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Sample records for equivalence checking peach

  1. Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...... similarities between the two circuits that are compared. These properties make BEDs suitable for verifying the equivalence of combinational circuits. BEDs can be seen as an intermediate representation between circuits (which are compact) and OBDDs (which are canonical).Based on a large number of combinational...

  2. Equivalence Checking between Pre-synthesis and Post-synthesis Programs by Using VIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Yoo, Junbeom; Choi, Jonggyun; Lee, Jangsoo

    2013-01-01

    PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)-based Software development, the design programs are translated into implementation programs, and behavioral equivalence between the design and implementation is demonstrated by formal method based technique. In FPGA-based software development, the design programs are also synthesized into implementation programs. However, in this process, testing and simulation based comparison techniques are mainly used. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to demonstrate behavioral equivalence between pre-synthesis and post-synthesis programs with VIS (Verification Interacting with Synthesis) verification system. We translated into BLIF-MV which is front-end of VIS, from Verlag and EDIF net list which synthesized from the same Verlag by an automatic synthesis tool. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to confirm correctness of synthesis by using equivalence checking of VIS verification system. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we performed a case study with a part of prototype version of the RPS BP, and demonstrated a behavioral equivalence between Verlag HDL and EDIF post-synthesis net list

  3. Equivalence Checking between Pre-synthesis and Post-synthesis Programs by Using VIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jonggyun; Lee, Jangsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)-based Software development, the design programs are translated into implementation programs, and behavioral equivalence between the design and implementation is demonstrated by formal method based technique. In FPGA-based software development, the design programs are also synthesized into implementation programs. However, in this process, testing and simulation based comparison techniques are mainly used. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to demonstrate behavioral equivalence between pre-synthesis and post-synthesis programs with VIS (Verification Interacting with Synthesis) verification system. We translated into BLIF-MV which is front-end of VIS, from Verlag and EDIF net list which synthesized from the same Verlag by an automatic synthesis tool. This paper proposes a formal method based technique to confirm correctness of synthesis by using equivalence checking of VIS verification system. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we performed a case study with a part of prototype version of the RPS BP, and demonstrated a behavioral equivalence between Verlag HDL and EDIF post-synthesis net list.

  4. Physicochemical, antioxidant, and sensorial properties of peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation of varieties of processed peach products could be a good option to supply in lean season. Objective of the study was to assess the quality characteristics of peach snacks prepared from 11 different cultivars. We investigated the physicochemical (soluble solid, titratable acidity, hardness and dry yield), antioxidant ...

  5. Peach Flower Monitoring Using Aerial Multispectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Horton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the tools for optimal crop production is regular monitoring and assessment of crops. During the growing season of fruit trees, the bloom period has increased photosynthetic rates that correlate with the fruiting process. This paper presents the development of an image processing algorithm to detect peach blossoms on trees. Aerial images of peach (Prunus persica trees were acquired from both experimental and commercial peach orchards in the southwestern part of Idaho using an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial system (UAS, equipped with a multispectral camera (near-infrared, green, blue. The image processing algorithm included contrast stretching of the three bands to enhance the image and thresholding segmentation method to detect the peach blossoms. Initial results showed that the image processing algorithm could detect peach blossoms with an average detection rate of 84.3% and demonstrated good potential as a monitoring tool for orchard management.

  6. Check valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, H.A.; Garcia, P.

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs.

  7. Check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, H.A.; Garcia, P.

    1999-01-01

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs

  8. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  9. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.170 Canned peaches. (a... by a support through which it can freely move upward or downward. The lower end of the rod is a plane...

  10. Variability of vineyard peach tree characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zec Gordan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard peach seedlings are the most important rootstock for peach in Serbia and abroad. High variability is a characteristic of the vineyard peach planting material that is used as rootstock in nursery production. Through work of many years, vineyard peach genotypes with qualitative traits were selected and collected. Seedlings that are progeny of the nine selected genotypes and resulted from self and open pollination were examined. The vineyard peach seedlings resulted from uncontrolled pollination and with different geographical origin served as reference. A goal of research was to get vineyard peach genotypes that would give more uniform generative progeny with qualitative traits. This paper presents the results of two-year research of morphological traits of more than 500 vineyard seedlings. Based on the results, positive genotypes were selected for further inbreeding. Further, the seedlings of the selection 6 have the lowest coefficients of variation for trunk thickness, tree height and number of branches, which points to the self-pollination as a good method for getting more uniform progeny. .

  11. Influence of vineyard peach selections on vigour and initial yield in peach and nectarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zec Gordan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings (progenies of eight selected vineyard peach genotypes obtained by self and open pollination were examined in this study during three consecutive years. Two progenies from unselected vineyard peach genotypes with different geographic origin were used as a standard. Peach cv. Autumn Glo and nectarine cv. Stark Red Gold were grafted on F1 generation of eight vineyard peach selections and two standard progenies. Analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences in vigour and fruit productivity between fruit trees grafted on different progenies of vineyard peach selections. A high correlation was found between rootstock vigour and fruit production of grafted cultivars. In addition, the principal component analysis made it possible to establish similar groups of rootstocks, depending on its influence to vigour, productivity and indexes of efficiency of grafted peach and nectarine cultivar. The most promising rootstocks for those two cultivars were PSK and 7S because grafted AG and SRG have high fruit weight, initial yields and very satisfactory rootstock, scion and canopy efficiency. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  12. Difference in photosynthetic performance among three peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) on greenhouse grown peach trees ('Qingfeng': Prunus persica L. Batsch, 'NJN76': Prunus persica L. Batsch and 'Maixiang': P. persica var. nectarine) were investigated. Difference in photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stoma morphology among cultivars were studied.

  13. Consumer peach preferences and purchasing behavior: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kathleen M; Primrose, Rachel; Crassweller, Robert; Hayes, John E; Marini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value-added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid-Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory-based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid-Atlantic region. Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value-added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Md Abdur; Busatto, Nicola; Trainotti, Livio

    2014-11-01

    MYB10.1 and MYB10.3, with bHLH3, are the likely regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach fruit. MYB10.1/2/3 forms a cluster on the same genomic fragment where the Anther color ( Ag ) trait is located. Anthocyanins are bioactive compounds responsible for the pigmentation of many plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruits and roots, and have potential benefits to human health. In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], peel color is a key determinant for fruit quality and is regulated by flavonoids including anthocyanins. The R2R3 MYB transcription factors (TFs) control the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes with the help of co-activators belonging to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and WD40 repeat families. In the peach genome six MYB10-like and three bHLH-like TFs were identified as candidates to be the regulators of the anthocyanin accumulation, which, in yellow flesh fruits, is highest in the peel, abundant in the part of the mesocarp surrounding the stone and lowest in the mesocarp. The expression of MYB10.1 and MYB10.3 correlates with anthocyanin levels of different peach parts. They also have positive correlation with the expression of key structural genes of the anthocyanin pathway, such as CHS, F3H, and UFGT. Functions of peach MYB10s were tested in tobacco and shown to activate key genes in the anthocyanin pathway when bHLHs were co-expressed as partners. Overexpression of MYB10.1/bHLH3 and MYB10.3/bHLH3 activated anthocyanin production by up-regulating NtCHS, NtDFR and NtUFGT while other combinations were not, or much less, effective. As three MYB10 genes are localized in a genomic region where the Ag trait, responsible for anther pigmentation, is localized, it is proposed they are key determinant to introduce new peach cultivars with higher antioxidant level and pigmented fruit.

  15. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  16. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Velasco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L. Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill. D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago, coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species.

  17. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2016-12-07

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide [Formula: see text] values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. Copyright © 2016 Velasco et al.

  18. Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The domesticated almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch] and peach [P. persica (Mill.) D. A. Webb] originated on opposite sides of Asia and were independently domesticated ∼5000 yr ago. While interfertile, they possess alternate mating systems and differ in a number of morphological and physiological traits. Here, we evaluated patterns of genome-wide diversity in both almond and peach to better understand the impacts of mating system, adaptation, and domestication on the evolution of these taxa. Almond has around seven times the genetic diversity of peach, and high genome-wide FST values support their status as separate species. We estimated a divergence time of ∼8 MYA (million years ago), coinciding with an active period of uplift in the northeast Tibetan Plateau and subsequent Asian climate change. We see no evidence of a bottleneck during domestication of either species, but identify a number of regions showing signatures of selection during domestication and a significant overlap in candidate regions between peach and almond. While we expected gene expression in fruit to overlap with candidate selected regions, instead we find enrichment for loci highly differentiated between the species, consistent with recent fossil evidence suggesting fruit divergence long preceded domestication. Taken together, this study tells us how closely related tree species evolve and are domesticated, the impact of these events on their genomes, and the utility of genomic information for long-lived species. Further exploration of this data will contribute to the genetic knowledge of these species and provide information regarding targets of selection for breeding application, and further the understanding of evolution in these species. PMID:27707802

  19. Equivalent Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.

    1982-01-01

    We present a review of the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations, emphasizing the ambiguities which appear due to the existence of equivalent Lagrangians for a given classical system. In particular, we analyze the properties of equivalent Lagrangians in the multidimensional case, we study the conditions for the existence of a variational principle for (second as well as first order) equations of motion and their solutions, we consider the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations for singular systems, we state the ambiguities which emerge in the relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in the case of equivalent Lagrangians, we discuss the problems which appear in trying to quantize classical systems which have different equivalent Lagrangians, we describe the situation which arises in the study of equivalent Lagrangians in field theory and finally, we present some unsolved problems and discussion topics related to the content of this article. (author)

  20. Individual sugar and acid composition within southeastern peach germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    eaches grown in the southeast are valued for their acidic, sweet flavor. A complex mixture of various sugars and acids at different ratios play a key role in determining these unique peach flavor attributes. To understand the flavor profile of fresh market peaches, individual sugar and acid compone...

  1. Regular health checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.......To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based....

  2. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2–4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40–80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find

  3. Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-08-15

    An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly

  4. Mutation scanning of peach floral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde H Dayton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutation scanning technology has been used to develop crop species with improved traits. Modifications that improve screening throughput and sensitivity would facilitate the targeted mutation breeding of crops. Technical innovations for high-resolution melting (HRM analysis are enabling the clinic-based screening for human disease gene polymorphism. We examined the application of two HRM modifications, COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR, to the mutation scanning of genes in peach, Prunus persica. The targeted genes were the putative floral regulators PpAGAMOUS and PpTERMINAL FLOWER I. Results HRM analysis of PpAG and PpTFL1 coding regions in 36 peach cultivars found one polymorphic site in each gene. PpTFL1 and PpAG SNPs were used to examine approaches to increase HRM throughput. Cultivars with SNPs could be reliably detected in pools of twelve genotypes. COLD-PCR was found to increase the sensitivity of HRM analysis of pooled samples, but worked best with small amplicons. Examination of QMC-PCR demonstrated that primary PCR products for further analysis could be produced from variable levels of genomic DNA. Conclusions Natural SNPs in exons of target peach genes were discovered by HRM analysis of cultivars from a southeastern US breeding program. For detecting natural or induced SNPs in larger populations, HRM efficiency can be improved by increasing sample pooling and template production through approaches such as COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR. Technical advances developed to improve clinical diagnostics can play a role in the targeted mutation breeding of crops.

  5. Irradiation experience with HTGR fuels in the Peach Bottom Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, W.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1974-01-01

    Fuel performance in the Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is reviewed, including (1) the driver elements in the second core and (2) the test elements designed to test fuel for larger HTGR plants. Core 2 of this reactor, which is operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company, performed reliably with an average nuclear steam supply availability of 85 percent since its startup in July 1970. Core 2 had accumulated a total of 897.5 equivalent full power days (EFPD), almost exactly its design life-time of 900 EFPD, when the plant was shut down permanently on October 31, 1974. Gaseous fission product release and the activity of the main circulating loop remained significantly below the limits allowed by the technical specifications and the levels observed during operation of Core 1. The low circulating activity and postirradiation examination of driver fuel elements have demonstrated the improved irradiation stability of the coated fuel particles in Core 2. Irradiation data obtained from these tests substantiate the performance predictions based on accelerated tests and complement the fuel design effort by providing irradiation data in the low neutron fluence region

  6. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  7. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  8. Checking Java Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darwin, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut tells you about tools that will improve the quality of your Java code, using checking above and beyond what the standard tools do, including: Using javac options, JUnit and assertions Making your IDE work harder Checking your source code with PMD Checking your compiled code (.class files) with FindBugs Checking your program's run-time behavior with Java PathFinder

  9. Study of tritium permeation through Peach Bottom Steam Generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Baugh, W.A.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1977-06-01

    The report describes the equipment developed, samples tested, procedures used, and results obtained in the tritium permeation tests conducted on steam generator tubing samples which were removed from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 reactor

  10. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  11. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design

  12. Analysis of Peach Bottom turbine trip tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lu, M.S.; Hsu, C.J.; Shier, W.G.; Diamond, D.J.; Levine, M.M.; Odar, F.

    1979-01-01

    Current interest in the analysis of turbine trip transients has been generated by the recent tests performed at the Peach Bottom (Unit 2) reactor. Three tests, simulating turbine trip transients, were performed at different initial power and coolant flow conditions. The data from these tests provide considerable information to aid qualification of computer codes that are currently used in BWR design analysis. The results are presented of an analysis of a turbine trip transient using the RELAP-3B and the BNL-TWIGL computer codes. Specific results are provided comparing the calculated reactor power and system pressures with the test data. Excellent agreement for all three test transients is evident from the comparisons

  13. ADVANCES IN PEACH, NECTARINE AND PLUM PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nursery trees of stone fruits (Prunus spp. are traditionally produced by union of two distinct genotypes - the rootstock and the scion - which, by grafting, form a composite plant that will be maintained throughout of all plant life. In Brazil, the rootstocks are predominantly seed propagated and therefore usually results in heterogeneous trees for vigor and edaphic adaptation. However, with advances in rootstock breeding programs that released cultivars and certification in several countries (notably in Europe, the system will come gradually evolving for vegetative propagation (cuttings and tissue culture and use of seeds of selected rootstocks with specific characteristics and potted nursery trees production. For scion cultivar propagation, the budding system (with its many variations has predominantly been adopted in major producing countries. This review had as objective to comment main propagation methods adopted for rootstocks and scion in peach, nectarine and plum, and recent technical progress obtained as well as the needs of improvement for nursery tree production.

  14. Atmospheric fluoride levels in some Ontario peach orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drowley, W B; Rayner, A C; Jephcott, C M

    1963-10-01

    As a result of suture injury to peaches, a survey was taken to determine monthly atmospheric fluoride levels in the soft fruit-growing area of the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario. Although the injury was confined to a few orchards, it was found necessary to locate stations for fluoride sampling over a wide area. The limed-paper candle method was used for fluoride collection. Unwashed and washed peach leaves were analyzed for fluoride content. Fluoride was separated from all samples by the Willard-Winter distillation procedure and estimated colorimetrically. It was found that a general background level of atmospheric fluoride existed in the whole surveyed area and that the levels were highest in and near the area of peach injury. The fluoride content of peach leaves was also highest in this area. The coincidence of high fluoride levels and suture injury to peaches suggests that atmospheric fluoride was the causal agent. When lime sprays were applied to peach trees in the damaged area, a reduction in the incidence of suture injury was observed.

  15. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  16. Cryopreservation of peach palm zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Saldanha, Cleber W; Clement, Charles R; Guerra, Miguel P

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective option for long-term germplasm conservation of non-orthodox seed species, such as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). The objective of the present study was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for peach palm zygotic embryos based on the encapsulation-dehydration technique. After excision, zygotic embryos were encapsulated with 3 percent sodium alginate plus 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose, and pre-treated or not with 1 M sucrose during 24 h, followed by air-drying. Fresh weight water contents of beads decreased from 83 percent and 87 percent to 18 percent and 20 percent for pre-treated or non-pretreated beads, respectively, after 4 h of dehydration. Sucrose pre-treatment at 1 M caused lower zygotic embryo germination and plantlet height in contrast to non-treated beads. All the variables were statistically influenced by dehydration time. Optimal conditions for recovery of cryopreserved zygotic embryos include encapsulation and dehydration for 4 h in a forced air cabinet to 20 percent water content, followed by rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) and rapid thawing at 45 degree C. In these conditions 29 percent of the zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. However, plantlets obtained from dehydrated zygotic embryos had stunted haustoria and lower heights. Histological analysis showed that haustorium cells were large, vacuolated, with few protein bodies. In contrast, small cells with high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio formed the shoot apical meristem of the embryos, which were the cell types with favorable characteristics for survival after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed 41+/-9 percent and 88+/-4 percent survival levels after 12 weeks of acclimatization from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved treatments, respectively.

  17. Peach Bottom HTGR decommissioning and component removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, E.J.; Steward, K.P.; Iacono, J.V.

    1977-07-01

    The prime objective of the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program was to validate specific HTGR design codes and predictions by comparison of actual and predicted physics, thermal, fission product, and materials behavior in Peach Bottom. Three consecutive phases of the program provide input to the HTGR design methods verifications: (1) Nondestructive fuel and circuit gamma scanning; (2) removal of steam generator and primary circuit components; and (3) Laboratory examinations of removed components. Component removal site work commenced with establishment of restricted access areas and installation of controlled atmosphere tents to retain relative humidity at <30%. A mock-up room was established to test and develop the tooling and to train operators under simulated working conditions. Primary circuit ducting samples were removed by trepanning, and steam generator access was achieved by a combination of arc gouging and grinding. Tubing samples were removed using internal cutters and external grinding. Throughout the component removal phase, strict health physics, safety, and quality assurance programs were implemented. A total of 148 samples of primary circuit ducting and steam generator tubing were removed with no significant health physics or safety incidents. Additionally, component removal served to provide access fordetermination of cesium plateout distribution by gamma scanning inside the ducts and for macroexamination of the steam generator from both the water and helium sides. Evaluations are continuing and indicate excellent performance of the steam generator and other materials, together with close correlation of observed and predicted fission product plateout distributions. It is concluded that such a program of end-of-life research, when appropriately coordinated with decommissioning activities, can significantly advance nuclear plant and fuel technology development

  18. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  19. checkCIF/PLATON (full publication check)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    editor handling your paper, to upload your CIF via our web site. PLATON version of 05/02/2014; check.def file version of 05/02/2014. Datablock I - ellipsoid plot http://vm02b.iucr.org/cgi-bin/checkcif_hkl.pl(第 3/4 页)2014-2-12 09:09:12 ...

  20. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  1. Morphological and genetic perspectives of peach fruit responses to spring frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring frost is one of the most unpredictable cropping factors in many peach production areas. A severe spring frost can wipe out an entire peach crop whereas a mild spring frost may naturally help thinning as is common practice in commercial peach production. The extent of frost damage depends on t...

  2. Environmental Reality Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicone, Santo

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educational facilities conducting "reality check" self-audits to uncover the real truth behind underlying environmental problems. An environmental compliance multimedia checklist is included. (GR)

  3. check cif.pdf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMMIN

    Calculated. Reported. Volume ... PLAT094_ALERT_2_C Ratio of Maximum / Minimum Residual Density .... 3.24 Report ... checkCIF was carefully designed to identify outliers and unusual parameters, but every test has its limitations and alerts ...

  4. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  5. PeachVar-DB: A Curated Collection of Genetic Variations for the Interactive Analysis of Peach Genome Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Flati, Tiziano; Gioiosa, Silvia; Tagliaferri, Ilario; Ciacciulli, Angelo; Gao, Zhongshan; Gattolin, Stefano; Geuna, Filippo; Maggi, Francesco; Bottoni, Paolo; Rossini, Laura; Bassi, Daniele; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Chillemi, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to species of agricultural interest has the potential to accelerate the understanding and exploration of genetic resources. The storage, availability and maintenance of huge quantities of NGS-generated data remains a major challenge. The PeachVar-DB portal, available at http://hpc-bioinformatics.cineca.it/peach, is an open-source catalog of genetic variants present in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and wild-related species of Prunus genera, annotated from 146 samples publicly released on the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). We designed a user-friendly web-based interface of the database, providing search tools to retrieve single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and InDel variants, along with useful statistics and information. PeachVar-DB results are linked to the Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR) and the Phytozome database to allow easy access to other external useful plant-oriented resources. In order to extend the genetic diversity covered by the PeachVar-DB further, and to allow increasingly powerful comparative analysis, we will progressively integrate newly released data. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  7. Postirradiation examination of Peach Bottom HTGR Driver Fuel Element E06-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, F.F.; Wichner, R.P.; Martin, W.J.; Fairchild, L.L.; Kedl, R.J.; de Nordwall, H.J.

    1976-04-01

    The report presented describes the postirradiation examinations of driver fuel element E06-01, which had been irradiated an equivalent of 384 full-power days in Peach Bottom, Unit 1. The fuel element is described in detail and its temperature and irradiation service history briefly outlined. Results presented include: (1) visual observations; (2) critical dimensions of fuel compacts, sleeve, and spine; (3) axial distributions of gamma-emitting nuclides plus 3 H and 90 Sr; (4) radial distributions of these nuclides in the sleeve and spine at three axial locations in the fueled regions and three locations in the upper reflector; (5) metallographic examination of samples of fuel compact material; and (6) burnup determinations via radiochemical analyses at two compact locations

  8. Fungicide Efficacy in Peach Rusty Spot Control in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Dolovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry caused significant yield losses in Serbia.Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. However, because of specific environmental conditions in Serbia, recommended protection method using repeated fungicide treatments, starting from petal fall, did not prove to be efficient and the rate of infection in some susceptible peach cultivars reached 100%. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in order to test the efficacy of fungicides (a.i. kresoxim-methyl, flusilazole and sulfur for the efficient control of Rusty Spot epidemics. The trial was carried out under conditions of natural infection on the peach cv. Summerset at the locality of Bela Crkva, Serbia. In the ntreated control plots,high disease incidence was recorded with the percentage of affected fruit surface ranging from 33.5% in the first, up to the 35.4% in the second year of the trail. Among fungicides included in the trial, kresoxim-methyl proved to be the most efficient (90.25% in the first and 91.12% in the second year of the trial, flusilazole exhibited lower efficacy (87.28% and 80.61%, respectively while sulfur was the least efficient 82.33% and 80.30%, respectively. Determination of the most efficient fungicide for the peach rusty spot control in Serbia provides basic nformation for further investigations which will include optimization of treatment terms, as well as additional agro-technical control measures.

  9. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacka, D; Jesionkowska, K; Kruczyńska, D; Stehr, R; Schoorl, F; Buehler, A; Egger, S; Codarin, S; Hilaire, C; Höller, I; Guerra, W; Liverani, A; Donati, F; Sansavini, S; Martinelli, A; Petiot, C; Carbó, J; Echeverria, G; Iglesias, I; Bonany, J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers' preferences towards new varieties, and the data is based on the self-reported declarations of respondents, male and female, between 15 and 70 years old. 4271 consumers from 7 European countries were invited to supply information about their apple consumption habits, whereas 499 respondents from 5 countries answered questions relating to frequency of peach and nectarine consumption. In both, the apple and the peach surveys, data analysis of declared intake showed significant differences between nationalities. The highest apple consumption was in Poland, where over 55% declared a consumption of more than 5 apples per week. In comparison, Italian consumers most often indicated eating 3-5 apples per week (39.3%). The lowest apple consumption was in the Netherlands and Spain. In the case of peaches, the highest consumption was indicated in France where 48% of respondents declared a peach consumption of 3-5 per week with 40% eating more than 5 fruits per week. The lowest peach intake was declared in Germany. Irrespective of country women were shown to eat more apples that men. Furthermore, the group of older people (61-70 years) consume apples more often than the adult group (36-60), while within the youngest group of consumers (16-35) eating apples was not at all popular. As with apples females declared a higher peach consumption, and again significantly lower fruit consumption by the youngest group (16-35) was indicated. Although the availability of fruit at the market remains a prime factor in determining apple and peach consumption, our survey confirmed the trends of declining this popular fruit intake by the younger generation, as well as the persistent tendency of lower frequency of fruit consumption among men than women

  10. Check valves aging assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out an assessment of several check value diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. The evaluations have focussed on the capabilities of each method to provide information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects, check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data, including data obtained from the vendors who recently participated in a comprehensive series of tests directed by a nuclear industry users group. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed that provide several unique capabilities. These methods, based on external ac- an dc-magnetic monitoring are also described. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor both the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information

  11. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  12. Activity of pectin methyl esterase during blanching of peaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Rodis, P.S.; Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Proxenia, N.; Dijk, van C.

    1999-01-01

    The activity of pectin methyl esterase (PE) in peaches during blanching treatments was modelled and analyzed. It was postulated that the enzyme exists in two configurations, one bound and one soluble. The bound configuration can be converted into the soluble configuration. These two configurations

  13. Deficit irrigation of peach trees to reduce water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of water is a major limiting factor for production tree fruits such as peaches in the San Joaquin Valley of California and many other arid- or semi-arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a water resource management strategy to reduce non-productiv...

  14. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...., Fletcher, Heald & Hildreth, PLC, 1300 N. 17th Street - Eleventh Floor, Arlington, Virginia 22209 (Counsel... website, http://www.bcpiweb.com >. The proposed channel at Peach Springs is part of a hybrid application and rulemaking proceeding. In the application (File No. BNPH-20091016ADO), Cochise Media Licenses, the...

  15. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is

  16. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  17. [Memory Checking Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph T.

    Two basic tests for checking memory skills are included in these appendices. The first, the General Information Test, uses the same 150 items for each of its two versions. One version is a completion-type test which measures recall by requiring the examinee to supply a specific response. The other version supplements each of the 150 items with…

  18. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  19. Swing check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eminger, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A swing check valve which includes a valve body having an inlet and outlet is described. A recess in the valve body designed to hold a seal ring and a check valve disc swingable between open and closed positions. The disc is supported by a high strength wire secured at one end in a support spacer pinned through bearing blocks fixed to the valve body and at its other end in a groove formed on the outer peripheral surface of the disc. The parts are designed and chosen such to provide a lightweight valve disc which is held open by minimum velocity of fluid flowing through the valve which thus reduces oscillations and accompanying wear of bearings supporting the valve operating parts. (Auth.)

  20. Check Verbraucherpolitik und Verbraucherbeteiligung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Kornelia; Micklitz, Hans-W.; Oehler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the opportunities for an empirically grounded decision support system as an instrument for independent and scientifically based consumer policy consulting. To date, consumer policy is dominated by the information paradigm and the leitbild of the rational, sovereign...... and information-seeking consumer. Yet, both everyday practice and research in behavioural economics show that this view lacks empirical ground. In fact, there are different consumer types and different forms of rationalities at work. Effective consumer policy making should be based on the empirically revealed...... an empirically based “Check Consumer Policy and Consumer Participation” as a systematic decision and evaluation tool for policy makers. This check should be independent from the government and should be grounded on an empirical view of the consumer. Consumer policy tools should be tested with real consumers...

  1. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  2. Magnetically operated check valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed. The valve is comprised of a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  3. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  4. Inoculation methods and aggressiveness of five Fusarium species against peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Miguel Jarek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fusarium wilt is a major disease which affects peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.var gasipaes Henderson. This study aimed to evaluate inoculation methods and aggressiveness of isolates of five Fusarium species on peach palm. Fusarium proliferatum can infect the leaves, stem, and roots of peach palm. F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC, F. verticillioides, F. solani species complex (FSSC, and Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC are pathogenic to peach palm. The use of Fusarium-colonized ground corn for root inoculation was effective and reduced the level of damage to plants.

  5. Magnetic Check Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Poppet in proposed check valve restored to closed condition by magnetic attraction instead of spring force. Oscillations suppressed, with consequent reduction of wear. Stationary magnetic disk mounted just upstream of poppet, also containing magnet. Valve body nonmagnetic. Forward pressure or flow would push poppet away from stationary magnetic disk so fluid flows easily around poppet. Stop in valve body prevents poppet from being swept away. When flow stopped or started to reverse, magnetic attraction draws poppet back to disk. Poppet then engages floating O-ring, thereby closing valve and preventing reverse flow. Floating O-ring facilitates sealing at low loads.

  6. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants in order to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants

  7. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-01-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  8. Check, check, double check: checking the autopilot causes distrust : Experimental studies on the effects of compulsive perseveration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by persistent doubt. The majority of patients with OCD engage in repeated checking to reduce these feelings of uncertainty. However, numerous studies demonstrated that repetitive behavior ironically increases uncertainty: perseverative checking

  9. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  10. Parallel Algorithms for Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jaco; Mousavi, Mohammad Reza; Sgall, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Model checking is an automated verification procedure, which checks that a model of a system satisfies certain properties. These properties are typically expressed in some temporal logic, like LTL and CTL. Algorithms for LTL model checking (linear time logic) are based on automata theory and graph

  11. Peach and apricot stone combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynak, B.; Atimtay, Aysel T. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Topal, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara 06570 (Turkey)

    2005-07-25

    In this study, a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 mm inside diameter and 900 mm height was used to investigate the combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry. A lignite coal was also burned in the same combustor. The combustion characteristics of the wastes were compared with that of a lignite coal that is most widely used in Turkey. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. By changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate), the variation of emissions of various pollutants was studied. Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from peach and apricot stones quickly volatilizes and mostly burn in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of fruit stones increases, the combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. The results of this study have shown that the combustion efficiencies ranged between 98.8% and 99.1% for coal, 96.0% and 97.5% for peach stone and 93.4% and 96.3% for apricot stones. The coal has zero CO emission, but biomass fuels have very high CO emission which indicates that a secondary air addition is required for the system. SO{sub 2} emission of the coal is around 2400-2800 mg/Nm{sup 3}, whereas the biomass fuels have zero SO{sub 2} emission. NO{sub x} emissions are all below the limits set by the Turkish Air Quality Control Regulation of 1986 (TAQCR) for all tests. As the results of combustion of two biomass fuels are compared with each other, peach stones gave lower CO and NO{sub x} emissions but the SO{sub 2} emissions are a little higher than for apricot stones. These results suggest that

  12. Ball check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1978-01-01

    A pressurized nuclear reactor having an instrument assembly sheathed in a metallic tube which is extended vertically upward into the reactor core by traversing a metallic guide tube which is welded to the wall of the vessel is described. Sensors in each instrument assembly are connected to instruments outside the vessel to manifest the conditions within the core. Each instrument assembly probe is moved into position within a metallic guide channel. The guide channel penetrates the wall of the vessel and forms part of the barrier to the environment within the pressure vessel. Each channel includes a ball check valve which is opened by the instrument assembly probe when the probe passes through the valve. A ball valve element is moved from its seat by the probe to a position lateral of the bore of the channel and is guided to its seat along a sloped path within the valve body when the probe is removed. 5 claims, 3 figures

  13. Optimal database locks for efficient integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    In concurrent database systems, correctness of update transactions refers to the equivalent effects of the execution schedule and some serial schedule over the same set of transactions. Integrity constraints add further semantic requirements to the correctness of the database states reached upon...... the execution of update transactions. Several methods for efficient integrity checking and enforcing exist. We show in this paper how to apply one such method to automatically extend update transactions with locks and simplified consistency tests on the locked entities. All schedules produced in this way...

