Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haugan, M.P.
1978-01-01
A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory
Relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvili, G.
1981-01-01
Roles of relativity (RP) and equivalence principles (EP) in the gauge theory of gravity are shown. RP in the gravitational theory in formalism of laminations can be formulated as requirement of covariance of equations relative to the GL + (4, R)(X) gauge group. In such case RP turns out to be identical to the gauge principle in the gauge theory of a group of outer symmetries, and the gravitational theory can be directly constructed as the gauge theory. In general relativity theory the equivalence theory adds RP and is intended for description of transition to a special relativity theory in some system of reference. The approach described takes into account that in the gauge theory, besides gauge fields under conditions of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone and Higgs fields can also arise, to which the gravitational metric field is related, what is the sequence of taking account of RP in the gauge theory of gravitation [ru
Einstein's Equivalence Principle and Invalidity of Thorne's Theory for LIGO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lo C. Y.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The theoretical foundation of LIGO's design is based on the equation of motion derived by Thorne. His formula, motivated by Einstein's theory of measurement, shows that the gravitational wave-induced displacement of a mass with respect to an object is proportional to the distance from the object. On the other hand, based on the observed bending of light and Einstein's equivalence principle, it is concluded that such induced displacement has nothing to do with the distance from another object. It is shown that the derivation of Thorne's formula has invalid assumptions that make it inapplicable to LIGO. This is a good counter example for those who claimed that Einstein's equivalence principle is not important or even irrelevant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, C.S.
1994-01-01
Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs
The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, S.J. Jr.
1984-01-01
Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation
Principle of equivalence and a theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shelupsky, D.
1985-01-01
We examine a well-known thought experiment often used to explain why we should expect a ray of light to be bent by gravity; according to this the light bends downward in the gravitational field because this is just what an observer would see if there were no field and he were accelerating upward instead. We show that this description of the action of Newtonian gravity in a flat space-time corresponds to an old two-index symmetric tensor field theory of gravitation
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
Weak principle of equivalence and gauge theory of tetrad aravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tunyak, V.N.
1978-01-01
It is shown that, unlike the tetrade formulation of the general relativity theory derived from the requirement on the Poincare group localization, the tetrade gravitation theory corresponding to the Trader formulation of the weak equivalence principle, where the nongravitational-matter Lagrangian is the direct covariant generalization of the partial relativistic expression on the Riemann space-time is incompatible with the known method for deriving the calibration theory of the tetrade gravitation field
Quantum Field Theoretic Derivation of the Einstein Weak Equivalence Principle Using Emqg Theory
Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike
1999-01-01
We provide a quantum field theoretic derivation of Einstein's Weak Equivalence Principle of general relativity using a new quantum gravity theory proposed by the authors called Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG (ref. 1). EMQG is based on a new theory of inertia (ref. 5) proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff (which we modified and called Quantum Inertia). Quantum Inertia states that classical Newtonian Inertia is a property of matter due to the strictly local electrical force ...
Five-dimensional projective unified theory and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Sabbata, V.; Gasperini, M.
1984-01-01
We investigate the physical consequences of a new five-dimensional projective theory unifying gravitation and electromagnetism. Solving the field equations in the linear approximation and in the static limit, we find that a celestial body would act as a source of a long-range scalar field, and that macroscopic test bodies with different internal structure would accelerate differently in the solar gravitational field; this seems to be in disagreement with the equivalence principle. To avoid this contradiction, we suggest a possible modification of the geometrical structure of the five-dimensional projective space
On the relativity and equivalence principles in the gauge theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.; Sardanashvily, G.
1981-01-01
One sees the basic ideas of the gauge gravitation theory still not generally accepted in spite of more than twenty years of its history. The chief reason lies in the fact that the gauge character of gravity is connected with the whole complex of problems of Einstein General Relativity: about the reference system definition, on the (3+1)-splitting, on the presence (or absence) of symmetries in GR, on the necessity (or triviality) of general covariance, on the meaning of equivalence principle, which led Einstein from Special to General Relativity |1|. The real actuality of this complex of interconnected problems is demonstrated by the well-known work of V. Fock, who saw no symmetries in General Relativity, declared the unnecessary Equivalence principle and proposed even to substitute the designation ''chronogeometry'' instead of ''general relativity'' (see also P. Havas). Developing this line, H. Bondi quite recently also expressed doubts about the ''relativity'' in Einstein theory of gravitation. All proposed versions of the gauge gravitation theory must clarify the discrepancy between Einstein gravitational field being a pseudo-Riemannian metric field, and the gauge potentials representing connections on some fiber bundles and there exists no group, whose gauging would lead to the purely gravitational part of connection (Christoffel symbols or Fock-Ivenenko-Weyl spinorial coefficients). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smorodinskij, Ya.A.
1980-01-01
The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world
Quantification of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epstein, K.J.
1978-01-01
Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries
On the role of the equivalence principle in the general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gertsenshtein, M.E.; Stanyukovich, K.P.; Pogosyan, V.A.
1977-01-01
The conditions under which the solutions of the general relativity theory equations satisfy the correspondence principle are considered. It is shown that in general relativity theory, as in a plane space any systems of coordinates satisfying the topological requirements of continuity and uniqueness are admissible. The coordinate transformations must be mutually unique, and the following requirements must be met: the transformations of the coordinates xsup(i)=xsup(i)(anti xsup(k)) must preserve the class of the function, while the transformation jacobian must be finite and nonzero. The admissible metrics in the Tolmen problem for a vacuum are considered. A prohibition of the vacuum solution of the Tolmen problem is obtained from the correspondence principle. The correspondence principle is applied to the solution of the Friedmann problem by constructing a spherical symmetric self-similar solution, in which replacement of compression by expansion occurs at a finite density. The examples adduced convince that the application of the correspondence principle makes it possible to discard physically inadmissible solutions and obtained new physical results
Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauro Francaviglia
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.
Dark matter and the equivalence principle
Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami
1993-01-01
A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.
Attainment of radiation equivalency principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.
2004-01-01
Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru
Comments on field equivalence principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
1987-01-01
It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...
Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haugan, M.P.
1979-01-01
If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity
The principle of general covariance and the principle of equivalence: two distinct concepts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fagundes, H.V.
It is shown how to construct a theory with general covariance but without the equivalence principle. Such a theory is in disagreement with experiment, but it serves to illustrate the independence of the former principle from the latter one [pt
The equivalence principle in a quantum world
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal
2015-01-01
the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...
Mezzasalma, Stefano A
2007-03-15
The theoretical basis of a recent theory of Brownian relativity for polymer solutions is deepened and reexamined. After the problem of relative diffusion in polymer solutions is addressed, its two postulates are formulated in all generality. The former builds a statistical equivalence between (uncorrelated) timelike and shapelike reference frames, that is, among dynamical trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of polymer chains. The latter defines the "diffusive horizon" as the invariant quantity to work with in the special version of the theory. Particularly, the concept of universality in polymer physics corresponds in Brownian relativity to that of covariance in the Einstein formulation. Here, a "universal" law consists of a privileged observation, performed from the laboratory rest frame and agreeing with any diffusive reference system. From the joint lack of covariance and simultaneity implied by the Brownian Lorentz-Poincaré transforms, a relative uncertainty arises, in a certain analogy with quantum mechanics. It is driven by the difference between local diffusion coefficients in the liquid solution. The same transformation class can be used to infer Fick's second law of diffusion, playing here the role of a gauge invariance preserving covariance of the spacetime increments. An overall, noteworthy conclusion emerging from this view concerns the statistics of (i) static macromolecular configurations and (ii) the motion of liquid molecules, which would be much more related than expected.
Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Okon, E.
2013-01-01
The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule
Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.
2009-01-01
Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in
Probing Students' Ideas of the Principle of Equivalence
Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind
2011-01-01
The principle of equivalence was the first vital clue to Einstein in his extension of special relativity to general relativity, the modern theory of gravitation. In this paper we investigate in some detail students' understanding of this principle in a variety of contexts, when they are undergoing an introductory course on general relativity. The…
Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, P C W
2004-01-01
A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics
Theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault
2012-01-01
We review several theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle (EP). We emphasize the unsatisfactory fact that the EP maintains the absolute character of the coupling constants of physics, while general relativity and its generalizations (Kaluza–Klein, …, string theory) suggest that all absolute structures should be replaced by dynamical entities. We discuss the EP-violation phenomenology of dilaton-like models, which is likely to be dominated by the linear superposition of two effects: a signal proportional to the nuclear Coulomb energy, related to the variation of the fine-structure constant, and a signal proportional to the surface nuclear binding energy, related to the variation of the light quark masses. We recall various theoretical arguments (including a recently proposed anthropic argument) suggesting that the EP be violated at a small, but not unmeasurably small level. This motivates the need for improved tests of the EP. These tests are probing new territories in physics that are related to deep, and mysterious, issues in fundamental physics. (paper)
Testing the equivalence principle on cosmological scales
Bonvin, Camille; Fleury, Pierre
2018-05-01
The equivalence principle, that is one of the main pillars of general relativity, is very well tested in the Solar system; however, its validity is more uncertain on cosmological scales, or when dark matter is concerned. This article shows that relativistic effects in the large-scale structure can be used to directly test whether dark matter satisfies Euler's equation, i.e. whether its free fall is characterised by geodesic motion, just like baryons and light. After having proposed a general parametrisation for deviations from Euler's equation, we perform Fisher-matrix forecasts for future surveys like DESI and the SKA, and show that such deviations can be constrained with a precision of order 10%. Deviations from Euler's equation cannot be tested directly with standard methods like redshift-space distortions and gravitational lensing, since these observables are not sensitive to the time component of the metric. Our analysis shows therefore that relativistic effects bring new and complementary constraints to alternative theories of gravity.
Free Fall and the Equivalence Principle Revisited
Pendrill, Ann-Marie
2017-01-01
Free fall is commonly discussed as an example of the equivalence principle, in the context of a homogeneous gravitational field, which is a reasonable approximation for small test masses falling moderate distances. Newton's law of gravity provides a generalisation to larger distances, and also brings in an inhomogeneity in the gravitational field.…
Violation of Equivalence Principle and Solar Neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gago, A.M.; Nunokawa, H.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.
2001-01-01
We have updated the analysis for the solution to the solar neutrino problem by the long-wavelength neutrino oscillations induced by a tiny breakdown of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity, and obtained a very good fit to all the solar neutrino data
Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin
2014-01-01
In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.
Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-03-15
A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)
Cryogenic test of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worden, P.W. Jr.
1976-01-01
The weak equivalence principle is the hypothesis that the ratio of internal and passive gravitational mass is the same for all bodies. A greatly improved test of this principle is possible in an orbiting satellite. The most promising experiments for an orbital test are adaptations of the Galilean free-fall experiment and the Eotvos balance. Sensitivity to gravity gradient noise, both from the earth and from the spacecraft, defines a limit to the sensitivity in each case. This limit is generally much worse for an Eotvos balance than for a properly designed free-fall experiment. The difference is related to the difficulty of making a balance sufficiently isoinertial. Cryogenic technology is desirable to take full advantage of the potential sensitivity, but tides in the liquid helium refrigerant may produce a gravity gradient that seriously degrades the ultimate sensitivity. The Eotvos balance appears to have a limiting sensitivity to relative difference of rate of fall of about 2 x 10 -14 in orbit. The free-fall experiment is limited by helium tide to about 10 -15 ; if the tide can be controlled or eliminated the limit may approach 10 -18 . Other limitations to equivalence principle experiments are discussed. An experimental test of some of the concepts involved in the orbital free-fall experiment is continuing. The experiment consists in comparing the motions of test masses levitated in a superconducting magnetic bearing, and is itself a sensitive test of the equivalence principle. At present the levitation magnets, position monitors and control coils have been tested and major noise sources identified. A measurement of the equivalence principle is postponed pending development of a system for digitizing data. The experiment and preliminary results are described
Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle
Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace
2017-11-01
As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.
Decompositional equivalence: A fundamental symmetry underlying quantum theory
Fields, Chris
2014-01-01
Decompositional equivalence is the principle that there is no preferred decomposition of the universe into subsystems. It is shown here, by using simple thought experiments, that quantum theory follows from decompositional equivalence together with Landauer's principle. This demonstration raises within physics a question previously left to psychology: how do human - or any - observers agree about what constitutes a "system of interest"?
The Equivalence Principle and Anomalous Magnetic Moment Experiments
Alvarez, C.; Mann, R. B.
1995-01-01
We investigate the possibility of testing of the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP) using measurements of anomalous magnetic moments of elementary particles. We compute the one loop correction for the $g-2$ anomaly within the class of non metric theories of gravity described by the \\tmu formalism. We find several novel mechanisms for breaking the EEP whose origin is due purely to radiative corrections. We discuss the possibilities of setting new empirical constraints on these effects.
The equivalence principle in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics
Mannheim, Philip D.
1998-01-01
We discuss our understanding of the equivalence principle in both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. We show that not only does the equivalence principle hold for the trajectories of quantum particles in a background gravitational field, but also that it is only because of this that the equivalence principle is even to be expected to hold for classical particles at all.
Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak
Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2015-08-01
We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.
The Bohr--Einstein ''weighing-of-energy'' debate and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, R.J.
1990-01-01
The Bohr--Einstein debate over the ''weighing of energy'' and the validity of the time--energy uncertainty relation is reexamined in the context of gravitation theories that do not respect the equivalence principle. Bohr's use of the equivalence principle is shown to be sufficient, but not necessary, to establish the validity of this uncertainty relation in Einstein's ''weighing-of-energy'' gedanken experiment. The uncertainty relation is shown to hold in any energy-conserving theory of gravity, and so a failure of the equivalence principle does not engender a failure of quantum mechanics. The relationship between the gravitational redshift and the equivalence principle is reviewed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.
2006-01-01
'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor
Ethical principles and theories.
Schultz, R C
1993-01-01
Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.
Testing the equivalence principle on a trampoline
Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.
2001-07-01
We are developing a Galilean test of the equivalence principle in which two pairs of test mass assemblies (TMA) are in free fall in a comoving vacuum chamber for about 0.9 s. The TMA are tossed upward, and the process repeats at 1.2 s intervals. Each TMA carries a solid quartz retroreflector and a payload mass of about one-third of the total TMA mass. The relative vertical motion of the TMA of each pair is monitored by a laser gauge working in an optical cavity formed by the retroreflectors. Single-toss precision of the relative acceleration of a single pair of TMA is 3.5×10-12 g. The project goal of Δg/g = 10-13 can be reached in a single night's run, but repetition with altered configurations will be required to ensure the correction of systematic error to the nominal accuracy level. Because the measurements can be made quickly, we plan to study several pairs of materials.
Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.
2010-01-01
We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.
Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory
Khrennikov, Andrei
2002-01-01
We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.
The Application of Equivalence Theory to Advertising Translation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张颖
2017-01-01
Through analyzing equivalence theory, the author tries to find a solution to the problems arising in the process of ad?vertising translation. These problems include cultural diversity, language diversity and special requirement of advertisement. The author declares that Nida''s functional equivalence is one of the most appropriate theories to deal with these problems. In this pa?per, the author introduces the principles of advertising translation and culture divergences in advertising translation, and then gives some advertising translation practices to explain and analyze how to create good advertising translation by using functional equivalence. At last, the author introduces some strategies in advertising translation.
Risk measurement with equivalent utility principles
Denuit, M.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.
2006-01-01
Risk measures have been studied for several decades in the actuarial literature, where they appeared under the guise of premium calculation principles. Risk measures and properties that risk measures should satisfy have recently received considerable attention in the financial mathematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comandi, G.L.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A.M.
2006-01-01
Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies-of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass--if the measurement is made to the level of η≅10 -13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the 'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)-can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus
Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1997-01-01
The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S 0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension
Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroyter, Michael
2009-01-01
We prove that the finite gauge transformation of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic superstring field theory is ill-defined due to collisions of picture changing operators. Despite this problem we study to what extent could a bijective classical correspondence between this theory and the (presumably consistent) non-polynomial theory exist. We find that the classical equivalence between these two theories can almost be extended to the Ramond sector: We construct mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the linearized gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. The problem with the cubic theory implies that the correspondence of the linearized gauge symmetries cannot be extended to a correspondence of the finite gauge symmetries. Hence, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. Nonetheless, we believe that the fact that the equivalence formally works suggests that a consistent modification of the cubic theory exists. We construct a theory that can be considered as a first step towards a consistent RNS cubic theory.
A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies
Tkachuk, Vladimir V
2016-01-01
This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces. An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch. The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...
Apparent violation of the principle of equivalence and Killing horizons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Oregon Univ., Eugene
1980-01-01
By means of the principle of equivalence it is deduced that the qualitative behavior of the Schwarzschild horizon about a uniformly accelerating particle. This result is confirmed for an exact solution of a uniformly accelerating object in the limit of small accelerations. For large accelerations the Schwarzschild horizon appears to violate the qualitative behavior established via the principle of equivalence. When similar arguments are extended to an observable such as the red shift between two observers, there is no departure from the results expected from the principle of equivalence. The resolution of the paradox is brought about by a compensating effect due to the Rindler horizon. (author)
Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, R.J.
1990-01-01
We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs
The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orellana, R.; Vucetich, H.
1986-05-01
An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)
Einstein's equivalence principle instead of the inertia forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herreros Mateos, F.
1997-01-01
In this article I intend to show that Einstein's equivalence principle substitutes advantageously the inertia forces in the study and resolution of problems in which non-inertial systems appear. (Author) 13 refs
The strong equivalence principle and its violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canuto, V.M.; Goldman, I.
1983-01-01
In this paper, the authors discuss theoretical and observational aspects of an SEP violation. They present a two-times theory as a possible framework to handle an SEP violation and summarize the tests performed to check the compatibility of such violation with a host of data ranging from nucleosynthesis to geophysics. They also discuss the dynamical equations needed to analyze radar ranging data to reveal an SEP violation and in particular the method employed by Shapiro and Reasenberg. (Auth.)
Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics
Sivaram, C.; Arun, Kenath
2012-01-01
The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have str...
Test of the Equivalence Principle in the Dark sector on galactic scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohapi, N.; Hees, A.; Larena, J.
2016-01-01
The Einstein Equivalence Principle is a fundamental principle of the theory of General Relativity. While this principle has been thoroughly tested with standard matter, the question of its validity in the Dark sector remains open. In this paper, we consider a general tensor-scalar theory that allows to test the equivalence principle in the Dark sector by introducing two different conformal couplings to standard matter and to Dark matter. We constrain these couplings by considering galactic observations of strong lensing and of velocity dispersion. Our analysis shows that, in the case of a violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, data favour violations through coupling strengths that are of opposite signs for ordinary and Dark matter. At the same time, our analysis does not show any significant deviations from General Relativity
Principle of natural and artificial radioactive series equivalency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasilyeva, A.N.; Starkov, O.V.
2001-01-01
In the present paper one approach used under development of radioactive waste management conception is under consideration. This approach is based on the principle of natural and artificial radioactive series radiotoxic equivalency. The radioactivity of natural and artificial radioactive series has been calculated for 10 9 - years period. The toxicity evaluation for natural and artificial series has also been made. The correlation between natural radioactive series and their predecessors - actinides produced in thermal and fast reactors - has been considered. It has been shown that systematized reactor series data had great scientific significance and the principle of differential calculation of radiotoxicity was necessary to realize long-lived radioactive waste and uranium and thorium ore radiotoxicity equivalency conception. The calculations show that the execution of equivalency principle is possible for uranium series (4n+2, 4n+1). It is a problem for thorium. series. This principle is impracticable for neptunium series. (author)
Fundamental principles of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugajski, S.
1980-01-01
After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)
Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, Hisakazu; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA
1994-04-01
We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem
Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.
1995-01-01
We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle, quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs the quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the nonuniversality of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the Sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can place stringent bounds on the violation of the equivalence principle to 1 part in 10 15 --10 16 if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem
A weak equivalence principle test on a suborbital rocket
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reasenberg, Robert D; Phillips, James D, E-mail: reasenberg@cfa.harvard.ed [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2010-05-07
We describe a Galilean test of the weak equivalence principle, to be conducted during the free fall portion of a sounding rocket flight. The test of a single pair of substances is aimed at a measurement uncertainty of sigma(eta) < 10{sup -16} after averaging the results of eight separate drops. The weak equivalence principle measurement is made with a set of four laser gauges that are expected to achieve 0.1 pm Hz{sup -1/2}. The discovery of a violation (eta not = 0) would have profound implications for physics, astrophysics and cosmology.
Equivalence of Dirac quantization and Schwinger's action principle quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Scherer, W.
1987-01-01
We show that the method of Dirac quantization is equivalent to Schwinger's action principle quantization. The relation between the Lagrange undetermined multipliers in Schwinger's method and Dirac's constraint bracket matrix is established and it is explicitly shown that the two methods yield identical (anti)commutators. This is demonstrated in the non-trivial example of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in superspace. (orig.)
Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seveso, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.seveso@unimi.it [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2017-05-15
We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.
Can quantum probes satisfy the weak equivalence principle?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G.A.
2017-01-01
We address the question whether quantum probes in a gravitational field can be considered as test particles obeying the weak equivalence principle (WEP). A formulation of the WEP is proposed which applies also in the quantum regime, while maintaining the physical content of its classical counterpart. Such formulation requires the introduction of a gravitational field not to modify the Fisher information about the mass of a freely-falling probe, extractable through measurements of its position. We discover that, while in a uniform field quantum probes satisfy our formulation of the WEP exactly, gravity gradients can encode nontrivial information about the particle’s mass in its wavefunction, leading to violations of the WEP. - Highlights: • Can quantum probes under gravity be approximated as test-bodies? • A formulation of the weak equivalence principle for quantum probes is proposed. • Quantum probes are found to violate it as a matter of principle.
Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it
2009-04-01
The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].
Cosmological equivalence principle and the weak-field limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiltshire, David L.
2008-01-01
The strong equivalence principle is extended in application to averaged dynamical fields in cosmology to include the role of the average density in the determination of inertial frames. The resulting cosmological equivalence principle is applied to the problem of synchronization of clocks in the observed universe. Once density perturbations grow to give density contrasts of order 1 on scales of tens of megaparsecs, the integrated deceleration of the local background regions of voids relative to galaxies must be accounted for in the relative synchronization of clocks of ideal observers who measure an isotropic cosmic microwave background. The relative deceleration of the background can be expected to represent a scale in which weak-field Newtonian dynamics should be modified to account for dynamical gradients in the Ricci scalar curvature of space. This acceleration scale is estimated using the best-fit nonlinear bubble model of the universe with backreaction. At redshifts z -10 ms -2 , is small, when integrated over the lifetime of the universe it amounts to an accumulated relative difference of 38% in the rate of average clocks in galaxies as compared to volume-average clocks in the emptiness of voids. A number of foundational aspects of the cosmological equivalence principle are also discussed, including its relation to Mach's principle, the Weyl curvature hypothesis, and the initial conditions of the universe.
Floyd's principle, correctness theories and program equivalence
Bergstra, J.A.; Tiuryn, J.; Tucker, J.V.
1982-01-01
A programming system is a language made from a fixed class of data abstractions and a selection of familiar deterministic control and assignment constructs. It is shown that the sets of all ‘before-after’ first-order assertions which are true of programs in any such language can uniquely determine
Uniformly accelerating charged particles. A threat to the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyle, Stephen N.
2008-01-01
There has been a long debate about whether uniformly accelerated charges should radiate electromagnetic energy and how one should describe their worldline through a flat spacetime, i.e., whether the Lorentz-Dirac equation is right. There are related questions in curved spacetimes, e.g., do different varieties of equivalence principle apply to charged particles, and can a static charge in a static spacetime radiate electromagnetic energy? The problems with the LD equation in flat spacetime are spelt out in some detail here, and its extension to curved spacetime is discussed. Different equivalence principles are compared and some vindicated. The key papers are discussed in detail and many of their conclusions are significantly revised by the present solution. (orig.)
Tests of the equivalence principle with neutral kaons
Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V
1999-01-01
We test the Principle of Equivalence for particles and antiparticles, using CPLEAR data on tagged Pkao and Pkab decays into $pi^+ pi^-$. For the first time, we search for possible annual, monthly and diurnal modulations of the observables $|eta_{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$, that could be correlated with variations in astrophysical potentials. Within the accuracy of CPLEAR, the measured values of $|eta _{+-}|$ and $phi _{+-}$ are found not to be correlated with changes of the gravitational potential. We analyze data assuming effective scalar, vector and tensor interactions, and we conclude that the Principle of Equivalence between particles and antiparticles holds to a level of $6.5$, $4.3$ and $1.8 imes 10^{-9}$, respectively, for scalar, vector and tensor potentials originating from the Sun with a range much greater than the distance Earth-Sun. We also study energy-dependent effects that might arise from vector or tensor interactions. Finally, we compile upper limits on the gravitational coupling difference betwee...
Density matrix in quantum electrodynamics, equivalence principle and Hawking effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.; Gitman, D.M.
1978-01-01
The expression for the density matrix describing particles of one sort (electrons or positrons) created by an external electromagnetic field from the vacuum is obtained. The explicit form of the density matrix is found for the case of constant and uniform electric field. Arguments are given for the presence of a connection between the thermal nature of the density matrix describing particles created by the gravitational field of a black hole and the equivalence principle. (author)
Acceleration Measurements Using Smartphone Sensors: Dealing with the Equivalence Principle
Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.
2014-01-01
Acceleration sensors built into smartphones, i-pads or tablets can conveniently be used in the physics laboratory. By virtue of the equivalence principle, a sensor fixed in a non-inertial reference frame cannot discern between a gravitational field and an accelerated system. Accordingly, acceleration values read by these sensors must be corrected for the gravitational component. A physical pendulum was studied by way of example, and absolute acceleration and rotation angle values were derived...
Phenomenology of the Equivalence Principle with Light Scalars
Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.
2010-01-01
Light scalar particles with couplings of sub-gravitational strength, which can generically be called 'dilatons', can produce violations of the equivalence principle. However, in order to understand experimental sensitivities one must know the coupling of these scalars to atomic systems. We report here on a study of the required couplings. We give a general Lagrangian with five independent dilaton parameters and calculate the "dilaton charge" of atomic systems for each of these. Two combinatio...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, E.Z.
1991-01-01
An equivalent diffusion theory PWR reflector model is presented, which has as its basis Smith's generalisation of Koebke's Equivalent Theory. This method is an adaptation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, of the Generalised Equivalence Theory (GET). Since the method involves the renormalisation of the GET discontinuity factors at nodal interfaces, it is called the Normalised Generalised Equivalence Theory (NGET) method. The advantages of the NGET method for modelling the ex-core nodes of a PWR are summarized. 23 refs
Equivalence principle and quantum mechanics: quantum simulation with entangled photons.
Longhi, S
2018-01-15
Einstein's equivalence principle (EP) states the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and corresponding inertial field in an accelerated reference frame. However, to what extent the EP remains valid in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is a controversial issue. To avoid violation of the EP, Bargmann's superselection rule forbids a coherent superposition of states with different masses. Here we suggest a quantum simulation of non-relativistic Schrödinger particle dynamics in non-inertial reference frames, which is based on the propagation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in curved and birefringent optical waveguides and Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference measurement. The photonic simulator can emulate superposition of mass states, which would lead to violation of the EP.
Supersymmetric QED at finite temperature and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinett, R.W.
1985-01-01
Unbroken supersymmetric QED is examined at finite temperature and it is shown that the scalar and spinor members of a chiral superfield acquire different temperature-dependent inertial masses. By considering the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor it is also shown that the T-dependent scalar-spinor gravitational masses are also no longer degenerate and, moreover, are different from their T-dependent inertial mass shifts implying a violation of the equivalence principle. The temperature-dependent corrections to the spinor (g-2) are also calculated and found not to vanish
Possible test of the strong principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brecher, K.
1978-01-01
We suggest that redshift determinations of X-ray and γ-ray lines produced near the surface of neutron stars which arise from different physical processes could provide a significant test of the strong principle of equivalence for strong gravitational fields. As a complement to both the high-precision weak-field solar-system experiments and the cosmological time variation searches, such observations could further test the hypothesis that physics is locally the same at all times and in all places
Cosmology with equivalence principle breaking in the dark sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keselman, Jose Ariel; Nusser, Adi; Peebles, P. J. E.
2010-01-01
A long-range force acting only between nonbaryonic particles would be associated with a large violation of the weak equivalence principle. We explore cosmological consequences of this idea, which we label ReBEL (daRk Breaking Equivalence principLe). A high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the distributions of baryons and dark matter confirms our previous findings that a ReBEL force of comparable strength to gravity on comoving scales of about 1 h -1 Mpc causes voids between the concentrations of large galaxies to be more nearly empty, suppresses accretion of intergalactic matter onto galaxies at low redshift, and produces an early generation of dense dark-matter halos. A preliminary analysis indicates the ReBEL scenario is consistent with the one-dimensional power spectrum of the Lyman-Alpha forest and the three-dimensional galaxy autocorrelation function. Segregation of baryons and DM in galaxies and systems of galaxies is a strong prediction of ReBEL. ReBEL naturally correlates the baryon mass fraction in groups and clusters of galaxies with the system mass, in agreement with recent measurements.
Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator
Shapiro, Irwin I.; Glashow, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Cheimets, P. N.; Finkelstein, N.; Schneps, M.
2005-01-01
This Annual Report illustrates the work carried out during the last grant-year activity on the Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator. The activity focused on the following main topics: (1) analysis and conceptual design of a detector configuration suitable for the flight tests; (2) development of techniques for extracting a small signal from data strings with colored and white noise; (3) design of the mechanism that spins and releases the instrument package inside the cryostat; and (4) experimental activity carried out by our non-US partners (a summary is shown in this report). The analysis and conceptual design of the flight-detector (point 1) was focused on studying the response of the differential accelerometer during free fall, in the presence of errors and precession dynamics, for various detector's configurations. The goal was to devise a detector configuration in which an Equivalence Principle violation (EPV) signal at the sensitivity threshold level can be successfully measured and resolved out of a much stronger dynamics-related noise and gravity gradient. A detailed analysis and comprehensive simulation effort led us to a detector's design that can accomplish that goal successfully.
High energy cosmic neutrinos and the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minakata, H.
1996-01-01
Observation of ultra-high energy neutrinos, in particular detection of ν τ , from cosmologically distant sources like active galactic nuclei (AGN) opens new possibilities to search for neutrino flavor conversion. We consider the effects of violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) on propagation of these cosmic neutrinos. In particular, we discuss two effects: (1) the oscillations of neutrinos due to VEP in the gravitational field of our Galaxy and in the intergalactic space; (2) resonance flavor conversion driven by the gravitational potential of AGN. We show that ultra-high energies of the neutrinos as well as cosmological distances to AGN, or strong AGN gravitational potential allow to improve the accuracy of testing of the equivalence principle by 25 orders of magnitude for massless neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -41 ) and by 11 orders of magnitude for massive neutrinos (Δf ∼ 10 -28 x (Δm 2 /1eV 2 )). The experimental signatures of the transitions induced by VEP are discussed. (author). 17 refs
A homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.
2001-01-01
In this paper any gravitational field (both in the Einsteinian case and in the Newtonian case) is described by the connection, called gravitational. A homogeneous static gravitational field is considered in the four-dimensional area z>0 of a space-time with Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, and t. Such field can be created by masses, disposed outside the area z>0 with a density distribution independent of x, y, and t. Remarkably, in the four-dimensional area z>0, together with the primitive background connection, the primitive gravitational connection has been derived. In concordance with the Principle of Equivalence all components of such gravitational connection are equal to zero in the uniformly accelerated frame system, in which the gravitational force of attraction is balanced by the inertial force. However, all components of such background connection are equal to zero in the resting frame system, but not in the accelerated frame system
The short-circuit concept used in field equivalence principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
1990-01-01
In field equivalence principles, electric and magnetic surface currents are specified and considered as impressed currents. Often the currents are placed on perfect conductors. It is shown that these currents can be treated through two approaches. The first approach is decomposition of the total...... field into partial fields caused by the individual impressed currents. When this approach is used, it is shown that, on a perfect electric (magnetic) conductor, impressed electric (magnetic) surface currents are short-circuited. The second approach is to note that, since Maxwell's equations...... and the boundary conditions are satisfied, none of the impressed currents is short-circuited and no currents are induced on the perfect conductors. Since all currents and field quantities are considered at the same time, this approach is referred to as the total-field approach. The partial-field approach leads...
The equivalence principle and the gravitational constant in experimental relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spallicci, A.D.A.M.
1988-01-01
Fischbach's analysis of the Eotvos experiment, showing an embedded fifth force, has stressed the importance of further tests of the Equivalence Principle (EP). From Galilei and Newton, the EP played the role of a postulate for all gravitational physics and mechanics (weak EP), until Einstein, who extended the validity of the EP to all physics (strong EP). After Fischbach's publication on the fifth force, several experiments have been performed or simply proposed to test the WEP. They are concerned with possible gravitational potential anomalies, depending upon distances or matter composition. While the low level of accuracy with which the gravitational constant G is known has been recognized, experiments have been proposed to test G in the range from few cm until 200 m. This paper highlights the different features of the proposed space experiments. Possible implications on the metric formalism for objects in low potential and slow motion are briefly indicated
Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts.
Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter
2015-12-31
The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ(1.23 GHz)-γ(1.45 GHz)]radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.
Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator
Shapiro, Irwin I.; Glashow, S.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M. L.; Cheimets, P. N.; Finkelstein, N.; Schneps, M.
2004-01-01
The scientific goal of the experiment is to test the equality of gravitational and inertial mass (i.e., to test the Principle of Equivalence) by measuring the independence of the rate of fall of bodies from their compositions. The measurement is accomplished by measuring the relative displacement (or equivalently acceleration) of two falling bodies of different materials which are the proof masses of a differential accelerometer spinning about an horizontal axis to modulate a possible violation signal. A non-zero differential acceleration appearing at the signal frequency will indicate a violation of the Equivalence Principle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the Eotvos ratio og/g (differential acceleration/common acceleration) with a targeted accuracy that is about two orders of magnitude better than the state of the art (presently at several parts in 10(exp 13). The analyses carried out during this first grant year have focused on: (1) evaluation of possible shapes for the proof masses to meet the requirements on the higher-order mass moment disturbances generated by the falling capsule; (2) dynamics of the instrument package and differential acceleration measurement in the presence of errors and imperfections; (3) computation of the inertia characteristic of the instrument package that enable a separation of the signal from the dynamics-related noise; (4) a revised thermal analysis of the instrument package in light of the new conceptual design of the cryostat; (5) the development of a dynamic and control model of the capsule attached to the gondola and balloon to define the requirements for the leveling mechanism (6) a conceptual design of the leveling mechanism that keeps the capsule aligned before release from the balloon; and (7) a new conceptual design of the customized cryostat and a preliminary valuation of its cost. The project also involves an international cooperation with the Institute of Space Physics (IFSI) in Rome, Italy. The group at IFSI
Gravitational Lagrangians, Mach's Principle, and the Equivalence Principle in an Expanding Universe
Essén, Hanno
2014-08-01
Gravitational Lagrangians as derived by Fock for the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approach, and by Kennedy assuming only a fourth rank tensor interaction, contain long range interactions. Here we investigate how these affect the local dynamics when integrated over an expanding universe out to the Hubble radius. Taking the cosmic expansion velocity into account in a heuristic manner it is found that these long range interactions imply Mach's principle, provided the universe has the critical density, and that mass is renormalized. Suitable higher order additions to the Lagrangians make the formalism consistent with the equivalence principle.
