type of cancer, as well as the detections of protein biomarkers for diseases also have been studied in various research laboratories around of the world. In this work, we characterize the variation of the absorbance of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) coated with different concentration of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein. We use GNPS of 60 nm of the trademark-TED PELLA, the BSA protein trademark of Sigma Aldrich and based on that proposed protocol by Chithrani et al., 2009 with purposes to obtain an alternative model to determine the optimal stability of the nanoparticles coated with the protein. The colloidal solutions were prepared with BSA at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1% M/V), and were centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 90 minutes (centrifuge Model Z383K) and a constant temperature of 25 °C. All the spectra sets were obtained within the range from 400 to 700 nm using an UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific Model 51118650). The results showed a R2 of 0.99 for an exponential curve correlation between the concentration of BSA, and the absorbance measured. We found at higher concentrations of BSA, there is a decrease in the intensity of the absorption spectra in the plasmon resonance. This preliminary model obtained can be used in the stabilization of gold nanoparticles with different proteins of biomedical interest in future experiments and support for functionalization of GNPs with specific membrane markers.

  17. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA; SABĂU CRĂCIUN; ”Tibiscus” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Economic Science

    2015-01-01

    The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance) to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principl...

  18. The genetic difference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.

  19. The Dutch premium principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.

    1992-01-01

    A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.

  20. A new computing principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, H.A.; Resconi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle

  1. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  2. On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam D. Gujrati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.

  3. Equivalent formulations of “the equation of life”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Ping

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by progress in theoretical biology a recent proposal on a general and quantitative dynamical framework for nonequilibrium processes and dynamics of complex systems is briefly reviewed. It is nothing but the evolutionary process discovered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace. Such general and structured dynamics may be tentatively named “the equation of life”. Three equivalent formulations are discussed, and it is also pointed out that such a quantitative dynamical framework leads naturally to the powerful Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and the second law in physics. In this way, the equation of life provides a logically consistent foundation for thermodynamics. This view clarifies a particular outstanding problem and further suggests a unifying principle for physics and biology. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  4. The Thermodynamical Arrow and the Historical Arrow; Are They Equivalent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tamm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between the thermodynamic and historical arrows of time is studied. In the context of a simple combinatorial model, their definitions are made more precise and in particular strong versions (which are not compatible with time symmetric microscopic laws and weak versions (which can be compatible with time symmetric microscopic laws are given. This is part of a larger project that aims to explain the arrows as consequences of a common time symmetric principle in the set of all possible universes. However, even if we accept that both arrows may have the same origin, this does not imply that they are equivalent, and it is argued that there can be situations where one arrow may be well-defined but the other is not.

  5. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  6. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  7. Kohn's theorem, Larmor's equivalence principle and the Newton-Hooke group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Pope, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We show that non-relativistic electrons moving in a magnetic field with trapping potential admits as relativity group the Newton-Hooke group. → We use this fact to give a group theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and to obtain the spectrum. → We obtain the lightlike lift of the system exhibiting showing it coincides with the Nappi-Witten spacetime. - Abstract: We consider non-relativistic electrons, each of the same charge to mass ratio, moving in an external magnetic field with an interaction potential depending only on the mutual separations, possibly confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We show that the system admits a 'relativity group' which is a one-parameter family of deformations of the standard Galilei group to the Newton-Hooke group which is a Wigner-Inoenue contraction of the de Sitter group. This allows a group-theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and related results. Larmor's theorem is used to show that the one-parameter family of deformations are all isomorphic. We study the 'Eisenhart' or 'lightlike' lift of the system, exhibiting it as a pp-wave. In the planar case, the Eisenhart lift is the Brdicka-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-wave solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory, which may also be regarded as a bi-invariant metric on the Cangemi-Jackiw group.

  8. The MICROSCOPE experiment, ready for the in-orbit test of the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, P.; Métris, G.; Lebat, V.; Robert, A.

    2012-09-01

    Deviations from standard general relativity are being intensively tested in various aspects. The MICROSCOPE space mission, which has recently been approved to be launched in 2016, aims at testing the universality of free fall with an accuracy better than 10-15. The instrument has been developed and most of the sub-systems have been tested to the level required for the detection of accelerations lower than one tenth of a femto-g. Two concentric test masses are electrostatically levitated inside the same silica structure and controlled on the same trajectory at better than 0.1 Å. Any dissymmetry in the measured electrostatic pressures shall be analysed with respect to the Earth's gravity field. The nearly 300 kg heavy dedicated satellite is defined to provide a very steady environment to the experiment and a fine control of its attitude and of its drag-free motion along the orbit. Both the evaluations of the performance of the instrument and the satellite demonstrate the expected test accuracy. The detailed description of the experiment and the major driving parameters of the instrument, the satellite and the data processing are provided in this paper.