  14. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  15. Effects of infrared radiation heating on peeling performance and quality attributes of clingstone peaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity and wastewater disposal problems associated with the conventional wet-lye method for peeling clingstone peaches result in considerable negative environment impacts. This study investigated the efficacy of using infrared (IR) heating as an alternative method for peach peel removal without us...

  16. Equivalence of several Chern-Simons matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; Itoi, C.

    1994-01-01

    Chern-Simons (CS) coupling characterizes not only statistics, but also spin and scaling dimension of matter fields. We demonstrate spin transmutation in relativistic CS matter theory, and moreover show equivalence of several models. We study the CS vector model in some detail, which provides a consistent check to the assertion of the equivalence

  17. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  18. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  19. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G.; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R.; Lightfoot, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction. PMID:26885655

  20. Peach Bottom transient analysis with BWR TRACB02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Sutherland, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    TRAC calculations have been performed for a Turbine Trip transient (TT1) in the Peach Bottom BWR power plant. This study is a part of the qualification of the BWR-TRAC code. The simulation is aimed at reproducing the observed thermal hydraulic behavior in a pressurization transient. Measured core power is an input to the calculation. Comparison with data show the code reasonably well predicts the generation and propagation of the pressure waves in the main steam line and associated pressurization of the reactor vessel following the closure of the turbine stop valve

  1. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    OpenAIRE

    VILLALVA, Fernando Josué; CRAVERO BRUNERI, Andrea Paula; VINDEROLA, Gabriel; GONÇALVEZ DE OLIVEIRA, Enzo; PAZ, Noelia Fernanda; RAMÓN, Adriana Noemí

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) and prebiotics (inulin), and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbo...

  2. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Fairchild, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    The fifth in a projected series of six postirradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements is described. The element analyzed received an equivalent of 897 full-power days of irradiation prior to the scheduled termination of Core 2 operation. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a 137 Cs inventory of 20.3 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.1 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides 134 Cs, /sup 110 m/Ag, 60 Co, and 154 Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the beta-emitters 3 H, 14 C, and 90 Sr were obtained at four axial locations of the fueled region of the element sleeve and two axial locations of the element spine. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. In addition to fission product distributions, the appearance of the component parts of the element was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed

  3. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallroth, C.F.; Holzgraf, J.F.; Jensen, D.D.

    1977-09-01

    Fuel test element FTE-6 was irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for 645 equivalent full power days. Four fuel varieties, contained in H-327 graphite bodies, were tested. A primary result of this test has been to demonstrate acceptable performance even with calculated high stresses in the graphite bodies. Heterogeneous fuel loadings in the element caused local power peaking and azimuthal power variations, deforming the graphite fuel bodies and thereby causing bowing nearly five times as large as the diametral clearance within the sleeve. The axial stresses resulting from interference between the fuel bodies and sleeve were estimated to have reached 45% of the ultimate material strength at the end of the irradiation. Residual stresses from differential contraction within the fuel body resulted in probable in-plane stress levels of 130% of the material strength at the end-of-life shutdown and of up to 150% of the strength at shutdown during the irradiation cycle. The high in-plane stresses are local peaks at the corners of a sharp notch in the element, which may account for the stresses failing to cause damage. The lack of observable damage, however, indicates that the methods and data used for stress analysis give results that are either fairly accurate or conservative

  4. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, E.; Albisu, L.M.

    2015-07-01

    Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function per consumer. Thus, it is not necessary to make assumptions about preference distributions and correlations across respondents. It was observed that preference distributions were neither normal nor independently distributed. If those preferences were estimated by top-down models, conclusions would be biased. This paper also explores a new way to describe preferences through individual utility functions. Results show that the largest behavioural group gathered origin sensitive consumers. Their utility increased if the peaches were produced in the Calanda area and, especially, when peaches had the PDO Calanda brand. In sequence, the second most valuable attribute for consumers was the price. Peach size and packaging were not so important on purchase choice decision. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid trading smallest size peaches (weighting around 160 g/fruit). Traders also have to be careful by using active packaging. It was found that a group of consumers disliked this kind of product, probably, because they perceived it as less natural. (Author)

  5. Impact of glutathione on the allergenicity of the peach lipid transfer protein Pru p 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Casado, C; Tordesillas, L; Kinkel, J; Starkl, P; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Roth-Walter F; Díaz-Perales, A; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2015-01-01

    The allergenic potential of proteins can be altered under various physicochemical conditions. Glutathione (GSH) is a reducing agent that is used as an antioxidant in food products. We aimed to characterize the natural folding of peach proteins and test the allergenicity of reduced and natural Pru p 3, the major peach allergen. Pru p 3 was purified from peach, and its conformation was analyzed by means of circular dichroism. Using a thiol fluorescent probe, reduced proteins were detected in fresh peach. GSH-reduced Pru p 3 was tested in vitro for T-cell proliferation and in vivo using skin prick testing. GSH-reduced Pru p 3 produced variable skin prick reactions in peach-allergic patients. The proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic patients to reduced Pru p 3 tended to be less intense, whereas secretion of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-5, and IL-10 was comparable. In a pool of sera from peach-allergic patients, reduction hardly impaired IgE-binding. Moreover, the stability of reduced Pru p 3 to gastrointestinal digestion was similar to that of the natural form. GSH can at least transiently reduce Pru p 3. We found that the effect of reduction on the allergenicity of Pru p 3 varied. Therefore, as an additive, GSH does not seem to eliminate the risk of reactions for peach-allergic patients.

  6. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based...

  7. Diagnostic information in compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today's organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying predefined (legal) requirements. Deviations may be costly and expose the organization to severe risks. Compliance checking is of growing

  8. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Josué VILLALVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and prebiotics (inulin, and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbohydrates; 9.87% inulin; 1.22% ash; 0.201% calcium, 0.155% phosphorus and 0.168% sodium. On the first and 21th day of storage counts of B. lactis Bb – 12 was 4 x 108 CFU/mL and 1.5 x 107 CFU/mL, respectively. It was possible to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories, fat, and sugar and with potential symbiotic effect, by addition of B. lactis Bb – 12. A product with suitable organoleptic characteristics, creamy texture, peachy colour, taste and flavour, and no ice crystals was obtained. This ice cream would be a suitable food matrix to incorporate prebiotic and probiotic ingredients as a potential symbiotic food.

  9. Low dose UV and gamma radiation on storage rot and physicochemical changes in peaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Y.; Lukombo, S.M.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.A.; Wilson, C.L.; Pusey, P.L.; Chaultz, E.

    1993-01-01

    Peach fruit were irradiated with 7.5 x 10(4) ergs/mm(2) of UV (254nm) or 0.1 kGy gamma rays or a combination of both, then stored at 16C for 21 days. The results showed that both UV and gamma rays reduced storage rot and delayed ripening. UV treated peaches had lower sugar concentration, total phenols, anthocyanins and lower weight loss than the gamma treated peaches. The combination of UV and gamma showed no advantage over the use of UV or gamma alone

  10. Scram system with continuos check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Sacco, Walter.

    1976-02-01

    The equipment described pretends to be a further step to the use of integrated circuits in nuclear instrumentation, considering that this type of control was traditionally carried out on the bases of electromechanical elements. A continuous self-check method has been applied in accordance with the high reliability requiered for this type of equipments. The developed equipment fulfils the condition that any deficiency in its component elements, causes an anormal self-detected operation. The equipment covers two systems: the Scram one, that includes the sequence generator-detector, the rods check and scram chain, and the Check system that uses pulses from the sequence detector. (author) [es

  11. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  12. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.

    2009-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds

  13. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The

  14. On the operator equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.

    1978-06-01

    A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined

  15. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... forms to collect information related to the Federal marketing orders for nectarines and peaches grown in... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrew Hatch, Supervisory Marketing Specialist, Marketing Order... Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Marketing Order Nos. 916 and 917...

  16. Hyperspectral imaging detection of decayed honey peaches based on their chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Wang, Yihang; Xiao, Hui; Gu, Xinzhe; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang

    2017-11-15

    Honey peach is a very common but highly perishable market fruit. When pathogens infect fruit, chlorophyll as one of the important components related to fruit quality, decreased significantly. Here, the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging to determine the chlorophyll content thus distinguishing diseased peaches was investigated. Three optimal wavelengths (617nm, 675nm, and 818nm) were selected according to chlorophyll content via successive projections algorithm. Partial least square regression models were established to determine chlorophyll content. Three band ratios were obtained using these optimal wavelengths, which improved spatial details, but also integrates the information of chemical composition from spectral characteristics. The band ratio values were suitable to classify the diseased peaches with 98.75% accuracy and clearly show the spatial distribution of diseased parts. This study provides a new perspective for the selection of optimal wavelengths of hyperspectral imaging via chlorophyll content, thus enabling the detection of fungal diseases in peaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organization of Chile (Servicio Agricola y Ganadero, referred to in this section as SAG) or a private export...) Responsibilities of Servicio Agricola y Ganadero. SAG will ensure that: (1) Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot...

  18. Treasury Check Verification Query (TCVQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The TCVQ system determines the SSN of an individual whose check has been returned to a local field office. The FO is able to request this information via the TCVQ...

  19. Model Checking Algorithms for CTMDPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Peter; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL) can be interpreted over continuoustime Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) to specify quantitative properties of stochastic systems that allow some external control. Model checking CSL formulae over CTMDPs requires then the computation of optimal control strategie...

  20. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  1. Sensory evaluation of Regina freestone peaches treated with low doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, M.; Wong, S.Y.; Odbert, N.

    1985-01-01

    Sensory appraisal of low post-harvest gamma irradiation dosing (65-75 Krad) of a single batch of peaches revealed significant differences in aroma and in taste components not associated with sweetness, but only slight differences in firmness and appearance. A panel of practiced judges evaluated irradiated and non-irradiated peaches using a technique of minimal cross-sensory inference. The significant differences in aroma and taste also were detected by untrained judges

  2. Genetic dissection of Sharka disease tolerance in peach (P. persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Rossini, Laura; Geuna, Filippo; Palmisano, Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio; Castrignanò, Tiziana; Gattolin, Stefano; Ciacciulli, Angelo; Babini, Anna Rosa; Liverani, Alessandro; Bassi, Daniele

    2017-11-03

    Plum pox virus (PPV), agent of Sharka disease, is the most important quarantine pathogen of peach (P. persica L. Batsch). Extensive evaluation of peach germplasm has highlighted the lack of resistant sources, while suggesting the presence of a quantitative disease resistance, expressed as reduction in the intensity of symptoms. Unravelling the genetic architecture of peach response to PPV infection is essential for pyramiding resistant genes and for developing more tolerant varieties. For this purpose, a genome-wide association (GWA) approach was applied in a panel of accessions phenotyped for virus susceptibility and genotyped with the IPSC peach 9 K SNP Array, and coupled with an high-coverage resequencing of the tolerant accession 'Kamarat'. Genome-wide association identified three highly significant associated loci on chromosome 2 and 3, accounting for most of the reduction in PPV-M susceptibility within the analysed peach population. The exploration of associated intervals through whole-genome comparison of the tolerant accession 'Kamarat' and other susceptible accessions, including the PPV-resistant wild-related species P. davidiana, allow the identification of allelic variants in promising candidate genes, including an RTM2-like gene already characterized in A. thaliana. The present study is the first effort to identify genetic factors involved in Sharka disease in peach germplasm through a GWA approach. We provide evidence of the presence of quantitative resistant loci in a collection of peach accessions, identifying major loci and highly informative SNPs that could be useful for marker assisted selection. These results could serve as reference bases for future research aimed at the comprehension of genetic mechanism regulating the complex peach-PPV interaction.

  3. Risk-based selection of SSCs at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, G.A.; Marie, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of identifying risk significant systems, structures, and components (SSCS) that are within the scope of the maintenance rule is to bring a higher level of attention to a subset of those SSCS. These risk-significant SSCs will have specific performance criteria established for them, and failure to meet this performance criteria will result in establishing goals to ensure the necessary improvement in performance. The Peach Bottom individual plant examination (IPE) results were used to provide insights for the verification of proposed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods set forth in the Industry Maintenance Guidelines for Implementation of the Maintenance Rule. The objective of reviewing the methods for selection of SSCs that are considered risk significant was to ensure the methods used are logical, reproducible, and can be consistently applied

  4. Analysis of Peach Bottom station blackout with MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.E.; Cole, R.K.; Haskin, F.E.; Summers, R.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration analysis of station blackout at Peach Bottom has been performed using MELCOR and the results have been compared with those from MARCON 2.1B and the Source Term Code Package (STCP). MELCOR predicts greater in-vessel hydrogen production, earlier melting and core collapse, but later debris discharge than MARCON 2.1B. The drywell fails at vessel breach in MELCOR, but failure is delayed about an hour in MARCON 2.1B. These differences are mainly due to the MELCOR models for candling during melting, in-core axial conduction, and continued oxidation and heat transfer from core debris following lower head dryout. Three sensitivity calculations have been performed with MELCOR to address uncertainties regarding modeling of the core-concrete interactions. The timing of events and the gas and radionuclide release rates are somewhat different in the base case and the three sensitivity cases, but the final conditions and total releases are similar

  5. Effect of Particle Orientation during Thermal Processing of Canned Peach Halves: A CFD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adreas Dimou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD to study the effect of particle orientation on fluid flow, temperature evolution, as well as microbial destruction, during thermal processing of still cans filled with peach halves in sugar syrup. A still metal can with four peach halves in 20% sugar syrup was heated at 100 °C for 20 min and thereafter cooled at 20 °C. Infinite heat transfer coefficient between heating medium and external can wall was considered. Peach halves were orderly placed inside the can with the empty space originally occupied by the kernel facing, in all peaches, either towards the top or the bottom of the can. In a third situation, the can was placed horizontally. Simulations revealed differences on particle temperature profiles, as well as process F values and critical point location, based on their orientation. At their critical points, peach halves with the kernel space facing towards the top of the can heated considerably slower and cooled faster than the peaches having their kernel space facing towards the bottom of the can. The horizontal can case exhibited intermediate cooling but the fastest heating rates and the highest F process values among the three cases examined. The results of this study could be used in designing of thermal processes with optimal product quality.

  6. Silage or fresh by-product of peach palm as roughage in the feeding of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade; de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate intake and apparent digestibility of agro-industrial by-product of peach palm in diets for lambs. Twenty castrated, crossbred Santa Ines lambs, with average age of 150 days and body weight of 22.4 ± 3.4 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design with four experimental diets composed of the following: fresh by-product of peach palm enriched with urea + ammonia sulfate (FU); fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (FP); silage of peach palm by-product + concentrate (SP); and silage of peach palm by-product enriched with 15% of cornmeal + concentrate (SPC). Intake was recorded daily, and the digestibility coefficients were estimated with the internal marker indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF). Diet FU resulted in the lowest intake and digestibility of the nutrients evaluated. Animals receiving diet FP showed higher intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and digestible energy (DE) in relation to animals fed diets SP and SPC. Diets SP and SPC showed higher coefficients of digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF than diet FP. Diet SP reduced the intakes of DM, OM, ether extract (EE), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), TDN, and DE and the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and NFC as compared with diet SPC. Feedlot lambs fed a diet with fresh peach palm by-product + concentrate (diet FP) have higher nutrient intake.

  7. Candidate gene database and transcript map for peach, a model species for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Renate; Lecouls, Anne-Claire; Callahan, Ann; Dandekar, Abhaya; Garay, Lilibeth; McCord, Per; Howad, Werner; Chan, Helen; Verde, Ignazio; Main, Doreen; Jung, Sook; Georgi, Laura; Forrest, Sam; Mook, Jennifer; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, Hye Ran; Jesudurai, Christopher; Sosinski, Bryon; Arús, Pere; Baird, Vance; Parfitt, Dan; Reighard, Gregory; Scorza, Ralph; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Wing, Rod; Abbott, Albert Glenn

    2005-05-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) is a model species for the Rosaceae, which includes a number of economically important fruit tree species. To develop an extensive Prunus expressed sequence tag (EST) database for identifying and cloning the genes important to fruit and tree development, we generated 9,984 high-quality ESTs from a peach cDNA library of developing fruit mesocarp. After assembly and annotation, a putative peach unigene set consisting of 3,842 ESTs was defined. Gene ontology (GO) classification was assigned based on the annotation of the single "best hit" match against the Swiss-Prot database. No significant homology could be found in the GenBank nr databases for 24.3% of the sequences. Using core markers from the general Prunus genetic map, we anchored bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones on the genetic map, thereby providing a framework for the construction of a physical and transcript map. A transcript map was developed by hybridizing 1,236 ESTs from the putative peach unigene set and an additional 68 peach cDNA clones against the peach BAC library. Hybridizing ESTs to genetically anchored BACs immediately localized 11.2% of the ESTs on the genetic map. ESTs showed a clustering of expressed genes in defined regions of the linkage groups. [The data were built into a regularly updated Genome Database for Rosaceae (GDR), available at (http://www.genome.clemson.edu/gdr/).].

  8. Burdock fructooligosaccharide enhances biocontrol of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa to postharvest decay of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyin; Liu, Zhouyang; Xu, Baitian; Chen, Keping; Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Qiuyun

    2013-10-15

    The influence of adding burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) in the culture media on the efficacy of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in controlling postharvest decay of peaches and its possible mode of action were investigated. The antagonistic activity of R. mucilaginosa to Rhizopus decay and blue mold decay of peaches was greatly enhanced through cultivation in the nutrient yeast dextrose agar (NYDA) medium amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32%, compared with that cultivated in NYDB without BFO. R. mucilaginosa at 1×10(8) cells/mL cultivation in the NYDB media did not reduce the natural decay incidence of peaches, compared with the control after 30 d at 4 °C followed by 7d at 20 °C. However, R. mucilaginosa cultivation in the NYDB media amended with BFO at the concentration of 0.32% reduced the natural decay incidence of peaches. The population of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% increased rapidly in peach wounds compared to that harvested from NYDB without BFO no matter peaches were stored at 20 °C or 4 °C. The activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase of cell-free culture filtrate of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with BFO at 0.32% were higher than that at other concentrations and the control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on refrigerator storage of peach fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinov, V.

    1985-01-01

    Peach fruits of cvs. Halle and Elberta were gamma irradiated by 0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy and stored in the usual way (20-25 grad C) or in refrigerator (5 and 0 grad C). The rate of mould decay, reduction in market quality and complex evaluation of the fruits at the time of storage were investigated. Linear regression correlations between the percentage of decay and the time of storage were estimated by probit-logarithmic transformation of the percentage of the decayed fruits. On that basis were assess the probable terms to reach 5% decay (permissible period of storage) and 10% decay. The criteria of quality and taste evaluation of the fruits for these periods were determined. The irradiation of peach fruits with 2.5 and 3.0 kGy prolonged 3 to 5 times the period free of decay (up to 5%) in the case of normal storage conditions as compared to the control (no irradiation). The sharp reduction in quality and the sensorial evaluation for these periods did not justify irradiation in case of usual storage conditions. Irradiation with the same rates in case of refrigeration storage proved a useful supplementary factor prolonging the periods before appearance of decay up to 17 days (i.e. 42% as compared to the control) and the permissible period of storage up to 25 days (25% more than the control). These results were obtained at a dose of 2.5 kGy for cv. Halle fruits, at dose 3.0 kGy for cv. Elberta fruits and at storage temperature of 0 grad C. For the periods up to 5% decay (25 to 26 days) the criteria of quality and the complex evaluation remained above the permissible level. Longer storage was not advisable because physiological damage of the fruit was evident

  10. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  11. Investigation into effects of ionizing radiations on physical-chemical properties of bulgarian sorts of peaches and grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Kalinov, V.; Nikolova, M.; Pavlova, E.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the degree and direction of those changes in physicochemical characteristics of irradiated peaches and grapes which determine their quality after irradiation and during storage. The following main conclusions are made: irradiation with doses of 200 to 300 krad does not cause significant alterations in the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of peaches and grapes; irradiation has a direct effect on the consistancy of peaches and grapes, leading to their softening which is proportional to the radiation dose used; radiation treatment is advisable in the case of peaches and grapes in tended for short-term rather than long-term storage at low temperatures

  12. Fission product behaviour during operation of the second Peach Bottom core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Nordwall, H.J. de; Dyer, F.F.; Wichner, R.P.; Martin, W.J.; Kolb, J.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Peach Bottom high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor began operation on 1 June 1967 and continued power production until 9 October 1969, accumulating 452 equivalent full power days (EFPD) operation. After reload, power production with Core 2 began 14 July 1970 and terminated 31 October 1974 after 897 EFPD operation. Surveillance of fission product release and behaviour was intensified during Core 2 operation to permit a wider range of measurements to be made. In addition to monitoring the noble gas content of the fuel element purge system and the coolant circuit, the programme was extended to include measurements of radioactive and other condensible species (including dust) entering or exiting the core and steam generator, and of surface concentrations of gamma-emitting nuclides deposited on the primary coolant surfaces. These data, which were obtained over the operating period April 1971 - October 1974, are summarized and discussed. The data demonstrate that caesium behaviour in the coolant circuit during the first two-thirds of Core 2 life was primarily governed by caesium released during Core 1 operation. The data also indicate that whereas the steam generator surfaces attenuate molecular caesium concentrations in the coolant, the dust-borne component is remarkably persistent. Driver fuel elements were removed from the reactor after 385 EFPD, 701 EFPD, and at end-of-life. These fuel elements are at various stages of an intensive post-irradiation examination. Some of the axial and radial concentration profiles of fission products which have been obtained are likewise presented. Although these profiles indicate varied fission product behaviour, the observations can in general be qualitatively described on the basis of the operational histories of the fuel elements. (author)

  13. [Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in peach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan-bing; Ji, Zhi-rui; Chi, Fu-mei; Qiao, Zhuang; Xu, Cheng-nan; Zhang, Jun-xiang; Zhou, Zong-shan; Dong, Qing-long

    2016-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators and play diverse regulatory roles in biotic and abiotic stresses, plant growth and development processes. In this study, the WRKY DNA-binding domain (Pfam Database number: PF03106) downloaded from Pfam protein families database was exploited to identify WRKY genes from the peach (Prunus persica 'Lovell') genome using HMMER 3.0. The obtained amino acid sequences were analyzed with DNAMAN 5.0, WebLogo 3, MEGA 5.1, MapInspect and MEME bioinformatics softwares. Totally 61 peach WRKY genes were found in the peach genome. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that peach WRKY genes were classified into three Groups: Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The WRKY N-terminal and C-terminal domains of Group Ⅰ (group I-N and group I-C) were monophyletic. The Group Ⅱ was sub-divided into five distinct clades (groupⅡ-a, Ⅱ-b, Ⅱ-c, Ⅱ-d and Ⅱ-e). Our domain analysis indicated that the WRKY regions contained a highly conserved heptapeptide stretch WRKYGQK at its N-terminus followed by a zinc-finger motif. The chromosome mapping analysis showed that peach WRKY genes were distributed with different densities over 8 chromosomes. The intron-exon structure analysis revealed that structures of the WRKY gene were highly conserved in the peach. The conserved motif analysis showed that the conserved motifs 1, 2 and 3, which specify the WRKY domain, were observed in all peach WRKY proteins, motif 5 as the unknown domain was observed in group Ⅱ-d, two WRKY domains were assigned to GroupⅠ. SqRT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that 16 PpWRKY genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits at various expression levels. Our analysis thus identified the PpWRKY gene families, and future functional studies are needed to reveal its specific roles.

  14. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gary Bielenberg

    Full Text Available Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD and chilling requirement (CR and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR and 'UFGold' (low CR. We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for BD and CR.

  15. Lipid-dissolved γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene in globular chromoplasts of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Judith; Amrehn, Evelyn; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2014-11-01

    High levels of β-carotene, lycopene, and the rare γ-carotene occur predominantly lipid-dissolved in the chromoplasts of peach palm fruits. First proof of their absorption from these fruits is reported. The structural diversity, the physical deposition state in planta, and the human bioavailability of carotenoids from the edible fruits of diverse orange and yellow-colored peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) varieties were investigated. HPLC-PDA-MS(n) revealed a broad range of carotenes, reaching total carotenoid levels from 0.7 to 13.9 mg/100 g FW. Besides the predominant (all-E)-β-carotene (0.4-5.4 mg/100 g FW), two (Z)-isomers of γ-carotene (0.1-3.9 mg/100 g FW), and one (Z)-lycopene isomer (0.04-0.83 mg/100 g FW) prevailed. Approximately 89-94 % of total carotenoid content pertained to provitamin A carotenoids with retinol activity equivalents ranging from 37 to 609 µg/100 g FW. The physical deposition state of these carotenoids in planta was investigated using light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. The plastids found in both orange and yellow-colored fruit mesocarps were amylo-chromoplasts of the globular type, containing carotenoids predominantly in a lipid-dissolved form. The hypothesis of lipid-dissolved carotenoids was supported by simple solubility estimations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the fruit mesocarp. In our study, we report first results on the human bioavailability of γ-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene from peach palm fruit, particularly proving the post-prandial absorption of the rarely occurring γ-carotene. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition has been shown to be decisive for carotenoid bioavailability, lipid-dissolved carotenoids in peach palm fruits are expected to be highly bioavailable, however, further studies are required.

  16. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  17. Checking behavioral conformance of artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Leoni, de M.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of process models (e.g., for analysis, improvement, or execution) strongly depends on their ability to describe reality. Conformance checking is a technique to validate how good a given process model describes recorded executions of the actual process. Recently, artifacts have been

  18. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...

  19. Context-aware compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Verbeek, H.M.W.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Barros, A.; Gal, A.; Kindler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations face more and more the burden to show that their business is compliant with respect to many different boundaries. The activity of compliance checking is commonly referred to as auditing. As information systems supporting the organization’s business record their usage, process mining

  20. Testing efficiency transfer codes for equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Celik, N.; Cornejo Diaz, N.; Dlabac, A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Hult, M.; Jovanovic, S.; Lepy, M.-C.; Mihaljevic, N.; Sima, O.; Tzika, F.; Jurado Vargas, M.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Vidmar, G.

    2010-01-01

    Four general Monte Carlo codes (GEANT3, PENELOPE, MCNP and EGS4) and five dedicated packages for efficiency determination in gamma-ray spectrometry (ANGLE, DETEFF, GESPECOR, ETNA and EFFTRAN) were checked for equivalence by applying them to the calculation of efficiency transfer (ET) factors for a set of well-defined sample parameters, detector parameters and energies typically encountered in environmental radioactivity measurements. The differences between the results of the different codes never exceeded a few percent and were lower than 2% in the majority of cases.

  1. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  2. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  3. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  4. A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Niehl, Annette; Rosales, Marlene; Fiore, Nicola; Zamorano, Alan; Granell, Antonio; Pallas, Vicente

    2013-05-28

    Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees. Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection. Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically affect the host transcriptome in

  5. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.M.

    1978-03-01

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr

  6. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable cause...

  7. Model Checking Markov Chains: Techniques and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapreev, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation deals with four important aspects of model checking Markov chains: the development of efficient model-checking tools, the improvement of model-checking algorithms, the efficiency of the state-space reduction techniques, and the development of simulation-based model-checking

  8. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Pei, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong) were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO) at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L) might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L) demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future. PMID:26904651

  9. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal.

  10. Genetic analysis identifies the region of origin of smuggled peach palm seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristo-Araújo, Michelly; Molles, David Bronze; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R

    2017-04-01

    Seeds of a plant, supposedly a palm tree known popularly as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), were seized by the Federal Police in the state of Pará, Brazil, without documentation of legal origin to authorize transportation and marketing in Brazil. They were alleged to be from the western part of Amazonas, Brazil, near the frontier with Peru and Colombia, justifying the lack of documentation. The species was confirmed to be peach palm. To determine the likely place of origin, a genetic analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the seized seeds and representative populations of peach palm from all of Amazonia, maintained in the Peach palm Core Collection, at the National Research Institute for Amazonia, using nine microsatellite loci. Reynolds' coancestry analysis showed a strong relationship between the seeds and the Pampa Hermosa landrace, around Yurimaguas, Peru. The Structure program, used to infer the probability of an individual belonging to a given population, showed that most seeds grouped with populations close to Yurimaguas, Peru, corroborating the coancestry analysis. The Pampa Hermosa landrace is the main source of spineless peach palm seeds used in the Brazilian heart-of-palm agribusiness, which motivated the smugglers to attempt this biopiracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicatto, J A; Rainert, K T; Gonçalves, M J; Helm, C V; Altmajer-Vaz, D; Tavares, L B B

    2018-02-15

    In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  12. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Chicatto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  13. Differential metabolic rearrangements after cold storage are correlated with chilling injury resistance of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bustamante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the metabolome is a key component involved in the acclimation to cold in plants; however, few studies have been devoted to the analysis of the overall metabolite changes after cold storage of fruits prior to consumption. Here, metabolite profiling of six peach varieties with differential susceptibility to develop mealiness, a chilling-injury (CI symptom, was performed. According to metabolic content at harvest; after cold treatment; and after ripening, either following cold treatment or not; peach fruits clustered in distinct groups, depending on harvest-time, cold treatment, and ripening state. Both common and distinct metabolic responses among the six varieties were found; common changes including dramatic galactinol and raffinose rise; GABA, Asp and Phe increase; and 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate decrease. Raffinose content after long cold treatment quantitatively correlated to the degree of mealiness resistance of the different peach varieties; and thus, raffinose emerges as a candidate biomarker of this CI disorder. Xylose increase after cold treatment was found only in the susceptible genotypes, indicating a particular cell wall reconfiguration of these varieties while being cold-stored. Overall, results indicate that peach fruit differential metabolic rearrangements due to cold treatment, rather than differential metabolic priming before cold, are better related with CI resistance. The plasticity of peach fruit metabolism renders it possible to induce a diverse metabolite array after cold, which is successful, in some genotypes, to avoid CI

  14. Phenotypic characterization of qualitative parameters and antioxidant contents in peach and nectarine fruit and changes after jam preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoudi, Pavlina; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kafkaletou, Mina; Tsantili, Eleni

    2017-08-01

    Sugars and antioxidants in peaches contribute to fresh fruit quality and nutrition; however, information on widely grown cultivars and changes induced after peach jam preparation is limited. In the present study, colour, sugars and antioxidant parameters were determined in fruit and jam from 45 peach and nectarine cultivars. Pronounced varietal differences were found in sorbitol (42-fold range), total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacities (10- to 19-fold range). Sorbitol levels were greater in non-melting peach, followed by nectarine, and lower values were found in melting peach cultivars. Late-harvested peach and nectarine cultivars tended to have a higher soluble solid content and antioxidant potential. Cultivars with relatively high antioxidant contents produced darker and redder jams, containing more antioxidants, than the jam or the fruit from the other cultivars. Jam-TPs were reduced by 48% compared to fruit-TPs, with greater reduction being noted in high antioxidant cultivars. The most favorable jam organoleptic characteristics were found in 'Morsiani 90', 'Amiga', 'Romea' and 'Alirosada', as well as in non-melting compared to melting peach cultivars. The best cultivars for each fruit flesh type and jam were identified. Peach jam could be an alternative substitute when fresh fruit is not available and when it is prepared with high antioxidant cultivars. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Peach leaf responses to soil and cement dust pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletsika, Persefoni A; Nanos, George D; Stavroulakis, George G

    2015-10-01

    Dust pollution can negatively affect plant productivity in hot, dry and with high irradiance areas during summer. Soil or cement dust were applied on peach trees growing in a Mediterranean area with the above climatic characteristics. Soil and cement dust accumulation onto the leaves decreased the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available to the leaves without causing any shade effect. Soil and mainly cement dust deposition onto the leaves decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, and water use efficiency due possibly to stomatal blockage and other leaf cellular effects. In early autumn, rain events removed soil dust and leaf functions partly recovered, while cement dust created a crust partially remaining onto the leaves and causing more permanent stress. Leaf characteristics were differentially affected by the two dusts studied due to their different hydraulic properties. Leaf total chlorophyll decreased and total phenol content increased with dust accumulation late in the summer compared to control leaves due to intense oxidative stress. The two dusts did not cause serious metal imbalances to the leaves, except of lower leaf K content.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation of light inside peach trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genard, M.; Baret, F.