The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP)
2004-01-01
STEP will carry concentric test masses to Earth orbit to test a fundamental assumption underlying Einstein's theory of general relativity: that gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. STEP is a 21st-century version of the test that Galileo is said to have performed by dropping a carnon ball and a musket ball simultaneously from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa to compare their accelerations. During the STEP experiment, four pairs of test masses will be falling around the Earth, and their accelerations will be measured by superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS). The extended time sensitivity of the instruments will allow the measurements to be a million times more accurate than those made in modern ground-based tests.
Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts
Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter
2015-12-01
The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ (1.23 GHz )-γ (1.45 GHz )] <4.36 ×10-9. This provides the most stringent limit up to date on the EEP through the relative differential variations of the γ parameter at radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.
Consistency of the Mach principle and the gravitational-to-inertial mass equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granada, Kh.K.; Chubykalo, A.E.
1990-01-01
Kinematics of the system, composed of two bodies, interacting with each other according to inverse-square law, was investigated. It is shown that the Mach principle, earlier rejected by the general relativity theory, can be used as an alternative for the absolute space concept, if it is proposed, that distant star background dictates both inertial and gravitational mass of a body
A Technique of Teaching the Principle of Equivalence at Ground Level
Lubrica, Joel V.
2016-01-01
This paper presents one way of demonstrating the Principle of Equivalence in the classroom. Teaching the Principle of Equivalence involves someone experiencing acceleration through empty space, juxtaposed with the daily encounter with gravity. This classroom activity is demonstrated with a water-filled bottle containing glass marbles and…
Conditions needed to give meaning to rad-equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latarjet, R.
1980-01-01
To legislate on mutagenic chemical pollution the problem to be faced is similar to that tackled about 30 years ago regarding pollution by ionizing radiations. It would be useful to benefit from the work of these 30 years by establishing equivalences, if possible, between chemical mutagens and radiations. Inevitable mutagenic pollutions are considered here, especially those associated with fuel based energy production. As with radiations the legislation must derive from a compromise between the harmful and beneficial effects of the polluting system. When deciding on tolerance doses it is necessary to safeguard the biosphere without inflicting excessive restrictions on industry and on the economy. The present article discusses the conditions needed to give meaning to the notion of rad-equivalence. Some examples of already established equivalences are given, together with the first practical consequences which emerge [fr
Development of dose equivalent meters based on microdosimetric principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booz, J.
1984-01-01
In this paper, the employment of microdosimetric dose-equivalent meters in radiation protection is described considering the advantages of introducing microdosimetric methods into radiation protection, the technical suitability of such instruments for measuring dose equivalent, and finally technical requirements, constraints and solutions together with some examples of instruments and experimental results. The advantage of microdosimetric methods in radiation protection is illustrated with the evaluation of dose-mean quality factors in radiation fields of unknown composition and with the methods of evaluating neutron- and gamma-dose fractions. - It is shown that there is good correlation between dose-mean lineal energy, anti ysub(anti D), and the ICRP quality factor. - Neutron- and gamma-dose fractions of unknown radiation fields can be evaluated with microdosimetric proportional counters without recurrence to other instruments and methods. The problems of separation are discussed. The technical suitability of microdosimetric instruments for measuring dose equivalent is discussed considering the energy response to neutrons and photons and the sensitivity in terms of dose-equivalent rate. Then, considering technical requirements, constraints, and solutions, the problem of the large dynamic range in LET, the large dynamic range in pulse rate, geometry of sensitive volume and electrodes, evaluation of dose-mean quality factors, calibration methods, and uncertainties are discussed. (orig.)
An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.
1992-01-01
It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light
Principles of chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leutwyler, H.
1995-01-01
An elementary discussion of the main concepts used in chiral perturbation theory is given in textbooks and a more detailed picture of the applications may be obtained from the reviews. Concerning the foundations of the method, the literature is comparatively scarce. So, I will concentrate on the basic concepts and explain why the method works. (author)
Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.
Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu
2016-04-15
It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.
Equivalence of the theories of reciprocity and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.
1976-01-01
Khan's theory (Nuovo Cimento; 57B:321 (1968) and Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 6:383 (1972)) of reciprocity has been shown to be equivalent to the theory of general relativity (in a conformally flat space-time) in that the same predictions are made physically. It is is proved that, since 'centrifugal forces' are used by Khan, gravitational phenomena are being considered equal in status to electromagnetic phenomena, and hence the difference claimed to exist between Milne's theory and Khan's theory disappears. (author)
Gauge theory and variational principles
Bleecker, David
2005-01-01
This text provides a framework for describing and organizing the basic forces of nature and the interactions of subatomic particles. A detailed and self-contained mathematical account of gauge theory, it is geared toward beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates in mathematics and physics. This well-organized treatment supplements its rigor with intuitive ideas.Starting with an examination of principal fiber bundles and connections, the text explores curvature; particle fields, Lagrangians, and gauge invariance; Lagrange's equation for particle fields; and the inhomogeneous field
Infrared equivalence of strongly and weakly coupled gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olesen, P.
1975-10-01
Using the decoupling theorem of Apelquist and Carazzone, it is shown that in terms of Feynman diagrams the pure Yang-Mills theory is equivalent in the infrared limit to a theory (zero-mass renormalized), where the vector mesons are coupled fo fermions, and where the fermions do not decouple. By taking enough fermions it is then shown that even though the pure Yang-Mills theory is characterized by the lack of applicability of perturbation theory, nevertheless the effective coupling in the equivalent fermion description is very weak. The effective mass in the zero-mass renormalization blows up. In the fermion description, diagrams involving only vector mesons are suppressed relative to diagrams containing at least one fermion loop. (Auth.)
Intervention principles: Theory and practice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, P.H.; Crick, M.J.
2000-01-01
After the Chernobyl accident, it became clear that some clarification of the basic principles for intervention was necessary as well as more internationally recognised numerical guidance on intervention levels. There was in the former USSR and in Europe much confusion over, and lack of recognition of, the very different origins and purposes of dose limits for controlling deliberate increases in radiation exposure for practices and dose levels at which intervention is prompted to decrease existing radiation exposure. In the latest recommendations from ICRP in its Publication 60, a clear distinction is made between the radiation protection systems for a practice and for intervention. According to ICRP, the protective measures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantages, should each be justified on their own merit in the sense that they should do more good than harm, and their form, scale, and duration should be optimised so as to do the most good. Intervention levels for protective actions can be established for many possible accident scenarios. For planning and preparedness purposes, a generic optimisation based on generic accident scenario calculations, should result in optimised generic intervention levels for each protective measure. The factors entering such an optimisation will on the benefit side include avertable doses and avertable risks as well as reassurance. On the harm side the factors include monetary costs, collective and individual risk for the action itself, social disruption and anxiety. More precise optimisation analyses based on real site and accident specific data can be carried out and result in specific intervention levels. It is desirable that values for easily measurable quantities such as dose rate and surface contamination density be developed as surrogates for intervention levels of avertable dose. However, it is important that these quantities should be used carefully and applied taking account of local
New test of the equivalence principle from lunar laser ranging
Williams, J. G.; Dicke, R. H.; Bender, P. L.; Alley, C. O.; Currie, D. G.; Carter, W. E.; Eckhardt, D. H.
1976-01-01
An analysis of six years of lunar-laser-ranging data gives a zero amplitude for the Nordtvedt term in the earth-moon distance yielding the Nordtvedt parameter eta = 0.00 plus or minus 0.03. Thus, earth's gravitational self-energy contributes equally, plus or minus 3%, to its inertial mass and passive gravitational mass. At the 70% confidence level this result is only consistent with the Brans-Dicke theory for omega greater than 29. We obtain the absolute value of beta - 1 less than about 0.02 to 0.05 for five-parameter parametrized post-Newtonian theories of gravitation with energy-momentum conservation.
On experimental testing of the weak equivalence principle for the neutron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.
1994-01-01
The considerations is presented of the experimental situation with the verification of the weak equivalence principle for the neutron. The direct method is proposed to significantly increase (to ∼ 10 -6 ) the precision of the equivalence principle for the neutron in the Galilei type experiment, which uses the thin-film Fabri-Perot interferometer and precise time-of-flight spectrometry of ultracold neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.
2014-01-01
In previous work we have developed a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group that includes transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as is the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. A special feature of these previously constructed representations is that they all respect the non-relativistic equivalence principle, wherein the fictitious forces associated with linear acceleration can equivalently be described by gravitational forces. In this paper we exhibit a large class of cocycle representations of the Galilean line group that violate the equivalence principle. Nevertheless the classical mechanics analogue of these cocycle representations all respect the equivalence principle. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is given. •The key concept is the Galilean line group, an infinite dimensional group. •A large class of general cocycle representations of the Galilean line group is constructed. •These representations show violations of the equivalence principle at the quantum level. •At the classical limit, no violations of the equivalence principle are detected
Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qin, Renjia
2015-04-01
This paper makes persuasive demonstrations on some problems about the human ear sound transmission principle in existing physiological textbooks and reference books, and puts forward the authors' view to make up for its literature. Exerting the knowledge of lever in physics and the acoustics theory, we come up with an equivalent simplified model of manubrium mallei which is to meet the requirements as the long arm of the lever. We also set up an equivalent simplified model of ossicular chain--a combination of levers of ossicular chain. We disassemble the model into two simple levers, and make full analysis and demonstration on them. Through the calculation and comparison of displacement amplitudes in both external auditory canal air and internal ear lymph, we may draw a conclusion that the key reason, which the sound displacement amplitude is to be decreased to adapt to the endurance limit of the basement membrane, is that the density and sound speed in lymph is much higher than those in the air.
Drying principles and theory: An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekechukwu, O.V.
1995-10-01
A comprehensive review of the fundamental principles and theories governing the drying process is presented. Basic definitions are given. The development of contemporary models of drying of agricultural products are traced from the earliest reported sorption and moisture equilibrium models, through the single kernel of product models to the thin layer and deep bed drying analysis. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs
Tidal tails test the equivalence principle in the dark-matter sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc
2006-01-01
Satellite galaxies currently undergoing tidal disruption offer a unique opportunity to constrain an effective violation of the equivalence principle in the dark sector. While dark matter in the standard scenario interacts solely through gravity on large scales, a new long-range force between dark-matter particles may naturally arise in theories in which the dark matter couples to a light scalar field. An inverse-square-law force of this kind would manifest itself as a violation of the equivalence principle in the dynamics of dark matter compared to baryons in the form of gas or stars. In a previous paper, we showed that an attractive force would displace stars outwards from the bottom of the satellite's gravitational potential well, leading to a higher fraction of stars being disrupted from the tidal bulge further from the Galactic center. Since stars disrupted from the far (near) side of the satellite go on to form the trailing (leading) tidal stream, an attractive dark-matter force will produce a relative enhancement of the trailing stream compared to the leading stream. This distinctive signature of a dark-matter force might be detected through detailed observations of the tidal tails of a disrupting satellite, such as those recently performed by the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) on the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy. Here we show that this signature is robust to changes in our models for both the satellite and Milky Way, suggesting that we might hope to search for a dark-matter force in the tidal features of other recently discovered satellite galaxies in addition to the Sgr dwarf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambiase, G.
2001-01-01
Neutrino oscillations are analyzed in an accelerating and rotating reference frame, assuming that the gravitational coupling of neutrinos is flavor dependent, which implies a violation of the equivalence principle. Unlike the usual studies in which a constant gravitational field is considered, such frames could represent a more suitable framework for testing if a breakdown of the equivalence principle occurs, due to the possibility to modulate the (simulated) gravitational field. The violation of the equivalence principle implies, for the case of a maximal gravitational mixing angle, the presence of an off-diagonal term in the mass matrix. The consequences on the evolution of flavor (mass) eigenstates of such a term are analyzed for solar (oscillations in the vacuum) and atmospheric neutrinos. We calculate the flavor oscillation probability in the non-inertial frame, which does depend on its angular velocity and linear acceleration, as well as on the energy of neutrinos, the mass-squared difference between two mass eigenstates, and on the measure of the degree of violation of the equivalence principle (Δγ). In particular, we find that the energy dependence disappears for vanishing mass-squared difference, unlike the result obtained by Gasperini, Halprin, Leung, and other physical mechanisms proposed as a viable explanation of neutrino oscillations. Estimations on the upper values of Δγ are inferred for a rotating observer (with vanishing linear acceleration) comoving with the earth, hence ω∝7.10 -5 rad/sec, and all other alternative mechanisms generating the oscillation phenomena have been neglected. In this case we find that the constraints on Δγ are given by Δγ≤10 2 for solar neutrinos and Δγ≤10 6 for atmospheric neutrinos. (orig.)
Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case
Lockerbie, N A
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between th...
Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lockerbie, N A
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between the resulting quadrupolar force on the body and the difference between the net and the monopolar forces acting on it, underscoring the utility of the approach. A dynamical technique for experimentally obtaining the mass quadrupole tensors of EP test masses is discussed, and a means of validating the results is noted
Rodrigues, W. A.; Scanavini, M. E. F.; de Alcantara, L. P.
1990-02-01
In this paper a given spacetime theory T is characterized as the theory of a certain species of structure in the sense of Bourbaki [1]. It is then possible to clarify in a rigorous way the concepts of passive and active covariance of T under the action of the manifold mapping group G M . For each T, we define also an invariance group G I T and, in general, G I T ≠ G M . This group is defined once we realize that, for each τ ∈ ModT, each explicit geometrical object defining the structure can be classified as absolute or dynamical [2]. All spacetime theories possess also implicit geometrical objects that do not appear explicitly in the structure. These implicit objects are not absolute nor dynamical. Among them there are the reference frame fields, i.e., “timelike” vector fields X ∈ TU,U subseteq M M, where M is a manifold which is part of ST, a substructure for each τ ∈ ModT, called spacetime. We give a physically motivated definition of equivalent reference frames and introduce the concept of the equivalence group of a class of reference frames of kind X according to T, G X T. We define that T admits a weak principle of relativity (WPR) only if G X T ≠ identity for some X. If G X T = G I T for some X, we say that T admits a strong principle of relativity (PR). The results of this paper generalize and clarify several results obtained by Anderson [2], Scheibe [3], Hiskes [4], Recami and Rodrigues [5], Friedman [6], Fock [7], and Scanavini [8]. Among the novelties here, there is the realization that the definitions of G I T and G X T can be given only when certain boundary conditions for the equations of motion of T can be physically realizable in the domain U U subseteq M M, where a given reference frame is defined. The existence of physically realizable boundary conditions for each τ ∈ ModT (in ∂ U), in contrast with the mathematically possible boundary condition, is then seen to be essential for the validity of a principle of relativity for T
The c equivalence principle and the correct form of writing Maxwell's equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heras, Jose A
2010-01-01
It is well known that the speed c u =1/√(ε 0 μ 0 ) is obtained in the process of defining SI units via action-at-a-distance forces, like the force between two static charges and the force between two long and parallel currents. The speed c u is then physically different from the observed speed of propagation c associated with electromagnetic waves in vacuum. However, repeated experiments have led to the numerical equality c u = c, which we have called the c equivalence principle. In this paper we point out that ∇xE=-[1/(ε 0 μ 0 c 2 )]∂B/∂t is the correct form of writing Faraday's law when the c equivalence principle is not assumed. We also discuss the covariant form of Maxwell's equations without assuming the c equivalence principle.
Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle
Nisio, Makiko
2015-01-01
This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...
Test masses for the G-POEM test of the weak equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reasenberg, Robert D; Phillips, James D; Popescu, Eugeniu M
2011-01-01
We describe the design of the test masses that are used in the 'ground-based principle of equivalence measurement' test of the weak equivalence principle. The main features of the design are the incorporation of corner cubes and the use of mass removal and replacement to create pairs of test masses with different test substances. The corner cubes allow for the vertical separation of the test masses to be measured with picometer accuracy by SAO's unique tracking frequency laser gauge, while the mass removal and replacement operations are arranged so that the test masses incorporating different test substances have nominally identical gravitational properties. (papers)
A New Equivalence Theory Method for Doubly Heterogeneous Fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung
2014-01-01
The unique characteristics cannot be handled easily by conventional computer code. A new methodology is being developed to treat resonance self-shielding in a doubly heterogeneous system. The method first homogenizes the material in the fuel compact region using an analytical approximation for the disadvantage factor based on equivalence theory. The disadvantage factor accounts for spatial self-shielding of the resonance flux within the fuel grains. The doubly-heterogeneous effects are accounted by using a modified definition of background cross section, which includes geometry parameters and the cross sections of both the fuel grain and fuel compact regions. For the verification, the new DH methodology was implemented in deterministic transport code TICTOC developed at UNIST which uses equivalence theory for resonance treatment and Method of Characteristics (MOC) for the ray tracing. In previous research, this new methodology was verified for several pin cell problems but further verification is required to confirm the validity of the methodology for various situations. Therefore, in this study, 9 cases for unit pin cell problems are designed and the accuracy of the new DH method is compared to the Monte Carlo code, McCARD. The new method for doubly-heterogeneous self-shielding using equivalence theory was summarized and calculation procedure was presented. The new methods use analytical expression for the disadvantage factor therefore additional complicated module is not required. The new method was verified for 9 pin cell models. As a result, TICTOC with the new DH method predicts the eigenvalues within about 200 pcm error compared with Monte Carlo results for the most of problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhitnikov, V.V.; Ponomarev, V.N.
1986-01-01
An attempt is made to compare the solution of field equations, corresponding to quadratic equations for the fields (g μν , Γ μν α ) in gauge gravitation theory (GGT) with general relativity theory solutions. Without restrictions for a concrete type of metrics only solutions of equations, for which torsion turns to zero, are considered. Equivalence of vacuum equations of gauge quadratic theory of gravity and general relativity theory is proved using the Newman-Penrose formalism
Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission
Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2018-01-01
The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10-5. By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10-5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, J2⊙J2⊙ = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10-7. Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, GM⊙°/GM⊙GM⊙°/GM⊙ = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10-14, which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain ∣∣G°∣∣/GG°/G to be <4 × 10-14 per year.
Solar system expansion and strong equivalence principle as seen by the NASA MESSENGER mission.
Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2018-01-18
The NASA MESSENGER mission explored the innermost planet of the solar system and obtained a rich data set of range measurements for the determination of Mercury's ephemeris. Here we use these precise data collected over 7 years to estimate parameters related to general relativity and the evolution of the Sun. These results confirm the validity of the strong equivalence principle with a significantly refined uncertainty of the Nordtvedt parameter η = (-6.6 ± 7.2) × 10 -5 . By assuming a metric theory of gravitation, we retrieved the post-Newtonian parameter β = 1 + (-1.6 ± 1.8) × 10 -5 and the Sun's gravitational oblateness, [Formula: see text] = (2.246 ± 0.022) × 10 -7 . Finally, we obtain an estimate of the time variation of the Sun gravitational parameter, [Formula: see text] = (-6.13 ± 1.47) × 10 -14 , which is consistent with the expected solar mass loss due to the solar wind and interior processes. This measurement allows us to constrain [Formula: see text] to be <4 × 10 -14 per year.
From the Neutral Theory to a Comprehensive and Multiscale Theory of Ecological Equivalence.
Munoz, François; Huneman, Philippe
2016-09-01
The neutral theory of biodiversity assumes that coexisting organisms are equally able to survive, reproduce, and disperse (ecological equivalence), but predicts that stochastic fluctuations of these abilities drive diversity dynamics. It predicts remarkably well many biodiversity patterns, although substantial evidence for the role of niche variation across organisms seems contradictory. Here, we discuss this apparent paradox by exploring the meaning and implications of ecological equivalence. We address the question whether neutral theory provides an explanation for biodiversity patterns and acknowledges causal processes. We underline that ecological equivalence, although central to neutral theory, can emerge at local and regional scales from niche-based processes through equalizing and stabilizing mechanisms. Such emerging equivalence corresponds to a weak conception of neutral theory, as opposed to the assumption of strict equivalence at the individual level in strong conception. We show that this duality is related to diverging views on hypothesis testing and modeling in ecology. In addition, the stochastic dynamics exposed in neutral theory are pervasive in ecological systems and, rather than a null hypothesis, ecological equivalence is best understood as a parsimonious baseline to address biodiversity dynamics at multiple scales.
Variational principle for the Bloch unified reaction theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, W.; Rapheal, R.
1975-01-01
The unified reaction theory formulated by Claude Bloch uses a boundary value operator to write the Schroedinger equation for a scattering state as an inhomogeneous equation over the interaction region. As suggested by Lane and Robson, this equation can be solved by using a matrix representation on any set which is complete over the interaction volume. Lane and Robson have proposed, however, that a variational form of the Bloch equation can be used to obtain a ''best'' value for the S-matrix when a finite subset of this basis is used. The variational principle suggested by Lane and Robson, which gives a many-channel S-matrix different from the matrix solution on a finite basis, is considered first, and it is shown that the difference results from the fact that their variational principle is not, in fact, equivalent to the Bloch equation. Then a variational principle is presented which is fully equivalent to the Bloch form of the Schroedinger equation, and it is shown that the resulting S-matrix is the same as that obtained from the matrix solution of this equation. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chowdhury, P; Majumdar, A S; Sinha, S; Home, D; Mousavi, S V; Mozaffari, M R
2012-01-01
The weak equivalence principle of gravity is examined at the quantum level in two ways. First, the position detection probabilities of particles described by a non-Gaussian wave packet projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection are calculated. These probabilities exhibit mass dependence at both these points, thereby reflecting the quantum violation of the weak equivalence principle. Second, the mean arrival time of freely falling particles is calculated using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. Such a mass dependence is shown to be enhanced by increasing the non-Gaussianity parameter of the wave packet, thus signifying a stronger violation of the weak equivalence principle through a greater departure from Gaussianity of the initial wave packet. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanishes in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter. A selection of Bohm trajectories is exhibited to illustrate these features in the free fall case. (paper)
Principles of the theory of solids
Ziman, J M
1972-01-01
Professor Ziman's classic textbook on the theory of solids was first pulished in 1964. This paperback edition is a reprint of the second edition, which was substantially revised and enlarged in 1972. The value and popularity of this textbook is well attested by reviewers' opinions and by the existence of several foreign language editions, including German, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Polish and Russian. The book gives a clear exposition of the elements of the physics of perfect crystalline solids. In discussing the principles, the author aims to give students an appreciation of the conditions which are necessary for the appearance of the various phenomena. A self-contained mathematical account is given of the simplest model that will demonstrate each principle. A grounding in quantum mechanics and knowledge of elementary facts about solids is assumed. This is therefore a textbook for advanced undergraduates and is also appropriate for graduate courses.
Calculations of a wideband metamaterial absorber using equivalent medium theory
Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin; Wang, Danqi; Yu, Shengqing; Lou, Yanchao; Guo, Ling
2016-08-01
Metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) have drawn increasing attention in many areas due to the fact that they can achieve electromagnetic (EM) waves with unity absorptivity. We demonstrate the design, simulation, experiment and calculation of a wideband MMA based on a loaded double-square-loop (DSL) array of chip resisters. For a normal incidence EM wave, the simulated results show that the absorption of the full width at half maximum is about 9.1 GHz, and the relative bandwidth is 87.1%. Experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. More importantly, equivalent medium theory (EMT) is utilized to calculate the absorptions of the DSL MMA, and the calculated absorptions based on EMT agree with the simulated and measured results. The method based on EMT provides a new way to analysis the mechanism of MMAs.
MICROSCOPE Mission: First Results of a Space Test of the Equivalence Principle.
Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles; Rodrigues, Manuel; André, Yves; Baghi, Quentin; Bergé, Joël; Boulanger, Damien; Bremer, Stefanie; Carle, Patrice; Chhun, Ratana; Christophe, Bruno; Cipolla, Valerio; Damour, Thibault; Danto, Pascale; Dittus, Hansjoerg; Fayet, Pierre; Foulon, Bernard; Gageant, Claude; Guidotti, Pierre-Yves; Hagedorn, Daniel; Hardy, Emilie; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Inchauspe, Henri; Kayser, Patrick; Lala, Stéphanie; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Lebat, Vincent; Leseur, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise; List, Meike; Löffler, Frank; Panet, Isabelle; Pouilloux, Benjamin; Prieur, Pascal; Rebray, Alexandre; Reynaud, Serge; Rievers, Benny; Robert, Alain; Selig, Hanns; Serron, Laura; Sumner, Timothy; Tanguy, Nicolas; Visser, Pieter
2017-12-08
According to the weak equivalence principle, all bodies should fall at the same rate in a gravitational field. The MICROSCOPE satellite, launched in April 2016, aims to test its validity at the 10^{-15} precision level, by measuring the force required to maintain two test masses (of titanium and platinum alloys) exactly in the same orbit. A nonvanishing result would correspond to a violation of the equivalence principle, or to the discovery of a new long-range force. Analysis of the first data gives δ(Ti,Pt)=[-1±9(stat)±9(syst)]×10^{-15} (1σ statistical uncertainty) for the titanium-platinum Eötvös parameter characterizing the relative difference in their free-fall accelerations.
MICROSCOPE Mission: First Results of a Space Test of the Equivalence Principle
Touboul, Pierre; Métris, Gilles; Rodrigues, Manuel; André, Yves; Baghi, Quentin; Bergé, Joël; Boulanger, Damien; Bremer, Stefanie; Carle, Patrice; Chhun, Ratana; Christophe, Bruno; Cipolla, Valerio; Damour, Thibault; Danto, Pascale; Dittus, Hansjoerg; Fayet, Pierre; Foulon, Bernard; Gageant, Claude; Guidotti, Pierre-Yves; Hagedorn, Daniel; Hardy, Emilie; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Inchauspe, Henri; Kayser, Patrick; Lala, Stéphanie; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Lebat, Vincent; Leseur, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise; List, Meike; Löffler, Frank; Panet, Isabelle; Pouilloux, Benjamin; Prieur, Pascal; Rebray, Alexandre; Reynaud, Serge; Rievers, Benny; Robert, Alain; Selig, Hanns; Serron, Laura; Sumner, Timothy; Tanguy, Nicolas; Visser, Pieter
2017-12-01
According to the weak equivalence principle, all bodies should fall at the same rate in a gravitational field. The MICROSCOPE satellite, launched in April 2016, aims to test its validity at the 10-15 precision level, by measuring the force required to maintain two test masses (of titanium and platinum alloys) exactly in the same orbit. A nonvanishing result would correspond to a violation of the equivalence principle, or to the discovery of a new long-range force. Analysis of the first data gives δ (Ti ,Pt )=[-1 ±9 (stat)±9 (syst)]×10-15 (1 σ statistical uncertainty) for the titanium-platinum Eötvös parameter characterizing the relative difference in their free-fall accelerations.
Equivalence principle, CP violations, and the Higgs-like boson mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellucci, S.; Faraoni, V.
1994-01-01
We consider the violation of the equivalence principle induced by a massive gravivector, i.e., the partner of the graviton in N>1 supergravity. The present limits on this violation allow us to obtain a lower bound on the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field that gives the gravivector its mass. We consider also the effective neutral kaon mass difference induced by the gravivector and compare the result with the experimental data on the CP-violation parameter ε
The c equivalence principle and the correct form of writing Maxwell's equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heras, Jose A, E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.co [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2010-09-15
It is well known that the speed c{sub u}=1/{radical}({epsilon}{sub 0{mu}0}) is obtained in the process of defining SI units via action-at-a-distance forces, like the force between two static charges and the force between two long and parallel currents. The speed c{sub u} is then physically different from the observed speed of propagation c associated with electromagnetic waves in vacuum. However, repeated experiments have led to the numerical equality c{sub u} = c, which we have called the c equivalence principle. In this paper we point out that {nabla}xE=-[1/({epsilon}{sub 0}{mu}{sub 0}c{sup 2})]{partial_derivative}B/{partial_derivative}t is the correct form of writing Faraday's law when the c equivalence principle is not assumed. We also discuss the covariant form of Maxwell's equations without assuming the c equivalence principle.
Mars Seasonal Polar Caps as a Test of the Equivalence Principle
Rubincam, Daivd Parry
2011-01-01
The seasonal polar caps of Mars can be used to test the equivalence principle in general relativity. The north and south caps, which are composed of carbon dioxide, wax and wane with the seasons. If the ratio of the inertial to gravitational masses of the caps differs from the same ratio for the rest of Mars, then the equivalence principle fails, Newton's third law fails, and the caps will pull Mars one way and then the other with a force aligned with the planet's spin axis. This leads to a secular change in Mars's along-track position in its orbit about the Sun, and to a secular change in the orbit's semimajor axis. The caps are a poor E6tv6s test of the equivalence principle, being 4 orders-of-magnitude weaker than laboratory tests and 7 orders-of-magnitude weaker than that found by lunar laser ranging; the reason is the small mass of the caps compared to Mars as a whole. The principal virtue of using Mars is that the caps contain carbon, an element not normally considered in such experiments. The Earth with its seasonal snow cover can also be used for a similar test.
Mars seasonal polar caps as a test of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubincam, David Parry
2011-01-01
The seasonal polar caps of Mars can be used to test the equivalence principle in general relativity. The north and south caps, which are composed of carbon dioxide, wax and wane with the seasons. If the ratio of the inertial (passive) to gravitational (active) masses of the caps differs from the same ratio for the rest of Mars, then the equivalence principle fails, Newton's third law fails, and the caps will pull Mars one way and then the other with a force aligned with the planet's spin axis. This leads to a secular change in Mars's along-track position in its orbit about the Sun, and to a secular change in the orbit's semimajor axis. The caps are a poor Eoetvoes test of the equivalence principle, being 4 orders-of-magnitude weaker than laboratory tests and 7 orders-of-magnitude weaker than that found by lunar laser ranging; the reason is the small mass of the caps compared to Mars as a whole. The principal virtue of using Mars is that the caps contain carbon, an element not normally considered in such experiments. The Earth with its seasonal snow cover can also be used for a similar test.
Conceptual Models and Theory-Embedded Principles on Effective Schooling.
Scheerens, Jaap
1997-01-01
Reviews models and theories on effective schooling. Discusses four rationality-based organization theories and a fifth perspective, chaos theory, as applied to organizational functioning. Discusses theory-embedded principles flowing from these theories: proactive structuring, fit, market mechanisms, cybernetics, and self-organization. The…
Solar system and equivalence principle constraints on f(R) gravity by the chameleon approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2008-01-01
We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of the equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in the literature that have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-λR c [1-(R c /R) 2n ] in the regime R>>R c . From the solar system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter γ, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of the weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-λR c (R/R c ) p with 0 -10 , which shows that this model is hardly distinguishable from the ΛCDM cosmology
Violation of the equivalence principle for stressed bodies in asynchronous relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade Martins, R. de (Centro de Logica, Epistemologia e Historia da Ciencia, Campinas (Brazil))
1983-12-11
In the recently developed asynchronous formulation of the relativistic theory of extended bodies, the inertial mass of a body does not explicitly depend on its pressure or stress. The detailed analysis of the weight of a box filled with a gas and placed in a weak gravitational field shows that this feature of asynchronous relativity implies a breakdown of the equivalence between inertial and passive gravitational mass for stressed systems.
The underlying principles of relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.
1989-01-01
The paper deals with the main statements of relativistic theory of gravitation, constructed in result of critical analysis of the general theory of relativity. The principle of geometrization is formulated
Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
1996-01-01
In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalized...
Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continuous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalize...
The kernel G1(x,x') and the quantum equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceccatto, H.; Foussats, A.; Giacomini, H.; Zandron, O.
1981-01-01
In this paper, it is re-examined the formulation of the quantum equivalence principle (QEP) and its compatibility with the conditions which must be fulfilled by the kernel G 1 (x,x') is discussed. It is also determined the base of solutions which give the particle model in a curved space-time in terms of Cauchy's data for such a kernel. Finally, it is analyzed the creation of particles in this model by studying the time evolution of creation and annihilation operators. This method is an alternative to one that uses Bogoliubov's transformation as a mechanism of creation. (author)
Null result for violation of the equivalence principle with free-fall rotating gyroscopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, J.; Zhou, Z.B.; Nie, Y.X.; Zhang, Y.Z.
2002-01-01
The differential acceleration between a rotating mechanical gyroscope and a nonrotating one is directly measured by using a double free-fall interferometer, and no apparent differential acceleration has been observed at the relative level of 2x10 -6 . It means that the equivalence principle is still valid for rotating extended bodies, i.e., the spin-gravity interaction between the extended bodies has not been observed at this level. Also, to the limit of our experimental sensitivity, there is no observed asymmetrical effect or antigravity of the rotating gyroscopes as reported by Hayasaka et al
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David eGarratt-Reed
2016-05-01
Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment
Africa and the Principles and Theories of International Relations ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
To what extent have the principles and theories of international relations (as formulated) accommodated the specific needs and circumstances of Africa? In other words, how can the circumstances and peculiarities of Africa be made to shape and influence the established principles and theories of international relations as ...
Effective Inertial Frame in an Atom Interferometric Test of the Equivalence Principle
Overstreet, Chris; Asenbaum, Peter; Kovachy, Tim; Notermans, Remy; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.
2018-05-01
In an ideal test of the equivalence principle, the test masses fall in a common inertial frame. A real experiment is affected by gravity gradients, which introduce systematic errors by coupling to initial kinematic differences between the test masses. Here we demonstrate a method that reduces the sensitivity of a dual-species atom interferometer to initial kinematics by using a frequency shift of the mirror pulse to create an effective inertial frame for both atomic species. Using this method, we suppress the gravity-gradient-induced dependence of the differential phase on initial kinematic differences by 2 orders of magnitude and precisely measure these differences. We realize a relative precision of Δ g /g ≈6 ×10-11 per shot, which improves on the best previous result for a dual-species atom interferometer by more than 3 orders of magnitude. By reducing gravity gradient systematic errors to one part in 1 013 , these results pave the way for an atomic test of the equivalence principle at an accuracy comparable with state-of-the-art classical tests.
Galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar and limit on weak equivalence principle violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desai, Shantanu; Kahya, Emre
2018-01-01
We calculate the total galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar by including the contributions from the dark matter as well as baryonic matter along the line of sight. The total delay due to dark matter potential is about 3.4 days. For baryonic matter, we included the contributions from both the bulge and the disk, which are approximately 0.12 and 0.32 days respectively. The total delay from all the matter distribution is therefore 3.84 days. We also calculate the limit on violations of Weak equivalence principle by using observations of ''nano-shot'' giant pulses from the Crab pulsar with time-delay < 0.4 ns, as well as using time differences between radio and optical photons observed from this pulsar. Using the former, we obtain a limit on violation of Weak equivalence principle in terms of the PPN parameter Δγ < 2.41 x 10 -15 . From the time-difference between simultaneous optical and radio observations, we get Δγ < 1.54 x 10 -9 . We also point out differences in our calculation of Shapiro delay and that from two recent papers (Yang and Zhang, Phys Rev D 94(10):101501, 2016; Zhang and Gong, Astrophys J 837:134, 2017), which used the same observations to obtain a corresponding limit on Δγ. (orig.)
Galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar and limit on weak equivalence principle violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Desai, Shantanu [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Hyderabad, Telangana (India); Kahya, Emre [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey)
2018-02-15
We calculate the total galactic Shapiro delay to the Crab pulsar by including the contributions from the dark matter as well as baryonic matter along the line of sight. The total delay due to dark matter potential is about 3.4 days. For baryonic matter, we included the contributions from both the bulge and the disk, which are approximately 0.12 and 0.32 days respectively. The total delay from all the matter distribution is therefore 3.84 days. We also calculate the limit on violations of Weak equivalence principle by using observations of ''nano-shot'' giant pulses from the Crab pulsar with time-delay < 0.4 ns, as well as using time differences between radio and optical photons observed from this pulsar. Using the former, we obtain a limit on violation of Weak equivalence principle in terms of the PPN parameter Δγ < 2.41 x 10{sup -15}. From the time-difference between simultaneous optical and radio observations, we get Δγ < 1.54 x 10{sup -9}. We also point out differences in our calculation of Shapiro delay and that from two recent papers (Yang and Zhang, Phys Rev D 94(10):101501, 2016; Zhang and Gong, Astrophys J 837:134, 2017), which used the same observations to obtain a corresponding limit on Δγ. (orig.)
Bruijn, de N.G.
1972-01-01
Recently A. W. Joseph described an algorithm providing combinatorial insight into E. Sparre Andersen's so-called Principle of Equivalence in mathematical statistics. In the present paper such algorithms are discussed systematically.
Effective medium theory principles and applications
Choy, Tuck C
2015-01-01
Effective medium theory dates back to the early days of the theory of electricity. Faraday in 1837 proposed one of the earliest models for a composite metal-insulator dielectric and around 1870 Maxwell and later Garnett (1904) developed models to describe a composite or mixed material medium. The subject has been developed considerably since and while the results are useful for predicting materials performance, the theory can also be used in a wide range of problems in physics and materials engineering. This book develops the topic of effective medium theory by bringing together the essentials of both the static and the dynamical theory. Electromagnetic systems are thoroughly dealt with, as well as related areas such as the CPA theory of alloys, liquids, the density functional theory etc., with applications to ultrasonics, hydrodynamics, superconductors, porous media and others, where the unifying aspects of the effective medium concept are emphasized. In this new second edition two further chapters have been...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, S.
1982-01-01
We present a review of the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations, emphasizing the ambiguities which appear due to the existence of equivalent Lagrangians for a given classical system. In particular, we analyze the properties of equivalent Lagrangians in the multidimensional case, we study the conditions for the existence of a variational principle for (second as well as first order) equations of motion and their solutions, we consider the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations for singular systems, we state the ambiguities which emerge in the relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in the case of equivalent Lagrangians, we discuss the problems which appear in trying to quantize classical systems which have different equivalent Lagrangians, we describe the situation which arises in the study of equivalent Lagrangians in field theory and finally, we present some unsolved problems and discussion topics related to the content of this article. (author)
The Independence of Markov's Principle in Type Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel
2017-01-01
for the generic point of this model. Instead we design an extension of type theory, which intuitively extends type theory by the addition of a generic point of Cantor space. We then show the consistency of this extension by a normalization argument. Markov's principle does not hold in this extension......In this paper, we show that Markov's principle is not derivable in dependent type theory with natural numbers and one universe. One way to prove this would be to remark that Markov's principle does not hold in a sheaf model of type theory over Cantor space, since Markov's principle does not hold......, and it follows that it cannot be proved in type theory....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, Institut de Physique Théorique, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 France (France); Hui, Lam [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: lhui@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)
2014-06-01
The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the constraints that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3-point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10{sup −3}÷10{sup −4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models.
Equivalence principle for quantum systems: dephasing and phase shift of free-falling particles
Anastopoulos, C.; Hu, B. L.
2018-02-01
We ask the question of how the (weak) equivalence principle established in classical gravitational physics should be reformulated and interpreted for massive quantum objects that may also have internal degrees of freedom (dof). This inquiry is necessary because even elementary concepts like a classical trajectory are not well defined in quantum physics—trajectories originating from quantum histories become viable entities only under stringent decoherence conditions. From this investigation we posit two logically and operationally distinct statements of the equivalence principle for quantum systems. Version A: the probability distribution of position for a free-falling particle is the same as the probability distribution of a free particle, modulo a mass-independent shift of its mean. Version B: any two particles with the same velocity wave-function behave identically in free fall, irrespective of their masses. Both statements apply to all quantum states, including those without a classical correspondence, and also for composite particles with quantum internal dof. We also investigate the consequences of the interaction between internal and external dof induced by free fall. For a class of initial states, we find dephasing occurs for the translational dof, namely, the suppression of the off-diagonal terms of the density matrix, in the position basis. We also find a gravitational phase shift in the reduced density matrix of the internal dof that does not depend on the particle’s mass. For classical states, the phase shift has a natural classical interpretation in terms of gravitational red-shift and special relativistic time-dilation.
Concerning the equivalence of Lorentz's and Einstein's theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clube, S.V.M.
1978-01-01
A clear distinction is drawn between derivations of the Lorentz transformations by Lorentz and Einstein. The choice as to which derivation is correct is still open to experimental test. Possible reasons are given for preferring the Lorentz derivation in terms of a material aether, and the role of covariance in physical theory is considered to be heuristic rather than fundamental. The existence of a material aether also permits one to question the fundamental role of fields in modern theory
Fennelly, A. J.
1981-01-01
The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.
Justifying Design Decisions with Theory-based Design Principles
Schermann, Michael;Gehlert, Andreas;Pohl, Klaus;Krcmar, Helmut
2014-01-01
Although the role of theories in design research is recognized, we show that little attention has been paid on how to use theories when designing new artifacts. We introduce design principles as a new methodological approach to address this problem. Design principles extend the notion of design rationales that document how a design decision emerged. We extend the concept of design rationales by using theoretical hypotheses to support or object to design decisions. At the example of developing...
Testing the strong equivalence principle with the triple pulsar PSR J 0337 +1715
Shao, Lijing
2016-04-01
Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, the inertial mass, mI , the passive gravitational mass, mP, and the active gravitational mass, mA. It is assumed that, for any objects, mI=mP=mA in the Newtonian gravity, and mI=mP in the Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We study the possibility of carrying out new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J 0337 +1715 . Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, the equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses could be probed to 3 ×1 0-8 , improving the current constraints from lunar laser ranging on the post-Newtonian parameters that govern violations of mP=mI and mA=mP by thousands and millions, respectively. The test of mP=mA would represent the first test of Newton's third law with compact objects.
Descent principle in modular Galois theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45
with Drinfeld module theory see Remark 5.2 at the end of the paper. To describe the ... where the elements X1,...,Xm need not be algebraically independent over kq. When ..... In §5 we shall make some motivational and philosophical remarks.
Principles and theory of resonance power supplies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sreenivas, A.; Karady, G.G.
1991-01-01
The resonance power supply is widely used and proved to be an efficient method to supply accelerator magnets. The literature describes several power supply circuits but no comprehensive theory of operation is presented. This paper presents a mathematical method which describes the operation of the resonance power supply and it can be used for accurate design of components
Equivalence of some integrals of the radiation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chia, T.T.
1977-01-01
A definite integral which occurs in radiation theory is shown to be equal in value to another definite integral by evaluating the flux from a spherically symmetrical radiating sphere in two ways. As a corollary, an alternate proof of the invariance of the specific intensity of a ray in empty space along its path is presented. Furthermore, the equality of these two indefinite integrals leads to the conversion of members of a class of indefinite and definite integrals involving arbitrary functions of angle into other integrals. These transformations facilitate the calculation of some of these integrals which arise not only in the theory of radiation, but in other physical situations with spherical or axial symmetry - especially those in which inverse-square laws are involved. (Auth.)
Energy aspect of the correspondence principle in gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitskevich, N.V.; Nesterov, A.I.
1976-01-01
The correspondence of different definitions of invariant values in the general relativity theory with the Newton theory is considered. The analysis is carried out in the system of reference of a single Fermi-observer. It turns out that of the values considered the Papapetru pseudotensor only satisfies the correspondence principle
Chern-Simons theory from first principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marino, E.C.
1994-01-01
A review is made of the main properties of the Chern-Simons field theory. These include the dynamical mass generation to the photon without a Higgs field, the statistical transmutation of charged particles coupled to it and the natural appearance of a transverse conductivity. A review of standard theories proposed for the Quantum Hall Effect which use the Chern-Simons term is also made, emphasizing the fact that this terms is put in an artificial manner. A physical origin for the Chern-Simons term is proposed, starting from QED in 3+1 D with the topological term and imposing that the motion of charged matter is restricted to an infinite plane. (author). 12 refs
Quantum theory from first principles an informational approach
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2017-01-01
Quantum theory is the soul of theoretical physics. It is not just a theory of specific physical systems, but rather a new framework with universal applicability. This book shows how we can reconstruct the theory from six information-theoretical principles, by rebuilding the quantum rules from the bottom up. Step by step, the reader will learn how to master the counterintuitive aspects of the quantum world, and how to efficiently reconstruct quantum information protocols from first principles. Using intuitive graphical notation to represent equations, and with shorter and more efficient derivations, the theory can be understood and assimilated with exceptional ease. Offering a radically new perspective on the field, the book contains an efficient course of quantum theory and quantum information for undergraduates. The book is aimed at researchers, professionals, and students in physics, computer science and philosophy, as well as the curious outsider seeking a deeper understanding of the theory.
Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kober, Martin
2010-01-01
There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.
Expanded solar-system limits on violations of the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Overduin, James; Mitcham, Jack; Warecki, Zoey
2014-01-01
Most attempts to unify general relativity with the standard model of particle physics predict violations of the equivalence principle associated in some way with the composition of the test masses. We test this idea by using observational uncertainties in the positions and motions of solar-system bodies to set upper limits on the relative difference Δ between gravitational and inertial mass for each body. For suitable pairs of objects, it is possible to constrain three different linear combinations of Δ using Kepler’s third law, the migration of stable Lagrange points, and orbital polarization (the Nordtvedt effect). Limits of order 10 −10 –10 −6 on Δ for individual bodies can then be derived from planetary and lunar ephemerides, Cassini observations of the Saturn system, and observations of Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids as well as recently discovered Trojan companions around the Earth, Mars, Neptune, and Saturnian moons. These results can be combined with models for elemental abundances in each body to test for composition-dependent violations of the universality of free fall in the solar system. The resulting limits are weaker than those from laboratory experiments, but span a larger volume in composition space. (paper)
Current research efforts at JILA to test the equivalence principle at short ranges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faller, J.E.; Niebauer, T.M.; McHugh, M.P.; Van Baak, D.A.
1988-01-01
We are presently engaged in three different experiments to search for a possible breakdown of the equivalence principle at short ranges. The first of these experiments, which has been completed, is our so-called Galilean test in which the differential free-fall of two objects of differing composition was measured using laser interferometry. We observed that the differential acceleration of two test bodies was less than 5 parts in 10 billion. This experiment set new limits on a suggested baryon dependent ''Fifth Force'' at ranges longer than 1 km. With a second experiment, we are investigating substance dependent interactions primarily for ranges up to 10 meters using a fluid supported torsion balance; this apparatus has been built and is now undergoing laboratory tests. Finally, a proposal has been made to measure the gravitational signal associated with the changing water level at a large pumped storage facility in Ludington, Michigan. Measuring the gravitational signal above and below the pond will yield the value of the gravitational constant, G, at ranges from 10-100 m. These measurements will serve as an independent check on other geophysical measurements of G
Hubbard, Dorthy (Technical Monitor); Lorenzini, E. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Cosmo, M. L.; Ashenberg, J.; Parzianello, G.; Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.
2003-01-01
We discuss specific, recent advances in the analysis of an experiment to test the Equivalence Principle (EP) in free fall. A differential accelerometer detector with two proof masses of different materials free falls inside an evacuated capsule previously released from a stratospheric balloon. The detector spins slowly about its horizontal axis during the fall. An EP violation signal (if present) will manifest itself at the rotational frequency of the detector. The detector operates in a quiet environment as it slowly moves with respect to the co-moving capsule. There are, however, gravitational and dynamical noise contributions that need to be evaluated in order to define key requirements for this experiment. Specifically, higher-order mass moments of the capsule contribute errors to the differential acceleration output with components at the spin frequency which need to be minimized. The dynamics of the free falling detector (in its present design) has been simulated in order to estimate the tolerable errors at release which, in turn, define the release mechanism requirements. Moreover, the study of the higher-order mass moments for a worst-case position of the detector package relative to the cryostat has led to the definition of requirements on the shape and size of the proof masses.
Violations of the equivalence principle in a dilaton-runaway scenario
Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Veneziano, Gabriele
2002-01-01
We explore a version of the cosmological dilaton-fixing and decoupling mechanism in which the dilaton-dependence of the low-energy effective action is extremized for infinitely large values of the bare string coupling $g_s^2 = e^{\\phi}$. We study the efficiency with which the dilaton $\\phi$ runs away towards its ``fixed point'' at infinity during a primordial inflationary stage, and thereby approximately decouples from matter. The residual dilaton couplings are found to be related to the amplitude of the density fluctuations generated during inflation. For the simplest inflationary potential, $V (\\chi) = {1/2} m_{\\chi}^2 (\\phi) \\chi^2$, the residual dilaton couplings are shown to predict violations of the universality of gravitational acceleration near the $\\Delta a / a \\sim 10^{-12}$ level. This suggests that a modest improvement in the precision of equivalence principle tests might be able to detect the effect of such a runaway dilaton. Under some assumptions about the coupling of the dilaton to dark matter...
Variational principle for a prototype Rastall theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smalley, L.L.
1984-01-01
A prototype of Rastall's theory of gravity, in which the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor is proportional to the gradient of the scalar curvature, is shown to be derivable from a variational principle. Both the proportionality factor and the unrenormalized gravitational constant are found to be covariantly constant, but not necessarily constant. The prototype theory is, therefore, a gravitational theory with variable gravitational constant
The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?
Friston, Karl
2010-02-01
A free-energy principle has been proposed recently that accounts for action, perception and learning. This Review looks at some key brain theories in the biological (for example, neural Darwinism) and physical (for example, information theory and optimal control theory) sciences from the free-energy perspective. Crucially, one key theme runs through each of these theories - optimization. Furthermore, if we look closely at what is optimized, the same quantity keeps emerging, namely value (expected reward, expected utility) or its complement, surprise (prediction error, expected cost). This is the quantity that is optimized under the free-energy principle, which suggests that several global brain theories might be unified within a free-energy framework.
The Maximum Entropy Principle and the Modern Portfolio Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ailton Cassetari
2003-12-01
Full Text Available In this work, a capital allocation methodology base don the Principle of Maximum Entropy was developed. The Shannons entropy is used as a measure, concerning the Modern Portfolio Theory, are also discuted. Particularly, the methodology is tested making a systematic comparison to: 1 the mean-variance (Markovitz approach and 2 the mean VaR approach (capital allocations based on the Value at Risk concept. In principle, such confrontations show the plausibility and effectiveness of the developed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovtun, Pavel; Uensal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2005-01-01
In previous work, we found that necessary and sufficient conditions for large N c equivalence between parent and daughter theories, for a wide class of orbifold projections of U(N c ) gauge theories, are just the natural requirements that the discrete symmetry used to define the projection not be spontaneously broken in the parent theory, and the discrete symmetry permuting equivalent gauge group factors not be spontaneously broken in the daughter theory. In this paper, we discuss the application of this result to Z k projections of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions, as well as various multiflavor generalizations. Z k projections with k>2 yielding chiral gauge theories violate the symmetry realization conditions needed for large N c equivalence, due to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of discrete chiral symmetry in the parent super-Yang-Mills theory. But for Z 2 projections, we show that previous assertions of large N c inequivalence, in infinite volume, between the parent and daughter theories were based on incorrect mappings of vacuum energies, theta angles, or connected correlators between the two theories. With the correct identifications, there is no sign of any inconsistency. A subtle but essential feature of the connection between parent and daughter theories involves multivaluedness in the mapping of theta parameters from parent to daughter
Power theories for multi-choice organizations and political rules: Rank-order equivalence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roland Pongou
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Voting power theories measure the ability of voters to influence the outcome of an election under a given voting rule. In general, each theory gives a different evaluation of power, raising the question of their appropriateness, and calling for the need to identify classes of rules for which different theories agree. We study the ordinal equivalence of the generalizations of the classical power concepts–the influence relation, the Banzhaf power index, and the Shapley–Shubik power index–to multi-choice organizations and political rules. Under such rules, each voter chooses a level of support for a social goal from a finite list of options, and these individual choices are aggregated to determine the collective level of support for this goal. We show that the power theories analyzed do not always yield the same power relationships among voters. Thanks to necessary and/or sufficient conditions, we identify a large class of rules for which ordinal equivalence obtains. Furthermore, we prove that ordinal equivalence obtains for all linear rules allowing a fixed number of individual approval levels if and only if that number does not exceed three. Our findings generalize all the previous results on the ordinal equivalence of the classical power theories, and show that the condition of linearity found to be necessary and sufficient for ordinal equivalence to obtain when voters have at most three options to choose from is no longer sufficient when they can choose from a list of four or more options.
On the fundamental principles of the relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1990-01-01
This paper expounds consistently within the frames of the Special Relativity Theory the fundamental postulates of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which make it possible to obtain the unique complete system of the equations for gravitational field. Major attention has been paid to the analysis of the gauge group and of the causality principle. Some results related to the evolution of the Friedmann Universe, to gravitational collapse, etc. being the consequences of the RTG equations are also presented. 7 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Peter Meincke
1996-01-01
New uniform closed-form expressions for physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents are derived for truncated incremental wedge strips. In contrast to previously reported expressions, the new expressions are well-behaved for all directions of incidence and observation and take a finite...... value for zero strip length. Consequently, the new equivalent edge currents are, to the knowledge of the author, the first that are well-suited for implementation in general computer codes...
Effective equivalence of the Einstein-Cartan and Einstein theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nester, J.M.
1977-01-01
I prove that, for any choice of minimally coupled source field Lagrangian for the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, there exists a related minimally coupled source field Lagrangian for the Einstein theory which produces the same field equations for the metric and source field. By using a standard first-order form for source Lagrangians, the converse is also demonstrated. This establishes a one-to-one correspondence between source Lagrangians for the two theories which clearly reveals their similarities and their differences. Because of this ''equivalence,'' one can view either theory, in terms of the other, as minimal coupling for a related Minkowski source Lagrangian or as nonminimal coupling for the same Minkowski source Lagrangian. Consequently the two theories are, in this sense, indistinguishable. Some other implications of this ''equivalence'' are discussed
Development of a superconducting position sensor for the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle
Clavier, Odile Helene
The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) is a joint NASA/ESA mission that proposes to measure the differential acceleration of two cylindrical test masses orbiting the earth in a drag-free satellite to a precision of 10-18 g. Such an experiment would conceptually reproduce Galileo's tower of Pisa experiment with a much longer time of fall and greatly reduced disturbances. The superconducting test masses are constrained in all degrees of freedom except their axial direction (the sensitive axis) using superconducting bearings. The STEP accelerometer measures the differential position of the masses in their sensitive direction using superconducting inductive pickup coils coupled to an extremely sensitive magnetometer called a DC-SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device). Position sensor development involves the design, manufacture and calibration of pickup coils that will meet the acceleration sensitivity requirement. Acceleration sensitivity depends on both the displacement sensitivity and stiffness of the position sensor. The stiffness must kept small while maintaining stability of the accelerometer. Using a model for the inductance of the pickup coils versus displacement of the test masses, a computer simulation calculates the sensitivity and stiffness of the accelerometer in its axial direction. This simulation produced a design of pickup coils for the four STEP accelerometers. Manufacture of the pickup coils involves standard photolithography techniques modified for superconducting thin-films. A single-turn pickup coil was manufactured and produced a successful superconducting coil using thin-film Niobium. A low-temperature apparatus was developed with a precision position sensor to measure the displacement of a superconducting plate (acting as a mock test mass) facing the coil. The position sensor was designed to detect five degrees of freedom so that coupling could be taken into account when measuring the translation of the plate
Bergé, Joel; Brax, Philippe; Métris, Gilles; Pernot-Borràs, Martin; Touboul, Pierre; Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2018-04-01
The existence of a light or massive scalar field with a coupling to matter weaker than gravitational strength is a possible source of violation of the weak equivalence principle. We use the first results on the Eötvös parameter by the MICROSCOPE experiment to set new constraints on such scalar fields. For a massive scalar field of mass smaller than 10-12 eV (i.e., range larger than a few 1 05 m ), we improve existing constraints by one order of magnitude to |α |baryon number and to |α |baryon and the lepton numbers. We also consider a model describing the coupling of a generic dilaton to the standard matter fields with five parameters, for a light field: We find that, for masses smaller than 10-12 eV , the constraints on the dilaton coupling parameters are improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous equivalence principle tests.
The renormalized action principle in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balasin, H.
1990-03-01
The renormalized action principle holds a central position in field theory, since it offers a variety of applications. The main concern of this work is the proof of the action principle within the so-called BPHZ-scheme of renormalization. Following the classical proof given by Lam and Lowenstein, some loopholes are detected and closed. The second part of the work deals with the application of the action principle to pure Yang-Mills-theories within the axial gauge (n 2 ≠ 0). With the help of the action principle we investigate the decoupling of the Faddeev-Popov-ghost-fields from the gauge field. The consistency of this procedure, suggested by three-graph approximation, is proven to survive quantization. Finally we deal with the breaking of Lorentz-symmetry caused by the presence of the gauge-direction n. Using BRST-like techniques and the semi-simplicity of the Lorentz-group, it is shown that no new breakings arise from quantization. Again the main step of the proof is provided by the action principle. (Author, shortened by G.Q.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovtun, Pave; Uensal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2005-01-01
Large N coherent state methods are used to study the relation between U(N c ) gauge theories containing adjoint representation matter fields and their orbifold projections. The classical dynamical systems which reproduce the large N c limits of the quantum dynamics in parent and daughter orbifold theories are compared. We demonstrate that the large N c dynamics of the parent theory, restricted to the subspace invariant under the orbifold projection symmetry, and the large N c dynamics of the daughter theory, restricted to the untwisted sector invariant under 'theory space' permutations, coincide. This implies equality, in the large N c limit, between appropriately identified connected correlation functions in parent and daughter theories, provided the orbifold projection symmetry is not spontaneously broken in the parent theory and the theory space permutation symmetry is not spontaneously broken in the daughter. The necessity of these symmetry realization conditions for the validity of the large N c equivalence is unsurprising, but demonstrating the sufficiency of these conditions is new. This work extends an earlier proof of non-perturbative large N c equivalence which was only valid in the phase of the (lattice regularized) theories continuously connected to large mass and strong coupling
Equivalence of different formulations of the free Ramond string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdovic, B.
1987-01-01
We analyze the structure of Witten's formulation of the free Ramond string field theory and show that it is equivalent to other formulations. We establish explicit connections between their string fields. It is shown that the established connections eliminate all terms with mixed mass levels. (orig.)
An equivalence between the discrete Gaussian model and a generalized Sine Gordon theory on a lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baskaran, G.; Gupte, N.
1983-11-01
We demonstrate an equivalence between the statistical mechanics of the discrete Gaussian model and a generalized Sine-Gordon theory on an Euclidean lattice in arbitrary dimensions. The connection is obtained by a simple transformation of the partition function and is non perturbative in nature. (author)
Noncommutative Common Cause Principles in algebraic quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofer-Szabó, Gábor; Vecsernyés, Péter
2013-01-01
States in algebraic quantum field theory “typically” establish correlation between spacelike separated events. Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle, generalized to the quantum field theoretical setting, offers an apt tool to causally account for these superluminal correlations. In the paper we motivate first why commutativity between the common cause and the correlating events should be abandoned in the definition of the common cause. Then we show that the Noncommutative Weak Common Cause Principle holds in algebraic quantum field theory with locally finite degrees of freedom. Namely, for any pair of projections A, B supported in spacelike separated regions V A and V B , respectively, there is a local projection C not necessarily commuting with A and B such that C is supported within the union of the backward light cones of V A and V B and the set {C, C ⊥ } screens off the correlation between A and B.
A variational principle for Newton-Cartan theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goenner, H.F.M.
1984-01-01
In the framework of a space-time theory of gravitation a variational principle is set up for the gravitational field equations and the equations of motion of matter. The general framework leads to Newton's equations of motion with an unspecified force term and, for irrotational motion, to a restriction on the propagation of the shear tensor along the streamlines of matter. The field equations obtained from the variation are weaker than the standard field equations of Newton-Cartan theory. An application to fluids with shear and bulk viscosity is given. (author)
An Abstract Approach to Process Equivalence and a Coinduction Principle for Traces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klin, Bartek
2004-01-01
An abstract coalgebraic approach to well-structured relations on processes is presented, based on notions of tests and test suites. Preorders and equivalences on processes are modelled as coalgebras for behaviour endofunctors lifted to a category of test suites. The general framework is specializ...
Equivalence of the degrees of freedom in a unified gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.; Stockholm Univ.
1986-01-01
A discussion of the nonuniqueness of physical laws and their invariance groups is illustrated by the construction of a physical theory (presented earlier) in which the law of motion of structureless and spinning particles is unified in the geometry of the manifold of the de Sitter group SO(3,2). The theory has the structure of a non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein theory with very special properties resulting from the topology and noncompactness of the groups. The physical interpretation of the field equation is discussed. The physical requirement of equivalence of the interaction of spinning and orbiting systems, generally unconsidered in related theories, is here taken into account by the structure of the theory. The possibility of deviations from predictions of general relativity exists. Generalizations of the theoretical structure to higher dimensional groups are outlined and open the possibility for observations. (author)
Equivalence of the degrees of freedom in a unified gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.
1985-01-01
A discussion of the non uniqueness of physical laws and their invariance groups is illustrated by the construction of a physical theory in which the law of motion of structureless and spinning particles is unified in the geometry of the manifold of the De Sitter group SO(3,2). The theory has the structure of a non Abelian Kaluza-Klein theory with very special properties resulting from the topology and non compactness of the groups. The physical interpretation of the field equations is discussed. The physical requirement of equivalence of the interaction of spinning and orbiting systems, generally unconsidered in related theories, is here taken into account by the structure of the theory. The possibility of deviations from predictions of general relativity exists. Generalizations of the theoretical structure to higher dimensional groups are outlined and open the possibility for observations. 21 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endrestoel, G O [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)
1979-01-01
The underlying principles for snow cover determination by use of terrestrial gamma radiation are presented. Several of the methods that have been proposed to exploit the effect are discussed, and some of the more important error sources for the different methods are listed. In conclusion an estimate of the precision that can be obtained by these methods is given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endrestol, G O
1979-01-01
The underlying principles for snow cover determination by use of terrestrial gamma radiation are presented. Several of the methods that have been proposed to exploit the effect are discussed, and some of the more important error sources for the different methods are listed. In conclusion estimates of the precision that can be obtained by these methods are given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drexler, G.; Williams, G.
1985-01-01
The application of the effective dose equivalent, Hsub(E), concept for radiological protection assessments of occupationally exposed persons is justifiable by the practicability thus achieved with regard to the limiting principles. Nevertheless, it would be proper logic to further use as the basic limiting quantity the real physical dose equivalent of homogeneous whole-body exposure, and for inhomogeneous whole-body irradiation the Hsub(E) value, calculated by means of the concept of the effective dose equivalent. For then the required concepts, models and calculations would not be connected with a basic radiation protection quantity. Application of the effective dose equivalent for radiation protection assessments for patients is misleading and is not practical with regard to assessing an individual or collective radiation risk of patients. The quantity of expected harm would be better suited to this purpose. There is no need to express the radiation risk by a dose quantity, which means careless handling of good information. (orig./WU) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasperini, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Torino, Italy)
1989-01-01
The negative results of the oscillations experiments are discussed with the hypothesis that the various neutrino types are not universally coupled to gravity. In this case the transition probabiltiy between two different flavor eigenstates may be affected by the local gravitational field present in a terrestrial laboratory, and the contribution of gravity can interfere, in general, with the mass contribution to the oscillation process. In particular it is shown that even a strong violation of the equivalence principle could be compatible with the experimental data, provided the gravity-induced energy splitting is balanced by a suitable neutrino mass difference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drexler, G.; Williams, G.; Zankl, M.
1985-01-01
Since the introduction of the quantity ''effective dose equivalent'' within the framework of new radiation concepts, the meaning and interpretation of the quantity is often discussed and debated. Because of its adoption as a limiting quantity in many international and national laws, it is necessary to be able to interpret this main radiation protection quantity. Examples of organ doses and the related Hsub(E) values in occupational and medical exposures are presented and the meaning of the quantity is considered for whole body exposures to external and internal photon sources, as well as for partial body external exposures to photons. (author)
Principle-based concept analysis: intentionality in holistic nursing theories.
Aghebati, Nahid; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Noaparast, Khosrow Bagheri
2015-03-01
This is a report of a principle-based concept analysis of intentionality in holistic nursing theories. A principle-based concept analysis method was used to analyze seven holistic theories. The data included eight books and 31 articles (1998-2011), which were retrieved through MEDLINE and CINAHL. Erickson, Kriger, Parse, Watson, and Zahourek define intentionality as a capacity, a focused consciousness, and a pattern of human being. Rogers and Newman do not explicitly mention intentionality; however, they do explain pattern and consciousness (epistemology). Intentionality has been operationalized as a core concept of nurse-client relationships (pragmatic). The theories are consistent on intentionality as a noun and as an attribute of the person-intentionality is different from intent and intention (linguistic). There is ambiguity concerning the boundaries between intentionality and consciousness (logic). Theoretically, intentionality is an evolutionary capacity to integrate human awareness and experience. Because intentionality is an individualized concept, we introduced it as "a matrix of continuous known changes" that emerges in two forms: as a capacity of human being and as a capacity of transpersonal caring. This study has produced a theoretical definition of intentionality and provides a foundation for future research to further investigate intentionality to better delineate its boundaries. © The Author(s) 2014.
P. Mazzanti; F. Bozzano
2009-01-01
Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM) has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides i...
Implementation of the equivalence theory inside the computational chain DRAGON/DONJON-NDF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufour, P.
2005-01-01
The work accomplished in the scope of this master project consists in introducing the equivalence theory inside the computational schema DRAGON/DONJON-NDF. This theory takes into account the possible discontinuity of the homogeneous flux at the surfaces inside problems that involve an homogenisation procedure. To do it, the theory include new factors called discontinuity factors. These factors give, in theory, more exact solutions. Because we use the cell code DRAGON to generate all our homogeneous parameters we also used DRAGON to compute the heterogeneous surface fluxes which are essential to obtain the discontinuity factors. The project has been divided into two parts. The first part consists in computing the heterogeneous surface fluxes with the cell code DRAGON. For the second part of the project we have performed reactor computations using the code DONJON-NDF (over CANDU-6 geometry) with discontinuity factors and we have compared the results thus obtained with those computed without discontinuity factors.
Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buhl, Mie
2016-01-01
This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...
Comment on ''Modified photon equation of motion as a test for the principle of equivalence''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nityananda, R.
1992-01-01
In a recent paper, a modification of the geodesic equation was proposed for spinning photons containing a spin-curvature coupling term. The difference in arrival times of opposite circular polarizations starting simultaneously from a source was computed, obtaining a result linear in the coupling parameter. It is pointed out here that this linear term violates causality and, more generally, Fermat's principle, implying calculational errors. Even if these are corrected, there is a violation of covariance in the way the photon spin was introduced. Rectifying this makes the effect computed vanish entirely
Directionality Theory and the Entropic Principle of Natural Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lloyd A. Demetrius
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Darwinian fitness describes the capacity of an organism to appropriate resources from the environment and to convert these resources into net-offspring production. Studies of competition between related types indicate that fitness is analytically described by entropy, a statistical measure which is positively correlated with population stability, and describes the number of accessible pathways of energy flow between the individuals in the population. Directionality theory is a mathematical model of the evolutionary process based on the concept evolutionary entropy as the measure of fitness. The theory predicts that the changes which occur as a population evolves from one non-equilibrium steady state to another are described by the following directionality principle–fundamental theorem of evolution: (a an increase in evolutionary entropy when resource composition is diverse, and resource abundance constant; (b a decrease in evolutionary entropy when resource composition is singular, and resource abundance variable. Evolutionary entropy characterizes the dynamics of energy flow between the individual elements in various classes of biological networks: (a where the units are individuals parameterized by age, and their age-specific fecundity and mortality; where the units are metabolites, and the transitions are the biochemical reactions that convert substrates to products; (c where the units are social groups, and the forces are the cooperative and competitive interactions between the individual groups. % This article reviews the analytical basis of the evolutionary entropic principle, and describes applications of directionality theory to the study of evolutionary dynamics in two biological systems; (i social networks–the evolution of cooperation; (ii metabolic networks–the evolution of body size. Statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical model of macroscopic behavior in inanimate matter based on entropy, a statistical measure which
Bergé, Joel; Brax, Philippe; Métris, Gilles; Pernot-Borràs, Martin; Touboul, Pierre; Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2018-04-06
The existence of a light or massive scalar field with a coupling to matter weaker than gravitational strength is a possible source of violation of the weak equivalence principle. We use the first results on the Eötvös parameter by the MICROSCOPE experiment to set new constraints on such scalar fields. For a massive scalar field of mass smaller than 10^{-12} eV (i.e., range larger than a few 10^{5} m), we improve existing constraints by one order of magnitude to |α|difference between the baryon and the lepton numbers. We also consider a model describing the coupling of a generic dilaton to the standard matter fields with five parameters, for a light field: We find that, for masses smaller than 10^{-12} eV, the constraints on the dilaton coupling parameters are improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous equivalence principle tests.
Kapotis, Efstratios; Kalkanis, George
2016-10-01
According to the principle of equivalence, it is impossible to distinguish between gravity and inertial forces that a noninertial observer experiences in his own frame of reference. For example, let's consider an elevator in space that is being accelerated in one direction. An observer inside it would feel as if there was gravity force pulling him toward the opposite direction. The same holds for a person in a stationary elevator located in Earth's gravitational field. No experiment enables us to distinguish between the accelerating elevator in space and the motionless elevator near Earth's surface. Strictly speaking, when the gravitational field is non-uniform (like Earth's), the equivalence principle holds only for experiments in elevators that are small enough and that take place over a short enough period of time (Fig. 1). However, performing an experiment in an elevator in space is impractical. On the other hand, it is easy to combine both forces on the same observer, i.e., gravity and a fictitious inertial force due to acceleration. Imagine an observer in an elevator that falls freely within Earth's gravitational field. The observer experiences gravity pulling him down while it might be said that the inertial force due to gravity acceleration g pulls him up. Gravity and inertial force cancel each other, (mis)leading the observer to believe there is no gravitational field. This study outlines our implementation of a self-construction idea that we have found useful in teaching introductory physics students (undergraduate, non-majors).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poluektov, P.P.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Nikipelov, B.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Voloshin, S.V.