  9. Oscillations of neutral mesons and the equivalence principle for particles and antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    The K 0 -K 0 bar, D 0 -D 0 bar, and B 0 -B 0 bar oscillations are extremely sensitive to the K 0 and K 0 bar energy at rest. The energy is determined by the values mc 2 with the related mass as well as the energy of the gravitational interaction. Assuming the CPT theorem for the inertial masses and estimating the gravitational potential through the dominant contribution of the gravitational potential of our Galaxy center, we obtain from the experimental data on the K 0 -K 0 bar oscillations the following constraint: |(m g /m i ) K 0 - (m g /m i ) K 0 bar| ≤ 8·10 -13 , CL=90%. This estimation is model dependent and in particular it depends on a way we estimate the gravitational potential. Examining the K 0 -K 0 bar, B 0 -B 0 bar, and D 0 -D 0 bar oscillations provides us also with weaker, but model independent constraints, which in particular rule out the very possibility of antigravity for antimatter

  10. Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.

  11. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellakumar, P.; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E.; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z eff ), electron density (ρ e ), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μ en /ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ) tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close ( en /ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement ( tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  12. Using frequency equivalency in stability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Temirbulatov, R.A.; Tereshko, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for calculating oscillatory instability that involves using frequency equivalency is employed in carrying out the following proceedures: dividing an electric power system into subgroups; determining the adjustments to the automatic excitation control in each subsystem; simplifying the mathematical definition of the separate subsystems by using frequency equivalency; gradually re-tuning the automatic excitation control in the separate subsystems to account for neighboring subsystems by using their equivalent frequency characteristics. The methodology is to be used with a computer program to determine the gain in the stabilization channels of the automatic excitation control unit in which static stability of the entire aggregate of normal and post-breakdown conditions acceptable damping of transient processes are provided. The possibility of reducing the equation series to apply to chosen regions of the existing range of frequencies is demonstrated. The use of the methodology is illustrated in a sample study on stability in a Siberian unified power system.

  13. The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gecsec, F.

    It will be shown that the equivalence problem for LL-regular grammars is decidable. Apart from extending the known result for LL(k) grammar equivalence to LLregular grammar equivalence, we obtain an alternative proof of the decidability of LL(k) equivalence. The equivalence prob]em for LL-regular

  14. Evaluating the Quality of Transfer versus Nontransfer Accounting Principles Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, J. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Using 1989-92 student records from three colleges accepting large numbers of transfers from junior schools into accounting, regression analyses compared grades of transfer and nontransfer students. Quality of accounting principle grades of transfer students was not equivalent to that of nontransfer students. (SK)

  15. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  16. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  17. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  18. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  19. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  20. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  1. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  2. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. DE BONIS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.

  3. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  4. Topological equivalence of nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phan; Tran Van Nhung

    1995-12-01

    We show in this paper that the autonomous nonlinear dynamical system Σ(A,B,F): x' = Ax+Bu+F(x) is topologically equivalent to the linear dynamical system Σ(A,B,O): x' = Ax+Bu if the projection of A on the complement in R n of the controllable vectorial subspace is hyperbolic and if lipschitz constant of F is sufficiently small ( * ) and F(x) = 0 when parallel x parallel is sufficiently large ( ** ). In particular, if Σ(A,B,O) is controllable, it is topologically equivalent to Σ(A,B,F) when it is only that F satisfy ( ** ). (author). 18 refs

  5. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  6. Measurements of the personal dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results of measurements related to the personal dose equivalent in the rooms adjacent to NILPRP 7 MeV linear accelerator, by means of the secondary standard chamber T34035 Hp(10). The chamber was calibrated by PTB at S- 137 Cs (E av = 661.6 keV, T 1/2 11050 days) and has N H = 3.17x10 6 Sv/C calibration factor for the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), at a depth of 10 mm in climatic reference conditions. The measurements were made for the two operation mode of the 7 MeV linac: electrons and bremsstrahlung

  7. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Jelenciak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that -in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a dynamics viewpoint. The principle of this method is based on applying Newton's mechanics, which are then combined with a specific form of the finite element method to cover additional effects. The main advantage of the PEM is that it is not necessary to carry out measurements in a wind tunnel for the identification of the model's parameters. The plausible dynamical behaviour of the model can be achieved by specific correction parameters, which can be determined on the basis of experimental data obtained during the flight of the aircraft. In this article, we present the PEM as applied to an airship as well as a comparison of the data calculated by the PEM and experimental flight data.

  8. Ions in solution basic principles of chemical interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, J

    1999-01-01

    This outline of the principles and chemical interactions in inorganic solution chemistry delivers a course module in an area of considerable complexity. Problems with solutions and tutorial hints to test comprehension have been added as a feature to check readers' understanding and assist self-study. Exercises and projects are also provided to help readers deepen and extend their knowledge and understanding. Inorganic solution chemistry is treated thoroughly Emphasis is placed upon NMR, UV-VIS, IR Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and such topics as acid-base behaviour, stability constants and kinetics.

  9. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  10. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  11. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  12. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  13. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  14. VisBOL: Web-Based Tools for Synthetic Biology Design Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, James Alastair; Pocock, Matthew; Mısırlı, Göksel; Madsen, Curtis; Wipat, Anil

    2016-08-19

    VisBOL is a Web-based application that allows the rendering of genetic circuit designs, enabling synthetic biologists to visually convey designs in SBOL visual format. VisBOL designs can be exported to formats including PNG and SVG images to be embedded in Web pages, presentations and publications. The VisBOL tool enables the automated generation of visualizations from designs specified using the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) version 2.0, as well as a range of well-known bioinformatics formats including GenBank and Pigeoncad notation. VisBOL is provided both as a user accessible Web site and as an open-source (BSD) JavaScript library that can be used to embed diagrams within other content and software.