    1994-01-01

    Gap fractions measured with hemispherical photographs were used to describe spatial and temporal variations of diffuse and direct light fractions transmitted to shoots within peach trees. For both cultivars studied, spatial variability of daily diffuse and direct light transmitted to shoots was very high within the tree. Diffuse and daily direct light fractions transmitted to shoots increased with shoot height within the tree and for more erect shoots. Temporal variations of hourly direct light were also large among shoots. Hourly direct light fractions transmitted to shoots were analyzed using recent developments in multivariate exploratory analysis. A gradient was observed between shoots sunlit almost all day and other shoots almost never sunlit. Well sunlit shoots were mostly located at the top of the tree and were more erect. Shoots located in the outer parts of the tree crown were slightly but significantly more sunlit than others for one cultivar. Principal component analysis additionally discriminated shoots according to the time of the day they were sunlit. This classification was related to shoot compass position for one cultivar. Spatial location of the shoot in the tree explained only a small part of light climate variability. Consequences of modeling light climate within the tree are discussed

  17. Sensitivity analyses of the peach bottom turbine trip 2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbia Salah, A.; D'Auria, F.

    2003-01-01

    In the light of the sustained development in computer technology, the possibilities for code calculations in predicting more realistic transient scenarios in nuclear power plants have been enlarged substantially. Therefore, it becomes feasible to perform 'Best-estimate' simulations through the incorporation of three-dimensional modeling of reactor core into system codes. This method is particularly suited for complex transients that involve strong feedback effects between thermal-hydraulics and kinetics as well as to transient involving local asymmetric effects. The Peach bottom turbine trip test is characterized by a prompt core power excursion followed by a self limiting power behavior. To emphasize and understand the feedback mechanisms involved during this transient, a series of sensitivity analyses were carried out. This should allow the characterization of discrepancies between measured and calculated trends and assess the impact of the thermal-hydraulic and kinetic response of the used models. On the whole, the data comparison revealed a close dependency of the power excursion with the core feedback mechanisms. Thus for a better best estimate simulation of the transient, both of the thermal-hydraulic and the kinetic models should be made more accurate. (author)

  18. Peach bottom cycle 2 stability analysis using RELAP5/PARCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggini, F.; D'Auria, F.; Miro, R.; Verdu, G.; Ginestar, D.

    2003-01-01

    Boiling channels and systems may oscillate owing to the behaviour of the liquid-steam mixture used for removing the thermal power. A thermal-hydraulic system may be unstable under particular operating conditions. Two kinds of power oscillation have been observed in BWR cores. One is an in-phase (core-wide) and the other is an out-of-phase (regional) oscillation. Since the above feature can make detection more difficult, the latter oscillation is potentially more severe. The problem is well known since the design of the first BWR system. However, to improve the safety systems of these reactors, it is necessary to be able to detect in a reliable way these oscillations from the neutronic signals. The purpose of this work is to characterize the unstable behaviour of a BWR. Within this study, it has been performed a number of perturbation analysis. The coupled codes RELAP5-Mod3.3/PARCS have used for the simulation of the transients. Validation has been performed against Peach Bottom-2 Low-Flow Stability Test PT3. Three dimensional time domain BWR stability analysis were performed on test point 3 for the core wide oscillation mode. In this transient dynamically complex events take place, i.e., neutron kinetics is coupled with thermal-hydraulics and an in-phase oscillation has been developed. The calculated results are compared against the available experimental data. (author)

  19. SENTINEL trademark technical basis report for Peach Bottom. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    PECO Energy in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) installed the SENTINEL trademark software at its Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). This software incorporates models of the safety and support systems which are used to display the defense in depth present in the plant and a quantitative assessment of the plant risks during proposed on-line maintenance. During the past nine months, PECO Energy personnel have used this display to evaluate the safety of proposed on-line maintenance schedules. The report describes the motivation for and the development of the SENTINEL software. It describes the generation of Safety Function Assessment Trees and Plant Transient Assessment Trees and their use in evaluating the level of defense-in-depth of key plant safety functions and the susceptibility of the plant to critical transient events. Their results are displayed by color indicators ranging from green, through yellow and orange, to red to show increasingly hazardous conditions. The report describes the use of the PBAPS Probabilistic Safety Assessment within the SENTINEL code to calculate an instantaneous core damage frequency and the criteria by which this frequency is translated to a color indicator

  20. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  1. Calibration and check light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejedla, B; Krotil, J

    1979-02-15

    The light source is designed for calibrating photomultipliers and checking the function of the thermoluminescent dosemeters evaluation equipment. The check light source consists of a polymer material-based (polyvinyl toluene) plastic scintillator and a 2-phenyl-5-(4-bisphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol and/or paraterphenyl activator, and of emission spectrum shifters for response in the green and the blue light regions. The plastic scintillator is sealed in a case to whose bottom a radiation source is fixed, such as a /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y source of an activity of 1.85x10/sup 3/s/sup -1/ to 0.74x10/sup 9/s/sup -1/.

  2. From Preventive to Permissive Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negativcorrelation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth cen...... shows that this result is not in fact inconsistent with a stylized Malthusian mechanism, and can be understood within the context of an increasing dominance of shocks to aggregate demand rather than to aggregate supply...

  3. From preventive to permissive checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis; Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negative correlation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth c...... model shows that this result is not in fact inconsistent with a stylised Malthusian mechanism, and can be understood within the context of an increasing dominance of shocks to aggregate demand rather than to aggregate supply....

  4. The equivalence theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, H.

    1990-01-01

    The equivalence theorem states that, at an energy E much larger than the vector-boson mass M, the leading order of the amplitude with longitudinally polarized vector bosons on mass shell is given by the amplitude in which these vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding Higgs ghosts. We prove the equivalence theorem and show its validity in every order in perturbation theory. We first derive the renormalized Ward identities by using the diagrammatic method. Only the Feynman-- 't Hooft gauge is discussed. The last step of the proof includes the power-counting method evaluated in the large-Higgs-boson-mass limit, needed to estimate the leading energy behavior of the amplitudes involved. We derive expressions for the amplitudes involving longitudinally polarized vector bosons for all orders in perturbation theory. The fermion mass has not been neglected and everything is evaluated in the region m f ∼M much-lt E much-lt m Higgs

  5. Characterization of Amazon fibers of the peach palm, balsa, and babassu by XDR, TGA and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria A.; Marconcini, Jose M.; Morelli, Carolina L.; Marinelli, Alessandra L.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present the results by testing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and determining the moisture content of the peach palm, balsa and babassu fibers for assessing the feasibility of composite materials. The fibers of peach palm, balsa and babassu showed characteristic chemical structure of lignocellulosic material, and good thermal stability up to 220 deg C. The fiber with the highest crystallinity index (Ic) is the peach palm (72%) and the less crystalline is the babassu (37%), while the balsa fibers have Ic equal to 64%. The results have shown that these fibers can be used in the manufacture of composite materials. (author)

  6. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on shelf-life and ripening of peaches and apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Y.; Stevens, C.; Khan, V.A.; Kabwe, M.; Wilson, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    ''Loring'' and ''Elberta'' peaches and ''Golden Delicious'' apples were irradiated with UV (254nm) to doses of 0.84 X 10(4) to 40 X 10(4) erg/mm2 then stored. ''Loring'' were stored 10 days and ''Elberta'' 20 days at 12 degrees C. ''Golden Delicious'' were stored 30 days at 20-25 degrees C in a dark room. Fruit were examined and differences in percentage rot and in physical-chemical properties determined. Percentage rot decreased with increasing UV dose. Fruit were firmer, pH and soluble solids lower and acidity higher for UV-treated than for nontreated peaches; pH was lower and acidity and ascorbic acid higher in UV treated than in nontreated apples. Percentage weight loss was less for UV-treated apples. The results indicated that UV treatment not only reduced storage rots but also delayed ripening of peaches and apples

  7. The Synthesis and Characterization of Peach-Like ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalianfar, A.; Halim, S. A.; Navasery, M.; Din Fasih, Ud; Lim, K. P.; Chen, S. K.; Jahromi, Siamak Pilban; Zahedi, J. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Peach-like ZnO microstructures are synthesized using vapor phase transport on MgO (001) substrates with a copper oxide (60 nm) buffer layer. The structure and morphology of the product are investigated using an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope. The peaches have an average diameter of 3 μm and a wurtzite structure. To study the optical properties, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy are employed. A strong UV emission at 380 nm in the PL spectra is observed, and a sharp and dominant peak at 437 cm −1 in the Raman spectrum can be assigned to the good crystallization of obtained product. In addition, the growth mechanism of the peach-like ZnO structure is tentatively investigated based on the EDX analysis and growth time

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS TO IMPROVING CULTURE TEHNOLOGIES OF PEACHES GROWN ON SANDY SOILS THE SOUTH OF OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Durau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological factors with major implications in obtaining high yields and quality in peaches grown on sandy soils are planting row distance and shape of the crown, soil maintenance system, chemical, organic and foliar fertilzation. A smal size combined with the flatening of the crowns of the tres alows a dense planting, also ensure proper mechanization of work and easy penetration of light to the leaves and fruits. Crown form vertical belt proved to be suitable for al planting distances studied, easily made and maintained, having fruit production ranged betwen 15.9 t / ha at a distance of 2 m, 10.3 t / ha at a distance of 2.5 m and 7.9 t / ha at a distance of 3 m. The state of soil nutrient supply influence sucesful peach crop on sandy soils. The fertilzer dose of technology to N10 P80 K10 kg s.a / ha production was 34.9 t / ha. Organic fertilzation also contributes to obtaining high yields of peach. In sandy soil conditions most fruit production of 9.6 t / ha was obtained by fertilzation with organic manure 60t/ha. Besides fertilzation, soil maintenance system is one important link in the technology peach crop on sandy soils. The results found that the biggest peach fruit production was obtained from field maintenance system black-8,2t/ha. Using technology in foliar peaches culture on sandy soils, is an important means of providing nutrients that lead to improved proceses of growth and fructification. The best way is with foliar fertilzation Folibor in dose 5l/ha, the production obtained was 12.4 t /ha.

  9. The desorption of caesium from Peach Bottom HTGR steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.J.

    1979-03-01

    The work at Harwell on the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program in co-operation with the General Atomic Company (U.S.A.) is described. Materials taken from the Economiser, Evaporator and Superheater Sections of the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Heat Exchanger were placed in a reducing atmosphere comparable to the composition of an HTGR helium coolant gas, and the desorption of caesium isotopes measured under known conditions of flow, temperature and oxygen pressure. (author)

  10. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  11. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  12. Estimated emission reductions from California's enhanced Smog Check program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C; Wenzel, Thomas P

    2003-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that states evaluate the effectiveness of their vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. This study demonstrates an evaluation approach that estimates mass emission reductions over time and includes the effect of I/M on vehicle deterioration. It includes a quantitative assessment of benefits from pre-inspection maintenance and repairs and accounts for the selection bias effect that occurs when intermittent high emitters are tested. We report estimates of one-cycle emission benefits of California's Enhanced Smog Check program, ca. 1999. Program benefits equivalent to metric tons per day of prevented emissions were calculated with a "bottom-up" approach that combined average per vehicle reductions in mass emission rates (g/gal) with average per vehicle activity, resolved by model year. Accelerated simulation mode test data from the statewide vehicle information database (VID) and from roadside Smog Check testing were used to determine 2-yr emission profiles of vehicles passing through Smog Check and infer emission profiles that would occur without Smog Check. The number of vehicles participating in Smog Check was also determined from the VID. We estimate that in 1999 Smog Check reduced tailpipe emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) by 97, 1690, and 81 t/d, respectively. These correspond to 26, 34, and 14% of the HC, CO, and NO(x) that would have been emitted by vehicles in the absence of Smog Check. These estimates are highly sensitive to assumptions about vehicle deterioration in the absence of Smog Check. Considering the estimated uncertainty in these assumptions yields a range for calculated benefits: 46-128 t/d of HC, 860-2200 t/d of CO, and 60-91 t/d of NO(x). Repair of vehicles that failed an initial, official Smog Check appears to be the most important mechanism of emission reductions, but pre-inspection maintenance and repair also contributed substantially. Benefits from removal of nonpassing

  13. The Effects of Check-In, Check-Up, Check-Out for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability during On- and Off-Site Vocational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lauren J.; Jolivette, Kristine; Alberto, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Check-in/check-out is a secondary-tier intervention within the positive behavior interventions and supports framework. Check-in/check-out pairs the use of an adult mentor with a daily progress report to help students meet individualized behavioral goals. This study adds to the research base by examining the effects of check-in, check-up, check-out…

  14. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  15. Airborne Thermal Imagery to Detect the Seasonal Evolution of Crop Water Status in Peach, Nectarine and Saturn Peach Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bellvert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario of worldwide limited water supplies, conserving water is a major concern in agricultural areas. Characterizing within-orchard spatial heterogeneity in water requirements would assist in improving irrigation water use efficiency and conserve water. The crop water stress index (CWSI has been successfully used as a crop water status indicator in several fruit tree species. In this study, the CWSI was developed in three Prunus persica L. cultivars at different phenological stages of the 2012 to 2014 growing seasons, using canopy temperature measurements of well-watered trees. The CWSI was then remotely estimated using high-resolution thermal imagery acquired from an airborne platform and related to leaf water potential (ѰL throughout the season. The feasibility of mapping within-orchard spatial variability of ѰL from thermal imagery was also explored. Results indicated that CWSI can be calculated using a common non-water-stressed baseline (NWSB, upper and lower limits for the entire growing season and for the three studied cultivars. Nevertheless, a phenological effect was detected in the CWSI vs. ѰL relationships. For a specific given CWSI value, ѰL was more negative as the crop developed. This different seasonal response followed the same trend for the three studied cultivars. The approach presented in this study demonstrated that CWSI is a feasible method to assess the spatial variability of tree water status in heterogeneous orchards, and to derive ѰL maps throughout a complete growing season. A sensitivity analysis of varying pixel size showed that a pixel size of 0.8 m or less was needed for precise ѰL mapping of peach and nectarine orchards with a tree crown area between 3.0 to 5.0 m2.

  16. Effects of peach palm oil on performance, serum lipoproteins and haemostasis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldizán, G; Oviedo, M; Michelangeli, C; Vargas, R E

    2010-12-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the comparative effects of peach palm oil (PPO, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K), crude palm oil (CPO, Elaeis guinenesis), maize oil (MO) and beef tallow (BT) on serum total and lipoprotein cholesterol levels and haemostatic factors in broiler chickens. 2. Four experimental diets were formulated to be isocaloric (14·2 MJ AME(N)/kg) and isonitrogenous (230 g CP/kg). PPO was extracted from the whole dry fruit with hexane. Each fat was added to the diet in an amount equivalent to 25% of total dietary calories. Six replicate groups of eight male broiler chicks were assigned randomly to each dietary treatment. Diets were fed on ad libitum basis. The experiment lasted 42 d. 3. At 42 d, birds were fasted overnight and three chickens/dietary treatment were utilised to draw blood for lipoprotein separation. Various haemostatic factors were determined in thrombocyte-poor plasma. Thrombocyte aggregation was assayed in whole blood. 4. No significant differences were detected in body-weight gain or feed efficiency between the chickens fed on the PPO diet and those receiving the CPO, MO or BT diets. Total serum cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL(C)) were not significantly affected after consuming the PPO, CPO and MO diets. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL(C)) was reduced only by the MO diet. Birds fed on the PPO diet had a significantly lower [corrected] LDLC/HDLC ratio compared with other dietary treatments 5. Thrombocyte count and thrombin time were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Dietary oils significantly affected prothrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and thrombocyte aggregation. PPO and MO diets elicited the lowest fibrinogen levels compared to the CPO and BT diets. Thrombocyte aggregation in broilers fed on the PPO diet was similar to that of the CPO, MO and BT diets. 6. The results suggest that PPO might efficiently provide up to

  17. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal. ...

  18. Model Checking Structured Infinite Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    In the past probabilistic model checking hast mostly been restricted to finite state models. This thesis explores the possibilities of model checking with continuous stochastic logic (CSL) on infinite-state Markov chains. We present an in-depth treatment of model checking algorithms for two special

  19. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  20. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Ferrell, W.L.; Cathey, N.G.; Najafi, B.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) Using Different Explant Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Jiménez, Víctor M; Quoirin, Marguerite G G; Guerra, Miguel P

    2016-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a member of the family Arecaceae and is a multipurpose but underutilized species. Nowadays, fruit production for subsistence and local markets, and heart-of-palm production for local, national, and international markets are the most important uses of this plant. Conventional breeding programs in peach palm are long-term efforts due to the prolonged generation time, large plant size, difficulties with controlled pollination and other factors. Although it is a caespitose palm, its propagation is currently based on seeds, as off-shoots are difficult to root. Hence, tissue culture techniques are considered to be the most likely strategy for efficient clonal plantlet regeneration of this species. Among various techniques, somatic embryogenesis offers the advantages of potential automated large-scale production and putative genetic stability of the regenerated plantlets. The induction of somatic embryogenesis in peach palm can be achieved by using different explant sources including zygotic embryos, immature inflorescences and thin cell layers from the young leaves and shoot meristems. The choice of a particular explant depends on whether clonal propagation is desired or not, as well as on the plant conditions and availability of explants. Protocols to induce and express somatic embryogenesis from different peach palm explants, up to acclimatization of plantlets, are described in this chapter.

  2. Characterising root density of peach trees in a semi-arid Chernozem to increase plant density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Calciu, Irina; Vizitiu, Olga; Lamureanu, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    The available information on root system in fully mature peach orchards in semi-arid regions is insufficient. This paper presents a study on the root system density in an irrigated peach orchard from Dobrogea, Romania, using the trench technique. The old orchard has clean cultivation in inter-row and in-row. The objectives of the study were to: test the hypothesis that the roots of fully mature peach trees occupy the whole soil volume; find out if root repulsive effect of adjacent plants occurred for the rootstocks and soil conditions; find relationships between root system and soil properties and analyse soil state trend. Some soil physical properties were significantly deteriorated in inter-row versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction induced by technological traffic. Density of total roots was higher in-row than inter-row, but the differences were not significant. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from tree trunks. Root density correlated with some soil properties. No repulsive effect of the roots of adjacent peach trees was noted. The decrease of root density with distance from trunk can be used in optimising tree arrangement. The conclusions could also be used in countries with similar growth conditions.

  3. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  4. Operating history report for the Peach Bottom HTGR. Volume I. Reactor operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, W.J.; Baldwin, N.L.; Tomlin, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The operating history for the Peach Bottom-1 Reactor is presented for the years 1966 through 1975. Information concerning general chemistry data, general physics data, location of sensing elements in the primary helium circuit, and postirradiation examination and testing of reactor components is presented

  5. Fission product behavior in the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.L.; Baldwin, N.L.; Strong, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Actual operating data from Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain were compared with code predictions to assess the validity of the methods used to predict the behavior of fission products in the primary coolant circuit. For both reactors the measured circuit activities were significantly below design values, and the observations generally verify the codes used for large HTGR design

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism of vegetative and reproductive sinks in the late-maturing peach cultivar 'Encore'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo Lo Bianco; Mark Rieger; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1999-01-01

    Activities of NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), sorbitol oxidase (SOX), sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI), and neutral invertase (NI) in ?Encore? peach (Prunus persica L.) fruits and developing shoot tips were assayed during the growing season to determine whether carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes could...

  7. Environmental effects on fruit ripening and average fruit weight for three peach cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three peach cultivars, ‘Crimson Lady’ (early), ‘Redhaven’ (mid-season) and ‘Cresthaven’ (late), were planted at twelve locations within the USA in 2009. All trees were grafted on ‘Lovell’ rootstock and came from the same nursery. Five trees of each cultivar were planted at a spacing of 6m by 5m at e...

  8. Response of Green Peach Aphids and Other Arthropods to Garlic Intercropped with Tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, R.; You, M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Vasseur, L.

    2011-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is an insect pest that causes extensive damage to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in China. Field trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Longyan in the Fujian Province (China) to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a deterrent to

  9. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach orchards in Mexico state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben Damian Elias Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Dionicio Alvarado Rosales; Mee-Sook Kim; Anna E. Case; Sara M. Ashiglar; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio A. Guzman Plazola

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico and the USDA Forest Service - RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory has begun this year (2011) to assess which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México state, Mexico. We are employing a DNA-based...

  10. A Non-Targeted Approach Unravels the Volatile Network in Peach Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gerardo; Besada, Cristina; Badenes, María Luisa; Monforte, Antonio José; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds represent an important part of the plant metabolome and are of particular agronomic and biological interest due to their contribution to fruit aroma and flavor and therefore to fruit quality. By using a non-targeted approach based on HS-SPME-GC-MS, the volatile-compound complement of peach fruit was described. A total of 110 volatile compounds (including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, phenolics and terpenoids) were identified and quantified in peach fruit samples from different genetic backgrounds, locations, maturity stages and physiological responses. By using a combination of hierarchical cluster analysis and metabolomic correlation network analysis we found that previously known peach fruit volatiles are clustered according to their chemical nature or known biosynthetic pathways. Moreover, novel volatiles that had not yet been described in peach were identified and assigned to co-regulated groups. In addition, our analyses showed that most of the co-regulated groups showed good intergroup correlations that are therefore consistent with the existence of a higher level of regulation orchestrating volatile production under different conditions and/or developmental stages. In addition, this volatile network of interactions provides the ground information for future biochemical studies as well as a useful route map for breeding or biotechnological purposes. PMID:22761719

  11. RETRAN-3D MOD003 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Multidimensional Kinetics Analysis Models and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Michitsugu; Ogura, Katsunori; Gose, Garry C.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 (PB2/TT2) has been performed using RETRAN-3D MOD003. The purpose of the analysis was to investigate the PB2/TT2 overpressurization transient using the RETRAN-3D multidimensional kinetics model

  12. An integrated approach for increasing breeding efficiency in apple and peach in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurens, Francois; Aranzana, Maria José; Arus, Pere; Bassi, Daniele; Bink, Marco; Bonany, Joan; Caprera, Andrea; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca; Costes, Evelyne; Durel, Charles Eric; Mauroux, Jehan Baptiste; Muranty, Hélène; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pascal, Thierry; Patocchi, Andrea; Peil, Andreas; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Rossini, Laura; Stella, Alessandra; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; De Weg, Van Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three

  13. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  14. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    fairness problems can be encoded into ALFP as well. To deal with multi-valued model checking problems, we have proposed multivalued ALFP. A Moore Family result for multi-valued ALFP is also established, which ensures the existence and uniqueness of the least model. When the truth values in multi-valued...... of states satisfying a CTL formula can be characterized as the least model of ALFP clauses specifying this CTL formula. The existence of the least model of ALFP clauses is ensured by the Moore Family property of ALFP. Then, we take fairness assumptions in CTL into consideration and have shown that CTL...... ALFP constitute a nite distributive complete lattice, multi-valued ALFP can be reduced to two-valued ALFP. This result enables to implement a solver for multi-valued ALFP by reusing existing solvers for twovalued ALFP. Our ALFP-based technique developed for the two-valued CTL naturally generalizes...

  15. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  16. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: peach fruit as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero-Prado, Pablo; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; Del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Cristina; Val, Jesús; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica 'Calrico') is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic and p-coumaric acids). Trichomes were covered by a thin cuticular layer containing 15% waxes and 19% cutin and were filled by polysaccharide material (63%) containing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The surface free energy, polarity, and work of adhesion of intact and shaved peach surfaces were calculated from contact angle measurements of water, glycerol, and diiodomethane. The removal of the trichomes from the surface increased polarity from 3.8% (intact surface) to 23.6% and decreased the total surface free energy chiefly due to a decrease on its nonpolar component. The extraction of waxes and the removal of trichomes led to higher fruit dehydration rates. However, trichomes were found to have a higher water sorption capacity as compared with isolated cuticles. The results show that the peach surface is composed of two different materials that establish a polarity gradient: the trichome network, which has a higher surface free energy and a higher dispersive component, and the cuticle underneath, which has a lower surface free energy and higher surface polarity. The significance of the data concerning water-plant surface interactions is discussed within a physiological context.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome and Microscopy Analyses Provide Insights into Flat Shape Formation in Peach (Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit shape is an important external characteristic that consumers use to select preferred fruit cultivars. In peach, the flat fruit cultivars have become more and more popular worldwide. Genetic markers closely linking to the flat fruit trait have been identified and are useful for marker-assisted breeding. However, the cellular and genetic mechanisms underpinning flat fruit formation are still poorly understood. In this study, we have revealed the differences in fruit cell number, cell size, and in gene expression pattern between the traditional round fruit and modern flat fruit cultivars. Flat peach cultivars possessed significantly lower number of cells in the vertical axis because cell division in the vertical direction stopped early in the flat fruit cultivars at 15 DAFB (day after full bloom than in round fruit cultivars at 35 DAFB. This resulted in the reduction in vertical development in the flat fruit. Significant linear relationship was observed between fruit vertical diameter and cell number in vertical axis for the four examined peach cultivars (R2 = 0.9964 at maturation stage, and was also observed between fruit vertical diameter and fruit weight (R2 = 0.9605, which indicated that cell number in vertical direction contributed to the flat shape formation. Furthermore, in RNA-seq analysis, 4165 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected by comparing RNA-seq data between flat and round peach cultivars at different fruit development stages. In contrast to previous studies, we discovered 28 candidate genes potentially responsible for the flat shape formation, including 19 located in the mapping site and 9 downstream genes. Our study indicates that flat and round fruit shape in peach is primarily determined by the regulation of cell production in the vertical direction during early fruit development.

  18. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  19. Bisimulation Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata (Journal Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic automata (PA) have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL and its extension PCTL*. Various behavioral...... equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization for PAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalences are well-known to be strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. This paper introduces novel notions of strong bisimulation...... relations, which characterizes PCTL and PCTL* exactly. We also extend weak bisimulations characterizing PCTL and PCTL* without next operator, respectively. Thus, our paper bridges the gap between logical and behavioral equivalences in this setting....

  20. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.413: (1) A check airman (airplane) is a person who is qualified, and permitted...

  1. New recommendations for dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)

  2. System equivalent model mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  3. Pre-symptomatic transcriptome changes during cold storage of chilling sensitive and resistant peach cultivars to elucidate chilling injury mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Clara Pons; Dagar, Anurag; Marti Ibanez, Cristina; Singh, Vikram; Crisosto, Carlos H; Friedman, Haya; Lurie, Susan; Granell, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cold storage induces chilling injury (CI) disorders in peach fruit (woolliness/mealiness, flesh browning and reddening/bleeding) manifested when ripened at shelf life. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying CI, we analyzed the transcriptome of 'Oded' (high tolerant) and 'Hermoza' (relatively tolerant to woolliness, but sensitive to browning and bleeding) peach cultivars at pre-symptomatic stages. The expression profiles were compared and validated with two previously analy...

  4. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  5. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  6. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  7. Lodo de esgoto e sistema radicular da pupunheira Sewage sludge doses and the root system of peach palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vinicio Armas Vega

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do lodo de esgoto sobre o sistema radicular da pupunheira foram estudados em experimento em campo, em blocos casualizados, instalado em Ubatuba (SP, em julho 2001, na densidade de 5.000 plantas ha-1. As doses de lodo de esgoto fresco (79,7 % de umidade utilizadas foram de 0, 38, 76 e 152 t ha-1, equivalentes a 0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 de N. Os tratamentos foram aplicados no sulco de plantio, adicionando-se 15 g por planta de KCl como fonte de K. A análise do sistema radicular foi efetuada doze meses após, por meio de trado e de trincheiras e com o auxílio de fotos digitais. Detectou-se que o sistema radicular de pupunheiras com um ano de campo estava concentrado nas camadas superficiais (acima de 75 % nos primeiros 20 cm, assim como em distâncias de até 0,5 m da base da planta. O lodo de esgoto modificou positivamente a densidade do solo, alterando também favoravelmente a densidade das raízes. Houve aumento na biomassa radicular proporcional às doses de lodo de esgoto, existindo uma relação direta daquela com a fitomassa aérea. Doses de lodo equivalentes a 200 e 400 kg de N contribuíram para aprofundar o sistema radicular e proporcionaram maior quantidade relativa de raízes finas.The effects of sewage sludge doses on the root system of peach palm were studied in a field experiment, in randomized complete blocks, carried out in Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The trial was set up in July 2001, with a density of 5,000 plants ha-1. The sewage sludge doses (79.7 % water content were 0, 38, 76, and 152 t ha-1, which were equivalent to doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 of N. The treatments were applied in the planting furrow, and every plant was provided with K by a dose of 15 g potassium chloride. The root system was analyzed one year after planting using soil auger and digging of trenches and with the help of digital images. It was concluded that the root system of one-year old peach palm was concentrated in the

  8. Analysis of the thermal monitoring data collected at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, A.J.; Gray, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental technical specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The study included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological data collected from 1967 through 1976. This paper presents the details of the hydrothermal analysis performed under this program. The two primary methods used for temperature monitoring, during both the preoperational and operational periods of the program, are a fixed thermograph network and boat survey measurements. Analysis of the boat survey data provides a fine resolution demonstrating variations in ambient temperature in Conowingo Pond, as well as providing a qualitative picture of the thermal plume produced by the Peach Bottom thermal discharge. The data from 18 thermograph stations was used for a quantitative probability analysis

  9. Study on the viability of peach and apple pollen treated with gamma rays 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, K.; Angelov, A.