2005-01-01
The errors and uncertainties arising in the determination of radionuclide escape from the RW burial require the use of extremely conservative estimates. In the limit, the nuclide concentrations in the waste may be used as estimates of their concentrations in underground waters. On this basis, it is possible to evaluate the corresponding radio-toxicities (by normalizing to the interference levels) of individual components and radioactive waste as a whole or the effective radio-toxicities (by dividing the radionuclide radio-toxicities into the retardation factors for the nuclide transfer with underground waters). This completely coincides with the procedure of performing the limiting conservative estimate according to the traditional approach with the use of scenarios, escape models, and the corresponding codes. A comparison of radio-toxicities for waste with those for natural uranium consumed for producing a required fuel results in the notion of radiation-migration equivalence for individual waste components and radioactive waste as a whole. Therefore, the radiation-migration equivalence corresponds to the limiting conservative estimate in the traditional approach to the determination of RW disposal safety in comparison with the radiotoxicity of natural uranium. The amounts of radionuclides in fragments (and actinides) and the corresponding weight of heavy metal in the fuel are compared with due regard for the hazard (according to the NRB-99 standards), the nuclide mobility (through the sorption retardation factors), the retention of radioactive waste by the solid matrix, and the contribution from the chains of uranium fission products. It was noted above that the RME principle is aimed at ensuring the radiological safety of the present and future generations and the environment through the minimization of radioactive waste upon reprocessing. This is attended by reaching a reasonably achievable, low level of radiological action in the context of modern science, i
Guidez, Emilie B; Gordon, Mark S
2015-03-12
The modeling of dispersion interactions in density functional theory (DFT) is commonly performed using an energy correction that involves empirically fitted parameters for all atom pairs of the system investigated. In this study, the first-principles-derived dispersion energy from the effective fragment potential (EFP) method is implemented for the density functional theory (DFT-D(EFP)) and Hartree-Fock (HF-D(EFP)) energies. Overall, DFT-D(EFP) performs similarly to the semiempirical DFT-D corrections for the test cases investigated in this work. HF-D(EFP) tends to underestimate binding energies and overestimate intermolecular equilibrium distances, relative to coupled cluster theory, most likely due to incomplete accounting for electron correlation. Overall, this first-principles dispersion correction yields results that are in good agreement with coupled-cluster calculations at a low computational cost.
Uniform physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents for truncated wedge strips
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Peter Meincke
1996-01-01
New uniform closed-form expressions for physical theory of diffraction equivalent edge currents are derived for truncated incremental wedge strips. In contrast to previously reported expressions, the new expressions are well behaved for all directions of incidence and observation and take a finite...... value for zero strip length. This means that the expressions are well suited for implementation in general computer codes. The new expressions are expressed as the difference between two terms. The first term is obtained by integrating the exact fringe wave current on a wedge along an untruncated...
Kohn's theorem, Larmor's equivalence principle and the Newton-Hooke group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G.W.; Pope, C.N.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We show that non-relativistic electrons moving in a magnetic field with trapping potential admits as relativity group the Newton-Hooke group. → We use this fact to give a group theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and to obtain the spectrum. → We obtain the lightlike lift of the system exhibiting showing it coincides with the Nappi-Witten spacetime. - Abstract: We consider non-relativistic electrons, each of the same charge to mass ratio, moving in an external magnetic field with an interaction potential depending only on the mutual separations, possibly confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We show that the system admits a 'relativity group' which is a one-parameter family of deformations of the standard Galilei group to the Newton-Hooke group which is a Wigner-Inoenue contraction of the de Sitter group. This allows a group-theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and related results. Larmor's theorem is used to show that the one-parameter family of deformations are all isomorphic. We study the 'Eisenhart' or 'lightlike' lift of the system, exhibiting it as a pp-wave. In the planar case, the Eisenhart lift is the Brdicka-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-wave solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory, which may also be regarded as a bi-invariant metric on the Cangemi-Jackiw group.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varoquaux, G; Nyman, R A; Geiger, R; Cheinet, P; Bouyer, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau (France); Landragin, A [LNE-SYRTE, UMR8630, UPMC, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)], E-mail: philippe.bouyer@institutoptique.fr
2009-11-15
We propose a scheme for testing the weak equivalence principle (universality of free-fall (UFF)) using an atom-interferometric measurement of the local differential acceleration between two atomic species with a large mass ratio as test masses. An apparatus in free fall can be used to track atomic free-fall trajectories over large distances. We show how the differential acceleration can be extracted from the interferometric signal using Bayesian statistical estimation, even in the case of a large mass and laser wavelength difference. We show that this statistical estimation method does not suffer from acceleration noise of the platform and does not require repeatable experimental conditions. We specialize our discussion to a dual potassium/rubidium interferometer and extend our protocol with other atomic mixtures. Finally, we discuss the performance of the UFF test developed for the free-fall (zero-gravity) airplane in the ICE project (http://www.ice-space.fr)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varoquaux, G; Nyman, R A; Geiger, R; Cheinet, P; Bouyer, P; Landragin, A
2009-01-01
We propose a scheme for testing the weak equivalence principle (universality of free-fall (UFF)) using an atom-interferometric measurement of the local differential acceleration between two atomic species with a large mass ratio as test masses. An apparatus in free fall can be used to track atomic free-fall trajectories over large distances. We show how the differential acceleration can be extracted from the interferometric signal using Bayesian statistical estimation, even in the case of a large mass and laser wavelength difference. We show that this statistical estimation method does not suffer from acceleration noise of the platform and does not require repeatable experimental conditions. We specialize our discussion to a dual potassium/rubidium interferometer and extend our protocol with other atomic mixtures. Finally, we discuss the performance of the UFF test developed for the free-fall (zero-gravity) airplane in the ICE project (http://www.ice-space.fr).
Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics
Jun, Ni
2014-01-01
This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...
Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mie Buhl
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.
Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mie Buhl
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkolaiko, G., E-mail: berko@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Kuipers, J., E-mail: Jack.Kuipers@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2013-11-15
To study electronic transport through chaotic quantum dots, there are two main theoretical approaches. One involves substituting the quantum system with a random scattering matrix and performing appropriate ensemble averaging. The other treats the transport in the semiclassical approximation and studies correlations among sets of classical trajectories. There are established evaluation procedures within the semiclassical evaluation that, for several linear and nonlinear transport moments to which they were applied, have always resulted in the agreement with random matrix predictions. We prove that this agreement is universal: any semiclassical evaluation within the accepted procedures is equivalent to the evaluation within random matrix theory. The equivalence is shown by developing a combinatorial interpretation of the trajectory sets as ribbon graphs (maps) with certain properties and exhibiting systematic cancellations among their contributions. Remaining trajectory sets can be identified with primitive (palindromic) factorisations whose number gives the coefficients in the corresponding expansion of the moments of random matrices. The equivalence is proved for systems with and without time reversal symmetry.
Sondag, Andrea; Dittus, Hansjörg
2016-08-01
The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is at the basis of General Relativity - the best theory for gravitation today. It has been and still is tested with different methods and accuracies. In this paper an overview of tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle done in the past, developed in the present and planned for the future is given. The best result up to now is derived from the data of torsion balance experiments by Schlamminger et al. (2008). An intuitive test of the WEP consists of the comparison of the accelerations of two free falling test masses of different composition. This has been carried through by Kuroda & Mio (1989, 1990) with the up to date most precise result for this setup. There is still more potential in this method, especially with a longer free fall time and sensors with a higher resolution. Providing a free fall time of 4.74 s (9.3 s using the catapult) the drop tower of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen is a perfect facility for further improvements. In 2001 a free fall experiment with high sensitive SQUID (Superconductive QUantum Interference Device) sensors tested the WEP with an accuracy of 10-7 (Nietzsche, 2001). For optimal conditions one could reach an accuracy of 10-13 with this setup (Vodel et al., 2001). A description of this experiment and its results is given in the next part of this paper. For the free fall of macroscopic test masses it is important to start with precisely defined starting conditions concerning the positions and velocities of the test masses. An Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS) has been developed to this purpose. It is described in the last part of this paper.
Principle-theoretic approach of kondo and construction-theoretic formalism of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, L.C.
1986-01-01
Einstein classified various theories in physics as principle-theories and constructive-theories. In this lecture Kondo's approach to microscopic and macroscopic phenomena is analysed for its principle theoretic pursuit as followed by construction. The fundamentals of his theory may be recalled as Tristimulus principle, Observation principle, Kawaguchi spaces, empirical information, epistemological point of view, unitarity, intrinsicality, and dimensional analysis subject to logical and geometrical achievement. On the other hand, various physicists have evolved constructive gauge theories through the phenomenological point of view, often a collective one. Their synthetic method involves fibre bundles and connections, path integrals as well as other hypothetical structures. They lead towards clarity, completeness and adaptability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Mazzanti
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.
Analytical study of Yang–Mills theory in the infrared from first principles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siringo, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.siringo@ct.infn.it
2016-06-15
Pure Yang–Mills SU(N) theory is studied in the Landau gauge and four dimensional space. While leaving the original Lagrangian unmodified, a double perturbative expansion is devised, based on a massive free-particle propagator. In dimensional regularization, all diverging mass terms cancel exactly in the double expansion, without the need to include mass counterterms that would spoil the symmetry of the Lagrangian. No free parameters are included that were not in the original theory, yielding a fully analytical approach from first principles. The expansion is safe in the infrared and is equivalent to the standard perturbation theory in the UV. At one-loop, explicit analytical expressions are given for the propagators and the running coupling and are found in excellent agreement with the data of lattice simulations. A universal scaling property is predicted for the inverse propagators and shown to be satisfied by the lattice data. Higher loops are found to be negligible in the infrared below 300 MeV where the coupling becomes small and the one-loop approximation is under full control.
Toward a Principled Sampling Theory for Quasi-Orders.
Ünlü, Ali; Schrepp, Martin
2016-01-01
Quasi-orders, that is, reflexive and transitive binary relations, have numerous applications. In educational theories, the dependencies of mastery among the problems of a test can be modeled by quasi-orders. Methods such as item tree or Boolean analysis that mine for quasi-orders in empirical data are sensitive to the underlying quasi-order structure. These data mining techniques have to be compared based on extensive simulation studies, with unbiased samples of randomly generated quasi-orders at their basis. In this paper, we develop techniques that can provide the required quasi-order samples. We introduce a discrete doubly inductive procedure for incrementally constructing the set of all quasi-orders on a finite item set. A randomization of this deterministic procedure allows us to generate representative samples of random quasi-orders. With an outer level inductive algorithm, we consider the uniform random extensions of the trace quasi-orders to higher dimension. This is combined with an inner level inductive algorithm to correct the extensions that violate the transitivity property. The inner level correction step entails sampling biases. We propose three algorithms for bias correction and investigate them in simulation. It is evident that, on even up to 50 items, the new algorithms create close to representative quasi-order samples within acceptable computing time. Hence, the principled approach is a significant improvement to existing methods that are used to draw quasi-orders uniformly at random but cannot cope with reasonably large item sets.
Toward a Principled Sampling Theory for Quasi-Orders
Ünlü, Ali; Schrepp, Martin
2016-01-01
Quasi-orders, that is, reflexive and transitive binary relations, have numerous applications. In educational theories, the dependencies of mastery among the problems of a test can be modeled by quasi-orders. Methods such as item tree or Boolean analysis that mine for quasi-orders in empirical data are sensitive to the underlying quasi-order structure. These data mining techniques have to be compared based on extensive simulation studies, with unbiased samples of randomly generated quasi-orders at their basis. In this paper, we develop techniques that can provide the required quasi-order samples. We introduce a discrete doubly inductive procedure for incrementally constructing the set of all quasi-orders on a finite item set. A randomization of this deterministic procedure allows us to generate representative samples of random quasi-orders. With an outer level inductive algorithm, we consider the uniform random extensions of the trace quasi-orders to higher dimension. This is combined with an inner level inductive algorithm to correct the extensions that violate the transitivity property. The inner level correction step entails sampling biases. We propose three algorithms for bias correction and investigate them in simulation. It is evident that, on even up to 50 items, the new algorithms create close to representative quasi-order samples within acceptable computing time. Hence, the principled approach is a significant improvement to existing methods that are used to draw quasi-orders uniformly at random but cannot cope with reasonably large item sets. PMID:27965601
Principles of general relativity theory in terms of the present day physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervushin, V.N.
1986-01-01
A hystory of gradual unification of general relativity theory and quantum field theory on the basis of unified geometrical principles is detected. The gauge invariance principles became universal for construction of all physical theories. Quantum mechanics, electrodynamics and Einstein gravitation theory were used to form geometrical principles. Identity of inertial and gravitational masses is an experimental basis of the general relativity theory (GRT). It is shown that correct understanding of GRT bases is a developing process related to the development of the present physics and stimulating this development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyer, T.H.
1984-01-01
A derivation of Planck's spectrum including zero-point radiation is given within classical physics from recent results involving the thermal effects of acceleration through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. A harmonic electric-dipole oscillator undergoing a uniform acceleration a through classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation responds as would the same oscillator in an inertial frame when not in zero-point radiation but in a different spectrum of random classical radiation. Since the equivalence principle tells us that the oscillator supported in a gravitational field g = -a will respond in the same way, we see that in a gravitational field we can construct a perpetual-motion machine based on this different spectrum unless the different spectrum corresponds to that of thermal equilibrium at a finite temperature. Therefore, assuming the absence of perpetual-motion machines of the first kind in a gravitational field, we conclude that the response of an oscillator accelerating through classical zero-point radiation must be that of a thermal system. This then determines the blackbody radiation spectrum in an inertial frame which turns out to be exactly Planck's spectrum including zero-point radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C.; Pino, M.; Rocha, C.I.S.A.; Wietersheim, M. von
2015-01-01
Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w 0 . Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins, C.J.A.P.; Pinho, A.M.M.; Alves, R.F.C. [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Pino, M. [Institut Domènech i Montaner, C/Maspujols 21-23, 43206 Reus (Spain); Rocha, C.I.S.A. [Externato Ribadouro, Rua de Santa Catarina 1346, 4000-447 Porto (Portugal); Wietersheim, M. von, E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt, E-mail: Ana.Pinho@astro.up.pt, E-mail: up201106579@fc.up.pt, E-mail: mpc_97@yahoo.com, E-mail: cisar97@hotmail.com, E-mail: maxivonw@gmail.com [Institut Manuel Sales i Ferré, Avinguda de les Escoles 6, 43550 Ulldecona (Spain)
2015-08-01
Astrophysical tests of the stability of fundamental couplings, such as the fine-structure constant α, are becoming an increasingly powerful probe of new physics. Here we discuss how these measurements, combined with local atomic clock tests and Type Ia supernova and Hubble parameter data, constrain the simplest class of dynamical dark energy models where the same degree of freedom is assumed to provide both the dark energy and (through a dimensionless coupling, ζ, to the electromagnetic sector) the α variation. Specifically, current data tightly constrains a combination of ζ and the present dark energy equation of state w{sub 0}. Moreover, in these models the new degree of freedom inevitably couples to nucleons (through the α dependence of their masses) and leads to violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle. We obtain indirect bounds on the Eötvös parameter η that are typically stronger than the current direct ones. We discuss the model-dependence of our results and briefly comment on how the forthcoming generation of high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will enable significantly tighter constraints.
Majumdar, D; Sil, A; Majumdar, Debasish; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Sil, Arunansu
2001-01-01
Violation of the Equivalence Principle (VEP) can lead to neutrino oscillation through the non-diagonal coupling of neutrino flavor eigenstates with the gravitational field. The neutrino energy dependence of this oscillation probability is different from that of the usual mass-mixing neutrino oscillations. In this work we explore, in detail, the viability of the VEP hypothesis as a solution to the solar neutrino problem in a two generation scenario with both the active and sterile neutrino alternatives, choosing these states to be massless. To obtain the best-fit values of the oscillation parameters we perform a chi square analysis for the total rates of solar neutrinos seen at the Chlorine (Homestake), Gallium (Gallex and SAGE), Kamiokande, and SuperKamiokande (SK) experiments. We find that the goodness of these fits is never satisfactory. It markedly improves if the Chlorine data is excluded from the analysis, especially for VEP transformation to sterile neutrinos. The 1117-day SK data for recoil electron sp...
Silverman-Retana, Omar; Servan-Mori, Edson; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
2016-07-01
To document the performance of diabetes and hypertension care in two large male prisons in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study carried out during July-September 2010, including 496 prisoners with hypertension or diabetes in Mexico City. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess process-of-care indicators and disease control status. Hypertension and diabetes prevalence were estimated on 2.1 and 1.4 %, respectively. Among prisoners with diabetes 22.7 % (n = 62) had hypertension as comorbidity. Low achievement of process-of-care indicators-follow-up visits, blood pressure and laboratory assessments-were observed during incarceration compared to the same prisoners in the year prior to incarceration. In contrast to nonimprisoned diabetes population from Mexico City and from the lowest quintile of socioeconomic status at the national level, prisoners with diabetes had the lowest performance on process-of-care indicators. Continuity of care for chronic diseases, coupled with the equivalence of care principle, should provide the basis for designing chronic disease health policy for prisoners, with the goal of consistent transition of care from community to prison and vice versa.
Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, Korte Spinhuissteeg 3, 1012 CG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nassar, Ali, E-mail: anassar@zewailcity.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, 12588, Giza (Egypt)
2017-02-10
We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.
Generalized uncertainty principle as a consequence of the effective field theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mir Faizal
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We will demonstrate that the generalized uncertainty principle exists because of the derivative expansion in the effective field theories. This is because in the framework of the effective field theories, the minimum measurable length scale has to be integrated away to obtain the low energy effective action. We will analyze the deformation of a massive free scalar field theory by the generalized uncertainty principle, and demonstrate that the minimum measurable length scale corresponds to a second more massive scale in the theory, which has been integrated away. We will also analyze CFT operators dual to this deformed scalar field theory, and observe that scaling of the new CFT operators indicates that they are dual to this more massive scale in the theory. We will use holographic renormalization to explicitly calculate the renormalized boundary action with counter terms for this scalar field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle, and show that the generalized uncertainty principle contributes to the matter conformal anomaly.
Principles of Economic Union. An Extension of John Rawls's Theory of Justice
Wolthuis, A.J.
2017-01-01
In this article I uncover the principles of justice by which an economic union is to be constituted. For this purpose I extend John Rawls’s constructivist theory of justice to economically integrated societies. With regard to the principles I defend a twofold claim. First, the principles of economic
Principles of General Systems Theory: Some Implications for Higher Education Administration
Gilliland, Martha W.; Gilliland, J. Richard
1978-01-01
Three principles of general systems theory are presented and systems theory is distinguished from systems analysis. The principles state that all systems tend to become more disorderly, that they must be diverse in order to be stable, and that only those maximizing their resource utilization for doing useful work will survive. (Author/LBH)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Molin Liu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available About 0.4 s after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO detected a transient gravitational-wave (GW signal GW150914, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM also found a weak electromagnetic transient (GBM transient 150914. Time and location coincidences favor a possible association between GW150904 and GBM transient 150914. Under this possible association, we adopt Fermi's electromagnetic (EM localization and derive constraints on possible violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP from the observations of two events. Our calculations are based on four comparisons: (1 The first is the comparison of the initial GWs detected at the two LIGO sites. From the different polarizations of these initial GWs, we obtain a limit on any difference in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN parameter Δγ≲10−10. (2 The second is a comparison of GWs and possible EM waves. Using a traditional super-Eddington accretion model for GBM transient 150914, we again obtain an upper limit Δγ≲10−10. Compared with previous results for photons and neutrinos, our limits are five orders of magnitude stronger than those from PeV neutrinos in blazar flares, and seven orders stronger than those from MeV neutrinos in SN1987A. (3 The third is a comparison of GWs with different frequencies in the range [35 Hz, 250 Hz]. (4 The fourth is a comparison of EM waves with different energies in the range [1 keV, 10 MeV]. These last two comparisons lead to an even stronger limit, Δγ≲10−8. Our results highlight the potential of multi-messenger signals exploiting different emission channels to strengthen existing tests of the WEP.
Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.
Edwards, Thomas O.
The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…
Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody
2016-01-01
There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaobo Xie
2017-09-01
Full Text Available When developing a real-time energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, it is still a challenge for the Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy to achieve near-optimal energy consumption, because the optimal equivalence factor is not readily available without the trip information. With the help of realistic speeding profiles sampled from a plug-in hybrid electric bus running on a fixed commuting line, this paper proposes a convenient and effective approach of determining the equivalence factor for an adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy. Firstly, with the adaptive law based on the feedback of battery SOC, the equivalence factor is described as a combination of the major component and tuning component. In particular, the major part defined as a constant is applied to the inherent consistency of regular speeding profiles, while the second part including a proportional and integral term can slightly tune the equivalence factor to satisfy the disparity of daily running cycles. Moreover, Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle is employed and solved by using the shooting method to capture the co-state dynamics, in which the Secant method is introduced to adjust the initial co-state value. And then the initial co-state value in last shooting is taken as the optimal stable constant of equivalence factor. Finally, altogether ten successive driving profiles are selected with different initial SOC levels to evaluate the proposed method, and the results demonstrate the excellent fuel economy compared with the dynamic programming and PMP method.
Convex integration theory solutions to the h-principle in geometry and topology
Spring, David
1998-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive study of convex integration theory in immersion-theoretic topology. Convex integration theory, developed originally by M. Gromov, provides general topological methods for solving the h-principle for a wide variety of problems in differential geometry and topology, with applications also to PDE theory and to optimal control theory. Though topological in nature, the theory is based on a precise analytical approximation result for higher order derivatives of functions, proved by M. Gromov. This book is the first to present an exacting record and exposition of all of the basic concepts and technical results of convex integration theory in higher order jet spaces, including the theory of iterated convex hull extensions and the theory of relative h-principles. A second feature of the book is its detailed presentation of applications of the general theory to topics in symplectic topology, divergence free vector fields on 3-manifolds, isometric immersions, totally real embeddings, u...
The argument of the principles in contemporary theory of law: An antipositivist plea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Julián Suárez-Rodríguez
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The theory of legal principles knows today a resonance unknown in other times of legal science and several authors have dedicated themselves to its formation, each of them giving important elements in its configuration. This article presents the characteristics of the contemporary theory of the principles and the contributions that the most important authors in the field gave to it. Furthermore, it shows how the theory of principles has been developed as an argument against the main thesis of legal positivism, the dominant legal culture until the second half of the twentieth century.
Application of the principles of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Sociocultural theory by Vygotsky (1896-1934) is a theory that has become popular in educational practice in recent years. It is especially important in the instruction of children in the preschool level as it is most suitable for their development and learning, which is more of social interaction. This paper discussed the ...
Numerical divergence effects of equivalence theory in the nodal expansion method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zika, M.R.; Downar, T.J.
1993-01-01
Accurate solutions of the advanced nodal equations require the use of discontinuity factors (DFs) to account for the homogenization errors that are inherent in all coarse-mesh nodal methods. During the last several years, nodal equivalence theory (NET) has successfully been implemented for the Cartesian geometry and has received widespread acceptance in the light water reactor industry. The extension of NET to other reactor types has had limited success. Recent efforts to implement NET within the framework of the nodal expansion method have successfully been applied to the fast breeder reactor. However, attempts to apply the same methods to thermal reactors such as the Modular High-Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) have led to numerical divergence problems that can be attributed directly to the magnitude of the DFs. In the work performed here, it was found that the numerical problems occur in the inner and upscatter iterations of the solution algorithm. These iterations use a Gauss-Seidel iterative technique that is always convergent for problems with unity DFs. However, for an MHTGR model that requires large DFs, both the inner and upscatter iterations were divergent. Initial investigations into methods for bounding the DFs have proven unsatisfactory as a means of remedying the convergence problems. Although the DFs could be bounded to yield a convergent solution, several cases were encountered where the resulting flux solution was less accurate than the solution without DFs. For the specific case of problems without upscattering, an alternate numerical method for the inner iteration, an LU decomposition, was identified and shown to be feasible
Pin-wise Reactor Analysis Based on the Generalized Equivalence Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Hwan Yeal; Heo, Woong; Kim, Yong Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
In this paper, a pin-wise reactor analysis is performed based on the generalized equivalence theory. From the conventional fuel assembly lattice calculations, pin-wise 2-group cross sections and pin DFs are generated. Based on the numerical results on a small PWR benchmark, it is observed that the pin-wise core analysis provide quite accurate prediction on the effective multiplication factor and the peak pin power error is bounded by about 3% in peripheral fuel assemblies facing the baffle-reflector. Also, it was found that relatively large pin power errors occur along the interface between clearly different fuel assemblies. It is expected that the GET-based pin-by-pin core calculation can be further developed as an advanced method for reactor analysis via improving the group constants and discontinuity factors. Recently, high-fidelity multi-dimensional analysis tools are gaining more attention because of their accurate prediction of local parameters for core design and safety assessment. In terms of accuracy, direct whole-core transport is quite promising. However, it is clear that it is still very costly in terms of the computing time and memory requirements. Another possible solution is the pin-by-pin core analysis in which only small fuel pins are homogenized and the 3-D core analysis is still performed using a low-order operator such as the diffusion theory. In this paper, a pin-by-pin core analysis is performed using the hybrid CMFD (HCMFD) method. Hybrid CMFD is a new global-local iteration method that has been developed for efficient parallel calculation of pinby-pin heterogeneous core analysis. For the HCMFD method, the one-node CMFD scheme is combined with a local two-node CMFD method in a non-linear way. Since the SPH method is iterative and SPH factors are not direction dependent, it is clear that SPH method takes more computing cost and cannot take into account the different heterogeneity and transport effects at each pin interface. Unlike the SPH
Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications
Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.
2006-01-01
This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in
MBA theory and application of business and management principles
Davim, J
2016-01-01
This book focuses on the relevant subjects in the curriculum of an MBA program. Covering many different fields within business, this book is ideal for readers who want to prepare for a Master of Business Administration degree. It provides discussions and exchanges of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications in the business area.
Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.
Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.
2001-01-01
Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)
General fluid theories, variational principles and self-organization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahajan, S.M.
2002-01-01
This paper reports two distinct but related advances: (1) The development and application of fluid theories that transcend conventional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), in particular, theories that are valid in the long-mean-free-path limit and in which pressure anisotropy, heat flow, and arbitrarily strong sheared flows are treated consistently. (2) The discovery of new pressure-confining plasma configurations that are self-organized relaxed states. (author)
Scattering theory in quantum mechanics. Physical principles and mathematical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amrein, W.O.; Jauch, J.M.; Sinha, K.B.
1977-01-01
A contemporary approach is given to the classical topics of physics. The purpose is to explain the basic physical concepts of quantum scattering theory, to develop the necessary mathematical tools for their description, to display the interrelation between the three methods (the Schroedinger equation solutions, stationary scattering theory, and time dependence) to derive the properties of various quantities of physical interest with mathematically rigorous methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Anderson, K. S.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Epstein, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); McCrory, R. L. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)
2014-05-15
The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8 MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6 × 10{sup 13} and ∼0.3 g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Anderson, K. S.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Epstein, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.; McCrory, R. L.
2014-01-01
The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8 MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6 × 10 13 and ∼0.3 g/cm 2 , respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA
Silver, Wayne
A description of the communication behaviors in high innovation societies depends on the application of selected principles from modern systems theory. The first is the principle of equifinality which explains the activities of open systems. If the researcher views society as an open system, he frees himself from the client approach since society…
Quantum theory and statistical thermodynamics principles and worked examples
Hertel, Peter
2017-01-01
This textbook presents a concise yet detailed introduction to quantum physics. Concise, because it condenses the essentials to a few principles. Detailed, because these few principles – necessarily rather abstract – are illustrated by several telling examples. A fairly complete overview of the conventional quantum mechanics curriculum is the primary focus, but the huge field of statistical thermodynamics is covered as well. The text explains why a few key discoveries shattered the prevailing broadly accepted classical view of physics. First, matter appears to consist of particles which, when propagating, resemble waves. Consequently, some observable properties cannot be measured simultaneously with arbitrary precision. Second, events with single particles are not determined, but are more or less probable. The essence of this is that the observable properties of a physical system are to be represented by non-commuting mathematical objects instead of real numbers. Chapters on exceptionally simple, but h...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackroyd, R.T.
1982-01-01
Some minimum and maximum variational principles for even-parity neutron transport are reviewed and the corresponding principles for odd-parity transport are derived by a simple method to show why the essential boundary conditions associated with these maximum principles have to be imposed. The method also shows why both the essential and some of the natural boundary conditions associated with these minimum principles have to be imposed. These imposed boundary conditions for trial functions in the variational principles limit the choice of the finite element used to represent trial functions. The reasons for the boundary conditions imposed on the principles for even- and odd-parity transport point the way to a treatment of composite neutron transport, for which completely boundary-free maximum and minimum principles are derived from a functional identity. In general a trial function is used for each parity in the composite neutron transport, but this can be reduced to one without any boundary conditions having to be imposed. (author)
Measurement Invariance: A Foundational Principle for Quantitative Theory Building
Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.
2011-01-01
This article describes why measurement invariance is a critical issue to quantitative theory building within the field of human resource development. Readers will learn what measurement invariance is and how to test for its presence using techniques that are accessible to applied researchers. Using data from a LibQUAL+[TM] study of user…
Applying Cognitive Load Theory Principles to Library Instructional Guidance
Pickens, Kathleen E.
2017-01-01
If the goal of library instructional guidance is to provide students with the knowledge needed to acquire new skills in order to accomplish their learning objectives, then it is prudent to consider factors that impact learning. Cognitive load theory addresses several of these factors and is applicable to a wide-range of instructional devices used…
Two new proofs of the test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.
1975-12-01
The test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory is discussed in relation to the recent theory of two-time fluctuations in plasma given by Williams and Oberman. Both a new deductive and a new inductive proof of the principle are presented. The fundamental observation is that two-time expectations of one-body operators are determined completely in terms of the (x,v) phase space density autocorrelation, which to lowest order in the discreteness parameter obeys the linearized Vlasov equation with singular initial condition. For the deductive proof, this equation is solved formally using time-ordered operators, and the solution then rearranged into the superposition principle. The inductive proof is simpler than Rostoker's, although similar in some ways; it differs in that first order equations for pair correlation functions need not be invoked. It is pointed out that the superposition principle is also applicable to the short-time theory of neutral fluids
Detailed balance principle and finite-difference stochastic equation in a field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozhamkulov, T.A.
1986-01-01
A finite-difference equation, which is a generalization of the Langevin equation in field theory, has been obtained basing upon the principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain. Advantages of the present approach as compared with the conventional Parisi-Wu method are shown for examples of an exactly solvable problem of zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation
Principle of detailed balance and the finite-difference stochastic equation in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozhamkulov, T.A.
1986-01-01
The principle of detailed balance for the Markov chain is used to obtain a finite-difference equation which generalizes the Langevin equation in field theory. The advantages of using this approach compared to the conventional Parisi-Wu method are demonstrated for the examples of an exactly solvable problem in zero-dimensional quantum theory and a simple numerical simulation
Directionality Theory and the Entropic Principle of Natural Selection
Demetrius, Lloyd; Gundlach, Volker
2014-01-01
Darwinian fitness describes the capacity of an organism to appropriate resources from the environment and to convert these resources into net-offspring production. Studies of competition between related types indicate that fitness is analytically described by entropy, a statistical measure which is positively correlated with population stability, and describes the number of accessible pathways of energy flow between the individuals in the population. Directionality theory is a mathematical mo...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Robertson Lain, L
2014-07-01
Full Text Available (PFT) analysis. To these ends, an initial validation of a new model of Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) is presented here. This paper makes a first order comparison of two prominent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models with the EAP...
Acuña Luongo, P.T
2014-01-01
Scientific theories are accepted or rejected in terms of their observable predictions. If the predictions of a theory are verified in experiments and observations, the theory is evidentially confirmed, but if the results of observations and experiments do not correspond to the predictions, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulyabov, D.S.
2010-01-01
Full text: (author)In the construction of physical theories are several paradigms (according to Vladimirov Yu. S.). Depending on the number of entities are used paradigms include trialist (3 entities), dualist (2 entities) and monistic (1 entity). In trialist paradigm uses the following entities: geometry (G), particle (P) and field (F). Go to the dualist paradigms performed in the following ways: two entities take over the functions of the third, two entities merged into a single synthesis. Is also possible to limit the dualistic theory, which summarized the essence in addition assume the functions of a third. In turn, by way of grouping the entities dualistic theory can be divided into geometric (unification of geometry and field), relational (unification of geometry and particles) and field (unification of fields and particles). For the connection of the two theories should be to go to the common denominator: to trialist or monistic theories. Since the monistic theory at the moment completely unknown, may be used only trialist theory. General relativity is a typical representative of the geometric dualistic paradigm. However geometrized only gravity. Other fields non-geometrized. In turn, the relativistic theory of gravitation is a typical trialist theory. To establish a correspondence between theories should to geometrize material field in the general theory of relativity. It is proposed to implement this on the basis of a multi-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.
1983-01-01
Possibility is studied to build the nonrelativistic scattering theory on the base of the general physical principles: causality, superposition, and unitarity, making no use of the Schroedinger formalism. The suggested approach is shown to be more general than the nonrelativistic scattering theory based on the Schroedinger equation. The approach is applied to build a model ofthe scattering theory for a system which consists of heavy nonrelativistic particles and a light relativistic particle
Principles of hyperplasticity an approach to plasticity theory based on thermodynamic principles
Houlsby, Guy T
2007-01-01
A new approach to plasticity theory firmly routed in and compatible with the laws of thermodynamicsProvides a common basis for the formulation and comparison of many existing plasticity modelsIncorporates and introduction to elasticity, plasticity, thermodynamics and their interactionsShows the reader how to formulate constitutive models completely specified by two scalar potential functions from which the incremental responses of any hyperplastic model can be derived.
Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.
Lau, K H Vincent
2014-03-01
The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to
Classical field theory in the space of reference frames. [Space-time manifold, action principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toller, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita, Trento (Italy)
1978-03-11
The formalism of classical field theory is generalized by replacing the space-time manifold M by the ten-dimensional manifold S of all the local reference frames. The geometry of the manifold S is determined by ten vector fields corresponding to ten operationally defined infinitesimal transformations of the reference frames. The action principle is written in terms of a differential 4-form in the space S (the Lagrangian form). Densities and currents are represented by differential 3-forms in S. The field equations and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws (Noether's theorem) are derived from the action principle. Einstein's theory of gravitation and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism are reformulated in this language. The general formalism can also be used to formulate theories in which charge, energy and momentum cannot be localized in space-time and even theories in which a space-time manifold cannot be defined exactly in any useful way.
Factorial Equivalence of Social Cognitive Theory: Educational Levels × Time Differences
Phan, Huy Phuong; Ngu, Bing
2014-01-01
The study of social cognitive theory has involved a number of inquiries, notably one of which concerns the formation and development of self-efficacy beliefs. Social cognitive theory indicates that we form our self-efficacy beliefs from four major sources of information: enactive performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernardini, A.E.; Bertolami, O.
2013-01-01
An equivalence between Born–Infeld and effective real scalar field theories for brane structures is built in some specific warped space–time scenarios. Once the equations of motion for tachyon fields related to the Born–Infeld action are written as first-order equations, a simple analytical connection with a particular class of real scalar field superpotentials can be found. This equivalence leads to the conclusion that, for a certain class of superpotentials, both systems can support identical thick brane solutions as well as brane structures described through localized energy densities, T 00 (y), in the 5th dimension, y. Our results indicate that thick brane solutions realized by the Born–Infeld cosmology can be connected to real scalar field brane scenarios which can be used to effectively map the tachyon condensation mechanism
An Evolutionary Comparison of the Handicap Principle and Hybrid Equilibrium Theories of Signaling
Kane, Patrick; Zollman, Kevin J. S.