  15. ArtifactVis2: Managing real-time archaeological data in immersive 3D environments

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Neil; Knabb, Kyle; Defanti, Connor; Weber, Philip P.; Schulze, Jü rgen P.; Prudhomme, Andrew; Kuester, Falko; Levy, Thomas E.; Defanti, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a stereoscopic research and training environment for archaeologists called ArtifactVis2. This application enables the management and visualization of diverse types of cultural datasets within a collaborative virtual 3D

  16. VisTrails is an open-source scientific workflow and provenance management system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthombeni, Thabo DM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available VisTrails is an open-source scientific workflow and provenance management system that provides support for simulations, data exploration and visualization. Whereas workflows have been traditionally used to automate repetitive tasks, for applications...

  17. Vispubdata.org: A Metadata Collection About IEEE Visualization (VIS) Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Petra; Heimerl, Florian; Koch, Steffen; Isenberg, Tobias; Xu, Panpan; Stolper, Charles D; Sedlmair, Michael; Chen, Jian; Moller, Torsten; Stasko, John

    2017-09-01

    We have created and made available to all a dataset with information about every paper that has appeared at the IEEE Visualization (VIS) set of conferences: InfoVis, SciVis, VAST, and Vis. The information about each paper includes its title, abstract, authors, and citations to other papers in the conference series, among many other attributes. This article describes the motivation for creating the dataset, as well as our process of coalescing and cleaning the data, and a set of three visualizations we created to facilitate exploration of the data. This data is meant to be useful to the broad data visualization community to help understand the evolution of the field and as an example document collection for text data visualization research.

  18. Running VisIt Software on the Peregrine System | High-Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    visualization and graphical analysis tool for viewing scientific data on Unix and PC platforms. Users can - and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) structured and unstructured meshes. VisIt was designed to handle

  19. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen... INFORMATION: In accordance with regulations at 40 CFR Part 53, the EPA evaluates various methods for...

  20. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  1. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  2. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  3. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  4. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  5. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  6. Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Idu Ekpeye playground and University of Port ... Effective soil remediation and detoxification method like Dispersion by chemical reaction technology should be deployed to clean-up sites to avoid soil toxicity ...

  7. Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...

  8. On Behavioral Equivalence of Rational Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, JC; Hara, S; Ohta, Y; Fujioka, H

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems In general. the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel representations and image representations Two kernel

  9. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  10. Possibility and necessity measures and integral equivalence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, T.; Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Stupňanová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2017), s. 62-72 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Integral equivalence * Necessity measure * Possibility measure * Survival function * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477092.pdf

  11. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  12. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Bilingual Dictionaries and Communicative Equivalence for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. ... With the emphasis on the user perspective, metalexicographical criteria are used to investigate problems regarding the access structure and the addressing procedures in Afrikaans ...

  14. Equivalent operator preconditioning for elliptic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-380 ISSN 1017-1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Elliptic problem * Conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * equivalent operators * compact operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://en.scientificcommons.org/42514649

  15. Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroyter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the finite gauge transformation of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic superstring field theory is ill-defined due to collisions of picture changing operators. Despite this problem we study to what extent could a bijective classical correspondence between this theory and the (presumably consistent) non-polynomial theory exist. We find that the classical equivalence between these two theories can almost be extended to the Ramond sector: We construct mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the linearized gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. The problem with the cubic theory implies that the correspondence of the linearized gauge symmetries cannot be extended to a correspondence of the finite gauge symmetries. Hence, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. Nonetheless, we believe that the fact that the equivalence formally works suggests that a consistent modification of the cubic theory exists. We construct a theory that can be considered as a first step towards a consistent RNS cubic theory.

  16. Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions

  17. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  18. Equivalence of rational representations of behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottimukkala, Sasanka; Fiaz, Shaik; Trentelman, H.L.

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems. In general, the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel and image representations. Two kernel

  19. Measurement of soluble solids content in watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique*

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Fu, Xia-ping; Yu, Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world with soluble solids content (SSC) being one of the major characteristics used for assessing its quality. This study was aimed at obtaining a method for nondestructive SSC detection of watermelons by means of visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer operating over the range 350~1000 nm. Spectra data were analyz...

  20. Spectral Detection of Human Skin in VIS-SWIR Hyperspectral Imagery without Radiometric Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    6 Spectral reflectance of human skin at VIS-SWIR wavelengths. Skin with less melanin appears brighter because it has higher reflectance...6 illustrates the spectral reflectance of human skin with different melanin levels. One paper proposes a Normalized Difference Skin Index (NDSI), a...1.4% Melanin 12.6% Melanin 23.2% Melanin 34.3% Melanin 45% Melanin Figure 6. Spectral reflectance of human skin at VIS-SWIR wavelengths. Skin with less

  1. VisIt: An End-User Tool for Visualizing and Analyzing Very Large Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Hank; Brugger, Eric; Whitlock, Brad; Meredith, Jeremy; Ahern, Sean; Pugmire, David; Biagas, Kathleen; Miller, Mark; Weber, Gunther H.; Krishnan, Hari; Fogal, Thomas; Sanderson, Allen; Garth, Christoph; Bethel, E. Wes; Camp, David; Ruebel, Oliver; Durant, Marc; Favre, Jean; Navratil, Paul

    2012-11-01

    VisIt is a popular open source tool for visualizing and analyzing big data. It owes its success to its foci of increasing data understanding, large data support, and providing a robust and usable product, as well as its underlying design that fits today's supercomputing landscape. This report, which draws heavily from an earlier publication at the SciDAC Conference in 2011 describes the VisIt project and its accomplishments.