    1976-01-01

    Pollen from Marygold peach and from Golden Delicious apple varieties was treated with gamma-rays at rates of 0.5, 1.5, 10.0, 50.0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kR, the irradiation intensity being 1350 r/min. Results point to a different influence of gamma-rays irradiation on the pollen germination. Apple pollen proved more radiosensitive. Least dose of o.5 kR exerted a stimulative effect in the pollen germination. As the irradiation dose rcse, the germination percentage declined. Doses of over 400 kR destroyed completely pollen viability in both fruit species. A linear semi-logarithmical dependence was ascertained between the irradiation rate and pollen germination. 5 and 10 kR proved most suitable for the purposes of the experimental mutagenesis at peach and apple pollen irradiation. (author)

  10. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed. (orig./HP)

  11. Model with Peach Bottom Turbine trip and thermal-Hydraulic code TRACE V5P3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-01-01

    This work is the continuation of the work presented previously in the thirty-ninth meeting annual of the Spanish Nuclear society. The semi-automatic translation of the Thermo-hydraulic model TRAC-BF1 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip to TRACE was presented in such work. This article is intended to validate the model obtained in TRACE, why compare the model results result from the translation with the Benchmark results: NEA/OECD BWR Peach Bottom Turbine Trip (PBTT), in particular is of the extreme scenario 2 of exercise 3, in which there is SCRAM in the reactor. Among other data present in the (transitional) Benchmark , are: total power, axial profile of power, pressure Dome, total reactivity and its components. (Author)

  12. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed

  13. Influence of Inter stock Grafting as a Dwarfing Component on Peach Trees Development and Fruit Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S.; Nasrulhaq, A.; Mizutani, F.

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the interstock grafting effect as a dwarfing component on Peach tree development and fruit quality. The study was made at the Ehime University Experimental farm located in south-eastern Japan during the period 2001-2005. The results of the field experiment indicated that pruned branches weight and flowers number were lower in interstock than in control trees. However, percent fruit set was a little higher in intersrock treated than in control trees. Fruit yield and fruit weight were lower in interstock treated than control trees. Soluble solids content and maturity index were higher in interstock treated trees than control, with an increasing trend in the period from 2001 to 2005, while titratable acidity showed that the livestock grafting is a useful dwarfing component for controlling the size of peach trees and improvement of fruit quality. (author)

  14. Final summary report on the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, K.P.

    1978-07-01

    HTGR design methods verifications have been performed under the Peach Bottom End-of-Life Program by comparison of actual with predicted physics, thermal, fission product, and materials behavior in Peach Bottom. These design methods verifications have utilized the data determined from nondestructive fuel and circuit gamma scanning on-site, from laboratory examinations of samples removed from the primary circuit, and from a complementary program of Peach Bottom fuel element postirradiation examinations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Fifty-five driver fuel elements were axially gamma scanned to determine fission product distributions for use in burnup calculations, power profile determinations, and fission product release and redistribution studies. The cesium plateout distribution in the primary circuit was subsequently mapped by gamma scanning the ducting at 12 locations, axially traversing 79 steam generator tubes with Cd Te detectors from the water side, and internally scanning two vertical runs of ducting. Component removal involved trepanning of the primary circuit ducting, obtaining access to the steam generator internals, and removing over 100 superheater, evaporator, and economizer tubing samples. During this phase, macroscopic examinations of the steam generator and ducting internals were performed. Subsequent laboratory examinations of removed samples included radiochemical tests to substantiate in-situ gamma scans and to determine 90 Sr distributions; metallurgical tests to evaluate surface films, microstructural changes, and residual mechanical properties; and tritium permeation tests to provide data for improving HTGR tritium release predictions. The condition and metallurgical integrity of all components examined were found to be excellent, with minimal coolant/substrate interaction and entirely acceptable residual mechanical properties. The suitability of the materials used in the construction of the Peach Bottom HTGR was thereby confirmed

  15. Investigation of energy inputs for peach production using sensitivity analysis in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royan, Mahsa; Khojastehpour, Mehdi; Emadi, Bagher; Mobtaker, Hassan Ghasemi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy use and inputs–output relationship in peach production. ► Total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 . ► Diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. ► Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 0.55 and 0.29 kg MJ −1 . ► The machinery energy was the most significant input affecting the output level. - Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the energy balance between the energy inputs and yield in peach production in Golestan province of Iran as a case study. The results showed that total energy consumption in peach production was 37536.96 MJ ha −1 where the diesel fuel with about (26.32%) was the major energy consumer. The direct energy shared about (50.98%) whereas the indirect energy did (49.02%). Energy use efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy and net energy were 0.55, 0.29 kg MJ −1 , 3.41 MJ kg −1 and −16642.03 MJ ha −1 , respectively. Econometric assessment results revealed that the energy inputs of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure had significant influence on the yield. The impact of human labor energy (1.36) was found as the highest among the other input parameters. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the MPP value of energy inputs was between −2.8 and 11.31. Also the MPP value of human labor was the highest, followed by diesel fuel and farm yard manure energy inputs, respectively.

  16. Consumption, preferences and habits of purchasing consumers of peaches and nectarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, there are few studies and information available on consumer preferences for peaches and nectarines. This lack of information, has hindered some aspects of the production chain, as the choice and exploitation of more appropriate cultivars, offer periods, adoption of marketing and marketing strategies, consequently affecting the availability and commercialization of fruits. This study aimed to analyze the consumer preference of peaches and nectarines, evaluate the traits observed for their acquisition, and the marketplace where they are preferably purchased. The research was carried out from November 2016 to February 2017, using the descriptive research methodology, by Survey method and Web 2.0. A structured questionnaire was applied with closed questions. An online form questionnaire was prepared using the Google docs application and also distributed online, through the internet social Medias. 610 people participated in the survey, with predominance of consumers living in the South and Southeast regions of the country, in the age groups of 21 to 30 years old, with a predominance of female participants. Consumption is mainly in the in natura form, and often predominates certain times a year. Consumers buy these fruits mainly in the supermarkets/hypermarkets. The consumers of peaches and nectarines in Brazil have a higher preference for fruits with yellow flesh and red epidermis, followed by fruits with white flesh and intense red epidermis, both preferably with free stone. The main criteria for the acquisition of peaches and nectarines in Brazil are fruit appearance (presence and/or absence of defects, bruises, etc.; followed by price, color of epidermis and fruit size.

  17. Gas exchanges in peach palms as a function of the spad chlorophyll meter readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Sant'anna Tucci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The close relationship between the chlorophyll-meters readings and the total chlorophyll and nitrogen contents in leaves, has allowed their evaluation both in annual and perennial species. Besides, some physiological events such as the CO2 assimilation have also been estimated by chlorophyll meters. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the gas exchanges of peach palms as a function of the chlorophyll SPAD-Meter readings. Three year-old peach palms from Yurimaguas, Peru were studied in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, spaced 2 x 1 m in area under a natural gradient of organic matter which allowed four plots to be considered, according to the peach palms leaves colors, from light yellow to dark green. The SPAD readings and the stomatal frequency of leaflets were evaluated. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD, μmol m-2 s-1, the leaf temperature (Tleaf, ºC, the CO2 assimilation (A, μmol m-2 s-1, the stomatal conductance (g s, mol m-2 s-1, the transpiration (E, mmol m-2 s-1 and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, μmol mol-1 were evaluated with a portable infrared gas analyzer (LCA-4, ADC BioScientific Ltd., Great Amwell, U.K.. A linear increase in the CO2 assimilation as a function of the SPAD readings (y = -0.34 + 0.19x, R² = 0.99, indicates that they can be a rapid and cheap complementary method to evaluate in peach palms some important physiological events, such as CO2 assimilation.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HPLC-DAD-ESIMS analysis of phenolic compounds in nectarines, peaches, and plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, F A; Gil, M I; Cremin, P; Waterhouse, A L; Hess-Pierce, B; Kader, A A

    2001-10-01

    The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC-MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350-460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430-550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180-190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210-330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38-50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23-30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300-320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660-695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125-130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520-540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics.

  20. Chromatin-associated regulation of sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Alba; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2017-11-01

    PpeS6PDH gene is postulated to mediate sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach concomitantly with specific chromatin modifications. Perennial plants have evolved an adaptive mechanism involving protection of meristems within specialized structures named buds in order to survive low temperatures and water deprivation during winter. A seasonal period of dormancy further improves tolerance of buds to environmental stresses through specific mechanisms poorly known at the molecular level. We have shown that peach PpeS6PDH gene is down-regulated in flower buds after dormancy release, concomitantly with changes in the methylation level at specific lysine residues of histone H3 (H3K27 and H3K4) in the chromatin around the translation start site of the gene. PpeS6PDH encodes a NADPH-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of sorbitol. Consistently, sorbitol accumulates in dormant buds showing higher PpeS6PDH expression. Moreover, PpeS6PDH gene expression is affected by cold and water deficit stress. Particularly, its expression is up-regulated by low temperature in buds and leaves, whereas desiccation treatment induces PpeS6PDH in buds and represses the gene in leaves. These data reveal the concurrent participation of chromatin modification mechanisms, transcriptional regulation of PpeS6PDH and sorbitol accumulation in flower buds of peach. In addition to its role as a major translocatable photosynthate in Rosaceae species, sorbitol is a widespread compatible solute and cryoprotectant, which suggests its participation in tolerance to environmental stresses in flower buds of peach.

  1. Impact evaluation of integrated food-bioenergy systems: A comparative LCA of peach nectar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Menna, Fabio; Vittuari, Matteo; Molari, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Processed food products present high energy intensity, along with a large amount of food losses and waste. The recovery of residual biomass as integrated renewable energy source could represent an interesting option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of agro-food sector towards a low-carbon economy. Two scenarios were compared, in order to evaluate the impacts of a fossil fuel-based food chain and the potential benefits of the integration of bioenergy production, using peach nectar as case study. In the first scenario, peach nectar is produced, distributed and consumed using fossil energy, while residuals are wasted. In the second scenario, byproducts from the nectar chain are used to produce bioenergy from combustion or anaerobic digestion, which is then consumed to substitute electricity and heat. A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) based on the same functional unit was performed. Main results show that, in the conventional scenario, most of the damage derives from land use, especially for sugar and glucose production, from the fossil energy consumption of about 15 MJ l −1 , and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 0.91 kg CO 2  eq l −1 . Food waste leads to a loss of about 20 kcal l −1 . Bioenergy integration would allow a 13–15% damage reduction, mainly due to the substitution of indirect energy consumption. The effects on human health and ecosystem quality are limited. - Highlights: • Up to 15 MJ l −1 of fossil energy are needed to produce 2.7 MJ of peach nectar. • About 20 out of 648 kcal l −1 of peach and nectar are wasted along the supply chain. • Added ingredients (sugar and glucose) cause a large share of land use impact. • Bioenergy from waste reduces up to 37% of non-renewable energy consumption

  2. Yield and fruit quality of peach scion by using rootstocks propagated by air layering and seed

    OpenAIRE

    Picolotto,Luciano; Fachinello,José Carlos; Bianchi,Valmor João; Manica-Berto,Roberta; Pasa,Mateus da Silveira; Schmitz,Juliano Dutra

    2010-01-01

    In rootstock propagation, several methods can be used; however few practices are adopted due to the lack of information about the behavior of stionic combinations at field. The work aimed to compare the propagation method by air layering with the traditional propagation system by seeds using the scion peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivar Granada. The following variables were measured: yield, fruit weight and size, skin color, flesh firmness, total soluble solids content (TSS) and titat...

  3. An integrated approach for increasing breeding efficiency in apple and peach in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Francois; Aranzana, Maria José; Arus, Pere; Bassi, Daniele; Bink, Marco; Bonany, Joan; Caprera, Andrea; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca; Costes, Evelyne; Durel, Charles-Eric; Mauroux, Jehan-Baptiste; Muranty, Hélène; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pascal, Thierry; Patocchi, Andrea; Peil, Andreas; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Rossini, Laura; Stella, Alessandra; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; van de Weg, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three complementary approaches were pursued: (i) tool and software development, (ii) deciphering genetic control of main horticultural traits taking into account allelic diversity and (iii) developing plant materials, tools and methodologies for breeders. Decisive breakthroughs were made including the making available of ready-to-go DNA diagnostic tests for Marker Assisted Breeding, development of new, dense SNP arrays in apple and peach, new phenotypic methods for some complex traits, software for gene/QTL discovery on breeding germplasm via Pedigree Based Analysis (PBA). This resulted in the discovery of highly predictive molecular markers for traits of horticultural interest via PBA and via Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) on several European genebank collections. FruitBreedomics also developed pre-breeding plant materials in which multiple sources of resistance were pyramided and software that can support breeders in their selection activities. Through FruitBreedomics, significant progresses were made in the field of apple and peach breeding, genetics, genomics and bioinformatics of which advantage will be made by breeders, germplasm curators and scientists. A major part of the data collected during the project has been stored in the FruitBreedomics database and has been made available to the public. This review covers the scientific discoveries made in this major endeavour, and perspective in the apple and peach breeding and genomics in Europe and beyond.

  4. 46 CFR 10.214 - Security Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Check. 10.214 Section 10.214 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.214 Security Check. Until April 15, 2009...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  6. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zybtsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  7. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    can do model-checking. The subset we consider is expressive enough to formalize the requirements to the gas burner system given by A.P. Ravn (1993); but only for a discrete time domain. Model-checking is done by reducing the correctness problem ℳ|=𝒟 to the inclusion problem of regular...

  8. Checking and Balancing: Banking and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers is presented that relates a young couple's experience in learning about managing their money more carefully by budgeting and maintaining a checking account. Since the couple did not have a checking account, they had to go to their savings bank in order to pay each bill and they had to keep cash…

  9. Software tool for physics chart checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Harold; Wu, Yu; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Physics chart check has long been a central quality assurance (QC) measure in radiation oncology. The purpose of this work is to describe a software tool that aims to accomplish simplification, standardization, automation, and forced functions in the process. Nationally recognized guidelines, including American College of Radiology and American Society for Radiation Oncology guidelines and technical standards, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group reports were identified, studied, and summarized. Meanwhile, the reported events related to physics chart check service were analyzed using an event reporting and learning system. A number of shortfalls in the chart check process were identified. To address these problems, a software tool was designed and developed under Microsoft. Net in C# to hardwire as many components as possible at each stage of the process. The software consists of the following 4 independent modules: (1) chart check management; (2) pretreatment and during treatment chart check assistant; (3) posttreatment chart check assistant; and (4) quarterly peer-review management. The users were a large group of physicists in the author's radiation oncology clinic. During over 1 year of use the tool has proven very helpful in chart checking management, communication, documentation, and maintaining consistency. The software tool presented in this work aims to assist physicists at each stage of the physics chart check process. The software tool is potentially useful for any radiation oncology clinics that are either in the process of pursuing or maintaining the American College of Radiology accreditation.

  10. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated

  11. Diagnostic information in temporal compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today’s organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying prede¿ned (legal) requirements. Deviations may be costly and expose the organization to severe risks. Compliance checking is of growing

  12. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive, compulsive-like checking of an object leads to reductions in memory confidence, vividness, and detail. Experimental research suggests that this is caused by increased familiarity with perceptual characteristics of the stimulus and automatization of the checking procedure (Dek, van den

  13. Model Checking Infinite-State Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Cloth, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper algorithms for model checking CSL (continuous stochastic logic) against infinite-state continuous-time Markov chains of so-called quasi birth-death type are developed. In doing so we extend the applicability of CSL model checking beyond the recently proposed case for finite-state

  14. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  15. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Name checks. 635.6 Section 635.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.6 Name checks. (a) Information contained in military police records may be...

  16. 7 CFR 58.243 - Checking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking quality. 58.243 Section 58.243 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.243 Checking quality. All milk, milk products and dry milk products shall be subject to inspection and analysis by the dairy plant for quality and condition throughout each processing operation...

  17. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  18. 38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education... surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution. (b) Delivery and certification. (1...

  19. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  20. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  1. A study on lead equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guanxin

    1991-01-01

    A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested

  2. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  3. Comparative Study between Ethanolic and β-Cyclodextrin Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada El Darra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach byproducts are often regarded as food waste despite their high content in health-promoting components. Amongst the latter, polyphenols are bioactive molecules with significant health benefits. The present study investigated an eco-friendly and cost-effective method using a GRAS food additive, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, for the recovery of polyphenols from peach pomace. β-CD assisted extraction of polyphenols was compared to that of conventional solvent (ethanol extraction at the same concentrations (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 50 mg/mL in terms of quality (antiradical activity and quantity. The extract obtained by 50 mg/mL β-CD assisted extraction showed the highest polyphenol (0.72 mg GAE/g DM and flavonoid (0.35 mg catechin/g of DM concentrations as maximal antiradical activity (6.82% and a noted antibacterial activity. Our results showed the competitiveness of β-CD assisted extraction to recover a high quantity and quality of polyphenols from peach pomace suggesting β-CD as a green alternative method for phenolic extraction.

  4. Repeatability, correlation and path analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of measurements necessary to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits, study the relationships between them and their direct and indirect effects on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids. The characteristics skin and pulp color, fruit weight, suture, equatorial and polar diameters, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids were evaluated in 39 cultivars of peach and 3 cultivars of nectarine from the orchard of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The repeatability coefficient was estimated by ANOVA and CPCOR. Phenotypic correlation coefficients (rf were estimated and, after the multicollinearity diagnostics, they were unfolded to direct and indirect effects of the explanatory variables on the response variable using path analysis. There was agreement on the magnitude of repeatability coefficients obtained by the two methods; however, they varied among the 14 characteristics. The highest correlations were found between FW, SD, ED and PD. Seven fruits are sufficient to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of peach with a correlation coefficient of 90%. The characteristics considered in the path diagrams (b* skin, hº skin, b* pulp, hº pulp, ED, PD, FIR, SS, SS/AT and TC are not the main determinants of the ascorbic acid. The yellow hue of the pulp (hº pulp has the potential to be used in indirect selection for total carotenoids.

  5. Effect of controlled atmosphere on postharvest quality of 'Douradão' peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with one of the most important cultivar grown in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, which has gained the preference of consumers, due to its sweet taste, intense skin color and large size; however, these fruits are susceptible to chilling injury when cold stored for long periods. The use of controlled atmosphere (CA with elevated CO2 and reduced O2 concentrations prevent the onset of the chilling symptom. Thus, the effect of three different conditions of controlled atmosphere (CA1, CA2, CA3 and Control was evaluated in order to extend the storage life of 'Douradão' peaches. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from CA and kept in fresh air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH to complete ripening. On the day of removal and after 4 days, were the peaches quality characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that the use of CA during cold storage reduced weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. CA2 and CA3 treatments were effective in keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of cold storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. CA1 and Control treatments did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  6. De novo transcriptome assembly of two different peach cultivars grown in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica is one of the most popular stone fruits worldwide. Next generation sequencing (NGS has facilitated genome and transcriptome analyses of several stone fruit trees. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome analyses of two peach cultivars grown in Korea. Leaves of two cultivars, referred to as Jangtaek and Mibaek, were harvested and used for library preparation. The two prepared libraries were paired-end sequenced by the HiSeq2000 system. We obtained 8.14 GB and 9.62 GB sequence data from Jangtaek and Mibaek (NCBI accession numbers: SRS1056585 and SRS1056587, respectively. The Trinity program was used to assemble two transcriptomes de novo, resulting in 110,477 (Jangtaek and 136,196 (Mibaek transcripts. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. The identified proteins were subjected to BLASTP search against NCBI's non-redundant database for functional annotation. This study provides transcriptome data for two peach cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  7. Appraisal of genetic diversity of different peach cultivars and genotypes through rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Jamal, N.; Shafi, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was amid to investigate the genetic diversity of twenty peach cultivars and genotypes by RAPD primers at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar. The result indicated that fifteen primers (GLCO9, GLC20, GLA20, GLA13, GLB10, GLB20, GLB06, GLB19, GLA19, GLB19, GLD16, GLB15, GLA15, GLB12, GLB11) gave genetic distance among the peach cultivars and genotypes under study by PCR amplification. Average genetic diversity (estimated as genetic distance) ranged between 12 and 58%. The molecular size of most of the bands were from 150 bp to 1000 bp. Based on dendrogram analysis, Khyber 1 and Khyber 2 was grouped in cluster A, and Tex-A6-69 and BY-8-135 in cluster B, Candan and 6A were most closely related cultivars and genotypes among the 20 peach cultivars and genotypes while Lering, Flam crest, Tex x-9, early grand and Floradaking were distinctly grouped when compared with the rest of population. (author)

  8. Activated carbon from peach stones using phosphoric acid activation at medium temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Su

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the activation features of phosphoric acid have been investigated using waste peach stones as the raw material in the production of granular activated carbon. Thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis was conducted to characterize the thermal behavior of peach stone and titration method was used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbon. It was observed that the iodine value of the activated carbon increased with activation temperature. However, temperatures higher than 500 degrees C caused a thermal destruction, which resulted in the decrease of the adsorption capacity. Activation longer than 1.5 h at 500 degrees C resulted in thermal degradation of the porous structure of the activated carbon. The adsorption capacity was enhanced with increasing of amounts of phosphoric acid, however, excessive phosphoric acid caused a decrease in the iodine value. In addition, it was found that the carbon yields generally decreased with activation temperature and activation time. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to observe the changes in the poros structure of the activated carbon produced in different temperatures. Activation of carbon by phosphoric acid was found to be superior to that by CaCl2 and gas activation. The activated carbon produced from peach stone was applied as an adsorbent in the treatment of synthesized wastewater containing cadmium ion and its adsorption capacity was found to be as good as that of the commercial one.

  9. Evaluation of fruit quality, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant activity of flat peach cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Marallo, Nadia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Di Matteo, Antonio

    2015-08-15

    Fruit quality traits (fresh weight, dry weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness) as well as the content of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds) and total antioxidant activity were evaluated in four commercial cultivars of peach (Greta, Ufo 4, Rome Star and Ufo 6) and four of nectarine (Neve, Planet 1, Maria Carla and Mesembrina) differing in fruit shape (standard or flat) and flesh colour (white or yellow), important cultivars of the Italian and foreign market. The higher fruit organoleptic quality and nutritional profile of flat peach and nectarine cultivars make them candidates for exploiting new market opportunities and the chance to improve profits of farmers. The results showed that assayed quality parameters differed greatly among cultivars. In particular, flesh color and fruit shape accounted for most of the variation in traits underlying organoleptic and nutritional quality. Overall data suggested that the flat white-fleshed nectarine Planet 1, the yellow-fleshed nectarine Mesembrina and the yellow-fleshed peach Ufo 6, because of their profiles in terms of soluble solids content, titratable acidity and bioactive compounds, have the greatest potential to meet current consumer requirements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs

  11. Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Wellington Bastos de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state, yield and composition of peaches on peach trees subjected to the application of organic compost to the soil. This experiment was conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping season in an orchard containing Chimarrita cultivars grafted onto Capdeboscq rootstocks and Haplumbrept soils in the municipality of Farroupilha (RS, Brazil. The treatments included 0, 9, 18, 36, 72 and 144 liters of organic compost per plant-1 year-1. The total nutrient contents in the leaves, yield components, yields per plant and hectare and compositions of the fruits were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 soon after harvest and after 30 days of storage. The application of organic compost to the soil increased the yield components and the yields per plant and hectare in the two treatments with the highest compost additions, which indicated that the addition of 72 L of compost per plant-1 is ideal economically. The organic compost had little effect on the composition of the peach fruit after harvest and after 30 days of storage.

  12. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  13. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  14. Self-compatible peach (Prunus persica) has mutant versions of the S haplotypes found in self-incompatible Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ryutaro; Watari, Akiko; Hanada, Toshio; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Masami; Yamane, Hisayo

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that self-compatible (SC) peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that are present in self-incompatible (SI) Prunus species. All three peach S haplotypes, S (1), S (2), and S (2m), found in this study encode mutated pollen determinants, SFB, while only S (2m) has a mutation that affects the function of the pistil determinant S-RNase. A cysteine residue in the C5 domain of the S (2m)-RNase is substituted by a tyrosine residue, thereby reducing RNase stability. The peach SFB mutations are similar to the SFB mutations found in SC haplotypes of sweet cherry (P. avium) and Japanese apricot (P. mume). SFB (1) of the S (1) haplotype, a mutant version of almond (P. dulcis) S (k) haplotype, encodes truncated SFB due to a 155 bp insertion. SFB (2) of the S (2) and S (2m) haplotypes, both of which are mutant versions of the S (a) haplotype in Japanese plum (P. salicina), encodes a truncated SFB due to a 5 bp insertion. Thus, regardless of the functionality of the pistil determinant, all three peach S haplotypes are SC haplotypes. Our finding that peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that function in almond and Japanese plum, which are phylogenetically close and remote species, respectively, to peach in the subfamily Prunoideae of the Roasaceae, provides insight into the SC/SI evolution in Prunus. We discuss the significance of SC pollen part mutation in peach with special reference to possible differences in the SI mechanisms between Prunus and Solanaceae.

  15. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  16. What is a good health check? An interview study of health check providers' views and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Stol (Yrrah); E.C.A. Asscher (Eva); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Health checks identify (risk factors for) disease in people without symptoms. They may be offered by the government through population screenings and by other providers to individual users as 'personal health checks'. Health check providers' perspective of 'good'

  17. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots...

  18. Discussion on the installation checking method of precast composite floor slab with lattice girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Jin, Xing; Wang, Yahui; Zhou, Hele; Gu, Jianing

    2018-03-01

    Based on the installation checking requirements of China’s current standards and the international norms for prefabricated structural precast components, it proposed an installation checking method for precast composite floor slab with lattice girders. By taking an equivalent composite beam consisted of a single lattice girder and the precast concrete slab as the checking object, compression instability stress of upper chords and yield stress of slab distribution reinforcement at the maximum positive moment, tensile yield stress of upper chords, slab normal section normal compression stress and shear instability stress of diagonal bars at the maximum negative moment were checked. And the bending stress and deflection of support beams, strength and compression stability bearing capacity of the vertical support, shear bearing capacity of the bolt and compression bearing capacity of steel tube wall at the bolt were checked at the same time. Every different checking object was given a specific load value and load combination. Application of installation checking method was given and testified by example.

  19. Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)

  20. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  1. Version VI of the ESTree db: an improved tool for peach transcriptome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Barbara; Caprera, Andrea; Vecchietti, Alberto; Merelli, Ivan; Barale, Francesca; Milanesi, Luciano; Stella, Alessandra; Pozzi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Background The ESTree database (db) is a collection of Prunus persica and Prunus dulcis EST sequences that in its current version encompasses 75,404 sequences from 3 almond and 19 peach libraries. Nine peach genotypes and four peach tissues are represented, from four fruit developmental stages. The aim of this work was to implement the already existing ESTree db by adding new sequences and analysis programs. Particular care was given to the implementation of the web interface, that allows querying each of the database features. Results A Perl modular pipeline is the backbone of sequence analysis in the ESTree db project. Outputs obtained during the pipeline steps are automatically arrayed into the fields of a MySQL database. Apart from standard clustering and annotation analyses, version VI of the ESTree db encompasses new tools for tandem repeat identification, annotation against genomic Rosaceae sequences, and positioning on the database of oligomer sequences that were used in a peach microarray study. Furthermore, known protein patterns and motifs were identified by comparison to PROSITE. Based on data retrieved from sequence annotation against the UniProtKB database, a script was prepared to track positions of homologous hits on the GO tree and build statistics on the ontologies distribution in GO functional categories. EST mapping data were also integrated in the database. The PHP-based web interface was upgraded and extended. The aim of the authors was to enable querying the database according to all the biological aspects that can be investigated from the analysis of data available in the ESTree db. This is achieved by allowing multiple searches on logical subsets of sequences that represent different biological situations or features. Conclusions The version VI of ESTree db offers a broad overview on peach gene expression. Sequence analyses results contained in the database, extensively linked to external related resources, represent a large amount of

  2. What is correct: equivalent dose or dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In Croatian language some physical quantities in radiation protection dosimetry have not precise names. Consequently, in practice either terms in English or mathematical formulas are used. The situation is even worse since the Croatian language only a limited number of textbooks, reference books and other papers are available. This paper compares the concept of ''dose equivalent'' as outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations No. 26 and newest, conceptually different concept of ''equivalent dose'' which is introduced in ICRP 60. It was found out that Croatian terminology is both not uniform and unprecise. For the term ''dose equivalent'' was, under influence of Russian and Serbian languages, often used as term ''equivalent dose'' even from the point of view of ICRP 26 recommendations, which was not justified. Unfortunately, even now, in Croatia the legal unit still ''dose equivalent'' defined as in ICRP 26, but the term used for it is ''equivalent dose''. Therefore, in Croatian legislation a modified set of quantities introduced in ICRP 60, should be incorporated as soon as possible

  3. Simple Check Valves for Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Harold F.; Smith, J. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A simple design concept for check valves has been adopted for microfluidic devices that consist mostly of (1) deformable fluorocarbon polymer membranes sandwiched between (2) borosilicate float glass wafers into which channels, valve seats, and holes have been etched. The first microfluidic devices in which these check valves are intended to be used are micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. In this application, it will be necessary to store some liquid samples in reservoirs in the devices for subsequent laboratory analysis, and check valves are needed to prevent cross-contamination of the samples. The simple check-valve design concept is also applicable to other microfluidic devices and to fluidic devices in general. These check valves are simplified microscopic versions of conventional rubber- flap check valves that are parts of numerous industrial and consumer products. These check valves are fabricated, not as separate components, but as integral parts of microfluidic devices. A check valve according to this concept consists of suitably shaped portions of a deformable membrane and the two glass wafers between which the membrane is sandwiched (see figure). The valve flap is formed by making an approximately semicircular cut in the membrane. The flap is centered over a hole in the lower glass wafer, through which hole the liquid in question is intended to flow upward into a wider hole, channel, or reservoir in the upper glass wafer. The radius of the cut exceeds the radius of the hole by an amount large enough to prevent settling of the flap into the hole. As in a conventional rubber-flap check valve, back pressure in the liquid pushes the flap against the valve seat (in this case, the valve seat is the adjacent surface of the lower glass wafer), thereby forming a seal that prevents backflow.