2015-01-01
The handicap principle has come under significant challenge both from empirical studies and from theoretical work. As a result, a number of alternative explanations for honest signaling have been proposed. This paper compares the evolutionary plausibility of one such alternative, the “hybrid equilibrium,” to the handicap principle. We utilize computer simulations to compare these two theories as they are instantiated in Maynard Smith’s Sir Philip Sidney game. We conclude that, when both types of communication are possible, evolution is unlikely to lead to handicap signaling and is far more likely to result in the partially honest signaling predicted by hybrid equilibrium theory. PMID:26348617
The energy price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading—Theory and evidence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, Fan-Ping; Kuo, Hsiao-I.; Chen, Chi-Chung; Hsu, Chia-Sheng
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading from theoretical and empirical models are developed. • The theoretical findings show that the price effects of these two schemes depend on the market structures. • Energy prices under a carbon tax is lower than an issions trading in an imperfectly competitive market. • A case study from Taiwan gasoline market is applied here. - Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to estimate the energy price equivalence of carbon taxes and emissions trading in an energy market. To this end, both the carbon tax and emissions trading systems are designed in the theoretical model, while alternative market structures are taken into consideration. The theoretical findings show that the economic effects of these two schemes on energy prices depend on the market structures. Energy prices are equivalent between these two schemes given the same amount of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) reduction when the market structure is characterized by perfect competition. However, energy prices will be lower when a carbon tax is introduced than when emissions trading is implemented in an imperfectly competitive market, which implies that the price effects of a carbon tax and emissions trading depend on the energy market structure. Such a theoretical basis is applied to the market for gasoline in Taiwan. The empirical results indicate that the gasoline prices under a carbon tax are lower than under emissions trading. This implies that the structure of the energy market needs to be examined when a country seeks to reduce its GHGE through the implementation of either a carbon tax or emissions trading.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bryukhovetskiy AS
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Andrey S Bryukhovetskiy Center for Biomedical Technologies, Federal Research and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Assistance and Medical Technologies of the Federal Medical Biological Agency, NeuroVita Clinic of Interventional and Restorative Neurology and Therapy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Based on the methodology of the informational approach and research of the genome, proteome, and complete transcriptome profiles of different cells in the nervous tissue of the human brain, the author proposes a new theory of information-commutation organization and architecture of the human brain which is an alternative to the conventional systemic connective morphofunctional paradigm of the brain framework. Informational principles of brain operation are defined: the modular principle, holographic principle, principle of systematicity of vertical commutative connection and complexity of horizontal commutative connection, regulatory principle, relay principle, modulation principle, “illumination” principle, principle of personalized memory and intellect, and principle of low energy consumption. The author demonstrates that the cortex functions only as a switchboard and router of information, while information is processed outside the nervous tissue of the brain in the intermeningeal space. The main structural element of information-commutation in the brain is not the neuron, but information-commutation modules that are subdivided into receiver modules, transmitter modules, and subscriber modules, forming a vertical architecture of nervous tissue in the brain as information lines and information channels, and a horizontal architecture as central, intermediate, and peripheral information-commutation platforms. Information in information-commutation modules is transferred by means of the carriers that are characteristic to the specific information level from inductome to genome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, secretome, and magnetome
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaquiere, Augustin
1981-01-01
A least action principle with unilateral constraints on the velocity is applied to an example in the area of the special theory of relativity. Equations obtained for a particle with non-zero rest-mass, and speed c the speed of light, are those which are usually associated with the photon, namely: the equation of eikonale and the wave equation of d'Alembert. Extension of the theory [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sai Venkata Ramana, A.
2014-01-01
The coupling parameter series expansion and the high temperature series expansion in the thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids are shown to be equivalent if the interaction potential is pairwise additive. As a consequence, for the class of fluids with the potential having a hardcore repulsion, if the hard-sphere fluid is chosen as reference system, the terms of coupling parameter series expansion for radial distribution function, direct correlation function, and Helmholtz free energy follow a scaling law with temperature. The scaling law is confirmed by application to square-well fluids
Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.
1975-01-01
The development of the theory of the finite - state, finite - memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem is discussed. The sufficiency of the FSFM minimum principle (which is in general only a necessary condition) was investigated. By introducing the notion of a signaling strategy as defined in the literature on games, conditions under which the FSFM minimum principle is sufficient were determined. This result explicitly interconnects the information structure of the FSFM problem with its optimality conditions. The min-H algorithm for the FSFM problem was studied. It is demonstrated that a version of the algorithm always converges to a particular type of local minimum termed a person - by - person extremal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, S.P.; Gulati, S.
1979-01-01
An attempt has been made to replace the principle of relativity with the principle of covariance. This amounts to modification of the theory of relativity based on the two postulates (i) the principle of covariance and (ii) the light principle. Some of the fundamental results and the laws of relativistic mechanics, electromagnetodynamics and quantum mechanics are re-examined. The principle of invariance is questioned. (A.K.)
Variational principles are a powerful tool also for formulating field theories
Dell'Isola , Francesco; Placidi , Luca
2012-01-01
Variational principles and calculus of variations have always been an important tool for formulating mathematical models for physical phenomena. Variational methods give an efficient and elegant way to formulate and solve mathematical problems that are of interest for scientists and engineers and are the main tool for the axiomatization of physical theories
Robertson Lain, L; Bernard, S; Evers-King, H
2014-07-14
There is a pressing need for improved bio-optical models of high biomass waters as eutrophication of coastal and inland waters becomes an increasing problem. Seasonal boom conditions in the Southern Benguela and persistent harmful algal production in various inland waters in Southern Africa present valuable opportunities for the development of such modelling capabilities. The phytoplankton-dominated signal of these waters additionally addresses an increased interest in Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) analysis. To these ends, an initial validation of a new model of Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) is presented here. This paper makes a first order comparison of two prominent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models with the EAP model, which places emphasis on explicit bio-physical modelling of the phytoplankton population as a holistic determinant of inherent optical properties. This emphasis is shown to have an impact on the ability to retrieve the detailed phytoplankton spectral scattering information necessary for PFT applications and to successfully simulate reflectance across wide ranges of physical environments, biomass, and assemblage characteristics.
Introduction to the theory of relativity
Bergmann, Peter Gabriel
1976-01-01
Comprehensive coverage of special theory (frames of reference, Lorentz transformation, more), general theory (principle of equivalence, more) and unified theory (Weyl's gauge-invariant geometry, more.) Foreword by Albert Einstein.
Equivalence of meson scattering amplitudes in strong coupling lattice and flat space string theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adi Armoni
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We consider meson scattering in the framework of the lattice strong coupling expansion. In particular we derive an expression for the 4-point function of meson operators in the planar limit of scalar Chromodynamics. Interestingly, in the naive continuum limit the expression coincides with an independently known result, that of the worldline formalism. Moreover, it was argued by Makeenko and Olesen that (assuming confinement the resulting scattering amplitude in momentum space is the celebrated expression proposed by Veneziano several decades ago. This motivates us to also use holography in order to argue that the continuum expression for the scattering amplitude is related to the result obtained from flat space string theory. Our results hint that at strong coupling and large-Nc the naive continuum limit of the lattice formalism can be related to a flat space string theory.
Equivalence of meson scattering amplitudes in strong coupling lattice and flat space string theory
Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin; Vadacchino, Davide
2018-03-01
We consider meson scattering in the framework of the lattice strong coupling expansion. In particular we derive an expression for the 4-point function of meson operators in the planar limit of scalar Chromodynamics. Interestingly, in the naive continuum limit the expression coincides with an independently known result, that of the worldline formalism. Moreover, it was argued by Makeenko and Olesen that (assuming confinement) the resulting scattering amplitude in momentum space is the celebrated expression proposed by Veneziano several decades ago. This motivates us to also use holography in order to argue that the continuum expression for the scattering amplitude is related to the result obtained from flat space string theory. Our results hint that at strong coupling and large-Nc the naive continuum limit of the lattice formalism can be related to a flat space string theory.
First-principles theory of inelastic currents in a scanning tunneling microscope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stokbro, Kurt; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Thirstrup, C.
1998-01-01
A first-principles theory of inelastic tunneling between a model probe tip and an atom adsorbed on a surface is presented, extending the elastic tunneling theory of Tersoff and Hamann. The inelastic current is proportional to the change in the local density of states at the center of the tip due...... to the addition of the adsorbate. We use the theory to investigate the vibrational heating of an adsorbate below a scanning tunneling microscopy tip. We calculate the desorption rate of PI from Si(100)-H(2 X 1) as a function of the sample bias and tunnel current, and find excellent a,agreement with recent...
On the Equivalence of Quadratic Optimization Problems Commonly Used in Portfolio Theory
Taras Bodnar; Nestor Parolya; Wolfgang Schmid
2012-01-01
In the paper, we consider three quadratic optimization problems which are frequently applied in portfolio theory, i.e, the Markowitz mean-variance problem as well as the problems based on the mean-variance utility function and the quadratic utility.Conditions are derived under which the solutions of these three optimization procedures coincide and are lying on the efficient frontier, the set of mean-variance optimal portfolios. It is shown that the solutions of the Markowitz optimization prob...
Physical principles, geometrical aspects, and locality properties of gauge field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.; Hamburg Univ.
1981-01-01
Gauge field theories, particularly Yang - Mills theories, are discussed at a classical level from a geometrical point of view. The introductory chapters are concentrated on physical principles and mathematical tools. The main part is devoted to locality problems in gauge field theories. Examples show that locality problems originate from two sources in pure Yang - Mills theories (without matter fields). One is topological and the other is related to the existence of degenerated field configurations of the infinitesimal holonomy groups on some extended region of space or space-time. Nondegenerate field configurations in theories with semisimple gauge groups can be analysed with the help of the concept of a local gauge. Such gauges play a central role in the discussion. (author)
Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten
2016-01-01
In this book, leading theorists present new contributions and reviews addressing longstanding challenges and ongoing progress in spacetime physics. In the anniversary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, developed 100 years ago, this collection reflects the subsequent and continuing fruitful development of spacetime theories. The volume is published in honour of Carl Brans on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Carl H. Brans, who also contributes personally, is a creative and independent researcher and one of the founders of the scalar-tensor theory, also known as Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. In the present book, much space is devoted to scalar-tensor theories. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Brans has worked on new models of spacetime, collectively known as exotic smoothness, a field largely established by him. In this Festschrift, one finds an outstanding and unique collection of articles about exotic smoothness. Also featured are Bell's inequality and Mach's principle. Personal memories and hist...
Two new proofs of the test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.
1976-01-01
The test particle superposition principle of plasma kinetic theory is discussed in relation to the recent theory of two-time fluctuations in plasma given by Williams and Oberman. Both a new deductive and a new inductive proof of the principle are presented; the deductive approach appears here for the first time in the literature. The fundamental observation is that two-time expectations of one-body operators are determined completely in terms of the (x,v) phase space density autocorrelation, which to lowest order in the discreteness parameter obeys the linearized Vlasov equation with singular initial condition. For the deductive proof, this equation is solved formally using time-ordered operators, and the solution is then re-arranged into the superposition principle. The inductive proof is simpler than Rostoker's although similar in some ways; it differs in that first-order equations for pair correlation functions need not be invoked. It is pointed out that the superposition principle is also applicable to the short-time theory of neutral fluids
Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Nasrabadi, Hassanali Bakhtiyar
2016-01-01
The present paper attempts to recognize principles and methods of education based on Wittgenstein's picture theory of language. This qualitative research utilized inferential analytical approach to review the related literature and extracted a set of principles and methods from his theory on picture language. Findings revealed that Wittgenstein…
Equivalence between the Lovelock-Cartan action and a constrained gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junqueira, O.C.; Sadovski, G.; Santos, T.R.S.; Sobreiro, R.F.; Pereira, A.D.; Tomaz, A.A.
2017-01-01
We show that the four-dimensional Lovelock-Cartan action can be derived from a massless gauge theory for the SO(1, 3) group with an additional BRST trivial part. The model is originally composed of a topological sector and a BRST exact piece and has no explicit dependence on the metric, the vierbein or a mass parameter. The vierbein is introduced together with a mass parameter through some BRST trivial constraints. The effect of the constraints is to identify the vierbein with some of the additional fields, transforming the original action into the Lovelock-Cartan one. In this scenario, the mass parameter is identified with Newton's constant, while the gauge field is identified with the spin connection. The symmetries of the model are also explored. Moreover, the extension of the model to a quantum version is qualitatively discussed. (orig.)
Equivalence between the Lovelock-Cartan action and a constrained gauge theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Junqueira, O.C.; Sadovski, G.; Santos, T.R.S.; Sobreiro, R.F. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tomaz, A.A. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); CBPF-Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-04-15
We show that the four-dimensional Lovelock-Cartan action can be derived from a massless gauge theory for the SO(1, 3) group with an additional BRST trivial part. The model is originally composed of a topological sector and a BRST exact piece and has no explicit dependence on the metric, the vierbein or a mass parameter. The vierbein is introduced together with a mass parameter through some BRST trivial constraints. The effect of the constraints is to identify the vierbein with some of the additional fields, transforming the original action into the Lovelock-Cartan one. In this scenario, the mass parameter is identified with Newton's constant, while the gauge field is identified with the spin connection. The symmetries of the model are also explored. Moreover, the extension of the model to a quantum version is qualitatively discussed. (orig.)
On the equivalence of two approaches in the exciton-polariton theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha Vinh Tan; Nguyen Toan Thang
1983-02-01
The polariton effect in the optical processes involving photons with energies near that of an exciton is investigated by the Bogolubov diagonalization and the Green function approaches in a simple model of the direct band gap semiconductor with the electrical dipole allowed transition. To take into account the non-resonant terms of the interaction Hamiltonian of the photon-exciton system the Green function approach derived by Nguyen Van Hieu is presented with the use of Green's function matrix technique analogous to that suggested by Nambu in the theory of superconductivity. It is shown that with the suitable choice of the phase factors the renormalization constants are equal to the diagonalization coefficients. The disperson of polaritons and the matrix elements of processes with the participation of polaritons are identically calculated by both methods. However the Green function approach has an advantage in including the damping effect of polaritons. (author)
Equivalence between the Lovelock-Cartan action and a constrained gauge theory
Junqueira, O. C.; Pereira, A. D.; Sadovski, G.; Santos, T. R. S.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Tomaz, A. A.
2017-04-01
We show that the four-dimensional Lovelock-Cartan action can be derived from a massless gauge theory for the SO(1, 3) group with an additional BRST trivial part. The model is originally composed of a topological sector and a BRST exact piece and has no explicit dependence on the metric, the vierbein or a mass parameter. The vierbein is introduced together with a mass parameter through some BRST trivial constraints. The effect of the constraints is to identify the vierbein with some of the additional fields, transforming the original action into the Lovelock-Cartan one. In this scenario, the mass parameter is identified with Newton's constant, while the gauge field is identified with the spin connection. The symmetries of the model are also explored. Moreover, the extension of the model to a quantum version is qualitatively discussed.
The Principle of General Tovariance
Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.
2008-06-01
We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Chugreev, Yu.V.
1985-01-01
It is shown that in any metric theory of gravitation passessing conservation laws for energy-momentum of the substance and gravitational field taken together, the motion of centre of extended body mass occurs not according to the geodesic Riemann space-time. The centre of mass of the extended body during its motion about the orbit makes a vibrational movement in relation to supporting geodesic. Application of obtained general formulas to the Sun-Earth system and the use of experimental results on the Moon location with the regard of other experiments has shown with high accuracy of 10 -10 that the relation of gravitational passive Earth mass to its inert mass does not equal to 1 differing from it about 10 -8 . The Earth at its orbital motion makes a vibrational movement in relation to supporting geodesic with a period of 1 hour and amplitude not less than 10 -2 sm. the deviation of the Earth mass center motion from geodesic movement can be found in a corresponding experiment having a postnewton accuracy degree
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meng Zhang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Conceptualization in theory development has received limited consideration despite its frequently stressed importance in Information Systems research. This paper focuses on the role of construct clarity in conceptualization, arguing that construct clarity should be considered an essential criterion for evaluating conceptualization and that a focus on construct clarity can advance conceptualization methodology. Drawing from Facet Theory literature, we formulate a set of principles for assessing construct clarity, particularly regarding a construct’s relationships to its extant related constructs. Conscious and targeted attention to this criterion can promote a research ecosystem more supportive of knowledge accumulation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴天民
2003-01-01
The purpose is to reestablish the balance laws of momentum, angular momentumand energy and to derive the corresponding local and nonlocal balance equations formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory. The desired results formicromorphic continuum mechanics and couple stress theory are naturally obtained via directtransitions and reductions from the coupled conservation law of energy for micropolarcontinuum theory, respectively. The basic balance laws and equation s for micromorphiccontinuum mechanics and couple stress theory are constituted by combining these resultsderived here and the traditional conservation laws and equations of mass and microinertiaand the entropy inequality. The incomplete degrees of the former related continuum theoriesare clarified. Finally, some special cases are conveniently derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackroyd, R.T.
1987-01-01
A least squares principle is described which uses a penalty function treatment of boundary and interface conditions. Appropriate choices of the trial functions and vectors employed in a dual representation of an approximate solution established complementary principles for the diffusion equation. A geometrical interpretation of the principles provides weighted residual methods for diffusion theory, thus establishing a unification of least squares, variational and weighted residual methods. The complementary principles are used with either a trial function for the flux or a trial vector for the current to establish for regular meshes a connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, which can be exact if the mesh pitches are chosen appropriately. Whereas the coefficients in the usual nodal equations have to be determined iteratively, those derived via the complementary principles are given explicitly in terms of the data. For the further development of the connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, some hybrid variational methods are described which employ both a trial function and a trial vector. (author)
Ashby, Nathaniel J S; Glöckner, Andreas; Dickert, Stephan
2011-01-01
Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one's options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a "deliberation with information" condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought (UT) over "deliberation without information," we find that "deliberation with information" equals or outperforms UT in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that UT has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. Furthermore, we show that "deliberate thought with information" leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to UT which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nathaniel James Siebert Ashby
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one’s options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a ‘deliberation with information’ condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought over ‘deliberation without information’, we find that ‘deliberation with information’ equals or outperforms unconscious thought in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that unconscious thought has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. We furthermore show that ‘deliberate thought with information’ leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to unconscious thought which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.
The generally covariant locality principle - a new paradigm for local quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunetti, R.; Fredenhagen, K.; Verch, R.
2002-05-01
A new approach to the model-independent description of quantum field theories will be introduced in the present work. The main feature of this new approach is to incorporate in a local sense the principle of general covariance of general relativity, thus giving rise to the concept of a locally covariant quantum field theory. Such locally covariant quantum field theories will be described mathematically in terms of covariant functors between the categories, on one side, of globally hyperbolic spacetimes with isometric embeddings as morphisms and, on the other side, of *-algebras with unital injective *-endomorphisms as morphisms. Moreover, locally covariant quantum fields can be described in this framework as natural transformations between certain functors. The usual Haag-Kastler framework of nets of operator-algebras over a fixed spacetime background-manifold, together with covariant automorphic actions of the isometry-group of the background spacetime, can be re-gained from this new approach as a special case. Examples of this new approach are also outlined. In case that a locally covariant quantum field theory obeys the time-slice axiom, one can naturally associate to it certain automorphic actions, called ''relative Cauchy-evolutions'', which describe the dynamical reaction of the quantum field theory to a local change of spacetime background metrics. The functional derivative of a relative Cauchy-evolution with respect to the spacetime metric is found to be a divergence-free quantity which has, as will be demonstrated in an example, the significance of an energy-momentum tensor for the locally covariant quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss the functorial properties of state spaces of locally covariant quantum field theories that entail the validity of the principle of local definiteness. (orig.)
Development by Niels Bohr of the quantum theory of the atom and of the correspondence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El'yashevich, M.A.
1985-01-01
Bohr's investigations in 1912-1923 on the quantum theory of atoms are considered. The sources of N. Bohr's works on this subject are analyzed, and the beginning of his quantum research in 1912 is described. A detailed analysis is given of N. Bohr's famous paper on the hydrogen atom theory and on the origin of spectra. The further development of Bohr's ideas on atomic structure is considered, special attention is being payed to his postulates of stationary states and of radiation transitions and to the development of the correspondence principle. It is shown how well N. Bohr understood the difficulties of the model theory and how be tried to obtain a deep understanding of quantum phenomena
Yong, Yook-Kong; Patel, Mihir S; Tanaka, Masako
2010-08-01
A novel analytical/numerical method for calculating the resonator Q and its equivalent electrical parameters due to viscoelastic, conductivity, and mounting supports losses is presented. The method presented will be quite useful for designing new resonators and reducing the time and costs of prototyping. There was also a necessity for better and more realistic modeling of the resonators because of miniaturization and the rapid advances in the frequency ranges of telecommunication. We present new 3-D finite elements models of quartz resonators with viscoelasticity, conductivity, and mounting support losses. The losses at the mounting supports were modeled by perfectly matched layers (PMLs). A previously published theory for dissipative anisotropic piezoelectric solids was formulated in a weak form for finite element (FE) applications. PMLs were placed at the base of the mounting supports to simulate the energy losses to a semi-infinite base substrate. FE simulations were carried out for free vibrations and forced vibrations of quartz tuning fork and AT-cut resonators. Results for quartz tuning fork and thickness shear AT-cut resonators were presented and compared with experimental data. Results for the resonator Q and the equivalent electrical parameters were compared with their measured values. Good equivalences were found. Results for both low- and high-Q AT-cut quartz resonators compared well with their experimental values. A method for estimating the Q directly from the frequency spectrum obtained for free vibrations was also presented. An important determinant of the quality factor Q of a quartz resonator is the loss of energy from the electrode area to the base via the mountings. The acoustical characteristics of the plate resonator are changed when the plate is mounted onto a base substrate. The base affects the frequency spectra of the plate resonator. A resonator with a high Q may not have a similarly high Q when mounted on a base. Hence, the base is an
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vodel, W.; Nietzsche, S.; Neubert, R. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Zentrum fuer angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation
2003-07-01
The weak equivalence principle is one of the fundamental hypotheses of general relativity and one of the key elements of our physical picture of the world, but since Galileo there has been no satisfactory way of verifying it. The new SQUID technology may offer a solution. The contribution presents the experiments of Jena University. Applications are envisaged, e.g., in the STEP space mission of the NASA/ESA. [German] Das Schwache Aequivalenzprinzip ist eine der grundlegenden Hypothesen der Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie und damit einer der Grundpfeiler unseres physikalischen Weltbildes. Obwohl es seit den ersten Experimenten von Galileo Galilei am Schiefen Turm zu Pisa im Jahre 1638 bis heute schon zahlreiche und immer praeziser werdende Messungen zur Ueberpruefung der Aequivalenz von schwerer und traeger Masse gegeben hat, ist die strenge Gueltigkeit dieses fundamentalen Prinzips experimentell vergleichsweise unzureichend bestimmt. Neuere Methoden, wie der Einsatz SQUID-basierter Messtechnik und die Durchfuehrung von Experimenten auf Satelliten, lassen Verbesserungen schon in naher Zukunft erwarten, so dass theoretische Ueberlegungen zur Vereinigung aller uns bekannten physikalischen Wechselwirkungen, die eine Verletzung des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips voraussagen, experimentell eingegrenzt werden koennten. Der Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die an der Universitaet Jena entwickelte SQUID-basierte Messtechnik zum Test des Aequivalenzprinzips und fasst die bisher bei Freifallversuchen am Fallturm Bremen erzielten experimentellen Ergebnisse zusammen. Ein Ausblick auf die geplante Raumfahrtmission STEP der NASA/ESA zum Praezisionstest des Schwachen Aequivalenzprinzips schliesst den Beitrag ab. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eleni Panagiotarakou
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the “right to place” as a political theory of wild animal rights. Out of the debate between terrestrial cosmopolitans inspired by Kant and Arendt and rooted cosmopolitan animal right theorists, the right to place emerges from the fold of rooted cosmopolitanism in tandem with environmental and ecological principles. Contrary to terrestrial cosmopolitans—who favour extending citizenship rights to wild animals and advocate at the same time large-scale humanitarian interventions and unrestricted geographical mobility—I argue that the well-being of wild animals is best served by the right to place theory on account of its sovereignty model. The right to place theory advocates human non-interference in wildlife communities, opposing even humanitarian interventions, which carry the risk of unintended consequences. The right to place theory, with its emphasis on territorial sovereignty, bases its opposition to unrestricted geographical mobility on two considerations: (a the non-generalist nature of many species and (b the potential for abuse via human encroachment. In a broader context, the advantage of the right to place theory lies in its implicit environmental demands: human population control and sustainable lifestyles.
Kelley, Thomas M.
1996-01-01
Describes the refined principles of Psychology of Mind and shows how their logical interaction can help explain the comparative amounts of deviant and conforming behavior of youthful offenders. The logic of these principles is used to examine the major assumptions of social bonding and control theory of delinquency focusing predominantly on the…
2007-05-17
COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles? A...TITLE AND SUBTITLE COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global P ti D th C t US St t R fl t COIN 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Perspective: Does...Monograph: COIN goes “ GLOCAL ”: Traditional COIN with a Global Perspective: Does the Current US Strategy Reflect COIN Theory, Doctrine and Principles
Schwinger variational principle in the nuclear two-body problem and multichannel theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubarev, A.L.; Podkopaev, A.P.
1978-01-01
The aim of the investigation is to study the Schwinger variational principle in the nuclear two-body problem and the multichannel theory. An approach is proposed to problems of the potential scattering based on the substitution of the exact potential operator V by the finite rank operator Vsup((n)) with which the dynamic equations are solved exactly. The functionals obtained for observed values coincide with corresponding expressions derived by the Schwinger variational principle with the set of test functions. The determination of the Schwinger variational principle is given. The method is given for finding amplitude of the double-particle scattering with the potential Vsup((n)). The corresponding amplitudes are constructed within the framework of the multichannel potential model. Interpolation formula for determining amplitude, which describes with high accuracy a process of elastic scattering for any energies, is obtained. On the basis of the above method high-energy amplitude may be obtained within the range of small and large scattering angles
Freed, Karl F
2014-10-14
A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, "The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition" [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freed, Karl F., E-mail: freed@uchicago.edu [James Franck Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 929 East 57 Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2014-10-14
A general theory of the long time, low temperature dynamics of glass-forming fluids remains elusive despite the almost 20 years since the famous pronouncement by the Nobel Laureate P. W. Anderson, “The deepest and most interesting unsolved problem in solid state theory is probably the theory of the nature of glass and the glass transition” [Science 267, 1615 (1995)]. While recent work indicates that Adam-Gibbs theory (AGT) provides a framework for computing the structural relaxation time of supercooled fluids and for analyzing the properties of the cooperatively rearranging dynamical strings observed in low temperature molecular dynamics simulations, the heuristic nature of AGT has impeded general acceptance due to the lack of a first principles derivation [G. Adam and J. H. Gibbs, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 139 (1965)]. This deficiency is rectified here by a statistical mechanical derivation of AGT that uses transition state theory and the assumption that the transition state is composed of elementary excitations of a string-like form. The strings are assumed to form in equilibrium with the mobile particles in the fluid. Hence, transition state theory requires the strings to be in mutual equilibrium and thus to have the size distribution of a self-assembling system, in accord with the simulations and analyses of Douglas and co-workers. The average relaxation rate is computed as a grand canonical ensemble average over all string sizes, and use of the previously determined relation between configurational entropy and the average cluster size in several model equilibrium self-associating systems produces the AGT expression in a manner enabling further extensions and more fundamental tests of the assumptions.
Adapting evidence-based interventions using a common theory, practices, and principles.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Becker, Kimberly D
2014-01-01
Hundreds of validated evidence-based intervention programs (EBIP) aim to improve families' well-being; however, most are not broadly adopted. As an alternative diffusion strategy, we created wellness centers to reach families' everyday lives with a prevention framework. At two wellness centers, one in a middle-class neighborhood and one in a low-income neighborhood, popular local activity leaders (instructors of martial arts, yoga, sports, music, dancing, Zumba), and motivated parents were trained to be Family Mentors. Trainings focused on a framework that taught synthesized, foundational prevention science theory, practice elements, and principles, applied to specific content areas (parenting, social skills, and obesity). Family Mentors were then allowed to adapt scripts and activities based on their cultural experiences but were closely monitored and supervised over time. The framework was implemented in a range of activities (summer camps, coaching) aimed at improving social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Successes and challenges are discussed for (a) engaging parents and communities; (b) identifying and training Family Mentors to promote children and families' well-being; and (c) gathering data for supervision, outcome evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. To broadly diffuse prevention to families, far more experimentation is needed with alternative and engaging implementation strategies that are enhanced with knowledge harvested from researchers' past 30 years of experience creating EBIP. One strategy is to train local parents and popular activity leaders in applying robust prevention science theory, common practice elements, and principles of EBIP. More systematic evaluation of such innovations is needed.
The Context and Values Inherent in Human Capital as Core Principles for New Economic Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Winston P. Nagan
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This paper has a specific focus on the core foundation of New Economic Theory. That is, the focus on human capital and its implications for the theory and method of the new form of political economy. The central issue that is underlined is the importance of scientific and technological innovation and its necessary interdependence on global values and value analysis. The paper discusses the issue of scientific consciousness as a generator of technological value, and places scientific process at the heart of human consciousness. It discusses the complex interdependence of human relational subjectivity, scientific consciousness, and modern science. The paper draws attention to the problems of observation and participation, and the influence of modern quantum physics in drawing attention to aspects of human consciousness that go beyond the points of conventional science, and open up concern for the principle of non-locality. It explores human subjectivity in terms of the way in which “emotionalized behaviors” have effects on scientific objectivity. It also briefly touches on consciousness and its observable scientific role in the possible reconstruction of some aspects of reality. Mention is made of the Copenhagen perspective, the Many Worlds perspective, and the Penrose interpretation. These insights challenge us to explore human consciousness and innovation in economic organization. The discussion also brings in the principle of relational inter-subjectivity, emotion, and consciousness as a potential driver of human capital and value. In short, positive emotions can influence economic decision-making, as can negative emotions. These challenges stress the problem of human relational subjectivity, values, and technology as the tools to better understand the conflicts and potentials of human capital for New Economic Theory. The issue of value-analysis has both a descriptive and normative dimension. Both of these aspects raise important challenges
Exact multiple scattering theory of two-nucleus collisions including the Pauli principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurvitz, S.A.
1981-01-01
Exact equations for two-nucleus scattering are derived in which the effects of the Pauli principle are fully included. Our method exploits a modified equation for the scattering of two identical nucleons, which is obtained at the beginning. Considering proton-nucleus scattering we found that the resulting amplitude has two components, one resembling a multiple scattering series for distinguishable particles, and the other a distorted (A-1) nucleon cluster exchange. For elastic pA scattering the multiple scattering amplitude is found in the form of an optical potential expansion. We show that the Kerman-McManus-Thaler theory of the optical potential could be easily modified to include the effects of antisymmetrization of the projectile with the target nucleons. Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied first for distinguishable target and beam nucleus. Afterwards the Pauli principle is included, where only the case of deuteron-nucleus scattering is discussed in detail. The resulting amplitude has four components. Two of them correspond to modified multiple scattering expansions and the others are distorted (A-1)- and (A-2)- nucleon cluster exchange. The result for d-A scattering is extended to the general case of nucleus-nucleus scattering. The equations are simple to use and as such constitute an improvement over existing schemes
First-principles Theory of Magnetic Multipoles in Condensed Matter Systems
Suzuki, Michi-To; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Oppeneer, Peter M.
2018-04-01
The multipole concept, which characterizes the spacial distribution of scalar and vector objects by their angular dependence, has already become widely used in various areas of physics. In recent years it has become employed to systematically classify the anisotropic distribution of electrons and magnetization around atoms in solid state materials. This has been fuelled by the discovery of several physical phenomena that exhibit unusual higher rank multipole moments, beyond that of the conventional degrees of freedom as charge and magnetic dipole moment. Moreover, the higher rank electric/magnetic multipole moments have been suggested as promising order parameters in exotic hidden order phases. While the experimental investigations of such anomalous phases have provided encouraging observations of multipolar order, theoretical approaches have developed at a slower pace. In particular, a materials' specific theory has been missing. The multipole concept has furthermore been recognized as the key quantity which characterizes the resultant configuration of magnetic moments in a cluster of atomic moments. This cluster multipole moment has then been introduced as macroscopic order parameter for a noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure in crystals that can explain unusual physical phenomena whose appearance is determined by the magnetic point group symmetry. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the recent developments in the first-principles theory investigating multipolar degrees of freedom in condensed matter systems. These recent developments exemplify that ab initio electronic structure calculations can unveil detailed insight in the mechanism of physical phenomena caused by the unconventional, multipole degree of freedom.
Dinneen, Nathan
2013-01-01
This paper addresses the distinction, arising from the different ways the European Union and United States have come to adopt precaution regarding various environmental and health-related risks, between the precautionary principle and the precautionary approach in both theory and practice. First, this paper addresses how the precautionary principle has been variously defined, along with an exploration of some of the concepts with which it has been associated. Next, it addresses how the distinction between the precautionary principle and precautionary approach manifested itself within the political realm. Last, it considers the theoretical foundation of the precautionary principle in the philosophy of Hans Jonas, considering whether the principled-pragmatic distinction regarding precaution does or doesn't hold up in Jonas' thought.
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2016-01-01
The book considers foundational thinking in quantum theory, focusing on the role the fundamental principles and principle thinking there, including thinking that leads to the invention of new principles, which is, the book contends, one of the ultimate achievements of theoretical thinking in physics and beyond. The focus on principles, prominent during the rise and in the immediate aftermath of quantum theory, has been uncommon in more recent discussions and debates concerning it. The book argues, however, that exploring the fundamental principles and principle thinking is exceptionally helpful in addressing the key issues at stake in quantum foundations and the seemingly interminable debates concerning them. Principle thinking led to major breakthroughs throughout the history of quantum theory, beginning with the old quantum theory and quantum mechanics, the first definitive quantum theory, which it remains within its proper (nonrelativistic) scope. It has, the book also argues, been equally important in qua...
Huang, Yu-tin; Johansson, Henrik
2013-04-26
We show that three-dimensional supergravity amplitudes can be obtained as double copies of either three-algebra super-Chern-Simons matter theory or two-algebra super-Yang-Mills theory when either theory is organized to display the color-kinematics duality. We prove that only helicity-conserving four-dimensional gravity amplitudes have nonvanishing descendants when reduced to three dimensions, implying the vanishing of odd-multiplicity S-matrix elements, in agreement with Chern-Simons matter theory. We explicitly verify the double-copy correspondence at four and six points for N = 12,10,8 supergravity theories and discuss its validity for all multiplicity.
High-Performance First-Principles Molecular Dynamics for Predictive Theory and Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gygi, Francois [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Galli, Giulia [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-12-03
This project focused on developing high-performance software tools for First-Principles Molecular Dynamics (FPMD) simulations, and applying them in investigations of materials relevant to energy conversion processes. FPMD is an atomistic simulation method that combines a quantum-mechanical description of electronic structure with the statistical description provided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This reliance on fundamental principles allows FPMD simulations to provide a consistent description of structural, dynamical and electronic properties of a material. This is particularly useful in systems for which reliable empirical models are lacking. FPMD simulations are increasingly used as a predictive tool for applications such as batteries, solar energy conversion, light-emitting devices, electro-chemical energy conversion devices and other materials. During the course of the project, several new features were developed and added to the open-source Qbox FPMD code. The code was further optimized for scalable operation of large-scale, Leadership-Class DOE computers. When combined with Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) calculations, this infrastructure was used to investigate structural and electronic properties of liquid water, ice, aqueous solutions, nanoparticles and solid-liquid interfaces. Computing both ionic trajectories and electronic structure in a consistent manner enabled the simulation of several spectroscopic properties, such as Raman spectra, infrared spectra, and sum-frequency generation spectra. The accuracy of the approximations used allowed for direct comparisons of results with experimental data such as optical spectra, X-ray and neutron diffraction spectra. The software infrastructure developed in this project, as applied to various investigations of solids, liquids and interfaces, demonstrates that FPMD simulations can provide a detailed, atomic-scale picture of structural, vibrational and electronic properties of complex systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.B.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the local quantum field theory of free fields allows only the generalizations of the conventional quantizations (corresponding to the Fermi and Bose statistics) that correspond to the para-Fermi and para-Bose statistics and does not permit ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle
Darabi, Aubteen; Jin, Li
2013-01-01
This article focuses on heavy cognitive load as the reason for the lack of quality associated with conventional online discussion. Using the principles of cognitive load theory, four online discussion strategies were designed specifically aiming at reducing the discussants' cognitive load and thus enhancing the quality of their online discussion.…
Neural principles of memory and a neural theory of analogical insight
Lawson, David I.; Lawson, Anton E.