  2. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Dezhong; He Bin

    2003-01-01

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping

  3. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Dezhong [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu City, 610054, Sichuan Province (China); He Bin [The University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-11-07

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.

  4. A review of the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied

    2015-01-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some ‘thought’ experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed. (review)

  5. Screening of Satureja subspicata Vis. Honey by HPLC-DAD, GC-FID/MS and UV/VIS: Prephenate Derivatives as Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Kranjac, Marina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Zekić, Marina; Radonić, Ani; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni

    2016-03-21

    The samples of Satureja subspicata Vis. honey were confirmed to be unifloral by melissopalynological analysis with the characteristic pollen share from 36% to 71%. Bioprospecting of the samples was performed by HPLC-DAD, GC-FID/MS, and UV/VIS. Prephenate derivatives were shown to be dominant by the HPLC-DAD analysis, particularly phenylalanine (167.8 mg/kg) and methyl syringate (MSYR, 114.1 mg/kg), followed by tyrosine and benzoic acid. Higher amounts of MSYR (3-4 times) can be pointed out for distinguishing S. subspicata Vis. honey from other Satureja spp. honey types. GC-FID/MS analysis of ultrasonic solvent extracts of the samples revealed MSYR (46.68%, solvent pentane/Et2O 1:2 (v/v); 52.98%, solvent CH2Cl2) and minor abundance of other volatile prephenate derivatives, as well as higher aliphatic compounds characteristic of the comb environment. Two combined extracts (according to the solvents) of all samples were evaluated for their antioxidant properties by FRAP and DPPH assay; the combined extracts demonstrated higher activity (at lower concentrations) in comparison with the average honey sample. UV/VIS analysis of the samples was applied for determination of CIE Lab colour coordinates, total phenolics (425.38 mg GAE/kg), and antioxidant properties (4.26 mmol Fe(2+)/kg (FRAP assay) and 0.8 mmol TEAC/kg (DDPH assay)).

  6. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

  7. Spec UV-Vis: An Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, N.; Limniou, Maria; Koklamanis, Giannis; Tsarouxas, Apostolos; Roilidis, Mpampis; Bigger, Stephen W.

    2001-11-01

    The software and its accompanying manual can be used to illustrate the recording of an absorption spectrum and the Beer-Lambert law (5-7) as well as various aspects of acid-base indicators such as the spectrophotometric determination of pKa (8), the isosbestic point (6, 9), and distribution diagrams (10, 11). Literature Cited Shiowatana, J. J. Chem. Educ. 1997, 74, 730. Altemose, I. R. J. Chem. Educ. 1986, 63, A216, A262. Piepmeier, E. H. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 640. Lott, P. F. J. Chem. Educ. 1968, 45, A89, A169, A182, A273. Skoog, D. A.; West, D. M.; Holler, F. J. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 7th ed.; Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth, TX, 1996, Chapters 22-24. Christian, G. D. Analytical Chemistry, 5th ed.; Wiley: New York, 1994; Chapter 14. Kennedy, J. H. Analytical Chemistry--Principles, 2nd ed.; Saunders College Publishing: New York, 1990; Chapters 11,12. Patterson, G. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 395. Harris, D. C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 5th ed.; Freeman: New York, 1997; Chapters 19, 20. Butler, J. N. Ionic Equilibrium--A Mathematical Approach; Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA, 1964; Chapter 5. Sawyer, C. A.; McCarty, P. L.; Parkin, G. F. Chemistry for Environmental Engineering, 4th ed.; McGraw-Hill: Singapore, 1994; Chapter 4.

  8. Electric cars : The climate impact of electric cars, focusing on carbon dioxide equivalent emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Sandra; Sundin, Helena; Thell, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines and models the emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents of the composition of automobiles in Sweden 2012. The report will be based on three scenarios of electricity valuation principles, which are a snapshot perspective, a retrospective perspective and a future perspective. The snapshot perspective includes high and low values for electricity on the margin, the retrospective perspective includes Nordic and European electricity mix and the future perspective includ...

  9. Detecting overpressure using the Eaton and Equivalent Depth methods in Offshore Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernanda; Primasty, A. Q. T.; Akbar, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Overpressure is an abnormal high subsurface pressure of any fluids which exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of column of water or formation brine. In Offshore Nova Scotia Canada, the values and depth of overpressure zone are determined using the eaton and equivalent depth method, based on well data and the normal compaction trend analysis. Since equivalent depth method is using effective vertical stress principle and Eaton method considers physical property ratio (velocity). In this research, pressure evaluation only applicable on Penobscot L-30 well. An abnormal pressure is detected at depth 11804 feet as possibly overpressure zone, based on pressure gradient curve and calculation between the Eaton method (7241.3 psi) and Equivalent Depth method (6619.4 psi). Shales within Abenaki formation especially Baccaro Member is estimated as possible overpressure zone due to hydrocarbon generation mechanism.