  4. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  5. QuickChecking static analysis properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs....... Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, eg, monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language....

  6. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implications of remaining weaknesses of these tools. We believe that a principled engineering approach to designing...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  7. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    Integrity checking is an essential means for the preservation of the intended semantics of a deductive database. Incrementality is the only feasible approach to checking and can be obtained with respect to given update patterns by exploiting query optimization techniques. By reducing the problem...... to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  8. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  9. A one-step multiplex RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of four viruses that infect peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Zhao, Z; Jiang, D; Wu, Z; Li, S

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) assay was developed to enable the simultaneous detection and differentiation of four viruses that infect peach, namely Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Apricot pseudo-chlorotic leaf spot virus (APCLSV). In this study, four pairs of primers, one specific for each virus, were designed; the corresponding PCR products were 632, 439, 346 and 282 bp in length for ACLSV, CGRMV, PNRSV and APCLSV, respectively, and the fragments could be distinguished clearly by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were tested using individual RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the identity of the RT-PCR amplification products was also confirmed by DNA sequencing. The results of RT-PCR and ELISA, along with batch detection using samples collected from peach orchards, revealed that this rapid and simple technique is an effective way to identify the four viruses simultaneously. The mRT-PCR assay described in this study was developed for the simultaneous detection of four peach viruses from infected peach samples is reliable and sensitive. In contrast to conventional uniplex RT-PCR, mRT-PCR is more efficient, reducing costs, time and handling when testing large numbers of samples. This rapid and simple method is useful for large-scale surveys of viruses that infect peach. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with changes in the morphology of Pichia fermentans on apple and peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Stefano; Scherm, Barbara; Liu, Jia; Farrell, Robert; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Budroni, Marilena; Maserti, Bianca E; Wisniewski, Michael E; Migheli, Quirico

    2012-11-01

    Pichia fermentans (strain DISAABA 726) is an effective biocontrol agent against Monilinia fructicola and Botrytis cinerea when inoculated in artificially wounded apple fruit but is an aggressive pathogen when inoculated on wounded peach fruit, causing severe fruit decay. Pichia fermentans grows as budding yeast on apple tissue and exhibits pseudohyphal growth on peach tissue, suggesting that dimorphism may be associated with pathogenicity. Two complementary suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategies, that is, rapid subtraction hybridization (RaSH) and PCR-based subtraction, were performed to identify genes differentially expressed by P. fermentans after 24-h growth on apple vs. peach fruit. Gene products that were more highly expressed on peach than on apple tissue, or vice versa, were sequenced and compared with available yeast genome sequence databases. Several of the genes more highly expressed, when P. fermentans was grown on peach, were related to stress response, glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, and alcoholic fermentation but surprisingly not to cell wall degrading enzymes such as pectinases or cellulases. The dual activity of P. fermentans as both a biocontrol agent and a pathogen emphasizes the need for a thorough risk analysis of potential antagonists to avoid unpredictable results that could negatively impact the safe use of postharvest biocontrol strategies. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the addition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes peel flour on the color and sensory properties of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the color and sensorial characteristics of a cake made with different amounts of flour made with peach palm peel flour. The flour was added at different concentrations, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (w/w, including a control (tartrazine. Physiochemical analyses were carried out on the cakes, including total carotenoids, CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates, and sensorial attributes. The results demonstrated that the peach palm peel flour substitution increased the total carotenoid content of the cakes. The color test showed that high levels of peach palm peel flour resulted in a decrease in the values of lightness (L* and hue angle (h°, while the values of browning index (BI and color change (ΔE* increased significantly. The qualification of the sensorial evaluation indicated that the quality attributes were acceptable in the cakes made with wheat flour and 7.5% peach palm peel flour. Therefore, it was concluded that flour obtained from peach palm peel is a by-product that can be used as a natural food dye alternative in bread products.

  13. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  14. Transcriptomic and Functional Analyses Reveal That PpGLK1 Regulates Chloroplast Development in Peach (Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach is an ideal species for fruit tree research because of its small, fully sequenced genome. Chloroplast development is dependent on the tight cooperation between the nuclear and plastid genomes, and is regulated by GLK transcription factors. In this work, the pigment content was monitored and the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion during the fruit ripening was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Localization and expression analyses showed that PpGLK1 was located in the nucleus and expressed mainly in the leaves and fruit skin. A transcriptome analysis showed that PpGLK1 and its target genes were significantly differentially expressed in ripening peach fruit skin. PpGLK1 silencing affected chlorophyll accumulation in peach leaves and fruits. Overexpression of PpGLK1 rescued the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis Atglk1Atglk2 double mutant and the tomato uniform ripening mutant. The results of a yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that PpGLK1 is autoactivated and that PpGLK1 (301-542 a.a. interacted with PpARF5. Together, our results indicate that PpGLK1 regulates chloroplast development in green tissues in peach. Therefore, it may be a promising target gene for improving the production and quality of peach by genetic engineering and breeding approaches.

  15. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  16. Classification and checking model of pedestrian crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Delgado Méndez

    2012-11-01

    After realizing this investigation it can be confirmed that the functionality of a pedestrian crossing depends on almost a hundred parameters which must be checked or measured, in turn proving that this design and construction process is indeed complex.

  17. Model checking mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, Fatemeh; Fokkink, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling arbitrary connectivity changes within mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) makes application of automated formal verification challenging. We use constrained labeled transition systems as a semantic model to represent mobility. To model check MANET protocols with respect to the underlying

  18. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  19. WE-E-BRB-10: DosCheck - an Electronic Chart Checking Tool for Dosimetrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Wu, Y; Yaddanapudi, S; Moore, K; Pierbuxg, B; Brame, S; Mutic, S

    2012-06-01

    In addition to treatment planning, dosimetrists have to prepare documentation and manually enter data in treatment management system (TMS) which did not transfer or setup automatically. The required documents and data are dependent on the disease site, treatment machine and clinical workflow. Errors and inconsistencies can cause redundant work, treatment delays and potentially treatment errors. To address these issues, an electronic checking software tool, DosCheck was clinically implemented to check the existence of necessary documentations and the integrity of manually-entered data. The purpose of this software is to reduce the frequency of human errors and to improve efficiency. DosCheck reads data and documents from 1) TMS, 2) Pinnacle TPS, and 3) DICOM plan files stored in a DICOM-RT PACS. It processes documents in Word and PDF format, treatment plan data in Pinnacle native format and DICOM format, and Mosaiq data in database records. The software cross-checks data accuracy and consistency by following rules that are pre-defined according to the clinical requirements and treatment sties. It interacts with dosimetrists and presents instantaneous results via graphical user interface. DosCheck has been implemented in C#. It performs a full check for a patient with 20 seconds. It has been clinically commissioned and is used daily by all dosimetrists at our institution. Retrospective analysis shows that DosCheck identifies 30% to 40% of previously reported dosimetrist human errors. Additional ∼30% errors are checked by other tools that could be integrated DosCheck in the near future. As an electronic data checking tool, DosCheck can obtain and process data and documents from multiple clinical computer systems in the radiation oncology department, and perform checks according to clinical rules. It is able to improve the accuracy and efficiency of clinical data and document process, and therefore to reduce any potential inconsistencies and errors. © 2012 American

  20. Primary coolant chemistry of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-11-01

    The chemical impurities in the primary coolants of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain reactors are discussed. The impurity mixtures in the two plants were quite different because the sources of the impurities were different. In the Peach Bottom reactor, the impurities were dominated by H 2 and CH 4 , which are decomposition products of oil. In the Fort St. Vrain reactor, there were high levels of CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O. Although oil ingress at Peach Bottom created carbon deposits on virtually all surfaces, its effect on reactor operation was negligible. Slow outgassing of water from the thermal insulation at Fort St. Vrain caused delays in reactor startup. The overall graphite oxidation in both plants was negligible

  1. Primary coolant chemistry of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnette, R.D.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical impurities in the primary coolants of the Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain reactors are discussed. The impurity mixtures in the two plants were quite different because the sources of the impurities were different. In the Peach Bottom reactor, the impurities were dominated by H 2 and CH 4 , which are decomposition products of oil. In the Fort St. Vrain reactor, there were high levels of CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O. Although oil ingress at Peach Bottom created carbon deposits on virtually all surfaces, its effect on reactor operation was negligible. Slow outgassing of water from the thermal insulation at Fort St. Vrain caused delays in reactor startup. The overall graphite oxidation in both plants was negligible. (author)

  2. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry investigation of the impact of thermal processing and storage on peach procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Jeong; Barrett, Diane M; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2004-04-21

    Normal-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was used to determine the levels and fate of procyanidins in frozen and canned Ross clingstone peaches as well as in the syrup used in the canning over a 3 month period. Procyanidin oligomers, monomers through undecamers, were identified in Ross clingstone peaches. Optimized methods allowed for the quantitation of oligomers through octamers. The profile of procyanidins in peaches is similar to profiles found in grapes, chocolate, and beverages linked to health benefits such as tea and wine. The monomer content in frozen peeled peaches was found to be 19.59 mg/kg. Dimers (39.59 mg/kg) and trimers (38.81 mg/kg) constituted the largest percent composition of oligomers in the peaches. Tetramers through octamers were present in levels of 17.81, 12.43, 10.62, 3.94 and 1.75 mg/kg, respectively. Thermal processing resulted in an 11% reduction in monomers, a 9% reduction in dimers, a 12% reduction in trimers, a 6% reduction in tetramers, and a 5% reduction in pentamers. Hexamers and heptamers demonstrated an approximate 30% loss, and octamers were no longer detected. Analysis of the syrup after thermal processing indicates that there is a migration of procyanidin monomers through hexamers into the syrup that can account for the losses observed during the canning process. Storage of canned peaches for 3 months demonstrated a time-related loss in higher oligomers and that by 3 months oligomers larger than tetramers are not observed. At 3 months postcanning, levels of monomers had decreased by 10%, dimers by 16%, trimers by 45%, and tetramers by 80%. A similar trend was observed in the canning syrup.

  3. Role of Melatonin in Cell-Wall Disassembly and Chilling Tolerance in Cold-Stored Peach Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Bian, Kun; Shi, Liyu; Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2018-06-06

    Melatonin reportedly increases chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit during cold storage, but information on its effects on cell-wall disassembly in chilling-injured peaches is limited. In this study, we investigated the role of cell-wall depolymerization in chilling-tolerance induction in melatonin-treated peaches. Treatment with 100 μM melatonin alleviated chilling symptoms (mealiness) characterized by a decrease in fruit firmness and increase in juice extractability in treated peaches during storage. The loss of neutral sugars, such as arabinose and galactose, in both the 1,2-cyclohexylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (CDTA)- and Na 2 CO 3 -soluble fractions was observed at 7 days in treated peaches, but the contents increased after 28 days of storage. Atomic-force-microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the polysaccharide widths in the CDTA- and Na 2 CO 3 -soluble fractions in the treated fruit were mainly distributed in a shorter range, as compared with those in the control fruit. In addition, the expression profiles of a series of cell-wall-related genes showed that melatonin treatment maintained the balance between transcripts of PpPME and PpPG, which accompany the up-regulation of several other genes involved in cell-wall disassembly. Taken together, our results suggested that the reduced mealiness by melatonin was probably associated with its positive regulation of numerous cell-wall-modifying enzymes and proteins; thus, the depolymerization of the cell-wall polysaccharides in the peaches treated with melatonin was maintained, and the treated fruit could soften gradually during cold storage.

  4. Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)

  5. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Shuiming; Illa, Eudald; Song, Lijuan; Wu, Shandong; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere; Weg, Eric van de; Chen, Kunsong; Gao, Zhongshan

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4) have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica), these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcis)Pru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica). Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1). Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B) were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03) containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02) were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach/almond allergen genes have

  6. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weg Eric

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4 have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica, these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcisPru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica. Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1. Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03 containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02 were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach

  7. Validation of the Engineering Plant Analyzer methodology with Peach Bottom 2 stability tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.

    1994-01-01

    The Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) had been developed in 1984 at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate plant transients in boiling water reactors (BWR). Recently, the EPA with its High-Speed Interactive Plant Analyzer code for BWRs ( ppercase HIPA-BWR ) simulated for the first time oscillatory transients with large, non-linear power and flow amplitudes; transients which are centered around the March 9, 1988 instability at the LaSalle-2 BWR power plant.The EPA's capability to simulate oscillatory transients has been demonstrated first by comparing simulation results with LaSalle-2 plant data (Wulff et al., NUREG/CR-5816, BNL-NUREG-52312, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1992). This paper presents an EPA assessment on the basis of the Peach Bottom 2 instability tests (Carmichael and Niemi, EPRI NP-564, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, 1978). This assessment of the EPA appears to constitute the first validation of a time-domain reactor systems code on the basis of frequency-domain criteria, namely power spectral density, gain and phase shift of the pressure-to-power transfer function.The reactor system pressure was disturbed in the Peach Bottom 2 power plant tests, and in their EPA simulation, by a pseudo-random, binary sequence signal. The data comparison revealed that the EPA predicted for Peach Bottom tests PT1, PT2, and PT4 the gain of the power-to-pressure transfer function with the biases and standard deviations of (-10±28)%, (-1±40)% and (+28±52)%, respectively. The respective frequencies at the peak gains were predicted with the errors of +6%, +3%, and -28%. The differences between the predicted and the measured phase shift increased with increasing frequency, but stayed within the margin of experimental uncertainty. ((orig.))

  8. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation and crop load on the antioxidant compounds of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Begoña; Allende, Ana; Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan J; Gil, Maria I

    2008-05-28

    The use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies is becoming a common practice in areas with low water availability. Little information is available about the effects of RDI on the antioxidant content of fruits. In this study, the influence of RDI on the content of vitamin C, phenolic compounds and carotenoids was investigated. Two irrigation strategies, fully irrigated (FI) and RDI, were compared at two levels of thinning, commercial and half of the commercial crop load. RDI strategies affected the content of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids of Flordastar peaches. RDI caused fruit peel stress lowering the content of vitamin C and carotenoids, while increasing the phenolic content, mainly anthocyanins and procyanidins. Fruit weight was the only quality index influenced by the crop load as it increased in FI fruits at low crop load. In general, fruits from commercial crop load had slightly higher content of antioxidants to fruits from low crop load, although these influences were only observed in the peel. Additionally, the influence of irrigation controlled by two sensors related to plant water level, maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) and sap flow (SF) on the antioxidant constituents of peaches was evaluated. The response of the fruits to SF sensor was similar to that observed for RDI strategy. According to the tested water sensors, SF did not act as a good plant-based water indicator for use in irrigation scheduling, as it caused an increase in the content of phenolics, similar to that observed for fruits subjected to RDI. Therefore, selection of RDI strategies and plant water indicators should be taken into account as they affect the content of antioxidants of peaches.

  9. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  10. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  11. Peach Bottom Turbine Trip Simulations with RETRAN Using INER/TPC BWR Transient Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Lainsu; Chiang, Show-Chyuan

    2005-01-01

    The work described in this paper is benchmark calculations of pressurization transient turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom boiling water reactor (BWR). It is part of an overall effort in providing qualification basis for the INER/TPC BWR transient analysis method developed for the Kuosheng and Chinshan plants. The method primarily utilizes an advanced system thermal hydraulics code, RETRAN02/MOD5, for transient safety analyses. Since pressurization transients would result in a strong coupling effect between core neutronic and system thermal hydraulics responses, the INER/TPC method employs the one-dimensional kinetic model in RETRAN with a cross-section data library generated by the Studsvik-CMS code package for the transient calculations. The Peach Bottom Turbine Trip (PBTT) tests, including TT1, TT2, and TT3, have been successfully performed in the plant and assigned as standards commonly for licensing method qualifications for years. It is an essential requirement for licensing purposes to verify integral capabilities and accuracies of the codes and models of the INER/TPC method in simulating such pressurization transients. Specific Peach Bottom plant models, including both neutronics and thermal hydraulics, are developed using modeling approaches and experiences generally adopted in the INER/TPC method. Important model assumptions in RETRAN for the PBTT test simulations are described in this paper. Simulation calculations are performed with best-estimated initial and boundary conditions obtained from plant test measurements. The calculation results presented in this paper demonstrate that the INER/TPC method is capable of calculating accurately the core and system transient behaviors of the tests. Excellent agreement, both in trends and magnitudes between the RETRAN calculation results and the PBTT measurements, shows reliable qualifications of the codes/users/models involved in the method. The RETRAN calculated peak neutron fluxes of the PBTT

  12. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  13. Ohmic heating of peaches in the wide range of frequencies (50 Hz to 1 MHz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Ji, Taehyun; Alvarez, Valente B; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2010-09-01

    The ohmic heating (OH) rate of peaches was studied at fixed electric field strength of 60 V.cm⁻¹, square-shaped instant reversal bipolar pulses, and frequencies varying within 50 Hz to 1 MHz. Thermal damage of tissue was evaluated from electrical admittivity. It showed that the time for half disruption (τ(T)) of tissue was required more than 10 h at temperatures below 40 °C. However, cellular thermal disruption occurred almost instantly (τ(T) 90 °C). Electrical conductivity σ(o) and admittivity σ(o)* of tissue at T(o)= 0 °C and their temperature coefficients (m, m*) were calculated. For freeze-thawed tissues, σ and σ* as well as m and m* were nearly indifferent to the frequency. However, for the intact tissue, both σ(o), σ(o)* and m, m* were frequency dependent. For freeze-thawed product, the power factor (P) was approximately equal to 1 and indifferent to the frequency and temperature. On the other hand, strong frequency dependence was observed for intact tissue with the minimum P approximately equal to 0.68 in the range of tens of kHz. The time required to reach a target temperature t(f) was evaluated. The t(f) increased with frequency up to the middle of the range of tens of kHz and thereafter continuously decreased. Samples exposed to the low-frequency electric field demonstrated faster electro-thermal damage rates. The textural relaxation data supported more intense damage kinetics at low-frequency OH. It has been demonstrated that a combination of high-frequency OH with pasteurization at moderate temperature followed by rapid cooling minimizes texture degradation of peach tissue. In this study, we investigated the electric field frequency effect on the rate of OH of peaches. It was shown that the time required for reaching the target temperature is strongly dependent upon the frequency. Samples exposed to low-frequency OH demonstrated higher electro-thermal damage rates. It has been shown that the combination of high-frequency OH with

  14. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  15. Assessment of engineering plant analyzer with Peach Bottom 2 stability tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.

    1992-01-01

    Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) has been developed to simulate plant transients for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Recently, this code has been used to simulate LaSalle-2 instability event which was initiated by a failure in the feed water heater. The simulation was performed for the scram conditions and for the postulated failure in the scram. In order to assess the capability of the EPA to simulate oscillatory flows as observed in the LaSalle event, EPA has been benchmarked with the available data from the Peach Bottom 2 (PB2) Instability tests PT1, PT2, and PT4. This document provides a description of these tests

  16. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  17. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  18. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  19. Recent improvements in check valve monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, ORNL has carried out an evaluation of three check valve monitoring methods: acoustic emission, ultrasonic inspection, and magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA). This work has focused on determining the capabilities of each method to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects (degradation) and undesirable operating modes. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two noval nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed (external ac- and dc-magnetic monitoring) that provide several improvements over the other methods. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data to illustrate the capabilities of these methods to detect simulated check valve degradation. 3 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Recent improvements in check valve monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, ORNL has carried out an evaluation of three check valve monitoring methods: acoustic emission, ultrasonic inspection, and magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA). This work has focussed on determining the capabilities of each method to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects (degradation) and undesirable operating modes. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed (external ac- and dc-magnetic monitoring) that provide several improvements over the other methods. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data to illustrate the capabilities of these methods to detect simulated check valve degradation. 3 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Quality checking of radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, D.M.; Burgoyne, S.M.J.; Dale, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the work of the HMIP Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) for the period September 1989 -August 1991. The WQCL has conducted research and development of procedures for the receipt, sampling and analysis of low level solid radioactive waste (LLW), intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) and hazardous chemical waste (HW). Operational facilities have been commissioned for quality checking both LLW and HW. Waste quality checking has been completed on LLW packages seized from the UK waste disposal route by HMIP Inspectors. Packages have ranged in size from the 200 litre steel drum to half-height ISO freight container. Development work was continued on methods of sample extraction and radio-chemical analysis for cement encapsulated ILW in the form of magnox, graphite and stainless steel. This work was undertaken on non-radioactive simulants. (author)

  2. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  3. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  4. UTP and Temporal Logic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hugh; Ciobanu, Gabriel; Freitas, Leo

    In this paper we give an additional perspective to the formal verification of programs through temporal logic model checking, which uses Hoare and He Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). Our perspective emphasizes the use of UTP designs, an alphabetised relational calculus expressed as a pre/post condition pair of relations, to verify state or temporal assertions about programs. The temporal model checking relation is derived from a satisfaction relation between the model and its properties. The contribution of this paper is that it shows a UTP perspective to temporal logic model checking. The approach includes the notion of efficiency found in traditional model checkers, which reduced a state explosion problem through the use of efficient data structures

  5. UK Department of Environment Quality Checking Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, K.E.; Green, T.H.; Maxwell, D.J.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of Taywood Engineering Ltd was to develop and evaluate techniques for the non-destructive and destructive examination of both low and intermediate level radioactive waste packages. The contract also included a study on the conceptual design and cost of a permanent Waste Quality Checking facility. The June 1986 contract was completed in November 1989. A second contract was awarded in September 1989 to extend the scope to include Quality Checking of hazardous waste and to increase the throughput of low level waste. This paper highlights the techniques developed during these programmes and applied to a range of real low level waste packages. The feasibility of operating a pilot scale facility for the independent Quality Checking of LLW has been successfully demonstrated. (orig.)

  6. Model checking exact cost for attack scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Attack trees constitute a powerful tool for modelling security threats. Many security analyses of attack trees can be seamlessly expressed as model checking of Markov Decision Processes obtained from the attack trees, thus reaping the benefits of a coherent framework and a mature tool support....... However, current model checking does not encompass the exact cost analysis of an attack, which is standard for attack trees. Our first contribution is the logic erPCTL with cost-related operators. The extended logic allows to analyse the probability of an event satisfying given cost bounds and to compute...... the exact cost of an event. Our second contribution is the model checking algorithm for erPCTL. Finally, we apply our framework to the analysis of attack trees....

  7. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  8. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  9. A Method for Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to check for feature interactions in a system assembled from independently developed concurrent processes as found in many reactive systems. The method combines and refines existing definitions and adds a set of activities. The activities describe how to populate the ...... the definitions with models to ensure that all interactions are captured. The method is illustrated on a home automation example with model checking as analysis tool. In particular, the modelling formalism is timed automata and the analysis uses UPPAAL to find interactions....

  10. Acoustic emission testing of piston check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Based on test experience at Comanche Peak Unit 1, an acoustic emission data evaluation matrix for piston check valves has been developed. The degradations represented in this matrix were selected based on Edwards piston check valve failure data reported in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System. Evidence to support this matrix was collected from site test data on a variety of valve types. Although still under refinement, the matrix provides three major attributes for closure verification, which have proven useful in developing test procedures for inservice testing and preventing unnecessary disassembly

  11. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  15. Implementing Check in/Check out for Students with Intellectual Disability in Self-Contained Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lauren J.; Ennis, Robin P.; Jolivette, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Check in/check out (CICO) is a secondary-tier intervention implemented within the framework of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) that uses school-based contingencies to encourage positive behavior. CICO is a five-step cycle which uses daily progress report cards (DPR) to monitor progress toward schoolwide or…

  16. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  17. Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Hof, C.C.G.; van Est, R.; Daemen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones, public transport smart cards, security cameras and GPS systems in our car - we are surrounded by digital devices. They track us, guide us, help us, and control us. The book Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things shows us how our digital and physical worlds are

  18. Check in / check out : the public space as an internet of things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van 't C.; Est, van R.; Daemen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones, public transport smart cards, security cameras and GPS systems in our car - we are surrounded by digital devices. They track us, guide us, help us, and control us. The book Check In / Check Out. The Public Space as an Internet of Things shows us how our digital and physical worlds are

  19. What is a good health check? An interview study of health check providers' views and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stol, Yrrah H; Asscher, Eva C A; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2017-10-02

    Health checks identify (risk factors for) disease in people without symptoms. They may be offered by the government through population screenings and by other providers to individual users as 'personal health checks'. Health check providers' perspective of 'good' health checks may further the debate on the ethical evaluation and possible regulation of these personal health checks. In 2015, we interviewed twenty Dutch health check providers on criteria for 'good' health checks, and the role these criteria play in their practices. Providers unanimously formulate a number of minimal criteria: Checks must focus on (risk factors for) treatable/preventable disease; Tests must be reliable and clinically valid; Participation must be informed and voluntary; Checks should provide more benefits than harms; Governmental screenings should be cost-effective. Aspirational criteria mentioned were: Follow-up care should be provided; Providers should be skilled and experienced professionals that put the benefit of (potential) users first; Providers should take time and attention. Some criteria were contested: People should be free to test on any (risk factor for) disease; Health checks should only be performed in people at high risk for disease that are likely to implement health advice; Follow up care of privately funded tests should not drain on collective resources. Providers do not always fulfil their own criteria. Their reasons reveal conflicts between criteria, conflicts between criteria and other ethical values, and point to components in the (Dutch) organisation of health care that hinder an ethical provision of health checks. Moreover, providers consider informed consent a criterion that is hard to establish in practice. According to providers, personal health checks should meet the same criteria as population screenings, with the exception of cost-effectiveness. Providers do not always fulfil their own criteria. Results indicate that in thinking about the ethics of health

  20. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  1. Root and aerial growth in early-maturing peach trees under two crop load treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrisqueta, I.; Conejero, W.; López-Martínez, L.; Vera, J.; Ruiz Sánchez, M.C.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of the paper were to study the pattern of root growth (measured by minirhizotrons) in relation to trunk, fruit and shoot growth and the effects of crop load on tree growth and yield in peach trees. Two crop load (commercial and low) treatments were applied in a mature early-maturing peach tree orchard growing in Mediterranean conditions. Root growth dynamics were measured using minirhizotrons during one growing season. Shoot, trunk and fruit growth were also measured. At harvest, all fruits were weighed, counted and sized. Roots grew throughout the year but at lower rates during the active fruit growth phase. Root growth was asynchronous with shoot growth, while root and trunk growth rates were highest after harvest, when the canopy was big enough to allocate the photo-assimilates to organs that would ensure the following season’s yield. Shoot and fruit growth was greater in the low crop load treatment and was accompanied by a non-significant increase in root growth. High level of fruit thinning decreased the current yield but the fruits were more marketable because of their greater size.

  2. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  3. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Hojeije, Khalil Y.

    2009-01-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a 60 Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  4. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to {sup 60}Co radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: priscilavsilva@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Hojeije, Khalil Y. [Floresta Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a {sup 60}Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  5. Internal papillomatosis with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in a peach-fronted conure (Aratinga aurea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Paul M; Busch, Martin D; Tell, Lisa A; Graham, Jennifer E; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    A 17-yr-old pet female peach-fronted conure (Aratinga aurea) was presented with the chief complaints of mild lethargy and weight loss with increased appetite. Antemortem diagnostics included complete blood count, plasma biochemistry, and radiography. Abnormal findings included elevated inflammatory parameters (hyperfibrinogenemia) and a space-occupying mass in the region of the liver. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy sample indicated bile duct hyperplasia leading to a presumptive diagnosis of hepatoxicosis. The bird initially showed moderate improvement with supportive care, but its condition declined 9 days after the liver biopsy. Supportive care was attempted a second time, but the bird did not improve and euthanasia was elected. Abnormal gross necropsy findings were confined to the liver, which contained multiple tan nodules that exuded yellowish fluid on cut section. Histopathologic examination revealed multicentric bile duct hyperplasia and cholangiocarcinoma as well as segmental papillary hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in the proventriculus, ventriculus, and throughout the intestinal tract. This is the first report of concurrent internal papillomatosis, gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma in a peach-fronted conure.

  6. Trade-Off Between Fitness Gain and Cost Determines Profitability of a Peach Aphid Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Diwas; He, Xiong Z; Wang, Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Aphidius colemani (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is commercially produced and utilized for biological control of peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse crops in many countries. To provide knowledge for the evaluation of parasitoid-host interactions and development of effective mass rearing programs, we investigated how and why host age or size affected fitness gain in A. colemani We show that the parasitoid was significantly more likely to encounter larger hosts and that an encounter almost always triggered an attack attempt. However, the attack attempt did not proportionally translate into oviposition because larger aphids had greater ability to defend themselves and the parasitoid spent more time in handling larger aphids. The host age at parasitization had no effect on emergence rates and sex ratio of parasitoid progeny, suggesting that pupae and larvae have similar survival rate in hosts of different ages and/or the parasitoid females do not adjust sex allocation based on host size. When parasitizing mid-aged hosts, the parasitoid gained maximum fitness for their progeny in developmental period, body size, and parasitism. Taking all findings together, we suggest that parasitizing mid-aged green peach aphid nymphs is most profitable for A. colemani. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus probiotic strains in peach jam during storage at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Lucia Randazzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of six probiotic wild strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was compared with that of a type strain during 78 days of storage at 25 and 5 ºC in peach synthetic medium (PSM and commercial peach jam (PJ. Changes in viable cell counts, pH values, sugar content, and colour parameters were monitored. All strains exhibited better performances in PJ than in PSM, showing count values higher than 7 Log cfu g-1 up to 78 days of storage at 5 ºC. Almost all wild strains remained above the critical value of 6 Log cfu g-1 in samples stored at 25 ºC up to 45 days, while the Lb. rhamnosus GG type strain, used as control, was not able to survive later than 15 days. In the synthetic medium used, the strains showed better survival in the samples incubated at 25 ºC, remaining viable above the critical level up to 45 days of storage, except for the strain H12. The probiotic cultures added to jam did not significantly change the colour parameters of the product; however the metabolism of lactobacilli did cause changes in the pH and in the composition of sugars.