1993-12-01
Grossberg's principles of neural modeling are reviewed and extended to provide a neural level theory to explain how analogies greatly increase the rate of learning and can, in fact, make learning and retention possible. In terms of memory, the key point is that the mind is able to recognize and recall when it is able to match sensory input from new objects, events, or situations with past memory records of similar objects, events, or situations. When a match occurs, an adaptive resonance is set up in which the synaptic strengths of neurons are increased; thus a long term record of the new input is formed in memory. Systems of neurons called outstars and instars are presumably the underlying units that enable this to occur. Analogies can greatly facilitate learning and retention because they activate the outstars (i.e., the cells that are sampling the to-be-learned pattern) and cause the neural activity to grow exponentially by forming feedback loops. This increased activity insures the boost in synaptic strengths of neurons, thus causing storage and retention in long-term memory (i.e., learning).
Belderok, J J
1997-12-01
The situation in homes for the elderly and nursing homes is for the residents both alarming and tragic. Recent Dutch legislation supports the movement towards more self-determination and autonomy for the residents. The staff are dedicated to making the living situation as good as possible for the residents. Nevertheless many publications describe how the dependence and helplessness of the residents stil continue. In this paper this helplessness is placed within the broader framework of modern society by application of Habermas' theory of communicative action and Giddens' structuration theory. Both theories show that the key to improve dependent making structures should be sought principally in the behaviour of both staff and residents. Habermas offers a perspective to more equivalent communicative action between residents and staff. Giddens draws attention to the knowledgeability of residents, with which they should be able to interact on an equal basis with professionals. This presupposes much dedication of both staff and residents.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levi, Michele [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS-UMR 7095, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan, E-mail: michele.levi@upmc.fr, E-mail: jan.steinhoff@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2014-12-01
The next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 potential for an inspiralling binary, that is essential for accuracy to fourth post-Newtonian order, if both components in the binary are spinning rapidly, has been recently derived independently via the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches, using different gauges and variables. Here we show the complete physical equivalence of the two results, thereby we first prove the equivalence of the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order with the inclusion of spins. The main difficulty in the spinning sectors, which also prescribes the manner in which the comparison of the two results is tackled here, is the existence of redundant unphysical spin degrees of freedom, associated with the spin gauge choice of a point within the extended spinning object for its representative worldline. After gauge fixing and eliminating the unphysical degrees of freedom of the spin and its conjugate at the level of the action, we arrive at curved spacetime generalizations of the Newton-Wigner variables in closed form, which can also be used to obtain further Hamiltonians, based on an Effective Field Theory formulation and computation. Finally, we make use of our validated result to provide gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to fourth post-Newtonian order, including all known sectors up to date.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaehnert, Martin [MPIWG, Berlin (Germany)
2013-07-01
In 1922 Niels Bohr wrote a letter to Arnold Sommerfeld complaining that: ''[i]n the last years my attempts to develop the principles of quantum theory were met with very little understanding.'' Looking for the correspondence idea in publications, one finds that the principle was indeed hardly applied by physicists outside of Copenhagen. Only by 1922 physicists from wider research networks of quantum theory started to transfer the principle into their research fields, often far removed from its initial realm of atomic spectroscopy. How and why did physicists suddenly become interested in the idea that Bohr*s writings had been promoting since 1918? How was the correspondence principle transferred to these fields and how did its transfer affect these fields and likewise the correspondence principle itself? To discuss these questions, my talk focuses on the work of James Franck and Friedrich Hund on the Ramsauer effect in 1922 and follows the interrelation of the developing understanding of a newly found effect and the adaptation of the correspondence idea in a new conceptual and sociological context.
Milton, Kimball A
2015-01-01
Starting from the earlier notions of stationary action principles, these tutorial notes shows how Schwinger’s Quantum Action Principle descended from Dirac’s formulation, which independently led Feynman to his path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics. Part I brings out in more detail the connection between the two formulations, and applications are discussed. Then, the Keldysh-Schwinger time-cycle method of extracting matrix elements is described. Part II will discuss the variational formulation of quantum electrodynamics and the development of source theory.
Revisiting a theory of negotiation: the utility of Markiewicz (2005) proposed six principles.
McDonald, Diane
2008-08-01
their differences and be willing to move on. But the problem is that evaluators are not necessarily equipped with the technical or personal skills required for effective negotiation. In addition, the time and effort that are required to undertake this mediating role are often not sufficiently understood by those who commission a review. With such issues in mind Markiewicz, A. [(2005). A balancing act: Resolving multiple stakeholder interests in program evaluation. Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 4(1-2), 13-21] has proposed six principles upon which to build a case for negotiation to be integrated into the evaluation process. This paper critiques each of these principles in the context of an evaluation undertaken of a youth program. In doing so it challenges the view that stakeholder consensus is always possible if program improvement is to be achieved. This has led to some refinement and further extension of the proposed theory of negotiation that is seen to be instrumental to the role of an evaluator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John A.E. Vervaele
2005-12-01
Full Text Available The deepening and widening of European integration has led to an increase in transborder crime. Concurrent prosecution and sanctioning by several Member States is not only a problem in inter-state relations and an obstacle in the European integration process, but also a violation of the ne bis in idem principle, defined as a transnational human right in a common judicial area. This article analyzes whether and to what extent the ECHR has contributed and may continue to contribute to the development of such a common ne bis in idem standard in Europe. It is also examined whether the application of the ne bis in idem principle in classic inter-state judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the framework of the Council of Europe may make such a contribution as well. The transnational function of the ne bis in idem principle is discussed in the light of the Court of Justice’s case law on ne bis in idem in the framework of the area of Freedom, Security and Justice. Finally the inherent tension between mutual recognition and the protection of human rights in transnational justice is analyzed by looking at the insertion of the ne bis in idem principle in the Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant.
Kvaal, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve
2015-11-14
The relationship between the densities of ground-state wave functions (i.e., the minimizers of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle) and the ground-state densities in density-functional theory (i.e., the minimizers of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle) is studied within the framework of convex conjugation, in a generic setting covering molecular systems, solid-state systems, and more. Having introduced admissible density functionals as functionals that produce the exact ground-state energy for a given external potential by minimizing over densities in the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle, necessary and sufficient conditions on such functionals are established to ensure that the Rayleigh-Ritz ground-state densities and the Hohenberg-Kohn ground-state densities are identical. We apply the results to molecular systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For any given potential v ∈ L(3/2)(ℝ(3)) + L(∞)(ℝ(3)), we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the mixed ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the mixed ground-state densities of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle when the Lieb density-matrix constrained-search universal density functional is taken as the admissible functional. A similar one-to-one correspondence is established between the pure ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the pure ground-state densities obtained using the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle with the Levy-Lieb pure-state constrained-search functional. In other words, all physical ground-state densities (pure or mixed) are recovered with these functionals and no false densities (i.e., minimizing densities that are not physical) exist. The importance of topology (i.e., choice of Banach space of densities and potentials) is emphasized and illustrated. The relevance of these results for current-density-functional theory is examined.
The Form of Law: Practical Principles and the Foundations of Kant’s Moral Theory
Reckner, William Leland
2017-01-01
Immanuel Kant argued that morality requires us to act on principles that we can will as universal laws. However, there has always been profound disagreement about how to apply this requirement, and about why this demand should be morally fundamental. This dissertation offers new answers to these questions by developing a deeper understanding of the “practical” principles that Kant wants us to be able to will as universal laws.My primary thesis is that practical principles state three things: ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars
2016-01-01
Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nashed, Gamal G. L.
2010-01-01
The energy–momentum tensor, which is coordinate-independent, is used to calculate energy, momentum and angular momentum of two different tetrad fields. Although, the two tetrad fields reproduce the same space-time their energies are different. Therefore, a regularized expression of the gravitational energy–momentum tensor of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR), is used to make the energies of the two tetrad fields equal. The definition of the gravitational energy–momentum is used to investigate the energy within the external event horizon. The components of angular momentum associated with these space–times are calculated. In spite of using a static space–time, we get a non-zero component of angular momentum! Therefore, we derive the Killing vectors associated with these space–times using the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the framework of the TEGR to make the picture more clear. (general)
Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes
2009-02-01
We derive a formal description of local light-ray rotation in terms of complex refractive indices. We show that Fermat's principle holds, and we derive an extended Snell's law. The change in the angle of a light ray with respect to the normal of a refractive index interface is described by the modulus of the refractive index ratio; the rotation around the interface normal is described by the argument of the refractive index ratio.
Variational formulation of two scalar-tetradic theories of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saez, D.
1983-01-01
In this paper we obtain two scalar-tetradic theories of gravitation (theories A and B) from a variational principle. In these theories the gravitational energy is localized and the principle of equivalence holds. They combine some aspects of Moller theory and the Brans-Dicke theory. The first-order approximations and an introduction to the study of both theories in the static spherically symmetric case are presented
Fischer, Alastair J.; Ghelardi, Gemma
2016-01-01
The precautionary principle (PP) has been used in the evaluation of the effectiveness and/or cost-effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent future harms in a range of activities, particularly in the area of the environment. Here, we provide details of circumstances under which the PP can be applied to the topic of harm reduction in Public Health. The definition of PP that we use says that the PP reverses the onus of proof of effectiveness between an intervention and its comparator when the intervention has been designed to reduce harm. We first describe the two frameworks used for health-care evaluation: evidence-based medicine (EBM) and decision theory (DT). EBM is usually used in treatment effectiveness evaluation, while either EBM or DT may be used in evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention of illness. For cost-effectiveness, DT is always used. The expectation in Public Health is that interventions employed to reduce harm will not actually increase harm, where “harm” in this context does not include opportunity cost. That implies that an intervention’s effectiveness can often be assumed. Attention should therefore focus on its cost-effectiveness. This view is consistent with the conclusions of DT. It is also very close to the PP notion of reversing the onus of proof, but is not consistent with EBM as normally practiced, where the onus is on showing a new practice to be superior to usual practice with a sufficiently high degree of certainty. Under our definitions, we show that where DT and the PP differ in their evaluation is in cost-effectiveness, but only for decisions that involve potential catastrophic circumstances, where the nation-state will act as if it is risk-averse. In those cases, it is likely that the state will pay more, and possibly much more, than DT would allow, in an attempt to mitigate impending disaster. That is, the rules that until now have governed all cost-effectiveness analyses are shown not to apply to catastrophic
Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice
Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Michail Giannakos
2014-01-01
There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1) engage the students with narrative (hero, story), 2) employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3) engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4) situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two...
Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian
2015-12-01
All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.
Szalma, James L
2014-12-01
Motivation is a driving force in human-technology interaction. This paper represents an effort to (a) describe a theoretical model of motivation in human technology interaction, (b) provide design principles and guidelines based on this theory, and (c) describe a sequence of steps for the. evaluation of motivational factors in human-technology interaction. Motivation theory has been relatively neglected in human factors/ergonomics (HF/E). In both research and practice, the (implicit) assumption has been that the operator is already motivated or that motivation is an organizational concern and beyond the purview of HF/E. However, technology can induce task-related boredom (e.g., automation) that can be stressful and also increase system vulnerability to performance failures. A theoretical model of motivation in human-technology interaction is proposed, based on extension of the self-determination theory of motivation to HF/E. This model provides the basis for both future research and for development of practical recommendations for design. General principles and guidelines for motivational design are described as well as a sequence of steps for the design process. Human motivation is an important concern for HF/E research and practice. Procedures in the design of both simple and complex technologies can, and should, include the evaluation of motivational characteristics of the task, interface, or system. In addition, researchers should investigate these factors in specific human-technology domains. The theory, principles, and guidelines described here can be incorporated into existing techniques for task analysis and for interface and system design.
Anomalous singularities in the complex Kohn variational principle of quantum scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucchese, R.R.
1989-01-01
Variational principles for symmetric complex scattering matrices (e.g., the S matrix or the T matrix) based on the Kohn variational principle have been thought to be free from anomalous singularities. We demonstrate that singularities do exist for these variational principles by considering single and multichannel model problems based on exponential interaction potentials. The singularities are found by considering simultaneous variations in two nonlinear parameters in the variational calculation (e.g., the energy and the cutoff function for the irregular continuum functions). The singularities are found when the cutoff function for the irregular continuum functions extends over a range of the radial coordinate where the square-integrable basis set does not have sufficient flexibility. Effects of these singularities generally should not appear in applications of the complex Kohn method where a fixed variational basis set is considered and only the energy is varied
Scaling theory put into practice: First-principles modeling of transport in doped silicon nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markussen, Troels; Rurali, R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2007-01-01
We combine the ideas of scaling theory and universal conductance fluctuations with density-functional theory to analyze the conductance properties of doped silicon nanowires. Specifically, we study the crossover from ballistic to diffusive transport in boron or phosphorus doped Si nanowires...
Houde, Joseph
2006-01-01
Andragogy, originally proposed by Malcolm Knowles, has been criticized as an atheoretical model. Validation of andragogy has been advocated by scholars, and this paper explores one method for that process. Current motivation theory, specifically socioemotional selectivity and self-determination theory correspond with aspects of andragogy. In…
Bussotti, Paolo
2015-01-01
This book presents new insights into Leibniz’s research on planetary theory and his system of pre-established harmony. Although some aspects of this theory have been explored in the literature, others are less well known. In particular, the book offers new contributions on the connection between the planetary theory and the theory of gravitation. It also provides an in-depth discussion of Kepler’s influence on Leibniz’s planetary theory and, more generally, on Leibniz’s concept of pre-established harmony. Three initial chapters presenting the mathematical and physical details of Leibniz’s works provide a frame of reference. The book then goes on to discuss research on Leibniz’s conception of gravity and the connection between Leibniz and Kepler. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhdanov, S.K.; Trubnikov, B.A.; Institut Atomnoi Energii, Moscow, USSR)
1986-01-01
A one-dimensional ideal gas with negative compressibility described by quasi-Chaplygin equations is discussed. Its reduction to a Laplace equation is shown, and an evolutionary principle for selecting spontaneous solutions is summarized. Three extremely simple spontaneous solutions are obtained along with multidimensional self-similar solutions. The Buneman instability in a plasma is considered as an example. 17 references
Owusu-Agyeman, Yaw; Larbi-Siaw, Otu
2017-01-01
This study argues that in developing a robust framework for students in a blended learning environment, Structural Alignment (SA) becomes the third principle of specialisation in addition to Epistemic Relation (ER) and Social Relation (SR). We provide an extended code: (ER+/-, SR+/-, SA+/-) that present strong classification and framing to the…
Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle in the theory of nonlinear elasticity with the combined approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sporykhin, A.N.
1995-01-01
The assignment of a portion of the edge conditions in the deformed state and a portion of them in the initial state so that the initial and deformed states of the body are unknowns is a characteristic feature of the statement of a number of technological problems. Haber and Haber and Abel have performed studies in this direction, where constitutive relationships have been constructed within the framework of a linearly elastic material. Use of the displacements of individual particles as variable parameters in these relationships has required additional conditions that do not follow from the formulated problem. Use of familiar variational principles described in Euler coordinates is rendered difficult by the complexity of edge-condition formulation in the special case when the initial state is unknown. The latter is governed by the fact that variational principles are derived from the initial formulations open-quotes in Lagrangian coordinates,close quotes by recalculating the operation functional. Using Lagrange's principle, Novikov and Sporykhin constructed constitutive equations in the general case of a nonlinearly elastic body with edge conditions assigned in different configurations. An analogous problem is solved in this paper using the Hamilton-Ostrogradsky principle
Mekios, Constantinos
2016-04-01
Twentieth-century theoretical efforts towards the articulation of general system properties came short of having the significant impact on biological practice that their proponents envisioned. Although the latter did arrive at preliminary mathematical formulations of such properties, they had little success in showing how these could be productively incorporated into the research agenda of biologists. Consequently, the gap that kept system-theoretic principles cut-off from biological experimentation persisted. More recently, however, simple theoretical tools have proved readily applicable within the context of systems biology. In particular, examples reviewed in this paper suggest that rigorous mathematical expressions of design principles, imported primarily from engineering, could produce experimentally confirmable predictions of the regulatory properties of small biological networks. But this is not enough for contemporary systems biologists who adopt the holistic aspirations of early systemologists, seeking high-level organizing principles that could provide insights into problems of biological complexity at the whole-system level. While the presented evidence is not conclusive about whether this strategy could lead to the realization of the lofty goal of a comprehensive explanatory integration, it suggests that the ongoing quest for organizing principles is pragmatically advantageous for systems biologists. The formalisms postulated in the course of this process can serve as bridges between system-theoretic concepts and the results of molecular experimentation: they constitute theoretical tools for generalizing molecular data, thus producing increasingly accurate explanations of system-wide phenomena.
Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
2014-09-01
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1 engage the students with narrative (hero, story, 2 employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3 engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4 situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two math video games targeted to primary education students. The gameplay of the math video games embeds addition operations in a seamless way, which has been inspired by that of classic platform games. In this way, the students are adding numbers as part of popular gameplay mechanics and as a means to reach the video game objective, rather than as an end in itself. The employment of well-defined principles in the design of math video games should facilitate the evaluation of learning effectiveness by researchers. Moreover, educators can deploy alternative versions of the games in order to engage students with diverse learning styles. For example, some students might be motived and benefited by narrative, while others by collaboration, because it is unlikely that one type of serious video game might fit all learning styles. The proposed principles are not meant to be an exhaustive list, but a starting point for extending the list and applying them in other cases of serious video games beyond mathematics and learning.
The precautionary principle and EMF: from the theory to the practice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lambrozo, J.
2002-01-01
In 1992 the United Nations Declaration on the Environment stated that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty will not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. Since this interpretation has been reaffirmed within numerous framework conventions and national environment law in a number of countries has begun to incorporate it. The contents of the precautionary principle: There are in fact two completely different ideas about the principle: the absolute: the precautionary principle would aim to guarantee complete harmless. The aim is zero risk and even a minimal suspicion of risk should result in a moratorium or a definitive ban, the moderate: its implementation is subject to a scientifically credible statement of hypothetical risk. It also gives priority to positive measures particularly research to provide a better assessment of the risk. In every case, before any decision a statement of cost and of advantages should be drawn up. The concept of prudent avoidance introduced in 1989 by G. Morgan and adopted by some states (Sweden, Australia) seems to be a specific application of the precautionary principle to EMF, taking into account the cost of the policy. The EMF research: After more than 20 years of research (epidemiological residential and professional studies, in vitro studies and laboratory animal studies) the scientific uncertainty has been considerably reduced but the possibility of some adverse effects remains. This fact and the public concern about EMF (partly explained by the ubiquity of exposure) explain the temptations in applying the precautionary principle to the EMF issue
In search of a principled theory of the 'value' of knowledge.
Castelfranchi, Cristiano
2016-01-01
A theory of the Value/Utility of information and knowledge (K) is not really there. This would require a theory of the centrality of Goals in minds, and of the role of K relative to Goals and their dynamics. K value is a notion relative to Goal value. Inf/K is precisely a resource, a means and the value of means depends on the value of their possible functions and uses. The claim of this paper is that Ks have a Value and Utility, they can be more or less 'precious'; they have a cost and imply some risks; they can be not only useful but negative and dangerous. We also examine the 'quality' of this resource: its reliability; and its crucial role in goal processing: activating goals, abandoning, choosing, planning, formulating intentions, decide to act. 'Relevance theory', Information theory, Epistemic Utility theory, etc. are not enough for providing a theory of the Value/Utility of K. And also truthfulness is not 'the' Value of K. Even true information can be noxious for the subject.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, M.
1988-01-01
We present an entirely new approach to closed-string field theory, called Igeometric string field theory R, which avoids the complications found in Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin string field theory (e.g., ghost counting, infinite overcounting of diagrams, midpoints, lack of modular invariance). Following the analogy with general relativity and Yang-Mills theory, we define a new infinite-dimensional local gauge group, called the unified string group, which uniquely specifies the connection fields, the curvature tensor, the measure and tensor calculus, and finally the action itself. Geometric field theory, when gauge fixed, yields an entirely new class of gauges called the interpolating gauge which allows us to smoothly interpolate between the midpoint gauge and the end-point gauge (''covariantized light-cone gauge''). We can show that geometric string field theory reproduces one copy of the Shapiro-Virasoro model. Surprisingly, after the gauge is broken, a new Iclosed four-string interactionR emerges as the counterpart of the instantaneous four-fermion Coulomb term in QED. This term restores modular invariance and precisely fills the missing region of the complex plane
Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W
2004-01-01
The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.
Theory of group extension, Shubnikov-Curie principle and phase transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koptsik, V.A.; Talis, A.L.
1983-01-01
It is shown, that the generalized Curie principle (GCP) is the principle of nondecreasing abstract symmetry under structural transformations in (quasi) isolated physical systems. Asymmetry of such systems at any structural level is compensated by their symmetrization at another one, transformation of the old and appearance of qualitatively new symmetries. A corresponding situation is preserved also at the description level (mathematical simulation) of physical systems. Structural levels of substance arrangement and forms of connection between them, reflected by the Shubnikov-Curie (SCP) and GCP are inexhaustible. With the discovery of new structural levels and new forms of relations between them can be discovered and new forms of SCP, which can not be exhausted in the given work
Using the IRPA Guiding Principles on Stakeholder Engagement: putting theory into practice.
Jones, C Rick
2011-11-01
The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) published their Guiding Principles for Radiation Protection Professionals on Stakeholder Engagement in February 2009. The publication of this document is the culmination of four years of work by the Spanish Society for Radiological Protection, the French Society of Radioprotection, the United Kingdom Society of Radiological Protection, and the IRPA organization, with full participation by the Italian Associate Society and the Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health. The Guiding Principles provide field-tested and sound counsel to the radiation protection profession to aid it in successfully engaging with stakeholders in decision-making processes that result in mutually agreeable and sustainable decisions. Stakeholders in the radiation protection decision making process are now being recognized as a spectrum of individuals and organizations specific to the situation. It is also important to note that stakeholder engagement is not needed or advised in all decision making situations, although it has been shown to be a tool of first choice in dealing with such topics as intervention and chronic exposure situations, as well as situations that have reached an impasse using traditional approaches to decision-making. To enhance the contribution of the radiation protection profession, it is important for radiation protection professionals and their national professional societies to embrace and implement the IRPA Guiding Principles in a sustainable way by making them a cornerstone of their operations and an integral part of day-to-day activities.
Tsyshevsky, Roman V; Sharia, Onise; Kuklja, Maija M
2016-02-19
This review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation initiation theory in a widely agreed upon form. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical methods allow for a constructive and rigorous approach to design and test the theory or at least some of its fundamental building blocks. In this review, we analyzed a set of select experimental and theoretical articles, which were augmented by our own first principles modeling and simulations, to reveal new trends in energetic materials and to refine known existing correlations between their structures, properties, and functions. Our consideration is intentionally limited to the processes of thermally stimulated chemical reactions at the earliest stage of decomposition of molecules and materials containing defects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman V. Tsyshevsky
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation initiation theory in a widely agreed upon form. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical methods allow for a constructive and rigorous approach to design and test the theory or at least some of its fundamental building blocks. In this review, we analyzed a set of select experimental and theoretical articles, which were augmented by our own first principles modeling and simulations, to reveal new trends in energetic materials and to refine known existing correlations between their structures, properties, and functions. Our consideration is intentionally limited to the processes of thermally stimulated chemical reactions at the earliest stage of decomposition of molecules and materials containing defects.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴安民
2003-01-01
The purpose is to reestablish the coupled conservation laws, the local conservation equations and the jump conditions of mass and inertia for polar continuum theories. In this connection the new material derivatives of the deformation gradient, the line element, the surface element and the volume element were derived and the generalized Reynolds transport theorem was presented. Combining these conservation laws of mass and inertia with the balance laws of momentum, angular momentum and energy derived in our previous papers of this series, a rather complete system of coupled basic laws and principles for polar continuum theories is constituted on the whole. From this system the coupled nonlocal balance equations of mass, inertia, momentum, angular momentum and energy may be obtained by the usual localization.
Lattice instability and martensitic transformation in LaAg predicted from first-principles theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vaitheeswaran, G.; Kanchana, V.; Zhang, X.
2012-01-01
The electronic structure, elastic constants and lattice dynamics of the B2 type intermetallic compound LaAg are studied by means of density functional theory calculations with the generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation. The calculated equilibrium properties and elastic......, calculated using density functional perturbation theory, are in good agreement with available inelastic neutron scattering data. Under pressure, the phonon dispersions develop imaginary frequencies, starting at around 2.3 GPa, in good accordance with the martensitic instability observed above 3.4 GPa...
Two theorems on flat space-time gravitational theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castagnino, M.; Chimento, L.
1980-01-01
The first theorem states that all flat space-time gravitational theories must have a Lagrangian with a first term that is an homogeneous (degree-1) function of the 4-velocity usup(i), plus a functional of nsub(ij)usup(i)usup(j). The second theorem states that all gravitational theories that satisfy the strong equivalence principle have a Lagrangian with a first term gsub(ij)(x)usup(i)usup(j) plus an irrelevant term. In both cases the theories must issue from a unique variational principle. Therefore, under this condition it is impossible to find a flat space-time theory that satisfies the strong equivalence principle. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2009-01-01
We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makkonen, I.; Rauch, C.; Mäki, J.-M.; Tuomisto, F.
2012-01-01
The Doppler broadening of the positron annihilation radiation contains information on the chemical environment of vacancy defects trapping positrons in solids. The measured signal can, for instance, reveal impurity atoms situated next to vacancies. As compared to integrated quantities such as the positron annihilation rate or the annihilation line shape parameters, the full Doppler spectrum measured in the coincidence mode contains much more useful information for defect identification. This information, however, is indirect and complementary understanding is needed to fully interpret the results. First-principles calculations are a valuable tool in the analysis of measured spectra. One can construct an atomic-scale model for a given candidate defect, calculate from first principles the corresponding Doppler spectrum, and directly compare results between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss recent examples of successful combinations of coincidence Doppler broadening measurements and supporting first-principles calculations. These demonstrate the predictive power of state-of-the-art calculations and the usefulness of such an approach in the chemical analysis of vacancy defects.
Coexistence of different vacua in the effective quantum field theory and multiple point principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volovik, G.E.
2004-01-01
According to the multiple point principle our Universe in on the coexistence curve of two or more phases of the quantum vacuum. The coexistence of different quantum vacua can be regulated by the exchange of the global fermionic charges between the vacua. If the coexistence is regulated by the baryonic charge, all the coexisting vacua exhibit the baryonic asymmetry. Due to the exchange of the baryonic charge between the vacuum and matter which occurs above the electroweak transition, the baryonic asymmetry of the vacuum induces the baryonic asymmetry of matter in our Standard-Model phase of the quantum vacuum [ru
Bardsley, N.; Ule, A.
It is well-established that people can coordinate their behaviour on focal points in games with multiple equilibria, but it is not firmly established how. Much coordination game data might be explained by team reasoning, a departure from individualistic choice theory. However, a less exotic
Baltussen, H.A.; Sandra, P.J.F.; David, F.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.
1999-01-01
The theory and practice of a novel approach for sample enrichment, namely the application of stir bars coated with the sorbent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and referred to as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) are presented. Stir bars with a length of 10 and 40 mm coated with 55 and 219 L of PDMS
Aspects of psychoanalytic theory: drives, defense, and the pleasure-unpleasure principle.
Brenner, Charles
2008-07-01
Freud explained certain fundamentally important aspects of mental motivation by assuming the existence of two drives, one libidinal and the other aggressive/destructive. Elements of this theory that seem invalid are identified and discussed, and revisions are proposed that appear to have more validity and greater clinical usefulness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda Diaz, L. J.
2016-01-01
Using an optical system comprising a light source to semiconductor, two collimating lenses, one rotating polarizer, two focusing lenses and an electronic circuit mounted amplifiers based on operational, two pulse outputs of variable width is obtained according to the orientation of the plane of polarized light incident on the lenses coplanar standing together with the electronic circuit inside the optoelectronic head. The difference between the width of both pulses is equivalent to the amount has rotated the plane of polarization and is calculated by the use and programming of a PIC and displayed on an alphanumeric LCD. the result of the measurements are shown performed well plates that you can see the change in the value on the LCD to rotate the polarizer. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michele Campagna
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Geodesign is a trans-disciplinary concept emerging in a growing debate among scholars in North America, Europe and Asia with the aim of bridging the gap between landscape architecture, spatial planning and design, and Geographic Information Science. The concept entails the application of methods and techniques for planning sustainable development in an integrated process, from project conceptualization to analysis, simulation and evaluation, from scenario design to impact assessment, in a process including stakeholder participation and collaboration in decision-making strongly relaying on the use of digital information technologies. As such, the concept may be not entirely new. However, it is argued here, its application have not reached expected results so far. Hence, more research is needed in order to better understand methodological, technical, organizational, professional and institutional issues for a fruitful application of Geodesign principles and method in the practices. In line with the above assumptions, this paper is aimed at supplying early critical insights as a contribution towards a clearer understanding of the relationships between Geodesign concepts and planning regulations. The auspice with this first endeavour along this research issue is to make a more explicit and robust link between policy principles and planning, design and decision-making methods and tools, possibly as a small contribution to bring innovation in the planning education, governance and practice.
Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Fong, Soon Fook
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of modality and redundancy principles on the attitude and learning of music theory among primary pupils of different aptitudes in Jordan. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The…
Greer, Diana L.; Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Woods, Kari L.
2013-01-01
Struggling learners and students with Learning Disabilities often exhibit unique cognitive processing and working memory characteristics that may not align with instructional design principles developed with typically developing learners. This paper explains the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning and underlying Cognitive Load Theory, and…
Theory and experiment in gravitational physics
Will, C. M.
New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.
Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases
Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana
2017-01-01
Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...
Inelastic transport theory from first principles: Methodology and application to nanoscale devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Thomas; Paulsson, Magnus; Brandbyge, Mads
2007-01-01
the density-functional codes SIESTA and TRANSIESTA that use atomic basis sets. The inelastic conductance characteristics are calculated using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism, and the electron-phonon interaction is addressed with perturbation theory up to the level of the self-consistent Born...... approximation. While these calculations often are computationally demanding, we show how they can be approximated by a simple and efficient lowest order expansion. Our method also addresses effects of energy dissipation and local heating of the junction via detailed calculations of the power flow. We...... the inelastic current through different hydrocarbon molecules between gold electrodes. Both for the wires and the molecules our theory is in quantitative agreement with experiments, and characterizes the system-specific mode selectivity and local heating....
Lorenz, David Philipp
2006-01-01
This dissertation is an exploration into the fields of sustainable development, property investment and valuation. It investigates the rationale for immediately and rigorously integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and proposes theoretical and practical options for valuers on how to address sustainability issues within valuation reports. It is argued that the perception of property as a commodity is changing to emphasize sustainable design features and p...
A New Monotone Iteration Principle in the Theory of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bapurao C. Dhage
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper the author proves the algorithms for the existence as well as approximations of the solutions for the initial value problems of nonlinear fractional diﬀerential equations using the operator theoretic techniques in a partially ordered metric space. The main results rely on the Dhage iteration principle embodied in the recent hybrid ﬁxed point theorems of Dhage (2014 in a partially ordered normed linear space and the existence and approximations of the solutions of the considered nonlinear fractional diﬀerential equations are obtained under weak mixed partial continuity and partial Lipschitz conditions. Our hypotheses and existence and approximation results are also well illustrated by some numerical examples.
Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.
1989-01-01
Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)
First-principles many-body theory for ultra-cold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drummond, Peter D.; Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji
2010-01-01
Recent breakthroughs in the creation of ultra-cold atoms in the laboratory have ushered in unprecedented changes in physical science. These enormous changes in the coldest temperatures available in the laboratory mean that many novel experiments are possible. There is unprecedented control and simplicity in these novel systems, meaning that quantum many-body theory is now facing severe challenges in quantitatively understanding these new results. We discuss some of the new experiments and recently developed theoretical techniques required to predict the results obtained.
First principles density functional theory study of Pb doped α-MnO2 catalytic materials
Song, Zilin; Yan, Zhiguo; Yang, Xiaojun; Bai, Hang; Duan, Yuhua; Yang, Bin; Leng, Li
2018-03-01
The impact of Pb in the tunnels of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves on chemical state of Mn species and lattice oxygen were investigated utilizing density functional theory calculations. The results show that the Pb dopant in the tunnels of OMS-2 could reduce the average valence states of Mn. The lower energy required for bulk oxygen defects formation in Pb-OMS-2 validates the activation of lattice oxygen by inclusion of tunnel dopant. The inclusion of Pb promotes the catalytic oxidation activity of OMS-2 by reducing the energy required for the surface lattice oxygen migration during the Mars - van Krevelen oxidation process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veltman, H.
1990-01-01
The equivalence theorem states that, at an energy E much larger than the vector-boson mass M, the leading order of the amplitude with longitudinally polarized vector bosons on mass shell is given by the amplitude in which these vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding Higgs ghosts. We prove the equivalence theorem and show its validity in every order in perturbation theory. We first derive the renormalized Ward identities by using the diagrammatic method. Only the Feynman-- 't Hooft gauge is discussed. The last step of the proof includes the power-counting method evaluated in the large-Higgs-boson-mass limit, needed to estimate the leading energy behavior of the amplitudes involved. We derive expressions for the amplitudes involving longitudinally polarized vector bosons for all orders in perturbation theory. The fermion mass has not been neglected and everything is evaluated in the region m f ∼M much-lt E much-lt m Higgs
Rotating model for the equivalence principle paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilkins, D.C.
1975-01-01
An idealized system is described in which two inertial frames rotate relative to one another. When a (scalar) dipole is locally at rest in one frame, a paradox arises as to whether or not it will radiate. Fluxes of energy and angular momentum and the time development of the system are discussed. Resolution of the paradox involves several unusual features, including (i) radiation by an unmoving charge, an effect discussed by Chitre, Price, and Sandberg, (ii) different power seen by relatively accelerated inertial observers, and (iii) radiation reaction due to gravitational backscattering of radiation, in agreement with the work of C. and B. DeWitt. These results are obtained, for the most part, without the complications of curved space--time
Runaway dilaton and equivalence principle violations
Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Veneziano, Gabriele; Damour, Thibault; Piazza, Federico; Veneziano, Gabriele
2002-01-01
In a recently proposed scenario, where the dilaton decouples while cosmologically attracted towards infinite bare string coupling, its residual interactions can be related to the amplitude of density fluctuations generated during inflation, and are large enough to be detectable through a modest improvement on present tests of free-fall universality. Provided it has significant couplings to either dark matter or dark energy, a runaway dilaton can also induce time-variations of the natural "constants" within the reach of near-future experiments.