  10. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  11. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  12. The traveltime holographic principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  13. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  14. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... automated monitoring method utilizing a measurement principle based on sample collection by filtration and... 58. Questions concerning the commercial availability or technical aspects of the method should be...

  15. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. Below we review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs

  16. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  17. Thermoluminescence dosemeter for personal dose equivalent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Campos, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility was investigated of utilising a Brazilian thermoluminescence individual dosemeter, usually calibrated in terms of photon dose equivalent, for the assessment of the personal dose equivalent, H p (d), at depths of 0.07 and 10 mm. The dosemeter uses four CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent detectors, between different filters, as the sensitive materials. It was calibrated in gamma and X radiation fields in the energy range from 17 to 1250 keV. Linear combinations of the responses of three detectors, in this energy range, allow the evaluation of H p (0.07) and H p (10), for radiation incidence angles varying from 0 to 60 degrees, with an accuracy better than 35%. The method is not applicable to mixed photon-beta fields. (author)

  18. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  19. The Logic of Equivalence in Academic Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of discourse to distinguish between the scientific field, where interrelationships among academic disciplines are taken as an object of research, and the widespread uses of ‘interdisciplinary’ and ‘interdisciplinarity’ in academic discourse more generally, typically for legitimation purposes. The assumption......-discourses meet. It is suggested that the logics of signification, and the tension between difference and equivalence, may be important tools for theorizing this borderland. It is argued that whereas the logic of equivalence and the production of empty signifiers appears to be of marginal interest...... to the scientific field, the logic of difference as a more complex articulation of elements, seems to be more in line with the ideals of academic discourse....

  20. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  1. Symmetry adaptation, operator equivalents and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Chatterjee, R.

    1977-12-01

    Basic quantities for symmetry adaptation are discussed in connection with molecular and solid state physics. This gives rise to a formalism whose the central elements are operator equivalents adapted to a point group. Such symmetry adapted operator equivalents are defined in terms of Schwinger operators so that they cover the off-diagonal and diagonal cases. Special emphasis is put on the applications of the formalism to magnetic resonance. More specifically, it is shown how to apply the formalism to the construction, the study of the transformation properties, and the determination of the eigenstates of a generalized spin hamiltonian. Numerous examples are given as well as key tables relative to the chain SO(3) for making easy the application of the formalism to electron paramagnetic resonance [fr

  2. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  3. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  4. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  5. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  6. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...

  7. Canonizing certain Borel equivalences for Silver forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 13 (2012), s. 2973-2979 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * silver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002180#

  8. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  9. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems.\\ud For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  10. Innovative compact focal plane array for wide field vis and ir orbiting telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Gaeremynck, Yann; Jahn, Wilfried

    2017-11-01

    The future generation of high angular resolution space telescopes will require breakthrough technologies to combine large diameters and large focal plane arrays with compactness and lightweight mirrors and structures. Considering the allocated volume medium-size launchers, short focal lengths are mandatory, implying complex optical relays to obtain diffraction limited images on large focal planes. In this paper we present preliminary studies to obtain compact focal plane arrays (FPA) for earth observations on low earth orbits at high angular resolution. Based on the principle of image slicers, we present an optical concept to arrange a 1D FPA into a 2D FPA, allowing the use of 2D detector matrices. This solution is particularly attractive for IR imaging requiring a cryostat, which volume could be considerably reduced as well as the relay optics complexity. Enabling the use of 2D matrices for such an application offers new possibilities. Recent developments on curved FPA allows optimization without concerns on the field curvature. This innovative approach also reduces the complexity of the telescope optical combination, specifically for fast telescopes. This paper will describe the concept and optical design of an F/5 - 1.5m telescope equipped with such a FPA, the performances and the impact on the system with a comparison with an equivalent 1.5m wide field Korsch telescope.

  11. Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme

  12. Theoretical study of electronic absorption spectroscopy of propadienylidene molecule vis-â-vis the observed diffuse interstellar bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Samala Nagaprasad; Mahapatra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Theoretical study of spectroscopy and dynamics of electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 . ► Construction of ab initio electronic potential energy and diabatic coupling surfaces. ► First principles study of nuclear dynamics on excited electronic states. ► Findings reveal l-C 3 H 2 is a potential molecular carrier of diffuse interstellar bands. ► Electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 decays by ultrafast nonradiative internal conversion. -- Abstract: Observation of broad and diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881 Å and 5440 Å assigned to the optical absorption spectrum of Y-shaped propadienylidene (H 2 C=C=C:) molecule is theoretically examined in this paper. This molecule apparently absorbs in the same wavelength region as the observed DIBs and was suggested to be a potential carrier of these DIBs. This assignment mostly relied on the experimental data from radioastronomy and laboratory measurements. Motivated by these available experimental data we attempt here a theoretical study and investigate the detailed electronic structure and nuclear dynamics underlying the electronic absorption bands of propadienylidene molecule. Our results show that this molecule indeed absorbs in the wavelength region of the recorded DIBs. Strong nonadiabatic coupling between its energetically low-lying electronic states plays major role, initiates ultrafast internal conversion and contributes to the spectral broadening. Theoretical findings are finally compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and discussed in connection with the recorded DIBs.