  8. Chitin enhances biocontrol of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa to postharvest decay of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyin; Yang, Qiya; Ge, Lingling; Zhang, Guochao; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaoyun

    2016-07-01

    Biological control using microbial antagonists is a promising alternative approach to synthetic fungicides. However, effective biological control requires enhancing the consistency and efficacy of the antagonists used to control postharvest diseases. This study investigated the effect of chitin on the biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against blue mold and Rhizopus decay of peaches and on the protein expression profiles of R. mucilaginosa. The antagonistic activity of R. mucilaginosa harvested from the nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB) with 0.5% chitin added was significantly improved compared with culture in NYDB without chitin. The R. mucilaginosa population cultured in chitin-supplement NYDB and nutrient yeast chitin borth (NYCB) harvested from peach wounds was more than that of R. mucilaginosa cultured in NYDB without chitin throughout the storage period except at 1 d. The protein expression profiles findings revealed that there were several differentially expressed proteins of R. mucilaginosa in the 0.5% chitin-supplemented NYDB and NYCB compared with that of R. mucilaginosa in NYDB. Most of these were cellular proteomes relating to the primary metabolic reactions such as glycoside hydrolases, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, and NADH dehydrogenases. Some proteins were also related to signal transmission and stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro establishment of the hybrid rootstock ‘Garfi x Nemared’ (Garnem for peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberg Guevara Salguero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The interspecific hybrid between almond and peach, ‘Garfield x Nemared’ (Prunus dulcis (Mill D.A.Webb x Prunus persica (L. Batsch. has become very important as rootstocks for peach in Bolivia, but propagation by traditional methods of this hybrid has been very difficult. In the present study the aim was to in vitro establishment of this hybrid. As initial explants, nodal segments from mother plants, growing under controlled culture conditions, were used. For disinfection two concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (0.5 and 0.75% and time (10 and 12 min were tested. The greatest percentage of establishment was achieved using 0.75% NaClO for 12 min in an MS culture medium free of growth regulators. A 100% control of the phenols oxidation was achieved with the combination of mother plants growing under 50% shade, young buds, use of 150 mg l-1 citric acid at the end of the disinfection process and into the culture medium and then place the test tubes with the nodal segments one week in the dark.   Keywords: interspecific hybrid, Prunus, tissue culture

  10. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  11. Non-destructive grading of peaches by near-infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, G.; Capozzo, L.; Attolico, G.; Distante, A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on non-destructive methods for sorting peaches according to their degree of ripeness. The method is based on near-infrared (NIR) transmittance spectrometry in the region between 730 and 900 nm. It estimates the ripeness in terms of internal sugar content and firmness. A station for acquiring the NIR signal has been designed and realized, carefully choosing between several options for each component. Four different stations have been realized and compared during the experimental phase. The signals acquired by the station have been pre-processed using a noise-reducing method based on a packets-wavelet transform. In addition, an outlier detection technique has been applied for identifying irregular behaviors inside each of the considered classes. Finally, a minimum distance classifier estimates the grade of each experimental data. The results obtained in classification show that this early version of the station enables the correct discrimination of peaches with a percentage of 82.5%.

  12. Thermal inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in Jubileu clingstone peach and yeast isolated from its spoiled puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Menezes Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal inactivation of yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree and that of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD in cv. Jubileu, which is widely cultivated in southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, were studied. PPO and POD were extracted using the protein powder method and submitted to partial purification by precipitation followed by dialysis. The enzymatic activity was determined measuring the increase in absorbance at 420 nm for PPO and 470 nm for POD. The yeast used in this investigation was isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree at 22 °Brix, with total initial microbial count of 22 × 10² UFCmL- 1. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for microbial growth. In all cases, kinetic analysis of the results suggests that the thermal inactivation was well described by a first-order kinetic model, and the temperature dependence was significantly represented by the Arrhenius law. Both enzymes were affected by heat denaturation, and PPO was more thermostable. PPO was also more thermosTable than the yeast isolated from peach puree. The D60-values were 1.53 and 1.87 min for PPO and yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree, respectively.

  13. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  15. 76 FR 31888 - Nectarines and Fresh Peaches Grown in California; Termination of Marketing Order 916 and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... orders also authorize production research and marketing research and development projects, as well as the... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 [Doc. No. AMS-FV... Marketing Order 916 and the Peach Provisions of Marketing Order 917 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service...

  16. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on physiological traits and CBF gene expression in peach floral organs under freezing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Binbin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment on the cold resistance of peach flower, the floral organs of two peach cultivars were treated with 20 mg/L SA and stored at 0°C for observation and sample collection. Water application was the control. After a treatment period, the anther relative water content of the control and SA-treated flowers decreased. The extent of the reduction was greater in the control, suggesting that the SA treatment significantly helped to maintain the anther water content of peach. Analysis of the stigma relative electric conductivity revealed that the SA treatment prevented membrane injury during the low temperature treatment. Additionally, we measured CBF gene expression at low temperature in the petal, stigma and ovary. The expression was markedly upregulated in the cold-treated floral organs. CBF gene expression after SA treatment was higher than in the control when cold conditions continued. These results suggest that the effects of SA on ameliorating the freezing injury to peach floral organs and on enhancing cold tolerance may be associated with the induction of CBF gene.

  17. Differential transcript abundance and genotypic variation of four putative allergen-encoding gene families in melting peach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, Y.; Chen, L.; Xie, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, B.; Lu, M.; Wu, S.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Ree, van R.; Gao, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We analysed the temporal and spatial transcript expression of the panel of 18 putative isoallergens from four gene families (Pru p 1–4) in the peach fruit, anther and leaf of two melting cultivars, to gain insight into their expression profiles and to identify the key family members. Genotypic

  18. Estimation of glycaemic index of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) cooked fruits and chips, and pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Gin; Gómez, Georgina; Pérez, Ana M; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) is a physiological measure of a food's potential to increase postprandial blood glucose, as compared to the effect produced by food taken as reference, such as glucose or white bread. Currently researchers and consumers are interested in low GI foods, since their consumption is associated with better weight control and reduced risk of incidence of chronic diseases, like diabetes. In the present study, the GI value for peach palm cooked fruit, peach palm chips and pitahaya pulp was estimated. The methodology established by the FAO/WHO for determining the GI of food was used. A total of 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers were selected and they ingested the fore mentioned foods on different occasions, in 25 g portions of available carbohydrates, after 12-14 h overnight fast. Blood glucose levels were measured in 30 min intervals up to 120 min after ingestion. Average GI value was 48 +/- 11 for the pitahaya pulp and 35 +/- 6 for the peach palm cooked fruit, which may be classified as low glyceamic index foods. The GI of peach palm chips was 60 +/- 7, corresponding to a food with a moderate GI. The processing for producing the chips caused an increase in the GI value when compared to the cooked fruit, probably because the stages of miIling, moulding and baking promote availability of starch during hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes.

  19. Type checking by domain analysis in Ampersand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.M.M.; Joosten, S.J.C.; Kahl, W.; Winter, M.; Oliveira, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    In the process of incorporating subtyping in relation algebra, an algorithm was found to derive the subtyping relation from the program to be checked. By using domain analysis rather than type inference, this algorithm offers an attractive visualization of the type derivation process. This

  20. Inkjet 3D printed check microvalve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof; Lizanets, Danylo

    2017-01-01

    3D printing enables fast and relatively easy fabrication of various microfluidic structures including microvalves. A check microvalve is the simplest valve enabling control of the fluid flow in microchannels. Proper operation of the check valve is ensured by a movable element that tightens the valve seat during backward flow and enables free flow for forward pressure. Thus, knowledge of the mechanical properties of the movable element is crucial for optimal design and operation of the valve. In this paper, we present for the first time the results of investigations on basic mechanical properties of the building material used in multijet 3D printing. Specified mechanical properties were used in the design and fabrication of two types of check microvalve—with deflecting or hinge-fixed microflap—with 200 µ m and 300 µ m thickness. Results of numerical simulation and experimental data of the microflap deflection were obtained and compared. The valves were successfully 3D printed and characterised. Opening/closing characteristics of the microvalve for forward and backward pressures were determined. Thus, proper operation of the check microvalve so developed was confirmed. (technical note)

  1. Statistical Model Checking for Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Model Checking (SMC) is a highly scalable simulation-based verification approach for testing and estimating the probability that a stochastic system satisfies a given linear temporal property. The technique has been applied to (discrete and continuous time) Markov chains, stochastic...

  2. Separation of Powers: Checks and Balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bonnie

    1988-01-01

    This article offers a class activity on separation of powers and checks and balances within the U.S. government. Based on Franklin Delano Roosevelt's attempt to push through legislation for the New Deal of the 1930s by "packing" the U.S. Supreme Court, the activity includes worksheets and teaching suggestions. (JDH)

  3. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified...

  4. Functional check of telescoping transfer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities are defined which constitute a functional check of a telescoping transfer pump (TTP). This report is written to the Procedures group of HLW and particularly applies to those TTP's which are the sole means of emergency transfer from a HLW waste tank

  5. Model checking the HAVi leader election protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.T. Romijn (Judi)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe HAVi specification proposes an architecture for audio/video interoperability in home networks. Part of the HAVi specification is a distributed leader election protocol. We have modelled this leader election protocol in Promela and Lotos and have checked several properties with the

  6. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: Sm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. You have not supplied any structure factors. As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ...

  8. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: neu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. You have not supplied any structure factors. As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ...

  9. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: shelxl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. You have not supplied any structure factors. As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ...

  10. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: 6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. You have not supplied any structure factors. As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ...

  11. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Positive) Residual Density 13.61 eA-3. PLAT201_ALERT_2_B Isotropic non-H Atoms in Main Residue(s) . ... Weight Differ by .. 4.99 Check. PLAT094_ALERT_2_C Ratio of Maximum / Minimum Residual Density . ... 9 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 20 ALERT type 2 Indicator that ...

  12. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  13. Discrete-time rewards model-checked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, K.G.; Andova, S.; Niebert, Peter; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model-checking approach for analyzing discrete-time Markov reward models. For this purpose, the temporal logic probabilistic CTL is extended with reward constraints. This allows to formulate complex measures – involving expected as well as accumulated rewards – in a precise and

  14. Regular Check-Ups Are Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Attack Wear Red for Heart Health Tools for Pregnant Women, New Moms, Women Considering Pregnancy Be a Healthy ... your community (i.e. a faith-based setting, workplace, school, or civic group) ... screening on National Women’s Check-Up Day (the day after Mother’s Day ...

  15. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. You have not supplied any structure factors. As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ...

  16. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: sm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. You have not supplied any structure factors. As a result the full set of tests cannot be run. THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ...

  17. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking...

  18. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The relevant atom site should be identified. STRVA01_ALERT_4_C. Flack test results are ambiguous. ... 7 ALERT type 3 Indicator that the structure quality may be low. 5 ALERT type 4 Improvement, methodology, query or ... paper, to upload your CIF via our web site. PLATON version of 20/08/2014; check.def file version of ...

  19. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: shelxl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6 ALERT level G = General information/check it is not something unexpected. 1 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 15 ALERT type 2 Indicator that the structure model may be wrong or deficient. 9 ALERT type 3 Indicator that the structure quality may be low. 1 ALERT type 4 Improvement, ...

  20. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: shelx

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7 ALERT level G = General information/check it is not something unexpected. 0 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 3 ALERT type 2 Indicator that the structure ... However, the purpose of your study may justify the reported deviations and the more serious of these should normally be ...

  1. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6 ALERT level G = General information/check it is not something unexpected. 2 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 8 ALERT type 2 Indicator that the structure ... However, the purpose of your study may justify the reported deviations and the more serious of these should normally be ...

  2. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5 ALERT level G = General information/check it is not something unexpected. 5 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 15 ALERT type 2 Indicator that the structure ... However, the purpose of your study may justify the reported deviations and the more serious of these should normally be ...

  3. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5 ALERT level G = General information/check it is not something unexpected. 0 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 3 ALERT type 2 Indicator that the structure ... However, the purpose of your study may justify the reported deviations and the more serious of these should normally be ...

  4. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: shelxl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6 ALERT level G = General information/check it is not something unexpected. 0 ALERT type 1 CIF construction/syntax error, inconsistent or missing data. 4 ALERT type 2 Indicator that the structure ... However, the purpose of your study may justify the reported deviations and the more serious of these should normally be ...

  5. Slicing AADL specifications for model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odenbrett, M.R.; Nguyen, V.Y.; Noll, T.

    2010-01-01

    To combat the state-space explosion problem in model checking larger systems, abstraction techniques can be employed. Here, methods that operate on the system specification before constructing its state space are preferable to those that try to minimize the resulting transition system as they

  6. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  7. Results on Parity-Check Matrices With Optimal Stopping And/Or Dead-End Set Enumerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, J.H.; Abdel-Ghaffar, K.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of iterative decoding techniques for linear block codes correcting erasures depends very much on the sizes of the stopping sets associated with the underlying Tanner graph, or, equivalently, the parity-check matrix representing the code. In this correspondence, we introduce the

  8. The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, Matthew S.; Forget, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power

  9. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  10. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  11. 31 CFR 248.6 - Recovery of original check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery of original check. 248.6... § 248.6 Recovery of original check. (a) If the claimant recovers an original check after he has... or agency concerned regarding the negotiability of such original check. (b) In the event the...

  12. Equivalent nozzle in thermomechanical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.

    1977-01-01

    When analyzing nuclear vessels, it is most important to study the behavior of the nozzle cylinder-cylinder intersection. For the elastic field, this analysis in three dimensions is quite easy using the method of finite elements. The same analysis in the non-linear field becomes difficult for designs in 3-D. It is therefore necessary to resolve a nozzle in two dimensions equivalent to a 3-D nozzle. The purpose of the present work is to find an equivalent nozzle both with a mechanical and thermal load. This has been achieved by the analysis in three dimensions of a nozzle and a nozzle cylinder-sphere intersection, of a different radius. The equivalent nozzle will be a nozzle with a sphere radius in a given ratio to the radius of a cylinder; thus, the maximum equivalent stress is the same in both 2-D and 3-D. The nozzle examined derived from the intersection of a cylindrical vessel of radius R=191.4 mm and thickness T=6.7 mm with a cylindrical nozzle of radius r=24.675 mm and thickness t=1.350 mm, for which the experimental results for an internal pressure load are known. The structure was subdivided into 96 finite, three-dimensional and isoparametric elements with 60 degrees of freedom and 661 total nodes. Both the analysis with a mechanical load as well as the analysis with a thermal load were carried out on this structure according to the Bersafe system. The thermal load consisted of a transient typical of an accident occurring in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, with a peak of the temperature (540 0 C) for the sodium inside the vessel with an insulating argon temperature constant at 525 0 C. The maximum value of the equivalent tension was found in the internal area at the union towards the vessel side. The analysis of the nozzle in 2-D consists in schematizing the structure as a cylinder-sphere intersection, where the sphere has a given relation to the

  13. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  14. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  15. Wijsman Orlicz Asymptotically Ideal -Statistical Equivalent Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2013-01-01

    in Wijsman sense and present some definitions which are the natural combination of the definition of asymptotic equivalence, statistical equivalent, -statistical equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense. Finally, we introduce the notion of Cesaro Orlicz asymptotically -equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense and establish their relationship with other classes.

  16. Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  17. Study of check image using computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    There are two image forming methods both a check image and a portal image in the linacogram. It has been established the image forming method in the check image using computed radiography (CR). On the other hand, it is not established the image forming method in the portal image using CR yet. Usually, in the electric portal imaging device (EPID) is mainly used just before radiotherapy start. The usefulness of the portal image forming method by CR using in place of EPID is possible to confirm the precision for determining to specific position at the irradiate part and to the irradiate method for the human organs. There are some technical problems that, since in the early time, the linac graphy (LG) image have low resolution power. In order to improve to the resolution power in LG image, CR image technologies have been introduced to the check image forming method. Heavy metallic sheet (HMS) is used to the front side of CR-IP cassette, and high contactness sponge is used to the back side of the cassette. Improved contactness between HMS and imaging plate (IP) by means of the high contactness sponge contributed to improve the resolution power in the check images. A lot of paper which is connected with these information have been reported. Imaging plate ST-III should be used to maintain high sensitivity in the check film image forming method. The same image forming method in the check image established by CR has been introduced into the portal image forming method in order to improve the resolution power. However, as a result, it couldn't acquired high resolution image forming in the portal images because of the combination of ST-III and radiotherapy dose. After several trials, it has been recognized that HR-V imaging plate for mammography is the most useful application to maintain high resolution power in the portal images. Also, it is possible to modify the image quality by changing GS parameter which is one of image processing parameters in CR. Furthermore, in case

  18. Durabilidade natural do estipe de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae II: insetos Natural durability of Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm, Arecaceae stipe II: insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Liege Souza de Abreu

    2004-09-01

    the present paper, through forest and urban environment field tests. Five palms with spines and five without spines from the Tabatinga population (Putumayo landrace were used in the experiment. Disks approximately 30 cm thick were taken from the butt, middle and top portions of each palm and distributed at random in a forest area near the INPA Peach Palm Germoplasm Bane (2º38'S 60º03'W. The time of permanence of the samples was 18 months, and in this period the disks were checked every three months to evaluate the degree of deterioration and collection of insects. In the urban condition, the same procedure was adopted, however each disk was halved to remove the centre and each half was distributed at random, one in a concave and the other in a convex position, on a wooden framework situated in the INPA's campus, Manaus, and checked bimonthly for one year. The results in the forest condition indicated that most of the disks were deteriorated by termites, and useful life of the butt portions varied around 18 months, the middle and the top around 15. The main species of termites were: Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen (Rhinotermitidae attacked the butt, middle and the top parts; Nasutitermes similis Emerson (Termitidae that infested the area of the base and of the middle; Anoplotermes sp. (Termitidae and Nasutitermes tatarandae (Holmgren (Termitidae attacked the medium part of the stipe. In the urban condition, the beetle Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollston (Bostrichidae, was the most responsible for the deterioration of the samples, followed by the termite N. similis.

  19. Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)

  20. Determining The Factors Affecting Fruit Hardness of Different Peach Types with Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Küçükönder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factor effective in determining the hardness of Caterina, Suidring, Royal Glory and Tirrenia peach types using meta analysis. In the study, the impact force (Fi and the contact time (tc were detected and the impulse values (I that are expressed as independent variable in the area under the curve were calculated in the measurements performed using the technique of a low-mass lateral impactor multiplicated with peach. Using the theory of elasticity, the independent variables were determined as Fmax (maximum impact force, contact time (tmax, Fmax/tmax, 1/tmax, 1/tmax2,5, Fmax/tmax 1.25 and Fmax2.5 parameters. The correlation coefficient values showing the relationship between these parameters and the dependent variable Magness-Taylor force (MT were calculated and were combined with meta-analysis by using the Hunter-Schmid and Fisher’s Z methods. The Cohen’s classification criterion was used in evaluating the resulting mean effect size (combined correlation value and in determining its direction. As a result of the meta-analysis, the mean effect size according to Hunter-Schmid method was found 0.436 (0.371-0.497 positively directed in 95% confidence interval, while it was found 0.468 (0.390-0.545 according to Fisher’s Z method. The effect sizes in both methods were determined “mid-level” according to the Cohen’s classification. When the significance level of the studies was analyzed with the Z test, all of the ones that taken into the meta analysis has been found statistically significant. As a result of the meta analysis in this study evaluating the relationship of peach types with the fruit hardness, the mean effect size has been found to reach “strong level”. Consequently, “maximum shock acceleration” was found to be a more effective factor comparing to the other factors in determining the the fruit hardness according to the results of meta analysis applied in both methods.

  1. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  2. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  3. Prof. John Wood, Chief Executive Designate, Dr Gordon Walker, Directorate, Chief Executive, Prof. Ken J. Peach, Head of the Particle Physics Department, CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to. r.: Dr. Ian Wilson, CLIC Deputy Study Leader, Prof. Ken J. Peach, Head of the Particle Physics Department, Prof. John Wood, Chief Executive Designate, Dr. Gordon Walker, Directorate, Chief Executive

  4. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  5. Model Checking the Remote Agent Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Lina; Muscettola, Nicola; Havelund, Klaus; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work tackles the problem of using Model Checking for the purpose of verifying the HSTS (Scheduling Testbed System) planning system. HSTS is the planner and scheduler of the remote agent autonomous control system deployed in Deep Space One (DS1). Model Checking allows for the verification of domain models as well as planning entries. We have chosen the real-time model checker UPPAAL for this work. We start by motivating our work in the introduction. Then we give a brief description of HSTS and UPPAAL. After that, we give a sketch for the mapping of HSTS models into UPPAAL and we present samples of plan model properties one may want to verify.

  6. Perencanaan Check Damsungai Lebugini Kabupatenkudus, Jawa Tengah

    OpenAIRE

    Amirullah, Fikri; Nalendro, Raditya; Wahyuni, Sri Eko; Salamun, Salamun

    2014-01-01

    Lebugini River is the branch of Juanariverswhich is under the authority of the Central River Region Pemali - Juana, precisely located in the administrative area of the Kudus District. The location, which is on the upstream,causes degradation of the river channel, thus, to stabilize the river channel, the local Goverment should have a plan to build the conservation building. The dataused for the planning of check dam areprimary data (geotechnical data, the geometry of Lebugini river, and also ...

  7. Perencanaan Check Dam Sungai Dawe Kudus

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaanah, Adibatul; Pinandoyo, Nur; Sugiyanto, Sugiyanto; Wahyuni, Sri Eko

    2013-01-01

    Juana river's located in two administrative regions Kudus and Pati had superficial. This is because the slope of the river is quite gentle and the level of environmental degradation in the watershed (DAS) Juana river's have increased. Based on these conditions, it is necessary to plan the construction of sediment control (check dams) to reduce sedimentation along the river and optimize the function of the Juana river's. Planning is performed on Dawe river's ,the branch of Juana river's. From ...

  8. Implementing a Self- Checking PROFIBUS Slave

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Margrit R.; Lubaszewski, Marcelo S.; Ferreira, Jose M.; Alves, Gustavo R.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the study and preliminary results of the high level implementation of a self-checking Profibus slave. From an existing VHDL description of the device, a test strategy was studied and implemented, so that the whole circuit has embedded test structures capable to perform at-speed test of the slave. In this paper, we show the used test strategies and implementation results achieved from a synthesis process in a FPGA environment. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  9. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: platon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    checkCIF/PLATON report. Structure factors have been supplied for datablock(s) platon. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: platon. Bond precision: C-C = 0.0033 A. Wavelength=0.71073. Cell: a=16.345(7) b=6.288(3) c=19.938(8) alpha=90 beta=96.169(7) gamma=90. Temperature:.

  10. Photogrammetric approach to automated checking of DTMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potucková, Marketa

    2005-01-01

    Geometrically accurate digital terrain models (DTMs) are essential for orthoimage production and many other applications. Collecting reference data or visual inspection are reliable but time consuming and therefore expensive methods for finding errors in DTMs. In this paper, a photogrammetric...... approach to automated checking and improving of DTMs is evaluated. Corresponding points in two overlapping orthoimages are found by means of area based matching. Provided the image orientation is correct, discovered displacements correspond to DTM errors. Improvements of the method regarding its...

  11. Speed checks on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In view of the significant number of speeding incidents that have been reported, CERN will shortly start to carry out speed checks on the site. The radar used for this purpose will show drivers the speed measured. The disciplinary measures taken against those exceeding the authorised limit (generally 50 k.p.h.) will include a ban from driving on the site for a minimum of one month. Maximilian Metzger
Secretary-General

  12. Application of 125I in micropipettor check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Xiaoyu; Gao Yunchao; Yang Yadong; Lu Hankui

    2006-01-01

    Gravimetric test is one of authoritative methods for the measurement and validation of the accuracy and precision of micropipettors. The feasibility of radioactive measurement in the check of micropipettors is studied. There are no significant difference in radioactive count rates of 125 I aspirated between 2 qualified micropipettors, but significant difference are recorded between qualified and unqualified micropipettors. So 125 I radiometry agrees with gravimetric tests, and can be used as a laboratory constant test of micropipettors. (authors)

  13. Delivery quality assurance with ArcCHECK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, Christopher; Klein, Michael; Barnett, Rob; Yartsev, Slav

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy requires delivery quality assurance (DQA) to ensure that treatment is accurate and closely follows the plan. We report our experience with the ArcCHECK phantom and investigate its potential optimization for the DQA process. One-hundred seventy DQA plans from 84 patients were studied. Plans were classified into 2 groups: those with the target situated on the diodes of the ArcCHECK (D plans) and those with the target situated at the center (C plans). Gamma pass rates for 8 target sites were examined. The parameters used to analyze the data included 3%/3 mm with the Van Dyk percent difference criteria (VD) on, 3%/3 mm with the VD off, 2%/2 mm with the VD on, and x/3 mm with the VD on and the percentage dosimetric agreement “x” for diode plans adjusted. D plans typically displayed maximum planned dose (MPD) on the cylindrical surface containing ArcCHECK diodes than center plans, resulting in inflated gamma pass rates. When this was taken into account by adjusting the percentage dosimetric agreement, C plans outperformed D plans by an average of 3.5%. ArcCHECK can streamline the DQA process, consuming less time and resources than radiographic films. It is unnecessary to generate 2 DQA plans for each patient; a single center plan will suffice. Six of 8 target sites consistently displayed pass rates well within our acceptance criteria; the lesser performance of head and neck and spinal sites can be attributed to marginally lower doses and increased high gradient of plans

  14. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  15. Radiation systems for luggage and parcel checks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honomichl, V.

    1989-01-01

    The current radioscopic systems of luggage check in air traffic are based on the principle of intensifying the brightness of half-tone images on the fluorescent screen of an image intensifier, or use of very sensitive pick-up tubes with digital image processing. Computers are used for signal processing and the image is produced on a display unit. Sources of continuous or pulse X-ray radiation are used. The signals from the detector are amplified, converted and stored in a buffer and then displayed. The scanning systems use a narrow beam or, to improve rapidity and sensitivity of scanning, a sector beam of radiation. Equipment is described from Heinemann (FRG) featuring a band of 576 or 768 detectors and microprocessor controlled semiconductor tv cameras. Characteristics are also presented of equipment from Aeradio Ltd (U.K.) and Philips (FRG) companies. Attention is devoted to equipment from American Science and Engineering (U.S.) showing high quality imaging even at low radiation doses. Briefly described are portable check systems for inspection of small luggage and parcels. Characteristics are presented of systems for checking vehicles and containers in naval, air, rail and road transport. The principles and performance are described of the systems. (J.B.). 4 figs

  16. The Activity Check of Brachytherapy Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gun Oh; Lee, Byung Koo; Kwon, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    An isotope Ir-192, which is used in brachytherapy depends on import in whole quantities. There are a few ways for its activity. measurement using Welltype chamber or the way to rely on authentic decay table of manufacturer. In-air dosimetry using Farmer Chamber, etc. In this paper, let me introduce the way using Farmer chamber which is easier and simple. With the Farmer chamber and source calibration jig, take a measurement the activity of an isotope Ir-192 and compare the value with the value from decay table of manufacturer and check the activity of source. The result of measurement, compared the value from decay table, by ±2.1. (which belongs to recommendable value for AAPM ±5% as difference of error range). It is possible to use on clinical medicine. With the increase in use of brachytherapy, the increase of import is essential. And an accurate activity check of source is compulsory. For the activity check of source, it was possible to use Farmer chamber and source calibration jig without additional purchase of Well type chamber.

  17. [Pre-verbality in focusing and the need for self check. An attempt at "focusing check"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, T; Ikemi, A; Murayama, S

    1983-06-01

    Though the Focusing process is not entirely non-verbal, in Focusing, careful attention is paid by the Focuser and the Listener to the pre-verbal experiential process. In other words, Focusing involves attending to the felt sense that is not easily expressed in words immediately. Hence, during the process of learning to Focus, the Focusing teacher attempts to communicate the experiences of Focusing to the student which are not easily done by words. Due to such difficulties, the Focusing student may (and quite frequently does) mistake the experiential process in Focusing with other processes. Often, the felt sense can be confused with other phenomena such as "autogenic discharge". Also the Focuser may not stay with the felt sense and drift into "free association" or frequently, certain processes in "meditation" can be confused with Focusing. Therefore, there is a need for a "check" by which the Focusing student can confirm the Focusing experience for himself. For the Focusing student, such a "check" serves not only to confirm the Focusing process, but also an aid to learning Focusing. We will report here a "Focusing Check" which we developed by translating Eugene Gendlin's "Focusing Check" and making several modifications in it so that it will be more understandable to the Japanese. Along with the "Focusing Check" we developed, the authors discuss the need for such a check.

  18. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. Critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 [1] methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. The effective dose equivalent determined using ICRP-26 methods is significantly smaller than the dose equivalent determined by traditional methods. No existing personnel dosimeter or health physics instrument can determine effective dose equivalent. At the present time, the conversion of dosimeter response to dose equivalent is based on calculations for maximal or ''cap'' values using homogeneous spherical or cylindrical phantoms. The evaluated dose equivalent is, therefore, a poor approximation of the effective dose equivalent as defined by ICRP Publication 26. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. MELCOR simulation of long-term station blackout at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results from MELCOR (Version 1.8BC) calculations of the Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Sequence, with failure to depressurize the reactor vessel, at the Peach Bottom (BWR Mark I) plant, and presents comparisons with Source Term Code Package (STCP) calculations of the same sequence. This sequence assumes that batteries are available for six hours following loss of all power to the plant. Following battery failure, the reactor coolant system (RCS) inventory is boiled off through the relief valves by continued decay heat generation. This leads to core uncovery, heatup, clad oxidation, core degradation, relocation, and, eventually, vessel failure at high pressure. STCP has calculated the transient out to 13.5 hours after core uncovery. The results include the timing of key events, pressure and temperature response in the reactor vessel and containment, hydrogen production, and the release of source terms to the environment. 12 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  20. TDZ pulsing evaluation on the in vitro morphogenesis of peach palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graner, Erika Mendes; Oberschelp, Gustavo Pedro Javier; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Batagin-Piotto, Katherine Derlene; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2013-04-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) cropping is an excellent alternative to native species exploitation; nevertheless, the problems with seed germination and conventional propagation justify the use of in vitro culturing. Aiming to asses TDZ pulsing effect on B. gasipaes morphogenesis, explants obtained from unarmed microplants were maintained in two treatments, half of them in MS free medium (without growth regulator) and the other half in MS with TDZ (0.36 μM). Both groups were transferred to growth regulator-free MS medium following 14 days of culture. After 84 days of culture, TDZ pulsing increased the growth and development of the shoots, restricted the growth and development of the roots, with no influence on adventitious bud induction or somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, development of prickles, thickening of roots and chlorotic leaves were noted under TDZ pulsing. Leaf sheath histological analysis showed an epidermal origin and no vascularization of these prickles.