Minimum current principle and variational method in theory of space charge limited flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rokhlenko, A. [Department of Mathematics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States)
2015-10-21
In spirit of the principle of least action, which means that when a perturbation is applied to a physical system, its reaction is such that it modifies its state to “agree” with the perturbation by “minimal” change of its initial state. In particular, the electron field emission should produce the minimum current consistent with boundary conditions. It can be found theoretically by solving corresponding equations using different techniques. We apply here the variational method for the current calculation, which can be quite effective even when involving a short set of trial functions. The approach to a better result can be monitored by the total current that should decrease when we on the right track. Here, we present only an illustration for simple geometries of devices with the electron flow. The development of these methods can be useful when the emitter and/or anode shapes make difficult the use of standard approaches. Though direct numerical calculations including particle-in-cell technique are very effective, but theoretical calculations can provide an important insight for understanding general features of flow formation and even sometimes be realized by simpler routines.
Sly, Krystal L; Conboy, John C
2017-06-01
A novel application of second harmonic correlation spectroscopy (SHCS) for the direct determination of molecular adsorption and desorption kinetics to a surface is discussed in detail. The surface-specific nature of second harmonic generation (SHG) provides an efficient means to determine the kinetic rates of adsorption and desorption of molecular species to an interface without interference from bulk diffusion, which is a significant limitation of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The underlying principles of SHCS for the determination of surface binding kinetics are presented, including the role of optical coherence and optical heterodyne mixing. These properties of SHCS are extremely advantageous and lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise (S/N) of the correlation data, increasing the sensitivity of the technique. The influence of experimental parameters, including the uniformity of the TEM00 laser beam, the overall photon flux, and collection time are also discussed, and are shown to significantly affect the S/N of the correlation data. Second harmonic correlation spectroscopy is a powerful, surface-specific, and label-free alternative to other correlation spectroscopic methods for examining surface binding kinetics.
Aiyoshi, Eitaro; Masuda, Kazuaki
On the basis of market fundamentalism, new types of social systems with the market mechanism such as electricity trading markets and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading markets have been developed. However, there are few textbooks in science and technology which present the explanation that Lagrange multipliers can be interpreted as market prices. This tutorial paper explains that (1) the steepest descent method for dual problems in optimization, and (2) Gauss-Seidel method for solving the stationary conditions of Lagrange problems with market principles, can formulate the mechanism of market pricing, which works even in the information-oriented modern society. The authors expect readers to acquire basic knowledge on optimization theory and algorithms related to economics and to utilize them for designing the mechanism of more complicated markets.
The Cooperative Principle: Is Grice’s Theory Suitable to Indonesian Language Culture?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agnes Herawati
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Article discussed how native speakers of Indonesian observed Grice’s maxims. One hundred conversations contributed in live talk show from varied Indonesia television channels were analysed. The results show that Grice’s maxims are fulfilled in many conversations. Nevertheless, in other situations, two kinds of non-fulfilment of the maxims are observed. First, the speaker deliberately exploits a maxim, which is suitable to Grice’s theory. Second, the speaker fails to observe but does not exploit a maxim, which leads to some interpretations of the cultural patterns of the Indonesian language: communicative politeness, high context culture and the needs of harmony in communication that are considered as the manifesting of Indonesian culture.
[The system theory of aging: methodological principles, basic tenets and applications].
Krut'ko, V N; Dontsov, V I; Zakhar'iashcheva, O V
2009-01-01
The paper deals with the system theory of aging constructed on the basis of present-day scientific methodology--the system approach. The fundamental cause for aging is discrete existence of individual life forms, i.e. living organisms which, from the thermodynamic point of view, are not completely open systems. The primary aging process (build-up of chaos and system disintegration of aging organism) obeys the second law of thermodynamics or the law of entropy increase in individual partly open systems. In living organisms the law is exhibited as synergy of four main aging mechanisms: system "pollution" of organism, loss of non-regenerative elements, accumulation of damages and deformations, generation of variability on all levels, and negative changes in regulation processes and consequent degradation of the organism systematic character. These are the general aging mechanisms; however, the regulatory mechanisms may be important equally for organism aging and search for ways to prolong active life.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Xue; ZHANG Yue; SHANG Jia-Xiang
2011-01-01
We choose a Si/Ge interface as a research object to investigate the infiuence of interface disorder on thermal boundary conductance. In the calculations, the diffuse mismatch model is used to study thermal boundary conductance between two non-metallic materials, while the phonon dispersion relationship is calculated by the first-principles density functional perturbation theory. The results show that interface disorder limits thermal transport. The increase of atomic spacing at the interface results in weakly coupled interfaces and a decrease in the thermal boundary conductance. This approach shows a simplistic method to investigate the relationship between microstructure and thermal conductivity.%We choose a Si/Ge interface as a research object to investigate the influence of interface disorder on thermal boundary conductance.In the calculations,the diffuse mismatch model is used to study thermal boundary conductance between two non-metallic materials,while the phonon dispersion relationship is calculated by the first-principles density functional perturbation theory.The results show that interface disorder limits thermal transport.The increase of atomic spacing at the interface results in weakly coupled interfaces and a decrease in the thermal boundary conductance.This approach shows a simplistic method to investigate the relationship between microstructure and thermal conductivity.It is well known that interfaces can play a dominant role in the overall thermal transport characteristics of structures whose length scale is less than the phonon mean free path.When heat flows across an interface between two different materials,there exists a temperature jump at the interface.Thermal boundary conductance (TBC),which describes the efficiency of heat flow at material interfaces,plays an importance role in the transport of thermal energy in nanometerscale devices,semiconductor superlattices,thin film multilayers and nanocrystalline materials.[1
What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dappiaggi, Claudio [Erwin Schroedinger Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Wien (Austria); Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Porrmann, Martin [KwaZulu-Natal Univ. (South Africa). Quantum Research Group, School of Physics; National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Durban (South Africa)
2010-01-15
In the framework of the algebraic formulation, we discuss and analyse some new features of the local structure of a real scalar quantum field theory in a strongly causal spacetime. In particular we use the properties of the exponential map to set up a local version of a bulk-to-boundary correspondence. The bulk is a suitable subset of a geodesic neighbourhood of any but fixed point p of the underlying background, while the boundary is a part of the future light cone having p as its own tip. In this regime, we provide a novel notion for the extended *-algebra of Wick polynomials on the said cone and, on the one hand, we prove that it contains the information of the bulk counterpart via an injective *-homomorphism while, on the other hand, we associate to it a distinguished state whose pull-back in the bulk is of Hadamard form. The main advantage of this point of view arises if one uses the universal properties of the exponential map and of the light cone in order to show that, for any two given backgrounds M and M{sup '} and for any two subsets of geodesic neighbourhoods of two arbitrary points, it is possible to engineer the above procedure such that the boundary extended algebras are related via a restriction homomorphism. This allows for the pull-back of boundary states in both spacetimes and, thus, to set up a machinery which permits the comparison of expectation values of local field observables in M and M{sup '}. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola
2010-01-01
In the framework of the algebraic formulation, we discuss and analyse some new features of the local structure of a real scalar quantum field theory in a strongly causal spacetime. In particular we use the properties of the exponential map to set up a local version of a bulk-to-boundary correspondence. The bulk is a suitable subset of a geodesic neighbourhood of any but fixed point p of the underlying background, while the boundary is a part of the future light cone having p as its own tip. In this regime, we provide a novel notion for the extended *-algebra of Wick polynomials on the said cone and, on the one hand, we prove that it contains the information of the bulk counterpart via an injective *-homomorphism while, on the other hand, we associate to it a distinguished state whose pull-back in the bulk is of Hadamard form. The main advantage of this point of view arises if one uses the universal properties of the exponential map and of the light cone in order to show that, for any two given backgrounds M and M ' and for any two subsets of geodesic neighbourhoods of two arbitrary points, it is possible to engineer the above procedure such that the boundary extended algebras are related via a restriction homomorphism. This allows for the pull-back of boundary states in both spacetimes and, thus, to set up a machinery which permits the comparison of expectation values of local field observables in M and M ' . (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lange, Benjamin
2010-01-01
This paper presents a new method for doing a free-fall equivalence-principle (EP) experiment in a satellite at ambient temperature which solves two problems that have previously blocked this approach. By using large masses to change the gravity gradient at the proof masses, the orbit dynamics of a drag-free satellite may be changed in such a way that the experiment can mimic a free-fall experiment in a constant gravitational field on the earth. An experiment using a sphere surrounded by a spherical shell both completely unsupported and free falling has previously been impractical because (1) it is not possible to distinguish between a small EP violation and a slight difference in the semi-major axes of the orbits of the two proof masses and (2) the position difference in the orbit due to an EP violation only grows as t whereas the largest disturbance grows as t 3/2 . Furthermore, it has not been known how to independently measure the positions of a shell and a solid sphere with sufficient accuracy. The measurement problem can be solved by using a two-color transcollimator (see the main text), and since the radial-position-error and t-response problems arise from the earth's gravity gradient and not from its gravity field, one solution is to modify the earth's gravity gradient with local masses fixed in the satellite. Since the gravity gradient at the surface of a sphere, for example, depends only on its density, the gravity gradients of laboratory masses and of the earth unlike their fields are of the same order of magnitude. In a drag-free satellite spinning perpendicular to the orbit plane, two fixed spherical masses whose connecting line parallels the satellite spin axis can generate a dc gravity gradient at test masses located between them which cancels the combined gravity gradient of the earth and differential centrifugal force. With perfect cancellation, the position-error problem vanishes and the response grows as t 2 along a line which always points toward
Variational principles for locally variational forms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.
2005-01-01
We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues
Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity
González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2015-12-01
There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.
Rice, Ian; Gagnon, Dany; Gallagher, Jere; Boninger, Michael
2010-01-01
As considerable progress has been made in laboratory-based assessment of manual wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, the necessity to translate this knowledge into new clinical tools and treatment programs becomes imperative. The objective of this study was to describe the development of a manual wheelchair propulsion training program aimed to promote the development of an efficient propulsion technique among long-term manual wheelchair users. Motor learning theory principles were applied to the design of biomechanical feedback-based learning software, which allows for random discontinuous real-time visual presentation of key spatiotemporal and kinetic parameters. This software was used to train a long-term wheelchair user on a dynamometer during 3 low-intensity wheelchair propulsion training sessions over a 3-week period. Biomechanical measures were recorded with a SmartWheel during over ground propulsion on a 50-m level tile surface at baseline and 3 months after baseline. Training software was refined and administered to a participant who was able to improve his propulsion technique by increasing contact angle while simultaneously reducing stroke cadence, mean resultant force, peak and mean moment out of plane, and peak rate of rise of force applied to the pushrim after training. The proposed propulsion training protocol may lead to favorable changes in manual wheelchair propulsion technique. These changes could limit or prevent upper limb injuries among manual wheelchair users. In addition, many of the motor learning theory-based techniques examined in this study could be applied to training individuals in various stages of rehabilitation to optimize propulsion early on.
Equivalence, commensurability, value
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albertsen, Niels
2017-01-01
Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anas, M. M.; Othman, A. P.; Gopir, G.
2014-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT), as a first-principle approach has successfully been implemented to study nanoscale material. Here, DFT by numerical basis-set was used to study the quantum confinement effect as well as electronic properties of silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) in ground state condition. Selection of quantum dot models were studied intensively before choosing the right structure for simulation. Next, the computational result were used to examine and deduce the electronic properties and its density of state (DOS) for 14 spherical Si-QDs ranging in size up to ∼ 2 nm in diameter. The energy gap was also deduced from the HOMO-LUMO results. The atomistic model of each silicon QDs was constructed by repeating its crystal unit cell of face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, and reconstructed until the spherical shape obtained. The core structure shows tetrahedral (T d ) symmetry structure. It was found that the model need to be passivated, and hence it was noticed that the confinement effect was more pronounced. The model was optimized using Quasi-Newton method for each size of Si-QDs to get relaxed structure before it was simulated. In this model the exchange-correlation potential (V xc ) of the electrons was treated by Local Density Approximation (LDA) functional and Perdew-Zunger (PZ) functional
Liu, Gang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Hui
2017-06-14
Based on Grüneisen's theory, the elastic properties and thermal expansion of bulk SnSe with the Pnma phase are investigated by using first-principles calculations. Our numerical results indicate that the linear thermal expansion coefficient along the a direction is smaller than the one along the b direction, while the one along the c direction shows a significant negative value, even at high temperature. The numerical results are in good accordance with experimental results. In addition, generalized and macroscopic Grüneisen parameters are also presented. It is also found that SnSe possesses negative Possion's ratio. The contributions of different phonon modes to NTE along the c direction are investigated, and it is found that the two modes which make the most important contributions to NTE are transverse vibrations perpendicular to the c direction. Finally, we analyze the relation of elastic constants to negative thermal expansion, and demonstrate that negative thermal expansion can also occur even with all positive macroscopic Grüneisen parameters.
Juckett, D A; Rosenberg, B
1992-04-21
The distributions for human disease-specific mortality exhibit two striking characteristics: survivorship curves that intersect near the longevity limit; and, the clustering of best-fitting Weibull shape parameter values into groups centered on integers. Correspondingly, we have hypothesized that the distribution intersections result from either competitive processes or population partitioning and the integral clustering in the shape parameter results from the occurrence of a small number of rare, rate-limiting events in disease progression. In this report we initiate a theoretical examination of these questions by exploring serial chain model dynamics and parameteric competing risks theory. The links in our chain models are composed of more than one bond, where the number of bonds in a link are denoted the link size and are the number of events necessary to break the link and, hence, the chain. We explored chains with all links of the same size or with segments of the chain composed of different size links (competition). Simulations showed that chain breakage dynamics depended on the weakest-link principle and followed kinetics of extreme-values which were very similar to human mortality kinetics. In particular, failure distributions for simple chains were Weibull-type extreme-value distributions with shape parameter values that were identifiable with the integral link size in the limit of infinite chain length. Furthermore, for chains composed of several segments of differing link size, the survival distributions for the various segments converged at a point in the S(t) tails indistinguishable from human data. This was also predicted by parameteric competing risks theory using Weibull underlying distributions. In both the competitive chain simulations and the parametric competing risks theory, however, the shape values for the intersecting distributions deviated from the integer values typical of human data. We conclude that rare events can be the source of
Principles of nucleation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clement, C.F.; Wood, M.H.
1980-01-01
The nucleation of small stable species is described in the problem of void growth by discrete rate equations. When gas is being produced the problem reduces to one of calculating the incubation dose for the gas bubble to void transition. A general expression for the steady state nucleation rate is derived for the case when voids are formed by vacancy fluctuations which enable an effective nucleation barrier to be crossed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars
2016-01-01
training of mastoidectomy. Methods Eighteen novice medical students received 1 h of self-directed virtual reality simulation training of the mastoidectomy procedure randomized for standard instructions (control) or cognitive load theory-based instructions with a worked example followed by a problem......Background Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation....... Increased cognitive load when part tasks needed to be integrated in the post-training procedures could be a possible explanation for this. Other instructional designs and methods are needed to lower the cognitive load and improve the performance in virtual reality surgical simulation training of novices....
Hu, Hang; Reven, Linda; Rey, Alejandro
2013-10-17
The structure and mechanical properties of gold nanorods and their interactions with alkenthiolate self-assembled monolayers have been determined using a novel first-principle density functional theory simulation approach. The multifaceted, 1-dimensional, octagonal nanorod has alternate Au100 and Au110 surfaces. The structural optimization of the gold nanorods was performed with a mixed basis: the outermost layer of gold atoms used double-ζ plus polarization (DZP), the layer below used double-ζ (DZ), and the inner layers used single-ζ (SZ). The final structure compares favorably with simulations using DZP for all atoms. Phonon dispersion calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) were used to establish the dynamic and thermal stability of the system. From the AIMD simulations it was found that the nanorod system will undergo significant surface reconstruction at 300 K. In addition, when subjected to mechanical stress in the axial direction, the nanorod responds as an orthotropic material, with uniform expansion along the radial direction. The Young's moduli are 207 kbar in the axial direction and 631 kbar in the radial direction. The binding of alkanethiolates, ranging from methanethiol to pentanethiol, caused formation of surface point defects on the Au110 surfaces. On the Au100 surfaces, the defects occurred in the inner layer, creating a small surface island. These defects make positive and negative concavities on the gold nanorod surface, which helps the ligand to achieve a more stable state. The simulation results narrowed significant knowledge gaps on the alkanethiolate adsorption process and on their mutual interactions on gold nanorods. The mechanical characterization offers a new dimension to understand the physical chemistry of these complex nanoparticles.
Matter tensor from the Hilbert variational principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandres, D. Jr.
1976-01-01
We consider the Hilbert variational principle which is conventionally used to derive Einstein's equations for the source-free gravitational field. We show that at least one version of the equivalence principle suggests an alternative way of performing the variation, resulting in a different set of Einstein equations with sources automatically present. This illustrates a technique which may be applied to any theory that is derived from a variational principle and that admits a gauge group. The essential point is that, if one first imposes a gauge condition and then performs the variation, one obtains field equations with source terms which do not appear if one first performs the variation and then imposes the gauge condition. A second illustration is provided by the variational principle conventionally used to derive Maxwell's equations for the source-free electromagnetic field. If one first imposes the Lorentz gauge condition and then performs the variation, one obtains Maxwell's equations with sources present
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2004-01-01
This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk
2015-01-01
Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....
Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawal, Prateek; Sundrum, Raman
2017-01-01
The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.
Small vacuum energy from small equivalence violation in scalar gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agrawal, Prateek [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sundrum, Raman [Department of Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-05-29
The theory of scalar gravity proposed by Nordström, and refined by Einstein and Fokker, provides a striking analogy to general relativity. In its modern form, scalar gravity appears as the low-energy effective field theory of the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry within a CFT, and is AdS/CFT dual to the original Randall-Sundrum I model, but without a UV brane. Scalar gravity faithfully exhibits several qualitative features of the cosmological constant problem of standard gravity coupled to quantum matter, and the Weinberg no-go theorem can be extended to this case as well. Remarkably, a solution to the scalar gravity cosmological constant problem has been proposed, where the key is a very small violation of the scalar equivalence principle, which can be elegantly formulated as a particular type of deformation of the CFT. In the dual AdS picture this involves implementing Goldberger-Wise radion stabilization where the Goldberger-Wise field is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson. In quantum gravity however, global symmetries protecting pNGBs are not expected to be fundamental. We provide a natural six-dimensional gauge theory origin for this global symmetry and show that the violation of the equivalence principle and the size of the vacuum energy seen by scalar gravity can naturally be exponentially small. Our solution may be of interest for study of non-supersymmetric CFTs in the spontaneously broken phase.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu-Kun Lin
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract: Symmetry is a measure of indistinguishability. Similarity is a continuous measure of imperfect symmetry. Lewis' remark that Ã¢Â€Âœgain of entropy means loss of informationÃ¢Â€Â defines the relationship of entropy and information. Three laws of information theory have been proposed. Labeling by introducing nonsymmetry and formatting by introducing symmetry are defined. The function L ( L=lnw, w is the number of microstates, or the sum of entropy and information, L=S+I of the universe is a constant (the first law of information theory. The entropy S of the universe tends toward a maximum (the second law law of information theory. For a perfect symmetric static structure, the information is zero and the static entropy is the maximum (the third law law of information theory. Based on the Gibbs inequality and the second law of the revised information theory we have proved the similarity principle (a continuous higher similarityÃ¢ÂˆÂ’higher entropy relation after the rejection of the Gibbs paradox and proved the Curie-Rosen symmetry principle (a higher symmetryÃ¢ÂˆÂ’higher stability relation as a special case of the similarity principle. The principles of information minimization and potential energy minimization are compared. Entropy is the degree of symmetry and information is the degree of nonsymmetry. There are two kinds of symmetries: dynamic and static symmetries. Any kind of symmetry will define an entropy and, corresponding to the dynamic and static symmetries, there are static entropy and dynamic entropy. Entropy in thermodynamics is a special kind of dynamic entropy. Any spontaneous process will evolve towards the highest possible symmetry, either dynamic or static or both. Therefore the revised information theory can be applied to characterizing all kinds of structural stability and process spontaneity. Some examples in chemical physics have been given. Spontaneous processes of all kinds of molecular
Magadzire, Bvudzai Priscilla; Marchal, Bruno; Mathys, Tania; Laing, Richard O; Ward, Kim
2017-12-04
Centralized dispensing of essential medicines is one of South Africa's strategies to address the shortage of pharmacists, reduce patients' waiting times and reduce over-crowding at public sector healthcare facilities. This article reports findings of an evaluation of the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) in one province. The objectives of this process evaluation were to: (1) compare what was planned versus the actual implementation and (2) establish the causal elements and contextual factors influencing implementation. This qualitative study employed key informant interviews with the intervention's implementers (clinicians, managers and the service provider) [N = 40], and a review of policy and program documents. Data were thematically analyzed by identifying the main influences shaping the implementation process. Theory-driven evaluation principles were applied as a theoretical framework to explain implementation dynamics. The overall participants' response about the CDU was positive and the majority of informants concurred that the establishment of the CDU to dispense large volumes of medicines is a beneficial strategy to address healthcare barriers because mechanical functions are automated and distribution of medicines much quicker. However, implementation was influenced by the context and discrepancies between planned activities and actual implementation were noted. Procurement inefficiencies at central level caused medicine stock-outs and affected CDU activities. At the frontline, actors were aware of the CDU's implementation guidelines regarding patient selection, prescription validity and management of non-collected medicines but these were adapted to accommodate practical realities and to meet performance targets attached to the intervention. Implementation success was a result of a combination of 'hardware' (e.g. training, policies, implementation support and appropriate infrastructure) and 'software' (e.g. ownership, cooperation between healthcare
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tommaso Ruggeri
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We discuss the different roles of the entropy principle in modern thermodynamics. We start with the approach of rational thermodynamics in which the entropy principle becomes a selection rule for physical constitutive equations. Then we discuss the entropy principle for selecting admissible discontinuous weak solutions and to symmetrize general systems of hyperbolic balance laws. A particular attention is given on the local and global well-posedness of the relative Cauchy problem for smooth solutions. Examples are given in the case of extended thermodynamics for rarefied gases and in the case of a multi-temperature mixture of fluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hes Tomáš
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Microfinance services are essential tools of formalization of shadow economics, leveraging immature entrepreneurship with external capital. Given the importance of shadow economics for the social balance of developing countries, the importance of an answer to a question of how microfinance entities come into existence, is rather essential. While decision-taking process leading to entrepreneurship were explained by the effectuation theory developed in the 90’, these explanations were not concerned with the logics of creation of microenterprises in neither developing countries nor microfinance village banks. While the abovementioned theories explain the nascence of companies in environment of developed markets, importance of a focus on emerging markets related to large share of human society of microfinance clientele is obvious. The study provides a development streak to the effectuation Theory, adding the musketeer principle to the five effectuation principles proposed by Sarasvathy. Furthermore, the hitherto not considered relationship between social capital and effectuation related concepts is another proposal of the paper focusing on description of the nature of microfinance clientele from the point of view of effectuation theory and social capital drawing a comparison of microfinance markets in four countries, Turkey, Sierra Leone, Indonesia and Afghanistan.
The principle of general tovariance
Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.
2008-01-01
We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance
Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle
Gu, Jie
2013-01-01
One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.
Svenson, Eric Johan
Participants on the Invincible America Assembly in Fairfield, Iowa, and neighboring Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa, practicing Maharishi Transcendental Meditation(TM) (TM) and the TM-Sidhi(TM) programs in large groups, submitted written experiences that they had had during, and in some cases shortly after, their daily practice of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs. Participants were instructed to include in their written experiences only what they observed and to leave out interpretation and analysis. These experiences were then read by the author and compared with principles and phenomena of modern physics, particularly with quantum theory, astrophysics, quantum cosmology, and string theory as well as defining characteristics of higher states of consciousness as described by Maharishi Vedic Science. In all cases, particular principles or phenomena of physics and qualities of higher states of consciousness appeared qualitatively quite similar to the content of the given experience. These experiences are presented in an Appendix, in which the corresponding principles and phenomena of physics are also presented. These physics "commentaries" on the experiences were written largely in layman's terms, without equations, and, in nearly every case, with clear reference to the corresponding sections of the experiences to which a given principle appears to relate. An abundance of similarities were apparent between the subjective experiences during meditation and principles of modern physics. A theoretic framework for understanding these rich similarities may begin with Maharishi's theory of higher states of consciousness provided herein. We conclude that the consistency and richness of detail found in these abundant similarities warrants the further pursuit and development of such a framework.
Jafari, Peyman; Sharafi, Zahra; Bagheri, Zahra; Shalileh, Sara
2014-06-01
Measurement equivalence is a necessary assumption for meaningful comparison of pediatric quality of life rated by children and parents. In this study, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is used to examine whether children and their parents respond consistently to the items in the KINDer Lebensqualitätsfragebogen (KINDL; in German, Children Quality of Life Questionnaire). Two DIF detection methods, graded response model (GRM) and ordinal logistic regression (OLR), were applied for comparability. The KINDL was completed by 1,086 school children and 1,061 of their parents. While the GRM revealed that 12 out of the 24 items were flagged with DIF, the OLR identified 14 out of the 24 items with DIF. Seven items with DIF and five items without DIF were common across the two methods, yielding a total agreement rate of 50 %. This study revealed that parent proxy-reports cannot be used as a substitute for a child's ratings in the KINDL.
Ivaska, A
1974-06-01
A new approach to shorten the time needed for an acid-base titration has been made. The method developed is based on the equation for acid-base titrations derived by Ingman and Still. The equation is transformed into such a form that only one titration point is needed to calculate the equivalence volume when the titration is carried out to a preset pH which can be chosen according to the experimental conditions. The method is used for titration of acetic acid, log K(H)(HA) = 4.65, hydroxylammonium ion, log K(H)(HA) approximately 6.2, and boric acid, log K(H)(HA) approximately 9.1, with an error of 0.1-0.5%. In titration of hydrogen ascorbate ion, log K(H)(HA) approximately 11.3, the error obtained was about 0.3-2%.
A generalized Principle of Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felice, Fernando de; Preti, Giovanni
2009-01-01
The Theory of Relativity stands as a firm groundstone on which modern physics is founded. In this paper we bring to light an hitherto undisclosed richness of this theory, namely its admitting a consistent reformulation which is able to provide a unified scenario for all kinds of particles, be they lightlike or not. This result hinges on a generalized Principle of Relativity which is intrinsic to Einstein's theory - a fact which went completely unnoticed before. The road leading to this generalization starts, in the very spirit of Relativity, from enhancing full equivalence between the four spacetime directions by requiring full equivalence between the motions along these four spacetime directions as well. So far, no measurable spatial velocity in the direction of the time axis has ever been defined, on the same footing of the usual velocities - the 'space-velocities' - in the local three-space of a given observer. In this paper, we show how Relativity allows such a 'time-velocity' to be defined in a very natural way, for any particle and in any reference frame. As a consequence of this natural definition, it also follows that the time- and space-velocity vectors sum up to define a spacelike 'world-velocity' vector, the modulus of which - the world-velocity - turns out to be equal to the Maxwell's constant c, irrespective of the observer who measures it. This measurable world-velocity (not to be confused with the space-velocities we are used to deal with) therefore represents the speed at which all kinds of particles move in spacetime, according to any observer. As remarked above, the unifying scenario thus emerging is intrinsic to Einstein's Theory; it extends the role traditionally assigned to Maxwell's constant c, and can therefore justly be referred to as 'a generalized Principle of Relativity'.
de Lusignan, Simon; Krause, Paul
2010-01-01
There has been much criticism of the NHS national programme for information technology (IT); it has been an expensive programme and some elements appear to have achieved little. The Hayes report was written as an independent review of health and social care IT in England. To identify key principles for health IT implementation which may have relevance beyond the critique of NHS IT. We elicit ten principles from the Hayes report, which if followed may result in more effective IT implementation in health care. They divide into patient-centred, subsidiarity and strategic principles. The patient-centred principles are: 1) the patient must be at the centre of all information systems; 2) the provision of patient-level operational data should form the foundation - avoid the dataset mentality; 3) store health data as close to the patient as possible; 4) enable the patient to take a more active role with their health data within a trusted doctor-patient relationship. The subsidiarity principles set out to balance the local and health-system-wide needs: 5) standardise centrally - patients must be able to benefit from interoperability; 6) provide a standard procurement package and an approved process that ensures safety standards and provision of interoperable systems; 7) authorise a range of local suppliers so that health providers can select the system best meeting local needs; 8) allow local migration from legacy systems, as and when improved functionality for patients is available. And finally the strategic principles: 9) evaluate health IT systems in terms of measureable benefits to patients; 10) strategic planning of systems should reflect strategic goals for the health of patients/the population. Had the Hayes principles been embedded within our approach to health IT, and in particular to medical record implementation, we might have avoided many of the costly mistakes with the UK national programme. However, these principles need application within the modern IT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon de Lusignan
2010-06-01
Conclusions Had the Hayes principles been embedded within our approach to health IT, and in particular to medical record implementation, we might have avoided many of the costly mistakes with the UK national programme. However, these principles need application within the modern IT environment. Closeness to the patient must not be interpreted as physical but instead as a virtual patient-centred space; data will be secure within the cloud and we should dump the vault and infrastructure mentality. Health IT should be developed as an adaptive ecosystem.
Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero; Javier Marrero Acosta; Marco Antonio Moreira
2001-01-01
Following a discussion of Johnson-Laird's mental models theory, we report a study regarding high school students mental representations of cell, understood as mental models. Research findings suggest the appropriatedness of such a theory as a framework to interpret students' representations.
Hesselink, M.W.
2013-01-01
This short paper contains comments prepared for the 'Foundational Principles of Contract Law Roundtable’ held at Berkeley in January 2013. It discusses the relationships between contract law and democracy, between contract prices and human dignity, and between the American doctrine of
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten
2016-01-01
Cognitive overload can inhibit learning, and cognitive load theory-based instructional design principles can be used to optimize learning situations. This study aims to investigate the effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy. Eighteen novice medical students received 1 h of self-directed virtual reality simulation training of the mastoidectomy procedure randomized for standard instructions (control) or cognitive load theory-based instructions with a worked example followed by a problem completion exercise (intervention). Participants then completed two post-training virtual procedures for assessment and comparison. Cognitive load during the post-training procedures was estimated by reaction time testing on an integrated secondary task. Final-product analysis by two blinded expert raters was used to assess the virtual mastoidectomy performances. Participants in the intervention group had a significantly increased cognitive load during the post-training procedures compared with the control group (52 vs. 41 %, p = 0.02). This was also reflected in the final-product performance: the intervention group had a significantly lower final-product score than the control group (13.0 vs. 15.4, p virtual reality surgical simulation training of novices.
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino
2008-01-01
The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...
A variational principle for the plasma centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludwig, G.O.
1986-09-01
A variational principle is derived which describes the stationary state of the plasma column in a plasma centrifuge. Starting with the fluid equations in a rotating frame the theory is developed using the method of irreversible thermodynamics. This formulation easily leads to an expression for the density distribution of the l-species at sedimentation equilibrium, taking into account the effect of the electric and magnetic forces. Assuming stationary boundary conditions and rigid rotation nonequilibrium states the condition for thermodynamic stability integrated over the volume of the system reduces, under certain restrictions, to the principle of minimum entropy production in the stationary state. This principle yields a variational problem which is equivalent to the original problem posed by the stationary fluid equations. The variational method is useful in achieving approximate solutions that give the electric potential and current distributions in the rotating plasma column consistent with an assumed plasma density profile. (Author) [pt
Derived equivalences for group rings
König, Steffen
1998-01-01
A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.
System equivalent model mixing
Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis
2018-05-01
This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.
Saposnik, Gustavo; Johnston, S Claiborne
2016-04-01
Acute stroke care represents a challenge for decision makers. Decisions based on erroneous assessments may generate false expectations of patients and their family members, and potentially inappropriate medical advice. Game theory is the analysis of interactions between individuals to study how conflict and cooperation affect our decisions. We reviewed principles of game theory that could be applied to medical decisions under uncertainty. Medical decisions in acute stroke care are usually made under constrains: short period of time, with imperfect clinical information, limit understanding about patients and families' values and beliefs. Game theory brings some strategies to help us manage complex medical situations under uncertainty. For example, it offers a different perspective by encouraging the consideration of different alternatives through the understanding of patients' preferences and the careful evaluation of cognitive distortions when applying 'real-world' data. The stag-hunt game teaches us the importance of trust to strength cooperation for a successful patient-physician interaction that is beyond a good or poor clinical outcome. The application of game theory to stroke care may improve our understanding of complex medical situations and help clinicians make practical decisions under uncertainty. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.
1989-01-01
The author believes that the General Relativity Theory (GRT) suffers from a substantial deficiency since it ignors the fundamental laws of conservation of energy. Einstein neglected the classical concept of the field due to his belief in the truth of the principle of equivalence between forces of inertid gravitation. This equivalence leads, as the author says, to nonequivalence of these forces, making GRT logically contradictory from the physical point of view. The author considers GRT as a certain stage in the course of the study of space-time and gravitation, and suggests a new theory called the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which obeys the fundamental laws of conservation, and which is justified in some of its aspects by astronomical observations. RTG does not suffer from some deficiencies met in Einsteins theory. One is nonunique predictions of gravitation effects within the boundaries of the solar system. Also, RTG refuses some hypothesis as that of black holes. 7 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Oscar de Almeida Marques
2012-06-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT When Hume, in the Treatise on Human Nature, began his examination of the relation of cause and effect, in particular, of the idea of necessary connection which is its essential constituent, he identified two preliminary questions that should guide his research: (1 For what reason we pronounce it necessary that every thing whose existence has a beginning should also have a cause and (2 Why we conclude that such particular causes must necessarily have such particular effects? (1.3.2, 14-15 Hume observes that our belief in these principles can result neither from an intuitive grasp of their truth nor from a reasoning that could establish them by demonstrative means. In particular, with respect to the first, Hume examines and rejects some arguments with which Locke, Hobbes and Clarke tried to demonstrate it, and suggests, by exclusion, that the belief that we place on it can only come from experience. Somewhat surprisingly, however, Hume does not proceed to show how that derivation of experience could be made, but proposes instead to move directly to an examination of the second principle, saying that, "perhaps, be found in the end, that the same answer will serve for both questions" (1.3.3, 9. Hume's answer to the second question is well known, but the first question is never answered in the rest of the Treatise, and it is even doubtful that it could be, which would explain why Hume has simply chosen to remove any mention of it when he recompiled his theses on causation in the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. Given this situation, an interesting question that naturally arises is to investigate the relations of logical or conceptual implication between these two principles. Hume seems to have thought that an answer to (2 would also be sufficient to provide an answer to (1. Henry Allison, in his turn, argued (in Custom and Reason in Hume, p. 94-97 that the two questions are logically independent. My proposal here is to try to show
Tensor constructions of open string theories. I. Foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, M.R.; Zwiebach, B.
1997-01-01
The possible tensor constructions of open string theories are analyzed from first principles. To this end the algebraic framework of open string field theory is clarified, including the role of the homotopy associative A ∞ algebra, the odd symplectic structure, cyclicity, star conjugation, and twist. It is also shown that two string theories are off-shell equivalent if the corresponding homotopy associative algebras are homotopy equivalent in a strict sense. It is demonstrated that a homotopy associative star algebra with a compatible even bilinear form can be attached to an open string theory. If this algebra does not have a space-time interpretation, positivity and the existence of a conserved ghost number require that its cohomology is at degree zero, and that it has the structure of a direct sum of full matrix algebras. The resulting string theory is shown to be physically equivalent to a string theory with a familiar open string gauge group. (orig.)