  13. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  14. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Principles of Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  16. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  17. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  18. Thermodynamics and Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three-part project "How the principle of energy conservation evolved between 1842 and 1870: the view of a participant". This paper aims at showing how the new ideas of Mayer and Joule were received, what constituted the new theory in the period under study, and how it was supported experimentally. A…

  19. Statistical analogues of thermodynamic extremum principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2018-05-01

    As shown by Jaynes, the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions of equilibrium statistical mechanics can be simply derived from the principle of maximum entropy, in which the statistical entropy S=- {k}{{B}}{\\sum }i{p}i{log}{p}i is maximised subject to constraints on the mean values of the energy E and/or number of particles N in a system of fixed volume V. The Lagrange multipliers associated with those constraints are then found to be simply related to the temperature T and chemical potential μ. Here we show that the constrained maximisation of S is equivalent to, and can therefore be replaced by, the essentially unconstrained minimisation of the obvious statistical analogues of the Helmholtz free energy F = E ‑ TS and the grand potential J = F ‑ μN. Those minimisations are more easily performed than the maximisation of S because they formally eliminate the constraints on the mean values of E and N and their associated Lagrange multipliers. This procedure significantly simplifies the derivation of the canonical and grand canonical probability distributions, and shows that the well known extremum principles for the various thermodynamic potentials possess natural statistical analogues which are equivalent to the constrained maximisation of S.

  20. Gauge equivalence of the Gross Pitaevskii equation and the equivalent Heisenberg spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we construct an equivalent spin chain for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering lengths using gauge equivalence. We have then generated the soliton solutions for the spin components S3 and S-. We find that the spin solitons for S3 and S- can be compressed for exponentially growing eigenvalues while they broaden out for decaying eigenvalues.

  1. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  2. Study of Vis/NIR spectroscopy measurement on acidity of yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

    2006-09-01

    A fast measurement of pH of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established in order to measuring the acidity of yogurt rapidly. 27 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The pH of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum was measured by a pH meter. The mathematical model between pH and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS) by using Unscramble V9.2. Then 25 unknown samples from 5 different brands were predicted based on the mathematical model. The result shows that The correlation coefficient of pH based on PLS model is more than 0.890, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.037, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.043. Through predicting the pH of 25 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0918. The results show the good to excellent prediction performances. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had a significant greater accuracy for determining the value of pH. It was concluded that the VisINIRS measurement technique can be used to measure pH of yogurt fast and accurately, and a new method for the measurement of pH of yogurt was established.

  3. HTC Vive MeVisLab integration via OpenVR for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Wallner, Jürgen; Boechat, Pedro; Hann, Alexander; Li, Xing; Chen, Xiaojun; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection.

  4. Visualization of Metabolic Interaction Networks in Microbial Communities Using VisANT 5.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Granger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of metabolic networks in microbial communities poses an unresolved visualization and interpretation challenge. We address this challenge in the newly expanded version of a software tool for the analysis of biological networks, VisANT 5.0. We focus in particular on facilitating the visual exploration of metabolic interaction between microbes in a community, e.g. as predicted by COMETS (Computation of Microbial Ecosystems in Time and Space, a dynamic stoichiometric modeling framework. Using VisANT's unique metagraph implementation, we show how one can use VisANT 5.0 to explore different time-dependent ecosystem-level metabolic networks. In particular, we analyze the metabolic interaction network between two bacteria previously shown to display an obligate cross-feeding interdependency. In addition, we illustrate how a putative minimal gut microbiome community could be represented in our framework, making it possible to highlight interactions across multiple coexisting species. We envisage that the "symbiotic layout" of VisANT can be employed as a general tool for the analysis of metabolism in complex microbial communities as well as heterogeneous human tissues. VisANT is freely available at: http://visant.bu.edu and COMETS at http://comets.bu.edu.

  5. Visualization of Metabolic Interaction Networks in Microbial Communities Using VisANT 5.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Brian R; Chang, Yi-Chien; Wang, Yan; DeLisi, Charles; Segrè, Daniel; Hu, Zhenjun

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of metabolic networks in microbial communities poses an unresolved visualization and interpretation challenge. We address this challenge in the newly expanded version of a software tool for the analysis of biological networks, VisANT 5.0. We focus in particular on facilitating the visual exploration of metabolic interaction between microbes in a community, e.g. as predicted by COMETS (Computation of Microbial Ecosystems in Time and Space), a dynamic stoichiometric modeling framework. Using VisANT's unique metagraph implementation, we show how one can use VisANT 5.0 to explore different time-dependent ecosystem-level metabolic networks. In particular, we analyze the metabolic interaction network between two bacteria previously shown to display an obligate cross-feeding interdependency. In addition, we illustrate how a putative minimal gut microbiome community could be represented in our framework, making it possible to highlight interactions across multiple coexisting species. We envisage that the "symbiotic layout" of VisANT can be employed as a general tool for the analysis of metabolism in complex microbial communities as well as heterogeneous human tissues. VisANT is freely available at: http://visant.bu.edu and COMETS at http://comets.bu.edu.