  1. Postirradiation examination of recycle test elements from the Peach Bottom Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    The Recycle Test Elements were a series of tests of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuels irradiated in Core 2 of the Peach Bottom Unit 1 Reactor. They tested a wide variety of fissile and fertile fuel types of prime interest when the tests were designed. The fuel types included UO 2 , UC 2 , (2Th,U)O 2 , (4Th,U)O 2 , ThC 2 , and ThO 2 . The mixed thorium--uranium oxides and the pure thorium oxide were tested as Biso-coated particles only, while the others were tested as both Biso- and Triso-coated particles. The Biso coatings on the fissile kernels contained the fission products inadequately but on the fertile kernels they did so acceptably. The results from accelerated and real-time tests on the particle types agreed well

  2. Cooperative problem solving capabilities of Peach-fronted Conures (Eupsittula aurea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres Ortiz, Sara; Corregidor, Alejandro; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    We investigated basic cognitive skills of individual Peach-fronted Conures (Eupsittula aurea, PFC) using ’the string-pulling test’ and their cooperative capabilities using ’the loose-string test’. First, 2-4 strings were suspended in different configurations to the underside of a perch. A food...... reward was attached to the end of one of the strings. By varying different spatial configurations of strings and rewards, different cognitive skills could be elucidated. Two females and two males were tested. All individuals solved three out of four string configurations (four straight strings, two slant...... strings, two contact-no contact strings), but all failed in a crossed strings test. Subsequently we tested the birds with a vertical pulley that required the birds to pull the string down to move the food reward upwards and within reach. This test was only solved by the males. The latter test showed...

  3. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  4. Persistence of two neem formulations on peach leaves and fruit: effect of the distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarais, Giorgia; Angioni, Alberto; Lai, Francesco; Cabras, Paolo; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2009-03-25

    Persistence of azadirachtins (A+B) and of the other limonoids (nimbin, salannin, deacetylnimbin, and deacetylsalannin) on peach leaves and fruits was studied using a commercial formulation (form. C) compared with an experimental formulation (form. E) prepared with coformulations allowed in organic culture. Field experiments were carried out using three concentrations: 1x, 5x, and 10x the dose recommended by the manufacturer. The EU maximum residue level (MRL) in fruits and vegetables for azadirachtin A is 1 mg/kg with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 3 days. At the recommended dose, azadirachtin A residue on fruits was not detectable (LOQ stability. This is probably due to the amount of the active ingredients that diffuse into the epicuticular wax layer thus enhancing photostability of azadirachtoids.

  5. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L.

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. 58 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs

  6. Radioactive cesium deposition on rice, wheat, peach tree and soil after nuclear accident in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Kobayashi, N.I.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present how radioactive Cs was deposited on wheat, rice, peach tree and soil after nuclear accident in Fukushima. The deposition of radioactive Cs was found as spots at the surface of the leaves, branch or trunk of the trees, as well as in soil using one of the imaging method, autoradiography. The deposited radioactive Cs was not easily washed out, even with the treatment of acid solution. When the wheat was harvested 2 months after the accident, high radioactivity of Cs was found only on the leaves developed and expanded at the time of the accident. In the case of the rice grain, most of the radioactivity was found in bran and the radioactivity was drastically reduced in milled rice. Most of the radioactive Cs accumulation in rice plants was estimated from the absorption of the Cs ion dissolved in water, rather than Cs adsorbed in soil. (author)

  7. Analysis of containment venting for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Wright, R.E.; Jenkins, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of containment venting as a means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents was evaluated for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). Results from this evaluation indicate that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment failure is highly dependent on the severe accident sequence. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks in the containment and transients with a failure of containment heat removal. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with several sequences currently identified as significant contributors to risk. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction were identified, but their influence on risk was not analyzed

  8. Perfil sensorial de iogurte light, sabor pêssego Sensory profile of peach flavored light yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. R. Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinado o perfil sensorial descritivo de três amostras de iogurte light, sabor pêssego, pela metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. A equipe sensorial definiu os termos descritores, os materiais de referência para o treinamento das qualidades e quantificações de cada um dos termos e a ficha de avaliação das amostras, de forma consensual. Dez provadores foram selecionados e rigorosamente treinados para compor a equipe definitiva, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade e consenso dos provadores entre si. Foram gerados doze termos descritores pelo método de rede. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra por escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos, sendo o mínimo à esquerda e o máximo à direita. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram que as amostras comerciais apresentaram grande variação em seus perfis sensoriais. Na ACP, ficou evidenciado que a amostra A foi caracterizada principalmente pelos atributos gosto doce, sabor pêssego e firmeza dos pedaços de fruta. A amostra B foi caracterizada pelos atributos brilho, cor pêssego e cremosidade, e a amostra C foi caracterizada pela maior intensidade dos atributos gosto ácido, adstringência, textura farinácea e aroma artificial de pêssego. De acordo com o teste de aceitação, todas as amostras apresentaram boa aceitação em todos os atributos avaliados. Desta maneira, a análise do perfil sensorial da amostra C, que contém proteína de soja na sua formulação, revelou que este ingrediente não foi percebido pelos provadores, e não interferiu na sua aceitação.The descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three samples of peach flavored light yogurt were determined using methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. A sensory panel

  9. Effect of peach gum polysaccharides on quality changes of white shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing-Cun; Chang, Cheng-Fei; Wu, Sheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) have both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the retardation effect of the PGPs on the quality changes of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage was investigated. Shrimp samples were untreated with different concentrations of the PGPs solution and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions for 10 days. During refrigerated storage, shrimp samples were taken periodically and their total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score were evaluated. Compared to the control, treatment of the PGPs solution effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH changes, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that treatment of PGPs could be a promising means to preserve white shrimp (P. vannamei). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Peach Bottom Cycle 2 Low Flow Stability Tests analysis using RELAP5/PARCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.L.; Salah, A.B.; D'Auria, F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the coupled codes technique, which consists in incorporating threedimensional (3D) neutron modeling of the reactor core into system codes, is extensively used for simulating transients that involve core spatial asymmetric phenomena and strong feedback effects between core neutronics and reactor loop thermal-hydraulics. So, in this work, the coupled codes technique using RELAP5/3.3-PARCS is applied to simulate stability transients in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor). Validation has been performed against Peach Bottom-2 Low-Flow Stability Tests. In these transients dynamically complex neutron kinetics coupling with thermal-hydraulics events take place in response to a core pressure perturbation. The calculated coupled code results are herein compared against the available experimental data. (author)

  11. Regularities in the 14C assimilates supply of fruit in old peach trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Manolov, P.

    1977-01-01

    Autoradiography and 14 C assimilates were used in trials with five-year vase pruned trees of the Dixired peach variety. The labelled assimilates as entries from 14 CO 2 dressed shoots in the skeletal parts were transposted by a narrow phloem strip and directed either towards the fruits or down to the trunk and root system. The cumulation of labelled assimilates in fruits is determined by a series of factors. The main of them was the coincidence of the fruitbearing branchlet base with the radioactive phloem strip of the carrying it skeletal part. The leaves/fruits ratio in regard to the fruitbearing branchlet was a more slightly acting factor and in all probability contributing to the going of photoassimilates in fruits only in the case of coincidence of the basal part of fruitbearing branchlet with the radioactive steam. The transport to the fruits was both basipetal and acropetal. The 14 C assimilates stream towards the root system could get fully exhausted and stopped by branchlets covered with numerous fruits and insufficient leafage disposed on the radioactive strip. On the other hand, the basipetal 14 C assimilates stream at the base of the erected skeletal parts, caused by a strong acceptable organ the root system, hampers the labelled assimilates supply even of those fruitbearing branchlets with a low leaves/fruits ratio whose basal parts coincided with the radioactive strip. To this contributed also the great difference in the thicknesses between the skeletal part and the side fruitbearing branchlets. The examined transport type explained to some extent the slighter growth of fruits in the lower part of compact peach tree crowns reg ardless of the great leafage presence in this top parts. (author)

  12. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  13. Characterization biometric and morphophysiological of Peach rootstock seeds using images of their seedling vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Aline Das Graças; Smiderle, Oscar Jose; Bianchi, Valmor Joao

    2018-04-26

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of using the computerized imaging seed analysis system (SAS) in the biometric and morphophysiological characterization of seeds and the initial growth of seedlings from peach rootstocks. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates of 20 seeds. The variables analyzed were degree of seed humidity, length and width of seeds measured by SAS technology and manual measurements, mean germination time, germination percentage, radicle length and width, taproot length, length of the aerial part and taproot/aerial part ratio. The highest seed length, germination percentage (100%) and lower germination time (11.3), were obtained with the cv. Capdeboscq while, 'Tsukuba 1', 2' and 3' had intermediate seedlings length, varying from 1.55 to 1.65 cm with mean germination times between 14.5 and 18.0 days and average germination percentage of 96%. The computerized analysis of images is fast and efficient for biometric evaluations such as seed width and length, as well as initial growth of peach tree seedlings. The cvs Capdeboscq, Flordaguard and Tsukuba 2 presented greater radicle width, length and a mean taproot/aerial part ratio equal to 2, as well as higher number of adventitious roots, which indicated a strong positive correlation between radicle length, taproot length and initial seedling growth. The continuity of the research will certainly allow the development of reliable procedures for other species, besides allowing the identification of wider alternatives for the use of this system for the expansion of knowledge in the areas of physiology and evaluation of the physiological potential of seeds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  15. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  16. Effect of Nano Packaging on Storage Life and Quality Attributes of Elberta Peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Asghari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asaclimactericfruit, peach has a highrespiration rateandvery lowshelf life. Nowadays theuse ofappropriatepostharvesttechnologiesto increase fruit postharvest lifeis necessary.Use of nanotechnologyis considered asan effective method to increase fruit postharvest life. Nanotechnology isused extensivelyinallstages of production, processing, storage, packagingand transport ofagriculturalproducts.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of silver and silica nanocomposites, nanosilver and polypropylene containers on shelf-life and preservation of peach qualitative characteristics (Prunuspersicacv. Elberta such as titrable acidity, soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant and total phenolics content in cold storage after the harvest. Materials and Methods: To determine the effect of nanopackaging onshelf life andqualitativecharacteristics ofElberta peaches,the experiment was conducted in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with two treatmentsand four replications.The first factor consisted of nanopackagingnanosilver, silver and silica nanocompositesandpolypropylenepackaging, and the second factor was coldstorage periods of15, 30 and 45 daysattemperaturesfrom 0 to0/5 °C and a relative humidityof 85to 95%.In general, the experiment consisted of 36 experimental units, and each includinga container with four Elberta peach fruits.Data were analyzed by using SAS software, and Microsoft Office Excel 2010 software was used to plot the graphs.Duncan's multiple range test was used to compare the means of treatments. Results and Discussion: At the end of the maintenance period, the highest firmness of peach texture was related to nanosilver containers. The main cause of fruit softening is the destruction of cell wall components, especially pectin, which is caused by certain enzymes such as polygalactronase. Whenstorage timeincreased, polypropylene containers showed a higher weight loss compared to

  17. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  18. Radiological equivalent of chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has caused continued effort toward public safety through radiation health protection measures and nuclear management practices. However, concern has not been focused on the development specifically in the operation of chemical pestrochemical industries as well as other industrial processes brought about by technological advancements. This article presents the comparison of the risk of radiation and chemicals. The methods used for comparing the risks of late effects of radiation and chemicals are considered at three levels. (a) as a frame of reference to give an impression of resolving power of biological tests; (b) as methods to quantify risks; (c) as instruments for an epidemiological survey of human populations. There are marked dissimilarities between chemicals and radiation and efforts to interpret chemical activity may not be achieved. Applicability of the concept of rad equivalence has many restrictions and as pointed out this approach is not an established one. (RTD)

  19. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  20. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  1. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  2. Investigation of Equivalent Circuit for PEMFC Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Kwang Jae

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions occurring in a PEMFC are dominated by the physical conditions and interface properties, and the reactions are expressed in terms of impedance. The performance of a PEMFC can be simply diagnosed by examining the impedance because impedance characteristics can be expressed by an equivalent electrical circuit. In this study, the characteristics of a PEMFC are assessed using the AC impedance and various equivalent circuits such as a simple equivalent circuit, equivalent circuit with a CPE, equivalent circuit with two RCs, and equivalent circuit with two CPEs. It was found in this study that the characteristics of a PEMFC could be assessed using impedance and an equivalent circuit, and the accuracy was highest for an equivalent circuit with two CPEs

  3. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable...

  4. Automata-Based CSL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...... probability can then be approximated in polynomial time (using uniformization). This makes the present work the centerpiece of a broadly applicable full CSL model checker. Recently, the decision algorithm by Aziz et al. was shown to be incorrect in general. In fact, it works only for stratified CTMCs...

  5. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoshko, Dmitri; Kilin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  6. Advanced techniques for efficient data integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide

    Integrity constraint checking, understood as the verification of data correctness and well-formedness conditions that must be satisfied in any state of a database, is not fully supported by current database technology. In a typical scenario, a database is required to comply with given semantic...... criteria (the integrity constraints) and to maintain the compliance each time data are updated. Since the introduction of the SQL2 standard, the SQL language started supporting assertions, which allow one to define general data consistency requirements expressing arbitrarily complex “business rules...

  7. A Framework for Online Conformance Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burattin, Andrea; Carmona, Josep

    2017-01-01

    is quantified after the completion of the process instance. In this paper we propose a framework for online conformance checking: not only do we quantify (non-)conformant behavior as the execution is running, we also restrict the computation to constant time complexity per event analyzed, thus enabling...... the online analysis of a stream of events. The framework is instantiated with ideas coming from the theory of regions, and state similarity. An implementation is available in ProM and promising results have been obtained....

  8. Some spectral equivalences between Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, C; Hibberd, K E; Links, J

    2008-01-01

    Spectral equivalences of the quasi-exactly solvable sectors of two classes of Schroedinger operators are established, using Gaudin-type Bethe ansatz equations. In some instances the results can be extended leading to full isospectrality. In this manner we obtain equivalences between PT-symmetric problems and Hermitian problems. We also find equivalences between some classes of Hermitian operators

  9. The definition of the individual dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Margarete

    1986-01-01

    A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)

  10. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsch, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  11. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  12. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  13. Classification and Discrimination of Different Fungal Diseases of Three Infection Levels on Peaches Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peaches are susceptible to infection from several postharvest diseases. In order to control disease and avoid potential health risks, it is important to identify suitable treatments for each disease type. In this study, the spectral and imaging information from hyperspectral reflectance (400~1000 nm was used to evaluate and classify three kinds of common peach disease. To reduce the large dimensionality of the hyperspectral imaging, principal component analysis (PCA was applied to analyse each wavelength image as a whole, and the first principal component was selected to extract the imaging features. A total of 54 parameters were extracted as imaging features for one sample. Three decayed stages (slight, moderate and severe decayed peaches were considered for classification by deep belief network (DBN and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA in this study. The results showed that the DBN model has better classification results than the classification accuracy of the PLSDA model. The DBN model based on integrated information (494 features showed the highest classification results for the three diseases, with accuracies of 82.5%, 92.5%, and 100% for slightly-decayed, moderately-decayed and severely-decayed samples, respectively. The successive projections algorithm (SPA was used to select the optimal features from the integrated information; then, six optimal features were selected from a total of 494 features to establish the simple model. The SPA-PLSDA model showed better results which were more feasible for industrial application. The results showed that the hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique is feasible for detecting different kinds of diseased peaches, especially at the moderately- and severely-decayed levels.

  14. Multiple R2R3-MYB transcription factors involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19 and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA biosynthetic genes. PpMYB17-20 show a strong repressive effect on transcription of flavonoid pathway genes such as DFR. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower is coordinately regulated by a set of R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, PpMYB9 and PpMYB10.2 are closely related but separated into two groups, designated MYB9 and MYB10, respectively. PpMYB9 shows a strong activation on the PpUGT78A2 promoter, but with no effect on the promoter of PpUGT78B (commonly called PpUFGT in previous studies. In contrast, PpMYB10.2 is able to activate the PpUFGT promoter, but not for the PpUGT78A2 promoter. Unlike the MYB10 gene that is universally present in plants, the MYB9 gene is lost in most dicot species. Therefore, the PpMYB9 gene represents a novel group of anthocyanin-related MYB activators, which may have diverged in function from the MYB10 genes. Our study will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in peach and functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in plants.

  15. Peach Water Relations, Gas Exchange, Growth and Shoot Mortality under Water Deficit in Semi-Arid Weather Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; G?nard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The...

  16. Isolation and expression analysis of four HD-ZIP III family genes targeted by microRNA166 in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Zhang, B B; Ma, R J; Yu, M L; Guo, S L; Guo, L

    2015-10-30

    MicroRNA166 (miR166) is known to have highly conserved targets that encode proteins of the class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP III) family, in a broad range of plant species. To further understand the relationship between HD-ZIP III genes and miR166, four HD-ZIP III family genes (PpHB14, PpHB15, PpHB8, and PpREV) were isolated from peach (Prunus persica) tissue and characterized. Spatio-temporal expression profiles of the genes were analyzed. Genes of the peach HD-ZIP III family were predicted to encode five conserved domains. Deduced amino acid sequences and tertiary structures of the four peach HD-ZIP III genes were highly conserved, with corresponding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression level of four targets displayed the opposite trend to that of miR166 throughout fruit development, with the exception of PpHB14 from 35 to 55 days after full bloom (DAFB). This finding indicates that miR166 may negatively regulate its four targets throughout fruit development. As for leaf and phloem, the same trend in expression level was observed between four targets and miR166 from 75 to 105 DAFB. However, the opposite trend was observed for the transcript level between four targets and miR166 from 35 to 55 DAFB. miRNA166 may negatively regulate four targets in some but not all developmental stages for a given tissue. The four genes studied were observed to have, exactly or generally, the same change tendency as individual tissue development, a finding that suggests genes of the HD-ZIP III family in peach may have complementary or cooperative functions in various tissues.

  17. Incidence and phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria spp. associated with root disease in peach orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Elias-Roman; R. A. Guzman-Plazola; N. B. Klopfenstein; D. Alvarado-Rosales; G. Calderon-Zavala; J. A. Mora-Aguilera; M.-S. Kim; R. Garcia-Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] tree mortality attributed to Armillaria root disease was assessed from 2009 to 2011 in 15 orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Incidence increased gradually every year of assessment, reaching average values of 9.7, 15.3 and 20.3% tree mortality and 23.2, 24.7 and 28.3% disease-impacted area of the orchards during 2009...

  18. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  19. Space shuttle prototype check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Contaminant-resistant seal designs and a dynamically stable prototype check valve for the orbital maneuvering and reaction control helium pressurization systems of the space shuttle were developed. Polymer and carbide seal models were designed and tested. Perfluoroelastomers compatible with N2O4 and N2H4 types were evaluated and compared with Teflon in flat and captive seal models. Low load sealing and contamination resistance tests demonstrated cutter seal superiority over polymer seals. Ceramic and carbide materials were evaluated for N2O4 service using exposure to RFNA as a worst case screen; chemically vapor deposited tungsten carbide was shown to be impervious to the acid after 6 months immersion. A unique carbide shell poppet/cutter seat check valve was designed and tested to demonstrate low cracking pressure ( 2.0 psid), dynamic stability under all test bench flow conditions, contamination resistance (0.001 inch CRES wires cut with 1.5 pound seat load) and long life of 100,000 cycles (leakage 1.0 scc/hr helium from 0.1 to 400 psig).

  20. Polarity Checks in Sectors 23 & 78

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Lamont, M; Ponce, L; Sun, Y; Tomás, R; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Zimmermann, F

    2009-01-01

    During the first three LHC synchronization tests on August 10, August 24, and September 7, 2008, linear and higher-order polarity checks were performed with beam 1 in Sector 23 and beam 2 in Sector 78. The main principle of these checks was to launch free betatron oscillations and use the difference trajectory measurements with respect to inverted polarities of circuits under investigation. In the case of zero nominal strength for a circuit, a finite value was introduced. The magnet circuits subjected to these tests were the QT and QTL trim quadrupoles, the MQS skew quadrupoles, the SF and SD arc sextupole circuits, the MCS b3 spool pieces, the OD and OF Landau octupoles, and the MSS skew sextupoles. For some of these circuits sensitivity was enhanced by introducing large momentum offsets. To detect and remove improve spurious contributions from initially off-center orbits, four sets of trajectories were recorded, namely with and without oscillation, and with two magnet strength settings, respectively. We rep...

  1. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes in peach and analysis of WRKY expression during bud dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tan, Qiuping; Sun, Mingyue; Li, Dongmei; Fu, Xiling; Chen, Xiude; Xiao, Wei; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Bud dormancy in deciduous fruit trees is an important adaptive mechanism for their survival in cold climates. The WRKY genes participate in several developmental and physiological processes, including dormancy. However, the dormancy mechanisms of WRKY genes have not been studied in detail. We conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 58 WRKY genes in peach. These putative genes were located on all eight chromosomes. In bioinformatics analyses, we compared the sequences of WRKY genes from peach, rice, and Arabidopsis. In a cluster analysis, the gene sequences formed three groups, of which group II was further divided into five subgroups. Gene structure was highly conserved within each group, especially in groups IId and III. Gene expression analyses by qRT-PCR showed that WRKY genes showed different expression patterns in peach buds during dormancy. The mean expression levels of six WRKY genes (Prupe.6G286000, Prupe.1G393000, Prupe.1G114800, Prupe.1G071400, Prupe.2G185100, and Prupe.2G307400) increased during endodormancy and decreased during ecodormancy, indicating that these six WRKY genes may play a role in dormancy in a perennial fruit tree. This information will be useful for selecting fruit trees with desirable dormancy characteristics or for manipulating dormancy in genetic engineering programs.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae fruit skin residue flour obtained by convective drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader Martínez-Girón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of flour from residues of peach -palm fruit skin has been a forgotten topic from the view point of its physicochemical properties, because studies reported in the literature have focused on mesocarp flour characterization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the peach palm fruit epicarp flour obtained by convective drying at 60±2 °C through a specific production and storage process. As a result, the flour was found to be a source of bioactive compounds, showing total phenol concentration (23.40±1.30 mg gallic acid/100 g, antioxidant activity (33.10%±3.20, total carotenoids (59.31±1.61 mg β-carotene/100 g, color a* (4.95±0.58, color b* (3.25±0.57, and luminosity (33.95±3.16. On the other hand, there was a high level of total carotenoids (85% and phenolic compounds (94% retention after six months. Additionally, color change showed no significant difference during storage. In conclusion, the flour obtained is a byproduct with properties that can be used as an alternative to agroalimentary substitutes, mainly due to its color and antioxidant activity attributes. It is noteworthy to mention that this is one of the first studies to physicochemically characterize peach palm fruit skin flour from Valle del Cauca (Colombia.

  3. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Clement, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99) and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0) were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202), providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112), suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20) participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  4. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  5. Screening Quality Evaluation Factors of Freeze-Dried Peach (Prunus Persica L. Batsch Powders from Different Ripening Time Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-ju Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality evaluation of processed products is complex. To simplify the quality evaluation process and improve the efficiency, fourteen evaluation factors of freeze-dried powders of seventeen cultivars of peach at different ripening times were analyzed. The most important evaluation indicators and criteria were obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA, system cluster analysis (SCA, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results showed that the peach powders had the significant differences in quality (P<0.05, and some processing factors were related with some physicochemical and nutritional factors. Five principle components were extracted by PCA and the cumulative contribution achieved was 84.46%. Through the score plot of the first two principal components, a clear differentiation among ripening times was found and three distinct groups were separated according to ripening time. Five characteristic factors were obtained as titratable acid, browning index, hemicellulose, hygroscopicity, and vitamin C by SCA. Their weights of 0.1249, 0.3007, 0.0514, 0.4916, and 0.0315 were obtained by AHP, respectively. The peach cultivars were divided into four evaluation grades by the comprehensive quality score.

  6. Influence of microwave radiation on the post harvest decay and quality of peach fruits in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarpajoun, E.; Nikkhah, SH.

    2009-01-01

    This research has been carried out in Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources research center to study the effect of microwave radiation on storage time and control of peach fruit rot. Peach cultivars (Alberta, Red, White and Green of Mashad) were harvested in the first and second decades of June, July and September, sorted and stored at 4°C for 12 hours. Then fruits were treated with a Microwave with the Frequency at 2450 MHZ and two intensities, low (200 w) and high (800 w) for 30, 60 and 120 seconds, the treated and control fruits were laid on in plastic trays, packed in perforated polyethylene bags and stored in cold storage (0°C and 90-95% relative humidity) for 2 months. The qualitative tests including fruit rot, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, weight loss, firmness and color were assayed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sensory attributes were measured after 60 days storage. The experimental design was factorial in frame of completely randomized design. Multiple range test (Duncan) were used to compare the means. The results showed that treating the fruit with microwave decreased the fruit rot and increased pH, flesh firmness and total soluble solids of treated peach. Microwave radiation with the 800w for 60 seconds maintained the qualitative characteristics of fruits. Panel test confirmed these results. (author)

  7. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99 and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0 were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202, providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112, suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20 participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  8. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES USED IN PEACH FARMING TO LARVAE OF Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE IN SEMI-FIELD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO VARGAS CASTILHOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of five insecticides, regularly used in peach farming, was assessed for larvae of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae by means of bioassay in semi-field conditions. The bioassay was based on the counting of captured larvae after release in peach trees treated with the insecticides (% of active ingredient in spray liquid: deltamethrin (0.001, fenthion (0.050, phosmet (0.100, lufenuron (0.005 and malathion (0.200. Bait-cards with eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were used to capture larvae from treated plants; five of them were fixed in plant canopy and five others left on the soil around stem. A protective barrier made up of galvanized steel sheet was used for each plant to avoid loss of larvae. The number of larvae feeding on the bait-cards was measured for four days. According to the number of captured larvae, each insecticide effect was estimated and classified into toxicity categories as stated by the International Organization for Biological and Integratec Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Based on observations, the insect growth regulator lufenuron was harmless, while the neurotoxins deltamethrin and malathion were slightly harmful; and lastly, fenthion and phosmet were moderately harmful to C. externa larvae in semi-field conditions. Thus, lufenuron should be recommended for integrated pest management, since it would preserve this predator species in peach orchards.

  9. Summary of Preliminary Criticality Analysis for Peach Bottom Fuel in the DOE Standardized Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is developing a standardized set of canisters for DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). These canisters will be used for DOE SNF handling, interim storage, transportation, and disposal in the national repository. Several fuels are being examined in conjunction with the DOE SNF canisters. This report summarizes the preliminary criticality safety analysis that addresses general fissile loading limits for Peach Bottom graphite fuel in the DOE SNF canister. The canister is considered both alone and inside the 5-HLW/DOE Long Spent Fuel Co-disposal Waste Package, and in intact and degraded conditions. Results are appropriate for a single DOE SNF canister. Specific facilities, equipment, canister internal structures, and scenarios for handling, storage, and transportation have not yet been defined and are not evaluated in this analysis. The analysis assumes that the DOE SNF canister is designed so that it maintains reasonable geometric integrity. Parameters important to the results are the canister outer diameter, inner diameter, and wall thickness. These parameters are assumed to have nominal dimensions of 45.7-cm (18.0-in.), 43.815-cm (17.25-in), and 0.953-cm (0.375-in.), respectively. Based on the analysis results, the recommended fissile loading for the DOE SNF canister is 13 Peach Bottom fuel elements if no internal steel is present, and 15 Peach Bottom fuel elements if credit is taken for internal steel

  10. 45 CFR 201.70 - Treatment of replacement checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of replacement checks. 201.70 Section... STATES FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Review and Audits § 201.70 Treatment of replacement checks. (a... (FFP) for replacement checks under titles I, VI-A, X, XIV, XVI (AABD) except under the circumstances...

  11. 40 CFR 86.327-79 - Quench checks; NOX analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any flow rate into the reaction chamber. This includes, but is not limited to, sample capillary, ozone... Quench checks; NOX analyzer. (a) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each model of high vacuum reaction chamber analyzer prior to initial use. (b) Perform the reaction chamber quench check for each new...

  12. 7 CFR 1944.540 - Requesting TSA checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Requesting TSA checks. 1944.540 Section 1944.540... TSA checks. (a) The initial TSA check may cover the applicant's needs for the first calendar month. If... the next whole month. (b) The initial advance of TSA grant funds may not be requested simultaneously...

  13. 40 CFR 86.328-79 - Leak checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak checks. 86.328-79 Section 86.328... Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.328-79 Leak checks. (a) Vacuum side leak check. (1) Any location within the analysis system where a vacuum leak could...

  14. 12 CFR 229.36 - Presentment and issuance of checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 229.36 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Collection of Checks § 229... on the check, whether in magnetic ink or in fractional form; (3) At any branch or head office, if the...

  15. HyLTL: a temporal logic for model checking hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bresolin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The model-checking problem for hybrid systems is a well known challenge in the scientific community. Most of the existing approaches and tools are limited to safety properties only, or operates by transforming the hybrid system to be verified into a discrete one, thus loosing information on the continuous dynamics of the system. In this paper we present a logic for specifying complex properties of hybrid systems called HyLTL, and we show how it is possible to solve the model checking problem by translating the formula into an equivalent hybrid automaton. In this way the problem is reduced to a reachability problem on hybrid automata that can be solved by using existing tools.