Geometrical theory of spin motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.
1983-01-01
A discussion of the fundamental interrelation of geometry and physical laws with Lie groups leads to a reformulation and heuristic modification of the principle of inertia and the principle of equivalence, which is based on the simple De Sitter group instead of the Poincare group. The resulting law of motion allows a unified formulation for structureless and spinning test particles. A metrical theory of gravitation is constructed with the modified principle, which is structured after the geometry of the manifold of the De Sitter group. The theory is equivalent to a particular Kaluza-Klein theory in ten dimensions with the Lorentz group as gauge group. A restricted version of this theory excludes torsion. It is shown by a reformulation of the energy momentum complex that this version is equivalent to general relativity with a cosmologic term quadratic in the curvature tensor and in which the existence of spinning particle fields is inherent from first principles. The equations of the general theory with torsion are presented and it is shown in a special case how the boundary conditions for the torsion degree of freedom have to be chosen such as to treat orbital and spin angular momenta on an equal footing. The possibility of verification of the resulting anomalous spin-spin interaction is mentioned and a model imposed by the group topology of SO(3, 2) is outlined in which the unexplained discrepancy between the magnitude of the discrete valued coupling constants and the gravitational constant in Kaluza-Klein theories is resolved by the identification of identical fermions as one orbit. The mathematical structure can be adapted to larger groups to include other degrees of freedom. 41 references
Goodwin, Miki; Candela, Lori
2013-06-01
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore if newly practicing nurses benefited from learning holistic comfort theory during their baccalaureate education, and to provide a conceptual framework to support the transition from school to practice. The study was conducted among graduates of an accelerated baccalaureate nursing program where holistic comfort theory was embedded as a learner-centered philosophy across the curriculum. A phenomenological process using van Manen's qualitative methodology in education involving semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis was used. The nurses recalled what holistic comfort meant to them in school, and described the lived experience of assimilating holistic comfort into their attitudes and behaviors in practice. Themes were established and a conceptual framework was developed to better understand the nurses' lived experiences. Results showed that holistic comfort was experienced as a constructive approach to transcend unavoidable difficulties during the transition from school to practice. Participants described meaningful learning and acquisition of self-strengthening behaviors using holistic comfort theory. Holistic comfort principles were credited for easing nurses into the realities of work and advocating for best patient outcomes. Patient safety and pride in patient care were incidental positive outcomes. The study offers new insights about applying holistic comfort to prepare nurses for the realities of practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina CUCER LISNIC
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Essential facilities designate specific inputs which are essential for the production of other downstream goods. Inputs are situated upstream and so are eligible for intellectual property protection. In order to foster competition in the downstream, holders of these inputs should be forced to give access to potential users, by offering them operating lidcenses. In other words, one must respect the exclusive right of intellectual property holder to freely exploit his invention or must he be sacrificed in favor of downstream competition ? In the present analysis we intend to analyze some of either controverted or less known judicial aspects related to the theory of essential facilities.
Kuisma, Mikael; Sakko, Arto; Rossi, Tuomas P.; Larsen, Ask H.; Enkovaara, Jussi; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Rantala, Tapio T.
2015-01-01
We observe using ab initio methods that localized surface plasmon resonances in icosahedral silver nanoparticles enter the asymptotic region already between diameters of 1 and 2 nm, converging close to the classical quasistatic limit around 3.4 eV. We base the observation on time-dependent density-functional theory simulations of the icosahedral silver clusters Ag$_{55}$ (1.06 nm), Ag$_{147}$ (1.60 nm), Ag$_{309}$ (2.14 nm), and Ag$_{561}$ (2.68 nm). The simulation method combines the adiabat...
An alternative treatment of phenomenological higher-order strain-gradient plasticity theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuroda, Mitsutoshi; Tvergaard, Viggo
2010-01-01
strain is discussed, applying a dislocation theory-based consideration. Then, a differential equation for the equivalent plastic strain-gradient is introduced as an additional governing equation. Its weak form makes it possible to deduce and impose extra boundary conditions for the equivalent plastic...... strain. A connection between the present treatment and strain-gradient theories based on an extended virtual work principle is discussed. Furthermore, a numerical implementation and analysis of constrained simple shear of a thin strip are presented....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.
1988-01-01
The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)
Characterization of revenue equivalence
Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.
2009-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds
Characterization of Revenue Equivalence
Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh
2008-01-01
The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.
1978-06-01
A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined
Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, E.R.
1974-01-01
The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)
Huhn, William Paul; Lange, Björn; Yu, Victor; Blum, Volker; Lee, Seyong; Yoon, Mina
Density-functional theory has been well established as the dominant quantum-mechanical computational method in the materials community. Large accurate simulations become very challenging on small to mid-scale computers and require high-performance compute platforms to succeed. GPU acceleration is one promising approach. In this talk, we present a first implementation of all-electron density-functional theory in the FHI-aims code for massively parallel GPU-based platforms. Special attention is paid to the update of the density and to the integration of the Hamiltonian and overlap matrices, realized in a domain decomposition scheme on non-uniform grids. The initial implementation scales well across nodes on ORNL's Titan Cray XK7 supercomputer (8 to 64 nodes, 16 MPI ranks/node) and shows an overall speed up in runtime due to utilization of the K20X Tesla GPUs on each Titan node of 1.4x, with the charge density update showing a speed up of 2x. Further acceleration opportunities will be discussed. Work supported by the LDRD Program of ORNL managed by UT-Battle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE and by the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.
Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming
Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg
2002-01-01
Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Ostroukhov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is research of mechanisms of the forming, development and use of economic capacity providing for increase in competitiveness of entrepreneurial sports organizations. Providing of sports activities efficiency for all participants is the main objective of sports management. Interest in sport in Russia considerably increased in recent years therefore sports management becomes more and more actual direction. Effective management is needed for sport also as for any other action. Methods: the research is based on use of the following methods: systematization, analysis and synthesis, generalization, method of analogies, comparative analysis, methods of classification, scientific abstraction, induction and deduction; methods of observation, graphic and tabular methods. Results: management mechanism for entrepreneurial sport organizations is developed by author. The mechanism is based on the principles of an effektuation and self-organization. The practical importance of work is that the received results can be applied as methodical base in activities of the sports organizations to development of the strategic and tactical plans providing sustainable development. Conclusions and Relevance: the offered mechanism assumes that, a fiducial component is main component in management of the sports entrepreneurial organizations. The offered mechanism is orientated on risk minimization of the main business processes and using of development uncertainty as source of competitive advantages.
The confrontation between gravitation theory and experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Will, C.M.
1979-01-01
After an introductory section, an analysis is given of the foundations of gravitation theory - principles of equivalence, the fundamental criteria for the viability of a gravitational theory, and the experiments that support those criteria. One of the principal conclusions is that the correct, viable theory of gravity must in all probability be a 'metric' theory. Attention is focussed on solar-system tests, using a 'theory of theories' known as the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism that encompasses most metric theories of gravity and that is ideally suited to the solar-system arena. Gravitational radiation is discussed as a possible tool for testing gravitational theory. The binary pulsar, a new , 'stellar-system' testing ground is studied. Tests of gravitation theory in a cosmic arena are described. (U.K.)
Errea, Ion; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco
2013-10-25
Palladium hydrides display the largest isotope effect anomaly known in the literature. Replacement of hydrogen with the heavier isotopes leads to higher superconducting temperatures, a behavior inconsistent with harmonic theory. Solving the self-consistent harmonic approximation by a stochastic approach, we obtain the anharmonic free energy, the thermal expansion, and the superconducting properties fully ab initio. We find that the phonon spectra are strongly renormalized by anharmonicity far beyond the perturbative regime. Superconductivity is phonon mediated, but the harmonic approximation largely overestimates the superconducting critical temperatures. We explain the inverse isotope effect, obtaining a -0.38 value for the isotope coefficient in good agreement with experiments, hydrogen anharmonicity being mainly responsible for the isotope anomaly.
Travers, R; Wilson, M G; Flicker, S; Guta, A; Bereket, T; McKay, C; van der Meulen, A; Cleverly, S; Dickie, M; Globerman, J; Rourke, S B
2008-07-01
Drawing on the Greater Involvement of People with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle, the HIV/AIDS movement began to "democratize" research in Canada in the mid-1990s. To date, there is little evidence about the success of the community-based research (CBR) movement in relation to the implementation of GIPA. We draw on findings from a larger study examining barriers and facilitating factors in relation to HIV-related CBR in Ontario, Canada. An online survey was completed by 39 senior managers in Ontario AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were then conducted to further explore the survey findings. Survey respondents reported that, compared to researchers and frontline service providers, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) tended to be the least involved in all stages (input, process and outcome) of CBR projects. AIDS service organizations with a mandate that included serving rural and urban communities reported even lower levels of PLWHA involvement in CBR. Qualitative data reveal complex barriers that make meaningful PLWHA engagement in CBR difficult, including: HIV-related stigma; health-related challenges; "credentialism"; lack of capacity to engage in research; other issues taking priority; and mistrust of researchers. Facilitating factors included valuing lived experience; training and mentoring opportunities; financial compensation; trust building; and accommodating PLWHA's needs. While there is strong support for the GIPA principles in theory, practice lags far behind.
Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn
2015-03-01
Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).
Marwaha, Sugandha; Goswami, Mousumi; Vashist, Binny
2017-08-01
Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yun; Wang, Zhe [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 Hunan (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 Hunan (China); Beijing Computational Science Reasearch Center, 100084 Beijing (China)
2014-11-15
Using the first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method, we investigated the stability, elastic and magnetostrictive properties of γ-Fe{sub 4}C and its derivatives. From the formation energy, we show that the most preferable configuration for MFe{sub 3}C (M=Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir) is that the M atom occupies the corner 1a position rather than 3c position. These derivatives are ductile due to high B/G values except for IrFe{sub 3}C. The calculated tetragonal magnetostrictive coefficient λ{sub 001} value for γ-Fe{sub 4}C is −380 ppm, which is larger than the value of Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17} (+207 ppm). Due to the strong SOC coupling strength constant (ξ) of Pt, the calculated λ{sub 001} of PtFe{sub 3}C is −691 ppm, which is increased by 80% compared to that of γ-Fe{sub 4}C. We demonstrate the origin of giant magnetostriction coefficient in terms of electronic structures and their responses to the tetragonal lattice distortion. - Highlights: • The most preferable site for M atom of MFe{sub 3}C (M=Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir) is the corner position. • The magnetostrictive coefficient for γ-Fe{sub 4}C is −380 ppm, larger than the value of Fe{sub 83}Ga{sub 17}. • The calculated λ{sub 001} of PtFe{sub 3}C is −691 ppm, which is increased by 80% compared to that of γ-Fe{sub 4}C.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatmi, H.A.; Resconi, G.
1988-01-01
In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle
Weak circulation theorems as a way of distinguishing between generalized gravitation theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enosh, M.
1980-01-01
It was proved in a previous paper that a generalized circulation theorem characterizes Einstein's theory of gravitation as a special case of a more general theory of gravitation, which is also based on the principle of equivalence. Here the question of whether it is possible to weaken this circulation theorem in such ways that it would imply more general theories than Einstein's is posed. This problem is solved. Principally, there are two possibilities. One of them is essentially Weyl's theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, Graham M.
2005-01-01
The strong equivalence principle, local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry are fundamental ingredients of the quantum field theories used to describe elementary particle physics. Nevertheless, each may be violated by simple modifications to the dynamics while apparently preserving the essential fundamental structure of quantum field theory itself. In this paper, we analyse the construction of strong equivalence, Lorentz and CPT violating Lagrangians for QED and review and propose some experimental tests in the fields of astrophysical polarimetry and precision atomic spectroscopy. In particular, modifications of the Maxwell action predict a birefringent rotation of the direction of linearly polarised radiation from synchrotron emission which may be studied using radio galaxies or, potentially, gamma-ray bursts. In the Dirac sector, changes in atomic energy levels are predicted which may be probed in precision spectroscopy of hydrogen and anti-hydrogen atoms, notably in the Doppler-free, two-photon 1s-2s and 2s-nd (n∼10) transitions
The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag
2010-01-01
effectively Borel sets of reals, neither of which contains the range of the other under any effectively Borel function; the proof of this result applies Barwise compactness to a deep theorem of Harrington (see [5,16]) establishing for any recursive ordinal α the existence of Π singletons whose α...
Molenaar, Peter C M
2017-01-01
Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.
A review of the generalized uncertainty principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied
2015-01-01
Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some ‘thought’ experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed. (review)
Hill, Rodney
2013-01-01
Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
2014-07-01
Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2011-01-01
Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.
A Field Theory with Curvature and Anticurvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Wanas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present work is an attempt to construct a unified field theory in a space with curvature and anticurvature, the PAP-space. The theory is derived from an action principle and a Lagrangian density using a symmetric linear parameterized connection. Three different methods are used to explore physical contents of the theory obtained. Poisson’s equations for both material and charge distributions are obtained, as special cases, from the field equations of the theory. The theory is a pure geometric one in the sense that material distribution, charge distribution, gravitational and electromagnetic potentials, and other physical quantities are defined in terms of pure geometric objects of the structure used. In the case of pure gravity in free space, the spherical symmetric solution of the field equations gives the Schwarzschild exterior field. The weak equivalence principle is respected only in the case of pure gravity in free space; otherwise it is violated.
Bulmer, M G
1979-01-01
There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo
Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics
Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.
Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.
Equivalent conserved currents and generalized Noether's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, T.J.
1984-01-01
A generalized Noether theorem is presented, relating symmetries and equivalence classes of local) conservation laws in classical field theories; this is contrasted with the standard theorem. The concept of a ''Noether'' field theory is introduced, being a theory for which the generalized theorem applies; not only does this include the cases of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories, these structures are ''derived'' from the Noether property in a natural way. The generalized theorem applies to currents and symmetries that contain derivatives of the fields up to an arbitrarily high order
Hewitt, Paul G.
2004-01-01
Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…
Group covariance and metrical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.
1983-01-01
The a priori introduction of a Lie group of transformations into a physical theory has often proved to be useful; it usually serves to describe special simplified conditions before a general theory can be worked out. Newton's assumptions of absolute space and time are examples where the Euclidian group and translation group have been introduced. These groups were extended to the Galilei group and modified in the special theory of relativity to the Poincare group to describe physics under the given conditions covariantly in the simplest way. The criticism of the a priori character leads to the formulation of the general theory of relativity. The general metric theory does not really give preference to a particular invariance group - even the principle of equivalence can be adapted to a whole family of groups. The physical laws covariantly inserted into the metric space are however adapted to the Poincare group. 8 references
Borel equivalence relations structure and classification
Kanovei, Vladimir
2008-01-01
Over the last 20 years, the theory of Borel equivalence relations and related topics have been very active areas of research in set theory and have important interactions with other fields of mathematics, like ergodic theory and topological dynamics, group theory, combinatorics, functional analysis, and model theory. The book presents, for the first time in mathematical literature, all major aspects of this theory and its applications. This book should be of interest to a wide spectrum of mathematicians working in set theory as well as the other areas mentioned. It provides a systematic exposition of results that so far have been only available in journals or are even unpublished. The book presents unified and in some cases significantly streamlined proofs of several difficult results, especially dichotomy theorems. It has rather minimal overlap with other books published in this subject.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liliane da Silva Coelho Jacon
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Mobile devices emerge as the major players to ensure a favorable resource to connect, minimizing the limitation space-time constraints among people and enabling the use of emerging mobile learning (m-learning. The use of mobile devices in pedagogic praxis implies in a closer link between teachers in their initial development and their teacher educator in order to enable the incorporation of this mobile technology in undergraduate courses. This “approach” means the facilitation of meeting to discuss, reflect and talk about the incorporation of this technology in the teaching learning process. In this research, two professors had meetings to discuss and reflect about the employment of this mobile technology in the undergraduate course. One of them, a Chemistry teacher educator and the other is a computer and education teacher-research. The methodological approach is based on a qualitative method with some elements of action-research based on theoretical assumptions of the Activity Theory (ENGESTRÖM, 1999. Therefore, the study based on the debates over the use of mobile devices in the teaching of chemistry was developed as part of the undergraduate course in Chemistry at the Federal University of Rondonia. Among a set of activities, in which students and professors were present with their objects of specific activities, was presented the Activity system related to the construction of those activities. The analysis of SA from the perspective of the 5 principles of Activity Theory points out that the process of collaborative participation in the meetings, the implementation of activities with the students of the degree course and the preparation of scientific papers demonstrated the qualitative evolution of the chemistry teacher educator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.
1990-01-01
The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges
Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"
Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong
2005-01-01
Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…
Correspondences. Equivalence relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouligand, G.M.
1978-03-01
We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr
Osorio-Guillén, J M; Espinosa-García, W F; Moyses Araujo, C
2015-09-07
First-principles quasi-particle theory has been employed to assess catalytic power of graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, for solar fuel production. A comparative study between g-h-triazine and g-h-heptazine has been carried out taking also into account van der Waals dispersive forces. The band edge potentials have been calculated using a recently developed approach where quasi-particle effects are taken into account through the GW approximation. First, it was found that the description of ground state properties such as cohesive and surface formation energies requires the proper treatment of dispersive interaction. Furthermore, through the analysis of calculated band-edge potentials, it is shown that g-h-triazine has high reductive power reaching the potential to reduce CO2 to formic acid, coplanar g-h-heptazine displays the highest thermodynamics force toward H2O/O2 oxidation reaction, and corrugated g-h-heptazine exhibits a good capacity for both reactions. This rigorous theoretical study shows a route to further improve the catalytic performance of g-C3N4.
Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.
Sidman, M
2000-07-01
Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.
Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.
Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G
2003-08-01
The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.
On a Lie-isotopic theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasperini, M.
1984-01-01
Starting from the isotopic lifting of the Poincare algebra, a Lie-isotopic theory of gravity is formulated, its physical interpretation is given in terms of a generalized principle of equivalence, and it is shown that a local Lorentz-isotopic symmetry motivates the introduction of a generalized metric-affine geometrical structure. Finally, possible applications of a Lie-isotopic theory to the problem of unifying gravity with internal symmetries, in four and more than four dimensions, are discussed
Nikkelen, A.L.J.M.; Meurs, van W.L.; Ohrn, M.A.K.
1997-01-01
We evaluated the mathematical equivalence between the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model of the neuromuscular blocking agent atracurium and a hydraulic analogue that includes harmacodynamic principles.
Principles of Fourier analysis
Howell, Kenneth B
2001-01-01
Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...
Nonextensive entropies derived from Gauss' principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wada, Tatsuaki
2011-01-01
Gauss' principle in statistical mechanics is generalized for a q-exponential distribution in nonextensive statistical mechanics. It determines the associated stochastic and statistical nonextensive entropies which satisfy Greene-Callen principle concerning on the equivalence between microcanonical and canonical ensembles. - Highlights: → Nonextensive entropies are derived from Gauss' principle and ensemble equivalence. → Gauss' principle is generalized for a q-exponential distribution. → I have found the condition for satisfying Greene-Callen principle. → The associated statistical q-entropy is found to be normalized Tsallis entropy.
25th Johns Hopkins Workshop on Current Problems in Particle Theory
Dominici, Daniele; Lusanna, L
2001-01-01
This volume offers a comprehensive overview of our understanding of gravity at both the experimental and the theoretical level. Critical reviews by experts cover topics ranging from astrophysics (anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background, gamma ray bursts, neutron stars and astroparticles), cosmology, the status of gravitational wave sources and detectors, verification of Newton's law at short distances, the equivalence principle, gravito-magnetism, measurement theory, time machines and the foundations of Einstein's theory, to string theory and loop quantum gravity.
Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature
Hooft, G. 't
1984-01-01
There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be
A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouwer, R. M.
2003-01-01
We relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ''Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are bimodules. We present a similar result for von Neumann algebras. We show that von Neumann algebras form a bicategory, having Connes's correspondences as 1-morphisms, and (bounded) intertwiners as 2-morphisms. Further, we prove that two von Neumann algebras are Morita equivalent iff they are equivalent objects in the bicategory. The proofs make extensive use of the Tomita-Takesaki modular theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik
2009-01-01
Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.
A Principle of Intentionality.
Turner, Charles K
2017-01-01
The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.
Gyro precession and Mach's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eby, P.
1979-01-01
The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)
Developing principles of growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma
of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....
Nery, Jean Paul; Allen, Philip B.; Antonius, Gabriel; Reining, Lucia; Miglio, Anna; Gonze, Xavier
2018-03-01
The electron-phonon interaction causes thermal and zero-point motion shifts of electron quasiparticle (QP) energies ɛk(T ) . Other consequences of interactions, visible in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments, are broadening of QP peaks and appearance of sidebands, contained in the electron spectral function A (k ,ω ) =-ℑ m GR(k ,ω ) /π , where GR is the retarded Green's function. Electronic structure codes (e.g., using density-functional theory) are now available that compute the shifts and start to address broadening and sidebands. Here we consider MgO and LiF, and determine their nonadiabatic Migdal self-energy. The spectral function obtained from the Dyson equation makes errors in the weight and energy of the QP peak and the position and weight of the phonon-induced sidebands. Only one phonon satellite appears, with an unphysically large energy difference (larger than the highest phonon energy) with respect to the QP peak. By contrast, the spectral function from a cumulant treatment of the same self-energy is physically better, giving a quite accurate QP energy and several satellites approximately spaced by the LO phonon energy. In particular, the positions of the QP peak and first satellite agree closely with those found for the Fröhlich Hamiltonian by Mishchenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 62, 6317 (2000), 10.1103/PhysRevB.62.6317] using diagrammatic Monte Carlo. We provide a detailed comparison between the first-principles MgO and LiF results and those of the Fröhlich Hamiltonian. Such an analysis applies widely to materials with infrared(IR)-active phonons.
The twin paradox and the principle of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grøn, Øyvind
2013-01-01
The twin paradox is intimately related to the principle of relativity. Two twins A and B meet, travel away from each other and meet again. From the point of view of A, B is the traveller. Thus, A predicts B to be younger than A herself, and vice versa. Both cannot be correct. The special relativistic solution is to say that if one of the twins, say A, was inertial during the separation, she will be the older one. Since the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion according to the special theory of relativity B cannot consider herself as at rest permanently because she must accelerate in order to return to her sister. A general relativistic solution is to say that due to the principle of equivalence B can consider herself as at rest, but she must invoke the gravitational change of time in order to predict correctly the age of A during their separation. However one may argue that the fact that B is younger than A shows that B was accelerated, not A, and hence the principle of relativity is not valid for accelerated motion in the general theory of relativity either. I here argue that perfect inertial dragging may save the principle of relativity, and that this requires a new model of the Minkowski spacetime where the cosmic mass is represented by a massive shell with radius equal to its own Schwarzschild radius. (paper)
A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Z.L.
1989-01-01
A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fábio Portela Lopes de Almeida
2008-12-01
Full Text Available O artigo tem por propósito discutir a natureza dos princípios constitucionais a partir de duas teorias hermenêuticas distintas: a axiologia e a deontologia. A perspectiva axiológica é descrita a partir da teoria dos princípios delineada por Robert Alexy em sua Teoria dos direitos fundamentais e criticada por ser incapaz de lidar democraticamente com o fato do pluralismo, isto é, com a circunstância de que as sociedades contemporâneas não se estruturam em torno de valores éticos compartilhados intersubjetivamente por todos os cidadãos. Como alternativa a esse modelo, sugere-se, a partir das obras de John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin e Jürgen Habermas, que a adoção de uma perspectiva deontológica, que assume a distinção entre princípios e valores, supera as dificuldades da teoria axiológica. Ao assumir como premissa central a possibilidade de legitimação do direito a partir de princípios justificados a partir de critérios aceitáveis por todos os cidadãos, uma teoria deontológica dos princípios se torna capaz de lidar com a pluralidade de concepções de bem presentes nas sociedades contemporâneas. Nesse sentido, o artigo se situa no campo de estudos próprio da teoria da Constituição.The article discusses the nature of the constitutional principles by opposing two distinct hermeneutic theories: axiology and deontology. the theory of principles proposed by robert alexy is assumed as an ideal example of axiological theory, and criticized for being unable to deal democratically with the fact of pluralism, i. e., the fact that the contemporary societies are not structured on ethical values shared by all the citizens. As an alternative to the axiological model, I suggest, based on a particular reading of the theories of John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin and Jürgen Habermas, that the adoption of a deontological perspective, which assumes a strict distinction between principles and values, overcomes the difficulties of the axiological
Gilleskie, Donna B.; Salemi, Michael K.
2012-01-01
In a typical economics principles course, students encounter a large number of concepts. In a literacy-targeted course, students study a "short list" of concepts that they can use for the rest of their lives. While a literacy-targeted principles course provides better education for nonmajors, it may place economic majors at a…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Hongmo.
1987-10-01
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
Thermodynamics and Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
Kipnis, Nahum
2014-01-01
This paper is the first part of a three-part project "How the principle of energy conservation evolved between 1842 and 1870: the view of a participant". This paper aims at showing how the new ideas of Mayer and Joule were received, what constituted the new theory in the period under study, and how it was supported experimentally. A…
Conventional Principles in Science: On the foundations and development of the relativized a priori
Ivanova, Milena; Farr, Matt
2015-11-01
The present volume consists of a collection of papers originally presented at the conference Conventional Principles in Science, held at the University of Bristol, August 2011, which featured contributions on the history and contemporary development of the notion of 'relativized a priori' principles in science, from Henri Poincaré's conventionalism to Michael Friedman's contemporary defence of the relativized a priori. In Science and Hypothesis, Poincaré assessed the problematic epistemic status of Euclidean geometry and Newton's laws of motion, famously arguing that each has the status of 'convention' in that their justification is neither analytic nor empirical in nature. In The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge, Hans Reichenbach, in light of the general theory of relativity, proposed an updated notion of the Kantian synthetic a priori to account for the dynamic inter-theoretic status of geometry and other non-empirical physical principles. Reichenbach noted that one may reject the 'necessarily true' aspect of the synthetic a priori whilst preserving the feature of being constitutive of the object of knowledge. Such constitutive principles are theory-relative, as illustrated by the privileged role of non-Euclidean geometry in general relativity theory. This idea of relativized a priori principles in spacetime physics has been analysed and developed at great length in the modern literature in the work of Michael Friedman, in particular the roles played by the light postulate and the equivalence principle - in special and general relativity respectively - in defining the central terms of their respective theories and connecting the abstract mathematical formalism of the theories with their empirical content. The papers in this volume guide the reader through the historical development of conventional and constitutive principles in science, from the foundational work of Poincaré, Reichenbach and others, to contemporary issues and applications of the
Dynamic equivalence relation on the fuzzy measure algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roya Ghasemkhani
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The main goal of the present paper is to extend classical results from the measure theory and dynamical systems to the fuzzy subset setting. In this paper, the notion of dynamic equivalence relation is introduced and then it is proved that this relation is an equivalence relation. Also, a new metric on the collection of all equivalence classes is introduced and it is proved that this metric is complete.
Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)
2012-07-01
by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kedziora David J.
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Collisions of actinide nuclei form, during very short times of few zs (10−21 s, the heaviest ensembles of interacting nucleons available on Earth. Such collisions are used to produce super-strong electric ﬁelds by the huge number of interacting protons to test spontaneous positron-electron pair emission (vacuum decay predicted by the quantum electrodynamics (QED theory. Multi-nucleon transfer in actinide collisions could also be used as an alternative way to fusion in order to produce neutron-rich heavy and superheavy elements thanks to inverse quasiﬁssion mechanisms. Actinide collisions are studied in a dynamical quantum microscopic approach. The three-dimensional time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF code tdhf3d is used with a full Skyrme energy density functional to investigate the time evolution of expectation values of one-body operators, such as fragment position and particle number. This code is also used to compute the dispersion of the particle numbers (e.g., widths of fragment mass and charge distributions from TDHF transfer probabilities, on the one hand, and using the BalianVeneroni variational principle, on the other hand. A ﬁrst application to test QED is discussed. Collision times in 238U+238U are computed to determine the optimum energy for the observation of the vacuum decay. It is shown that the initial orientation strongly affects the collision times and reaction mechanism. The highest collision times predicted by TDHF in this reaction are of the order of ~ 4 zs at a center of mass energy of 1200 MeV. According to modern calculations based on the Dirac equation, the collision times at Ecm > 1 GeV are suﬃcient to allow spontaneous electron-positron pair emission from QED vacuum decay, in case of bare uranium ion collision. A second application of actinide collisions to produce neutron-rich transfermiums is discussed. A new inverse quasiﬁssion mechanism associated to a speciﬁc orientation of the nuclei is proposed to
Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics
Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.
Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.
DuBay, William H.
2004-01-01
The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…
Schwartz, Melvin
1972-01-01
This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.
Principles of Bridge Reliability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.
The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...
Equivalence of several Chern-Simons matter models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, W.; Itoi, C.
1994-01-01
Chern-Simons (CS) coupling characterizes not only statistics, but also spin and scaling dimension of matter fields. We demonstrate spin transmutation in relativistic CS matter theory, and moreover show equivalence of several models. We study the CS vector model in some detail, which provides a consistent check to the assertion of the equivalence
Noncommutative Yang-Mills from equivalence of star products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.
2000-01-01
It is shown that the transformation between ordinary and noncommutative Yang-Mills theory as formulated by Seiberg and Witten is due to the equivalence of certain star products on the D-brane world-volume. (orig.)
Noncommutative Yang-Mills from equivalence of star products
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurco, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Schupp, P. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)
2000-05-01
It is shown that the transformation between ordinary and noncommutative Yang-Mills theory as formulated by Seiberg and Witten is due to the equivalence of certain star products on the D-brane world-volume. (orig.)
A survey of variational principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.D.
1993-01-01
In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)
Mach's principle and rotating universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, D.H.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero
A survey of variational principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.D.
1993-01-01
The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basing finite element methods on variational principles, especially if, as maximum and minimum principles, these can provide bounds and hence estimates of accuracy. The non-symmetric (and hence stationary rather than extremum principles) are seen however to play a significant role in optimisation theory. (Orig./A.B.)
Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merced Montesinos
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.
Equivalence between short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic material responses.
Ateshian, Gerard A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Weiss, Jeffrey A
2007-06-01
Porous-permeable tissues have often been modeled using porous media theories such as the biphasic theory. This study examines the equivalence of the short-time biphasic and incompressible elastic responses for arbitrary deformations and constitutive relations from first principles. This equivalence is illustrated in problems of unconfined compression of a disk, and of articular contact under finite deformation, using two different constitutive relations for the solid matrix of cartilage, one of which accounts for the large disparity observed between the tensile and compressive moduli in this tissue. Demonstrating this equivalence under general conditions provides a rationale for using available finite element codes for incompressible elastic materials as a practical substitute for biphasic analyses, so long as only the short-time biphasic response is sought. In practice, an incompressible elastic analysis is representative of a biphasic analysis over the short-term response deltatelasticity tensor, and K is the hydraulic permeability tensor of the solid matrix. Certain notes of caution are provided with regard to implementation issues, particularly when finite element formulations of incompressible elasticity employ an uncoupled strain energy function consisting of additive deviatoric and volumetric components.
Induction, bounding, weak combinatorial principles, and the homogeneous model theorem
Hirschfeldt, Denis R; Shore, Richard A
2017-01-01
Goncharov and Peretyat'kin independently gave necessary and sufficient conditions for when a set of types of a complete theory T is the type spectrum of some homogeneous model of T. Their result can be stated as a principle of second order arithmetic, which is called the Homogeneous Model Theorem (HMT), and analyzed from the points of view of computability theory and reverse mathematics. Previous computability theoretic results by Lange suggested a close connection between HMT and the Atomic Model Theorem (AMT), which states that every complete atomic theory has an atomic model. The authors show that HMT and AMT are indeed equivalent in the sense of reverse mathematics, as well as in a strong computability theoretic sense and do the same for an analogous result of Peretyat'kin giving necessary and sufficient conditions for when a set of types is the type spectrum of some model.
Principles of quantum chemistry
George, David V
2013-01-01
Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c
A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.
2007-01-01
-order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....
Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts
Gibson, Paul
2013-01-01
Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.
New recommendations for dose equivalent
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bengtsson, G.
1985-01-01
In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)
Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.
1992-01-01
Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme
Development of Einstein's general theory of relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datta, B.K.
1980-01-01
Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)
Experimental method research on neutron equal dose-equivalent detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Changsong
1995-10-01
The design principles of neutron dose-equivalent meter for neutron biological equi-effect detection are studied. Two traditional principles 'absorption net principle' and 'multi-detector principle' are discussed, and on the basis of which a new theoretical principle for neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' has been put forward to place high hope on both increasing neutron sensitivity of this type of meters and overcoming the shortages of the two traditional methods. In accordance with this new principle a brand-new model of neutron dose-equivalent meter BH3105 has been developed. Its neutron sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), 18∼40 times higher than that of all the same kinds of meters 0.23∼0.56 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), available today at home and abroad and the specifications of the newly developed meter reach or surpass the levels of the same kind of meters. Therefore the new theoretical principle of neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' is proved to be scientific, advanced and useful by experiments. (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)
Abelian gauge theories with tensor gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapuscik, E.
1984-01-01
Gauge fields of arbitrary tensor type are introduced. In curved space-time the gravitational field serves as a bridge joining different gauge fields. The theory of second order tensor gauge field is developed on the basis of close analogy to Maxwell electrodynamics. The notion of tensor current is introduced and an experimental test of its detection is proposed. The main result consists in a coupled set of field equations representing a generalization of Maxwell theory in which the Einstein equivalence principle is not satisfied. (author)
Cluster model in reaction theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.
1979-01-01
A recent work by Rosenberg on cluster states in reaction theory is reexamined and generalized to include energies above the threshold for breakup into four composite fragments. The problem of elastic scattering between two interacting composite fragments is reduced to an equivalent two-particle problem with an effective potential to be determined by extremum principles. For energies above the threshold for breakup into three or four composite fragments effective few-particle potentials are introduced and the problem is reduced to effective three- and four-particle problems. The equivalent three-particle equation contains effective two- and three-particle potentials. The effective potential in the equivalent four-particle equation has two-, three-, and four-body connected parts and a piece which has two independent two-body connected parts. In the equivalent three-particle problem we show how to include the effect of a weak three-body potential perturbatively. In the equivalent four-body problem an approximate simple calculational scheme is given when one neglects the four-particle potential the effect of which is presumably very small
Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.
2015-01-01
The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.
Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A
2009-08-31
We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.
Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)
2015-02-12
The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.
A Community Standard: Equivalency of Healthcare in Australian Immigration Detention.
Essex, Ryan
2017-08-01
The Australian government has long maintained that the standard of healthcare provided in its immigration detention centres is broadly comparable with health services available within the Australian community. Drawing on the literature from prison healthcare, this article examines (1) whether the principle of equivalency is being applied in Australian immigration detention and (2) whether this standard of care is achievable given Australia's current policies. This article argues that the principle of equivalency is not being applied and that this standard of health and healthcare will remain unachievable in Australian immigration detention without significant reform. Alternate approaches to addressing the well documented issues related to health and healthcare in Australian immigration detention are discussed.
Born, Max; Wolf, Emil
1999-10-01
Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.