  6. UV-Vis reflection spectroscopy under variable angle incidence at the air-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Carmona, Cristina; Rubia-Payá, Carlos; Pérez-Morales, Marta; Martín-Romero, María T; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Camacho, Luis

    2014-03-07

    The UV-Vis reflection spectroscopy (UV-Vis-RS) in situ at the air-liquid interface provides information about tilt and aggregation of chromophores in Langmuir monolayers. This information is particularly important given in most cases the chromophore is located at the polar region of the Langmuir monolayer. This region of the Langmuir monolayers has been hardly accessible by other experimental techniques. In spite of its enormous potential, the application of UV-Vis-RS has been limited mainly to reflection measurements under light normal incidence or at lower incidence angles than the Brewster angle. Remarkably, this technique is quite sensitive to the tilt of the chromophores at values of incidence angles close to or larger than the Brewster angle. Therefore, a novel method to obtain the order parameter of the chromophores at the air-liquid interface by using s- and p-polarized radiation at different incidence angles is proposed. This method allowed for the first time the experimental observation of the two components with different polarization properties of a single UV-Vis band at the air-liquid interface. The method of UV-Vis spectroscopy under variable angle incidence is presented as a new tool for obtaining rich detailed information on Langmuir monolayers.

  7. HTC Vive MeVisLab integration via OpenVR for medical applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Egger

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality, an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality, gets a lot of attention in the entertainment industry. However, VR has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain, Examples are intervention planning, training and simulation. This is especially of use in medical operations, where an aesthetic outcome is important, like for facial surgeries. Alas, importing medical data into Virtual Reality devices is not necessarily trivial, in particular, when a direct connection to a proprietary application is desired. Moreover, most researcher do not build their medical applications from scratch, but rather leverage platforms like MeVisLab, MITK, OsiriX or 3D Slicer. These platforms have in common that they use libraries like ITK and VTK, and provide a convenient graphical interface. However, ITK and VTK do not support Virtual Reality directly. In this study, the usage of a Virtual Reality device for medical data under the MeVisLab platform is presented. The OpenVR library is integrated into the MeVisLab platform, allowing a direct and uncomplicated usage of the head mounted display HTC Vive inside the MeVisLab platform. Medical data coming from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to the Virtual Reality module, rendering the data inside the HTC Vive for immersive virtual reality inspection.

  8. Integration of the HTC Vive into the medical platform MeVisLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Gall, Markus; Wallner, Jürgen; de Almeida Germano Boechat, Pedro; Hann, Alexander; Li, Xing; Chen, Xiaojun; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is an immersive technology that replicates an environment via computer-simulated reality. VR gets a lot of attention in computer games but has also great potential in other areas, like the medical domain. Examples are planning, simulations and training of medical interventions, like for facial surgeries where an aesthetic outcome is important. However, importing medical data into VR devices is not trivial, especially when a direct connection and visualization from your own application is needed. Furthermore, most researcher don't build their medical applications from scratch, rather they use platforms, like MeVisLab, Slicer or MITK. The platforms have in common that they integrate and build upon on libraries like ITK and VTK, further providing a more convenient graphical interface to them for the user. In this contribution, we demonstrate the usage of a VR device for medical data under MeVisLab. Therefore, we integrated the OpenVR library into MeVisLab as an own module. This enables the direct and uncomplicated usage of head mounted displays, like the HTC Vive under MeVisLab. Summarized, medical data from other MeVisLab modules can directly be connected per drag-and-drop to our VR module and will be rendered inside the HTC Vive for an immersive inspection.

  9. Application of a value-based equivalency method to assess environmental damage compensation under the European Environmental Liability Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Ortega, J.; Brouwer, R.; Aiking, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) establishes a framework of liability based on the 'polluter-pays' principle to prevent and remedy environmental damage. The ELD requires the testing of appropriate equivalency methods to assess the scale of compensatory measures needed to offset damage.

  10. The Principles of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…

  11. Principles of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Melvin

    1972-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.

  12. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  13. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  14. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  15. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  16. The Bohr Correspondence Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Correspondence principle, hy- drogen atom, Kepler orbit. Deepak Dhar works at the. Tata Institute of Funda- mental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of statistical physics. We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relati- vistic hydrogen atom. We show that for bound.

  17. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  18. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  19. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  20. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  1. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  2. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  3. Generating carbyne equivalents with photoredox catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Herraiz, Ana G.; Del Hoyo, Ana M.; Suero, Marcos G.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon has the unique ability to bind four atoms and form stable tetravalent structures that are prevalent in nature. The lack of one or two valences leads to a set of species—carbocations, carbanions, radicals and carbenes—that is fundamental to our understanding of chemical reactivity. In contrast, the carbyne—a monovalent carbon with three non-bonded electrons—is a relatively unexplored reactive intermediate; the design of reactions involving a carbyne is limited by challenges associated with controlling its extreme reactivity and the lack of efficient sources. Given the innate ability of carbynes to form three new covalent bonds sequentially, we anticipated that a catalytic method of generating carbynes or related stabilized species would allow what we term an ‘assembly point’ disconnection approach for the construction of chiral centres. Here we describe a catalytic strategy that generates diazomethyl radicals as direct equivalents of carbyne species using visible-light photoredox catalysis. The ability of these carbyne equivalents to induce site-selective carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage in aromatic rings enables a useful diazomethylation reaction, which underpins sequencing control for the late-stage assembly-point functionalization of medically relevant agents. Our strategy provides an efficient route to libraries of potentially bioactive molecules through the installation of tailored chiral centres at carbon-hydrogen bonds, while complementing current translational late-stage functionalization processes. Furthermore, we exploit the dual radical and carbene character of the generated carbyne equivalent in the direct transformation of abundant chemical feedstocks into valuable chiral molecules.

  4. Preclinical evaluation of VIS513, a therapeutic antibody against dengue virus, in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Eugenia Z; Budigi, Yadunanda; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Robinson, Luke N; Rowley, Kirk J; Winnett, Alexander; Hobbie, Sven; Shriver, Zachary; Babcock, Gregory J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2017-08-01

    Despite useful in vivo activity, no therapeutic against dengue virus (DENV) has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. Herein, we explored dosing and virological endpoints to guide the design of human trials of VIS513, a pan-serotype anti-DENV IgG1 antibody, in non-human primates (NHPs). Dosing VIS513 pre- or post-peak viremia in NHPs neutralized infectious DENV although RNAemia remained detectable post-treatment; differential interaction of human IgGs with macaque Fc-gamma receptors may delay clearance of neutralized DENV. Our findings suggest useful antiviral utility of VIS513 and highlight an important consideration when evaluating virological endpoints of trials for anti-DENV biologics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  6. The Classification of Ground Roasted Decaffeinated Coffee Using UV-VIS Spectroscopy and SIMCA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulia, M.; Asnaning, A. R.; Suhandy, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, an investigation on the classification between decaffeinated and non- decaffeinated coffee samples using UV-VIS spectroscopy and SIMCA method was investigated. Total 200 samples of ground roasted coffee were used (100 samples for decaffeinated coffee and 100 samples for non-decaffeinated coffee). After extraction and dilution, the spectra of coffee samples solution were acquired using a UV-VIS spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-VIS, Thermo Scientific, USA) in the range of 190-1100 nm. The multivariate analyses of the spectra were performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The SIMCA model showed that the classification between decaffeinated and non-decaffeinated coffee samples was detected with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Equivalent conserved currents and generalized Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized Noether theorem is presented, relating symmetries and equivalence classes of local) conservation laws in classical field theories; this is contrasted with the standard theorem. The concept of a ''Noether'' field theory is introduced, being a theory for which the generalized theorem applies; not only does this include the cases of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories, these structures are ''derived'' from the Noether property in a natural way. The generalized theorem applies to currents and symmetries that contain derivatives of the fields up to an arbitrarily high order

  8. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... which cross national borders and for the needs of multilingual populations. The European Convention of Human Rights (article 6, paragrph 3) is one of the main planks of relevant legislation. This international, two year project has been funded by the EU Grotius programme to set out what is required...

  9. Testing efficiency transfer codes for equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Celik, N.; Cornejo Diaz, N.; Dlabac, A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Hult, M.; Jovanovic, S.; Lepy, M.-C.; Mihaljevic, N.; Sima, O.; Tzika, F.; Jurado Vargas, M.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Vidmar, G.

    2010-01-01

    Four general Monte Carlo codes (GEANT3, PENELOPE, MCNP and EGS4) and five dedicated packages for efficiency determination in gamma-ray spectrometry (ANGLE, DETEFF, GESPECOR, ETNA and EFFTRAN) were checked for equivalence by applying them to the calculation of efficiency transfer (ET) factors for a set of well-defined sample parameters, detector parameters and energies typically encountered in environmental radioactivity measurements. The differences between the results of the different codes never exceeded a few percent and were lower than 2% in the majority of cases.

  10. Money and bonds: an equivalence theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana R. Kocherlakota

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers four models in which immortal agents face idiosyncratic shocks and trade only a single risk-free asset over time. The four models specify this single asset to be private bonds, public bonds, public money, or private money respectively. I prove that, given an equilibrium in one of these economies, it is possible to pick the exogenous elements in the other three economies so that there is an outcome-equivalent equilibrium in each of them. (The term ?exogenous variables? ref...

  11. VisGraB: A Benchmark for Vision-Based Grasping. Paladyn Journal of Behavioral Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kootstra, Gert; Popovic, Mila; Jørgensen, Jimmy Alison

    2012-01-01

    that a large number of grasps can be executed and evaluated while dealing with dynamics and the noise and uncertainty present in the real world images. VisGraB enables a fair comparison among different grasping methods. The user furthermore does not need to deal with robot hardware, focusing on the vision......We present a database and a software tool, VisGraB, for benchmarking of methods for vision-based grasping of unknown objects with no prior object knowledge. The benchmark is a combined real-world and simulated experimental setup. Stereo images of real scenes containing several objects in different...

  12. VisTrails SAHM: visualization and workflow management for species habitat modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Talbert, Colin B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Talbert, Marian; Silva, Claudio; Koop, David; Swanson, Alan; Young, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    The Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling (SAHM) has been created to both expedite habitat modeling and help maintain a record of the various input data, pre- and post-processing steps and modeling options incorporated in the construction of a species distribution model through the established workflow management and visualization VisTrails software. This paper provides an overview of the VisTrails:SAHM software including a link to the open source code, a table detailing the current SAHM modules, and a simple example modeling an invasive weed species in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA.

  13. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  14. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  15. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  16. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  17. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  18. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  19. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  20. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...