  16. Decontamination effects of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) contaminated with radiocaesium during dormancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Takata, Daisuke; Tanoi, Keitaro; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bark washing with a high-pressure washer on deciduous trees contaminated during dormancy by radiocaesium fallout derived from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was examined using peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). Eighteen-year-old peach trees ('Akatsuki') were bark-washed twice with a high-pressure washer on July 5 and 27, 2011. Seven-year-old peach trees ('Kawanakajima Hakuto') were bark-washed on January 24, 2012, and thirty-year-old Japanese persimmon trees ('Hachiya') were bark-washed on December 21, 2011. For the peach trees, most of the bark was not removed by washing with a high-pressure washer. In contrast, the rough bark of Japanese persimmon was removed completely. No significant differences in the 137 Cs concentration of 'Akatsuki' fruit were found between the treatments conducted in the summer of 2011. Upon the bark washing of peach 'Akatsuki' trees in summer, the possibility of secondary contamination of leaves via the leachate containing 137 Cs was likely. The 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of peach 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' collected in summer 2012 were decreased significantly by washing treatment conducted in winter 2011–2012. In the year after treatment, the 137 Cs concentrations in fruits and leaves of Japanese persimmon were significantly decreased by the treatment. The effect of the bark washing on decreasing 137 Cs contents in fruits and leaves was greater in Japanese persimmon than in peach. The results for 'Kawanakajima Hakuto' and 'Hachiya' demonstrated the possibility of additive contamination. (author)

  17. Progress Check Module; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System. Progress Check Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Progress Check Booklet is designed to be used by the student working in the programed course to determine if he has mastered the concepts in the course booklets on: electrical current; voltage; resistance; measuring current and voltage in series circuits; relationships of current, voltage, and resistance; parellel circuits; combination…

  18. Checking in: An Analysis of the (Lack of) Body Checking in Women's Ice Hockey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Charlene; Roberts, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of women's ice hockey in North America, players continue to face limitations because of the prohibition of body checking. In this paper, we argue from a liberal feminist philosophical perspective that this prohibition reinforces existing traditional stereotypes of female athletes. Because the women's game does not…

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 229 - Routing Number Guide to Next-Day Availability Checks and Local Checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Checks and Local Checks A Appendix A to Part 229 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS... Association. The routing number takes two forms: a fractional form and a nine-digit form. A paying bank...

  20. DEPUTY: analysing architectural structures and checking style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, D.; Kochelev, S.; Kotegov, S.; Pavlov, I.; Pravilnikov, V.; Wellisch, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The DepUty (dependencies utility) can be classified as a project and process management tool. The main goal of DepUty is to assist by means of source code analysis and graphical representation using UML, in understanding dependencies of sub-systems and packages in CMS Object Oriented software, to understand architectural structure, and to schedule code release in modularised integration. It also allows a new-comer to more easily understand the global structure of CMS software, and to void circular dependencies up-front or re-factor the code, in case it was already too close to the edge of non-maintainability. The authors will discuss the various views DepUty provides to analyse package dependencies, and illustrate both the metrics and style checking facilities it provides

  1. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  2. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Von der Heydt, Max O.; Mogensen, Claus T.; Canham, John; Harpold, Dan N.; Johnson, Joel; Errigo, Therese; Glavin, Daniel P.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-09-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover carries a set of five external verification standards in hermetically sealed containers that can be sampled as would be a Martian rock, by drilling and then portioning into the solid sample inlet of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite. Each organic check material (OCM) canister contains a porous ceramic solid, which has been doped with a fluorinated hydrocarbon marker that can be detected by SAM. The purpose of the OCM is to serve as a verification tool for the organic cleanliness of those parts of the sample chain that cannot be cleaned other than by dilution, i.e., repeated sampling of Martian rock. SAM possesses internal calibrants for verification of both its performance and its internal cleanliness, and the OCM is not used for that purpose. Each OCM unit is designed for one use only, and the choice to do so will be made by the project science group (PSG).

  3. Model Checking JAVA Programs Using Java Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Pressburger, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a translator called JAVA PATHFINDER from JAVA to PROMELA, the "programming language" of the SPIN model checker. The purpose is to establish a framework for verification and debugging of JAVA programs based on model checking. This work should be seen in a broader attempt to make formal methods applicable "in the loop" of programming within NASA's areas such as space, aviation, and robotics. Our main goal is to create automated formal methods such that programmers themselves can apply these in their daily work (in the loop) without the need for specialists to manually reformulate a program into a different notation in order to analyze the program. This work is a continuation of an effort to formally verify, using SPIN, a multi-threaded operating system programmed in Lisp for the Deep-Space 1 spacecraft, and of previous work in applying existing model checkers and theorem provers to real applications.

  4. The criticality check and its applicability for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Espinoza, V.H.; Adam, E.; Knorr, J.

    1988-01-01

    Different procedures are used by the realization of nuclear material check by the IAEA. The criticality check belongs to these methods and it appropriates especially to verification of the nuclear material inventory of reactors. General aspects of the applicability of this check procedure are formulated and application criteria are deduced. By the example of solid-moderated homogeneous zero-power reactors it is demonstrated the unsecurity which is to be reckoned by applying the criticality check. Finally a possibility for the reduction of errors in core material determination by additional measuring methods without questioning the criticality check method is presented. (author)

  5. [Infection prevention check-in and infection prevention check-out to prevent nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A; Schilling, M; Heidecke, C D

    2010-02-01

    A precondition for the success of the prevention of SSI is the complete realisation of the proven anti-infective measures in form of the multi-barrier strategy or the so-called bundles. In daily practice it is important to follow the fixed instructions, i. e., to ensure a high compliance. In much the same way as an airline pilot or co-pilot must examine whether all instruments are functioning before each take-off, a comparable procedure should be developed as a pre-operative control for the observance of all -defined measures by the responsible surgeon and for the post-operative supervision by the patient. For the control of the observance of the defined pre-operative prevention measures, a check list with 12 items was developed, named the "infection prevention check-in". The check list is authorised by the responsible surgeon be-fore each operation. For the surveillance of the general hygiene in the post-operative period the "infection prevention check-out" with 14 items was developed. Thereby the patient is able to evaluate the staff's compliance with the hygienic measures at the time of dismissal. With the introduction of the check-lists a simple means is given to involve both the team of the surgeons and the ward staff, together with the patient, into the infection prophylaxis even more effectively. In order to assess the success of those measures, the influence on the rate of SSI is to be determined prospectively. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.

  6. Tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro a geadas Fruit frost tolerance in peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Paulo Assmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de frutos de pessegueiro aos danos ocasionados pela geada. A geada ocorreu no dia 5 de setembro de 2006, sendo que a temperatura mínima, a 1,5 m do solo, foi de - 1,06ºC. Foram avaliados 28 genótipos de pessegueiro em diferentes estádios fenológicos. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições (plantas de pessegueiro, procedendo-se à avaliação em seis ramos por planta. No dia em que ocorreu a geada, foram mensurados o número de frutos por ramo, diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos, número total de gemas vegetativas, percentual de brotação e percentual de brindilas formadas a partir das gemas brotadas. Uma segunda avaliação foi realizada 15 dias após a primeira, para avaliar o percentual de queda de frutos e o diâmetro sutural médio dos frutos remanescentes. Genótipos bem enfolhados e cujos frutos apresentavam endocarpo endurecido, no momento da ocorrência da geada, foram tolerantes ao dano ocasionado pelo frio; frutos com diâmetro sutural inferior a 20 mm foram suscetíveis à geada, enquanto frutos com diâmetro sutural superior a 30 mm apresentaram boa tolerância, independentemente do genótipo avaliado.The aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit damage tolerance in different peach tree genotypes after natural freeze. The frost happened on September 5, 2006, and the minimum temperature, 1.5 meters over soil, was -1.06ºC. Twenty- eight peach tree genotypes, in different stages of development, were evaluated, in a completely random design, in three replication (plants and six branches by plants. Immediately after frost, we measured the number of fruits per branches, average fruit suture diameter, percentage of sprouts and percentage of twigs in formation. A second evaluation was accomplished fifteen days after the first one in order to assess the percentage of fruit drop and the average remaining fruit suture diameter. Genotypes

  7. Improved simplified scheme of atom equivalents to calculate enthalpies of formation of alkyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Eduardo A.

    2002-01-01

    An improved simplified method of atom equivalents is applied to the calculation of enthalpies of formation of several alkyl radicals. Some statistical mechanics and thermodynamic corrections are added to compare theoretical values with available experimental data. The estimation is quite satisfactory and the average error is similar to current experimental uncertainties, thus providing a direct and simple procedure for this sort of calculation when experimental results are unavailable or/and as an independent check when experimental data are in doubt. (Author) [es

  8. Efficient on-the-fly Algorithm for Checking Alternating Timed Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. We define timed weak alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata, which preserves controllability. We define the rules...... of building a symbolic turn-based two-player game such that the existence of a winning strategy is equivalent to the simulation being satisfied. We also propose an on-the-fly algorithm for solving this game. This simulation checking method can be applied to the case of non-alternating or strong simulations...

  9. Is home-based palliative care cost-effective? An economic evaluation of the Palliative Care Extended Packages at Home (PEACH) pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Agar, Meera; Harlum, Janeane; Karnon, Jonathon; Currow, David; Eckermann, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a home-based palliative care model relative to usual care in expediting discharge or enabling patients to remain at home. Economic evaluation of a pilot randomised controlled trial with 28 days follow-up. Mean costs and effectiveness were calculated for the Palliative Care Extended Packages at Home (PEACH) and usual care arms including: days at home; place of death; PEACH intervention costs; specialist palliative care service use; acute hospital and palliative care unit inpatient stays; and outpatient visits. PEACH mean intervention costs per patient ($3489) were largely offset by lower mean inpatient care costs ($2450) and in this arm, participants were at home for one additional day on average. Consequently, PEACH is cost-effective relative to usual care when the threshold value for one extra day at home exceeds $1068, or $2547 if only within-study days of hospital admission are costed. All estimates are high uncertainty. The results of this small pilot study point to the potential of PEACH as a cost-effective end-of-life care model relative to usual care. Findings support the feasibility of conducting a definitive, fully powered study with longer follow-up and comprehensive economic evaluation.

  10. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  11. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  12. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed

  13. Equivalences of real submanifolds in complex space.

    OpenAIRE

    ZAITSEV, DMITRI

    2001-01-01

    PUBLISHED We show that for any real-analytic submanifold M in CN there is a proper real-analytic subvariety V contained in M such that for any p ? M \\ V , any real-analytic submanifold M? in CN, and any p? ? M?, the germs of the submanifolds M and M? at p and p? respectively are formally equivalent if and only if they are biholomorphically equivalent. More general results for k-equivalences are also stated and proved.

  14. Relations of equivalence of conditioned radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumer, L.; Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.

    1982-01-01

    A compensation for the wastes remaining with the operator of a waste management center, to be given by the agent having caused the waste, may be assured by effecting a financial valuation (equivalence) of wastes. Technically and logically, this equivalence between wastes (or specifically between different waste categories) and financial valuation has been established as reasonable. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such equivalences are developed, and their suitability for waste management concepts is quantitatively expressed

  15. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...... of processes between BPP and TCSP, not only are the two equivalences different, but one (locality) is decidable whereas the other (pomsets) is not. The decidability result for locality is proved by a reduction to the reachability problem for Petri nets....

  16. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.

    Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE

    Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.

    Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ

  17. Peach response to water deficit in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, C.; Septar, L.; Moale, C.; Nicolae, S.; Nicola, C.

    2013-09-01

    During three years a deficit irrigation experiment was performed on peach response under the semi-arid conditions of south-eastern Romania. Three sprinkler-irrigated treatments were investigated: fully irrigated, deficit irrigation treatment, and non-irrigated control treatment. Soil water content ranged between 60 and 76% of the plant available soil water capacity in fully irrigated, between 40 and 62% in deficit irrigation treatment, and between 30 and 45% in control. There were significant differences in fruit yield between the treatments. Irrigation water use efficiency was maximum in deficit irrigation treatment. Fruit yield correlated significantly with irrigation application. Total dry matter content, total solids content and titrable acidity of fruit were significantly different in the irrigated treatments vs. the control. Significant correlation coefficients were found between some fruit chemical components. For the possible future global warming conditions, when water use becomes increasingly restrictive, deficit irrigation will be a reasonable solution for water conservation in regions with similar soil and climate conditions.

  18. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific (μCi/cm 2 ) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed

  19. Carbohydrate composition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) by-products flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanho, Beatriz Cervejeira; Danesi, Eliane Dalva Godoy; Beléia, Adelaide Del Pino

    2015-06-25

    The flours obtained from peach palm by-products are rich in dietary fiber (62-71%) and they can be used as food ingredients. The aim of this work was to investigate the carbohydrate composition of the flours processed from the residual parts (stem and median sheath) of a hearts-of-palm industry. The flours were fractionated, based on their solubility, whose monomeric compounds were determined. The fraction containing mostly cellulose (S5) was the most abundant (26-28%), followed by the sum of fractions (S2, 53, S4) extracted with alkaline solutions (21-22%). The S1 fraction contained the highest percentage of uronic acids, which characterizes the presence of pectin. Xylose and arabinose were found in high proportion in S2 and S3 fractions. The S4 and S5 fractions, rich in glucose, were the main portion of the cell wall material and correspond to the insoluble fraction of the dietary fiber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying yeast isolated from spoiled peach puree and assessment of its batch culture for invertase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vega FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of yeasts isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree using the API 20C AUX method and a commercial yeast as witness were studied. Subsequently, the yeast’s growth potential using two batch culture treatments were performed to evaluate number of colonies (N, reducing sugar concentration (RS, free-invertase (FI, and culture-invertase activity (CI. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for batch-culture (150 rpm at 30°C for 24 h, then they were stored at 4 °C for subsequent invertase extraction. The FI extract was obtained using NaHCO3 as autolysis agent, and CI activity was determined on the supernatant after batch-cultured centrifugation. The activity was followed by an increase in absorbance at 490 nm using the acid 3,5-DNS method with glucose standard. Of the four yeasts identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen for legal reasons. It showed logarithmic growth up to 18 h of fermentation with positive correlation CI activity and inverse with RS. FI showed greater activity by the end of the log phase and an inverse correlation with CI activity. Finally, it was concluded that treatment “A” is more effective than “B” to produce invertase (EC 3.2.1.26.

  1. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  2. Fruit quality in the peach and nectarine with application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the quality of the fruit in peach and nectarine cultivars with and without the application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil, for two production cycles (2009 and 2010. The experiment was carried out at the School of Agricultural Science of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, at Botucatu in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, located at latitude 22º51'55" S and longitude 48º26'22" E, at an altitude of 810 m. The predominant climate type is warm temperate (mesothermal with rains in the summer and dry in the winter. The following were evaluated: soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ratio, firmness, vitamin C and pulp yield. The use of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil had no effect on the quality attributes of the fruit, except for pH, where those fruits under application of the products showed higher values. The cultivars all had a pulp yield greater than 90%, with 'Tourmaline' showing the highest yield (96 %. The levels of vitamin C varied according to the cultivars, where 'Marli' (16.9 mg 100 g-1 and 'Dourado-2' (16.5 mg 100 g-1, stood out for having the highest levels.

  3. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L.

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs

  4. Comparative study of the Peach Bottom turbine trip experiment using two different coupled codes approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambara, M.; Bousbia-Salah, A.; D'Auria, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the last years a great concern about the neutron-3D/thermal-hydraulic codes coupling took place. Owing to the improved computational technology, 'best estimate' analyses are today a common tool to assess safety features, and they are necessary if an asymmetric behaviour in the core region exists, or if strong interactions between the core neutronics and reactor thermal-hydraulic occur. In order to validate the coupled codes performances, several international programmes were issued. Among these activities, the OECD/NEA BWR Turbine Trip (TT) was chosen for further sensitivity analyses. It consists of a turbine trip (TT) experiment carried out at the Peach Bottom 2 BWR. In this paper, the results of two different coupled codes systems are summarized and compared. The BWR TT simulations were carried out coupling the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5/mode 3.2 to the 3D neutron kinetics code Parcs/2.3, and also the system code ATHLET to the neutronics code QUABOX-CUBBOX. An exhaustive overview of the main features is given, and those aspects, which need further developments and experiences, are pointed out. (authors)

  5. The role of leaves and fruits in determining the specific cultivar characters of peach fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolov, P.; Petrov, A.

    1982-01-01

    At the Institute of Fruit Growing, Plovdiv, triple buds were grafted on the crowns of 6 year-old peach trees in the following cultivar combinations: 1. Springtime (early8 ripening in the second half of June, white fleshed) on Rio oso gem (late, ripening in the first half of September, yellow fleshed); 2. Fillette (early, ripening in the second half of June, yellow fleshed) on Rio oso gem; 3. Rio oso gem on Springtime; 4. Rio oso gem on Fillette. At the begining of the following growing period the development of the grafted generative organs was fully dependent on assimilates produced by the leaves of the other cultivar. The interrelations between the leaves and the fruits in the various combinations were followed by biometrical and radio-isotopic ( 14 C) methods. Results substantiated the conclusion that the genetic information on the development of the specific cultivar characters such as flavour, arome, skin colour, fruit flesh texture and colour, fruit size and date of ripening was borne by the fruits themselves. The synthetic processes of the leaves during photosynthesis are not directly related with the synthetic processes producing the fruits' organic matter. The basic constructing substances were produced in the leaves and were transported to the fruits, where they were subjected to metabolic transformations in accordance with the biological characteristics of the cultivar and the phase of fruit development

  6. Characterization of the vineyard byotyp collection of peach as step in prebreeding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, morphological characterization of vineyard peach collection was conducted. In 78 accessions thirty qualitative traits of tree, flower, leaf, fruit and stone were analysed by using UPOV and ECPGR descriptors. Most of the studied traits showed a high degree of variability. The lowest variability obtained for the leaf traits, and highest for skin and flesh colour. Not only were the accessions sorted into a large number of categories by the most of their properties, but also there was a significant level of variability in the collection, reflecting in the fact that the traits were recombinant in a different way. Principal component analysis (PCA and a dendrogram were performed to determine relationships among accessions and to obtain information on the usefulness of those characters for the discrimination. The PCA revealed that the first 4 principal components were able to represent 43.1% of total variance. Traits with high discriminating values comprised internal and external fruit colour, flower type and colour, flower bud density and stone shape. The cluster analysis showed that the accessions were placed in three main clusters. The greatest impact on the separation in clusters had fruit over colour and extent of fruit over colour. Moreover, the collection can also comprise some accessions with the preferred recombination of properties that might be interesting for further studies in breeding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  7. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Mesocriconema xenoplax Populations in Peach and Pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Shapiro-Ilan, D. I.; Lewis, E. E.; Handoo, Z. A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on population density of Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach was studied in the greenhouse. Twenty-one days after adding 112 M. xenoplax adults and juveniles/1,500 cm³ soil to the soil surface of each pot, 50 infective juveniles/cm² soil surface of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora were applied. Another entomopathogenic nematode application of the same density was administered 3 months later. The experiment was repeated once. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations were not suppressed (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora 180 days following ring nematode inoculation. On pecan, 200 S. riobrave infective-stage juveniles/cm² were applied to the soil surface of 2-year-old established M. xenoplax populations in field microplots. Additional applications of S. riobrave were administered 2 and 4 months later. This study was terminated 150 days following the initial application of S. riobrave. Populations of M. xenoplax were not suppressed in the presence of S. riobrave. PMID:19262805

  8. Effect of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Mesocriconema xenoplax Populations in Peach and Pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Lewis, E E; Handoo, Z A

    2004-06-01

    The effect of Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora on population density of Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach was studied in the greenhouse. Twenty-one days after adding 112 M. xenoplax adults and juveniles/1,500 cm(3) soil to the soil surface of each pot, 50 infective juveniles/cm(2) soil surface of either S. riobrave or H. bacteriophora were applied. Another entomopathogenic nematode application of the same density was administered 3 months later. The experiment was repeated once. Mesocriconema xenoplax populations were not suppressed (P

  9. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  10. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Afridi, S.R.; Khan, R.U.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  11. Monitoring stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in mid-Atlantic apple and peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, T C; Hogmire, H W

    2005-02-01

    Pyramid traps coated with "industrial safety yellow" exterior latex gloss enamel paint and baited with Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone, methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate captured more stink bugs than all other baited and unbaited trap types in both apple and peach orchards in 2002 and 2003. Commercial sources of dispensers of methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate deployed in association with pyramid traps had a significant impact on trap captures. Captures in pyramid traps were four-fold greater when baited with lures from IPM Technologies, Inc. (Portland, OR) than with lures from Suterra (Bend, OR). Variation in yellow pyramid trap color ("industrial safety yellow" and "standard coroplast yellow") and material (plywood, plastic, and masonite) did not affect trap captures. Brown stink bug was the predominant species captured (58%), followed by dusky stink bug, Euschistus tristigmus (Say) (20%); green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (14%); and other stink bugs (Brochymena spp. and unidentified nymphs) (8%). Captures in baited pyramid traps were significantly correlated with tree beating samples in both managed and unmanaged apple orchards and with sweep netting samples in the unmanaged apple orchard. However, problems associated with trapping mechanisms of pyramid trap jar tops and jar traps likely resulted in reduced captures in baited traps. Improved trapping mechanisms must be established to develop an effective monitoring tool for stink bugs in mid-Atlantic orchards.

  12. Cytogenetic study on the sterility of peach fruit borer carposina nipponensis (Wals.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanying; Kang Wen; Zhang Heqin

    1989-01-01

    The chromosomal aberration, its genetic effect and the structurally abnormal sperms of Peach Fruit Borer (PFB) irradiated with substerilizing dose were described. The numbers of chromosome of PFB were n = 31. The longest chromosome was 4.43 ± 0.49 μ. The shortest one was 1.54 ± 0.15 μ. Total chromosome lengh was 96.37 ± 10.75 μ. The variation rate of the chromosome was 83.6% in F 1 generation including several kinds of aberration. The main chromosomal rearrangement was reciprocal translocation involving many chromosomes. It is the main factor of F 1 generation with higher sterility than P generation that the radiation damage of chromosome can be inherited and strongly expressed in F 1 generation. Because of the dominant lethal mutation of F 1 generation leading to high rate of death, there was less chromosomal aberration in F 2 generation. The variation rate was 12.5%. The genetic abnormalities of ultrastructure of sperm were inherited more intensely in F 1 progeny, produced from the cross of P male adults with the irradiated females

  13. Biochemical Responses of Peach Leaves Infected with Taphrina Deformans Berk/Tul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Koleva-Valkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic fungus Taphrina deformans causing the so called “leaf curl disease” in peach trees leads to severe yield losses due to the development of leaf hypertrophy and subsequent necrosis and scission. Because of its economic importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease are of considerable interest to the agricultural science. In this study various biochemical parameters, including the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, syringaldazine peroxidase and catalase, total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, concentration of free proline, antiradical activity and quantity of plastid pigments, were characterized. All these were measured in both leaves with clear symptoms and distally situated leaves from the same plant that show no signs of the infection. The results demonstrate that the pathogen induces considerable biochemical changes concerning enzymatic and non‑enzymatic elements of the plant defense and antioxidant systems. Moreover, it seems that the fungus provokes a systemic response detectable even in the tissues without observable symptoms.

  14. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  15. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. An ecological method to understand agricultural standardization in peach orchard ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Hao-Zhang

    2016-02-22

    While the worldwide standardization of agricultural production has been advocated and recommended, relatively little research has focused on the ecological significance of such a shift. The ecological concerns stemming from the standardization of agricultural production may require new methodology. In this study, we concentrated on how ecological two-sidedness and ecological processes affect the standardization of agricultural production which was divided into three phrases (pre-, mid- and post-production), considering both the positive and negative effects of agricultural processes. We constructed evaluation indicator systems for the pre-, mid- and post-production phases and here we presented a Standardization of Green Production Index (SGPI) based on the Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator (FPPSI) method which we used to assess the superiority of three methods of standardized production for peaches. The values of SGPI for pre-, mid- and post-production were 0.121 (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), 0.379 (Level III, "Good" standard), and 0.769 × 10(-2) (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), respectively. Here we aimed to explore the integrated application of ecological two-sidedness and ecological process in agricultural production. Our results are of use to decision-makers and ecologists focusing on eco-agriculture and those farmers who hope to implement standardized agricultural production practices.

  17. RTL2RTL Formal Equivalence: Boosting the Design Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Achutha Kiran Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing design complexity driven by feature and performance requirements and the Time to Market (TTM constraints force a faster design and validation closure. This in turn enforces novel ways of identifying and debugging behavioral inconsistencies early in the design cycle. Addition of incremental features and timing fixes may alter the legacy design behavior and would inadvertently result in undesirable bugs. The most common method of verifying the correctness of the changed design is to run a dynamic regression test suite before and after the intended changes and compare the results, a method which is not exhaustive. Modern Formal Verification (FV techniques involving new methods of proving Sequential Hardware Equivalence enabled a new set of solutions for the given problem, with complete coverage guarantee. Formal Equivalence can be applied for proving functional integrity after design changes resulting from a wide variety of reasons, ranging from simple pipeline optimizations to complex logic redistributions. We present here our experience of successfully applying the RTL to RTL (RTL2RTL Formal Verification across a wide spectrum of problems on a Graphics design. The RTL2RTL FV enabled checking the design sanity in a very short time, thus enabling faster and safer design churn. The techniques presented in this paper are applicable to any complex hardware design.

  18. Do alcohol compliance checks decrease underage sales at neighboring establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Smolenski, Derek J; Toomey, Traci L; Carlin, Bradley P; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2013-11-01

    Underage alcohol compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agencies can reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at checked alcohol establishments, and theory suggests that an alcohol establishment that is checked may warn nearby establishments that compliance checks are being conducted in the area. In this study, we examined whether the effects of compliance checks diffuse to neighboring establishments. We used data from the Complying with the Minimum Drinking Age trial, which included more than 2,000 compliance checks conducted at more than 900 alcohol establishments. The primary outcome was the sale of alcohol to a pseudo-underage buyer without the need for age identification. A multilevel logistic regression was used to model the effect of a compliance check at each establishment as well as the effect of compliance checks at neighboring establishments within 500 m (stratified into four equal-radius concentric rings), after buyer, license, establishment, and community-level variables were controlled for. We observed a decrease in the likelihood of establishments selling alcohol to underage youth after they had been checked by law enforcement, but these effects quickly decayed over time. Establishments that had a close neighbor (within 125 m) checked in the past 90 days were also less likely to sell alcohol to young-appearing buyers. The spatial effect of compliance checks on other establishments decayed rapidly with increasing distance. Results confirm the hypothesis that the effects of police compliance checks do spill over to neighboring establishments. These findings have implications for the development of an optimal schedule of police compliance checks.

  19. CAPD Software Development for Automatic Piping System Design: Checking Piping Pocket, Checking Valve Level and Flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Edi Karyanta; Dedy Haryanto; Abdul Hafid; Sudarno; Kussigit Santosa; Pinitoyo, A.; Demon Handoyo

    2003-01-01

    One of several steps in industrial plant construction is preparing piping layout drawing. In this drawing, pipe and all other pieces such as instrumentation, equipment, structure should be modeled A software called CAPD was developed to replace and to behave as piping drafter or designer. CAPD was successfully developed by adding both subprogram CHKUPIPE and CHKMANV. The first subprogram can check and gives warning if there is piping pocket in the piping system. The second can identify valve position and then check whether valve can be handled by operator hand The main program CAPD was also successfully modified in order to be capable in limiting the maximum length of straight pipe. By limiting the length, piping flexibility can be increased. (author)

  20. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  1. Personalized medicine: reality and reality checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, J Steven; Spielberg, Stephen P

    2009-05-01

    The evolving era of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine is greeted with optimism by many, but this sentiment is not universally shared. The existence of diametrically opposed opinions concerning the potential benefits and obstacles facing the widespread implementation of genomic medicine should stimulate discussion and guide the design of studies to establish the value of interventions targeted at the level of individual patients. One of the more controversial aspects of personalized medicine is whether the anticipated benefits will be realized at an acceptable cost. Recently released analyses suggest that the returns on investment depend on the particular scenario and are different for different stakeholders. On the other hand, cost is only one of the challenges regarding implementation of personalized medicine. Among these are the development of universal standards for managing genomic information in electronic medical records, improvement in the collection and interpretation of clinical phenotype data, and new strategies to educate practitioners and patients/consumers. The reality is that personalized medicine is upon us; open discourse and periodic reality checks will be necessary as we confront it.

  2. Get Your Kids Moving and Check Some Chores off Your List

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  3. Receptividade do estigma e desenvolvimento do tubo polínico em flores de pessegueiro submetidas à temperatura elevada Stigma receptivity and pollen tube development in peach flowers submitted to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilisandra Zanandrea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os diversos fatores que afetam a produtividade do pessegueiro em regiões subtropicais, está a ocorrência de temperaturas elevadas no início da floração. Tais temperaturas podem causar danos ao estigma e à germinação do grão de pólen, ocasionando decréscimo na fecundação e na fixação dos frutos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo detectar diferenças entre genótipos quanto à tolerância à temperatura elevada (29±2ºC, bem como verificar se tais diferenças poderiam ser detectadas por um processo simples, utilizando ramos destacados. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo um com ramos destacados e outro com plantas inteiras em vasos, obtidas por enxertia, no outono. As estimativas de graus de receptividade do estigma e de comprimento do tubo polínico nos ramos destacados sugerem que as seleções Conserva 1566 e Conserva 693 e a cv. 'Maciel' não sofrem negativamente influência da temperatura de 29°C. A receptividade do estigma, mesmo em ramos destacados, pode discriminar os genótipos quanto à tolerância da parte feminina a temperaturas próximas a 29°C.Several factors can cause an erratic production of peaches under subtropical conditions. The occurrence of high temperatures on the beginning of blooming is one of them. Such temperatures can damage the stigma and the pollen germination, causing a decrease on fecundation and fruit set. The present work had the objective of looking for differences in tolerance to 29±2ºC among peach genotypes, as well as checking if a simple method using detached twigs would be suitable to detect differences. Two experiments were conducted using whole plants in vase, on one and detached twigs on the other. Estimates of pollen tube growth on the pistil and stigma receptivity suggested that selections Conserva 1566 and Conserva 693 and cv. 'Maciel' were tolerant to temperatures around 29°C at begining of blooming. Stigma receptivity, even in detached twigs, showed

  4. Equivalent drawbead performance in deep drawing simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    1999-01-01

    Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the

  5. On uncertainties in definition of dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    The author has entertained always the doubt that in a neutron field, if the measured value of the absorbed dose with a tissue equivalent ionization chamber is 1.02±0.01 mGy, may the dose equivalent be taken as 10.2±0.1 mSv. Should it be 10.2 or 11, but the author considers it is 10 or 20. Even if effort is exerted for the precision measurement of absorbed dose, if the coefficient being multiplied to it is not precise, it is meaningless. [Absorbed dose] x [Radiation quality fctor] = [Dose equivalent] seems peculiar. How accurately can dose equivalent be evaluated ? The descriptions related to uncertainties in the publications of ICRU and ICRP are introduced, which are related to radiation quality factor, the accuracy of measuring dose equivalent and so on. Dose equivalent shows the criterion for the degree of risk, or it is considered only as a controlling quantity. The description in the ICRU report 1973 related to dose equivalent and its unit is cited. It was concluded that dose equivalent can be considered only as the absorbed dose being multiplied by a dimensionless factor. The author presented the questions. (K.I.)

  6. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  8. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  12. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  14. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  16. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  17. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...

  18. Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As

  19. What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...

  20. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank